What does Baptism mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
βάπτισμα immersion 18
βαπτίσματος immersion 2
⧼βάπτισμα immersion 1
βαπτισμῷ a washing 1

Definitions Related to Baptism

G908


   1 immersion, submersion.
      1a of calamities and afflictions with which one is quite overwhelmed.
      1b of John’s Baptism, that purification rite by which men on confessing their sins were bound to spiritual reformation, obtained the pardon of their past sins and became qualified for the benefits of the Messiah’s kingdom soon to be set up.
      This was valid Christian Baptism, as this was the only Baptism the apostles received and it is not recorded anywhere that they were ever rebaptised after Pentecost.
      1c of Christian Baptism; a rite of immersion in water as commanded by Christ, by which one after confessing his sins and professing his faith in Christ, having been born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, identifies publicly with the fellowship of Christ and the church.
      Additional Information: In Rom. 6:3 Paul states we are “baptised unto death” meaning that we are not only dead to our former ways, but they are buried.
         To return to them is as unthinkable for a Christian as for one to dig up a dead corpse! In Moslem countries a new believer has little trouble with Moslems until he is publicly baptised.
         It is then, that the Moslems’ know he means business, and then the persecution starts.
         See also discussion of Baptism under No. 907.
            

Frequency of Baptism (original languages)

Frequency of Baptism (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Lay Baptism
Baptism administered by a lay-man, in case of necessity. The one baptizing pours natural water over the head of subject, while saying, "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." He must intend "to do what the Church does."
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Baptism of Fire
As John the Baptist preached in the Judean wilderness, he declared, "I baptize you with water for repentance. But after me will come one who will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire" (Matthew 3:11 ; cf. Luke 3:16 ).
Throughout Scripture, fire often represents judgment (Genesis 19:24 ; 2 Kings 1:10 ; Amos 1:4-7 ; Matthew 7:19 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:8 ; James 5:3 ), including everlasting punishment (Matthew 18:8 ; Jude 7 ). But it can also have a positive, purifying effect on God's people (Isaiah 1:25 ; Zechariah 13:9 ; Malachi 3:2-3 ; 1 Corinthians 3:13-15 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; Revelation 3:18 ).
In the context of John's preaching, it is natural to associate the baptism of fire with judgment (cf. Matthew 3:10,12 ; Luke 3:9,17 ). On the other hand, John is first of all addressing believers—those who are receiving his water-baptism. So some think of the fiery tongues at Pentecost as the fulfillment of his prediction. But the grammatical construction in Greek (the use of one preposition to govern two objects) is most naturally taken as referring to only one baptism that involves both blessing and judgment (cf. esp. Isaiah 4:4 ). Pentecost may well represent the firstfruits of purgation for believers, but the baptism is not complete until all people experience final judgment.
Craig L. Blomberg
See also Baptism of the Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit, Gifts of
Bibliography . J. D. G. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit; NIDNTT, 1:652-57.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Baptism of Christ
John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ, for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of repentance." But Christ said, "'Suffer it to be so now,' NOW as suited to my state of humiliation, my state as a substitute in the room of sinners." His reception of baptism was not necessary on his own account. It was a voluntary act, the same as his act of becoming incarnate. Yet if the work he had engaged to accomplish was to be completed, then it became him to take on him the likeness of a sinner, and to fulfil all righteousness (Matthew 3:15 ).
The official duty of Christ and the sinless person of Christ are to be distinguished. It was in his official capacity that he submitted to baptism. In coming to John our Lord virtually said, "Though sinless, and without any personal taint, yet in my public or official capacity as the Sent of God, I stand in the room of many, and bring with me the sin of the world, for which I am the propitiation." Christ was not made under the law on his own account. It was as surety of his people, a position which he spontaneously assumed. The administration of the rite of baptism was also a symbol of the baptism of suffering before him in this official capacity (Luke 12:50 ). In thus presenting himself he in effect dedicated or consecrated himself to the work of fulfilling all righteousness.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ceremonies of Baptism
They are ancient and symbolic. At the Baptism of an infant, it is presented at the font by the sponsors. First come interrogations and answers, requesting "faith and life everlasting." The priest breathes on the face of the child, a symbol of the imparting of the Spirit of God. He makes the sign of the cross on forehead and breast, that God may be ever in the child's mind and heart. Salt, emblematic of wisdom, is put into the child's mouth. A solemn exorcism is pronounced, to free the soul from the dominion of Satan. The priest's stole is laid upon the child, signifying that he is being led into the Church of Christ. As a profession of faith, the Apostles' Creed is recited by the priest and the sponsors, and this is followed by the Our Father. The ceremony of the Ephpheta takes place, i.e.,the applying of saliva to the ears and nostrils of the child, reminding us of the curing of the deaf-mute in the Gospel (Mark 7) and symbolizing the opening of the senses to the truths of God. Then comes a renunciation of Satan with all his works and pomps, and an anointing is made with the Oil of Catechumens in the form of a cross on the child's breast and back, signifying the open profession of the faith of Christ and the patient bearing of life's burdens. After another profession of faith in questions and answers, the sacrament itself is administered, the sponsors holding the child at the font. An unction is then made on the top of the head with Holy Chrism, as a sign of consecration to God. A white cloth, placed on the head, symbolizes sanctifying grace; this is a survival of the white baptismal robe of ancient times. A lighted candle is presented, emblematic of faith and charity. The ceremonies of Baptism of adults differ somewhat from the above.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Baptism of the Dead
A custom which anciently prevailed among some people in Africa, of giving baptism to the dead. The third council of Carthage speaks of it as a thing that ignorant Christians were fond of : Gregory Nazianzin also takes notice of the same superstitious opinion. The practice seems to be grounded on a vain idea, that, when men had neglected to receive baptism in their life-time, some compensation might be made for this default by receiving it after death.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Baptism For the Dead
A practice formerly in use, when a person dying without baptism, another was baptized in his stead; thus supposing that God would accept the baptism of the proxy, as though it had been administered to the principal. Chrysostom says, this was practiced among the Marcionites with a great deal of ridiculous ceremony, which he thus describes:
After any catechumen was dead, they hid a living man under the bed of the deceased; then, coming to the dead man, they asked him whether he would receive baptism; and he making no answer, the other answered for him, and said he would be baptized in his stead; and so they baptized the living for the dead. If it can be proved (as some think it can) that this practice was as early as the days of the apostle Paul, it might probably form a solution of those remarkable words in 1 Corinthians 15:29 : "If the dead rise not at all, what shall they do who are baptized for the dead?" The allusion of the apostle to this practice, however, is rejected by some, and especially by Fr. Doddridge, who thinks it too early: he thus paraphrases the passage: "Such are our views and hopes as Christians; else, if it were not so, what should they do who are baptized in token of their embracing the Christian faith, in the room of the dead, who are just fallen in the cause of Christ, but are yet supported by a succession of new converts, who immediately offer themselves to fill up their places, as ranks of soldiers that advance to the combat in the rooms of their companions who have just been slain in their sight?" Lay baptism we find to have been permitted by both the common prayer books of king Edward and queen Elizabeth, when an infant was in immediate danger of death, and a lawful minister could not be had. This was founded on a mistaken notion of the impossibility of salvation without the sacrament of baptism; but afterwards, when they came to have clearer notions of the sacraments, it was unanimously resolved in a convocation held in 1575, that even private baptism in a case of necessity was only to be administered by a lawful minister.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Baptism, Christian
An ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matthew 28:19,20 ), and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. This was necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no literal translation could properly express all that is implied in them. The mode of baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek word rendered "baptize." Baptists say that it means "to dip," and nothing else. That is an incorrect view of the meaning of the word. It means both (1) to dip a thing into an element or liquid, and (2) to put an element or liquid over or on it. Nothing therefore as to the mode of baptism can be concluded from the mere word used. The word has a wide latitude of meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions and baptisms required by the Mosaic law. These were effected by immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word, "washings" (Hebrews 9:10,13,19,21 ) or "baptisms," designates them all. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where it necessarily means immersion. Moreover, none of the instances of baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41; 8:26-39; 9:17,18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly improbable.
The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the administration of baptism would have been prescribed which would in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or impossible.
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. As in the Supper a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. That which is essential in baptism is only "washing with water," no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to the symbolism of the ordinance.
The apostles of our Lord were baptized with the Holy Ghost (Matthew 3:11 ) by his coming upon them (Acts 1:8 ). The fire also with which they were baptized sat upon them. The extraordinary event of Pentecost was explained by Peter as a fulfilment of the ancient promise that the Spirit would be poured out in the last days (2:17). He uses also with the same reference the expression shed forth as descriptive of the baptism of the Spirit (33). In the Pentecostal baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on them." That was a real and true baptism. We are warranted from such language to conclude that in like manner when water is poured out, falls, comes upon or rests upon a person when this ordinance is administered, that person is baptized. Baptism is therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person."
The subjects of baptism. This raises questions of greater importance than those relating to its mode.
1. The controversy here is not about "believers' baptism," for that is common to all parties. Believers were baptized in apostolic times, and they have been baptized in all time by all the branches of the church. It is altogether a misrepresentation to allege, as is sometimes done by Baptists, that their doctrine is "believers' baptism." Every instance of adult baptism, or of "believers' baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41 ; 8:37 ; 9:17,18 ; 10:47 ; 16:15 ; 19:5 , etc.) is just such as would be dealt with in precisely the same way by all branches of the Protestant Church, a profession of faith or of their being "believers" would be required from every one of them before baptism. The point in dispute is not the baptism of believers, but whether the infant children of believers, i.e., of members of the church, ought to be baptized.
2. In support of the doctrine of infant baptism, i.e., of the baptism of the infants, or rather the "children," of believing parents, the following considerations may be adduced:
The Church of Christ exists as a divinely organized community. It is the "kingdom of God," one historic kingdom under all dispensations. The commonwealth of Israel was the "church" (Acts 7:38 ; Romans 9:4 ) under the Mosaic dispensation. The New Testament church is not a new and different church, but one with that of the Old Testament. The terms of admission into the church have always been the same viz., a profession of faith and a promise of subjection to the laws of the kingdom. Now it is a fact beyond dispute that the children of God's people under the old dispensation were recognized as members of the church. Circumcision was the sign and seal of their membership. It was not because of carnal descent from Abraham, but as being the children of God's professing people, that this rite was administered (Romans 4:11 ). If children were members of the church under the old dispensation, which they undoubtedly were, then they are members of the church now by the same right, unless it can be shown that they have been expressly excluded. Under the Old Testament parents acted for their children and represented them. (See Genesis 9:9 ; 17:10 ; Exodus 24:7,8 ; Deuteronomy 29:9-13 .) When parents entered into covenant with God, they brought their children with them. This was a law in the Hebrew Church. When a proselyte was received into membership, he could not enter without bringing his children with him. The New Testament does not exclude the children of believers from the church. It does not deprive them of any privilege they enjoyed under the Old Testament. There is no command or statement of any kind, that can be interpreted as giving any countenance to such an idea, anywhere to be found in the New Testament. The church membership of infants has never been set aside. The ancient practice, orginally appointed by God himself, must remain a law of his kingdom till repealed by the same divine authority. There are lambs in the fold of the Good Shepherd (John 21:15 ; Compare Luke 1:15 ; Matthew 19:14 ; 1 Corinthians 7:14 ).
"In a company of converts applying for admission into Christ's house there are likely to be some heads of families. How is their case to be treated? How, for example, are Lydia and her neighbour the keeper of the city prison to be treated? Both have been converted. Both are heads of families. They desire to be received into the infant church of Philippi. What is Christ's direction to them? Shall we say that it is to this effect: 'Arise, and wash away your sins, and come into my house. But you must come in by yourselves. These babes in your arms, you must leave them outside. They cannot believe yet, and so they cannot come in. Those other little ones by your side, their hearts may perhaps have been touched with the love of God; still, they are not old enough to make a personal profession, so they too must be left outside...For the present you must leave them where they are and come in by yourselves.' One may reasonably demand very stringent proofs before accepting this as a fair representation of the sort of welcome Christ offers to parents who come to his door bringing their children with them. Surely it is more consonant with all we know about him to suppose that his welcome will be more ample in its scope, and will breathe a more gracious tone. Surely it would be more like the Good Shepherd to say, 'Come in, and bring your little ones along with you. The youngest needs my salvation; and the youngest is accessible to my salvation. You may be unable as yet to deal with them about either sin or salvation, but my gracious power can find its way into their hearts even now. I can impart to them pardon and a new life. From Adam they have inherited sin and death; and I can so unite them to myself that in me they shall be heirs of righteousness and life. You may without misgiving bring them to me. And the law of my house requires that the same day which witnesses your reception into it by baptism must witness their reception also'" (The Church, by Professor Binnie, D.D.).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Baptism
Baptisms in the sense of purifications were common in the Old Testament The "divers washings" (Greek "baptisms") are mentioned in Acts 8:14-1741 and "the doctrine of baptisms," Hebrews 6:2. The plural" baptisms" is used in the wider sense, all purifications by water; as of the priest's hands and feet in the laver outside before entering the tabernacle, in the daily service (Exodus 30:17-21); of the high priest's flesh in the holy place on the day of atonement (Leviticus 16:23); of persons ceremonially unclean (Leviticus 14; 15; Leviticus 16:26-28; Leviticus 17:15; Leviticus 22:4-6), a leper, one with an issue, one who ate that which died of itself, one who touched a dead body, the one who let go the scape-goat or buried the ashes of the red heifer, of the people before a religious festival (Exodus 19:10; John 11:55). The high priest's consecration was threefold: by baptism, unction, and sacrifice (Exodus 29:4; Exodus 40:12-15; Leviticus 8).
"Baptism" in the singular is used specially of the Christian rite. Jewish believers passed naturally from the Old Testament baptismal purifications, through John's transitional baptism, to Christian baptism and the subsequent laying on of hands, accompanied with the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:12; 1618453075_4). The spiritual sense of ceremonial baptisms was recognized in the Old Testament (Psalms 26:6; Psalms 51:2; Psalms 51:7; Psalms 73:13; Isaiah 1:16; Isaiah 4:4; Jeremiah 4:14; Zechariah 13:1.)
Ceremonial washings had been multiplied by tradition, before the Lord's coming (Mark 7:3-4). Even the Gentile Pilate washed his hands to symbolize his innocence of Jesus' blood. The Targum of Jonathan on Exodus 12:44 is the earliest authority for the common notion that the Jews baptized male (besides circumcising them) and female proselytes. No notice of such a custom occurs in Philo, Josephus, or the Targum of Onkelos; the commonness of such ceremonial purifications makes it a probable one. In the 4th century A.D. it certainly prevailed. In the case of Jewish proselytes from Ishmaelites and Egyptians, who were already circumcised, some such rite would be needed. Probably it was at first merely the customary purificatory washing before the sacrifice offered in admitting the proselyte, whence Philo and Josephus would omit mentioning it as being usual at all sacrifices. When sacrifices ceased, after the destruction of the temple, the washing would be retained as a baptism of initiation into Judaism.
John's "baptism of repentance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:3) was the pledge his followers took of their determination to separate themselves from the prevalent pollutions, as the needful preparation for receiving the coming Messiah, who remits the sins of His believing people. The "remission" was not present but prospective, looked for through Messiah, not through John (Acts 10:43). John's baptism was accompanied with confession (Matthew 3:6), and was an act of obedience to the call to renounce all sin and believe in the coming Redeemer from sin. The universal expectation of the Messianic king "in the whole East" (says Suetonius, a pagan writer, Vespas. 4) made all ready to flock to the forerunner. The Jews hoped to be delivered from Rome's supremacy (Malachi 3:1; Malachi 4:5-6).
The last of the prophets had foretold the coming of Elijah before the great day of the coming of the Lord, the Sun of righteousness, the messenger of the covenant. Elijah was to "turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers," namely, the disobedient children to the faith and fellowship of their pious forefathers, Abraham, Jacob, Levi, Elijah (Luke 1:17), lest Messiah at His coming" should smite the earth with a curse." The scribes accordingly declared, "Elias must first come." Jesus declared that John was this foretold Elias (Matthew 11:13-14; Matthew 17:10-12). John's preaching was "Repent, for the kingdom of the heavens is at hand," the latter phrase referring to Daniel 2:44; Daniel 7:14. The Jews, as a nation, brought the "curse" on their land ("earth") by not repenting, and by rejecting Messiah at His first advent.
Their sin delayed the kingdom's manifestation, just as their unbelief in the wilderness caused the 40 years of delay in entering into their inheritance in Canaan. He brought blessing to those who accepted Him (John was the instrument in turning many to Him: John 1:11; John 1:36), and shall bring blessing to the nation at His second advent, when they shall turn to the Lord (Romans 11:5; Romans 11:26; Luke 13:35). John's baptism began and ended with himself; he alone, too, administered it. But Christ's baptism was performed by His disciples, not Himself, that He might mark His exclusive dignity as baptizer, with the Holy Spirit (John 4:2), and that the validity of baptism might not depend on the worth of the minister but on God's appointment. It continues to the end of this dispensation (Matthew 28:19-20). John's was with water only; Christ's with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Luke 3:16).
The Holy Spirit in full measure was not given until Jesus' glorification at His ascension (John 7:39). Apollos' and John's disciples at Ephesus knew not of the Holy Spirit's baptism, which is the distinctive feature of Christ's (Acts 18:25; Acts 19:2-6; compare Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16). The outward sign of an inward sorrow for sin was in John's baptism; but there was not the inward spiritual grace conferred as in Christian baptism. Those of the twelve who had. been baptized by John probably received no further baptism until the extraordinary one by the Holy Spirit on Pentecost. Christian baptism implies grafting into fellowship or union with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; for the Greek expresses this (Matthew 28:19): "Go ye, make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name (the revealed person) of the Father," etc.
John, being among the Old Testament prophets, not in the kingdom of God or New Testament church, preached the law and baptism into legal repentance and reformation of morals, and Messiah's immediate advent. Christian baptism is the seal of gospel doctrine and spiritual renewal. Jesus' own baptism by John was, Christ saith, in order "to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:15). Others in being baptized confessed their sins; Jesus professed" all righteousness." He submitted, as part of the righteousness He undertook to fulfill, to be consecrated to His ministry in His 30th year, the age at which the Levites began their ministry (Luke 3:23), by the last of the Old Testament prophets and the harbinger of the New Testament, His own forerunner. At the same time that the outward minister set Him apart, the Holy Spirit from heaven gave Him inwardly the unction of His fullness without measure; and the Father declared His acceptance of Him as the sinners' savior, the anointed prophet, priest, and king (John 3:34; John 1:16): "This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."
Since God, against whom we have sinned, is satisfied with Him (and God cannot but be so, seeing it was the Father's love and justice which provided Him), so also may we. As the high priest's consecration was threefold, by baptism, unction, and sacrifice, so Jesus' (compare Acts 10:38) baptism began His consecration, the Holy Spirit's unction was the complement of His baptism, and His sacrifice fully perfected His consecration as our priest forevermore (Hebrews 7:28, margin). This is the sense of 1 John 5:6; "this is He that came by water and blood;" by water at His consecration by baptism to His mediatorial ministry for us, when He received the Father's testimony to His Messiahship and His divine Sonship (John 1:33-34). Corresponding to His is our baptism of water and the Spirit, the seal of initiatory incorporation with Him (John 3:5).
Jesus came "by blood" also, namely, "the blood of His cross" (Hebrews 9:12). His coming "by water and blood," as vividly set forth in the issue of water and blood from His pierced side, was seen and solemnly attested by John (John 19:34-35). John Baptist came only baptizing with water; therefore was not Messiah. Jesus came, undergoing Himself the double baptism of water and blood, then baptizing us with the Spirit cleansing, of which water is the sacramental seal, and with His atoning blood once for all shed and of perpetual efficacy; therefore He Messiah. It is His shed blood which gives water baptism its spiritual significancy. We are baptized into His death, the point of union between us and Him, and, through Him, between us and God, not into His birth or incarnation (Romans 6:3-4; Colossians 2:12).
"The Spirit, the water, and the blood agree in one" (Greek: "tend to the one result," "testify to the one truth"), i.e., agree in testifying to Jesus' Sonship and Messiaship by the sacramental grace in water baptism received by the penitent believer through His droning blood and His inwardly witnessing Spirit (1 John 5:5-6; 1 John 5:8; 1 John 5:10), answering to the testimony to Jesus' Sonship and Messiahship by His baptism, by His crucifixion, and by the Spirit's manifestation in Him. By Christ's baptism, by His blood shedding, and by the Spirit's past and present working in Him, the Spirit, the water, and the blood are the threefold witness to His divine Messiahship. On and after the Pentecostal outpouring of the Holy Spirit, the apostles preached, Repent (including faith in Christ), and be baptized, as the sacramental seal to yourselves inwardly of your faith, and the open confession outwardly of it before the world. Compare Romans 10:9-10; Acts 2:38; Acts 8:12-36; Acts 10:47; Acts 16:15; Acts 16:33.
As circumcision was the painful entrance into the yoke of bondage, the law of Sinai, so baptism is the easy entrance into the light yoke of Christ, the law of liberty and love. Circumcision was the badge of Jewish exclusiveness in one aspect; baptism is the badge of God's world-wide mercy in Christ. As He was "the desire of all nations," consciously or unconsciously, so all nations are invited to Him. Any spiritualizing that denies outward baptism with water, in the face of Christ's command and the apostles' practice, must logically lead to rationalistic evasions of Scripture in general. Preaching, no doubt, takes the precedency of baptism with the apostles, whose office was evangelistic rather than pastoral (1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:17). The teaching and acceptance of the truth stands first; the sealing of belief in it by baptism comes next not vice versa.
"Go ye, teach (or make disciples), baptizing," etc. "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved, but he that believeth not (whether he be baptized or not) shall be damned." There might be salvation without baptism, as the penitent thief on the cross was saved; but not salvation without believing, to those capable of it. As circumcision bound the circumcised to obedience to the law, and also admitted him to the spiritual privileges of Judaism, so baptism binds the baptized to Christ's service, and gives him a share in all the privileges of the Christian covenant. But in stating these privileges Scripture presumes that the baptized person has come in penitence and faith. Thus 1 Peter 3:21, literally "which water, being antitype (to the water of the flood) is now saving (puts in a state of salvation) us also (as well as Noah), to wit, baptism."
It saves us also, not of itself (any more than the water saved Noah of itself; the water saved him only by sustaining the ark, built in faith), but the spiritual thing conjoined with it, repentance and faith, of which it is the seal: as Peter proceeds to explain, "not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God (the instrument whereby it so saves, being) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ" (Colossians 2:12; Ephesians 1:19-20); not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but of the soul. Water baptism can put away that filth, but the Spirit's baptism alone can put away this (Ephesians 2:11). The ark (Christ) and His Spirit-filled true church saves, by living union with Him and it; not the water which only flowed round the ark and buoyed it up, and which so far from saving was the very instrument of destroying the ungodly.
The "good conscience's" ability to give a satisfactory "answer" to the interrogation concerning faith and repentance ensures the really saving baptism of the Spirit into living fellowship with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The same union of the sign and the grace signified, repentance and faith being presupposed, occurs (John 3:5; Acts 22:16): "Be baptized, washing away thy sins, calling upon the name of the Lord" (Ephesians 5:26; Titus 3:5; compare 1 Corinthians 10:1-2). The passage through the Red Sea delivered Israel completely from Egyptian bondage, and thenceforward they were, under God's protecting cloud, on their way to the promised land. hence it is written, "they were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea" (the sea, according to some of the fathers, representing the water, the cloud the Spirit). In Colossians 2:11-12, baptism is represented as our Christian "circumcision made without hands," implying that not the minister, but God Himself, confers it; spiritual circumcision ("putting off the body of the sins of the flesh") is realized in union with Christ, whose "circumcision" implies His having undertaken for us to keep the whole law (Luke 2:21).
Baptism, coincident with this spiritual circumcision, is the burial of the old carnal life, to which immersion corresponds. "Buried with Him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with Him by faith IN the operation of God who hath raised Him from the dead" (Colossians 2:12; Ephesians 1:19-20). Here, and in Romans 6:3-4-5-6, baptism is viewed as identifying us with Christ, by our union to His once crucified and now risen body, and as entailing in us also a death unto sin and a new birth unto righteousness, and as involving as the final issue our bodily sharing in the likeness of His resurrection, at the coming first resurrection, that of the saints. Figuratively, death is called a "baptism" (Matthew 20:22; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50). The Greek word does not necessarily mean immersion of the whole body: compare Mark 7:3-4; Luke 11:38; Hebrews 9:10).
In some cases the palpable descent of the Spirit was before, in others after, the baptism, and. in connection with the laying on of hands (Acts 2:38; Acts 10:47; Acts 19:5-6); proving that the water sign and the Spirit are not inseparably connected. At the same time, there being but one preposition to govern both nouns, "born of water and the Spirit" implies the designed close connection of the two in the case of penitent believers (John 3:5). In Ephesians 5:26 "Christ gave Himself for the church, that He might sanctify and cleanse it with the laver (Greek) of water by the word." The bride, the church, must pass through her purifying bath before being presented to the Bridegroom, Christ. The gospel word of faith, confessed in baptism, carries with it the real, cleansing, regenerating power (John 15:3; John 17:17; 1 Peter 1:23; Baptism
Christening a baby by the church. Christian groups take varying stances on the practice and meaning of infant baptism. Those who emphasize a conscious faith response in the salvation process limit baptism to believers. Those who interpret baptism as the sign of God's new covenant reserve the rite for the children of believers (compare 1 Corinthians 7:14 ). Those viewing baptism as a means by which God's grace becomes effective for salvation welcome all children. Those favoring infant baptism raise the following arguments: (1) household baptisms likely included some infants (Acts 16:5 ,Acts 16:5,16:33 ; Acts 18:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ); (2) Jesus' welcome and blessing of children is a mandate to baptize infants (Mark 10:13-16 ); “hinder” is a technical term associated with baptism (Acts 8:36 ); (3) circumcision which prefigured baptism (Colossians 2:11 ) included children (Genesis 17:12 ); (4) in the Old Testament children participated in ceremonies of covenant renewal (Deuteronomy 29:10-13 ; Joshua 8:35 ; Joel 2:16 ).
Baptists and other adherents of believer's baptism raise the following arguments and counter-arguments: (1) The New Testament prerequisite of baptism is faith (Acts 18:8 ) which is evidenced by confession (Romans 10:9-10 ) and repentance (Acts 2:38 ); (2) infant baptism rests ultimately on the fear that infants are held accountable for organic sin; Baptists counter with a doctrine of an age of accountability at which conscious sin occurs (Genesis 8:21 ; Psalm 25:7 ; Jeremiah 3:25 ) and at which a conscious response to God is possible (1 Kings 18:12 ; Psalm 71:5 ,Psalms 71:5,71:17 ); (3) household baptisms need not have included children; baptism is prefigured in the salvation of Noah and his exclusively adult household in the ark (1 Peter 3:20-21 ); (4) Jesus' blessing of the children demonstrates Christ's love for children; children are presented as an example to disciples rather than as disciples themselves (Matthew 18:2-4 ); (5) circumcision is an imperfect analogy to baptism; only males participated in circumcision, whereas in baptism there is “neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28 ); the witness of the New Testament is that “what is born of the flesh is flesh” and that a spiritual birth is necessary to enter God's kingdom (John 3:5-6 ); it is not the Israel of the flesh that inherits the promises of God but those who are spiritual Israel by a faith commitment (Romans 6-8 ; Galatians 6:16 ); (6) the responsibility of the faith community to its children is instruction in the way of the Lord (Deuteronomy 4:9-10 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Proverbs 22:6 ); participation in covenant renewal is educational for children. See Accountability, Age of , Baptism .
Chris Church
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Baptism Metaphorical
In Scripture the term Baptism is used as referring to the work of the Spirit on the heart, Matthew 3:11 ; also to the sufferings of Christ, Matthew 20:22 ; and to so much of the Gospel as John the Baptist taught his disciples, Acts 18:25 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Baptism For the Dead
Only mentioned in 1 Corinthians 15:29 . This expression as used by the apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence [1] is a fool." Some also regard the statement here as an allusion to the strange practice which began, it is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a person was baptized in the stead of others who had died before being baptized, to whom it was hoped some of the benefits of that rite would be extended. This they think may have been one of the erroneous customs which Paul went to Corinth to "set in order."
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Baptism
The ceremony of washing, or the application of water to a person, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, by which he is initiated into the visible church. Baptism exhibits to us the blessings of pardon, salvation through Jesus Christ, union to and communion with him, the out-pouring of the Spirit, regeneration, and sanctification. From baptism results the obligation of repentance, love to Christ, and perpetual devotedness to his praise. Baptism does not constitute a visible subject, but only recognizes one. Ministers only have a right to administer it; and have a negative voice in opposition to all claims. It is an ordinance binding on all who have been given up to God in it; and to be perpetuated to the end of the world. It is not, however, essential to salvation; for mere participation of sacraments cannot qualify men for heaven: many have real grace, consequently in a salvable state, before they were baptized: besides, to suppose it essential, is to put it in the place of that which it signifies.
Baptism has been supposed by many learned persons to have had its origin from the Jewish church; in which, they maintain, it was the practice, long before Christ's time, to baptize proselytes or converts to their faith, as part of the ceremony of their admission. "It is strange to me, " says Dr. Doddridge, "that any should doubt of this, when it is plain, from express passages in the Jewish law, that no Jew who had lived like a Gentile for one day could be restored to the communion of this church without it. Compare Numbers 19:19-20 . and many other precepts relating to ceremonial pollutions, in which may be seen, that the Jews were rendered incapable of appearing before God in the tabernacle or temple, till they were washed either by bathing or sprinkling." Others, however, insist, that the Jewish proselyte baptism is not by far so ancient; and that John the Baptist was the first administrator of baptism among the Jews.
The baptism of John, and that of our Saviour and his apostles, have been supposed to be the same; because they agree, it is said in their subjects, form, and end. But it must be observed, that though there be an agreement in some particulars, yet there is not in all. The immediate institutor of John's baptism was God the Father, John 1:33 ; but the immediate institutor of the Christian baptism was Christ, Matthew 28:19 . John's baptism was a preparatory rite, referring the subjects to Christ, who was about to confer on them spiritual blessings, Matthew 3:11 . John's baptism was confined to the Jews; but the Christian was common to Jews and Gentiles, Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 3:7 . Matthew 28:19 . It does not appear that John had any formula of administration; but the Christian baptism has, viz. "in the name, " &c.
The baptism of John was the concluding scene of the legal dispensation, and, in fact, part of it; and to be considered as one of those "divers washings" among the Jews; for he did not attempt to make any alteration in the Jewish religion, nor did the persons he baptized cease to be members of the Jewish church on the account of their baptism; but Christian baptism is the regular entrance into, and is a part of, the evangelical dispensation, Galatians 3:27 . It does not appear from the inspired narrative (however probable from inferential reasoning) that any but John himself was engaged as operator in his baptism; whereas Christ himself baptized none; but his disciples, by his authority, and in his name, John 4:2 . Baptism has been the subject of long and sharp controversy, both as it respects the subject and the mode. To state all that has been said on both sides, would be impossible in a work of this kind. An abstract, however, of the chief arguments, I think it my duty to present to the reader, in order that he may judge for himself, as to the subject.
The ANTIPAEDOBAPTISTS hold that believing adults only are proper subjects, because Christ's commission to baptize appears to them to restrict this ordinance to such only as are taught, or made disciples; and that consequently, infants, who cannot be thus taught, are to be excluded. It does not appear, say they, that the apostles, in executing Christ's commission ever baptized any but those who were first instructed in the Christian faith, and professed their belief of it. They content that infants can receive no benefit from it, and are not capable of faith and repentance, which are to be considered as pre- requisites. As to the mode.
They observe that the meaning of the word in Greek signifies immersion, or dipping only; that John baptized in Jordan; that he chose a place where there was much water; that Jesus came up out of the water; that Phillip and the eunuch went down both into the water. That the terms washing, purifying, burying in baptism, so often mentioned in Scripture, alludes to this mode; that immersion only was the practice of the apostles and the first Christians; and that is was only laid aside from the love of novelty, and the coldness of our climate. These positions, they think, are so clear from Scripture, and the history of the church, that they stand in need of but little argument to support them. Farther, they also insist that all positive institutions depend entirely upon the will and declaration of the institutor, and that, therefore, reasoning by analogy from previous abrogated rites, is to be rejected, and the express command of Christ respecting baptism ought to be our rule.
PAEDOBAPTISTS
The Paedobaptists, however, are of a different opinion. As to the subject, they believe that qualified adults who have not been baptized before, are certainly proper subjects; but, then, they think also that infants are not to be excluded. They believe that, as the Abrahamic and the Christian covenants are the same, Genesis 17:7 . Heb. viii 12; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as baptism is now a seal, sign, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children had a right to the seal of circumcision under the law. Acts 2:39 . Romans 4:11 . That if children are not to be baptized because there is no positive command for it, for the same reason women should not come to the Lord's supper; we should not keep the first day of the week, nor attend public worship, for none of these are expressly commanded; that if infant baptism had been a human invention, how would it have been so universal in the first 3000 years, and yet no record left when it was introduced, nor any dispute or controversy about it?
Some bring it to these two ideas:
1.That God did constitute in his church the membership of infants, and admitted them to it by a religious ordinance, Genesis 17:1-27 : Galatians 3:14 ; Galatians 3:17 .
2.That this right of infants to church membership was never taken away. This being the case, infants must be received, because God has instituted it; and since infants must be received, it must be either without baptism or with it; but none must be received without baptism, therefore infants must of necessity be baptized. Hence, it is clear, that, under the Gospel, infants are still continued exactly in the same relation to God and his church, in which they were originally placed under the former dispensation. That infants are to be received into the church, and as such baptized, is also inferred from the following passages of Scripture: Genesis 17:1-27 : Is. 44:3. Matthew 19:13 . Luke 9:47-48 . Mark 9:14 . Acts 2:1-47 ; Romans 11:17 ; Romans 11:21 . 1 Corinthians 7:14 .
Though there are no express examples in the New Testament of Christ and his apostles baptizing infants, yet this is no proof that they were excluded. Jesus Christ actually blessed little children; and it would be hard to believe that such received his blessing, and yet were not to be members of the Gospel church. If Christ received them, and would have us receive them in his name, how can it be reconciled to keep them out of the visible church? Besides, if children were not to be baptized, it would have been expressly forbidden. None of the Jews had any apprehension of the rejection of infants, which they must have had, if infants had been rejected. As whole households were baptized, it is probable there were children among them. From the year 400 to 1150, no society of men in all that period of 750 years, ever pretended to say it was unlawful to baptize infants; and still nearer the time of our Saviour there appears to have been scarcely any one that so much as advised the delay of infant baptism.
Irenxus, who lived in the second century, and was well acquainted with Polycarp, who was John's disciple, declares expressly that the church learned from the apostles to baptize children. Origen, in the third century, affirmed that the custom of baptizing infants was received from Christ and his apostles. Cyprian, and a council of ministers (held about the year 254) no less than sixty-six in number, unanimously agreed that children might be baptized as soon as they were born. Ambrose, who wrote about 274 years from the apostles, declares that the baptism of infants had been the practice of the apostles themselves, and of the church, till that time. The Catholic church every where declared, says Chrysostom, in the fifth century, that infants should be baptized; and Augustin affirmed that he never heard nor read of any Christian, Catholic, or sectarian, but who always held that infants were to be baptized. They farther believe, that there needed no mention in the New Testament of receiving infants into the church, as it had been once appointed, and never repealed. The dictates of nature, also, in parental feelings; the verdict of reason in favour of privileges; the evidence in favour of children being sharers of the seals of grace, in common with their parents, for the space of 4000 years; and especially the language of prophecy, in reference to the children of the Gospel church, make it very probable that they were not to be rejected.
So far from confining it to adults, it must be remembered that there is not a single instance recorded in the New Testament in which the descendants of Christian parents were baptized in adult years
That infants are not proper subjects for baptism, because they cannot profess faith and repentance, they deny. This objection falls with as much weight upon the institution of circumcision as infant baptism; since they are as capable, or are as fit subjects for the one as the other. It is generally acknowledged, that, if infants die (and a great part of the human race do die in infancy, ) they are saved: if this be the case, then, why refuse them the sign in infancy, if they are capable of enjoying the thing signified? "Why, " says Dr. Owen, "is it the will of God that unbelievers should not be baptized? It is because, not granting them the grace, he will not grant them the sign. If God, therefore, denies the sign to the infant seed of believers, it must be because he denies them the grace of it; and then all the children of believing parents (upon these principles)dying in their infancy, must, without hope, be eternally damned. I do not say that all must be so whom God would not have baptized."
Something is said of baptism, it is observed, that cannot agree to infants: faith goes before baptism; and as adults are capable of believing, so no others are capable of baptism; but it is replied, if infants must not be baptized because something is said of baptism that does not agree to infants, Mark 16:16 . then infants must not be saved, because something is said of salvation that does not agree to infants, Mark 16:16 . As none but adults are capable of believing, so, by the argument of the Baptists, none but adults are capable of salvation: for he that believeth not shall be damned. But Christ, it is said, set an example of adult baptism. True; but he was baptized in honour to John's ministry, and to conform himself to what he appointed to his followers; for which last reason he drank of the sacramental cup: but this is rather an argument for the Paedobaptists than against them; since it, plainly shows, as Doddridge observes, that baptism may be administered to those who are not capable of all the purposes for which it was designed; could not be capable of that faith and repentance which are said to be necessary to this ordinance.
As to the mode.
They believe that the word in Greek signifies to dip or to plunge; but that the Greek term, which is only derivative of another Greek term, and consequently must be somewhat less in its signification, should be invariably used in the New Testament to express plunging, is not so clear. It is therefore doubted whether dipping be the only meaning, and whether Christ absolutely enjoined immersion, and that it is his positive will that no other should be used. As the word in Greek is used for the various ablutions among the Jews, such as sprinkling, pouring, &c. Hebrews 9:10 ; for the custom of washing before meals, and the washing of household furniture, pots, &c; it is evident from hence that it does not express the manner of doing, only the thing done; that is, washing, or the application of water in one form or other. Dr. Owen observes, that it no where signifies to dip, but as denoting a mode or, and in order to washing or cleansing: and, according to others, the mode of use is only the ceremonial part of a positive institute; just as in the supper of the Lord, the time of the day, the number and posture of communicants, the quality and quantity of bread and wine, are circumstances not accounted essential by any party of Christians. As to the Hebrew word Tabal, it is considered as a generic term; that its radical, primary, and proper meaning is, to tinge, to dye, or wet, or the like: which primary design is effected by different modes of application.
If in baptism also there is an expressive emblem of the descending influence of the Spirit, pouring must be the mode of administration; for that is the Scriptural term most commonly and properly used for the communication of divine influences. There is no object whatever in all the New Testament so frequently and so explicitly signified by baptism as these divine influences, Matthew 3:11 . Mark 1:8 ; Mark 1:10 . Luke 3:16-22 . John 1:33 , Acts 1:5 . Acts 2:38-39 . Acts 8:12 ; Acts 8:17 . Acts 11:1-30
The term sprinkling, also, is made use of in reference to the act of purifying, Is 52: 15; Hebrews 9:1-28 . Ezekiel 36:25 , and therefore cannot be inapplicable to baptismal purification. But it is observed that John baptized in Jordan: to this it is replied, to infer always a plunging of the whole body in water from this word, would, in many instances, be false and absurd: the same Greek preposition is used when it is said they should be baptized with fire; while few will assert that they should be plunged into it. The apostle, speaking of Christ, says, he came not by water only, but by water and blood. There the same wore is translated by, and with justice and propriety, for we know no good sense in which we could say he came in water. It has been remarked, that this Greek word is more than a hundred times in the New Testament, rendered "at" and in a hundred and fifty others, it is translated with. If it be rendered so here, "John baptized at Jordan, or with the water of Jordan, there is no proof from thence that he plunged his disciples in it. It is urged that John's choosing a place where there was much water is a certain proof of immersion. To which it is answered, that as there went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan, that by choosing a place where there were many streams or rivulets, it would be much more expeditiously performed by pouring; and that it seems in the nature of things highly improbable that John would have baptized this vast multitude by immersion, to say nothing of the indecency of both sexes being baptized together. Jesus, it is said, came up out of the water; but this is said to be no proof of his being immersed, as the Greek term often signifies from; for instance, "Who hath warned you to flee from, not out of, the wrath to come." with many others which might be mentioned.
Again: it is said that Phillip and the eunuch went down both into the water. To this it is answered, that here is no proof of immersion; for if the expression of their going down into the water necessarily includes dipping, then Phillip was dipped as well as the eunuch. The Greek preposition translated into, often signifies no more than to or unto.
See Matthew 15:24 . Romans 10:10 . Acts 28:14 . Matthew 17:27 . Matthew 3:11 . So that, from all these circumstances, it cannot be conclude that there was a single person of all the baptized who went into the water ankle deep. As to the apostle's expression, "buried with him in baptism, " they think it has no force; and that it does not allude to any custom of dipping, any more than our baptismal crucifixion and death has any such reference. It is not the sign but the thing signified that is here alluded to. As Christ was buried and rose again to a heavenly life, so we by baptism signifying that we are cut off from the life of sin, that we may rise again to a new life of faith and love. To conclude this article, it is observed against the mode of immersion, that, as it carries with it too much of the appearance of a burdensome rite for the Gospel dispensation; that as it is too indecent for so solemn an ordinance; as it has a tendency to agitate the spirits, often rendering the subject unfit for the exercise of proper thought and affections, and indeed utterly incapable of them; as in many cases the immersion of the body would in all probability be instant death; as in other situations it would be impracticable for want of a sufficient quantity of water, it cannot be considered as necessary to the ordinance of baptism.
See Gale, Robinson, Stennett, Gill, and Booth, on Antipaedobaptism; and Wall, Henry, Bradbury, Bostwick, Towgood, Addington, Williams, Edwards, Miller, Evans, &c. on the other side.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Baptism, John's
Was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the New Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24 ; 19:7 ).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Baptism For the Dead
First Corinthians 15:29 remains an enigma, although over thirty "explanations" have been suggested. Substituting alternative phrases—baptism for "the spiritually dead, " "the dying, " "in memory of the departed, " or othersmerely multiplies problems. Vicarious baptisms for the benefit of the dead, practiced on the fringe of Christianity from the second century, illustrate the influence of this verse, but not Paul's meaning. Paul is arguing that if Jesus has not risen, then Christian faith, preaching, remission, hope, are all vain; so is "baptism for the dead." He cannot mean Christian baptism, for none of its conditions or benefits, as Paul expounds them, can be affirmed of the dead. Besides, the following phrase ("And as for us " NIV; "And we ourselves " neb) dissociates Paul and his colleagues from the practice.
If docetic type Christians infected the church at Corinth, they may have accepted baptism for departed souls : but how would that prove bodily resurrection? Similarly, some Dionysian rites and some practices of the mystery religions were held to ensure access, and safe journeying, in the spiritual world, even for those already dead. And Paul could argue from pagan parallels without immediately condemning them (see, e.g., 1 Corinthians 10:20-22 ). But this analogy again does not necessarily imply bodily resurrection.
Yet even as a Pharisee Paul could not conceive a disembodied immortality, leaving the surviving personality incomplete (see 2 Corinthians 5:1-4 ). Is he then arguing that even pagans, if their baptism for the dead be properly understood, testify unconsciously to a bodily resurrection?
R. E. O. White
Bibliography . M. Brauch, Hard Sayings of Paul .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Baptism of the Holy Spirit
Seven New Testament passages speak of baptism of/in/with/by the Holy Spirit. The varying prepositions reflect the fact that the Spirit is both the agent and sphere of this baptism. Six of these passages refer to John the Baptist's teaching, contrasting his baptism in water with Jesus' future baptism in the Holy Spirit. The seventh is 1 Corinthians 12:13 , which refers to the initiation of all the Corinthian Christians into the church.
In Matthew 3:11 and Luke 3:16 , John predicts that the Messiah who will come after him will baptize with the Spirit and fire. This expression is best taken as referring to the one purifying action of the Spirit that blesses believers and condemns unbelievers, and which embraces the entire work of the Spirit from Pentecost on, culminating in final judgment. Mark 1:8 and John 1:33 reflect this identical utterance of John, but mention only the baptism of the Spirit. It is unlikely that anybody in John's original audience knew exactly what he meant by these predictions.
In Acts 1:5 , however, as Jesus prepares to ascend into heaven, he refers back to John's words and predicts their fulfillment within "a few days." In just a little over a week, the disciples celebrate Pentecost and receive the outpouring of the Holy Spirit in fulfillment of the prophecy of Joel 2:28-32 ( Acts 2:1-41 , esp. vv. 17-21 ). A number of years later, when Peter is ministering to Cornelius, the Spirit again manifests itself in dramatically similar ways (leading to the common labeling of this event as the "Gentile Pentecost"). These similarities lead Peter to reflect on Jesus' parting words again and to quote them to the Jewish-Christian leaders in Jerusalem in defense of his "scandalous" association with Gentiles (Acts 11:16 ).
It is clear that all six of these references to the baptism of the Holy Spirit have Pentecost-like experiences primarily in view. In 1 Corinthians 12:13 , however, it is not stated that all the Corinthians had experienced some dramatic, visible manifestation of the Spirit when they were baptized. The common phenomenon seems rather to be that of initiation. Just as baptism in water was the initiation rite symbolizing repentance and faith in Christ, entrance into the community of believers, and incorporation into Christ's body, so "baptism in the Spirit" referred to that moment in which the Spirit first began to operate in believers' lives. No particular style of the Spirit's arrival is paradigmatic; he may come quietly and almost imperceptibly or dramatically and tangibly.
The experience of the disciples at Pentecost is further complicated by the fact that they lived through the transitional period from the old covenant age to the time of the new covenant, which the complex of events beginning with the crucifixion and resurrection and culminating with Christ's exaltation and sending of the Spirit at Pentecost inaugurated. It is important to note that Pentecost was not the disciples' first experience of the Holy Spirit (John 14:17 ; 20:22 ), but that does not necessarily justify the generalization that the "baptism of the Spirit" will ever again be a "second blessing"—a deeper experience of the Spirit subsequent to conversion. Pentecost was a second blessing for the disciples because they were followers of Jesus both before and after his death. But there is no indication that Cornelius and his friends underwent any second experience of the Spirit. Their Spirit-baptism was simultaneous with their conversion to Christ. So too nothing is said about the Corinthians having any two-stage experience. If the entire church had been baptized in the Spirit, including the large number of "carnal" Christians Paul elsewhere rebukes (1 Corinthians 3:1-4 ), then clearly Spirit-baptism cannot guarantee a certain level of Christian maturity or holiness. And if no one spiritual gift was held by all Corinthian believers (1 Corinthians 12:29-30 ), then neither may Spirit-baptism be uniformly equated with the reception of any particular gift of the Spirit.
None of this is to deny that Christians often receive a renewed sense of the Spirit's presence or power one or more times after conversion. Luke employs the expression, "the filling of the Holy Spirit, " to refer to these occasions, particularly when bold proclamation of the gospel quickly follows (e.g., Acts 2:4 ; 4:8,31 ; 13:9 ). When one of these events seems particularly constitutive for a new stage of Christian experience, it may be appropriate, as Green suggests, to speak of a "release in the Spirit." But if one wishes to be faithful to biblical usage, one will reserve the expression "baptism in the Spirit" for the indwelling of God through his Holy Spirit at the moment of a believer's salvation. As Green, himself a charismatic, lucidly concludes (p. 134), all seven scriptural references "point not to a second experience, but to an unrepeatable, if complex, plunging into Christ, with repentance and faith, justification and forgiveness, sonship and public witness, the gift of the Holy Spirit and the seal of belonging, all being part of initiation into Christ, " even if "some parts of the whole [1] seen sooner than others."
It is sometimes argued that certain passages that refer to baptism, without any further qualification, also teach about Spirit-baptism (e.g., Romans 6:4 ; Galatians 3:27 ; Colossians 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:21 ). This interpretation is usually designed to protect these texts against a view that takes them to teach baptismal regeneration. But, in fact, the early church consistently used "baptism" without any qualifiers to refer to water-baptism. None of these passages, even when taken to refer to immersion in water, implies baptismal regeneration, but they do demonstrate how closely linked water-baptism and conversion were (and hence Spirit-baptism as well) in New Testament times.
Craig L. Blomberg
See also Baptism of Fire ; Baptize, Baptism ; Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit, Gifts of
Bibliography . G. R. Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ; J. D. G. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit; EDT, pp. 121-22; H. M. Ervin, Conversion-Initiation and the Baptism in the Holy Spirit ; M. Green, Baptism .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Baptize, Baptism
The Greek root-word baptizein [1] means to plunge, immerse, sink; hence to wash; to be immersed, overwhelmed (in trouble). From Jewish rules of purification concerning ritual uncleanness the word gained a technical religious connotation implying "purification" from all that might exclude from God's presence.
When, at the diaspora, numerous Gentiles sought admission to Israel, the required public repentance and acceptance of Mosaic Law was accompanied by immersion in water, symbolizing and effecting religious, moral, and ritual cleansing from the defilements of paganism. Ancient Jewish discussions (echoed in 1 Corinthians 10:2 ) support a pre-Christian date for this proselyte baptism. This is why John's baptism needed no explanation, though his authority to perform it was challenged and his demand for purification of "children of Abraham" gave deep offense (Matthew 3:7-9 ; John 1:19-24 ).
John's practice added to proselyte baptism a still stronger emphasis on repentance, a firm background of moral teaching (Luke 3:3,10-14,33 ), and initiation into a community ("John's disciples") preparing for Messiah's advent (Luke 3:16-17 ).
The rite gained yet deeper meanings and greater authority from Jesus' example and experience. Why Jesus, being sinless, received a "baptism of repentance" is debatable. Some think Jesus was already aware of his role as Servant-Messiah, "numbered with the transgressors" (Isaiah 53:12 ). But Mark 1:10-11 shows that assurance was finally given to him, in words from Psalm 2:7 and Isaiah 42:1 , when he came up out of the water. Since Jesus held John's movement and practice to be "from heaven, " to identify himself with it was an act of "righteousness" which it was "fitting" to fulfill (Matthew 3:15 ; 21:25 ).
With assurance of Jesus' sonship came the enduement of the Holy Spirit for his task. Jesus never returned to the secluded life of Nazareth, but was "driven" by the Spirit into the wilderness, where his sonship was tested (Matthew 4:3,6 ) and his messianic work was prepared for.
The earlier Gospels do not record that Jesus himself baptized. Peter's invitation at Pentecost, Luke's record (in Acts) of fifteen baptisms, and the teaching of Paul, Peter, and John leave no doubt, however, that the first disciples believed that baptism possessed Christ's authority, as Matthew declares (28:19-20).
Luke's account of apostolic baptism assumes the rite's original association with repentance and remission (Acts 2:38 ), with washing away sin (22:16), and with admission to the religious community. But his emphasis falls on baptism's new features. Though the gospel era dates from the baptism John preached (1:22; 10:37), Christian baptism, as conferring the Holy Spirit, is contrasted with John's (attributed to John in each Gospel, to Jesus at Acts 1:5 ; 11:16 ). This is emphasized at 18:25,19:1-7, and leads to rebaptism with water and the (exceptional) laying on of hands, before the Spirit is conferred. On the other hand, that Cornelius and his friends have received the Spirit becomes Peter's justification for their subsequent baptism (10:47; 11:17; cf. 8:14-17). No formal pattern of initiation is yet evident: Order varies with circumstances and preparation. But the association of water baptism with Spirit possession gave rise to the curious phrase "baptism in/with Holy Spirit" ( Mark 1:8 ; Acts 1:5 ).
In nine instances Luke represents baptism as the expected response to hearing and receiving the gospel. In four of these, kinsmen, close friends, or a household hear and respond; at 16:14-15,18:8 it is not stated that the household believed.
This response was to the gospel of Jesus, Son of God and Savior, who was crucified, rose again, forgives sins, bestows the Spirit, and will come again as Judge, all summarized succinctly but clearly in baptism in or into the name of Jesus as Christ, Lord, Son of God (8:37). "In the name" implied Jesus' authority for the rite; "into the name" (8:16; 19:5) indicated passing into Jesus' ownership, as one "redeemed." James 2:7 suggests an invocation of Jesus (to be present?); elsewhere, the irrevocable public confession of Christ as Lord ( Romans 10:9-13 ; 14:9 ; Philippians 2:11 ) marks the decisive commitment of the baptized to all the privileges and obligations of Christian life. Such baptismal confession became the germ of later creeds; the trinitarian formulation in Matthew 28:18-20 may well represent an early stage in credal development.
Reflection on the church's practice enriched further the theological and ethical significance of baptism, without varying its conditions or abandoning its original meaning.
Thus Paul, baptized within three days of his dramatic conversion, was evidently familiar with the need, despite the Pharisees' hostility toward it (John 1:24-25 ). He gives it surprising prominence among essentials that unite the church (Ephesians 4:4 ; the Eucharist is not included ). He administered, or authorized, baptism throughout his missions, yet would not boast of baptizing anyone and resented baptism being made a badge of partisanship (1 Corinthians 1:13-17 ). And he assumes that baptism is understood in churches he had not visited (Rome, Colossae).
So, too, Paul assumes the original method of immersion (Romans 6 ) and the accompanying confession of Christ's lordship (Romans 10:9-13 ), which in 1 Corinthians 1:12-13,6:19-20 , and Galatians 3:29,5:24 clearly implies belonging to Christ. But he adds the idea of being "sealed" with the purchaser's mark, as property awaiting collection ( Romans 8:23 ; 2 Corinthians 1:22 ; Ephesians 4:30 ). This "good confession" (1 Timothy 6:12 ) made at baptism responds to Paul's gospel of a suffering and risen Lord, presented through the gracious initiative of God and offered to faith, trust, and obedience. Paul insists that none are saved by their own good works, not even by the good work of baptism, but only by faith in Christ (Romans 3:20 ; 4:4-5 ; Galatians 3:2,11 ; Ephesians 2:8 ).
Paul retained, too, the original interpretation of baptism as entrance to the religious community: "We were all baptized into one body" (1 Corinthians 12:13 ). Some think that Paul means this by the phrase "baptized into Christ" (Galatians 3:27 ). They understand his description of the Christian as "in Christ" as an ecclesiological formula—the believer is baptized into "the whole Christ, " of which the risen Lord is head and the church is the body. Others interpret "in Christ" as a more individual, mystical relationship. Doubtless Paul would affirm that a true baptism introduced the convert to both privileges.
Again, Paul continues to emphasize the connection of baptism with enduement by the Spirit. It is "by the Spirit" that the baptized is initiated into the church, made to drink of one Spirit, and sealed for ultimate redemption. Paul regularly refers to the believer's reception of the Spirit in a tense signifying a certain point in time ("baptismal aorists"), speaks of baptism as being "washed in the Spirit" (1 Corinthians 6:11 ), and so can assume that everyone baptized "has" the Spirit (Romans 8:9 ). Yet he nowhere argues this, as by recalling Jesus' baptismal enduement; he takes reception of the Spirit in baptism for granted and life under the rule of the Spirit as the norm of Christian experience (Romans 8:2-5 ). Even so, the Spirit given at baptism is but an earnest, a down payment, guaranteeing immeasurable future blessings (2 Corinthians 1:22 ; 5:5 ).
Paul retains also the earliest interpretation of baptism as a washing away of sin, a "washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit" as Titus 3:5 describes it, a cleansing of the bride-church "by the washing of water with the Word" ( 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; Ephesians 5:26 ). The precise relation of water, Word, and Spirit in this cleansing experience is not defined; they are concomitant elements in a rite mediating to penitent hearts the divine remission.
The implied total change of attitude and relationship could be expressed metaphorically in two ways. The disrobing and rerobing metaphor of Colossians 3:8-14 (and six parallels) echoes the catechetical instruction already familiar to the first readers, and alludes directly to physical arrangements for baptismal "bathing." The second metaphor relates to circumcision, another "cleansing" required of Jewish proselytes, sometimes explained as "a putting off of the flesh." Paul assures the Gentile converts at Colossae that they do not need Jewish circumcision, as certain Judaists were insisting: "In [2] you were also circumcised in the putting off of the sinful nature, not with a circumcision done by the hands of men but with the circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in baptism" ( Colossians 2:11-12 ). That is Paul's only reference to baptism's accomplishing what circumcision portrayed. He turns from it at once to describe the change that baptism signifies in the language he prefers: "buried with him in baptism raised with him through faith in the power of God."
This conception of the baptismal pool as a grave in which the pre-Christian self and its ways are buried once and for all and from which a new self rises to a new quality of living appears to be Paul's own. It looks back to one of Jesus' metaphors for repentance, self-crucifixion (Mark 8:34 ; Galatians 2:20 ; 6:14 ), and recognizes in baptism the moment when the convert does indeed, publicly, take up his or her cross, dying with Christ to self, to sin, and to the world, and rising with him to a life constantly renewed by his resurrection power (Romans 6:1-11 ).
Such a death and resurrection with Christ is implied in accepting the gospel. In Romans, Paul repudiates the suggestion that if man is justified by faith alone, he may go on sinning so long as he goes on exercising faith. Paul replies that one cannot consistently accept Christ's death for one's sins and act as though sin did not matter. The repentant faith that grasps salvation commits the believer, inescapably, to a faith-union with Christ in which he or she dies with Christ to sin and rises with Christ to sin-renouncing life. This baptism expresses, illustrates, and finalizes.
Paul certainly means that, given repentance and faith, the act of baptism (which can never be undone) accomplishes all it representscommitment to the Lord's possession, admission to the church, enduement with the Spirit, remission and repudiation of sin. But Paul is equally clear that what is declared in baptism must be sustained thereafter. The baptized must obey their newfound Lord, be loyal to the church they join (Philippians 2:1-4 ), walk in the Spirit and bear the Spirit's fruit (Galatians 5:16-25 ), count themselves dead to sin, not letting sin reign (Romans 6:11-12 ; 8:5-8 ; Colossians 3:5-6 ). The baptized will rejoice greatly in what has happened, and maintain their baptismal attitude for the remainder of their lives, repenting deeply for every failure to do so.
Many scholars are persuaded that the basis of 1Peter was a sermon to the newly baptized. Certainly the message is appropriately addressed for this purpose (1:14,23; 2:2-3,10, 25), with suitable admonition to existing and incoming church members (5:1-5). It has much to say about the gospel, faith, new birth, purification, putting aside the flesh, the Spirit, admission to the community, reverencing Christ as Lordechoing much of the baptismal thinking already noticed.
Peter's new contribution (3:21-22) raises innumerable questions. The strong declaration "baptism that now saves you" recalls Mark 16:16 as well as Peter's "command" to baptize ( Acts 10:48 ). But the precise meaning needs care. It is as an appeal for a "clear conscience, " and through the triumphant resurrection and ascension of Christ above all "authorities, " that baptism achieves this "salvation."
The readers' situation is outlined in 3:13-17,4:1-5, where again "a clear conscience" is urged and explained. The threat of persecution recurs in 4:12-19, and again is to be met by good social behavior. Against this background, baptism is no merely physical washing (as in Judaist, Essene, or pagan circles), but "the pledge of a good conscience towards God" and threatening civic authorities, ensuring innocent social conduct. This will not guarantee safety, as Christ's suffering shows (3:18); Christians must still arm themselves to suffer unjustly. But as he triumphed so can they, in his power and protection.
This unexpected exhortation is not unsupported. At Pentecost Peter had urged his hearers to save themselves by baptism from "this crooked generation." The Baptist had called his hearers to a baptism of repentance as the way of escape from a world under judgment. Now Peter cites Noah and his pitiful minority amid another evil generation; only eight souls saved by the flood from God's judgment upon that sinful age. In such far-ranging thoughts Peter extends the meaning of baptism to include a promise of social responsibility, and assured support and protection, now, in face of evils that threaten new converts, and ultimate victory. The baptized have enlisted in the eternal warfare of good and evil, but their Lord has already overcome.
So much has been made of John's "sacramentalism" that it is imperative to emphasize that for him, too, salvation comes through "believing" (over fifty times in John, 1John) in the historic Christ (stressed fifteen times), "sent" by the loving initiative of God (over fifty references) to those chosen. The operation of the Spirit in baptism, and the implied entrance to the Christian community, are as clear in John as in the earlier sources (John 3:5-6 ; 17 ).
But John does insist rather more strongly on the necessity of baptism (John 3:5 ; 13:8-9 ), on Christ's authorizing baptism (John 3:22,26 ; 4:1-2 ), and on the superiority of Christian baptism to that of the Baptist (John 1:26-33 ; 3:25-30 ). By omitting any description of Jesus' baptism, John plays down any "memorial" or imitative baptism, in order to stress that in baptism it is the believer's experience that matters.
Without a new birth of water and Spirit, none can see or enter the kingdom or attain a spiritual nature. The healing of blindness by washing at Christ's command (John 9:11 ) led the church later to call baptism "the enlightenment." John 19:34 , so solemnly underlined, suggests that one purpose of Christ's death was precisely to provide the sacramental water and blood by which Christian experience would be transmitted and nourished. First John 5:6-12 is the converse: The continuing witness of the Spirit and the sacraments in the ongoing experience of the church testify (against Gnostic denials) that Christ did come in the flesh, and die, that we might live.
By the time John wrote, Christian baptism was long established and its spiritual significance and power fully understood. But there is no tension between John's sacramentalism and faith as the means of initiating Christian life. The sacrament is a faith-sacrament, rooted in history, and conveying what it represents not by magic but by divine action in believing and receptive hearts.
Christian baptism thus preserves the covenantal basis of biblical thought: God first offers in grace, human beings then respond in gratitude, deserving nothing. In the gospel, God offers through Christ forgiveness, life, the Spirit: the baptismal response, hallowed by Christ, expresses faith in the dying and rising Savior-Lord, and registers the resolve to die to former sinfulness and rise to new life. God does not ignore such aspiration: He fulfills for the believing heart all the promises of the gospel it is ready to receive.
R. E. O. White
See also Baptism of Fire; Baptism of the Holy Spirit; Holy Spirit, Gifts of.
Bibliography . K. Barth, Teaching of the Church regarding Baptism ; O. Cullmann, Baptism in the New Testament ; G. R. Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ; M. B. Green, Baptism ; P. Ch. Marcel, The Biblical Doctrine of Infant Baptism ; R. E. O. White, The Biblical Doctrine of Initiation .
Webster's Dictionary - Baptism
(v. i.) The act of baptizing; the application of water to a person, as a sacrament or religious ceremony, by which he is initiated into the visible church of Christ. This is performed by immersion, sprinkling, or pouring.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Baptism
BAPTISM . This term, which designates a NT rite, is confined to the vocabulary of the NT. It does not occur in the LXX [1] , neither is the verb with which it is connected ever used of an initiatory ceremony. This verb is a derivative from one which means ‘to dip’ ( John 13:26 , Revelation 19:13 ), but itself has a wider meaning, = ‘to wash’ whether the whole or part of the body, whether by immersion or by the pouring of water ( Mark 7:4 , Luke 11:38 ). The substantive is used ( a ) of Jewish ceremonial washings ( Mark 7:4 , Hebrews 9:10 ); ( b ) in a metaphorical sense ( Mark 10:38 , Luke 12:50 ; cf. ‘plunged in calamity’); and ( c ) most commonly in the technical sense of a religious ceremony of initiation.
1 . The earliest use of the word ‘baptism’ to describe a religious and not merely ceremonial observance is in connexion with the preaching of John the Baptist, and the title which is given to him is probably an indication of the novelty of his procedure ( Matthew 3:1 , Mark 8:28 , Luke 7:20 ; cf. Mark 6:14 ; Mark 6:24 ). He ‘preached the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins’ ( Mark 1:4 ), i.e. the result of his preaching was to induce men to seek baptism as an outward sign and pledge of inward repentance on their part, and of their forgiveness on the part of God. ‘Baptism is related to repentance as the outward act in which the inward change finds expression. It has been disputed whether the practice of baptizing proselytes on their reception into the Jewish community was already established in the 1st cent.; probably it was. But in any case the significance of their baptism was that of ceremonial cleansing; John employed it as a symbol and a seal of moral purification. But, according to the Gospel record, John recognized the incomplete and provisional character of the baptism administered by him: ‘I indeed have baptized you with water; but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost’ ( Mark 1:8 ).
2 . Jesus Himself accepted baptism at the hands of John ( Mark 1:9 ), overcoming the reluctance of the Baptist with a word of authority. That Jesus Himself baptized is nowhere suggested in the Synoptic Gospels, and is expressly denied in the Fourth Gospel ( John 4:2 ); but His disciples baptized, and it must have been with His authority, equivalent to baptism by Himself, and involving admission to the society of His disciples. On the other hand, His Instructions to the Twelve and to the Seventy contain no command to baptize. Christian baptism was to be baptism ‘with the Spirit,’ and ‘the Spirit was not yet given’ ( John 7:39 ). It is recorded in Acts ( Acts 1:5 ) that the Risen Lord foretold that this promised baptism would be received after His departure, ‘not many days hence.’
3 . Christian baptism, although it finds a formal analogy in the baptism of John, which in its turn represents a spiritualizing of ancient Jewish ideas of lustration, appears as in its essential character a new thing after the descent of the Holy Spirit. It is a phenomenon ‘entirely unique, and in its inmost nature without any analogy, because it rises as an original fact from the soil of the Christian religion of revelation’ (von Dobschütz). It has been customary to trace the institution of the practice to the words of Christ recorded in Matthew 28:19 . But the authenticity of this passage has been challenged on historical as well as on textual grounds. It must be acknowledged that the formula of the threefold name, which is here enjoined, does not appear to have been employed by the primitive Church, which, so far as our information goes, baptized ‘in’ or ‘into the name of Jesus’ (or ‘Jesus Christ’ or ‘the Lord Jesus’: Acts 2:38 ; Acts 8:16 ; Acts 10:48 ; Acts 19:5 ; cf, 1 Corinthians 1:13 ; 1 Corinthians 1:15 ), without reference to the Father or the Spirit. The difficulty hence arising may be met by assuming ( a ) that Baptism in the name of Jesus was equivalent to Baptism in the name of the Trinity, or ( b ) that the shorter phrase does not represent the formula used by the baptizer (which may have been the fuller one), but the profession made by the baptized, and the essential fact that he became a Christian one of Christ’s acknowledged followers. But it is better to infer the authority of Christ for the practice from the prompt and universal adoption of it by the Apostles and the infant Church, to which the opening chapters of Acts bear witness; and from the significance attached to the rite in the Epistles, and especially in those of St. Paul.
4 . That baptism was the normal, and probably the indispensable, condition of being recognized as a member of the Christian community appears from allusions in the Epistles ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 , Galatians 3:27 ), and abundantly from the evidence in Acts. The first preaching of the Spirit-filled Apostles on the day of Pentecost led to many being ‘pricked in their heart’; and in answer to their inquiry addressed to ‘Peter and the rest of the apostles,’ Peter said unto them: ‘Repent ye, and be baptized every one of you in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ’ ( Acts 2:37-38 ). ‘They then that received his word were baptized’ to the number of ‘about three thousand souls.’ At Samaria, ‘when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women’ ( Acts 8:12 ), the earliest express statement that women were admitted to the rite. In this case the gift of the Spirit did not follow until Peter and John had come down from Jerusalem, and ‘prayed for them that they might receive the Holy Ghost.’ ‘Then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost’ ( Acts 8:17 ). Saul was baptized by Ananias ( Acts 9:17 ) in accordance with instructions recorded by himself ( Acts 22:16 ), and that he might ‘be filled with the Holy Ghost.’ In these cases the gift followed upon baptism, with or without the laying-on of hands. In the case of Cornelius and his friends, the gift followed immediately upon the preaching of the word by Peter, and presumably its reception in the heart of those who heard; and it was after that that the Apostle ‘commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord’ ( Acts 10:48 ). It was on the ground of this previous communication of the Holy Spirit that Peter subsequently justified his action in admitting these persons to baptism ( Acts 11:15-18 ).
5 . The preaching of St. Paul, no less than that of St. Peter, led to the profession of faith through baptism, though the Apostle seems as a rule to have left the actual administration to others ( 1 Corinthians 1:14-17 ): ‘for Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel.’ At Philippi Lydia was baptized ‘and her household’; there also the jailor, ‘and all that were his’ ( Acts 16:15 ; Acts 16:33 ); at Corinth, Crispus and Gaius, and ‘the household of Stephanas’ ( 1 Corinthians 1:14 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ).
6 . The conditions antecedent to baptism are plainly set forth in Acts, viz. repentance and profession of faith in Jesus as Messiah or as ‘the Lord,’ following on the preaching of the word. The method of administration was baptizing with water in or into the name of Jesus. Immersion may have been employed when the presence of sufficient water made it convenient; but there is nothing to show that affusion or sprinkling was not regarded as equally valid. That baptism was ‘in the name of Jesus’ signifies that it took place for the purpose of sealing the new relationship of belonging to, being committed to, His Personality. The blessing attached to the rite is commonly exhibited as the gift of the Holy Spirit; the due fulfilment of the condition of baptism involved ipso facto the due fulfilment of the condition of receiving the Spirit. In the Epistles, this, the normal consequence of Christian baptism, is analyzed into its various elements. These are in the main three: ( a ) the ‘remission of sins’ ( Act 2:38 , 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; cf. Hebrews 10:22 , 1 Peter 3:21 ). ( b ) In baptism the believer was to realize most vividly the total breach with his old life involved in his new attitude to God through Christ, a breach comparable only with that effected by death ( Romans 6:2-7 , Colossians 2:12 ); he was to realize also that the consequences of this fellowship with Christ were not only death to sin, but a new life in righteousness as real as that which followed on resurrection ( Romans 6:4 ). ( c ) Baptism conferred incorporation in the one body of Christ ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 ), and was thus adapted to serve as a symbol of the true unity of Christians ( Ephesians 4:5 ). The body with which the believer is thus incorporated is conceived of sometimes as the corporate community of Christians, sometimes as the Personality of Christ; ‘for as many of you as were baptized into Christ, did put on Christ’ ( Galatians 3:27 ).
Conversely, as with the Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, all the elements both of qualification and of experience are sometimes summed up in a pregnant phrase and without regard to the order in which they emerge. Ephesians 5:26 may find its best interpretation through comparison with John 15:3 (cf. John 17:17 ), i.e. as referring to the continuous cleansing of the Church by the word; but if the reference is to baptism, then the phrase ‘by the word’ probably alludes to the profession of faith by the baptized, whether it took the form of ‘Jesus is Lord’ ( Romans 4:10 ; cf. 1 Corinthians 12:3 ), or whether it expressed the content of the faith more fully. In Titus 3:5 , while baptism is the instrument by which salvation is realized,’ regeneration’ and ‘renewal’ are both displayed as the work of the Holy Spirit. And here the Apostolic interpretation of the rite touches the anticipation of it in our Lord’s words recorded in John 3:5 . Faith wrought by the Spirit and faith professed by the believer are alike necessary to entrance into the Kingdom of salvation (cf. Romans 10:9-10 ).
In 1 Corinthians 15:29 Paul refers to the practice of persons allowing themselves to be baptized on behalf of the dead . Such a practice appears to have had analogies in the Greek mysteries, from which it may have crept into the Christian Church. As such it may be regarded as ‘a purely magical, and wholly superstitious, vicarious reception of the sacrament.’ Of such a practice the Apostle expresses no approval, but ‘simply meets his opponents with their own weapons without putting their validity to the proof’ (Rentdorff).
7 . The NT contains no explicit reference to the baptism of infants or young children; but it does not follow that the Church of the 2nd cent. adopted an unauthorized innovation when it carried out the practice of infant baptism. There are good reasons for the silence of Scripture on the subject. The governing principle of St. Luke as the historian of the primitive Church is to narrate the advance of the Kingdom through the missionary preaching of the Apostles, and the conversion of adult men and women. The letters of the Apostles were similarly governed by the immediate occasion and purpose of their writing. We have neither a complete history, nor a complete account of the organization, of the primitive Church. But of one thing we may be sure: had the acceptance of Christianity involved anything so startling to the Jewish or the Gentile mind as a distinction between the religious standing of the father of a family and his children, the historian would have recorded it, or the Apostles would have found themselves called to explain and defend it. For such a distinction would have been in direct contradiction to the most deeply rooted convictions of Jew and of Gentile alike. From the time of Abraham onwards the Jew had felt it a solemn religious obligation to claim for his sons from their earliest infancy the same covenant relation with God as he himself stood in. There was sufficient parallelism between baptism and circumcision (cf. Colossians 2:11 ) for the Jewish-Christian father to expect the baptism of his children to follow his own as a matter of course. The Apostle assumes as a fact beyond dispute that the children of believers are ‘holy’ ( 1 Corinthians 7:14 ), i.e. under the covenant with God, on the ground of their father’s faith. And among Gentile converts a somewhat different but equally authoritative principle, that of patria potestas , would have the same result. In a home organized on this principle, which prevailed throughout the Roman Empire, it would be a thing inconceivable that the children could be severed from the father in their religious rights and duties, in the standing conferred by baptism. Thus it is because, to the mind of Jew and Gentile alike, the baptism of infants and children yet unable to supply the conditions for themselves was so natural, that St. Luke records so simply that when Lydia believed, she was baptized ‘with her household’; when the Philippian jailor believed, he was baptized, and all those belonging to him. If there were children in these households, these children were baptized on the ground of the faith of their parents; if there were no children, then the principle took a still wider extension, which includes children; for it was the servants or slaves of the household who were ‘added to the Church’ by baptism on the ground of their master’s faith.
8 . Baptism was a ceremony of initiation by which the baptized not only were admitted members of the visible society of the disciples of Christ, but also received the solemn attestation of the consequences of their faith. Hence there are three parties to it. The part of the baptized is mainly his profession of faith in Christ, his confession ‘with his heart’ that he is the Lord’s. The second is the Christian community or Church (rather than the person who administers baptism, and who studiously keeps in the background). Their part is to hear the profession and to grant the human attestation. The third is the Head of the Church Himself, by whose authority the rite is practised, and who gives the inward attestation, as the experience of being baptized opens in the believing soul new avenues for the arrival of the Holy Spirit.
C. A. Scott.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Baptism of the Holy Spirit
Ever since the days of Joel, God's people have looked for the pouring out of God's Spirit (Joel 2:28-32 ). The Gospels and Acts speak of a baptism of the Holy Spirit (Mark 1:8 ; John 1:33 ; John 7:37-39 ; Acts 1:5 ; see Matthew 3:11 ; Luke 3:16 . See Acts 2:3-4 ,Acts 2:3-4,2:16-21 ; compare Acts 10:44 with Acts 11:16 ). But what does it mean to be “baptized with the Holy Spirit”?
Being baptized in the Holy Spirit means being immersed (baptized) in the presence and being of God. One immersed in the presence of God is made aware of his or her sinfulness and desires cleansing and purification (John 16:8 ; see Baptism of Fire ). The result of this cleansing is life in the true sense of the word (see Eternal Life ; Life ).
One baptized with the Holy Spirit is also empowered to do works of ministry (Luke 24:49 ; Acts 1:8 ). The ministry for which empowerment comes included witnessing (Acts 1:8 ; see John 15:26-27 ) and working miracles (John 14:12 ; Acts 3:4-10 ; Acts 5:12 ). As part of the empowerment for ministry, believers are given the necessary spiritual gifts (Romans 12:4-8 ; 1 Corinthians 12:1-14:40 ; Ephesians 4:1-16 ; 1 Timothy 4:16 ; 1 Peter 4:10-11 ) and knowledge and guidance (John 14:26 ; John 16:13 ).
Phil Logan
King James Dictionary - Baptism
BAP'TISM, n. Gr. to baptize.
1. The application of water to a person, as a sacrament or religious ceremony, by which he is initiated into the visible church of Christ. This is usually performed by sprinkling or immersion. 2. The sufferings of Christ. Matt.xx22.23. 3. So much of the gospel as was preached by John, the Baptist. Acts :
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Baptism
Matthew 3:11 (b) Two baptisms seem to be included in this passage.
the first is the baptism of the believer in the Holy Spirit.
the second one seems to be the baptism of the sinner in the lake of fire from which there is no resurrection.
The Lord JESUS gives us over to the Holy Spirit when He saves us, and this seems to be called a baptism as in Acts 1:5. We should note that it is never the element that is moved, but always the person. The water is not put on the person, but contrariwise the person is always put in the water. It is the person who is put in the Spirit, or in the body of CHRIST, which is the church. It is always the person who is moved and placed in baptism.
Luke 3:21 (c) The baptism of JESUS certainly had nothing whatever to do with salvation, nor the new birth, nor forgiveness. He said that He did it "to fulfill all righteousness." He took His place publicly by this rite with those who were to walk in newness of life and be known as Christians, believers or saints of GOD.
Luke 7:29-30 (b) A type of burial wherein the believer accepts GOD's condemnation of himself, admits that he had to die at Calvary, and therefore should be buried out of sight in a watery grave. Thus he justifies GOD's diagnosis of his case, and proves it by going through this symbolical burial. Those who refuse to be baptized thereby reject GOD's testimony about their wickedness and sinfulness. They refuse to admit that they are so bad that they should be put to death and buried.
Luke 12:50 (a) This is the baptism of our Lord JESUS which He endured on the Cross when GOD poured out His wrath upon Him and engulfed Him as it were in the burning billows of His anger. He had already been baptized by John in the water. Now He is baptized in the mystic fire of GOD's wrath. It was said by Him in prophecy "all thy waves and thy billows rolled over me." That is the baptism that saves us. He went down under the flood instead of us. He was baptized there at Calvary in our place. He is the ark of safety into which we enter for protection from the deluge of GOD's anger against sin.
Romans 6:3 (b) This baptism seems to represent that mysterious and rich experience which any person enjoys in the Lord JESUS. Immediately upon trusting CHRIST the believer is reckoned as having been baptized in or buried with the Lord JESUS in contrast with his former position of being buried in the world. The believer is said to be "in Christ," whereas, before, he was "in the world."
1 Corinthians 10:2 (b) This is the baptism accomplished in the Red Sea when the walls of water on each side, and the cloud above hid Israel from the sight of the Egyptians. They went through what was apparently a tunnel, and this is called a baptism. They were set free from the damnation of Pharaoh into the leadership of Moses. They were released from the bondage of Egypt and brought into the liberty of the children of GOD.
1 Corinthians 12:13 (b) In this place the believer is in a mysterious way put into the body of CHRIST, the church, by the Holy Spirit as soon as he trusts his soul to JESUS CHRIST. In every case the word "baptism" is used to indicate that the change or the transfer is a complete transaction which involves the entire person and personality.
Colossians 2:12 (b) Here again baptism is a symbol of burial in order that the world may know that the Christian is dead and buried so far as the world is concerned. The Christian emerges from the watery grave to bear witness and testimony that he is "alive unto God" and is walking with Him.
1 Peter 3:21 (a) We should note in this case that Noah and his family were not in the water at all. They were "in the ark," which is a type of the Lord JESUS. CHRIST was baptized under the waves and billows of GOD's wrath, and it is His baptism that saves, not our own baptism. The passage says "in like figure." Those who stayed out of the water were saved by the ark which was in the water. Those who are "in Christ" are saved by the baptism of CHRIST on Calvary. He endured the wrath of GOD and we who belong to Him go free.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Baptism of the Holy Spirit
This is distinct from baptism with water. John's baptism is contrasted with it, Acts 11:16 ; Matthew 3:11 . Christian baptism, though distinct, was in view of the reception of the Holy Ghost (Acts 2:38 ), but does not confer it. Acts 19:5,6 . Baptism of the Holy Spirit took place at Pentecost: the Lord said to His disciples, "Ye shall be baptised with the Holy Ghost not many days hence," Acts 1:5 ; so that at Pentecost the saints were all baptised by the one Spirit into one body. 1 Corinthians 12:13 . This agrees with the church having been begun at Pentecost, and tells us that no one can be a part of the body of Christ until he is indwelt by the Holy Spirit, being initiated into the one body formed, characterised, by the baptism of the Holy Spirit once for all.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Baptism
Used figuratively to express the overwhelming sufferings which the Lord Jesus endured in order to accomplish the purpose for which He came to the earth; He was 'straitened' until that work was accomplished. Luke 12:50 ; John 12:27 . When the sons of Zebedee asked to sit on the right and on the left of the Lord in His glory, He at once referred to the cup He had to drink, and asked if they could drinkof that cup, and be baptised with the baptism He was to be baptised with. They, ignorant of the depths of suffering involved in the question, said they could. In one sense they should share in His sufferings — the non-atoning sufferings, from the hand of man; but the places they sought were not His to give. Mark 10:38-40 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism
(Greek: baptizo, wash or immerse)
The act of immersing or washing. In Holy Scripture it also signifies, figuratively, great suffering, e.g., Christ's Passion (Luke 12). It is the "first" sacrament, or sacrament of initiation and regeneration, the "door of the Church." Defined theologically, it is a sacrament, instituted by Christ, in which by the invocation of the Holy Trinity and external ablution with water one becomes spiritually regenerated and a disciple of Christ. Saint Thomas says it is the "external ablution of the body performed with the prescribed form of words." The Sacrament of Baptism is absolutely necessary for salvation, because all are subject to original sin: wherefore Christ's words to Nicodemus, "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John 3). The chief effects of this sacrament are:
the impression of a character or seal by which we are incorporated with Christ (Galatians 3; 1 Corinthians 6);
regeneration and remission of original sin (and actual if necessary), as well as punishment due to sin, and infusion of sanctifying grace (with its gifts). Baptism is administered by pouring water on the head of the candidate, saying at the same time,
I baptize thee, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
with the intention of Christ or His Church. The water must flow over the skin. These essentials are apart from the beautiful requirements of the Church for solemn Baptism. Infusion (pouring), immersion, and aspersion (sprinkling) are equally valid. The present ritual of the Latin Church allows for the first two, favoring infusion by the law of custom. Baptism of desire (flaminis) and of blood (sanguinis) are called such analogically, in that they supply the remission of sin and the regenerative grace, but not the character; the former presupposes perfect charity or love of God (therefore implicitly the desire for the sacrament), while the latter is simply martyrdom for the sake of Christ or His Church. Without the Sacrament of Baptism or martyrdom it is commonly taught that infants cannot attain to the enjoyment of the Beatific Vision.
Goffine's Devout Instructions
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Clinical
(Greek: klinikos, of a bed) In general, Baptism given to anyone sick abed; in particular, Baptism administered at child-birth. "To be born," is an essential for Baptism. Medical men as well as theologians now teach as morally certain that the human foetus is animated at conception by the rational soul. Hence Baptism in difficult parturition or within the womb is sometimes required.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Conditional
Baptism administered with these words expressing a condition, "If thou art not yet baptized, I baptize thee," etc. Baptism cannot be repeated; but in the reception of converts, when, after diligent investigation, there remains a reasonable doubt as to the fact or validity of their Baptism, the sacrament is given conditionally.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Baptism
An immersion or sprinkling of water that signifies one's identification with a belief or cause. In Christianity it is the believer's identification with Christ in His death, burial, and resurrection (Romans 6:4-23). It is done in the name and authority (Acts 4:7) of Christ with the baptismal formula of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19). It does not save us (1 Peter 3:21). However, it is our obligation, as believers, to receive it.
Some maintain that baptism is necessary for salvation. It is not. If you want to read more on this see Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation?
CARM Theological Dictionary - Infant Baptism
The practice of baptizing infant children of believing parents. In the Catholic Church infant baptism washes away original sin and is regenerative. In Reformed circles, infant baptism is not regenerative but covenantal and validated through the believing parent(s). There are no explicit accounts of infant baptism in the Bible. However, it cannot be completely excluded as a possibility given that entire households were baptized Acts 16:15; Act 16:33; Act 18:8.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Baptism
1. Christian baptism in the NT.-It will be convenient at the beginning of this article to collect the narratives of and allusions to Christian baptism in the NT. The command of our Lord to make disciples of all the nations by baptism (Matthew 28:19; see below, 4 and 8) was faithfully carried out by the first disciples. Actual baptisms are recorded in Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41 (the 3000 converts), Acts 8:12 f., Acts 8:16 (Samaritans, men and women, and Simon), Acts 8:36; Acts 8:38 (the Ethiopian eunuch), Acts 9:18; Acts 22:16 (Saul), Acts 10:47 f. (Cornelius and his friends), Acts 16:15 (Lydia and her household), Acts 16:33 (the Philippian jailer ‘and all his’), Acts 18:8 (Crispus and his house, and many Corinthians), Acts 19:5 (about twelve Ephesians), 1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:16 (Crispus, Gaius, and the household of Stephanas).
In addition to these narratives there are many allusions to Christian baptism in the NT-Romans 6:11., Colossians 2:12, baptized into Christ Jesus, into His death, buried with Him in baptism: a common thought in early times-e.g. Apost. Const. ii. 7 and often in that work (see A. J. Maclean, Ancient Church Orders, 123).-1 Corinthians 6:11, sanctification and justification connected with the washing of baptism; three aorists, referring to a definite event: ‘ye washed away (ἀπελούσασθε, middle) [1] … in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God’; cf. Acts 22:16 (above): ‘arise and be baptized’ (βαπτίσαι, ‘seek baptism’) and wash away (ἀπολούσαι) thy sins.’-1 Corinthians 12:13, [2] all baptized in one Spirit into one body.-Galatians 3:27, baptized into Christ, put on Christ.-Ephesians 4:5, ‘one Lord, one faith, one baptism.’-Ephesians 5:26, Christ sanctified the Church, having cleansed it by the washing (λουτρῷ) of water with the word. The ‘word’ is said by Robinson (Com. in loc.) to be the ‘solemn invocation of the name of the Lord Jesus’; Westcott (in loc.) adds: ‘accompanied by the confession of the Christian faith, cf. Romans 10:9’; Chase (Journal of Theological Studies viii. 165) interprets it of the word or fiat of Christ, and compares Cyril of Jerusalem (Cat. iii. 5).-Titus 3:5, ‘by the washing of regeneration (διὰ λουτροῦ παλιγγενεσίας) and renewing of the Holy Ghost’; see below, 8.-Hebrews 6:2; Hebrews 6:4, the first principles are repentance, faith, teaching of baptisms (βαπτισμῶν) and of laying on of hands, resurrection, and judgment; Christians were once enlightened (φωτισθέντας) and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost; hence the name ‘illumination’ (φωτισμός) and ‘illuminated’ for ‘baptism’ and ‘the baptized’ in Justin (Apol. i. 61, 65) and elsewhere. Westcott interprets the ‘teaching [3] of baptisms’ as instruction about the difference between Christian baptism and other lustral rites. Chase (Confirmation in Apostol. Age, p. 44f.) denies this, and interprets the phrase of the baptism of different neophytes, ‘the Christian rite in its concrete application to individual believers’: the ‘heavenly gift’ is one part of the illumination or baptism, i.e. the gift of the Son, of Eternal life, of sonship (Chase); the partaking of the Holy Ghost is the other part. In any case the ἐπίθεσις χειρῶν must refer to the laying on of hands which followed immersion (see below, 6), though Westcott would extend it to benedictions, ordinations, etc., as well.-Hebrews 10:22 f., ‘our body washed with pure water’ (our sacramental bathing contrasted with the symbolic bathings of the Jews [4]), ‘let us hold fast the confession (ὁμολογίαν) of our hope.’-In 1 Peter 3:21 baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc.), the fulfilment of the type; but in Hebrews 9:24 it is used conversely, as it often is in Christian antiquity when the Eucharistic bread and wine are called the antitype of our Lord’s body and blood, e.g. Verona Didascalia (ed. Hauler, p. 112) ‘panem quidem in exemplar quod dicit Graecus antitypum corporis Christi’; so Cyr. Jer., Cat. xxiii. 20; Tertullian similarly uses ‘figura’ (adv. Marc. iv. 10), and Serapion ὁμοίωμα (Liturgy, § 1). For other instances, see Cooper-Maclean, Test. of our Lord, Edinburgh, 1902, p. 172f., and Apost. Const. v. 14, vi. 30, vii. 25. In Ps.-Clem. 2 Cor. 14 the flesh is the ‘antitype’ of the Spirit.
In the Gospels, Christian baptism is three times referred to: Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:16, John 3:3; John 3:5. In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS [5] , have been judged by K. Lake (Inaug. Lecture at Leyden, 17th Jan. 1904, p. 14) to be an interpolation, as they are not quoted by Justin. This deduction is very precarious (for an examination of it, see Chase, Journal of Theological Studies vi. [1]1 504, note, who deems the theory unscientific); but in any case the ‘birth of the Spirit’ could not but convey to the Christian readers of the Fourth Gospel a reference to baptism. Westcott truly remarks (Com. in loc.) that to Nicodemus the words would suggest a reference to John’s baptism. An attempt to explain ‘water’ here without reference to baptism is examined by Hooker (Eccl. Pol. v. 59), who lays down the oft-quoted canon that ‘while a literal construction will stand, the farthest from the letter is commonly the worst’ (see below, 8).
In these passages water is not always mentioned; but the word βαπτίζω, which to us is a mere technical expression, and its Aramaic equivalent (rt. [7] מבל) would to the first disciples at once convey the idea of water. The clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:20, and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12. Justin (Dial. 14) emphasizes the element used, by calling baptism the ‘water of life’: so in Hermas (Vis. iii. 3) the Church (the tower) is built on the waters, ‘because your life is saved and shall be saved by water.’
More indirect allusions to Christian baptism are found in the NT. The Israelites, by a metaphor from it, are said to have been baptized into (εἰς) Moses in the cloud and in the sea (1 Corinthians 10:2). Whatever view is taken of baptism for the dead (1 Corinthians 15:29), it alludes to the Christian rite. It has been interpreted (a) of vicarious baptism on behalf of those who had died unbaptized (cf. 2 Maccabees 12:43 ff., offering made for the dead); this was the practice of some heretics (so Tert., de Res. Carn. 48, adv. Marc. v. 10, and Goudge, Alford). But there is no evidence that it existed in the 1st cent., and the practice may have originated from this verse; could St. Paul have even tacitly approved of such a thing?-(b) The words ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν are rendered by many Greek Fathers ‘in expectation of the resurrection of the dead’; but this forces the grammar, and gives no good sense to ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν, which is the best attested reading at the end of the verse; also ‘they which are baptized’ means not all Christians, but some of them.-(c) Others interpret the verse of people being drawn to the faith and to baptism out of affection for some dead friend; Robertson-Plummer (International Critical Commentary , in loc.) incline to this.-(d) Estius and Calvin render ‘as now about to die,’ jamjam morituri; but see (b).-(e) Luther renders ‘over the graves of the dead’; here again see (b). Many other suggestions have been made. It is probable that the problem is insoluble with our present knowledge, and that the reference is to some ceremony in the then baptismal rite at Corinth of which we hear no more, but not to vicarious baptism (see Plummer in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. 245).
Other allusions to baptism (the complete rite, see below, 6) may probably be found in the metaphors of anointing and sealing. For anointing, see 2 Corinthians 1:21 (χρίσας, aorist), 1 John 2:20; 1 John 2:27 (the anointing abides in us and is not only a historical act). Though anointing may have accompanied the rite in the NT, and Chase (Confirmation, 53ff.) decides that it was so used, yet it is also not improbable that its institution at a very early age of the Church may have been due to these very passages-that the practice came from the metaphor. We notice that in the Didache, § 7, anointing is not mentioned, but that in Apost. Const. vii. 22 (4th cent.), which incorporates and enlarges the Didache, it is introduced. It was certainly used very early. Irenaeus says that some of the Gnostic sects anointed alter baptism (c. Haer. i. xxi. 3f.); and as the Gnostic rites were a parody of those of the Church, this carries the evidence back to c. [8] a.d. 150. It is mentioned by Tert., de Bapt. 7, de Res. Carn. 8; by Cyr. Jer., Cat. xxii. 1. From the anointing came the custom of calling the baptized ‘christs,’ χριστοί (Cyr. Jer., loc. cit.; Methodius, Banquet of the Ten Virgins, viii. 8, where Psalms 105:15 Septuagint is quoted). In the NT, χρίειν is used metaphorically of our Lord; cf. Luke 4:18, Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38, Hebrews 1:9.
For sealing, see 2 Corinthians 1:22 (same context as the anointing), Ephesians 1:13 (‘having believed ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise’), Ephesians 4:30 (‘sealed in the Holy Spirit’). The aorists in all three passages, which connect the Holy Ghost with the sealing, point to the definite time when they became believers (Chase, Confirmation, p. 52). (The metaphor is used in Romans 4:11 of circumcision; and otherwise in John 3:33; John 6:27, Romans 15:28, 1 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Timothy 2:19.) Hence in Christian antiquity the baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e.g. Hermas, Sim. ix. 16, ‘the seal is the water’; cf. viii. 6; Ps.-Clem., 2 Corinthians 7; Clem. Alex., Quis dives, 42; Tert., de Spect. 24 (signaculum); Cyr. Jer., Cat. iv. 16, etc.
To these passages must be added those which speak of Christian adoption; Romans 8:15; Romans 8:23, Galatians 4:5, Ephesians 1:5; for these see article Adoption.
2. Predecessors of Christian baptism
-(a) The words βαπτίζω, βαπτισμός, βάπτισμα are used in the NT of various ceremonial washings of the Jews. The verb is derived from βάπτω, ‘to dip’ (found in the NT only in Luke 16:24, John 13:26, and some Manuscripts of Revelation 19:13, always literally), and has in classical Greek the same meaning. In the NT βαπτίζω is used either metaphorically, of the Passion of our Lord (Mark 10:38 f., Luke 12:50, and some Manuscripts of Matthew 20:22 f.-so also βάπτισμα) and of the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost (Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16, see below, 6), or else of baptism and of Jewish ablations. For these last, see Mark 7:4 (the Jews ‘baptize,’ v.l. [9] sprinkle, themselves before meat and have ‘baptizings,’ βαπτισμούς, of vessels), Luke 11:38 (of washing before breakfast, ἐβαπτίσθη πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου), Hebrews 9:10 (divers ‘baptisms,’ i.e. washings).* [10] Ceremonial ablution was a common practice of the Jews (Exodus 29:4 etc., Mark 7:3 πυγμῇ νίψωνται, John 2:6; John 3:25); and the allusions to washing in connexion with baptism (above, 1) would be familiar to the early Christians, who also had the metaphor of cleansing; see 2 Corinthians 7:1, 1 John 1:7, Revelation 1:5 (some Manuscripts ) Revelation 7:14; cf. 2 Peter 2:22.
(b) Baptism of proselytes.-The Jews admitted ‘proselytes of righteousness,’ i.e. full proselytes, with baptism, circumcision, and sacrifice. This custom was very common in Rabbinical times, though Josephus and Philo do not mention it, and some have therefore concluded that it did not exist in the 1st cent.; but Edersheim has clearly proved from ancient evidence that it was then in use (LT [11] ii. 746, Appendix xii.). It may be added that the Jews in later times would not have borrowed baptism from the Christians, though it is intelligible that first John and then our Lord and His disciples should have adopted a custom already existing and have given it a new meaning. Such a baptized person was said by the Rabbis to be as a little child just born (cf. Titus 3:5; see Edersheim, loc. cit.).
(c) The baptism of John is described in all the Gospels. It was a preparatory baptism (Matthew 3:11), the baptism of repentance (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:8, Acts 13:24; Acts 19:4), intended, by an outward symbol, to induce repentance which is the essential requisite for the reception of spiritual truth. So marked a feature of his teaching was baptism, that John is called pre-eminently ‘the Baptist’ (ὁ βαπτιστής, Matthew 3:1; Matthew 11:11 f., Mark 8:28, Acts 2:14-38; Luke 7:33; Luke 9:19; Josephus, Ant. xviii. v. 2; in Mark 6:14; Mark 6:24 f. ὁ βαπτίζων). But he himself shows the difference between his baptism and that of Jesus, in that the latter was to be with the Holy Ghost (Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16, John 1:33) and with fire (Mt., Lk.). For the meaning of baptism ‘with the Holy Ghost,’ see below 6 and 8 (e). Baptism ‘with fire’ is explained in Matthew 3:12; it is a baptism of judgment separating the wheat from the chaff, and burning the chaff with fire unquenchable (Allen, Com. in loc.; so || Luke 3:17). This interpretation, however, is denied by Plummer (International Critical Commentary on Luke 3:16), who prefers a reference to the purifying power of the grace given, or to the fiery trials that await Christians. Others see a reference to the ‘tongues like as of fire’ at Pentecost (Acts 2:3). However this may be, the fundamental difference between the two baptisms is that John’s was a ceremonial rite symbolizing the need of repentance and of washing away sin, while that of our Lord was, in addition, the infusing of a new life; see below, 8. The baptism of John is mentioned in the NT outside the Gospels in Acts 1:5; Acts 1:22; Acts 10:37; Acts 11:15; Acts 13:24; Acts 18:25; Acts 19:3 f.; the last two passages show that it survived after Pentecost among those who had not yet received the gospel.
To this preparatory stage is also to be assigned the baptism of Jesus by John; it was not the institution of Christian baptism, though it paved the way for it, and in some sense our Lord may be said to have thereby sanctified ‘water to the mystical washing away of sin.’ Such also was the baptizing by Jesus’ disciples during His earthly ministry (John 3:22; John 4:2); we note that our Lord carried on the Baptist’s teaching about the approach of the kingdom and about repentance (Mark 1:15; cf. Matthew 3:2), though in His teaching the Good Tidings predominated, while in that of John repentance was the chief note (Swete, Com. in loc.).
3. Preparation for baptism.-Instruction in Christian doctrine before baptism is to some extent necessary, because otherwise there cannot be faith and repentance. Our Lord commanded the disciples to teach (Matthew 28:20, διδάσκοντες) as well as to baptize. St. Peter instructed the people and Cornelius before he commanded them to be baptized (Luke 7:20; Acts 10:34-43; Acts 10:48). Philip instructed the Samaritans and the Eunuch before baptism (Acts 8:5 f., Acts 8:12; Acts 8:35). The instruction of Theophilus (Luke 1:4) was probably, at least in part, before baptism. Lydia’s baptism followed a preaching (Acts 16:18), as did that of the Corinthians (Acts 18:5). But in most of these cases the teaching was very short, in some of them not lasting more than one day. And no instruction that can be properly so called is mentioned in the case of Saul (Acts 9:18; Acts 22:16), or the Philippian jailer (Acts 18:8; note ‘immediately’), or the twelve Ephesians (Acts 19:5). Apollos had been instructed (ἦν κατηχημένος) in the way of the Lord, but only imperfectly, and Priscilla and Aquila taught him more carefully (ἀκριβέστερον, Acts 18:26). The allusions to the instruction of Christians in 1 Corinthians 14:19, Galatians 6:6 (κατηχέω), Romans 12:7, Colossians 1:28 etc. (διδάσκω), have no special reference to baptism. In Romans 2:18 κατηχέω is used of Jewish instruction.
At a later period, persons under instruction for baptism were called catechumens (κατηχούμενοι, ‘those in a state of being taught’; cf. Galatians 6:6), and their preparation was called catc̄chçsis (κατήχησις; cf. our word ‘catechism’ from κατηχισμός, through Latin). The catechumens were taught the Creed, or Christian doctrine, during their catechumenate, and their instruction was called the ‘traditio symboli’; they professed their faith at baptism, and this profession was called the
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Baptism For the Dead
See Baptism.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Adult Baptism
The Roman ritual has a distinctive rite for adults. After investigation, every adult convert, invalidly or not baptized, receives Baptism unconditionally; if doubtfully baptized the conditional form, "If thou art not baptized, I baptize thee" etc., is employed. For valid reception, the adult should have at least the intention to receive the sacrament. For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin. In danger of death, when doubt arises concerning an adult's intention, Baptism is administered conditionally. See Baptism.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Baptism
One of the ordinances which the Lord Jesus hath appointed in his church. An outward token, or sign, of an inward and spiritual grace. A dedication to the glorious, holy, undivided Three in One Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; in whose joint name baptism is performed, and from whose united blessings in Christ, it can alone be rendered effectual. (Matthew 28:19) Beside this ordinance, which Christ hath appointed as the introduction to his church, we are taught to be always on the watch, in prayer and supplication, for the continual baptisms of the Holy Ghost. Concerning the personal baptisms of the Lord Jesus Christ, we hear Jesus speaking of them during his ministry. (See Luke 12:50) Hence, to the sons of Zebedee, the Lord said, "Can ye drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?" And Jesus added, "Ye shall drink of the cup that I drink of, and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptised." (Mark 10:38-39)
Some have thought, that these expressions are figurative of sufferings. But there doth not seem sufficient authority in the word of God to prove this. And, indeed, the subject is too much obscured by those expressions, to determine that sufferings were the baptisms to which the Lord had respect. Besides, had sufferings been meant by Christ, could he mean that the sons of Zebedee were to sustain agonies like himself in the garden and on the cross? This were impossible.
Others, by baptism, have taken the expression of John the Baptist literally, where he saith, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire." (Matthew 3:11) Others, with more probability of truth, have considered the baptisms of the Holy Ghost, and with fire, to mean his manifold gifts and graces. The Old Testament spake of "the Spirit of judgment and the Spirit of burning." (Isaiah 4:4) And the New Testament gives the record of the first descent of the Holy Ghost, after Christ's return to glory, in the shape of cloven tongues, like as of fire, which sat upon each of them. (Acts 2:4) It were devoutly to be prayed for, and sought for by faith, that all true believers in Christ were earnest for the continual influences of the Holy Ghost, as the only read and sure testimony of being baptized unto Christ, in having put on Christ. For if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his? (Galatians 3:27; Romans 8:9)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Baptism
from the Greek word βαπτιζω , is a rite or ceremony by which persons are initiated into the profession of the Christian religion; or, it is the appointed mode by which a person assumes the profession of Christianity, or is admitted to a participation of the privileges belonging to the disciples of Christ. It was by this mode that those who believed the Gospel were to be separated from unbelievers, and joined to the visible Christian church; and the rite accompanying it, or washing with water, was probably intended to represent the washing away, or renouncing, the impurities of some former state, viz. the sins that had been committed, and the vicious habits that had been contracted; and to this purpose it may be observed, that the profession of repentance always accompanied, or was understood to accompany, the profession of faith in Christ. That our Lord instituted such an ordinance as baptism, is plain from the commission given to the Apostles after his resurrection, and recorded in Matthew 28:19-20 . To this rite there is also an allusion in Mark 16:16 ; John 3:5 ; Acts 2:41 ; Acts 8:12 ; Acts 8:36-38 ; Acts 22:16 . The design of this institution, which was to express faith in Christ on the part of those who were baptized, and to declare their resolution of openly professing his religion, and cultivating real and universal holiness, appears from Romans 6:3-4 ; 1 Peter 3:21 ; Ephesians 5:26 ; and Titus 3:5 . We find no account of baptism as a distinct religious rite, before the mission of John, the forerunner of Christ, who was called the "Baptist," on account of his being commanded by God to baptize with water all who should hearken to his invitation to repent. Washing, however, accompanied many of the Jewish rites, and, indeed, was required after contracting any kind of uncleanness. Also, soon after the time of our Saviour, we find it to have been the custom of the Jews solemnly to baptize, as well as to circumcise, all their proselytes. As their writers treat largely of the reasons for this rite, and give no hint of its being a novel institution, it is probable that this had always been the custom antecedent to the time of Moses, whose account of the rite of circumcision, and of the manner of performing it, is by no means circumstantial. Or, baptism, after circumcision, might have come into use gradually from the natural propriety of the thing, and its easy conformity to other Jewish customs. For if no Jew could approach the tabernacle, or temple, after the most trifling uncleanness, without washing, much less would it be thought proper to admit a proselyte from a state so impure and unclean as Heathenism was conceived to be, without the same mode of purification. The antiquity of this practice of proselyte baptism among the Jews, has been a subject of considerable debate among divines. It is strenuously maintained by Lightfoot. Dr. John Owen considers the opinion, that Christian baptism came from the Jews, as destitute of all probability. On the other hand, Mr. Wall has made it highly probable, to say the least, from many testimonies of the Jewish writers, who without one dissenting voice allow the fact, that the practice of Jewish baptism obtained before and, at, as well as after, our Saviour's time. There is also a strong intimation, even in the Gospel itself, of such a known practice among the Jews in the time of John the Baptist, John 1:25 . The testimonies of the Jewish writers are of the greater weight, because the practice, reported by them to have been of so ancient a date, did still remain among them; for if it had not been of that antiquity to which it pretends, viz. before the time of Christ, it is not likely that it would ever have become a custom among the Jews afterward. Would they begin to proselyte persons to their religion by baptism in imitation of the disciples of Jesus of Nazareth, whom they held accursed? And yet if this proselyte baptism were adopted by the Jews since the time of Christ, it must have been a mere innovation in imitation of Christians, which is not very likely. This ceremony is performed by immersion in the oriental churches. The practice of the western churches is, to sprinkle the water on the head or face of the person to be baptized, except in the church of Milan, in whose ritual it is ordered, that the head of the infant be plunged three times into the water; the minister at the same time pronouncing the words, "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost;" importing that by this ceremony the person baptized is received among the professors of that religion which God, the Father of all, revealed to mankind by the ministry of his Son, and confirmed by the miracles of his Spirit.
2. It is observable that the baptismal form, above cited from St. Matthew, never occurs in the same words, either in the book of the Acts, or in any of the Epistles. But though the form in St. Matthew never appears elsewhere, the thing intended thereby is always implied. There are many ceremonies delivered by ecclesiastical writers, as used in baptism, which were introduced after the age of Justin Martyr, but which are now disused; as the giving milk and honey to the baptized, in the east; wine and milk, in the west, &c. They also added unction and the imposition of hands. Tertullian is the first who mentions the signing with the sign of the cross, but only as used in private, and not in public worship; and he particularly describes the custom of baptizing without it. Indeed, it does not appear to have been used in baptism till the latter end of the fourth or fifth century; at which time great virtue was ascribed to it. Lactantius, who lived in the beginning of the fourth century, says the devil cannot approach those who have the heavenly mark of the cross upon them as an impregnable fortress to defend them; but he does not say it was used in baptism. After the council of Nice, Christians added to baptism the ceremonies of exorcism and adjuration, to make evil spirits depart from the persons to be baptized. They made several signings with the cross, they used lighted candles, they gave salt to the baptized person to taste, and the priest touched his mouth and ears with spittle, and also blew and spat upon his face. At that time also baptized persons wore white garments till the Sunday following. They had also various other ceremonies; some of which are now abolished, though others of them remain in the church of Rome to this day.
3. The Quakers assert, that water baptism was never intended to continue in the church of Christ any longer than while Jewish prejudices made such an external ceremony necessary. They argue from Ephesians 4:5 , in which one baptism is spoken of as necessary to Christians, that this must be a baptism of the Spirit. But from comparing the texts that relate to this institution, it will plainly appear that water baptism was instituted by Christ in more general terms than will agree with this explication. That it was administered to all the Gentile converts, and not confined to the Jews appears from Matthew 28:19-20 , compared with Acts 10:47 ; and that the baptism of the Spirit did not supersede water baptism appears to have been the judgment of Peter and of those that were with him; so that the one baptism spoken of seems to have been that of water; the communication of the Holy Spirit being only called baptism in a figurative sense. As for any objection which, may be drawn from 1 Corinthians 1:17 , it is sufficiently answered by the preceding verses, and all the numerous texts, in which, in epistles written long after this, the Apostle speaks of
all Christians as baptized and argues from the obligation of baptism, in such a manner as we can never imagine he would have done, if he had apprehended it to have been the will of God that it should be discontinued in the church. Compare Romans 6:3 , &c; Colossians 2:12 ; Galatians 3:27 .
4. Baptism, in early times, was only administered at Easter and Whitsuntide, except in cases of necessity. Adult persons were prepared for baptism by abstinence, prayer, and other pious exercises. It was to answer for them, says Mosheim, that sponsors, or godfathers, were first instituted in the second century, though they were afterward admitted also in the baptism of infants. This, according to M. Daille, was not done till the fourth century. Wall refers the origin of sponsors, or godfathers, on the authority of Tertullian, to the commencement of the second century; who were used in the baptism of infants that could not answer for themselves.
The catechumens were not forward in coming to baptism. St. Ambrose was not baptized before he was elected bishop of Milan; and some of the fathers not till the time of their death. Some deferred it out of a tender conscience; and others out of too much attachment to the world; it being the prevailing opinion of the primitive times, that baptism, whenever conferred, washed away all antecedent stains and sins. Accordingly they deferred this sanctifying rite as long as possible, even till they apprehended they were at the point of death. Cases of this kind occur at the beginning of the third century. Constantine the Great was not baptized till he was at the last gasp, and in this he was followed by his son Constantius; and two of his other sons, Constantine and Constans, were killed before they were baptized. As to the necessity of baptism, we may observe, however, that, though some seem to have laid too great stress upon it, as if it were indispensably necessary in order to salvation; it must be allowed, that for any person to omit baptism, when he acknowledges it to be an institution of Christ, and that it is the will of Christ that he should submit to it, is an act of disobedience to his authority, which is inconsistent with true faith.
5. The word baptism is frequently taken for sufferings, Mark 10:38 ; Luke 12:50 ; Matthew 20:22-23 . Of expressions like these we find some traces in the Old Testament also, where waters often denote tribulations, Psalms 69:1 ; Psalms 69:15 ; Psalms 124:4-5 ; and where to be swallowed up by the waters, and to pass through the great waters, signify to be overwhelmed with miseries and calamities.
6. St. Paul, endeavouring to prove the resurrection of the dead, among several other reasons in support of the doctrine, says, "If the dead rise not at all, what shall they do who are baptized for the dead?" 1 Corinthians 15:29 . Of this phrase various interpretations have been given; three of which only shall be here mentioned. "It means," say some, "baptized in the room of the dead just fallen in the cause of Christ, and who are thus supported by a succession of new converts, immediately offering themselves to fill up their places, as ranks of soldiers who advance to combat in the room of their companions, who have just been slain in their sight." Others think it signifies, "In hope of blessings to be received after they are numbered with the dead." Dr. Macknight supplies the words, της
αναστασεως , and reads the clause, "Who are baptized for the resurrection of the dead;" or in consequence of their believing in the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead; on account of which faith, and their profession of it, they are exposed to great sufferings, for which they can have no recompense, if there be no resurrection of the dead, nor any future life at all.
7. As to the subjects of baptism, the anti-paedobaptists hold that believing adults only are proper subjects, because the commission of Christ to baptize appears to them to restrict this ordinance to such only as are taught, or made disciples; and that, consequently, infants, who cannot be thus taught, ought to be excluded. "It does not appear," say they, "that the Apostles, in executing the commission of Christ, ever baptized any but those who were first instructed in the Christian faith, and professed their belief of it." They contend that infants can receive no benefit from baptism, and are not capable of faith and repentance, which are to be considered as prerequisites.
8. As to the mode, they observe that the meaning of the word βαπτιζω signifies to immerse or dip, and that only; that John baptized in Jordan; that he chose a place where there was much water; that Jesus came up out of the water; that Philip and the eunuch went down both into the water; that the terms, washing, purifying, burying in baptism, so often mentioned in the Scriptures, allude to this mode; that immersion only was the practice of the Apostles and the first Christians; and that it was only laid aside from the love of novelty, and the coldness of climate. These positions, they think, are so clear from Scripture, and the history of the church, that they stand in need of but little argument for their support. Farther, they also insist that all positive institutions depend entirely upon the will and declaration of the institutor; and that, therefore, reasoning by analogy from previously abrogated rites is to be rejected, and the express command of Christ respecting baptism ought to be our rule.
9. The Paedobaptists, however, are of a different opinion. As to the subjects of baptism, they believe that qualified adults, who have not been baptized before, are certainly proper subjects; but then they think, also, that infants ought not to be excluded. They believe that, as the Abrahamic and Christian covenants are the same, Genesis 17:7 ; Hebrews 8:12 ; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as baptism is now a sign, seal, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children of the Israelites had to the seal of circumcision under the law, Acts 2:39 ; Romans 4:11 . Farther, if children are not to be baptized because there is no positive command for it, for the same reason they say that women should not come to the Lord's Supper; nor ought we to keep holy the first day of the week; neither of these being expressly commanded. If baptizing infants had been a human invention, they also ask, how such a practice could have been so universal in the first three hundred years of the church, and yet no record have remained when it was introduced, nor any dispute or controversy about it have taken place? Some reduce the matter to a narrower compass; urging, (1.) That God constituted in his church the membership of infants, and admitted them to that privilege by a religious ordinance, Genesis 17; Galatians 3:14 ; Galatians 3:17 .
(2.) That this right of infants to church membership was never taken away: and this being the case, they argue, that infants must be received, because God has appointed it; and, since they must be received, it must be either with baptism or without it; but none must be received without baptism; therefore, infants must of necessity be baptized. Hence it is clear that, under the Gospel, infants are still continued exactly in the same relation to God and his church in which they were originally placed under former dispensations. That infants are to be received into the church, and as such baptized, is also inferred from the following passages of Scripture: Genesis 17; Isaiah 44:3 ; Matthew 19:13 ; Luke 9:47-48 ; Acts 2:38-39 ; Romans 11:17 ; Romans 11:21 ; 1 Corinthians 7:14 .
10. Though there are no express examples in the New Testament of Christ and his Apostles baptizing infants, yet there is no proof that they were excluded. Jesus Christ actually blessed little children; and it is difficult to believe that such received his blessing, and yet were not to be members of the Gospel church. If Christ received them, and would have us "receive" them, how can we keep them out of the visible church? Beside, if children were not to be baptized, it is reasonable to expect that they would have been expressly forbidden. As whole households were baptized, it is also probable there were children among them. From the year 400 to 1150, no society of men, in all that period of seven hundred and fifty years, ever pretended to say it was unlawful to baptize infants: and still nearer the time of our Saviour there appears to have been scarcely any one who advised the delay of infant baptism. Irenaeus, who lived in the second century, and was well acquainted with Polycarp, who was John's disciple, declares expressly, that the church learned from the Apostles to baptize children. Origen, in the third century, affirms, that the custom of baptizing infants was received from Christ and his Apostles. Cyprian, and a council of ministers, held about the year 254, no less than sixty-six in number, unanimously agreed that children might be baptized as soon as they were born. Ambrose, who wrote about 274 years from the Apostles, declares that the baptism of infants had been practised by the Apostles themselves, and by the church down to that time. "The catholic church every where declares," says Chrysostom, in the fifth century, "that infants should be baptized;" and Augustine affirmed, that he never heard or read of any Christian, catholic or sectarian, but who always held that infants were to be baptized. They farther believe that there needed no mention in the New Testament of receiving infants into the church, as it had been once appointed and never repealed. So far from confining baptism to adults, it must be remembered that there is not a single instance recorded in the New Testament, in which the descendants of Christian parents were baptized in adult years. The objection that infants are not proper subjects for baptism, because they cannot profess faith and repentance, falls with as much weight upon the institution of circumcision as infant baptism; since they are as capable or are as fit subjects for the one as the other. Finally, it is generally acknowledged, that if infants die, (and a great part of the human race die in their infancy,) they are saved: if this be the case then why refuse them the sign of union with Christ, if they be capable of enjoying the thing signified?
11. As to the mode, the Paedobaptists deny that the term βαπτιζω , which is a derivative of βαπτω , and, consequently, must be something less in its signification, is invariably used in the New Testament to express plunging. It is denied, therefore, that dipping is its only meaning; that Christ absolutely enjoined immersion; and that it is his positive will that no other mode should be used. As the word βαπτιζω is used to express the various ablutions among the Jews, such as sprinkling, pouring, &c, Hebrews 9:10 , for the custom of washing before meals, and the washing of household furniture, pots, &c, it is evident from hence that it does not express the manner of doing a thing, whether by immersion or effusion, but only the thing done; that is, washing; or the application of water in some form or other. It nowhere signifies to dip, but in denoting a mode of, and in order to, washing or cleansing; and the mode or use is only the ceremonial part of a positive institute; just as in the Lord's Supper, the time of day, the number and posture of the communicants, the quantity and quality of bread and wine, are circumstances not accounted essential by any part of Christians. If in baptism there be an expressive emblem of the descending influence of the Spirit, pouring must be the mode of administration; for that is the Scriptural term most commonly and properly used for the communication of divine influences, Matthew 3:11 ; Mark 1:8 ; Mark 1:10 ; Luke 3:16-22 ; John 1:33 ; Acts 1:5 ; Acts 2:38-39 ; Acts 8:19 ; Acts 8:17 ; Acts 11:15-16 . The term sprinkling, also, is made use of in reference to the act of purification, Isaiah 52:15 ; Ezekiel 36:25 ; Hebrews 9:13-14 ; and therefore cannot be inapplicable to baptismal purification. But, it is observed, that John baptized "in Jordan:" to this it is replied, To infer always a plunging of the whole body in water from this particle, would, in many instances, be false and absurd. The same Greek preposition, εν , is used when it is said they should be "baptized with fire;" but few will assert that they should be plunged into it. The Apostle, speaking of Christ, says, he came not, εν , "by water only;" but, εν , "by water and blood." There the same word, εν , is translated by; and with justice and propriety; for we know no good sense in which we could say he came in water. It has been remarked that εν is, more than a hundred times, in the New Testament, rendered at; and in a hundred and fifty others it is translated with. If it be rendered so here, John baptized at Jordan, or with the water of Jordan, there is no proof that he plunged his disciples in it.
Jesus, it is said, came up out of the water; but this is no proof that he was immersed, as the Greek term, απο , often signifies from: for instance, "Who hath warned you to flee from," not out of, "the wrath to come?" with many others that might be mentioned. Again: it is urged that Philip and the eunuch went down both into the water. To this it is answered, that here also is no proof of immersion: for, if the expression of their going down into the water necessarily includes dipping, then Philip was dipped, as well as the eunuch. The preposition εις , translated into, often signifies no more than to, or unto: see Matthew 15:24 ; Romans 10:10 ; Acts 28:14 ; Matthew 3:11 ; Matthew 17:27 : so that from none of these circumstances can it be proved that there was one person of all the baptized, who went into the water ankle deep. As to the Apostle's expression, "buried with him in baptism," that has no force in the argument for immersion, since it does not allude to a custom of dipping, any more than our baptismal crucifixion and death has any such reference. It is not the sign, but the thing signified, that is here alluded to. As Christ was buried, and rose again to a heavenly life, so we by baptism signify that we are separated from sin, that we may live a new life of faith and love.
To conclude: it is urged, against the mode of immersion, that, as it carries with it too much of the appearance of a burdensome rite for the Gospel dispensation; as it is too indecent for so solemn an ordinance; as it has a tendency to agitate the spirits, often rendering the subject unfit for the exercise of proper thoughts and affections, and indeed utterly incapable of them; as in many cases the immersion of the body would, in all probability, be instant death; as in other situations it would be impracticable, for want of water; it cannot be considered as necessary to the ordinance of baptism, and there is the strongest improbability that it was ever practised in the times of the New Testament, or in the earliest periods of the Christian church.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Baptism
Used figuratively to express the overwhelming sufferings which the Lord Jesus endured in order to accomplish the purpose for which He came to the earth; He was 'straitened' until that work was accomplished. Luke 12:50 ; John 12:27 . When the sons of Zebedee asked to sit on the right and on the left of the Lord in His glory, He at once referred to the cup He had to drink, and asked if they could drinkof that cup, and be baptised with the baptism He was to be baptised with. They, ignorant of the depths of suffering involved in the question, said they could. In one sense they should share in His sufferings — the non-atoning sufferings, from the hand of man; but the places they sought were not His to give. Mark 10:38-40 .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Baptism, Baptist, Baptize
A — 1: βάπτισμα (Strong's #908 — Noun Neuter — baptisma — bap'-tis-mah ) "baptism," consisting of the processes of immersion, submersion and emergence (from bapto, "to dip"), is used (a) of John's "baptism," (b) of Christian "baptism," see B. below; (c) of the overwhelming afflictions and judgments to which the Lord voluntarily submitted on the cross, e.g., Luke 12:50 ; (d) of the sufferings His followers would experience, not of a vicarious character, but in fellowship with the sufferings of their Master. Some mss. have the word in Matthew 20:22,23 ; it is used in Mark 10:38,39 , with this meaning.
A — 2: βαπτισμός (Strong's #909 — Noun Masculine — baptismos — bap-tis-mos' ) as distinct from baptisma (the ordinance), is used of the "ceremonial washing of articles," Mark 7:4,8 , in some texts; Hebrews 9:10 ; once in a general sense, Hebrews 6:2 . See WASHING.
A — 3: βαπτιστής (Strong's #910 — Noun Masculine — baptistes — bap-tis-tace' ) "a baptist," is used only of John the Baptist, and only in the Synoptists, 14 times.
B — 1: βαπτίζω (Strong's #907 — — baptizo — bap-tid'-zo ) "to baptize," primarily a frequentative form of bapto, "to dip," was used among the Greeks to signify the dyeing of a garment, or the drawing of water by dipping a vessel into another, etc. Plutarchus uses it of the drawing of wine by dipping the cup into the bowl (Alexis, 67) and Plato, metaphorically, of being overwhelmed with questions (Euthydemus, 277 D).
It is used in the NT in Luke 11:38 of washing oneself (as in 2 Kings 5:14 , "dipped himself," Sept.); see also Isaiah 21:4 , lit., "lawlessness overwhelms me." In the early chapters of the four Gospels and in Acts 1:5 ; 11:16 ; 19:4 , it is used of the rite performed by John the Baptist who called upon the people to repent that they might receive remission of sins. Those who obeyed came "confessing their sins," thus acknowledging their unfitness to be in the Messiah's coming kingdom. Distinct form this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matthew 28:19 , a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, e.g., Acts 19:5 ; Romans 6:3,4 ; 1 Corinthians 1:13-17 ; 12:13 ; Galatians 3:27 ; Colossians 2:12 . The phrase in Matthew 28:19 , "batizing them into the Name" (RV; cp. Acts 8:16 , RV), would indicate that the "baptized" person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was "batized."
In Acts 22:16 it is used in the Middle Voice, in the command given to Saul of Tarsus, "arise and be baptize," the significance of the Middle Voice form being "get thyself baptized." The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitupon, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Peter 3:21 . Likewise the nation of Israel was figuratively baptized when made to pass through the Red Sea under the cloud, 1 Corinthians 10:2 . The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of Divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matthew 3:11 ; Luke 3:16 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Baptism
Baptism. The Scriptures speak of baptism "in" or "with" water, "with the Holy Ghost, and with fire," Matthew 3:11; Acts 1:5; and Jesus compared his sufferings to "a baptism," Luke 12:50. John (called "the Baptist," Matthew 11:11;) preached "the baptism of repentance," and baptized in the river Jordan those confessing their sins, Mark 1:4-5. Jesus was baptized by John "to fulfill all righteousness," Matthew 3:15. His disciples were baptizing more than John. John 3:22; John 4:1-2. Jesus at his ascension appointed baptism for all disciples, "Teach all nations, baptizing them." etc., Matthew 28:19. Paul says the baptized "put on Christ," Galatians 3:27; and "by one Spirit are baptized into one body," 1 Corinthians 12:13. Baptism with water is associated with remission of sins, Acts 2:38; Acts 22:16; and birth by the Spirit, John 3:5; Acts 11:27. Paul speaks also of being "buried with him [1] in baptism unto death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead... even so we," Romans 6:4. Baptism of the Holy Spirit was bestowed at Jerusalem, Samaria, Cesarea and Ephesus, Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:44; Acts 19:6. This gift sometimes followed and sometimes preceded baptism by water. Many instances of baptism are noted; the terms "baptism," "baptized," and "baptizing," occurring about 100 times in the New Testament. They are not found in the Old Testament, although "wash," Psalms 51:2; Psalms 51:7; Jeremiah 2:22, and "sprinkling," Leviticus 7:14; Numbers 8:7; Ezekiel 36:25, are there sometimes used as figurative of cleansing. Among the instances of baptism mentioned in apostolic times are: 3000 at Pentecost, Acts 2:41, men and women, including Simon the Sorcerer at Samaria; the Ethiopian Eunuch, 8:12, 13, 38; Saul; Cornelius and his Gentile company, 10:47; Lydia and "her household," 16:15; the Philippian jailer "and all his," 16:33; and "the household of Stephanas," 1 Corinthians 1:16. At Ephesus twelve who had received John's baptism only were again baptized "in the name of the Lord Jesus," Acts 19:2-5. Some, it is said, were "baptized for the dead," 1 Corinthians 15:29. And the Israelites were "baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea," 1 Corinthians 10:2. Peter compares baptism to the saving of Noah from the flood in the ark, 1 Peter 3:21. Paul urges the Ephesians to Christian unity on the plea that there is "one Lord, one faith, one baptism." Ephesians 4:5. See also 1 Corinthians 12:13. The consideration of the mode, subjects, effects, and administration of baptism belongs to theological and denominational works.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Baptism With the Holy Ghost And With Fire
Matthew 3:11 ; Luke 3:16 . Christ is speaking in these places of the wheat and the chaff-the men who receive him and those who reject him. The former class shall be abundantly endued with the teachings and consolations of the Holy Spirit, but "the chaff-he will burn with fire unquenchable." Many here understand "fire" in the widest sense of purification: the purification of Christ's people by the destruction of the ungodly from among them, and their purification from sin by the discipline to which he subjects them. "He shall sit as a refiner's fire."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Lay
Baptism administered by a lay-man, in case of necessity. The one baptizing pours natural water over the head of subject, while saying, "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." He must intend "to do what the Church does."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Private
That administered in danger of death, by anyone. If administered by a lay person, only the essentials for validity are to be employed. If by a priest or deacon, the prescribed ritual also must be employed and at least one sponsor if possible. Apart from danger of death, the bishop is not to permit private Baptism, except for non-Catholic adults conditionally baptized.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Baptism
The holy ordinance by which persons are admitted as members of the Christian community. It is administered in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and is a visible and public profession of faith in Christ and his salvation, of vital union with him, of the obligation to live a new life according to his precepts and in his service, and of the expectation of sharing in his glorious and heavenly immortality. It is not by any means to be regarded as a regenerating ordinance, though significant of regeneration. It was established in the Christian church by Christ and his apostles, and is binding on his followers to the end of time. The use of water in this ordinance is grounded in part on its qualities as the great element of purification, and on the rites of the ancient dispensation, in which "water and blood: were the divinely appointed symbols of moral renovation and atonement.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Adult
The Roman ritual has a distinctive rite for adults. After investigation, every adult convert, invalidly or not baptized, receives Baptism unconditionally; if doubtfully baptized the conditional form, "If thou art not baptized, I baptize thee" etc., is employed. For valid reception, the adult should have at least the intention to receive the sacrament. For lawful and fruitful reception, he should know and believe the mysteries of the Catholic religion necessary for salvation, be instructed in Christian morality, and have supernatural sorrow for sin. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin. In danger of death, when doubt arises concerning an adult's intention, Baptism is administered conditionally. See Baptism.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptism, Ceremonies of
They are ancient and symbolic. At the Baptism of an infant, it is presented at the font by the sponsors. First come interrogations and answers, requesting "faith and life everlasting." The priest breathes on the face of the child, a symbol of the imparting of the Spirit of God. He makes the sign of the cross on forehead and breast, that God may be ever in the child's mind and heart. Salt, emblematic of wisdom, is put into the child's mouth. A solemn exorcism is pronounced, to free the soul from the dominion of Satan. The priest's stole is laid upon the child, signifying that he is being led into the Church of Christ. As a profession of faith, the Apostles' Creed is recited by the priest and the sponsors, and this is followed by the Our Father. The ceremony of the Ephpheta takes place, i.e.,the applying of saliva to the ears and nostrils of the child, reminding us of the curing of the deaf-mute in the Gospel (Mark 7) and symbolizing the opening of the senses to the truths of God. Then comes a renunciation of Satan with all his works and pomps, and an anointing is made with the Oil of Catechumens in the form of a cross on the child's breast and back, signifying the open profession of the faith of Christ and the patient bearing of life's burdens. After another profession of faith in questions and answers, the sacrament itself is administered, the sponsors holding the child at the font. An unction is then made on the top of the head with Holy Chrism, as a sign of consecration to God. A white cloth, placed on the head, symbolizes sanctifying grace; this is a survival of the white baptismal robe of ancient times. A lighted candle is presented, emblematic of faith and charity. The ceremonies of Baptism of adults differ somewhat from the above.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Baptism
It is well known that ablution or bathing was common in most ancient nations as a preparation for prayers and sacrifice or as expiatory of sin. In warm countries this connection is probably even closer than in colder climates; and hence the frequency of ablution in the religious rites throughout the East. Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is the rite or ordinance by which persons are admitted into the Church of Christ. It is the public profession of faith and discipleship. Baptism signifies--
A confession of faith in Christ;
A cleansing or washing of the soul from sin;
A death to sin and a new life in righteousness. The mode and subjects of baptism being much-controverted subjects, each one can best study them in the works devoted to those questions. The command to baptize was co-extensive with the command to preach the gospel. All nations were to be evangelized; and they were to be made disciples, admitted into the fellowship of Christ's religion, by baptism. (Matthew 28:19 ) It appears to have been a kind of transition from the Jewish baptism to the Christian. The distinction between John's baptism and Christian baptism appears in the case of Apollos, (Acts 18:26,27 ) and of the disciples at Ephesus mentioned (Acts 19:1-6 ) We cannot but draw from this history the inference that in Christian baptism there was a deeper spiritual significance.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Baptism, Adult
(See ADULT BAPTISM).
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Private Baptism
(See BAPTISM, PRIVATE.)
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Baptism, Infant
(See INFANT BAPTISM).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Baptism
1. Christian baptism in the NT.-It will be convenient at the beginning of this article to collect the narratives of and allusions to Christian baptism in the NT. The command of our Lord to make disciples of all the nations by baptism (Matthew 28:19; see below, 4 and 8) was faithfully carried out by the first disciples. Actual baptisms are recorded in Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41 (the 3000 converts), Acts 8:12 f., Acts 8:16 (Samaritans, men and women, and Simon), Acts 8:36; Acts 8:38 (the Ethiopian eunuch), Acts 9:18; Acts 22:16 (Saul), Acts 10:47 f. (Cornelius and his friends), Acts 16:15 (Lydia and her household), Acts 16:33 (the Philippian jailer ‘and all his’), Acts 18:8 (Crispus and his house, and many Corinthians), Acts 19:5 (about twelve Ephesians), 1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:16 (Crispus, Gaius, and the household of Stephanas).
In addition to these narratives there are many allusions to Christian baptism in the NT-Romans 6:11., Colossians 2:12, baptized into Christ Jesus, into His death, buried with Him in baptism: a common thought in early times-e.g. Apost. Const. ii. 7 and often in that work (see A. J. Maclean, Ancient Church Orders, 123).-1 Corinthians 6:11, sanctification and justification connected with the washing of baptism; three aorists, referring to a definite event: ‘ye washed away (ἀπελούσασθε, middle) [1] … in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God’; cf. Acts 22:16 (above): ‘arise and be baptized’ (βαπτίσαι, ‘seek baptism’) and wash away (ἀπολούσαι) thy sins.’-1 Corinthians 12:13, [2] all baptized in one Spirit into one body.-Galatians 3:27, baptized into Christ, put on Christ.-Ephesians 4:5, ‘one Lord, one faith, one baptism.’-Ephesians 5:26, Christ sanctified the Church, having cleansed it by the washing (λουτρῷ) of water with the word. The ‘word’ is said by Robinson (Com. in loc.) to be the ‘solemn invocation of the name of the Lord Jesus’; Westcott (in loc.) adds: ‘accompanied by the confession of the Christian faith, cf. Romans 10:9’; Chase (Journal of Theological Studies viii. 165) interprets it of the word or fiat of Christ, and compares Cyril of Jerusalem (Cat. iii. 5).-Titus 3:5, ‘by the washing of regeneration (διὰ λουτροῦ παλιγγενεσίας) and renewing of the Holy Ghost’; see below, 8.-Hebrews 6:2; Hebrews 6:4, the first principles are repentance, faith, teaching of baptisms (βαπτισμῶν) and of laying on of hands, resurrection, and judgment; Christians were once enlightened (φωτισθέντας) and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost; hence the name ‘illumination’ (φωτισμός) and ‘illuminated’ for ‘baptism’ and ‘the baptized’ in Justin (Apol. i. 61, 65) and elsewhere. Westcott interprets the ‘teaching [3] of baptisms’ as instruction about the difference between Christian baptism and other lustral rites. Chase (Confirmation in Apostol. Age, p. 44f.) denies this, and interprets the phrase of the baptism of different neophytes, ‘the Christian rite in its concrete application to individual believers’: the ‘heavenly gift’ is one part of the illumination or baptism, i.e. the gift of the Son, of Eternal life, of sonship (Chase); the partaking of the Holy Ghost is the other part. In any case the ἐπίθεσις χειρῶν must refer to the laying on of hands which followed immersion (see below, 6), though Westcott would extend it to benedictions, ordinations, etc., as well.-Hebrews 10:22 f., ‘our body washed with pure water’ (our sacramental bathing contrasted with the symbolic bathings of the Jews [4]), ‘let us hold fast the confession (ὁμολογίαν) of our hope.’-In 1 Peter 3:21 baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc.), the fulfilment of the type; but in Hebrews 9:24 it is used conversely, as it often is in Christian antiquity when the Eucharistic bread and wine are called the antitype of our Lord’s body and blood, e.g. Verona Didascalia (ed. Hauler, p. 112) ‘panem quidem in exemplar quod dicit Graecus antitypum corporis Christi’; so Cyr. Jer., Cat. xxiii. 20; Tertullian similarly uses ‘figura’ (adv. Marc. iv. 10), and Serapion ὁμοίωμα (Liturgy, § 1). For other instances, see Cooper-Maclean, Test. of our Lord, Edinburgh, 1902, p. 172f., and Apost. Const. v. 14, vi. 30, vii. 25. In Ps.-Clem. 2 Cor. 14 the flesh is the ‘antitype’ of the Spirit.
In the Gospels, Christian baptism is three times referred to: Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:16, John 3:3; John 3:5. In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS [5] , have been judged by K. Lake (Inaug. Lecture at Leyden, 17th Jan. 1904, p. 14) to be an interpolation, as they are not quoted by Justin. This deduction is very precarious (for an examination of it, see Chase, Journal of Theological Studies vi. [6] 504, note, who deems the theory unscientific); but in any case the ‘birth of the Spirit’ could not but convey to the Christian readers of the Fourth Gospel a reference to baptism. Westcott truly remarks (Com. in loc.) that to Nicodemus the words would suggest a reference to John’s baptism. An attempt to explain ‘water’ here without reference to baptism is examined by Hooker (Eccl. Pol. v. 59), who lays down the oft-quoted canon that ‘while a literal construction will stand, the farthest from the letter is commonly the worst’ (see below, 8).
In these passages water is not always mentioned; but the word βαπτίζω, which to us is a mere technical expression, and its Aramaic equivalent (rt. [7] מבל) would to the first disciples at once convey the idea of water. The clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:20, and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12. Justin (Dial. 14) emphasizes the element used, by calling baptism the ‘water of life’: so in Hermas (Vis. iii. 3) the Church (the tower) is built on the waters, ‘because your life is saved and shall be saved by water.’
More indirect allusions to Christian baptism are found in the NT. The Israelites, by a metaphor from it, are said to have been baptized into (εἰς) Moses in the cloud and in the sea (1 Corinthians 10:2). Whatever view is taken of baptism for the dead (1 Corinthians 15:29), it alludes to the Christian rite. It has been interpreted (a) of vicarious baptism on behalf of those who had died unbaptized (cf. 2 Maccabees 12:43 ff., offering made for the dead); this was the practice of some heretics (so Tert., de Res. Carn. 48, adv. Marc. v. 10, and Goudge, Alford). But there is no evidence that it existed in the 1st cent., and the practice may have originated from this verse; could St. Paul have even tacitly approved of such a thing?-(b) The words ὑπὲρ τῶν νεκρῶν are rendered by many Greek Fathers ‘in expectation of the resurrection of the dead’; but this forces the grammar, and gives no good sense to ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν, which is the best attested reading at the end of the verse; also ‘they which are baptized’ means not all Christians, but some of them.-(c) Others interpret the verse of people being drawn to the faith and to baptism out of affection for some dead friend; Robertson-Plummer (International Critical Commentary , in loc.) incline to this.-(d) Estius and Calvin render ‘as now about to die,’ jamjam morituri; but see (b).-(e) Luther renders ‘over the graves of the dead’; here again see (b). Many other suggestions have been made. It is probable that the problem is insoluble with our present knowledge, and that the reference is to some ceremony in the then baptismal rite at Corinth of which we hear no more, but not to vicarious baptism (see Plummer in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. 245).
Other allusions to baptism (the complete rite, see below, 6) may probably be found in the metaphors of anointing and sealing. For anointing, see 2 Corinthians 1:21 (χρίσας, aorist), 1 John 2:20; 1 John 2:27 (the anointing abides in us and is not only a historical act). Though anointing may have accompanied the rite in the NT, and Chase (Confirmation, 53ff.) decides that it was so used, yet it is also not improbable that its institution at a very early age of the Church may have been due to these very passages-that the practice came from the metaphor. We notice that in the Didache, § 7, anointing is not mentioned, but that in Apost. Const. vii. 22 (4th cent.), which incorporates and enlarges the Didache, it is introduced. It was certainly used very early. Irenaeus says that some of the Gnostic sects anointed alter baptism (c. Haer. i. xxi. 3f.); and as the Gnostic rites were a parody of those of the Church, this carries the evidence back to c. [8] a.d. 150. It is mentioned by Tert., de Bapt. 7, de Res. Carn. 8; by Cyr. Jer., Cat. xxii. 1. From the anointing came the custom of calling the baptized ‘christs,’ χριστοί (Cyr. Jer., loc. cit.; Methodius, Banquet of the Ten Virgins, viii. 8, where Psalms 105:15 Septuagint is quoted). In the NT, χρίειν is used metaphorically of our Lord; cf. Luke 4:18, Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38, Hebrews 1:9.
For sealing, see 2 Corinthians 1:22 (same context as the anointing), Ephesians 1:13 (‘having believed ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise’), Ephesians 4:30 (‘sealed in the Holy Spirit’). The aorists in all three passages, which connect the Holy Ghost with the sealing, point to the definite time when they became believers (Chase, Confirmation, p. 52). (The metaphor is used in Romans 4:11 of circumcision; and otherwise in John 3:33; John 6:27, Romans 15:28, 1 Corinthians 9:2, 2 Timothy 2:19.) Hence in Christian antiquity the baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e.g. Hermas, Sim. ix. 16, ‘the seal is the water’; cf. viii. 6; Ps.-Clem., 2 Corinthians 7; Clem. Alex., Quis dives, 42; Tert., de Spect. 24 (signaculum); Cyr. Jer., Cat. iv. 16, etc.
To these passages must be added those which speak of Christian adoption; Romans 8:15; Romans 8:23, Galatians 4:5, Ephesians 1:5; for these see article Adoption.
2. Predecessors of Christian baptism
-(a) The words βαπτίζω, βαπτισμός, βάπτισμα are used in the NT of various ceremonial washings of the Jews. The verb is derived from βάπτω, ‘to dip’ (found in the NT only in Luke 16:24, John 13:26, and some Manuscripts of Revelation 19:13, always literally), and has in classical Greek the same meaning. In the NT βαπτίζω is used either metaphorically, of the Passion of our Lord (Mark 10:38 f., Luke 12:50, and some Manuscripts of Matthew 20:22 f.-so also βάπτισμα) and of the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost (Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16, see below, 6), or else of baptism and of Jewish ablations. For these last, see Mark 7:4 (the Jews ‘baptize,’ v.l. [4]6 sprinkle, themselves before meat and have ‘baptizings,’ βαπτισμούς, of vessels), Luke 11:38 (of washing before breakfast, ἐβαπτίσθη πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου), Hebrews 9:10 (divers ‘baptisms,’ i.e. washings).* [10] Ceremonial ablution was a common practice of the Jews (Exodus 29:4 etc., Mark 7:3 πυγμῇ νίψωνται, John 2:6; John 3:25); and the allusions to washing in connexion with baptism (above, 1) would be familiar to the early Christians, who also had the metaphor of cleansing; see 2 Corinthians 7:1, 1 John 1:7, Revelation 1:5 (some Manuscripts ) Revelation 7:14; cf.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Baptism, Conditional
As Holy Baptism can take place only once inany individual life, the Church has always been most careful thatit should not be repeated. But it sometimes happens that grave doubtsarise as to the validity of one's Baptism, or the fact of Baptism isonly a matter of conjecture. In such cases the Church has providedfor conditional, or hypothetical Baptism. The form is, "If thou artnot already baptized, (name) I baptize thee in the Name of theFather, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." In such acase if the Baptism has already taken place and was valid, thehypothetical Baptism passes for naught, but if it were not validor had not taken place, the hypothetical Baptism is effective.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Lay Baptism
Baptism administered by a layman. The Church has alwaysheld that Baptism by any man in case of necessity is valid. But onlygreat necessity, such as sudden danger or sickness and the inabilityto secure the services of a clergyman, should be just cause forbaptism by a layman, and then great care should be taken that theproper form and words are used. (See BAPTISM, HOLY.) It is well tonote that when Holy Baptism is administered by one who is not aClergyman without such necessity as mentioned above, the personbaptizing is guilty of a great sin, even though his act may bring ablessing to the person baptized. His act cannot be undone, but itought not to have been done.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Baptism
Christian baptism is a ceremony commanded by Jesus, by which Christians make a public confession that they have repented of their sins and committed themselves in faith to Jesus as their Saviour and Lord (Matthew 28:19; Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41; Acts 9:18; Acts 10:47-48; Acts 18:8; Romans 10:9). The Bible speaks of people going into the water to be baptized (Acts 8:38; cf. Matthew 3:16), but it gives no detailed description of the act of baptism. The original meaning of ‘baptize’ was ‘dip’ or ‘immerse’, suggesting that believers were immersed in water.
Pre-Christian baptism
Although it had great significance in the birth and growth of the church as recorded in Acts, baptism was practised before this. Jews, it seems, baptized Gentile converts as part of their introduction into the Jewish religion. John the Baptist also practised baptism, demanding it of those who responded to his preaching and repented of their sins (Luke 3:1-8; John 3:22-23; Acts 13:24; Acts 18:25).
John pointed out that the baptism he practised, though it may have pictured cleansing, could not in itself bring cleansing or give people the power to live pure lives. His baptism prepared the way for Jesus Christ, who would bring the blessings that John’s baptism symbolized. Those who accepted Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah would enter the kingdom of God and, through Jesus’ gift of the Holy Spirit, receive an inner power to live righteously (Matthew 3:11; John 1:26-28; John 1:31; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; see BAPTISM WITH THE SPIRIT).
The baptism of Jesus
Even Jesus was baptized, though he had no sins to repent of. For this reason, John at first did not want to baptize him, but Jesus insisted. He wanted to show his oneness with the faithful in Israel who, by their baptism, declared themselves on the side of God and his righteousness (Matthew 3:13-15).
Jesus’ baptism was also his declaration, at the outset of his public ministry, that he knew what his work involved and he intended carrying it out fully. As the Messiah, he was the representative chosen by God for a people needing deliverance, which in this case meant the deliverance of people from the bondage of sin. Jesus’ baptism in water prefigured a far greater ‘baptism’ that was yet to come; for he, as humanity’s perfect representative, would suffer God’s judgment on human sin through his death on the cross (Luke 12:50; Mark 10:38).
Having shown his intentions openly, Jesus then received openly the Father’s gift of the Spirit’s unlimited power to enable him to carry out his messianic work (Isaiah 11:1-2; John 3:34; Acts 10:37-38). The Father’s expression of full satisfaction with his Son consisted of combined quotations from the Old Testament relating to God’s messiah-king and God’s submissive servant (Matthew 3:17; cf. Psalms 2:7; Isaiah 42:1). In both cases the God-appointed tasks could be carried out only in the power of the Spirit (Matthew 3:16; Isaiah 42:1-4).
Christian baptism
As Jesus preached the message of the kingdom, those who accepted his message and entered the kingdom showed the genuineness of their faith and repentance by being baptized. The disciples of Jesus, rather than Jesus himself, did the baptizing (John 3:22; John 4:1-2). Just before he returned to his heavenly Father, the risen Christ told his disciples to spread the good news of his kingdom worldwide and to baptize those who believed (Matthew 28:19). The book of Acts shows how the early Christians carried out his command (Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41; Acts 8:12; Acts 8:35-39; Acts 10:47-48; Acts 16:13-15; Acts 16:31-33; Acts 18:8).
Baptism was so readily acknowledged as the natural and immediate consequences of faith that the New Testament links the two inseparably. The object of saving faith is Jesus Christ and what he has done through his death and resurrection. Paul, the great interpreter of Christian belief and practice, saw baptism as more than just a declaration of faith; he saw it as having meaning that is tied up with the unique union that believers have with Jesus Christ (Romans 6:3; Galatians 3:27).
According to Paul’s teaching, baptism is an expression of union with Christ in dying to sin and being raised with Christ to new life. When Christ died and rose again, believers died and rose again, so to speak. They demonstrate this in their baptism, but they must also make it true in practice. They must live as those who are no longer under sin’s power (Romans 6:1-11; Colossians 2:12). They are united with Christ in his baptism at Golgotha, as the Israelites were united with Moses in their redemption from Egypt (1 Corinthians 10:1-2).
Baptism is also a witness, or testimony. It declares that believers are cleansed from sin (Acts 22:16; cf. 1 Peter 3:21), given the Holy Spirit (Acts 10:47; cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13) and introduced into the body of Christ, the church (Galatians 3:26-28; cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13).
Peter, like Paul, interprets Christian baptism in relation to the death and resurrection of Christ. He sees judgment and salvation pictured in baptism, as they were pictured in the flood of Noah’s time. Christ died to bear God’s judgment on sin, but he rose from death to new life. Through him believers are cleansed from sin and made sharers in a new and victorious life (1 Peter 3:20-22; 1 Peter 4:1).
The community that believers enter through their conversion is of divine, not human, origin. It is not a club, but the kingdom of God. Believers are therefore baptized not in the name of a human cult-figure, but in the name of God (Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 1:13). The early preachers constantly kept this in mind. Paul, for example, preferred someone else to baptize his converts, to avoid the appearance of building a personal following (1 Corinthians 1:14-16). Christians are disciples of Jesus Christ, and he alone is their Lord (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:12; Acts 10:48; Acts 19:5; Romans 10:9).
Baptism of infants
The well known practice of baptizing infants, usually by sprinkling, is not specifically taught in the Bible. Nor does the Bible deal specifically with the related subject of the salvation of infants. Although the Bible shows that God has a special concern for children, its teaching about salvation is mainly concerned with those who are old enough to be responsible for their own decisions (Matthew 18:1-6; Matthew 19:13-15; see CHILD).
Clearly, people are mistaken if they think that any sort of baptism, whether for adults or infants, guarantees personal salvation regardless of what people believe or do as morally responsible beings (Matthew 3:7-10). Nevertheless, many Christians, while realizing that infant baptism does not guarantee salvation, see meaning in it, particularly for those in Christian families. They point out that in New Testament times whole households were baptized; though the narratives do not state whether those households included infants (Acts 16:15; Acts 16:33-34; 1 Corinthians 1:16).
The belief in the value of infant baptism among Christian families is related to the Old Testament idea of God’s covenant with his people. God’s covenant with Abraham, for example, included his household, and the males within that household were circumcised as the formal sign that they were part of that covenant (Genesis 17:4; Genesis 17:7; Genesis 17:10-14; Genesis 21:4; see CIRCUMCISION; COVENANT).
Believers who practise infant baptism, while seeing it as a parallel to the Old Testament rite of circumcision, realize that, like circumcision, it is no assurance of salvation (Genesis 17:23; Romans 2:25-29). Each person is born with a sinful nature and needs to exercise personal faith to be saved (Romans 3:22-23). Even the blessing of being brought up in a Christian family does not remove the need for the individual to repent and accept Christ in order to become a child of God (John 1:12-13; John 3:5-6).
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Infant Baptism
If the Church were simply a voluntary societyfounded on the Bible, as is commonly supposed, there would be nospecial reason why Infants should be baptized, except as a matterof sentiment. If, on the other hand, the Church is a DivineInstitution, founded on Christ and His Apostles, and is declaredin Holy Scripture to be the Mystical Body of Christ, in which weare united to Him, admitted into covenant with God and so broughtinto a new relationship with God, then Infant Baptism is not onlyone of the most reasonable, but one of the most urgent doctrines ofthe Christian Religion, because it is in Holy Baptism that all theseblessings are vouchsafed to us. (See BAPTISM, HOLY.) By thisSacrament the youngest infant is lifted up, so to speak, out of theworld of nature and transplanted into Christ's spiritualkingdom. It becomes thus a child of grace. Its little life is maderight with God. The old evil of our race has been rectified. It ishenceforth not only a child of Adam, but also a child, or member ofthe second Adam, Jesus our Lord. By its new Birth in Holy Baptism,the child becomes as fully incorporated into the new and spiritualrace of which Christ is the Head, as ever it was incorporated intothe race of mankind by its natural birth. It may not be conscious ofthis, any more than it was conscious of its natural birth, but ithas, nevertheless, made a right beginning through the thoughtful careof others. It has, by this ministration, been grafted into the Bodyof Christ. It has been put in the way of true spiritual growth andtraining. Henceforth it may be brought up as "the child of God" andnot as an alien. To this end the church gives it spiritualcaretakers, whose duty it is to see that this child is virtuouslybrought up to lead a Godly and a Christian life according to thisbeginning. This is the meaning of Infant Baptism; and the Churchhas always regarded such Baptism as a reasonable and benevolentwork, as is exemplified by her universal practice from the beginning.The "Mercy to Babes" in the Old Dispensation has not been lost outof the New, the Dispensation of the Spirit of love, which brings toall, even to the infant, as well as to its parents, God's mercywhich "He promised to our forefathers, Abraham and his seedforever." (See NAME, THE CHRISTIAN.)
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Baptism, Holy
One of the two great Sacraments ordained by Christas generally (universally) necessary to salvation. Holy Baptism isthe initiatory rite by which we are admitted into the fellowshipof Christ's Religion, admitted into His Church. Baptism is acovenant made between God and man; of this covenant the Christianname, which was then given us, is the reminder; reminding us ofour new relationship with God. The grace conferred in Holy Baptismis threefold, (1) Regeneration, or the New Birth (See REGENERATION);(2) Admission into the Spiritual Kingdom, or the Holy CatholicChurch, and (3) The forgiveness of all our sins, for in the NiceneCreed we confess, "I acknowledge one Baptism for the Remissions ofsins." The vows of Holy Baptism are three in number, (1) ToRenounce, (2) to Believe and (3) to Obey. These cover "the WholeDuty of Man," and it is by the use of the Means of Grace withdiligent Prayer that he is enabled to keep them and to grow intothe likeness of Christ, whose member he is because incorporatedinto Him by Holy Baptism. The outward, visible sign or form inBaptism is water, with the unfailing use of the words, "In the Nameof the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." This effectsa valid Baptism.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Baptism With the Spirit
The baptism with, in, or by the Holy Spirit was an event that John the Baptist foretold (Matthew 3:11), that Jesus promised (Acts 1:4-5), and that Peter and Paul referred to (Acts 11:15-16; 1 Corinthians 12:13). Historically it took place on the Day of Pentecost, when the risen and glorified Christ gave the Holy Spirit to his disciples as he had promised and, in so doing, united them all into one body, the church (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 2:33; 1 Corinthians 12:13).
The early church
On the Day of Pentecost two separate groups of believers received the gift, or baptism, of the Spirit. The first group consisted of the one hundred and twenty mentioned in Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1-4. The second consisted of the three thousand mentioned in Acts 2:37-42. There are several differences between the two groups.
The first group consisted of those who had been believers for some time and who had awaited Jesus’ departure in order to receive the promised gift of the Holy Spirit. The second group consisted of those who became believers only after they heard Peter preach that day and who received the gift of the Holy Spirit immediately.
When those of the first group received the Holy Spirit, the experience was dramatic. But, because of the special circumstances in their case, such an experience should not be considered the normal experience of the Christian. Those disciples had lived with Jesus and could receive the Holy Spirit only after Jesus had returned to the Father (John 7:39; John 16:7). The experience of those of the second group, who received the Holy Spirit when they believed, without any unusual happenings, was the normal experience of the Christian, then as well as now (Acts 2:38-41; see also TONGUES).
Only three exceptions to this normal experience are recorded in the New Testament, and all are related to the development of the early church. At first the church was entirely Jewish (Acts 2:5; Acts 2:22; Acts 2:41; Acts 4:1-4), but when a number of Samaritans believed, a difficulty appeared. The Samaritans were a people of mixed blood and mixed religion who originated partly from Old Testament Israel, but they and the Jews hated each other. This division was not to be carried into the church. It seems, therefore, that before God gave the Holy Spirit to the Samaritans, he wanted the Jerusalem leaders to be assured that the Samaritans were true Christians, who were to be welcomed into the church on the same basis as the Jews (Acts 8:14-17).
Later, the apostles were even more amazed when a group of full-blooded Gentiles believed the gospel and received the Holy Spirit without the apostles doing anything at all. It was a repetition of what happened on the Day of Pentecost, but this time among Gentiles, not Jews (Acts 10:44-46; Acts 11:15-17).
The third group who received the Holy Spirit in unusual circumstances consisted of some disciples of John the Baptist whom Paul met in an unevangelized part of Asia Minor. At first they did not fully understand how the life and work of Jesus was the true fulfilment of John’s ministry. When Paul explained this to them they believed, and showed themselves to be disciples of Jesus, not just of John, by being baptized as Christians. They then received the Holy Spirit, as the original disciples had on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 19:1-7).
The timeless, universal church
Paul pointed out, through a letter he wrote to a church of new converts in southern Greece, that there is a sense in which all Christians, regardless of era or nationality, have some part in the events of the Day of Pentecost. Through the baptism of the Spirit, all Christians, the moment they believe, are brought into the church and made sharers in the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:13). Jesus’ promised gift of the Spirit, though initially received at Pentecost, extends through the ages to all who repent and believe the gospel (Acts 2:38-39; cf. Acts 1:4-5; Acts 2:33; see also HOLY SPIRIT).
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Baptism, Private
The proper place for the administration of HolyBaptism is in the church, and the Church warns her people "thatwithout great and reasonable cause and necessity, they procure nottheir children to be baptized at home in their houses." But whenneed shall compel them so to do, she provides for the emergency bythe service entitled, "The Ministration of Private Baptism ofChildren in Houses," as set forth in the Prayer Book. In thisoffice no provision is made for Sponsors. The child is tobe brought afterwards into the Church to the intent that thecongregation may be certified of the true Form of Baptism privatelybefore used. Then it is publicly received and the Sponsors answerfor the child and become responsible for its Christian training,publicly before the congregation.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Adult Baptism
The rule of the Church is Infant Baptism. Shebrings children even in their tenderest years within her Fold andthere trains them up "in the nurture and admonition of the Lord."But when in England the Puritans and Anabaptists arose and prevailed,then there grew up a generation that reached maturity without havingbeen baptized, and then it was that there arose the necessity for"The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years and ableto answer for themselves." To meet such cases the present servicein the Prayer Book for the Baptism of Adults was prepared and setforth in A.D. 1661. That the Church of England had no form forthe Baptism of Adults previous to the year 1661 is not only aninteresting fact, but it is also one of those historic side-lightswhich brings into bold relief what was the custom of the Churchfrom time immemorial.

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Christen - (Greek: chrio, anoint) ...
(1) To administer the Sacrament of Baptism. ...
(2) To name in Baptism. ...
(3) To name in some ceremony analogous to Baptism; hence, to name
Baptism, Conditional - As Holy Baptism can take place only once inany individual life, the Church has always been most careful thatit should not be repeated. But it sometimes happens that grave doubtsarise as to the validity of one's Baptism, or the fact of Baptism isonly a matter of conjecture. In such cases the Church has providedfor conditional, or hypothetical Baptism. " In such acase if the Baptism has already taken place and was valid, thehypothetical Baptism passes for naught, but if it were not validor had not taken place, the hypothetical Baptism is effective
Baptism, Clinical - (Greek: klinikos, of a bed) In general, Baptism given to anyone sick abed; in particular, Baptism administered at child-birth. "To be born," is an essential for Baptism. Hence Baptism in difficult parturition or within the womb is sometimes required
Paedobaptists - The word comes from infant, Baptism. ...
See Baptism
Baptist - ) One of a denomination of Christians who deny the validity of infant Baptism and of sprinkling, and maintain that Baptism should be administered to believers alone, and should be by immersion. ) One who administers Baptism; - specifically applied to John, the forerunner of Christ
Baptist - One who administers Baptism. As a contraction of Anabaptist, one who denies the doctrine of infant Baptism, and maintains that Baptism ought to be administered only to adults by immersing the body in water
Baptism, Conditional - Baptism administered with these words expressing a condition, "If thou art not yet baptized, I baptize thee," etc. Baptism cannot be repeated; but in the reception of converts, when, after diligent investigation, there remains a reasonable doubt as to the fact or validity of their Baptism, the sacrament is given conditionally
Spiritual Relationship - It results from sponsorship at Baptism, or from being the minister of a private Baptism. The marriage of a sponsor to his or her godchild, or the marriage of a person who has administered private Baptism to the one baptized, is invalid unless by dispensation
Anti-Paedobaptists - (from "against, " and "child, " and "baptize, ") is a distinguishing denomination given to those who object to the Baptism of infants. ...
See Baptism
Baptism - Baptism. The Scriptures speak of Baptism "in" or "with" water, "with the Holy Ghost, and with fire," Matthew 3:11; Acts 1:5; and Jesus compared his sufferings to "a Baptism," Luke 12:50. John (called "the Baptist," Matthew 11:11;) preached "the Baptism of repentance," and baptized in the river Jordan those confessing their sins, Mark 1:4-5. Jesus at his ascension appointed Baptism for all disciples, "Teach all nations, baptizing them. Baptism with water is associated with remission of sins, Acts 2:38; Acts 22:16; and birth by the Spirit, John 3:5; Acts 11:27. Paul speaks also of being "buried with him [1] in Baptism unto death; that like as Christ was raised up from the dead. Baptism of the Holy Spirit was bestowed at Jerusalem, Samaria, Cesarea and Ephesus, Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:44; Acts 19:6. This gift sometimes followed and sometimes preceded Baptism by water. Many instances of Baptism are noted; the terms "baptism," "baptized," and "baptizing," occurring about 100 times in the New Testament. Among the instances of Baptism mentioned in apostolic times are: 3000 at Pentecost, Acts 2:41, men and women, including Simon the Sorcerer at Samaria; the Ethiopian Eunuch, 8:12, 13, 38; Saul; Cornelius and his Gentile company, 10:47; Lydia and "her household," 16:15; the Philippian jailer "and all his," 16:33; and "the household of Stephanas," 1 Corinthians 1:16. At Ephesus twelve who had received John's Baptism only were again baptized "in the name of the Lord Jesus," Acts 19:2-5. Peter compares Baptism to the saving of Noah from the flood in the ark, 1 Peter 3:21. Paul urges the Ephesians to Christian unity on the plea that there is "one Lord, one faith, one Baptism. The consideration of the mode, subjects, effects, and administration of Baptism belongs to theological and denominational works
Baptism - Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is the rite or ordinance by which persons are admitted into the Church of Christ. Baptism signifies--
A confession of faith in Christ; ...
A cleansing or washing of the soul from sin; ...
A death to sin and a new life in righteousness. The mode and subjects of Baptism being much-controverted subjects, each one can best study them in the works devoted to those questions. All nations were to be evangelized; and they were to be made disciples, admitted into the fellowship of Christ's religion, by Baptism. (Matthew 28:19 ) It appears to have been a kind of transition from the Jewish Baptism to the Christian. The distinction between John's Baptism and Christian Baptism appears in the case of Apollos, (Acts 18:26,27 ) and of the disciples at Ephesus mentioned (Acts 19:1-6 ) We cannot but draw from this history the inference that in Christian Baptism there was a deeper spiritual significance
Baptistry - A portion of a church set apart for the administrationof Holy Baptism. Sometimes the Baptistry was erected as a separatebuilding or attached to a church or cathedral, specially adaptedfor Baptism by immersion
Infant Baptism - Christian groups take varying stances on the practice and meaning of infant Baptism. Those who emphasize a conscious faith response in the salvation process limit Baptism to believers. Those who interpret Baptism as the sign of God's new covenant reserve the rite for the children of believers (compare 1 Corinthians 7:14 ). Those viewing Baptism as a means by which God's grace becomes effective for salvation welcome all children. Those favoring infant Baptism raise the following arguments: (1) household Baptisms likely included some infants (Acts 16:5 ,Acts 16:5,16:33 ; Acts 18:8 ; 1 Corinthians 1:16 ); (2) Jesus' welcome and blessing of children is a mandate to baptize infants (Mark 10:13-16 ); “hinder” is a technical term associated with Baptism (Acts 8:36 ); (3) circumcision which prefigured Baptism (Colossians 2:11 ) included children (Genesis 17:12 ); (4) in the Old Testament children participated in ceremonies of covenant renewal (Deuteronomy 29:10-13 ; Joshua 8:35 ; Joel 2:16 ). ...
Baptists and other adherents of believer's Baptism raise the following arguments and counter-arguments: (1) The New Testament prerequisite of Baptism is faith (Acts 18:8 ) which is evidenced by confession (Romans 10:9-10 ) and repentance (Acts 2:38 ); (2) infant Baptism rests ultimately on the fear that infants are held accountable for organic sin; Baptists counter with a doctrine of an age of accountability at which conscious sin occurs (Genesis 8:21 ; Deuteronomy 4:9-1009 ; Jeremiah 3:25 ) and at which a conscious response to God is possible (1 Kings 18:12 ; Psalm 71:5 ,Psalms 71:5,71:17 ); (3) household Baptisms need not have included children; Baptism is prefigured in the salvation of Noah and his exclusively adult household in the ark (1 Peter 3:20-21 ); (4) Jesus' blessing of the children demonstrates Christ's love for children; children are presented as an example to disciples rather than as disciples themselves (Matthew 18:2-4 ); (5) circumcision is an imperfect analogy to Baptism; only males participated in circumcision, whereas in Baptism there is “neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28 ); the witness of the New Testament is that “what is born of the flesh is flesh” and that a spiritual birth is necessary to enter God's kingdom (John 3:5-6 ); it is not the Israel of the flesh that inherits the promises of God but those who are spiritual Israel by a faith commitment (Romans 6-8 ; Galatians 6:16 ); (6) the responsibility of the faith community to its children is instruction in the way of the Lord (1618453075_9 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Proverbs 22:6 ); participation in covenant renewal is educational for children. See Accountability, Age of , Baptism
Adult Baptism - After investigation, every adult convert, invalidly or not baptized, receives Baptism unconditionally; if doubtfully baptized the conditional form, "If thou art not baptized, I baptize thee" etc. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin. In danger of death, when doubt arises concerning an adult's intention, Baptism is administered conditionally. See Baptism
Baptism, Adult - After investigation, every adult convert, invalidly or not baptized, receives Baptism unconditionally; if doubtfully baptized the conditional form, "If thou art not baptized, I baptize thee" etc. Baptism given absolutely remits actual as well as original sin. In danger of death, when doubt arises concerning an adult's intention, Baptism is administered conditionally. See Baptism
New Birth - The name which the New Testament Scriptures, and theChurch for nearly two thousand years have given to Holy Baptism,which is the Laver of Regeneration, the new and spiritual Birth. (See Baptism, HOLY; also REGENERATION
Infant Baptism - In the Catholic Church infant Baptism washes away original sin and is regenerative. In Reformed circles, infant Baptism is not regenerative but covenantal and validated through the believing parent(s). There are no explicit accounts of infant Baptism in the Bible
Tebaliah - Baptism
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - This is distinct from Baptism with water. John's Baptism is contrasted with it, Acts 11:16 ; Matthew 3:11 . Christian Baptism, though distinct, was in view of the reception of the Holy Ghost (Acts 2:38 ), but does not confer it. Baptism of the Holy Spirit took place at Pentecost: the Lord said to His disciples, "Ye shall be baptised with the Holy Ghost not many days hence," Acts 1:5 ; so that at Pentecost the saints were all baptised by the one Spirit into one body. This agrees with the church having been begun at Pentecost, and tells us that no one can be a part of the body of Christ until he is indwelt by the Holy Spirit, being initiated into the one body formed, characterised, by the Baptism of the Holy Spirit once for all
Name, the Christian - The name received in Holy Baptism. , supra or sur nomen)gradually became permanent surnames, so that now every person afterinfancy and Baptism has two names, viz. The Christian name we receive at our Christening, that is,Christianing or Baptism or New Birth. It is a new name given to us in our Baptism because we then becomesomething new. It is given in Baptism to indicate a new relationshipto God by thus being brought into covenant with Him. They are the sign that those who bearthem have been brought into covenant with God, that they have been made in their Baptism, "members of Christ, the children of God,and inheritors of the kingdom of heaven. " (See Baptism, HOLY; alsoCHRISTIAN
Lay Baptism - Baptism administered by a layman. The Church has alwaysheld that Baptism by any man in case of necessity is valid. But onlygreat necessity, such as sudden danger or sickness and the inabilityto secure the services of a clergyman, should be just cause forbaptism by a layman, and then great care should be taken that theproper form and words are used. (See Baptism, HOLY. ) It is well tonote that when Holy Baptism is administered by one who is not aClergyman without such necessity as mentioned above, the personbaptizing is guilty of a great sin, even though his act may bring ablessing to the person baptized
Laying on of Hands - (See Baptism
Catechumen - See Baptism
Baptism For the Dead - See Baptism
Baptism, Adult - (See ADULT Baptism)
Private Baptism - (See Baptism, PRIVATE
Reception Into the Church - (See Baptism, PRIVATE
Baptism, Infant - (See INFANT Baptism)
Opus Operatum - 1130-1215), ...
"The act of Baptism is not identical with Baptism because it is an opus operans while Baptism is an opus operatum
ex Opere Operato - 1130-1215), ...
"The act of Baptism is not identical with Baptism because it is an opus operans while Baptism is an opus operatum
Rebaptism - ) A second Baptism
Rebaptization - ) A second Baptism
Baptism, Holy - Holy Baptism isthe initiatory rite by which we are admitted into the fellowshipof Christ's Religion, admitted into His Church. Baptism is acovenant made between God and man; of this covenant the Christianname, which was then given us, is the reminder; reminding us ofour new relationship with God. The grace conferred in Holy Baptismis threefold, (1) Regeneration, or the New Birth (See REGENERATION);(2) Admission into the Spiritual Kingdom, or the Holy CatholicChurch, and (3) The forgiveness of all our sins, for in the NiceneCreed we confess, "I acknowledge one Baptism for the Remissions ofsins. " The vows of Holy Baptism are three in number, (1) ToRenounce, (2) to Believe and (3) to Obey. These cover "the WholeDuty of Man," and it is by the use of the Means of Grace withdiligent Prayer that he is enabled to keep them and to grow intothe likeness of Christ, whose member he is because incorporatedinto Him by Holy Baptism. The outward, visible sign or form inBaptism is water, with the unfailing use of the words, "In the Nameof the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. " This effectsa valid Baptism
Baptize - BAPTI'ZE, See Baptism. To administer the sacrament of Baptism to to christen. By some denominations of christians, Baptism is performed by plunging, or immersing the whole body in water, and this is done to none but adults
Confirmation - (See Baptism
Pedobaptism - The practice of infant Baptism
Catechumen - (Greek katechoumenos, one instructed) A name applied to one undergoing instruction preparatory to the reception of Baptism and admission into the Church. Historically, there were three distinct classes of catechumens: audientes, or hearers; catechumens proper, sometimes called genuflectentes, or kneelers; and competentes, or those ready for Baptism
Genuflectentes - (Greek katechoumenos, one instructed) A name applied to one undergoing instruction preparatory to the reception of Baptism and admission into the Church. Historically, there were three distinct classes of catechumens: audientes, or hearers; catechumens proper, sometimes called genuflectentes, or kneelers; and competentes, or those ready for Baptism
Baptistic - ) Of or for Baptism; Baptismal
Baptized - Having received Baptism christened
Baptizing - Administering Baptism to christening
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - Seven New Testament passages speak of Baptism of/in/with/by the Holy Spirit. The varying prepositions reflect the fact that the Spirit is both the agent and sphere of this Baptism. Six of these passages refer to John the Baptist's teaching, contrasting his Baptism in water with Jesus' future Baptism in the Holy Spirit. Mark 1:8 and John 1:33 reflect this identical utterance of John, but mention only the Baptism of the Spirit. ...
It is clear that all six of these references to the Baptism of the Holy Spirit have Pentecost-like experiences primarily in view. Just as Baptism in water was the initiation rite symbolizing repentance and faith in Christ, entrance into the community of believers, and incorporation into Christ's body, so "baptism in the Spirit" referred to that moment in which the Spirit first began to operate in believers' lives. It is important to note that Pentecost was not the disciples' first experience of the Holy Spirit (John 14:17 ; 20:22 ), but that does not necessarily justify the generalization that the "baptism of the Spirit" will ever again be a "second blessing"—a deeper experience of the Spirit subsequent to conversion. Their Spirit-baptism was simultaneous with their conversion to Christ. If the entire church had been baptized in the Spirit, including the large number of "carnal" Christians Paul elsewhere rebukes (1 Corinthians 3:1-4 ), then clearly Spirit-baptism cannot guarantee a certain level of Christian maturity or holiness. And if no one spiritual gift was held by all Corinthian believers (1 Corinthians 12:29-30 ), then neither may Spirit-baptism be uniformly equated with the reception of any particular gift of the Spirit. " But if one wishes to be faithful to biblical usage, one will reserve the expression "baptism in the Spirit" for the indwelling of God through his Holy Spirit at the moment of a believer's salvation. "...
It is sometimes argued that certain passages that refer to Baptism, without any further qualification, also teach about Spirit-baptism (e. This interpretation is usually designed to protect these texts against a view that takes them to teach Baptismal regeneration. But, in fact, the early church consistently used "baptism" without any qualifiers to refer to water-baptism. None of these passages, even when taken to refer to immersion in water, implies Baptismal regeneration, but they do demonstrate how closely linked water-baptism and conversion were (and hence Spirit-baptism as well) in New Testament times. Blomberg...
See also Baptism of Fire ; Baptize, Baptism ; Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit, Gifts of ...
Bibliography . Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ; J. Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit; EDT, pp. Ervin, Conversion-Initiation and the Baptism in the Holy Spirit ; M. Green, Baptism
Baptismal Regeneration - The belief that Baptism is essential to salvation, that it is the means where forgiveness of sins is made real to the believer. If Baptism were essential to salvation, then Paul would have included it in his standard practice and preaching of the salvation message of Jesus, but he did not. ) For more information on this see Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation?...
Fountain - In Christian art, a symbol of Baptism
Baptismal - ) Pertaining to Baptism; as, Baptismal vows
Regeneration - The inward and spiritual gift in Holy Baptism isregeneration, that is being born anew. As the natural birth, so the new and spiritual Birth cantake place only once, and that in Holy Baptism. Regeneration is the nameoriginated for Baptism by our Lord Himself in His discourse withNicodemus, as recorded in the third chapter of St. John's Gospel,and it is for this reason that this passage is appointed to be readin the service for the Baptism of Adults. (See Baptism, HOLY; alsoINFANT Baptism
Illuminati (1) - A term anciently applied to such as had received Baptism. The name was occasioned by a ceremony in the Baptism of adults, which consisted in putting a lighted taper in the hand of the person baptized, as a symbol of the faith and grace he had received in the sacrament
Affusion - The pouring (which the word means) of water on therecipient of Baptism, when the Baptism is not by immersion. The practice of immersionwas not, however, regarded as an essential feature of Baptism. The method is amatter of indifference, the essential point being that the candidatefor Baptism come into actual contact with water while the words, "Ibaptize thee in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of theHoly Ghost," are spoken
Catabaptist - ) One who opposes Baptism, especially of infants
Pedobaptist - ) One who advocates or practices infant Baptism
Rebaptism - Saint Paul's doctrine, "One Lord, one faith, one Baptism" (Ephesians 4) was reaffirmed by the Council of Trent, explicitly defining that Baptism imprints a spiritual and indelible character. When reasonable doubt exists concerning the fact or validity of Baptism the Sacrament is administered conditionally. The controversy on rebaptism between Pope Saint Stephen and Saint Cyprian of Carthage is celebrated
Generally Necessary - In the definition given in the ChurchCatechism of Holy Baptism and the Lord's Supper, these Sacramentsare declared to be "generally necessary to salvation. " From the waymany persons postpone their own Baptism, neglect the Baptism oftheir children and ignore the Holy Communion, it would seem that theythink the word "generally" in the above clause, means "usually," butnot essential to religious life
Pedobaptism - ) The Baptism of infants or of small children
Baptismal Grace - Sanctifying grace conferred in Baptism, inasmuch as it gives the recipient a right to special help from God to enable him to observe the commandments and so follow Christ worthily. Baptismal innocence is the state of the soul as the result of Baptism, a state which many saints are believed to have preserved until death
Adult Baptism - The rule of the Church is Infant Baptism. "But when in England the Puritans and Anabaptists arose and prevailed,then there grew up a generation that reached maturity without havingbeen baptized, and then it was that there arose the necessity for"The Ministration of Baptism to such as are of Riper Years and ableto answer for themselves. " To meet such cases the present servicein the Prayer Book for the Baptism of Adults was prepared and setforth in A. That the Church of England had no form forthe Baptism of Adults previous to the year 1661 is not only aninteresting fact, but it is also one of those historic side-lightswhich brings into bold relief what was the custom of the Churchfrom time immemorial
Oddaughter - ) A female for whom one becomes sponsor at Baptism
Membership, Church - (See Baptism, HOLY; JOINING THE CHURCH, andalso NAME, THE CHRISTIAN
the Instrumental Cause on God's Side - The Ministry of the Word,    Baptism and the Holy Communion
Baptize, Baptism - Ancient Jewish discussions (echoed in 1 Corinthians 10:2 ) support a pre-Christian date for this proselyte Baptism. This is why John's Baptism needed no explanation, though his authority to perform it was challenged and his demand for purification of "children of Abraham" gave deep offense (Matthew 3:7-9 ; John 1:19-24 ). ...
John's practice added to proselyte Baptism a still stronger emphasis on repentance, a firm background of moral teaching (Luke 3:3,10-14,33 ), and initiation into a community ("John's disciples") preparing for Messiah's advent (Luke 3:16-17 ). Why Jesus, being sinless, received a "baptism of repentance" is debatable. Peter's invitation at Pentecost, Luke's record (in Acts) of fifteen Baptisms, and the teaching of Paul, Peter, and John leave no doubt, however, that the first disciples believed that Baptism possessed Christ's authority, as Matthew declares (28:19-20). ...
Luke's account of apostolic Baptism assumes the rite's original association with repentance and remission (Acts 2:38 ), with washing away sin (22:16), and with admission to the religious community. But his emphasis falls on Baptism's new features. Though the gospel era dates from the Baptism John preached (1:22; 10:37), Christian Baptism, as conferring the Holy Spirit, is contrasted with John's (attributed to John in each Gospel, to Jesus at John 3:5-68 ; 11:16 ). This is emphasized at 18:25,19:1-7, and leads to rebaptism with water and the (exceptional) laying on of hands, before the Spirit is conferred. On the other hand, that Cornelius and his friends have received the Spirit becomes Peter's justification for their subsequent Baptism (10:47; 11:17; Baptism with Spirit possession gave rise to the curious phrase "baptism in/with Holy Spirit" ( Mark 1:8 ; Acts 1:5 ). ...
In nine instances Luke represents Baptism as the expected response to hearing and receiving the gospel. ...
This response was to the gospel of Jesus, Son of God and Savior, who was crucified, rose again, forgives sins, bestows the Spirit, and will come again as Judge, all summarized succinctly but clearly in Baptism in or into the name of Jesus as Christ, Lord, Son of God (8:37). Such Baptismal confession became the germ of later creeds; the trinitarian formulation in Matthew 28:18-20 may well represent an early stage in credal development. ...
Reflection on the church's practice enriched further the theological and ethical significance of Baptism, without varying its conditions or abandoning its original meaning. He administered, or authorized, Baptism throughout his missions, yet would not boast of baptizing anyone and resented Baptism being made a badge of partisanship (1 Corinthians 1:13-17 ). And he assumes that Baptism is understood in churches he had not visited (Rome, Colossae). This "good confession" (1 Timothy 6:12 ) made at Baptism responds to Paul's gospel of a suffering and risen Lord, presented through the gracious initiative of God and offered to faith, trust, and obedience. Paul insists that none are saved by their own good works, not even by the good work of Baptism, but only by faith in Christ (Romans 3:20 ; 4:4-5 ; Galatians 3:2,11 ; Ephesians 2:8 ). ...
Paul retained, too, the original interpretation of Baptism as entrance to the religious community: "We were all baptized into one body" (1 Corinthians 12:13 ). Doubtless Paul would affirm that a true Baptism introduced the convert to both privileges. ...
Again, Paul continues to emphasize the connection of Baptism with enduement by the Spirit. Paul regularly refers to the believer's reception of the Spirit in a tense signifying a certain point in time ("baptismal aorists"), speaks of Baptism as being "washed in the Spirit" (1 Corinthians 6:11 ), and so can assume that everyone baptized "has" the Spirit (Romans 8:9 ). Yet he nowhere argues this, as by recalling Jesus' Baptismal enduement; he takes reception of the Spirit in Baptism for granted and life under the rule of the Spirit as the norm of Christian experience (Romans 8:2-5 ). Even so, the Spirit given at Baptism is but an earnest, a down payment, guaranteeing immeasurable future blessings (2 Corinthians 1:22 ; 5:5 ). ...
Paul retains also the earliest interpretation of Baptism as a washing away of sin, a "washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit" as Titus 3:5 describes it, a cleansing of the bride-church "by the washing of water with the Word" ( 1 Corinthians 6:11 ; Ephesians 5:26 ). The disrobing and rerobing metaphor of Colossians 3:8-14 (and six parallels) echoes the catechetical instruction already familiar to the first readers, and alludes directly to physical arrangements for Baptismal "bathing. " Paul assures the Gentile converts at Colossae that they do not need Jewish circumcision, as certain Judaists were insisting: "In [2] you were also circumcised in the putting off of the sinful nature, not with a circumcision done by the hands of men but with the circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in Baptism" ( Colossians 2:11-12 ). That is Paul's only reference to Baptism's accomplishing what circumcision portrayed. He turns from it at once to describe the change that Baptism signifies in the language he prefers: "buried with him in Baptism raised with him through faith in the power of God. "...
This conception of the Baptismal pool as a grave in which the pre-Christian self and its ways are buried once and for all and from which a new self rises to a new quality of living appears to be Paul's own. It looks back to one of Jesus' metaphors for repentance, self-crucifixion (Mark 8:34 ; Galatians 2:20 ; 6:14 ), and recognizes in Baptism the moment when the convert does indeed, publicly, take up his or her cross, dying with Christ to self, to sin, and to the world, and rising with him to a life constantly renewed by his resurrection power (Romans 6:1-11 ). This Baptism expresses, illustrates, and finalizes. ...
Paul certainly means that, given repentance and faith, the act of Baptism (which can never be undone) accomplishes all it representscommitment to the Lord's possession, admission to the church, enduement with the Spirit, remission and repudiation of sin. But Paul is equally clear that what is declared in Baptism must be sustained thereafter. The baptized will rejoice greatly in what has happened, and maintain their Baptismal attitude for the remainder of their lives, repenting deeply for every failure to do so. It has much to say about the gospel, faith, new birth, purification, putting aside the flesh, the Spirit, admission to the community, reverencing Christ as Lordechoing much of the Baptismal thinking already noticed. The strong declaration "baptism that now saves you" recalls Mark 16:16 as well as Peter's "command" to baptize ( Acts 10:48 ). It is as an appeal for a "clear conscience, " and through the triumphant resurrection and ascension of Christ above all "authorities, " that Baptism achieves this "salvation. Against this background, Baptism is no merely physical washing (as in Judaist, Essene, or pagan circles), but "the pledge of a good conscience towards God" and threatening civic authorities, ensuring innocent social conduct. At Pentecost Peter had urged his hearers to save themselves by Baptism from "this crooked generation. " The Baptist had called his hearers to a Baptism of repentance as the way of escape from a world under judgment. In such far-ranging thoughts Peter extends the meaning of Baptism to include a promise of social responsibility, and assured support and protection, now, in face of evils that threaten new converts, and ultimate victory. The operation of the Spirit in Baptism, and the implied entrance to the Christian community, are as clear in John as in the earlier sources (1618453075_93 ; 17 ). ...
But John does insist rather more strongly on the necessity of Baptism (John 3:5 ; 13:8-9 ), on Christ's authorizing Baptism (John 3:22,26 ; 4:1-2 ), and on the superiority of Christian Baptism to that of the Baptist (John 1:26-33 ; 3:25-30 ). By omitting any description of Jesus' Baptism, John plays down any "memorial" or imitative Baptism, in order to stress that in Baptism it is the believer's experience that matters. The healing of blindness by washing at Christ's command (John 9:11 ) led the church later to call Baptism "the enlightenment. ...
By the time John wrote, Christian Baptism was long established and its spiritual significance and power fully understood. ...
Christian Baptism thus preserves the covenantal basis of biblical thought: God first offers in grace, human beings then respond in gratitude, deserving nothing. In the gospel, God offers through Christ forgiveness, life, the Spirit: the Baptismal response, hallowed by Christ, expresses faith in the dying and rising Savior-Lord, and registers the resolve to die to former sinfulness and rise to new life. White...
See also Baptism of Fire; Baptism of the Holy Spirit; Holy Spirit, Gifts of. Barth, Teaching of the Church regarding Baptism ; O. Cullmann, Baptism in the New Testament ; G. Beasley-Murray, Baptism in the New Testament ; M. Green, Baptism ; P. Marcel, The Biblical Doctrine of Infant Baptism ; R
Anabaptists - a name given to those Christians who maintain that Baptism ought always to be performed by immersion; that it ought not to be administered to children before the age of discretion; and that at this age it ought to be readministered to those who have been baptized in their infancy. Many of them object to the name, because the Baptism of infants by sprinkling is, in their opinion, no Baptism; and others hold nothing in common excepting some one or other of the above mentioned opinions concerning Baptism. See Baptism
Baptism of Fire - ...
In the context of John's preaching, it is natural to associate the Baptism of fire with judgment (cf. On the other hand, John is first of all addressing believers—those who are receiving his water-baptism. But the grammatical construction in Greek (the use of one preposition to govern two objects) is most naturally taken as referring to only one Baptism that involves both blessing and judgment (cf. Pentecost may well represent the firstfruits of purgation for believers, but the Baptism is not complete until all people experience final judgment. Blomberg...
See also Baptism of the Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit ; Holy Spirit, Gifts of ...
Bibliography . Dunn, Baptism in the Holy Spirit; NIDNTT, 1:652-57
Baptism of Christ - John refused at first to confer his Baptism on Christ, for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of repentance. " His reception of Baptism was not necessary on his own account. It was in his official capacity that he submitted to Baptism. The administration of the rite of Baptism was also a symbol of the Baptism of suffering before him in this official capacity (Luke 12:50 )
Odson - ) A male for whom one has stood sponsor in Baptism
Odmother - ) A woman who becomes sponsor for a child in Baptism
Baptism - Christian Baptism is a ceremony commanded by Jesus, by which Christians make a public confession that they have repented of their sins and committed themselves in faith to Jesus as their Saviour and Lord (Matthew 28:19; Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41; Acts 9:18; Acts 10:47-48; Acts 18:8; Romans 10:9). Matthew 3:16), but it gives no detailed description of the act of Baptism. ...
Pre-Christian Baptism...
Although it had great significance in the birth and growth of the church as recorded in Acts, Baptism was practised before this. John the Baptist also practised Baptism, demanding it of those who responded to his preaching and repented of their sins (Luke 3:1-8; John 3:22-23; Acts 13:24; Acts 18:25). ...
John pointed out that the Baptism he practised, though it may have pictured cleansing, could not in itself bring cleansing or give people the power to live pure lives. His Baptism prepared the way for Jesus Christ, who would bring the blessings that John’s Baptism symbolized. Those who accepted Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah would enter the kingdom of God and, through Jesus’ gift of the Holy Spirit, receive an inner power to live righteously (Matthew 3:11; John 1:26-28; John 1:31; Romans 2:25-29; Acts 1:5; see Baptism WITH THE SPIRIT). ...
The Baptism of Jesus...
Even Jesus was baptized, though he had no sins to repent of. He wanted to show his oneness with the faithful in Israel who, by their Baptism, declared themselves on the side of God and his righteousness (Matthew 3:13-15). ...
Jesus’ Baptism was also his declaration, at the outset of his public ministry, that he knew what his work involved and he intended carrying it out fully. Jesus’ Baptism in water prefigured a far greater ‘baptism’ that was yet to come; for he, as humanity’s perfect representative, would suffer God’s judgment on human sin through his death on the cross (Luke 12:50; Mark 10:38). ...
Christian Baptism...
As Jesus preached the message of the kingdom, those who accepted his message and entered the kingdom showed the genuineness of their faith and repentance by being baptized. ...
Baptism was so readily acknowledged as the natural and immediate consequences of faith that the New Testament links the two inseparably. Paul, the great interpreter of Christian belief and practice, saw Baptism as more than just a declaration of faith; he saw it as having meaning that is tied up with the unique union that believers have with Jesus Christ (Romans 6:3; Galatians 3:27). ...
According to Paul’s teaching, Baptism is an expression of union with Christ in dying to sin and being raised with Christ to new life. They demonstrate this in their Baptism, but they must also make it true in practice. They are united with Christ in his Baptism at Golgotha, as the Israelites were united with Moses in their redemption from Egypt (1 Corinthians 10:1-2). ...
Baptism is also a witness, or testimony. ...
Peter, like Paul, interprets Christian Baptism in relation to the death and resurrection of Christ. He sees judgment and salvation pictured in Baptism, as they were pictured in the flood of Noah’s time. ...
Baptism of infants...
The well known practice of baptizing infants, usually by sprinkling, is not specifically taught in the Bible. ...
Clearly, people are mistaken if they think that any sort of Baptism, whether for adults or infants, guarantees personal salvation regardless of what people believe or do as morally responsible beings (Matthew 3:7-10). Nevertheless, many Christians, while realizing that infant Baptism does not guarantee salvation, see meaning in it, particularly for those in Christian families. ...
The belief in the value of infant Baptism among Christian families is related to the Old Testament idea of God’s covenant with his people. ...
Believers who practise infant Baptism, while seeing it as a parallel to the Old Testament rite of circumcision, realize that, like circumcision, it is no assurance of salvation (Genesis 17:23; John 1:33)
Water - In the Church Catechism it is declared that the outwardvisible sign or form in Baptism is, "Water; wherein the person isbaptized. " By the rubric in the Office for Holy Baptism it isdirected that the Font is to be filled with "pure water. " Water, therefore, is theessential element of Holy Baptism, just as the bread and wine arethe elements in the Holy Communion. Water as used in HolyBaptism signifies "cleansing," The amount of water to be used theChurch has always regarded as matter of indifference
Baptism, John's - Was not Christian Baptism, nor was that which was practised by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. John's Baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ
Christendom - ) The name received at Baptism; or, more generally, any name or appelation. ) The profession of faith in Christ by Baptism; hence, the Christian religion, or the adoption of it
Unsacrament - ) To deprive of sacramental character or efficacy; as, to unsacrament the rite of Baptism
Baptism - Matthew 3:11 (b) Two Baptisms seem to be included in this passage. ...
...
the first is the Baptism of the believer in the Holy Spirit. ...
the second one seems to be the Baptism of the sinner in the lake of fire from which there is no resurrection. ...
The Lord JESUS gives us over to the Holy Spirit when He saves us, and this seems to be called a Baptism as in Acts 1:5. It is always the person who is moved and placed in Baptism. ...
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Luke 3:21 (c) The Baptism of JESUS certainly had nothing whatever to do with salvation, nor the new birth, nor forgiveness. ...
Luke 12:50 (a) This is the Baptism of our Lord JESUS which He endured on the Cross when GOD poured out His wrath upon Him and engulfed Him as it were in the burning billows of His anger. " That is the Baptism that saves us. ...
Romans 6:3 (b) This Baptism seems to represent that mysterious and rich experience which any person enjoys in the Lord JESUS. "...
1 Corinthians 10:2 (b) This is the Baptism accomplished in the Red Sea when the walls of water on each side, and the cloud above hid Israel from the sight of the Egyptians. They went through what was apparently a tunnel, and this is called a Baptism. In every case the word "baptism" is used to indicate that the change or the transfer is a complete transaction which involves the entire person and personality. ...
Colossians 2:12 (b) Here again Baptism is a symbol of burial in order that the world may know that the Christian is dead and buried so far as the world is concerned. CHRIST was baptized under the waves and billows of GOD's wrath, and it is His Baptism that saves, not our own Baptism. Those who are "in Christ" are saved by the Baptism of CHRIST on Calvary
Godfather - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent. One should also be called for private Baptism if possible. This is in keeping with the nature of Baptism considered as a spiritual regeneration. It is the duty of sponsors to make a profession of faith during the Baptismal ceremony for the one to be baptized, when necessary; and thereafter, to assume perpetual guardianship over the baptized and instruct them in the obligations of the Christian life, to insure fulfillment of Baptismal vows
Godmother - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent. One should also be called for private Baptism if possible. This is in keeping with the nature of Baptism considered as a spiritual regeneration. It is the duty of sponsors to make a profession of faith during the Baptismal ceremony for the one to be baptized, when necessary; and thereafter, to assume perpetual guardianship over the baptized and instruct them in the obligations of the Christian life, to insure fulfillment of Baptismal vows
Godparents - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent. One should also be called for private Baptism if possible. This is in keeping with the nature of Baptism considered as a spiritual regeneration. It is the duty of sponsors to make a profession of faith during the Baptismal ceremony for the one to be baptized, when necessary; and thereafter, to assume perpetual guardianship over the baptized and instruct them in the obligations of the Christian life, to insure fulfillment of Baptismal vows
Sureties - The New Code of Canon Law, supporting ancient custom, forbids solemn Baptism without a godparent. One should also be called for private Baptism if possible. This is in keeping with the nature of Baptism considered as a spiritual regeneration. It is the duty of sponsors to make a profession of faith during the Baptismal ceremony for the one to be baptized, when necessary; and thereafter, to assume perpetual guardianship over the baptized and instruct them in the obligations of the Christian life, to insure fulfillment of Baptismal vows
Child, Chrisom - One who dies within a month of Baptism, so called because the chrisom served as a shroud
Chrisom Child - One who dies within a month of Baptism, so called because the chrisom served as a shroud
Elements - The bread and the wine in the Holy Communion, and thewater in Holy Baptism are so-called
Baptism - Christian Baptism in the NT. -It will be convenient at the beginning of this article to collect the narratives of and allusions to Christian Baptism in the NT. The command of our Lord to make disciples of all the nations by Baptism (Matthew 28:19; see below, 4 and 8) was faithfully carried out by the first disciples. Actual Baptisms are recorded in Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41 (the 3000 converts), Acts 8:12 f. ...
In addition to these narratives there are many allusions to Christian Baptism in the NT-Romans 6:11. , Colossians 2:12, baptized into Christ Jesus, into His death, buried with Him in Baptism: a common thought in early times-e. -1 Corinthians 6:11, sanctification and justification connected with the washing of Baptism; three aorists, referring to a definite event: ‘ye washed away (ἀπελούσασθε, middle) [1] … in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God’; cf. Acts 22:16 (above): ‘arise and be baptized’ (βαπτίσαι, ‘seek Baptism’) and wash away (ἀπολούσαι) thy sins. -Ephesians 4:5, ‘one Lord, one faith, one Baptism. -Hebrews 6:2; Hebrews 6:4, the first principles are repentance, faith, teaching of Baptisms (βαπτισμῶν) and of laying on of hands, resurrection, and judgment; Christians were once enlightened (φωτισθέντας) and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost; hence the name ‘illumination’ (φωτισμός) and ‘illuminated’ for ‘baptism’ and ‘the baptized’ in Justin (Apol. Westcott interprets the ‘teaching [3] of Baptisms’ as instruction about the difference between Christian Baptism and other lustral rites. ) denies this, and interprets the phrase of the Baptism of different neophytes, ‘the Christian rite in its concrete application to individual believers’: the ‘heavenly gift’ is one part of the illumination or Baptism, i. ’-In 1 Peter 3:21 Baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc. ...
In the Gospels, Christian Baptism is three times referred to: Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:16, John 3:3; John 3:5. [6] 504, note, who deems the theory unscientific); but in any case the ‘birth of the Spirit’ could not but convey to the Christian readers of the Fourth Gospel a reference to Baptism. ) that to Nicodemus the words would suggest a reference to John’s Baptism. An attempt to explain ‘water’ here without reference to Baptism is examined by Hooker (Eccl. The clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, Acts 2:14-385 and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in Baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12. 14) emphasizes the element used, by calling Baptism the ‘water of life’: so in Hermas (Vis. ’...
More indirect allusions to Christian Baptism are found in the NT. Whatever view is taken of Baptism for the dead (1 Corinthians 15:29), it alludes to the Christian rite. It has been interpreted (a) of vicarious Baptism on behalf of those who had died unbaptized (cf. -(c) Others interpret the verse of people being drawn to the faith and to Baptism out of affection for some dead friend; Robertson-Plummer (International Critical Commentary , in loc. It is probable that the problem is insoluble with our present knowledge, and that the reference is to some ceremony in the then Baptismal rite at Corinth of which we hear no more, but not to vicarious Baptism (see Plummer in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. ...
Other allusions to Baptism (the complete rite, see below, 6) may probably be found in the metaphors of anointing and sealing. Irenaeus says that some of the Gnostic sects anointed alter Baptism (c. ) Hence in Christian antiquity the Baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e. Predecessors of Christian Baptism...
-(a) The words βαπτίζω, βαπτισμός, βάπτισμα are used in the NT of various ceremonial washings of the Jews. -so also βάπτισμα) and of the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost (Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16, see below, 6), or else of Baptism and of Jewish ablations. ]'>[8] sprinkle, themselves before meat and have ‘baptizings,’ βαπτισμούς, of vessels), Luke 11:38 (of washing before breakfast, ἐβαπτίσθη πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου), Hebrews 9:10 (divers ‘baptisms,’ i. *
(b) Baptism of proselytes. full proselytes, with Baptism, circumcision, and sacrifice. ; but Edersheim has clearly proved from ancient evidence that it was then in use (LT
(c) The Baptism of John is described in all the Gospels. It was a preparatory Baptism (Matthew 3:11), the Baptism of repentance (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:8, Acts 13:24; Acts 19:4), intended, by an outward symbol, to induce repentance which is the essential requisite for the reception of spiritual truth. So marked a feature of his teaching was Baptism, that John is called pre-eminently ‘the Baptist’ (ὁ βαπτιστής, Matthew 3:1; Matthew 11:11 f. But he himself shows the difference between his Baptism and that of Jesus, in that the latter was to be with the Holy Ghost (Matthew 3:11, Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16, John 1:33) and with fire (Mt. For the meaning of Baptism ‘with the Holy Ghost,’ see below 6 and 8 (e). Baptism ‘with fire’ is explained in Matthew 3:12; it is a Baptism of judgment separating the wheat from the chaff, and burning the chaff with fire unquenchable (Allen, Com. However this may be, the fundamental difference between the two Baptisms is that John’s was a ceremonial rite symbolizing the need of repentance and of washing away sin, while that of our Lord was, in addition, the infusing of a new life; see below, 8. The Baptism of John is mentioned in the NT outside the Gospels in Acts 1:5; Acts 1:22; Acts 10:37; Acts 11:15; Acts 13:24; Acts 18:25; Acts 19:3 f. ...
To this preparatory stage is also to be assigned the Baptism of Jesus by John; it was not the institution of Christian Baptism, though it paved the way for it, and in some sense our Lord may be said to have thereby sanctified ‘water to the mystical washing away of sin. Preparation for Baptism. -Instruction in Christian doctrine before Baptism is to some extent necessary, because otherwise there cannot be faith and repentance. Philip instructed the Samaritans and the Eunuch before Baptism (Acts 8:5 f. The instruction of Theophilus (Luke 1:4) was probably, at least in part, before Baptism. Lydia’s Baptism followed a preaching (Acts 16:18), as did that of the Corinthians (Acts 18:5). (διδάσκω), have no special reference to Baptism. ...
At a later period, persons under instruction for Baptism were called catechumens (κατηχούμενοι, ‘those in a state of being taught’; cf. The catechumens were taught the Creed, or Christian doctrine, during their catechumenate, and their instruction was called the ‘traditio symboli’; they professed their faith at Baptism, and this profession was called the
Trisacramentarian - ) One who recognizes three sacraments, and no more; - namely, Baptism, the Lord's Supper, and penance
Baptistry - The place in which the ceremony of Baptism is performed. It consisted of an ante-room, where the adult persons to be baptized made their confession of faith; and an inner room, where the ceremony of Baptism was performed
Sponsors - Are those persons who, in the office of Baptism, answer, or are sureties for the persons baptised
Sacrament - The two sacraments commanded by Jesus are Baptism and the Lord’s Supper (Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-24). ...
Baptism is an outward expression of faith in Christ and what he has done for believers through his death and resurrection (Acts 2:38; Romans 6:3-4; see Baptism)
Chrismation - (Greek: chrio, anoint) The act of anointing persons, as in Baptism, or things, as in the blessing of Baptismal water
Baptism of the Dead - A custom which anciently prevailed among some people in Africa, of giving Baptism to the dead. The practice seems to be grounded on a vain idea, that, when men had neglected to receive Baptism in their life-time, some compensation might be made for this default by receiving it after death
Anti-Paedobaptists - (Greek: anti, against; pais, child) ...
Those who object to infant Baptism; sometimes applied to the Baptist sect, in America and elsewhere
Adult - (Latin: adultus, grown) ...
One who has reached maturity; Baptism is termed "adult" if the recipient has attained the age of reason
Baptism - Baptisms in the sense of purifications were common in the Old Testament The "divers washings" (Greek "baptisms") are mentioned in Hebrews 9:10, and "the doctrine of Baptisms," Hebrews 6:2. The plural" Baptisms" is used in the wider sense, all purifications by water; as of the priest's hands and feet in the laver outside before entering the tabernacle, in the daily service (Exodus 30:17-21); of the high priest's flesh in the holy place on the day of atonement (Matthew 11:13-14); of persons ceremonially unclean (Leviticus 14; 15; Leviticus 16:26-28; Leviticus 17:15; Leviticus 22:4-6), a leper, one with an issue, one who ate that which died of itself, one who touched a dead body, the one who let go the scape-goat or buried the ashes of the red heifer, of the people before a religious festival (Exodus 19:10; John 11:55). The high priest's consecration was threefold: by Baptism, unction, and sacrifice (Exodus 29:4; Exodus 40:12-15; Leviticus 8). ...
"Baptism" in the singular is used specially of the Christian rite. Jewish believers passed naturally from the Old Testament Baptismal purifications, through John's transitional Baptism, to Christian Baptism and the subsequent laying on of hands, accompanied with the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:12; Acts 8:14-17). The spiritual sense of ceremonial Baptisms was recognized in the Old Testament (Psalms 26:6; Psalms 51:2; Psalms 51:7; Psalms 73:13; Isaiah 1:16; Isaiah 4:4; Jeremiah 4:14; Zechariah 13:1. When sacrifices ceased, after the destruction of the temple, the washing would be retained as a Baptism of initiation into Judaism. ...
John's "baptism of repentance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:3) was the pledge his followers took of their determination to separate themselves from the prevalent pollutions, as the needful preparation for receiving the coming Messiah, who remits the sins of His believing people. John's Baptism was accompanied with confession (Matthew 3:6), and was an act of obedience to the call to renounce all sin and believe in the coming Redeemer from sin. John's Baptism began and ended with himself; he alone, too, administered it. But Christ's Baptism was performed by His disciples, not Himself, that He might mark His exclusive dignity as baptizer, with the Holy Spirit (John 4:2), and that the validity of Baptism might not depend on the worth of the minister but on God's appointment. Apollos' and John's disciples at Ephesus knew not of the Holy Spirit's Baptism, which is the distinctive feature of Christ's (Acts 18:25; John 1:36; compare Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16). The outward sign of an inward sorrow for sin was in John's Baptism; but there was not the inward spiritual grace conferred as in Christian Baptism. been baptized by John probably received no further Baptism until the extraordinary one by the Holy Spirit on Pentecost. Christian Baptism implies grafting into fellowship or union with the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; for the Greek expresses this (Matthew 28:19): "Go ye, make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name (the revealed person) of the Father," etc. ...
John, being among the Old Testament prophets, not in the kingdom of God or New Testament church, preached the law and Baptism into legal repentance and reformation of morals, and Messiah's immediate advent. Christian Baptism is the seal of gospel doctrine and spiritual renewal. Jesus' own Baptism by John was, Christ saith, in order "to fulfill all righteousness" (Matthew 3:15). As the high priest's consecration was threefold, by Baptism, unction, and sacrifice, so Jesus' (compare Acts 10:38) Baptism began His consecration, the Holy Spirit's unction was the complement of His Baptism, and His sacrifice fully perfected His consecration as our priest forevermore (Hebrews 7:28, margin). This is the sense of 1 John 5:6; "this is He that came by water and blood;" by water at His consecration by Baptism to His mediatorial ministry for us, when He received the Father's testimony to His Messiahship and His divine Sonship (John 1:33-34). Corresponding to His is our Baptism of water and the Spirit, the seal of initiatory incorporation with Him (John 3:5). Jesus came, undergoing Himself the double Baptism of water and blood, then baptizing us with the Spirit cleansing, of which water is the sacramental seal, and with His atoning blood once for all shed and of perpetual efficacy; therefore He Messiah. It is His shed blood which gives water Baptism its spiritual significancy. , agree in testifying to Jesus' Sonship and Messiaship by the sacramental grace in water Baptism received by the penitent believer through His droning blood and His inwardly witnessing Spirit (1 John 5:5-6; 1 John 5:8; 1 John 5:10), answering to the testimony to Jesus' Sonship and Messiahship by His Baptism, by His crucifixion, and by the Spirit's manifestation in Him. By Christ's Baptism, by His blood shedding, and by the Spirit's past and present working in Him, the Spirit, the water, and the blood are the threefold witness to His divine Messiahship. ...
As circumcision was the painful entrance into the yoke of bondage, the law of Sinai, so Baptism is the easy entrance into the light yoke of Christ, the law of liberty and love. Circumcision was the badge of Jewish exclusiveness in one aspect; Baptism is the badge of God's world-wide mercy in Christ. Any spiritualizing that denies outward Baptism with water, in the face of Christ's command and the apostles' practice, must logically lead to rationalistic evasions of Scripture in general. Preaching, no doubt, takes the precedency of Baptism with the apostles, whose office was evangelistic rather than pastoral (1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 1:17). The teaching and acceptance of the truth stands first; the sealing of belief in it by Baptism comes next not vice versa. " There might be salvation without Baptism, as the penitent thief on the cross was saved; but not salvation without believing, to those capable of it. As circumcision bound the circumcised to obedience to the law, and also admitted him to the spiritual privileges of Judaism, so Baptism binds the baptized to Christ's service, and gives him a share in all the privileges of the Christian covenant. Thus 1 Peter 3:21, literally "which water, being antitype (to the water of the flood) is now saving (puts in a state of salvation) us also (as well as Noah), to wit, Baptism. Water Baptism can put away that filth, but the Spirit's Baptism alone can put away this (Ephesians 2:11). ...
The "good conscience's" ability to give a satisfactory "answer" to the interrogation concerning faith and repentance ensures the really saving Baptism of the Spirit into living fellowship with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. In Colossians 2:11-12, Baptism is represented as our Christian "circumcision made without hands," implying that not the minister, but God Himself, confers it; spiritual circumcision ("putting off the body of the sins of the flesh") is realized in union with Christ, whose "circumcision" implies His having undertaken for us to keep the whole law (Luke 2:21). ...
Baptism, coincident with this spiritual circumcision, is the burial of the old carnal life, to which immersion corresponds. "Buried with Him in Baptism, wherein also ye are risen with Him by faith IN the operation of God who hath raised Him from the dead" (Colossians 2:12; Ephesians 1:19-20). Here, and in Romans 6:3-4-5-6, Baptism is viewed as identifying us with Christ, by our union to His once crucified and now risen body, and as entailing in us also a death unto sin and a new birth unto righteousness, and as involving as the final issue our bodily sharing in the likeness of His resurrection, at the coming first resurrection, that of the saints. Figuratively, death is called a "baptism" (Matthew 20:22; Mark 10:38; Luke 12:50). ...
In some cases the palpable descent of the Spirit was before, in others after, the Baptism, and. The gospel word of faith, confessed in Baptism, carries with it the real, cleansing, regenerating power (John 15:3; John 17:17; 1 Peter 1:23; Chrism - Oil consecrated by the bishop, and used in the Romish and Greek churches in the administration of Baptism, confirmation, ordination, and extreme unction
Apolusia - In Eastern rites, washing of catechumens in church, eight days before Baptism
Antipaedobaptists - a denomination given to those who object to the Baptism of infants
Baptismal Shell - A scallop shell, either real or made of preciousmetal, used by the Priest for pouring the water on the head of thecandidate in Holy Baptism
Baptism For the Dead - Substituting alternative phrases—baptism for "the spiritually dead, " "the dying, " "in memory of the departed, " or othersmerely multiplies problems. Vicarious Baptisms for the benefit of the dead, practiced on the fringe of Christianity from the second century, illustrate the influence of this verse, but not Paul's meaning. Paul is arguing that if Jesus has not risen, then Christian faith, preaching, remission, hope, are all vain; so is "baptism for the dead. " He cannot mean Christian Baptism, for none of its conditions or benefits, as Paul expounds them, can be affirmed of the dead. ...
If docetic type Christians infected the church at Corinth, they may have accepted Baptism for departed souls : but how would that prove bodily resurrection? Similarly, some Dionysian rites and some practices of the mystery religions were held to ensure access, and safe journeying, in the spiritual world, even for those already dead. Is he then arguing that even pagans, if their Baptism for the dead be properly understood, testify unconsciously to a bodily resurrection? ...
R
Odchild - ) One for whom a person becomes sponsor at Baptism, and whom he promises to see educated as a Christian; a godson or goddaughter
Confirmation - Ecclesiastical confirmation is a rite whereby a person, arrived to years of discretion, undertakes the performance of every part of the Baptismal vow made for him by his godfathers and godmothers. In the primitive church it was done immediately after Baptism, if the bishop happened to be present at the solemnity. Throughout the East it still accompanies Baptism; but the Romanists make it a distinct independent sacrament. The person to be confirmed has a godfather and godmother appointed him, as in Baptism
Baptism, Christian - " The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. The mode of Baptism can in no way be determined from the Greek word rendered "baptize. Nothing therefore as to the mode of Baptism can be concluded from the mere word used. Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions and Baptisms required by the Mosaic law. These were effected by immersion, and by affusion and sprinkling; and the same word, "washings" (Hebrews 9:10,13,19,21 ) or "baptisms," designates them all. Moreover, none of the instances of Baptism recorded in the Acts of the Apostles (2:38-41; 8:26-39; 9:17,18; 22:12-16; 10:44-48; 16:32-34) favours the idea that it was by dipping the person baptized, or by immersion, while in some of them such a mode was highly improbable. ...
The gospel and its ordinances are designed for the whole world, and it cannot be supposed that a form for the administration of Baptism would have been prescribed which would in any place (as in a tropical country or in polar regions) or under any circumstances be inapplicable or injurious or impossible. ...
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. The Supper represents the work of Christ, and Baptism the work of the Spirit. As in the Supper a small amount of bread and wine used in this ordinance exhibits in symbol the great work of Christ, so in Baptism the work of the Holy Spirit is fully seen in the water poured or sprinkled on the person in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. That which is essential in Baptism is only "washing with water," no mode being specified and none being necessary or essential to the symbolism of the ordinance. He uses also with the same reference the expression shed forth as descriptive of the Baptism of the Spirit (33). In the Pentecostal Baptism "the apostles were not dipped into the Spirit, nor plunged into the Spirit; but the Spirit was shed forth, poured out, fell on them (11:15), came upon them, sat on them. " That was a real and true Baptism. Baptism is therefore, in view of all these arguments "rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person. " ...
The subjects of Baptism. The controversy here is not about "believers' Baptism," for that is common to all parties. It is altogether a misrepresentation to allege, as is sometimes done by Baptists, that their doctrine is "believers' Baptism. " Every instance of adult Baptism, or of "believers' Baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41 ; 8:37 ; 9:17,18 ; 10:47 ; 16:15 ; 19:5 , etc. ) is just such as would be dealt with in precisely the same way by all branches of the Protestant Church, a profession of faith or of their being "believers" would be required from every one of them before Baptism. The point in dispute is not the Baptism of believers, but whether the infant children of believers, i. In support of the doctrine of infant Baptism, i. , of the Baptism of the infants, or rather the "children," of believing parents, the following considerations may be adduced: ...
The Church of Christ exists as a divinely organized community. And the law of my house requires that the same day which witnesses your reception into it by Baptism must witness their reception also'" (The Church, by Professor Binnie, D
Baptism - Christian Baptism in the NT. -It will be convenient at the beginning of this article to collect the narratives of and allusions to Christian Baptism in the NT. The command of our Lord to make disciples of all the nations by Baptism (Matthew 28:19; see below, 4 and 8) was faithfully carried out by the first disciples. Actual Baptisms are recorded in Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41 (the 3000 converts), Acts 8:12 f. ...
In addition to these narratives there are many allusions to Christian Baptism in the NT-Romans 6:11. , Colossians 2:12, baptized into Christ Jesus, into His death, buried with Him in Baptism: a common thought in early times-e. -1 Corinthians 6:11, sanctification and justification connected with the washing of Baptism; three aorists, referring to a definite event: ‘ye washed away (ἀπελούσασθε, middle) [1] … in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God’; cf. Acts 22:16 (above): ‘arise and be baptized’ (βαπτίσαι, ‘seek Baptism’) and wash away (ἀπολούσαι) thy sins. -Ephesians 4:5, ‘one Lord, one faith, one Baptism. -Hebrews 6:2; Hebrews 6:4, the first principles are repentance, faith, teaching of Baptisms (βαπτισμῶν) and of laying on of hands, resurrection, and judgment; Christians were once enlightened (φωτισθέντας) and tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost; hence the name ‘illumination’ (φωτισμός) and ‘illuminated’ for ‘baptism’ and ‘the baptized’ in Justin (Apol. Westcott interprets the ‘teaching [3] of Baptisms’ as instruction about the difference between Christian Baptism and other lustral rites. ) denies this, and interprets the phrase of the Baptism of different neophytes, ‘the Christian rite in its concrete application to individual believers’: the ‘heavenly gift’ is one part of the illumination or Baptism, i. ’-In 1 Peter 3:21 Baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc. ...
In the Gospels, Christian Baptism is three times referred to: Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:16, John 3:3; John 3:5. [4] 504, note, who deems the theory unscientific); but in any case the ‘birth of the Spirit’ could not but convey to the Christian readers of the Fourth Gospel a reference to Baptism. ) that to Nicodemus the words would suggest a reference to John’s Baptism. An attempt to explain ‘water’ here without reference to Baptism is examined by Hooker (Eccl. The clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:20, and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in Baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12. 14) emphasizes the element used, by calling Baptism the ‘water of life’: so in Hermas (Vis. ’...
More indirect allusions to Christian Baptism are found in the NT. Whatever view is taken of Baptism for the dead (1 Corinthians 15:29), it alludes to the Christian rite. It has been interpreted (a) of vicarious Baptism on behalf of those who had died unbaptized (cf. -(c) Others interpret the verse of people being drawn to the faith and to Baptism out of affection for some dead friend; Robertson-Plummer (International Critical Commentary , in loc. It is probable that the problem is insoluble with our present knowledge, and that the reference is to some ceremony in the then Baptismal rite at Corinth of which we hear no more, but not to vicarious Baptism (see Plummer in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. ...
Other allusions to Baptism (the complete rite, see below, 6) may probably be found in the metaphors of anointing and sealing. Irenaeus says that some of the Gnostic sects anointed alter Baptism (c. ) Hence in Christian antiquity the Baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e. Predecessors of Christian Baptism...
-(a) The words βαπτίζω, βαπτισμός, βάπτισμα are used in the NT of various ceremonial washings of the Jews. -so also βάπτισμα) and of the descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost (Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16, see below, 6), or else of Baptism and of Jewish ablations. ]'>[9] sprinkle, themselves before meat and have ‘baptizings,’ βαπτισμούς, of vessels), Luke 11:38 (of washing before breakfast, ἐβαπτίσθη πρὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου), Hebrews 9:10 (divers ‘baptisms,’ i. * Baptism - Baptism . The earliest use of the word ‘baptism’ to describe a religious and not merely ceremonial observance is in connexion with the preaching of John the Baptist, and the title which is given to him is probably an indication of the novelty of his procedure ( Matthew 3:1 , Mark 8:28 , Luke 7:20 ; cf. He ‘preached the Baptism of repentance for the remission of sins’ ( Mark 1:4 ), i. the result of his preaching was to induce men to seek Baptism as an outward sign and pledge of inward repentance on their part, and of their forgiveness on the part of God. ‘Baptism is related to repentance as the outward act in which the inward change finds expression. But in any case the significance of their Baptism was that of ceremonial cleansing; John employed it as a symbol and a seal of moral purification. But, according to the Gospel record, John recognized the incomplete and provisional character of the Baptism administered by him: ‘I indeed have baptized you with water; but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost’ ( Mark 1:8 ). Jesus Himself accepted Baptism at the hands of John ( Mark 1:9 ), overcoming the reluctance of the Baptist with a word of authority. That Jesus Himself baptized is nowhere suggested in the Synoptic Gospels, and is expressly denied in the Fourth Gospel ( John 4:2 ); but His disciples baptized, and it must have been with His authority, equivalent to Baptism by Himself, and involving admission to the society of His disciples. Christian Baptism was to be Baptism ‘with the Spirit,’ and ‘the Spirit was not yet given’ ( John 7:39 ). It is recorded in Acts ( Acts 1:5 ) that the Risen Lord foretold that this promised Baptism would be received after His departure, ‘not many days hence. Christian Baptism, although it finds a formal analogy in the Baptism of John, which in its turn represents a spiritualizing of ancient Jewish ideas of lustration, appears as in its essential character a new thing after the descent of the Holy Spirit. The difficulty hence arising may be met by assuming ( a ) that Baptism in the name of Jesus was equivalent to Baptism in the name of the Trinity, or ( b ) that the shorter phrase does not represent the formula used by the baptizer (which may have been the fuller one), but the profession made by the baptized, and the essential fact that he became a Christian one of Christ’s acknowledged followers. That Baptism was the normal, and probably the indispensable, condition of being recognized as a member of the Christian community appears from allusions in the Epistles ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 , Galatians 3:27 ), and abundantly from the evidence in Acts. ’ In these cases the gift followed upon Baptism, with or without the laying-on of hands. It was on the ground of this previous communication of the Holy Spirit that Peter subsequently justified his action in admitting these persons to Baptism ( Acts 11:15-18 ). Peter, led to the profession of faith through Baptism, though the Apostle seems as a rule to have left the actual administration to others ( 1 Corinthians 1:14-17 ): ‘for Christ sent me not to baptize, but to preach the gospel. The conditions antecedent to Baptism are plainly set forth in Acts, viz. That Baptism was ‘in the name of Jesus’ signifies that it took place for the purpose of sealing the new relationship of belonging to, being committed to, His Personality. The blessing attached to the rite is commonly exhibited as the gift of the Holy Spirit; the due fulfilment of the condition of Baptism involved ipso facto the due fulfilment of the condition of receiving the Spirit. In the Epistles, this, the normal consequence of Christian Baptism, is analyzed into its various elements. ( b ) In Baptism the believer was to realize most vividly the total breach with his old life involved in his new attitude to God through Christ, a breach comparable only with that effected by death ( Romans 6:2-7 , Colossians 2:12 ); he was to realize also that the consequences of this fellowship with Christ were not only death to sin, but a new life in righteousness as real as that which followed on resurrection ( Romans 6:4 ). ( c ) Baptism conferred incorporation in the one body of Christ ( 1 Corinthians 12:13 ), and was thus adapted to serve as a symbol of the true unity of Christians ( Ephesians 4:5 ). as referring to the continuous cleansing of the Church by the word; but if the reference is to Baptism, then the phrase ‘by the word’ probably alludes to the profession of faith by the baptized, whether it took the form of ‘Jesus is Lord’ ( Romans 4:10 ; cf. In Titus 3:5 , while Baptism is the instrument by which salvation is realized,’ regeneration’ and ‘renewal’ are both displayed as the work of the Holy Spirit. The NT contains no explicit reference to the Baptism of infants or young children; but it does not follow that the Church of the 2nd cent. adopted an unauthorized innovation when it carried out the practice of infant Baptism. There was sufficient parallelism between Baptism and circumcision (cf. Colossians 2:11 ) for the Jewish-Christian father to expect the Baptism of his children to follow his own as a matter of course. In a home organized on this principle, which prevailed throughout the Roman Empire, it would be a thing inconceivable that the children could be severed from the father in their religious rights and duties, in the standing conferred by Baptism. Thus it is because, to the mind of Jew and Gentile alike, the Baptism of infants and children yet unable to supply the conditions for themselves was so natural, that St. If there were children in these households, these children were baptized on the ground of the faith of their parents; if there were no children, then the principle took a still wider extension, which includes children; for it was the servants or slaves of the household who were ‘added to the Church’ by Baptism on the ground of their master’s faith. Baptism was a ceremony of initiation by which the baptized not only were admitted members of the visible society of the disciples of Christ, but also received the solemn attestation of the consequences of their faith. The second is the Christian community or Church (rather than the person who administers Baptism, and who studiously keeps in the background)
Ark - This experience of CHRIST He calls a Baptism in Luke 12:50. It is the Baptism of the Lord JESUS under GOD's anger and wrath, as described in1Pe 3:20-21, by which we are saved. We are saved by Baptism, but it is JESUS' Baptism, and not ours
Leo Vii, Pope - He encouraged monastic reform, favored the Cluny foundation and condemned the forced Baptism of Jews in Germany
Chrism - ) Olive oil mixed with balm and spices, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday, and used in the administration of Baptism, confirmation, ordination, etc
Flagellant - ) One of a fanatical sect which flourished in Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries, and maintained that flagellation was of equal virtue with Baptism and the sacrament; - called also disciplinant
Penance - In Catholicism, a means by which all sins committed after Baptism are removed
Baptism For the Dead - A practice formerly in use, when a person dying without Baptism, another was baptized in his stead; thus supposing that God would accept the Baptism of the proxy, as though it had been administered to the principal. Chrysostom says, this was practiced among the Marcionites with a great deal of ridiculous ceremony, which he thus describes:...
After any catechumen was dead, they hid a living man under the bed of the deceased; then, coming to the dead man, they asked him whether he would receive Baptism; and he making no answer, the other answered for him, and said he would be baptized in his stead; and so they baptized the living for the dead. Doddridge, who thinks it too early: he thus paraphrases the passage: "Such are our views and hopes as Christians; else, if it were not so, what should they do who are baptized in token of their embracing the Christian faith, in the room of the dead, who are just fallen in the cause of Christ, but are yet supported by a succession of new converts, who immediately offer themselves to fill up their places, as ranks of soldiers that advance to the combat in the rooms of their companions who have just been slain in their sight?" Lay Baptism we find to have been permitted by both the common prayer books of king Edward and queen Elizabeth, when an infant was in immediate danger of death, and a lawful minister could not be had. This was founded on a mistaken notion of the impossibility of salvation without the sacrament of Baptism; but afterwards, when they came to have clearer notions of the sacraments, it was unanimously resolved in a convocation held in 1575, that even private Baptism in a case of necessity was only to be administered by a lawful minister
Infant Baptism - If, on the other hand, the Church is a DivineInstitution, founded on Christ and His Apostles, and is declaredin Holy Scripture to be the Mystical Body of Christ, in which weare united to Him, admitted into covenant with God and so broughtinto a new relationship with God, then Infant Baptism is not onlyone of the most reasonable, but one of the most urgent doctrines ofthe Christian Religion, because it is in Holy Baptism that all theseblessings are vouchsafed to us. (See Baptism, HOLY. By its new Birth in Holy Baptism,the child becomes as fully incorporated into the new and spiritualrace of which Christ is the Head, as ever it was incorporated intothe race of mankind by its natural birth. This is the meaning of Infant Baptism; and the Churchhas always regarded such Baptism as a reasonable and benevolentwork, as is exemplified by her universal practice from the beginning
Christian Names - Names given to individuals at their Baptism. One of the duties of pastors in regard to Baptism is the exercise of care, in order that a Christian name be given to the one baptized
Names, Christian - Names given to individuals at their Baptism. One of the duties of pastors in regard to Baptism is the exercise of care, in order that a Christian name be given to the one baptized
Character - The word is used to express the spiritual and indelible sign imprinted on the soul by the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders. Baptism marks the soul as a subject of Christ and His Church; Confirmation as a warrior of the Church militant; Holy Orders as a minister of its Divine worship
Baptism - It is done in the name and authority (Acts 4:7) of Christ with the Baptismal formula of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19). ...
Some maintain that Baptism is necessary for salvation. If you want to read more on this see Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation?...
Registers, Parochial - Five distinct books, in which the parish priest is required to record respectively the Baptisms, confirmations, and marriages that take place in his parish (except marriages of conscience, which are recorded in the secret archives of chancery), deaths among his people, and, as far as possible, the actual spiritual condition of his parish. Annotations of subsequent confirmation, marriage, reception of subdiaconate, or solemn religious profession, must be made alongside the record of Baptism in the Baptismal register and always transcribed into certificates of Baptism
Matthias - One of the disciples who continued with our Savior from his Baptism to his ascension, Acts 1:21-26 , and was after the ascension associated with the eleven apostles
Dead, Sacraments of the - Baptism and Penance
Sacraments of the Dead - Baptism and Penance
Baptism, Baptist, Baptize - A — 1: βάπτισμα (Strong's #908 — Noun Neuter — Baptisma — bap'-tis-mah ) "baptism," consisting of the processes of immersion, submersion and emergence (from bapto, "to dip"), is used (a) of John's "baptism," (b) of Christian "baptism," see B. ...
A — 2: βαπτισμός (Strong's #909 — Noun Masculine — Baptismos — bap-tis-mos' ) as distinct from Baptisma (the ordinance), is used of the "ceremonial washing of articles," Mark 7:4,8 , in some texts; Hebrews 9:10 ; once in a general sense, Hebrews 6:2 . Distinct form this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matthew 28:19 , a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, e. " The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitupon, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Peter 3:21 . The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of Divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matthew 3:11 ; Luke 3:16
Odfather - ) A man who becomes sponsor for a child at Baptism, and makes himself a surety for its Christian training and instruction
Alb Sunday - The first Sunday after Easter Sunday, properly Albless Sunday, because in the early church those who had been baptized on Easter eve laid aside on the following Saturday their white albs which had been put on after Baptism
Epiphany - ”...
In much of Eastern Christianity, Epiphany is a celebration of the Baptism of Jesus, a recognition of His manifestation to humanity as the Son of God (Mark 1:9-11 ). In the early centuries, before the observance of Christmas, Epiphany celebrated both the birth of Jesus and His Baptism
Whitsunday - It is called Whitsunday or White-Sunday, because this one of that stated times for Baptism in the ancient church, those who were baptised put on white garments, as types of that spiritual purity they received in Baptism
Baptism - " The Sacrament of Baptism is absolutely necessary for salvation, because all are subject to original sin: wherefore Christ's words to Nicodemus, "Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God" (John 3). Baptism is administered by pouring water on the head of the candidate, saying at the same time, ...
I baptize thee, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. These essentials are apart from the beautiful requirements of the Church for solemn Baptism. Baptism of desire (flaminis) and of blood (sanguinis) are called such analogically, in that they supply the remission of sin and the regenerative grace, but not the character; the former presupposes perfect charity or love of God (therefore implicitly the desire for the sacrament), while the latter is simply martyrdom for the sake of Christ or His Church. Without the Sacrament of Baptism or martyrdom it is commonly taught that infants cannot attain to the enjoyment of the Beatific Vision
Effrontes - This ceremony served them instead of Baptism
Affusion - ) The act of pouring upon, or sprinkling with a liquid, as water upon a child in Baptism
Justification - Removal of original sin by Baptism is called first justification; forgiveness, in the Sacrament of Penance, of mortal sin committed after Baptism, is called second justification
Means of Grace - Generally, the means of grace are considered to be the Gospel, Baptism, and the Lord’s Supper. The Catholic church has seven total: Baptism, confirmation, communion, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, and matrimony
Baptistery - A separate building or portion of the church set apart for the administration of Baptism, usually dedicated to Saint John the Baptist and placed in the atrium or forecourt to signify that without Baptism man cannot enter the Church
Baptism, Private - The proper place for the administration of HolyBaptism is in the church, and the Church warns her people "thatwithout great and reasonable cause and necessity, they procure nottheir children to be baptized at home in their houses. " But whenneed shall compel them so to do, she provides for the emergency bythe service entitled, "The Ministration of Private Baptism ofChildren in Houses," as set forth in the Prayer Book. The child is tobe brought afterwards into the Church to the intent that thecongregation may be certified of the true Form of Baptism privatelybefore used
Chrism - (Greek: chrisma, an anointing) A mixture of olive-oil and balsam, blessed by a bishop on Holy Thursday and used in administering Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, and in the consecration of churches, altars, chalices, patens, and in the blessing of bells, and Baptismal water
Matter, Sacramental - , water in Baptism
Liturgical Use of Creed - The Apostles', Nicene, or Athanasian Creed, varying in use according to the rite, is recited at Baptism, at Mass, and at the Divine Office
Sacramental Matter - , water in Baptism
Baptism Metaphorical - In Scripture the term Baptism is used as referring to the work of the Spirit on the heart, Matthew 3:11 ; also to the sufferings of Christ, Matthew 20:22 ; and to so much of the Gospel as John the Baptist taught his disciples, Acts 18:25
Chrisom - ) A child which died within a month after its Baptism; - so called from the chrisom cloth which was used as a shroud for it
Sponsors - During the time of those early persecutions it standsto reason that the heads of the Church must have been aware of theprobability of some at least of those who had been baptized ofreceding from their vows and thus sinning away their Baptismalgrace. It was but natural that they should adopt every precautionto ascertain the character of those whom, by Baptism, they admittedto the Christian covenant. In the case of Baptism ofInfants, the significance of Sponsors is very great, in thatBaptism is a covenant, in which God on the one hand is representedby His Minister, and the child is represented by his Sponsors,who answer for him and agree to see to it that this child shallbe virtuously brought up and so trained that it shall lead therest of his life according to this beginning. The Sponsors arecalled Godfathers and Godmothers because of the spiritual affinitycreated in Baptism, their responsibility for the training of thechild being almost parental. (See Baptism, HOLY; INFANT Baptism;also NAME, THE CHRISTIAN
Baptism - Baptism exhibits to us the blessings of pardon, salvation through Jesus Christ, union to and communion with him, the out-pouring of the Spirit, regeneration, and sanctification. From Baptism results the obligation of repentance, love to Christ, and perpetual devotedness to his praise. Baptism does not constitute a visible subject, but only recognizes one. ...
Baptism has been supposed by many learned persons to have had its origin from the Jewish church; in which, they maintain, it was the practice, long before Christ's time, to baptize proselytes or converts to their faith, as part of the ceremony of their admission. " Others, however, insist, that the Jewish proselyte Baptism is not by far so ancient; and that John the Baptist was the first administrator of Baptism among the Jews. ...
The Baptism of John, and that of our Saviour and his apostles, have been supposed to be the same; because they agree, it is said in their subjects, form, and end. The immediate institutor of John's Baptism was God the Father, John 1:33 ; but the immediate institutor of the Christian Baptism was Christ, Matthew 28:19 . John's Baptism was a preparatory rite, referring the subjects to Christ, who was about to confer on them spiritual blessings, Matthew 3:11 . John's Baptism was confined to the Jews; but the Christian was common to Jews and Gentiles, Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 3:7 . It does not appear that John had any formula of administration; but the Christian Baptism has, viz. ...
The Baptism of John was the concluding scene of the legal dispensation, and, in fact, part of it; and to be considered as one of those "divers washings" among the Jews; for he did not attempt to make any alteration in the Jewish religion, nor did the persons he baptized cease to be members of the Jewish church on the account of their Baptism; but Christian Baptism is the regular entrance into, and is a part of, the evangelical dispensation, Galatians 3:27 . It does not appear from the inspired narrative (however probable from inferential reasoning) that any but John himself was engaged as operator in his Baptism; whereas Christ himself baptized none; but his disciples, by his authority, and in his name, John 4:2 . Baptism has been the subject of long and sharp controversy, both as it respects the subject and the mode. That the terms washing, purifying, burying in Baptism, so often mentioned in Scripture, alludes to this mode; that immersion only was the practice of the apostles and the first Christians; and that is was only laid aside from the love of novelty, and the coldness of our climate. Farther, they also insist that all positive institutions depend entirely upon the will and declaration of the institutor, and that, therefore, reasoning by analogy from previous abrogated rites, is to be rejected, and the express command of Christ respecting Baptism ought to be our rule. viii 12; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as Baptism is now a seal, sign, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children had a right to the seal of circumcision under the law. That if children are not to be baptized because there is no positive command for it, for the same reason women should not come to the Lord's supper; we should not keep the first day of the week, nor attend public worship, for none of these are expressly commanded; that if infant Baptism had been a human invention, how would it have been so universal in the first 3000 years, and yet no record left when it was introduced, nor any dispute or controversy about it? ...
Some bring it to these two ideas: ...
1. This being the case, infants must be received, because God has instituted it; and since infants must be received, it must be either without Baptism or with it; but none must be received without Baptism, therefore infants must of necessity be baptized. From the year 400 to 1150, no society of men in all that period of 750 years, ever pretended to say it was unlawful to baptize infants; and still nearer the time of our Saviour there appears to have been scarcely any one that so much as advised the delay of infant Baptism. Ambrose, who wrote about 274 years from the apostles, declares that the Baptism of infants had been the practice of the apostles themselves, and of the church, till that time. ...
So far from confining it to adults, it must be remembered that there is not a single instance recorded in the New Testament in which the descendants of Christian parents were baptized in adult years ...
That infants are not proper subjects for Baptism, because they cannot profess faith and repentance, they deny. This objection falls with as much weight upon the institution of circumcision as infant Baptism; since they are as capable, or are as fit subjects for the one as the other. " ...
Something is said of Baptism, it is observed, that cannot agree to infants: faith goes before Baptism; and as adults are capable of believing, so no others are capable of Baptism; but it is replied, if infants must not be baptized because something is said of Baptism that does not agree to infants, Mark 16:16 . But Christ, it is said, set an example of adult Baptism. True; but he was baptized in honour to John's ministry, and to conform himself to what he appointed to his followers; for which last reason he drank of the sacramental cup: but this is rather an argument for the Paedobaptists than against them; since it, plainly shows, as Doddridge observes, that Baptism may be administered to those who are not capable of all the purposes for which it was designed; could not be capable of that faith and repentance which are said to be necessary to this ordinance. ...
If in Baptism also there is an expressive emblem of the descending influence of the Spirit, pouring must be the mode of administration; for that is the Scriptural term most commonly and properly used for the communication of divine influences. There is no object whatever in all the New Testament so frequently and so explicitly signified by Baptism as these divine influences, Matthew 3:11 . Ezekiel 36:25 , and therefore cannot be inapplicable to Baptismal purification. As to the apostle's expression, "buried with him in Baptism, " they think it has no force; and that it does not allude to any custom of dipping, any more than our Baptismal crucifixion and death has any such reference. As Christ was buried and rose again to a heavenly life, so we by Baptism signifying that we are cut off from the life of sin, that we may rise again to a new life of faith and love. To conclude this article, it is observed against the mode of immersion, that, as it carries with it too much of the appearance of a burdensome rite for the Gospel dispensation; that as it is too indecent for so solemn an ordinance; as it has a tendency to agitate the spirits, often rendering the subject unfit for the exercise of proper thought and affections, and indeed utterly incapable of them; as in many cases the immersion of the body would in all probability be instant death; as in other situations it would be impracticable for want of a sufficient quantity of water, it cannot be considered as necessary to the ordinance of Baptism. ...
See Gale, Robinson, Stennett, Gill, and Booth, on Antipaedobaptism; and Wall, Henry, Bradbury, Bostwick, Towgood, Addington, Williams, Edwards, Miller, Evans, &c
Minister - , the minister of Baptism
Arnoldists - He is also charged with preaching against Baptism and the Eucharist
Baptism - That our Lord instituted such an ordinance as Baptism, is plain from the commission given to the Apostles after his resurrection, and recorded in Matthew 28:19-20 . We find no account of Baptism as a distinct religious rite, before the mission of John, the forerunner of Christ, who was called the "Baptist," on account of his being commanded by God to baptize with water all who should hearken to his invitation to repent. Or, Baptism, after circumcision, might have come into use gradually from the natural propriety of the thing, and its easy conformity to other Jewish customs. The antiquity of this practice of proselyte Baptism among the Jews, has been a subject of considerable debate among divines. John Owen considers the opinion, that Christian Baptism came from the Jews, as destitute of all probability. Wall has made it highly probable, to say the least, from many testimonies of the Jewish writers, who without one dissenting voice allow the fact, that the practice of Jewish Baptism obtained before and, at, as well as after, our Saviour's time. Would they begin to proselyte persons to their religion by Baptism in imitation of the disciples of Jesus of Nazareth, whom they held accursed? And yet if this proselyte Baptism were adopted by the Jews since the time of Christ, it must have been a mere innovation in imitation of Christians, which is not very likely. It is observable that the Baptismal form, above cited from St. There are many ceremonies delivered by ecclesiastical writers, as used in Baptism, which were introduced after the age of Justin Martyr, but which are now disused; as the giving milk and honey to the baptized, in the east; wine and milk, in the west, &c. Indeed, it does not appear to have been used in Baptism till the latter end of the fourth or fifth century; at which time great virtue was ascribed to it. Lactantius, who lived in the beginning of the fourth century, says the devil cannot approach those who have the heavenly mark of the cross upon them as an impregnable fortress to defend them; but he does not say it was used in Baptism. After the council of Nice, Christians added to Baptism the ceremonies of exorcism and adjuration, to make evil spirits depart from the persons to be baptized. The Quakers assert, that water Baptism was never intended to continue in the church of Christ any longer than while Jewish prejudices made such an external ceremony necessary. They argue from Ephesians 4:5 , in which one Baptism is spoken of as necessary to Christians, that this must be a Baptism of the Spirit. But from comparing the texts that relate to this institution, it will plainly appear that water Baptism was instituted by Christ in more general terms than will agree with this explication. That it was administered to all the Gentile converts, and not confined to the Jews appears from Matthew 28:19-20 , compared with Acts 2:38-399 ; and that the Baptism of the Spirit did not supersede water Baptism appears to have been the judgment of Peter and of those that were with him; so that the one Baptism spoken of seems to have been that of water; the communication of the Holy Spirit being only called Baptism in a figurative sense. As for any objection which, may be drawn from 1 Corinthians 1:17 , it is sufficiently answered by the preceding verses, and all the numerous texts, in which, in epistles written long after this, the Apostle speaks of ...
all Christians as baptized and argues from the obligation of Baptism, in such a manner as we can never imagine he would have done, if he had apprehended it to have been the will of God that it should be discontinued in the church. Baptism, in early times, was only administered at Easter and Whitsuntide, except in cases of necessity. Adult persons were prepared for Baptism by abstinence, prayer, and other pious exercises. It was to answer for them, says Mosheim, that sponsors, or godfathers, were first instituted in the second century, though they were afterward admitted also in the Baptism of infants. Wall refers the origin of sponsors, or godfathers, on the authority of Tertullian, to the commencement of the second century; who were used in the Baptism of infants that could not answer for themselves. ...
The catechumens were not forward in coming to Baptism. Some deferred it out of a tender conscience; and others out of too much attachment to the world; it being the prevailing opinion of the primitive times, that Baptism, whenever conferred, washed away all antecedent stains and sins. As to the necessity of Baptism, we may observe, however, that, though some seem to have laid too great stress upon it, as if it were indispensably necessary in order to salvation; it must be allowed, that for any person to omit Baptism, when he acknowledges it to be an institution of Christ, and that it is the will of Christ that he should submit to it, is an act of disobedience to his authority, which is inconsistent with true faith. The word Baptism is frequently taken for sufferings, Mark 10:38 ; Luke 12:50 ; Matthew 20:22-23 . As to the subjects of Baptism, the anti-paedobaptists hold that believing adults only are proper subjects, because the commission of Christ to baptize appears to them to restrict this ordinance to such only as are taught, or made disciples; and that, consequently, infants, who cannot be thus taught, ought to be excluded. " They contend that infants can receive no benefit from Baptism, and are not capable of faith and repentance, which are to be considered as prerequisites. As to the mode, they observe that the meaning of the word βαπτιζω signifies to immerse or dip, and that only; that John baptized in Jordan; that he chose a place where there was much water; that Jesus came up out of the water; that Philip and the eunuch went down both into the water; that the terms, washing, purifying, burying in Baptism, so often mentioned in the Scriptures, allude to this mode; that immersion only was the practice of the Apostles and the first Christians; and that it was only laid aside from the love of novelty, and the coldness of climate. Farther, they also insist that all positive institutions depend entirely upon the will and declaration of the institutor; and that, therefore, reasoning by analogy from previously abrogated rites is to be rejected, and the express command of Christ respecting Baptism ought to be our rule. As to the subjects of Baptism, they believe that qualified adults, who have not been baptized before, are certainly proper subjects; but then they think, also, that infants ought not to be excluded. They believe that, as the Abrahamic and Christian covenants are the same, Genesis 17:7 ; Hebrews 8:12 ; that as children were admitted under the former; and that as Baptism is now a sign, seal, or confirmation of this covenant, infants have as great a right to it as the children of the Israelites had to the seal of circumcision under the law, Acts 2:39 ; Romans 4:11 . ) That this right of infants to church membership was never taken away: and this being the case, they argue, that infants must be received, because God has appointed it; and, since they must be received, it must be either with Baptism or without it; but none must be received without Baptism; therefore, infants must of necessity be baptized. From the year 400 to 1150, no society of men, in all that period of seven hundred and fifty years, ever pretended to say it was unlawful to baptize infants: and still nearer the time of our Saviour there appears to have been scarcely any one who advised the delay of infant Baptism. Ambrose, who wrote about 274 years from the Apostles, declares that the Baptism of infants had been practised by the Apostles themselves, and by the church down to that time. So far from confining Baptism to adults, it must be remembered that there is not a single instance recorded in the New Testament, in which the descendants of Christian parents were baptized in adult years. The objection that infants are not proper subjects for Baptism, because they cannot profess faith and repentance, falls with as much weight upon the institution of circumcision as infant Baptism; since they are as capable or are as fit subjects for the one as the other. If in Baptism there be an expressive emblem of the descending influence of the Spirit, pouring must be the mode of administration; for that is the Scriptural term most commonly and properly used for the communication of divine influences, Matthew 3:11 ; Mark 1:8 ; Mark 1:10 ; Luke 3:16-22 ; John 1:33 ; Acts 1:5 ; 1618453075_61 ; Acts 8:19 ; Acts 8:17 ; Acts 11:15-16 . The term sprinkling, also, is made use of in reference to the act of purification, Isaiah 52:15 ; Ezekiel 36:25 ; Hebrews 9:13-14 ; and therefore cannot be inapplicable to Baptismal purification. As to the Apostle's expression, "buried with him in Baptism," that has no force in the argument for immersion, since it does not allude to a custom of dipping, any more than our Baptismal crucifixion and death has any such reference. As Christ was buried, and rose again to a heavenly life, so we by Baptism signify that we are separated from sin, that we may live a new life of faith and love. ...
To conclude: it is urged, against the mode of immersion, that, as it carries with it too much of the appearance of a burdensome rite for the Gospel dispensation; as it is too indecent for so solemn an ordinance; as it has a tendency to agitate the spirits, often rendering the subject unfit for the exercise of proper thoughts and affections, and indeed utterly incapable of them; as in many cases the immersion of the body would, in all probability, be instant death; as in other situations it would be impracticable, for want of water; it cannot be considered as necessary to the ordinance of Baptism, and there is the strongest improbability that it was ever practised in the times of the New Testament, or in the earliest periods of the Christian church
Lay Baptism - Baptism administered by a lay-man, in case of necessity
Godfathers And Godmothers - Persons who, at the Baptism of infants, answer for their future conduct, and solemnly promise that they will renounce the devil and all his works, and follow a life of piety and virtue; and by these means lay themselves under an indispensable obligation to instruct them, and watch over their conduct
Baptism, Lay - Baptism administered by a lay-man, in case of necessity
Apollo - Although imperfectly instructed in Christian doctrine, he was teaching at Ephesus, when Aquila and Priscilla brought about his complete conversion and Baptism
Anabaptists - Any of a group of sects of the early Reformation period of the 16th century that believed in rebaptism of people as adults. Infant Baptism was not recognized as valid and the Catholic Mass was rejected
Alascani - A sect of Anti-Lutherans in the sixteenth century, whose distinguished tenet, besides their denying Baptism, is said to have been this, that the words, "This is my body, " in the institution of the Eucharist, are not to be understood of the bread, but of the whole action or celebration of the supper
Emerentiana, Saint - According to the acts of Saint Agnes she was a foster-sister to that saint; while praying at Saint Agnes's grave she was stoned to death by the pagan mob, thus receiving the Baptism of blood
Liturgical Use of Salt - It is put into ordinary holy water and Gregorian water (water of consecration), and is also used in the ceremonies of Baptism, a small quantity being placed on the tongue of the person to be baptized, with the words: "Receive the salt of wisdom; may it be to thee a propitiation unto eternal life
Anoint - In Baptism it means the laying on of oil of catechumens, signifying a life of faith and good works, and oil of chrism, symbolizing union with Christ
Genesius of Rome, Saint - He was a Roman comedian who, during a derisive theatrical representation of Baptism, was converted; he suffered under Diocletian
Interrogation - Some take the word to indicate that Baptism affords a good conscience, an appeal against the accuser
Rome, Genesius of, Saint - He was a Roman comedian who, during a derisive theatrical representation of Baptism, was converted; he suffered under Diocletian
Salt, Liturgical Use of - It is put into ordinary holy water and Gregorian water (water of consecration), and is also used in the ceremonies of Baptism, a small quantity being placed on the tongue of the person to be baptized, with the words: "Receive the salt of wisdom; may it be to thee a propitiation unto eternal life
Water - Water was the element in which John baptized his penitents, and the best that he had; but he was profoundly conscious of its inadequacy, and eagerly expectant of an altogether different kind of Baptism, to be introduced by the Messiah. When Christ confirms His forerunner’s distinction between Baptism in water and Baptism in the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5), He certainly regards the latter not as a blast of judgment but as the supreme gift of Divine grace; and Peter, who ‘remembered the word of the Lord,’ and no doubt the tone in which He uttered it, quotes it not as a menace but as an evangelical promise (Acts 11:16). Water is referred to in connexion with the Baptism of the eunuch (Acts 8:36; Acts 8:38-39) and of Cornelius (Acts 10:47). In the latter case the Baptism in water is the immediate sequel to the earliest Baptism of the Gentiles with the Holy Spirit, which was attended with the rapturous utterances known as glossolalia. In Ephesians 5:26 the Church is said to be cleansed by the washing (or laver, τῷ λουτρῷ) of water with the word, Baptism being regarded as the seal and symbol of a spiritual experience which is mediated by faith in the gospel. [1] 179) thinks, suggest that the water of Baptism has cleansing virtue because ‘sacramentally impregnated’ with the blood of Christ. Peter sees a parallel between the water of Noah’s flood and that of Baptism (1 Peter 3:20), and Paul finds a mystical and sacramental meaning in the sea and the cloud, in both of which the Israelites may be said to have been baptized into Moses (1 Corinthians 10:2). Historically the Baptism and death of the Messiah were crises in His activity, occurring once for all at the beginning and the end of His ministry, but spiritually He ever abides with and in the water and the blood, which are ‘the two wells of life in His Church, His Baptism being repeated in every fresh act of Baptism, and His blood of atonement never failing in the communion cup’ (H
Christian Name - (Christian name) From the earliest times names were given at Baptism
Name, Baptismal - (Christian name) From the earliest times names were given at Baptism
Name, Christian - (Christian name) From the earliest times names were given at Baptism
Desire - One of the six passions of the concupiscible appetite, opposed to aversion; one of the ways of obtaining the effects of Baptism when it is not possible to receive the sacrament, or when one, not knowing of the sacrament or of the obligation to receive it, desires to do everything God wishes as a means of salvation
Tanquelinians - He treated with contempt the external worship of God, the sacrament of the Lord's supper, and the rite of Baptism, and held clandestine assemblies to propagate his opinions
Donatism - In other words, if a minister who was involved in a serious enough sin were to baptize a person, that Baptism would be considered invalid
Baptismal Name - (Christian name) From the earliest times names were given at Baptism
Saints, Patron - , Saint Joseph, Patron of the Universal Church, Francis Xavier, Catholic Missions, Camillus of Lellis, hospitals
after whom churches, parishes, or other institutions are named
after whom persons are named in Baptism or Confirmation
Regeneration - ...
Biblical Terms The term regeneration (palingenesia ) appears in Titus 3:5 as a description of the spiritual change which Baptism symbolizes. ...
Role of Baptism Some churches hold that the experience of regeneration is brought about by the act of Baptism. The view which advocates this teaching is known as Baptismal regeneration. The Scriptures do not present Baptism as the means of regeneration but as the sign of regeneration. Peter's discussion of Baptism in 1 Peter 3:21 pictures the experience of Baptism as the symbol of a conscientious response to God. In other texts ( Acts 2:38 ; Colossians 2:12 ; Titus 3:5 ) we can understand the meaning of the biblical writer by distinguishing between regeneration as an inward change and Baptism as the outward sign of that change. Baptism becomes a means of demonstrating publicly and outwardly the nature of this change. See Baptism
Didache - It may be divided into three parts: ...
first, the "Two Ways," the Way of Life and the Way of Death;
second, a rituale dealing with Baptism, fasting, and Holy Communion;
third, a treatise on the ministry. The second part begins with an instruction on Baptism; the third speaks of teachers or doctors in general, and the last chapter exhorts to watching and tells the signs of the end of the world
Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles - It may be divided into three parts: ...
first, the "Two Ways," the Way of Life and the Way of Death;
second, a rituale dealing with Baptism, fasting, and Holy Communion;
third, a treatise on the ministry. The second part begins with an instruction on Baptism; the third speaks of teachers or doctors in general, and the last chapter exhorts to watching and tells the signs of the end of the world
Ecclesiastical Burial - All persons baptized in any of the three ways Baptism may be conferred (desire, blood, water) and catechumens or converts, if they have died without Baptism through no fault of their own, must be buried ecclesiastically
Sacrament - Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two sacraments almost universally recognized in Christendom, though many evangelical Christians shy away from the word sacrament in favor of “ordinances. This made it particularly appropriate for early Christians to designate their Baptism, a confession and induction into the army of Christ. Although none of these passages uses “mystery” to refer to Baptism, Lord's Supper, or any other religious rite, the later church began to make that identification and gave that special meaning to the word. When Paul wrote of being “buried with Christ” in Baptism, he certainly meant that this visible rite demonstrates our spiritual union with Christ in His death and resurrection
Waves - Psalm 42:7 (a) Our Lord JESUS in describing His second Baptism said in Luke 12:50, "I have a Baptism to be baptized with. This passage in Psalm 42:7 describes His experience in going through that Baptism. It was His Baptism under the wrath of GOD that saves our souls
Catharists - ) They supposed that matter was the source of evil; that Christ was not clothed with a real body; that Baptism and the Lord's supper were useless institutions; with a variety of other strange notions
Believers - An appellation given, toward the close of the first century, to those Christians who had been admitted into the church by Baptism, and instructed in all the mysteries of religion
Bury - Romans 6:4 (b) This probably means that the convert is placed under the waters of Baptism as a public confession that he died with CHRIST, was placed in the tomb with Him, and rose again with CHRIST to walk in newness of life
Keithians - Those who persisted in their separation, after their leader deserted them, practised Baptism, and received the Lord's supper
Baptism, Private - Apart from danger of death, the bishop is not to permit private Baptism, except for non-Catholic adults conditionally baptized
Oil of Catechumens - It takes its name from its use in the ceremonies of Baptism, a catechumen being an instructed convert about to receive that sacrament
Faith, Profession of - Converts to the Church in the United States must make a profession of the faith, except when Baptism is given unconditionally
Catechumens, Oil of - It takes its name from its use in the ceremonies of Baptism, a catechumen being an instructed convert about to receive that sacrament
Bogomill - They held that the use of churches, of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, and all prayer except the Lord's prayer, ought to be abolished; that the Baptism of Catholics is imperfect; that the persons of the Trinity are unequal, and that they often made themselves visible to those of their sect
Ephpheta - (imperative of Aramaic verb, to open) ...
A ceremony which is a part of the administration of Baptism
Symbols of the Sacraments - Separately ...
Baptism: a flowing fountain
Confirmation: a descending dove, emblematic of the Holy Ghost
Holy Eucharist: a chalice and Sacred Host; grapes and wheat
Penance: the Keys of Peter
Extreme Unction: vessel inscribed O I (Oleum Infirmorum: Oil of the Sick)
Holy Orders: a chalice and a stole denoting priesthood and authority
Matrimony: clasped hands
Sacraments, Symbols of the - Separately ...
Baptism: a flowing fountain
Confirmation: a descending dove, emblematic of the Holy Ghost
Holy Eucharist: a chalice and Sacred Host; grapes and wheat
Penance: the Keys of Peter
Extreme Unction: vessel inscribed O I (Oleum Infirmorum: Oil of the Sick)
Holy Orders: a chalice and a stole denoting priesthood and authority
Matrimony: clasped hands
Priest - His chief duties are to offer theHoly Sacrifice in the Eucharist, to administer Baptism, to giveabsolution, to give the Priestly Blessing at Marriages, Churchings,and at other services of the Church: in fact, to exercise everysacred function which is not properly or exclusively Episcopal,that is, belonging to the Bishop
Mennonite Bodies - The members held the doctrine of believers' Baptism and opposed infant Baptism. " Baptism is by pouring in nearly all Mennonite bodies
Joining the Church - According tothis phraseology Holy Baptism counts for nothing, and yet the Bibleteaches that it is in Holy Baptism that we are made members ofthe Church, and that all future blessings are dependent on thisspiritual fact. When then, Church people take up this mode of speechand use it in reference to Confirmation as is so often done, theypractically ignore the significance of Holy Baptism and the Church'smethod and appointed order. Because, in whatever religious teachingthey receive, their Baptism is never referred to, and they are neverreminded that they are now God's children by adoption and gracebecause baptized, it comes to pass that, when these same childrenare asked to be confirmed, they think and act as if they wereinvited to "join the Church. (See Baptism; NAME, THE CHRISTIAN; REGENERATION; alsoCONFIRMATION
Forgiveness of Sins - The sacraments primarily directed to the forgiveness of sin are Baptism and Penance
Ordines Romani - , the rite of Baptism, the consecration of a church, Extreme Unction, etc
Energumens - They were denied Baptism and the eucharist; at least this was the practice of some churches; and though they were under the care of exorcists, yet it was thought a becoming act of charity to let them have the public prayers of the church, at which they were permitted to be present
Scrutiny - ) An examination of catechumens, in the last week of Lent, who were to receive Baptism on Easter Day
Sins, Forgiveness of - The sacraments primarily directed to the forgiveness of sin are Baptism and Penance
Roman Regulations - , the rite of Baptism, the consecration of a church, Extreme Unction, etc
Sponsors - Latin: sponsor, surety, godparent ...
A person of either sex who speaks for the one to be baptized during the ceremony and after Baptism assumes spiritual guardianship over the subject; see also godparents
Sacrament - ...
Sacraments of the New Law The Council of Trent defined that Christ instituted seven sacraments: ...
Baptism
Confirmation
Holy Eucharist
Penance
Extreme Unction
Holy Orders
Matrimony
The Greek Church and Eastern sects accept that these seven are the sacraments. Protestants generally teach that there are two sacraments of the Gospel, Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and the others "have no visible sign of ceremony ordained by God. This doctrine is certain for Baptism, and is probable for the other sacraments, except Holy Eucharist and Penance which do not revive. ...
Division of the Sacraments ...
Baptism and Penance are called sacraments of the dead because their primary purpose is to remit sin and to confer spiritual life through sanctifying grace; the other sacraments are called sacraments of the living, because they increase grace already existing in the soul. Some sacraments are more necessary for salvation than others, thus Baptism is necessary for all; Penance for those who fall into grave post-Baptismal sin; Holy Orders to give sacred ministers to the Church. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders imprint a character on the soul, hence they can be received but once. ,the contracting parties, are the ministers of Matrimony; a lay person can be the extraordinary minister of Baptism in the case of danger from death; outside the above, the minister must be ordained. ...
Recipient ...
To receive the other sacraments valid Baptism is necessary
Apostles' Creed - At a very early date the Western Church required catechumens to learn and recite it before admitting them to Baptism
Ananias - ...
(2) Disciple at Damascus, figuring in the Baptism and conversion of Paul (Acts 9)
Enlightenment - ...
Two passages in Hebrews (Hebrews 6:1-5; Hebrews 10:32), which presuppose this enlightenment, call for special attention because they have been thought to contain reference ‘to Baptism on the one hand, and to the pagan Mysteries on the other. That there is some allusion to Baptism in Hebrews 6:4 is quite probable, for the two expressions, ‘once enlightened,’ and ‘made partakers of the Holy Ghost,’ correspond respectively to the preceding expressions in v. 2, ‘teaching of Baptisms’ and ‘laying on of hands. ’ As instruction in Christian truth formed part of the preparation of catechumens for Baptism, the rite itself attested the enlightenment resulting there-from. It is a well-known fact that the terms ‘baptism’ and ‘enlightenment’ soon after apostolic times became synonymous. ’ As early as Justin Martyr 150 ‘enlightenment’ had become a recognized term for Baptism. 61), after speaking of Baptism as a ‘new birth’ (ἀναγέννησις), Justin says: ‘And this washing is called enlightenment (καλεῖται δὲ τοῦτο τὸ λουτρὸν φωτισμός) because those who learn these things Christians of st Thomas - Baptism, orders, and the Eucharist; they make no use of holy oils in the administration of Baptism, but after the ceremony, anoint the infant with an unction composed of oil and walnuts, without any benediction
Trinity - This was revealed at the Baptism of the Lord Jesus. The three Persons are also named in the formula instituted by Christ in Baptism
Sacrament - "...
Accorcing to this definition, Baptism and the Lord's supper are certainly sacraments, for each consists of an outward and visible sign of what is believed to be an inward and spiritual grace, both were ordained by Christ himself, and in the reception of each does the Christian solemnly devote himself to the service of his divine Master. (...
See Baptism, and LORD'S SUPPER. The greater sacraments are only two, Baptism and the Lord's supper. five belonging to Baptism, exorcism, anointing with oil, the white garment, a taste of milk and honey, and anointing with chrism, or ointment
Disparity of Worship - Unless by dispensation, such a marriage is null; and for the granting of the said dispensation the signing of certain promises is required, pledging non-interference with the religion of the Catholic party and with the Catholic Baptism and training of the children, and also that no ceremony will take place except that before a Catholic priest
Canonical Acts - , for marriage), fiscal promotor and promotor of faith (for beatification and canonization) , courier, beadle, lawyer, proxy; sponsors at Baptism and Confirmation; voting at ecclesiastical elections, including those held by chapters of religious communities; actual exercise of advowson
Household - We read of the Baptism of whole households
Matthias - ”) Disciple who followed Jesus from the time of John's ministry of Baptism until Jesus' ascension, who was chosen by lot and prayer to succeed Judas as an apostle and official witness to the resurrection (Acts 1:20-26 )
Bethabara - Mentioned once only, John 1:28 , as the scene of John’s Baptism; the principal codices, followed by the RV Didache - and is supposed to be what the twelve apostles taught to the Gentiles concerning life and death, church order, fasting, Baptism, prayer, etc
Acts, Canonical - , for marriage), fiscal promotor and promotor of faith (for beatification and canonization) , courier, beadle, lawyer, proxy; sponsors at Baptism and Confirmation; voting at ecclesiastical elections, including those held by chapters of religious communities; actual exercise of advowson
Metastasis - ) A spiritual change, as during Baptism
Sunday, White - It is often called Whitsunday (White Sunday) from the practise of giving solemn Baptism on that day in early centuries, the candidates being attired in white Baptismal robes
White Sunday - It is often called Whitsunday (White Sunday) from the practise of giving solemn Baptism on that day in early centuries, the candidates being attired in white Baptismal robes
Whitsunday - It is often called Whitsunday (White Sunday) from the practise of giving solemn Baptism on that day in early centuries, the candidates being attired in white Baptismal robes
Joseph Barsabas - One of the two chosen as candidates for Judas Iscariot's vacant apostleship; therefore he must have followed Jesus from His Baptism to His ascension, and so was fitted to be a witness of His resurrection (Acts 1:22)
American Rescue Workers - Similar to the Salvation Army in belief and government, their church is Christian with the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper
Clinic - ) One who receives Baptism on a sick bed
Immersion - (Latin: immergere) ...
The act of dipping or plunging the subject into the water used in the administration of Baptism; called triple or trine immersion when the candidate is dipped three times, in the name of each Person of the Holy Trinity
American Salvation Army - Similar to the Salvation Army in belief and government, their church is Christian with the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper
Adoptionism - Adoptionists taught that Jesus was tested by God and after passing this test and upon His Baptism He was granted supernatural powers by God and adopted as the Son
Salvation Army of America - Similar to the Salvation Army in belief and government, their church is Christian with the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper
State of Salvation - By Holy Baptism we are admitted into Christ'sChurch, His Kingdom of grace, which in the Church Catechism isdeclared to be a "State of Salvation," i
John the Baptist - John’s Baptism of Jesus and Witness regarding Him. ), while in all the Gospels his Baptism of Jesus becomes the moment of the Lord’s equipment with the Spirit for His Messianic office (Mark 1:9 ff. alone furnishes any information about him previous to the moment when he suddenly issued from his retirement in the wilderness and began to preach the Baptism of repentance in the Jordan Valley, and true also that in the case of the Fourth Gospel it is difficult often to distinguish between the Evangelist’s statements as a historian and his own subjective exposition. alone of the Gospels gives an account of John’s earlier life, together with the artistic nature of the narrative and its presumed discrepancy with the representation of the Fourth Gospel in respect of a connexion between John and Jesus previous to the Baptism of the latter (cf. Probably, as hitherto, the Wilderness of Judaea continued to be his home—that wild region which stretches westwards from the Dead Sea and the Jordan to the edge of the central plateau of Palestine; but when he preached he must have done so in some place not too far removed from the haunts of men, while, owing to his practice of Baptism (almost certainly by immersion), the Jordan necessarily marked the central line of his activity (John 1:15-36; Matthew 13:16, Mark 1:5; Matthew 3:68). John’s work may be considered under two aspects, (1) his preaching, (2) his Baptism. John’s Baptism. He came not only preaching but baptizing, or rather, so closely was the symbol interwoven with the word, he came ‘preaching the Baptism of repentance’ (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3). To understand John’s Baptismal doctrine it is necessary to think of the historical roots out of which it sprang. In particular, three moments in the preceding history of the religion of Israel appear to be gathered up in the Baptism of John as it meets us in the Gospels. Leviticus 14:32; Leviticus 15:13, Mark 1:44, Luke 2:22; Luke 5:14, John 2:6), while the historical connexion of John’s Baptism with them is proved by the fact that in NT times βαπτίζειν had come to be the regular term alike for those ceremonial washings and for the Messianic Baptism of the Forerunner (for detailed proof and reff. And yet, though John’s Baptism finds its earliest historical roots in the Levitical washings, it is far from finding its complete explanation there. His Baptism, we have said, was a Baptism of preparation for the Kingdom, preparation which took the form of repentance and confession. But even more than a Baptism of preparation it was a Baptism of promise, promise both of the Kingdom and the King, being a promissory symbol of a perfect spiritual cleansing which the Messiah in person should bestow—‘I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me … shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire’ (Matthew 3:11 ||). ...
(c) Another historical moment which should not be lost sight of is the proselyte Baptism of the Jewish Church. It may now be regarded as certain that the Baptism of proselytes had been the rule in Israel long before NT times (see especially Schürer, HJP
2. Of the intercourse of John with Jesus, the Fourth Gospel gives an account which differs widely from that presented in the Synoptics; but apart from the Johannine colouring of the later narrative, the difference is sufficiently explained on the ordinary view that the Synoptists describe the meeting between the two at the time of our Lord’s Baptism, while the Fourth Evangelist concerns himself only with John’s subsequent testimony to the now recognized Messiah (cf. Even if we suppose that in spite of their kinship and the friendship between their mothers the two had not met before, the fact that John’s Baptism was a Baptism of repentance and confession seems to imply a personal interview with applicants previous to the performance of the rite—an interview which in the case of Jesus must have revealed to one with the Baptist’s insight the beauty and glory of His character. ...
It is true that in the Fourth Gospel John is made to bear a witness to Jesus by the banks of the Jordan (1618453075_45) which finds no parallel in the earlier narratives; but if we follow the ordinary view of students of the chronology of our Lord’s life—that the narrative of the Fourth Evangelist comes in after the forty days of the Temptation have intervened, and that John now sees Jesus in the light not only of the authenticating sign given at the Baptism, but of his own reflexion ever since upon the subject of the character of Jesus and the fulfilment of the Messianic promise—the fulness and explicitness of his testimony upon this later occasion appear perfectly natural
Catechumens - They had some title to the common name of Christians, being a degree above pagans and heretics, though not consummated by Baptism. The fourth order was the competentes et electi; denoting the immediate candidates for Baptism, or such as were appointed to be baptized the next approaching festival; before which, strict examination was made into their proficiency, under the several stages of catechetical exercises. Some days before Baptism they went veiled; and it was customary to touch their ears, saying, Ephatha, 1:e
Sacramental Confession - The manifestation of one's own actual sins, committed after Baptism, to a priest, in order to obtain their forgiveness in the Sacrament of Penance. By these words Christ established the Sacrament of Penance as a judicial process, and its ministers, the Apostles and their successors, as judges, with the right and the duty to pass judgment on those who have sinned after Baptism. That confession was regarded even from the first ages of Christianity as a necessary condition for the pardon of sins committed after Baptism is attested in the writings of the early Fathers, e
Marcus, Surnamed Eremita - All is of grace, which is given τελεία in Baptism, and afterwards in measure proportioned to our obedience. ...
(4) ἀπόκρισις πρὸς τοὺς ἀποροῦντας περὶ τοῦ θείου βαπτίσματος , an important treatise on the doctrine of Baptism, states distinctly that by the grace of Baptism original sin is put away and the baptized are in exactly the condition Adam was before the fall
Sacrament - " Thus the Church Catechismtreating of the two Sacraments "generally necessary to salvation,that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord," defines asacrament as being an outward and visible sign ordained by Christ,of an inward and spiritual grace given by Him as its accompaniment. Forexample, if a man would be saved he must receive Holy Baptism andHoly Communion where these Sacraments are to be had; but for hissalvation it is not necessary that he should be married, or ordainedto the Sacred Ministry, and yet Marriage and Ordination arethoroughly sacramental in character in that they are graceconferring, and therefore, in her book of Homilies the Church callsthem Sacraments, The great English divines generally take thisposition in regard to the Sacraments and the Sacramental Systemof the Church. Thus Archbishop Bramhall declares: "The proper andcertain Sacraments of the Christian Church, common to all, or (inthe words of our Church) generally necessary to Salvation, arebut two, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord
Methodist Episcopal Church - " Baptism and the Lord's Supper were the two sacraments recognized. Baptism by sprinkling was preferred, although sprinkling, pouring, or immersion may be used
Lent - During this period, the catechumens (those learning what it meant to be Christians) went through the final stages of preparation for Baptism, which usually occurred at dawn on Easter Sunday. As the practice of infant Baptism increased, the emphasis on Lent as a training period decreased
Baptism - A dedication to the glorious, holy, undivided Three in One Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; in whose joint name Baptism is performed, and from whose united blessings in Christ, it can alone be rendered effectual. (Matthew 28:19) Beside this ordinance, which Christ hath appointed as the introduction to his church, we are taught to be always on the watch, in prayer and supplication, for the continual Baptisms of the Holy Ghost. Concerning the personal Baptisms of the Lord Jesus Christ, we hear Jesus speaking of them during his ministry. (See Luke 12:50) Hence, to the sons of Zebedee, the Lord said, "Can ye drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and be baptized with the Baptism that I am baptized with?" And Jesus added, "Ye shall drink of the cup that I drink of, and with the Baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptised. And, indeed, the subject is too much obscured by those expressions, to determine that sufferings were the Baptisms to which the Lord had respect. ...
Others, by Baptism, have taken the expression of John the Baptist literally, where he saith, "I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear, he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire. " (Matthew 3:11) Others, with more probability of truth, have considered the Baptisms of the Holy Ghost, and with fire, to mean his manifold gifts and graces
Chrism, Holy - Besides its use at Confirmation, it is also employed in the ceremonies of Baptism, in the consecration of a bishop and of a church, and in the blessing of chalices, patens, Baptismal water, and church bells
Christian Workers For Fellowship - Its most important tenets are "believers' Baptism by immersion, the washing of saints' feet, and the use of water and unleavened bread in the Lord's Supper
Celtic Rite - They were in use from the earliest times until about the 13th century, and differed from other rites in determining the date of Easter, the form of tonsure, and the manner of administering Baptism
Petrojoannites - His opinions were, that he alone had the knowledge of the true sense wherein the apostles preached the Gospel; that the reasonable soul is not the form of man; that there is no grace infused by Baptism; and that Jesus Christ was pierced with a lance on the cross before he expired
Holy Chrism - Besides its use at Confirmation, it is also employed in the ceremonies of Baptism, in the consecration of a bishop and of a church, and in the blessing of chalices, patens, Baptismal water, and church bells
Exorcism - Exorcism is part of the ceremonies of Baptism
Rite, Celtic - They were in use from the earliest times until about the 13th century, and differed from other rites in determining the date of Easter, the form of tonsure, and the manner of administering Baptism
Anabaptists - The principal tenets were: ...
(1) rejection of Baptism of infants as unscriptural, and its restriction to adults as a sign of Christian belief; ...
(2) restoration of what they considered primitive Christianity, abolition of capital punishment, oaths, and the magistracy; ...
(3) scripture as a rule of faith; ...
(4) foundation of a new kingdom of God on communistic grounds. The Anabaptist tenets regarding infant Baptism were adopted by the Baptists, the lineal descendants of the sober Anabaptists
Petilianus, a Donatist Bishop - Petilianus an eminent Donatist bishop probably a native of Constantina or Cirta chief town of Numidia born of parents who were Catholics; but while still a catechumen carried off against his will by the Donatists received by Baptism into their community and subsequently made between 395 and 400 their bishop in Cirta. The writer accuses the Catholics of making necessary a repetition of Baptism because he says they pollute the souls of those whom they baptize. The validity of Baptism in his view depends on the character of the giver as the strength of a building depends on that of the foundation. (1) The inefficacy of Baptism by ungodly persons. In his reply Augustine shews, (1) The true nature of Baptism . Those who fall away after Baptism must return, not by rebaptism, but by repentance
John the Baptist - The only ones who were truly God’s people were those who repented of their sins and demonstrated their sincerity in Baptism (Matthew 3:1-2; cf. ...
The Baptism that John proclaimed, though important, could not empower people for a new life. That power could come only through a greater Baptism, the gift of the Holy Spirit; and that was a gift that only the Messiah could give. ...
John knew enough about Jesus to know that Jesus was the better man and had no need for a Baptism for repentance. As a result of that Baptism, John knew for certain (through the visible descent of the Spirit upon Jesus) that this one was the promised Messiah (Matthew 3:13-17; John 1:33-34). By his Baptism Jesus showed that he was on the side of those who, by responding to John’s Baptism, had shown themselves to be God’s true people (see Baptism)
Matthias, Saint - As a disciple he had attended Christ from His Baptism until His Ascension
Bethania - ...
(2) Bethany beyond the Jordan, mentioned as the place of Our Lord's Baptism (John 1), is of doubtful location
Bethany - ...
(2) Bethany beyond the Jordan, mentioned as the place of Our Lord's Baptism (John 1), is of doubtful location
Jordan River - It was also the scene of the ministrations of Saint John the Baptist and the Baptism of Our Lord (Matthew 8)
Imposition of Hands - Catholic liturgy employs it in the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, Extreme Unction, and Holy Orders, and in many blessings
Ethiopian Eunuch - Philip declared the gospel to the eunuch, and the eunuch received Christian Baptism at Philip's hands
Hands, Imposition of - Catholic liturgy employs it in the sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, Extreme Unction, and Holy Orders, and in many blessings
Knipperdolings - A denomination in the 16th century; so called from Bertrand Knipperdoling, who taught that the righteous before the day of judgment shall have a monarchy on earth, and the wicked be destroyed: that men are not justified by their faith in Christ Jesus; that there is no original sin; that infants ought not to be baptized, and that immersion is the only mode of Baptism; that every one has authority to preach and administer the sacraments; that men are not obliged to pay respect to magistrates; that all things ought to be in common, and that it is lawful to marry many wives
Incest, Spiritual - An ideal crime, committed between two persons who have a spiritual alliance, by means of Baptism or confirmation
River, Jordan - It was also the scene of the ministrations of Saint John the Baptist and the Baptism of Our Lord (Matthew 8)
Rheims, France, City of - It is important in history as the scene of the Baptism of Clovis the Frank, by the bishop Saint Remigius, in 496
Reims, France, City of - It is important in history as the scene of the Baptism of Clovis the Frank, by the bishop Saint Remigius, in 496
Baptismal Vows - Those renunciations required of an adult candidate for Baptism just before the sacrament is conferred; in the case of an infant, they are made in his name by the sponsors. " The practise of renewing the Baptismal promises is more or less widespread, particularly at the closing of a mission, or after receiving First Communion or the Sacrament of Confirmation
Washing - 1: βαπτισμός (Strong's #909 — Noun Masculine — Baptismos — bap-tis-mos' ) denotes "the act of washing, ablution," with special reference to purification, Mark 7:4 (in some texts, ver. 8); Hebrews 6:2 , "baptisms;" Hebrews 9:10 , "washings. See Baptism
Trine Immersion - When Baptism was by affusionor pouring, as is usual at the present time, the affusion was alsotrine. The Apostolic canons insisted so strongly on this mode ofBaptism that they enjoined that the Bishop or Priest who did notthus administer it should be deposed. This threefold method ofBaptism still prevails in the Church and is the only proper methodof administering this sacrament
Holy Childhood, Association of the - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of pagan children; to procure Baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen. Children may be enrolled in this association immediately after Baptism, by contributing one cent monthly, and reciting a Hail Mary daily, for the poor pagans
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - The Gospels and Acts speak of a Baptism of the Holy Spirit (Mark 1:8 ; John 1:33 ; John 7:37-39 ; Acts 1:5 ; see Matthew 3:11 ; Luke 3:16 . One immersed in the presence of God is made aware of his or her sinfulness and desires cleansing and purification (John 16:8 ; see Baptism of Fire )
Association of the Holy Childhood - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of pagan children; to procure Baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen. Children may be enrolled in this association immediately after Baptism, by contributing one cent monthly, and reciting a Hail Mary daily, for the poor pagans
Water Watering, Waterless - , Hebrews 9:19 ; James 3:12 ; in 1 John 5:6 , that Christ "came by water and blood," may refer either (1) to the elements that flowed from His side on the Cross after His Death, or, in view of the order of the words and the prepositions here used, (2) to His Baptism in Jordan and His Death on the Cross. As to (2), Jesus the Son of God came on His mission by, or through, "water" and blood, namely, at His Baptism, when He publicly entered upon His mission and was declared to be the Son of God by the witness of the Father, and at the Cross, when He publicly closed His witness; the Apostle's statement thus counteracts the doctrine of the Gnostics that the Divine Logos united Himself with the Man Jesus at His Baptism, and left him at Gethsemane. the symbolic use in Ephesians 5:26 ), or, in view of the preposition ek, "out of," (2) of the truth conveyed by Baptism, this being the expression, not the medium, the symbol, not the cause, of the believer's identification with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection
Figure - , pointing to the present time, not "then present," AV (see below); (b) "a corresponding type," 1 Peter 3:21 , said of Baptism; the circumstances of the flood, the ark and its occupants, formed a type, and Baptism forms "a corresponding type" (not an antitype), each setting forth the spiritual realities of the death, burial, and resurrection of believers in their identification with Christ. It is not a case of type and antitype, but of two types, that in Genesis, the type, and Baptism, the corresponding type
Feast of the Epiphany - (Greek: epi, upon; phaino, show) ...
January 6, commemorates the manifestation of the glory of Christ to the Gentiles in the person of the Magi, as well as His Baptism and first miracle at Cana
Faldstool - It is used when conferring Baptism and Holy Orders, at the consecration of the oils on Maundy Thursday, and at the ceremonies on Good Friday
Catechist - It was his business to expose the folly of the pagan superstition, to remove prejudices, and answer objections; to discourse on behalf of the Christian docrines; and to give instruction to those who had not sufficient knowledge to qualify them for Baptism
Epiphany, Feast of the - (Greek: epi, upon; phaino, show) ...
January 6, commemorates the manifestation of the glory of Christ to the Gentiles in the person of the Magi, as well as His Baptism and first miracle at Cana
Twelfth Night - (Greek: epi, upon; phaino, show) ...
January 6, commemorates the manifestation of the glory of Christ to the Gentiles in the person of the Magi, as well as His Baptism and first miracle at Cana
Seleucians - They did not practise Baptism; by hell they understood the present world; resurrection was explained as merely the procreation of children
River Brethren - During a revival of the Lutheran, Mennonite, and Baptist churches, a dispute arose concerning the various forms of Baptism
Ordinance - In this sense, Baptism and the Lord's supper are denominated ordinances
Seleucians - They did not practise Baptism; by hell they understood the present world; resurrection was explained as merely the procreation of children
Sabbatius, Bishop of Constantinople - He became bishop of a small sect, called after him Sabbatiani, whose Baptism was recognized in the 7th canon of the 2nd general council
Adoption - ...
Adoption by Baptism is the spiritual affinity which is contracted by god-fathers and god-children, in the ceremony of Baptism
Easter Even - " Baptism iswont to be administered on Easter Even, because this was one ofthe two great times for baptizing converts in the Primitive Church,the other being Pentecost or Whitsun Day
Sacrament - "Among the OT sacraments the rites of circumcision and the Passover were stressed as being the OT counterparts of Baptism (Colossians 1:10-12) and the Lord's Supper (1 Corinthians 5:7)
Ordinances of the Gospel - Are institutions of divine authority relating to the worship of God; such as Baptism, Matthew 28:19
Jesus Only Movement - Additionally, they mistakenly believe that Baptism is necessary for salvation and that tongues are evidence of true conversion
Adventists - There are now five bodies of Adventists, varying in minor details, but all believing in the imminence of the second coming of Christ, Baptism by immersion, and in congregational government: Advent Christian Church; Churches of God in Christ Jesus; Church of God (Adventist); Life and Advent Union; and Seventh-day Adventists (q
Bethabara - , for Christ's Baptism. The nearness to Galilee, and the openness of the sides of the river here, leaving a broader space for the crowd seeking Baptism, favor the view
Proselyte - times and later the proselytes were received by circumcision and Baptism; but it is very much disputed as to when the Baptism was added, there being no mention of it in the O
Sacraments - and beginning of 3rd) is the first writer to apply the name ‘sacrament’ to Baptism, the Eucharist, and other rites of the Christian Church. 96), it has been suggested by some that he was using the word in the Christian sense, and was referring either to the Baptismal vow or to participation in the Eucharist. (1) Though used especially of Baptism and the Eucharist, the application of the term by Christian writers was at first exceedingly loose, for it was taken to describe not only all kinds of religious ceremonies, but even facts and doctrines of the Christian faith. ) and other Schoolmen that the number of the sacraments should be fixed at 7, namely, Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony a suggestion that was evidently influenced by the belief that 7 was a sacred number. And as Baptism and the Lord’s Supper are the only two rites for which this can be claimed, it follows that there are only two sacraments in the proper sense of the word. ’ A justification of this segregation of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper from all other rites, and their association together under a common name, is furnished in the NT by Acts 2:41-42 and 1 Corinthians 10:1-4 . Paul traces an analogy between Circumcision and the Passover the two most distinctive rites of the Old Covenant on the one hand, and Baptism ( Colossians 2:11 ) and the Lord’s Supper (cf. See, further, Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Laying on of Hands
Fenestbella - (Latin: fish-pond or basin) ...
Also called a sacrarium; thalassicon, or fenestbella, the Baptismal font, or the cistern into which the water flows after Baptism
Henricians - ...
This reformer rejected the Baptism of infants, severely censured the corrupt manners of the clergy, treated the festivals and ceremonies of the church with the utmost contempt, and held private assemblies for inculcating his peculiar doctrines
Baptism For the Dead - This expression as used by the apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a Baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence Cornelius - Acts of the Apostles, § 6 ), whose Baptism was a step forward towards admitting the Gentiles into the Church
Holy Week - The termination of the catechumenate with Baptism on Saturday determined other functions: the blessing of the Holy Oils on Thursday; the prophecies and blessing of the Baptismal font on Saturday
Confirmation - ) A rite supplemental to Baptism, by which a person is admitted, through the laying on of the hands of a bishop, to the full privileges of the church, as in the Roman Catholic, the Episcopal Church, etc
Ease, Chapel of - Ordinarily such churches and chapels may not have a Baptismal font or a cemetery independently of the parish church; nor may reserved parochial functions, such as Baptism and marriage, be performed in them without the permission of the pastor. For the convenience of the faithful, however, the bishop may permit, or even order, that a Baptismal font be placed in such churches (canon 174, § 2)
Ethelbert of Kent, Saint - When he was baptized by Saint Augustine, 597, his supremacy in southern Britain led to the Baptism of 10,000 of his countrymen within a few months
Novatians - They condemned second marriages, and for ever excluded from their communion all those who after Baptism had fallen into sin
Thalassicon - (Latin: fish-pond or basin) ...
Also called a sacrarium; thalassicon, or fenestbella, the Baptismal font, or the cistern into which the water flows after Baptism
Sacrarium - (Latin: fish-pond or basin) ...
Also called a sacrarium; thalassicon, or fenestbella, the Baptismal font, or the cistern into which the water flows after Baptism
Succursal Church - Ordinarily such churches and chapels may not have a Baptismal font or a cemetery independently of the parish church; nor may reserved parochial functions, such as Baptism and marriage, be performed in them without the permission of the pastor. For the convenience of the faithful, however, the bishop may permit, or even order, that a Baptismal font be placed in such churches (canon 174, § 2)
Week, Holy - The termination of the catechumenate with Baptism on Saturday determined other functions: the blessing of the Holy Oils on Thursday; the prophecies and blessing of the Baptismal font on Saturday
Holy Angels - " It has always been a tradition of Christianity that "angelsattend at the ministration of Holy Baptism and at the celebration ofthe Holy Communion; and that as Lazarus was the object of theirtender care, so in sickness and death they are about the bed of thefaithful and carry their souls to the Presence of Christ inParadise
Tradition - The Baptism of Infants. The sign of the Cross in Baptism and at other times
Martinianus, a Martyr at Rome - They were converted by him in prison, and for their Baptism, Peter, by making the sign of the cross, caused a fountain, still shewn in the Mamertine prison, miraculously to spring from the rock. After their Baptism the two soldiers give Peter as much liberty as he desires, and when news comes that the prefect Agrippa is about to put him to death, earnestly urge him to withdraw
Pelagia, Surnamed Margarita - Nonnus had been an ascetic of the severe order of Pachomius of Tabenna, and he addressed Pelagia with such plainness and sternness touching her sins and the future judgments of God, that she at once repented, and with many tears desired Baptism, which, after some delay, was granted, the chief deaconess of Antioch, Romana, acting as sponsor for her. Her whole history is full of interesting touches, describing the ancient ritual of Baptism and other ecclesiastical usages
Valentinianus (2) - (2) The other matter concerned the necessity of Baptism. Being anxious to receive Baptism, he sent for St
Rellyanists - They are not observers of ordinances, such as water-baptism and the sacrament; professing to believe only in one Baptism, which they call an immersion of the mind or conscience into truth by the teaching of the Spirit of God; and by the same Spirit they are enabled to feed on Christ as the bread of life, professing that in and with Jesus they possess all things. " "One Baptism
Ablutions - The practice of ablutions is one background for New Testament Baptism. He may be describing discussions about the differences between Christian Baptism and other ablutions. ...
For the New Testament the only washing commanded was that of Baptism (Acts 22:16 ; 1 Corinthians 6:11 ). Ephesians 5:26 shows that the washing of Baptism is not effective as a ritual in itself but only as it shows the working of God's Word in the life of the one baptized
Ethiopian Eunuch - Like the Baptism of Cornelius by St
International Holiness Church - Individual opinion governs the mode of Baptism
Bethzur - The adjoining spring traditions made the scene of the eunuch's Baptism by Philip
Apostasy - (Greek: apostasis, a standing-off) ...
A total defection from the Christian religion, after previous acceptance through faith and Baptism
Leucopetrians - The name of a fanatical sect which sprang up in the Greek and eastern churches towards the close of the twelfth century: they professed to believe in a double trinity, rejected wedlock, abstained from flesh, treated with the utmost contempt the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's supper, and all the various branches of external worship: placed the essence of religion in internal prayer alone; and maintained, as it is said, that an evil being or genius dwelt in the breast of every mortal, and could be expelled from thence by no other method than by perpetual supplication to the Supreme Being
General Eldership of the Churches of God in North - They adhere to three obligatory ordinances as mere symbols: Baptism (by immersion), the Lord's Supper, and "the religious washing of the saints' feet"; accept the Word of God as their only rule of faith and practise; and are presbyterian in their government
Winebrennerian - They adhere to three obligatory ordinances as mere symbols: Baptism (by immersion), the Lord's Supper, and "the religious washing of the saints' feet"; accept the Word of God as their only rule of faith and practise; and are presbyterian in their government
Paulicianism - Originally they held the following: ...
the God of the material universe and the God of the spirItual world are distinct ...
all matter is evil ...
the Old Testament is to be rejected ...
Christ was not incarnate but was an angel whose mother was the heavenly Jerusalem ...
Baptism and the Eucharist consist in hearing the Word of God ...
there are no other sacraments ...
They were also Iconoclasts
Lord's Prayer, the - TheChurch has always taken these words literally, so that in all herservices—Daily Prayer, Litany, Baptism, Confirmation, HolyCommunion, Marriage, Visitation of the Sick, etc
Sacraments - Harnack, indeed, places the grouping together of Baptism and the Eucharist as among ‘a series of the most important Christian customs and ideas’ whose origin is involved in obscurity and ‘in all probability will never be cleared up’ (History of Dogma, Eng. Paul, when he conjoins the type of Baptism ‘in the cloud and in the sea’ with the type of the Eucharist in the ‘spiritual meat’ and ‘spiritual drink’ of the wilderness (1 Corinthians 10:1-4), scarcely admits of question. In one of the passages cited above (1 Corinthians 10:1-4) there is evidence, moreover, not only of the association of Baptism and the Eucharist in the mind of the Apostle himself, but also of the existence of a general sacramental idea in the minds of those to whom he writes; for the argument developed in the succeeding verses (1 Corinthians 10:5-12) seems to lose point unless it be directed against an improper and unethical application of certain views then prevailing as to the character and virtue possessed by these two sacraments in common. The sacramental references in the Didache, Hermas, Barnabas, Ignatius, Clement of Rome, all assume that their readers are familiar with the doctrine of Baptism and the Eucharist. The allusive nature of the references to Baptism in St. ‘Cyril [2] is the first church-teacher who treats of Baptism, the oil, and the Eucharist, in their logical sequence, and in accordance with general principles’ (Harnack, iv. If not the only Christian sacraments, Baptism and the Eucharist are at any rate by universal consent the Christian sacraments par excellence; and with the witness which may be adduced regarding them the apostolic authority of the whole system of sacramental practice and doctrine stands or falls. (See separate articles, Baptism, Eucharist, Anointing, Ordination, etc. But the references which do occur are of a sort which may be said to offer their actual infrequency as additional constructive proof, and to leave no manner of doubt that sacramental rites were from the first an integral part of the Christian ‘way,’ that Baptism was invariably enjoined upon converts to the faith, and that the ‘breaking of bread,’ which at least comprised the Eucharist in its germinal form, was one (Acts 20:6-7, 1 Corinthians 11:20) if not absolutely the chief purpose of Christian gatherings for worship. The only questions concerning the origin of Christian Baptism, as an observance, relate to its connexion with and differentiation from antecedent kindred Jewish rites. Evidence as to the high place assigned to Baptism and the Eucharist in the Didache, to Baptism in Hernias and Barnabas, to the Eucharist in Ignatius, and to the eucharistic service in Clement of Rome, is decisive and leaves no room for doubt. That Baptism, for instance, was treated as indispensable is plain. Even one converted by a heavenly vision (Acts 9:18; Acts 22:16), even those upon whom the Holy Ghost had already fallen (Acts 10:48), were required to receive it, while of those whose understanding and experience of the faith were discovered to be essentially defective (Acts 19:1-7) the crucial question at once asked by the Apostle was-‘Into what then were ye baptized?’ To Baptism St. Paul disparaged Baptism as compared with preaching. Paul not recognized the primary importance of Baptism as the sacrament of initiation into the Church, had he not supposed that his administration of it was more liable than his preaching to encourage the party watchword-‘I am of Paul,’ he would not have adverted to his apostolic practice in this connexion. He thanks God that he baptized few of the Corinthians himself, just because he knows the supreme incorporating significance of that ordinance, and perceives the misinterpretation which party-spirit might have put upon any special diligence shown by him as a minister of the actual rite of Baptism-‘lest any man should say that ye were baptized into my name’ (1 Corinthians 1:15). Matthew’s record (Matthew 28:16-20), whatever view be taken as to the textually unassailable Trinitarian formula, proves that the Christian observance of Baptism was referred directly to the appointment of our Lord; and this conclusion is confirmed both by the description of Baptism as ‘in (ἐπί, εἰς, ἐν) the name of Jesus Christ’ (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48, etc. ), and by the distinction insisted upon between Christian Baptism and the Baptism of John (Acts 18:25; Acts 19:3-5, Hebrews 6:2). Matthew represents the belief of the primitive Church, Baptism was conceived of as an ordinance of the Risen Lord, delivered by Him on an occasion of transcending importance, decreed in the same breath with a claim to universal authority in heaven and on earth, associated with an imperial charge to
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - (5) The question of Baptism. Optatus finds fault with Parmenian for his inconsiderate language about our Lord's Baptism, to the effect that His flesh required to be "drowned in the flood" of Jordan to remove its impurity. If the Baptism of Christ's body were intended to suffice for the Baptism of each single person, there might be some truth in this, but we are baptized, in virtue not of the flesh of Christ, but of His name, and moreover we cannot believe that even His flesh contracted sin, for it was more pure than Jordan itself. (3) The holy spirit of adoption which Donatists claim exclusively for themselves applying to Catholics unjustly the words of our Lord about proselytism (Mat_23:15) (4) The fountain (probably faith) of which heretics cannot partake and (5) its seal "annulus" (probably Baptism) (Son_4:12). These gifts belong to the church in Africa from which the Donatists have cut themselves off as also from the priesthood which they seek by rebaptism to annul though they do not rebaptize their own returned seceders. In offering the sacrifice to God in the Eucharist they profess to offer for the one church but by their rebaptism they really make two churches. Optatus returns to the oft-repeated subject of rebaptism. The repetition of Baptism he says is an insult to the Trinity worse than the doctrines of Praxeas and the Patripassians. They use as a quotation words not found in Scripture "How can a man give what he has not received?" (see 1Co_4:7); but in Baptism God alone is the giver of grace. As it is not the dyer who changes the colour of his wool so neither does the minister of himself change the operation of Baptism. Of two candidates for Baptism if one refused to renounce while the other consented there can be no doubt which of them received Baptism effectually. How perversely and inconsistently the Donatists applied this principle in the matter of rebaptism Optatus again and again demonstrates. That there was a doctrine of rebaptism in the African church, to which Cyprian had lent the weight of his authority, there can be no doubt; but with him it was directed against heretics, on the principle that the followers of Marcion, Praxeas, and the like, were in fact not truly Christians and thus their Baptism was valueless
Bernardino di Betto di Biagio Pinturicchio - The pupil of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, he assisted Perugino, 1482, in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel; the "Baptism of Christ" and the "Journey of Moses into Egypt" being generally attributed to him
Jean Corot - He began as a Classicist and painted during this first period several religious pictures, among them "The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian" and a "Baptism of Christ
Chaplains of Sisters - They may not perform any reserved parochial functions such as Baptism or marriage, in the convent chapel, without special permission of the bishop
Bells, Blessing of - A solemn benediction of church bells, in which each bell receives a name, hence incorrectly termed the Baptism of bells
Episcopal Church in the United States of America - Baptism is either by pouring or by immersion
Baptism - When the sons of Zebedee asked to sit on the right and on the left of the Lord in His glory, He at once referred to the cup He had to drink, and asked if they could drinkof that cup, and be baptised with the Baptism He was to be baptised with
Apostolic, Prothonotary - Baptism is either by pouring or by immersion
Eagle - Associated in art with ...
Saint Augustine of Hippo as a symbol of inspiration
Saint Cuthbert, who was fed by an eagle
Saint Florian, whose corpse was protected from abuse by an eagle
Saint John of the Cross as a symbol of inspiration
Saint John the Evangelist as a symbol of inspiration and the Holy Ghost
Saint Juan Diego, whose birth name means "the eagle who speaks"
Saint Medard, who was sheltered from the weather by a hovering eagle
Saint Ruggero of Canne, who was sheltered in his travels by an eagle
Saint Servatus, who was sheltered from the sun by an eagle while he travelled as a pilgrim
Saint Wencelaus
It was used by early Christians as the sign of Baptism
Baptism - When the sons of Zebedee asked to sit on the right and on the left of the Lord in His glory, He at once referred to the cup He had to drink, and asked if they could drinkof that cup, and be baptised with the Baptism He was to be baptised with
Sacramentary - , Baptism on Holy Saturday, processions), the prayers used by a bishop at ordinations, consecrations of churches and altars, prayers of exorcisms, and blessings which are now to be found in the Pontifical and Ritual
Regeneration - It is effected by the reception or desire of Baptism, the sacrament of regeneration (Titus 3), and is sealed by the Baptismal character which remains even after a death-bringing, or mortal sin
Sisters, Chaplains of - They may not perform any reserved parochial functions such as Baptism or marriage, in the convent chapel, without special permission of the bishop
te Deum - Augustine atthe Baptism of the latter in A
Ceremonies of Baptism - At the Baptism of an infant, it is presented at the font by the sponsors. A white cloth, placed on the head, symbolizes sanctifying grace; this is a survival of the white Baptismal robe of ancient times. The ceremonies of Baptism of adults differ somewhat from the above
Baptism, Ceremonies of - At the Baptism of an infant, it is presented at the font by the sponsors. A white cloth, placed on the head, symbolizes sanctifying grace; this is a survival of the white Baptismal robe of ancient times. The ceremonies of Baptism of adults differ somewhat from the above
Catechesis - With the organization of the catechumenate it took on a more precise and restricted meaning: the oral instruction preparatory to Baptism
Catechism - With the organization of the catechumenate it took on a more precise and restricted meaning: the oral instruction preparatory to Baptism
Catholic Record Society - Hansom, to transcribe, print, index, and distribute to its members, the Catholic registers of Baptism, marriages, and deaths, and other old records of the faith, chiefly personal and genealogical, since the Reformation in England and Wales
Font - The vessel which contains the water for the purpose ofBaptism, usually of stone and vase-shaped, i. The position of the Font in primitive times was at or near theChurch door to signify that Baptism is the entrance into the ChurchMystical. The Font is so called from the Latin word Fons,genitive Fontis, meaning a fountain or spring, referring toBaptism as a Laver of Regeneration, the source of new and spirituallife
Albanenses - They denied free will, did not admit original sin, and never administered Baptism to infants
Matthias - the Apostle was first in the rank of our Saviour's disciples, and one of those who continued with him from his Baptism to his ascension, Acts 1:21-22
Zeal - Our Baptism must be with the Holy Ghost and with fire if we would win the masses to hear the gospel
Baptists - A denomination of Christians who maintain that Baptism is to be administered by immersion, and not by sprinkling. ...
See Baptism. Jesse; and, having renounced their former Baptism, they sent over one of their number to be immersed by one of the Dutch Anabaptists of Amsterdam, that he might be qualified to baptize his friends in England after the same manner
Christ, Disciples of - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to Baptism and church membership
Disciples of Christ - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to Baptism and church membership
Free Will Baptists - " The believers' Baptism by immersion is considered the only necessary requisite for admission
Christian Union Church of God - " The Lord's Supper, water Baptism by immersion, and foot-washing are the sacraments observed by this body
Cerinthians - They believed that he was a mere man, the son of Joseph and Mary; but that in his Baptism a celestial virtue descended on him in the form of a dove; by means whereof he was consecrated by the Holy Spirit, made Christ, and wrought so many miracles; that, as he received it from heaven, it quitted him after his passion, and returned to the place whence it came; so that Jesus, whom they called a pure man, really died, and rose again; but that Christ, who was distinguished from Jesus, did not suffer at all
Pentecost - (Concerning the extraordinary happenings that day see Baptism WITH THE SPIRIT; TONGUES
Exorcism - In the end of the 3rd century "exorcists" were made an order in the Christian church, much to the fostering of superstition, especially in connection with Baptism
Holiness Church Church of God - " The Lord's Supper, water Baptism by immersion, and foot-washing are the sacraments observed by this body
Washing of Regeneration - In Titus the believer is said to be saved by the cleansing in connection with the new order of things introduced by Christianity, as indicated in Baptism, and the renewal of the Holy Spirit
Baptists, Free Will - " The believers' Baptism by immersion is considered the only necessary requisite for admission
Reformed Episcopal Church - The Reformed Episcopal Church is in close relation with the Liturgical Free Churches, of England, and accepts the Apostles' Creed, the, Divine institution of the sacraments of Baptism; and the Lord's Supper, and the doctrines of grace, substantially as set forth in the Thirty-nine Articles for the Protestant Episcopal Church
Quadrilateral - The Apostles' Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol; and the NiceneCreed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself—Baptism and theSupper of the Lord—ministered with unfailing use of Christ's wordsof Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him
Nicolas - If the view here stated be true, there were three stages in the advance towards the idea of a Catholic Church: (1) the admission of Nicolas, a full proselyte, to office in the Christian Church, followed by the Baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch, also probably a full proselyte ( Acts 8:27 ); (2) the Baptism of Cornelius, a ‘God-fearing’ proselyte, i
Stephanas - Perhaps he reminded the Apostle that his was one of the few cases of personal Baptism at St. Moreover, the Baptism of a household marked a real footing gained by Christianity in the city
Whippers - They held, among other things, that whipping was of equal virtue with Baptism, and the other sacraments; that the forgiveness of all sins was to be obtained by it from God without the merits of Jesus Christ; that the old law of Christ was soon to be abolished, and that a new law, enjoining the Baptism of blood to be administered by whipping, was to be substituted in its place: upon which Clement VII
Church - They are (1) Baptism, Baptism implying on the part of the recipient repentance and faith; (2) Apostolic Doctrine; (3) Fellowship with the Apostles; (4) The Lord's Supper; (5) Public Worship
Footwashing - Some interpreters see a connection with Baptism (and the Eucharist) as sacraments of cleansing. Instead, the footwashing, like Baptism and the Supper, bears witness to the same salvific event, the selfless giving of Christ in the humilitating death of the cross. ...
The ceremonial washing of feet is first attested by Augustine in connection with Easter Baptism
Stephanus i., Bishop of Rome - ...
A new question of dispute, that of the rebaptism of heretics, led to an open rupture between Rome and Carthage, in which the Asian as well as the African churches sided with Cyprian against Rome. But it soon took the wider range of all cases of heretical or schismatical Baptism. 73, ad Jubaianum ) does not trace the African custom further back than Agrippinus, but he insisted uncompromisingly on the necessity of rebaptism, and was supported by the whole African church. At Rome admission by imposition of hands only, without iteration of Baptism, seems to have been the immemorial usage, the only alleged exception being what Hippolytus states (Philosophum. 291) about rebaptism having been practised in the time of Callistus. Cyprian would baptize all schismatics, whether heretical in doctrine or no; Stephen would apparently rebaptize none, whatever their heresies or the form of their Baptism (Cyp. There is but one Baptism; to reiterate it is sacrilege, and its efficacy depends, not on the administrators, but on the institution of Christ; whoever, then, has been once baptized in the name of Christ, even by heretics, has been validly baptized, and may not be baptized again. John's Baptism, without acknowledgment of the Holy Ghost; he and the other apostles regarded schism and heresy as cutting men off from Christ; the Catholic Church is one, `a closed garden, a fountain sealed'; outside it there is no grace, no salvation, consequently no Baptism; people cannot confer grace if they have not got it; we do not reiterate Baptism, for those whom we baptize have not previously been baptized at all; it is you that make two Baptisms in allowing that of heretics as well as that of the church
Christadelphians - Profession of faith in doctrines of the Church, and Baptism by immersion in the name of Jesus for remission of sins, are necessary for admission to membership
Martin of Tours, Saint - Amiens in Gaul was the scene of the famous incident of Martin sharing his military cloak with a beggar, followed by the heavenly vision which led to his Baptism
Mark (2) - The public ministry of Christ, his discourses and actions in Galilee, prefaced by an account of his baptism
Menandrians - He taught, that no person could be saved unless he were baptised in his name; and he conferred a peculiar sort of Baptism, which would render those who received it immortal in the next world; exhibiting himself to the world with the phrenzy of a lunatic more than the founder of a sect as a promised saviour; for it appears by the testimonies of Irenxus, Justin, and Tertullian, that he pretended to be one of the xons sent from the pleroma, or ecclesiastical regious, to succour the souls that lay groaning under bodily oppression and servitude; and to maintain them against the violence and stratagems of the daemons that hold the reins of empire in this sublunary world
Apollos - A convert from Alexandria, an eloquent man and mighty in thescriptures, who, when only knowing the Baptism of John, taught diligently the things of Jesus
Disciple - They were divided into two classes, those who received private instruction, and those who were admitted to the congregations, and were under immediate preparation for Baptism
Rite - , the rite of Baptism
Edward Pusey - He wrote three of the Tracts for the Times, those on Baptism, which are replete with erudite quotations
Tours, Martin of, Saint - Amiens in Gaul was the scene of the famous incident of Martin sharing his military cloak with a beggar, followed by the heavenly vision which led to his Baptism
Confirmation - In the passages in Acts, however, the imposition of hands is associated with the impartation of extraordinary spiritual gifts, while of Hebrews 6:2 no more can be said than that in the early Church the act appears to have been closely associated with Baptism. That it might precede Baptism instead of following it is shown by Acts 9:17-18 ; which further shows that it might be performed by one who was not an Apostle or even an official of the Church
Bonosus, Founder Bonosiani Sect - Their Baptism was pronounced valid by the 17th canon of the second synod of Arles, a. 61), includes them in those whose Baptism the church rejected because the name of the Trinity was not invoked (cf
Perseverance - As time passed, however, Baptism became regarded by some Christians as a bath which would provide cleansing from all types of sin, including renunciation. Some would thus delay Baptism almost to the time of death to guarantee that all sins in life would be expunged. The need was seen by these Christians for a final rite to care for such post-baptismal, unconfessed sins. Others found such views of Baptism and extreme unction to be foreign to New Testament perspectives
Endurance - Some, viewing Baptism as a cure-all for every sin, postponed their Baptism until the point of death. Others developed a last rite that would sacramentally guarantee their acceptance from the time of their Baptism or their final participation in a communion service
Confession (of Sin) - But did He make confession of sin to God? The fact that John’s Baptism was ‘the Baptism of repentance’ (Mark 1:4 ||), and that the people ‘were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins’ (Matthew 3:6), together with the further fact that Jesus Himself came to the Jordan to be baptized (Matthew 3:13, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21), might be so interpreted. The Baptism of John, we must remember, had more than one aspect: it was not only the Baptism of repentance, but the Baptism of preparation for the approaching kingdom of heaven (Matthew 3:2) and of consecration to its service (Luke 3:10-14). Philippians 2:8), that the Baptism of Jesus is to be regarded. Matthew 21:32), and to inaugurate it by the rite of Baptism (Matthew 21:25 ||). And by submitting Himself to John’s Baptism He was openly dedicating Himself to the work of that kingdom, and taking up His task of fulfilling all righteousness (Matthew 3:15)
John the Baptist - ...
The Baptism of John was the declaration unto all men, by means of a symbolic action, that the condition of entrance into God’s Kingdom is the putting away of sin. It was a ‘repentance-baptism,’ and its purpose was ‘remission of sins’ (Mark 1:4 ) Death - "By one man sin entered into this world, and by sin death" (Romans 5), and though the character of punishment is wiped away in Baptism, death itself remains as an effect of sin (prenalitas)
Liturgical Apostolate - , pictures, lantern slides, stationery, charts with movable pictures representing the ceremonies of low Mass and of Baptism, etc
Church - The mark by which theelect are distinguished in Holy Scripture is membership of theChurch by Baptism, although ultimate salvation requires furtherconditions
Red Sea - Paul here conceives the passage through the Red Sea to have been an initiatory rite like Baptism (see G
Apostolate, Liturgical - , pictures, lantern slides, stationery, charts with movable pictures representing the ceremonies of low Mass and of Baptism, etc
Burial, Bury, Burying - 2, "to bury with, or together" (sun), is used in the metaphorical sense only, of the believer's identification with Christ in His "burial," as set forth in Baptism, Romans 6:4 ; Colossians 2:12
Saint Augustine, Florida, City of - The general massacre of 1597 was a severe check to missionary work, but after the Baptism of Indian chiefs in 1609 the missions flourished again
Redemption - Baptism, the initial sacrament by which we appropriate subjectively the graces of the Cross, is viewed by Saint Paul as a mystic death and resurrection with Christ: ...
"Know you not that all we, who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in his death? For we are buried together with Him by Baptism into death; that as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also may walk in newness of life
Church, the - At the heart of the expression of the church's faith are the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. ...
Baptism . Baptism symbolizes the sinner's entrance into the church. First, the Old Testament intimated Baptism, especially in its association of repentance of sin with ablutions (Numbers 19:18-22 ; Psalm 51:7 ; Ezekiel 36:25 ; cf. Second, the Baptism of John anticipated Christian Baptism. John administered a Baptism of repentance in expectation of the Baptism of the Spirit and fire that the Messiah would exercise (Matthew 3:11 /Acts 2:44-45/3:16 ). Those who accept Jesus as Messiah experience the Baptism of fire and judgment. Third, the early church practiced Baptism, in imitation of the Lord Jesus (Matthew 3:13-17 /Mark 3:13-17/1:9-11 /Luke 1:9-11/3:21-22 ; see also John 1:32-34 ; cf. These passages demonstrate some further truths about Baptism: (1) Baptism is intimately related to faith in God; (2) Baptism identifies the person with the death and resurrection of Jesus; (3) Baptism incorporates the person into the community of believers
Ministry - ...
(1) The limits of the public ministry of Jesus are properly placed between His Baptism and His burial, leaving out at the beginning the thirty years of retirement and preparation at Nazareth, and at the end the forty days of occasional appearances after His resurrection. ...
(2) The principal dates to be determined in our Lord’s life are those of His birth, Baptism, and crucifixion—the duration of the ministry depending upon the latter two, but involving the first. ...
(b) For the Baptism, we know that it took place at some time within the ‘fifteenth year of Tiberius Caesar’ (Luke 3:1-2), for this was the time that John began to baptize, and Jesus was among those who received the rite at his hands (Matthew 3:13, Mark 1:9, Luke 3:21); but none of the accounts gives any definite note as to the exact point during the ministry of John when the Baptism occurred. 26 as the probable year of the Baptism; but if St. 28, and the Baptism of Jesus would be at some time in the twelve months following. According to it, the Baptism probably occurred early in the year 29, that is, during the fifteenth year of Tiberius, reckoning that to have begun in Aug. 28, and the Baptism to have taken place early in the year following. This takes the unnamed feast of John 5:1 to be a Passover, holds to the commonly received text of John 6:4, puts the Baptism early in 27 and the Crucifixion in 30, thus making the ministry extend over three years. If the Baptism occurred in the autumn of 28 or early spring of 29, then to get in three Passovers it will be necessary to put the Crucifixion in 31—to which there are serious objections. But if the Baptism was in 26–27, then the Crucifixion could be assigned to 29, which is not improbable. The first notice is in the account of John’s Baptism as taking place at Bethany beyond Jordan (John 1:28). ...
Birth to Baptism. ...
Baptism to First Miracle
Descent Into Hades - No one in the Apostolic or sub-Apostolic Age would have been impelled by dogmatic considerations to insert the article of the Descent into Hades in the Baptismal creed, for it was only another way of saying that Christ died. All alike had ‘to rise up through water’ that they might be made alive, so that the seal of Baptism is needed for all. Baptism. We have already (§ 6) found in Origen the conception of John as the precursor of Christ in the under world; but we have now to notice the remarkable similarity between the language used about the Descensus and that used about Baptism. ...
Now in Baptism we are ‘buried with him’ and ‘united with him by the likeness of his death’ (Romans 6:4-5). ]'>[28] speak explicitly of our Baptism as a reflexion or imitation of Christ’s Descensus; as a Western Council‡
Other illustrations might be given, but these are sufficient to show that what may be called the folklore of the Descent into Hades is closely connected with the folklore of Baptism. The juxtaposition of the two thoughts-the ministry of Christ in Hades and the efficacy of Baptism-in 1 Peter 3:19 f. , the Arian Symbol of Sirmium (359) being the first to include it; and it is not included in the Baptismal Creed of the Eastern Church to this day
Burial - ...
Paul presses the connection between burial and resurrection one step further by applying it to Baptism. In both Romans (6:4) and Colossians (2:12) he presents Baptism as a symbol of being buried with Christ. Trafton...
See also Baptize, Baptism ...
Bibliography
Baptism With the Spirit - The Baptism with, in, or by the Holy Spirit was an event that John the Baptist foretold (Matthew 3:11), that Jesus promised (Acts 1:4-5), and that Peter and Paul referred to (Acts 11:15-16; 1 Corinthians 12:13). ...
The early church...
On the Day of Pentecost two separate groups of believers received the gift, or Baptism, of the Spirit. Through the Baptism of the Spirit, all Christians, the moment they believe, are brought into the church and made sharers in the Holy Spirit (1 Corinthians 12:13)
Deaconess - Early functions consisted in charitable offices towards the poor, and in instruction and Baptism of catechumens
Forty Days, the Great - Matthias in the place of the traitorJudas—thus indicating the perpetuity of the Apostolate; theobservance of the first day of the week instead of the seventh; theordaining of Deacons thus indicating "divers orders" in His Church;the Rite of Confirmation; Frequent Communion, Infant Baptism andmany other things to be noted in the Acts of the Apostles,which have become inherent features of the Church; how else arethey to be accounted for and explained but as being among "the thingspertaining to the Kingdom of God" of which the Master spake duringthese Great Forty Days? If not, then how came about their universalacceptance and continuance even unto this present day?...
Regeneration - (See Baptism
John - He was fearless and faithful, and met with success among the people; yet he was humble and gave great honor to Jesus, who came to his Baptism
Chronology of the New Testament - ...
Baptism of Jesus
John - He was fearless and faithful, and met with success among the people; yet he was humble and gave great honor to Jesus, who came to his Baptism
Spirits in Prison - Verses 19-21 declare his triumphant declaration to the evil spirits, and contrasts them with Noah, who was saved through water—a type of Christian Baptism. And their participation in the triumph of Christ is assured by their pledge of a good conscience in Baptism (v
Bath, Bathing - ’ Nay, proselyte Baptism must be earlier than the NT, and it requires a bath, tĕbîlâh (tâbal is used in one unambiguous OT passage, the miracle of Naaman’s cleansing, 2 Kings 5:14). And, finally, John’s Baptism was by immersion (as was that also of the early Christian Church, Acts 8:38, Romans 6:3-4)
Proselyte - We learn from the Talmud that, in addition to circumcision, Baptism was also required to complete their admission to the faith. The Baptism was followed as long as the temple stood, by the offering or corban
Holy Spirit (2) - When Jesus comes to be baptized in Jordan, the remarkable phenomenon is that what for others is a Baptism with water coincides for Him with a Baptism in the Holy Spirit. ...
Critics have suggested that the curiously indirect way in which the Baptism of Jesus and the descent of the Spirit are mentioned in Luke 3:21 f. is due to the writer’s desire to slur over something which is really inconsistent with his account of Jesus’ birth; but even if Luke had difficulty in adjusting these two things, as the Fourth Evangelist may have had difficulty in adjusting the incarnation of the Eternal Logos in Jesus with the descent of the Spirit upon Him in manhood, it is clear that for both the Baptism was so securely fixed in the Gospel testimony that they had no alternative but to set it unambiguously down (cf. There must have been something in the life of Jesus as determined by the great experience of His Baptism akin to the experiences which Christians subsequently ascribed to the Spirit, or they would hardly have traced both to the same source; and the more closely we look into the Gospels, the less does the emotionally colourless Saviour of popular art seem to correspond to the historical reality. The experiences of Jesus at the Baptism and the Transfiguration were not those of everyday life; they belong to ‘pneumatic’ as contrasted with normal conditions. But it may fairly be said that some of the ideas which Christians subsequently connected with their own Baptism were not without relation to the Baptism of Jesus and to the interpretation which they put upon it. It was the facts of His Baptism which led them to believe (a) in a normal coincidence of Baptism with the Spirit and water Baptism, instead of in the displacement of the latter by the former; (b) in the Spirit received in Baptism as specifically the spirit of sonship; and (c) in that same Spirit as one consecrating them to God and to service in His kingdom. ‘the holy spirit’ (Luke 3:22) or ‘holy spirit’ (Luke 4:1), is the Divine power with which Jesus was endowed at His Baptism, and which committed Him to an irreconcilable conflict with evil. ) tells how God anointed Him (in the Baptism) ‘with holy spirit and power’; and it is under these conditions that the Evangelists conceive His whole ministry to he fulfilled. Without going so far as to say that in the Temptation narratives He is represented as tempted to put to selfish uses the power just conferred through the Spirit in Baptism for the ends of God’s kingdom, it is a mark of historicity in the canonical Gospels that until He is baptized with the Spirit, Jesus works no miracle. Perhaps the nearest approach to it is in Mark 10:38, where Jesus asks James and John, ‘Are ye able to be baptized with the Baptism with which I am baptized?’ There is no doubt that Jesus speaks throughout this scene with unusual elevation of tone; and the figure of Baptism, which He could hardly use without recalling the experience at the Jordan and all that His consecration there involved, lifts us into the region where the thought of the Spirit is near. They did not apparently stand in relief in His life as they would have done in the life of others; little in it is specifically assigned to the Spirit, because the spiritual Baptism at the beginning impelled and controlled it throughout. ...
If, then, we try to sum up the oldest Evangelic representation, we can hardly say more than that the Holy Spirit is the Divine power which from His Baptism onward wrought in Jesus, making Him mighty in word and deed—a power the character of which is shown by the teaching and by the saving miracles of Jesus—a power to which the sanctity of God attached, so that it is Divine also in the ethical sense, and to blaspheme it is the last degree of sin—a power in which Jesus enabled His disciples to some extent to sha
Children, Communion of - In ancient times in the Eastern Church infants received Communion immediately after Baptism; in the West it was common to communicate them in the hour of death
Dove - It was in the form of a dove that the Holy Ghost descended upon the blessed Jesus at his Baptism
West - He recognized that the final stage of imperviousness and impotence had been reached, and that the Kingdom of Heaven required the removal of both teachers and teaching and a re-baptism of religious vision and thought (Matthew 23:36-39, Mark 8:12, John 4:21)
Confirmation - ’...
For the rite of confirmation, see Baptism, §§ 6, 8
Symbol - Christ's death seen through the resurrection is at the center of the two major symbolic rituals of Christian faith—baptism and the Lord's Supper or the Eucharist. ...
Baptism is a picture of the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ. In being baptized, a person says to the world that the Baptismal candidate is identifying with the saving act being pictured
Baptists - It holds that immersion is necessary for valid Baptism and that the Scriptures are the sole rule of faith and conduct. They hold: ...
That the churches are independent in their local affairs;
that there should be an entire separation of church and state;
that religious liberty or freedom in matters of religion is an inherent right of the human soul;
that a church is a body of regenerated people who have been baptized on profession of personal faith in Christ, and have associated themselves in the fellowship of the gospel;
that infant Baptism is not only not taught in the Scriptures, but is fatal to the spirituality of the church;
that from the meaning of the word used in the Greek text of the Scriptures, the symbolism of the ordinance, and the practise of the early Church, immersion in water is the only proper mode of Baptism;
that the scriptural officers of a church are pastors and deacons; and
that the Lord's Supper is an ordinance of the Church observed in commemoration of the sufferings and death of Christ
Maximus, Bishop of Turin - They consist of 117 homilies, 116 sermons, 3 tractates on Baptism, 2 (of very doubtful authority) entitled respectively contra Paganos and contra Judaeos , and a collection of expositions de Capitulis Evangeliorum (also doubtful). Gennadius mentions a work of Maximus de Spiritali Baptismi Gratia , and three treatises on this subject, formerly ascribed to St. The first treatise dwells on the significance of the anointing of the ears before Baptism; the second gives an interrogatory creed identical with the one mentioned above in the homilies, and alludes to the custom of baptizing on the third day after the profession of faith; the third speaks of the anointing of the head after Baptism, by which is conferred the full regal and sacerdotal dignity spoken of by St
Marcus, a Gnostic - They taught that the Baptism of the visible Jesus was but for the forgiveness of sins but that the redemption of Him Who in that Baptism descended was for perfection; the one was merely psychical the other spiritual. Of the latter are interpreted the words in which our Lord spoke of another Baptism (Luk_12:50; Mat_20:22). Some conferred this redemption by Baptism with special invocations; others added or substituted various anointings; others held that these applications could not procure spiritual redemption—only by knowledge could such redemption be effected
Commission - ...
Mark 16:15...
Luke 24:46-49...
John 20:21-23...
Universal Mission...
Universal Mission...
Universal Mission...
Mission of undefined range...
Baptism...
Baptism and Faith...
Repentance and Remission of sins...
Message whose substance is Forgiveness...
Promise of spiritual Presence...
—...
Promise of Comforter...
Gift of Holy Ghost. ...
The Commission itself is evangelistic, or missionary, and pastoral—the one merging into the other, with Baptism as the link connecting these two departments. Baptism is the initiatory rite. This profession was manifestly intended by our Lord when He instituted the rite of Baptism. Baptism. ...
Baptism is ‘into’ (εἱς) the name of the triune God—by the authority and unto the authority of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. These words, ‘into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,’ have been used for ages as our formula of Baptism when admitting candidates into the covenant of Redemption—‘into the name,’ ‘as the expression, according to the common Scripture use, of the whole character of God, the sum of the whole Christian revelation. ’ The process begun before, must be continued after Baptism. Thus Baptism—the Sacrament of regeneration—is closely associated with preaching and teaching; while the Lord’s Supper—the Sacrament of sanctification—is not directly mentioned, although included among the ‘all things whatsoever I have commanded you. For the Baptismal Formula see Resch and Marshall in Expos
Typology - Baptism as a fulfillment of the type Peter, after discussing Christ's work in preaching in the spiritual realm to spirits in prison, mentioned Noah's ark and the flood: “Into which ark a few [2] were saved through water, which water [3] as a fulfullment of the type now saves you through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, not through removing of dirt from the body but as a pledge of a good conscience towards God” (1 Peter 3:20-21 ). Baptism is a drama of faith. We are saved by faith expressed in water Baptism. What is the one point of correspondence with the flood? The flood was a type of Baptism because people of faith (and recipients of God's favor) experienced deliverance. Noah and his family were delivered by the ark and the water; Christians expressing in Baptism genuine faith are delivered from bondage to sin
Epiphany, the - Anexamination of the services for the Feast of the Epiphany showsthat the commemoration is really threefold: (1) Our Lord'sManifestation by a star to the Magi; (2) The Manifestation ofthe glorious Trinity at His Baptism, and (3) The Manifestation ofthe glory and Divinity of Christ by His miraculous turning waterinto wine at the marriage in Cana of Galilee; all of which are saidto have happened on the same day, though not in the same year
Deaconess - pious women, whose particular business it was to assist in the entertainment and care of the itinerant preachers, visit the sick and imprisoned, instruct female catechumens, and assist at their Baptism; then more particularly necessary, from the peculiar customs of those countries, the persecuted state of the church, and the speedier spreading of the Gospel
Creed - Shaped in their developed form by doctrinal controversy and Conciliar definition, the Creeds owe their origin to the necessities of worship and the instinct of public confession in the Church, felt at Baptism to begin with
Ashdod - The solitary reference to it in the NT is the record of Philip’s departure thither after the Baptism of the Ethiopian ( Acts 8:40 )
Antitype - In 1 Peter 3:21 , eight souls were saved through water, of which Baptism is the figure, or what answers to it
Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem - The emperor also presented Macarius with a vestment of gold tissue for the administration of the sacrament of Baptism, as a token of honour to the church of Jerusalem (Theod
Apollos - But Apollos knew only the water Baptism of John; he did not yet know that what John had foretold ("I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He Messiah shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire") had actually come to pass, in the church's Baptism with the Spirit on Pentecost, and that graces and gifts were now being bestowed on the several living stones composing "the temple of the Holy Spirit
New Self - The words translated "put off" and "put on" in (1) and (3) are past tense in Greek, indicating a completed action ( perhaps Baptism ). Baptism, unlike circumcision, which was the putting away of a mere piece of flesh, represented rather the stripping off of the whole body of flesh (v
Greek Church - In Baptism they practice triune immersion, or dip three times; but some, as the Georgians, defer the Baptism of their children till they are three, four, or more years of age. The chrism, or Baptismal unction, immediately follows Baptism. They give it both to the clergy and laity, and to children after Baptism
New Birth - It does not see water as a reference to Christian Baptism at a time in Jesus' ministry when such Baptism was not yet a historical reality. ...
Many commentators argue that Titus 3:5 argues for water Baptism as the referent of the word "washing
Sacrament of Penance - A sacrament of the New Law, instituted by Christ, for the remission of sins committed after Baptism. The remote matter is sins committed after Baptism, for the judicial character of Penance limits its scope to transgressions committed by those who are subject to the jurisdiction of the Church. Penance can be received by any person who has committed sin, whether mortal or venial, after Baptism
Nazarene - ...
3) A member of a small and unimportant heretical sect of trinitarian Christians, originating in Hungary, which rejected Transubstantiation, infant Baptism, and the priesthood
Chaplain - The chaplain of a hospital or other institution must adapt his services to the needs of the institution, avoiding all usurpation of parochial functions, such as the administration of solemn Baptism, if the institution is not withdrawn from parochial jurisdiction
Birds in Symbolism - The eagle was also a type of Baptism, from the legend that a dying eagle could renew its youth by plunging three times into a spring of pure water (Psalms 102)
Ambrose, Saint - When striving to hold an orderly election of a bishop to that see in 374, the people acclaimed him, although, out of reverence for Baptism, he was still only a catechumen preparing for it
Key - ...
Matthew 16:19 The two keys given to Peter were evidently the two Gospels: one Gospel for the Jews which included Baptism for the remission of sins; the other Gospel for the Gentiles in which salvation is by faith alone
Armenians - They have seven sacraments; Baptism, confirmation, penance, and Eucharist, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony
Symbolism, Birds in - The eagle was also a type of Baptism, from the legend that a dying eagle could renew its youth by plunging three times into a spring of pure water (Psalms 102)
Kingdom of God - From these and manyother passages we learn that our Lord embodied His Truth andSalvation in an Institution which should be the means of itspreservation, the instrument of its promulgation throughout theworld, and into which men are admitted by Holy Baptism to becomepartakers of His Salvation
Holy Ghost, the - This is illustrated by the followingstatement: "By being born again of water and the Holy Ghost weare made members of 'the Holy Catholic Church'; by keeping the unityof the Spirit in the bond of peace, we enjoy the 'Communion ofSaints'; through the Holy Ghost we receive the 'Remission ofSins,' first in our Baptism and afterwards in the Holy Communionand other ordinances; it is through the Holy Ghost that the Lordshall quicken our mortal bodies in the 'Resurrection,' and by Hisgrace we shall be enabled to give a good answer at the JudgmentSeat of Christ and so attain to the 'Life Everlasting
Gregorius, Bishop of Merida - "How many have been admitted to the priesthood who, like Rufinus and Gregory, have after Baptism practised in the law courts ? How many soldiers who, in obedience to authority, have been obliged to execute harsh orders (severa praecepta)? How many curiales who, in obedience also, have done whatever was commanded them? How many who have given amusements and spectacles to the people (voluptates et editiones populo celebrarunt) have become bishops?" (See Gams's comments on Song of Solomon 2 of council of Eliberi. "...
From these notices it appears that Gregory succeeded Patruinus in the metropolitan see of Merida shortly after the council of Toledo in 400, that in his youth and after Baptism he had practised as an advocate; that his election to the bishopric was therefore, strictly speaking, illegal, and that his appointment had met with great opposition
Coelicolae - Augustine's letter it would seem that the Coelicolae used a Baptism which he counted sacrilege— i. they probably combined a Christian form of Baptism with the Jewish rite of circumcision
Circumcise - In addition to this, it also is a figure for Baptism: “In him you were also circumcised, … not with a circumcision alone by the hands of men but with the circumcision done by Christ, having been buried with him in Baptism and raised with him through your faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead” ( Baptists - or ANTIPAEDOBAPTISTS, so called from their rejecting the Baptism of infants. They bore a considerable share in the sufferings of the seventeenth and preceding centuries: for there were many among the Lollards and Wickliffites who disapproved of infant Baptism
Proselytes - , Baptism, for which the rabbis quoted Exodus 19:10), followed by his presenting the corban offering of two turtle doves, as after a birth (Leviticus 12:8). The presumed existence of this proselyte Baptism for males and females throws light on John's Baptism and the priests' question, "why baptizest thou then?" (John 1:25) and John 3:5; John 3:10, the Lord's words to Nicodemus, "art thou a master (teacher) of Israel, and knowest not these things?" Nicodemus ought to have understood the deeper sense to which Christ applied the familiar phrase "new birth" in connection with "baptism" of proselytes. ...
However, there is no mention of Baptism of proselytes in the Bible, the Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, or the older targums
Moravian Church - They practise infant Baptism; and holy communion, which is celebrated about six times a year, is open to communicant members of other churches
Christian - We are made Christians in our Baptism, for we are thenbrought into union with Christ and made members of His Body
Superstition - The word may be applied to the idolatry of the Heathens, the traditions of the Jews, the unscriptural rites of the Catholics; to the dependence placed by many on Baptism, the Lord's supper, and other ceremonies
Novatians - The Novatians did not deny but a person falling into any sin, how grievous soever, might obtain pardon by repentance; for they themselves recommended repentance in the strongest terms; but their doctrine was, that the church had it not in its power to receive sinners into its communion, as having no way of remitting sins but by Baptism: which once received could not be repeated
Milk - Baptism is an example
Antitype - In the latter passage, the apostle, speaking of Noah's flood, and the deliverance only of eight persons in the ark from it, says, Baptism being an antitype to that, now saves us; not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience towards God, &c
Unitas Fratrom - They practise infant Baptism; and holy communion, which is celebrated about six times a year, is open to communicant members of other churches
Unity of Brethren - They practise infant Baptism; and holy communion, which is celebrated about six times a year, is open to communicant members of other churches
Water, Holy - There are four kinds: ordinary holy water, blessed by the priest for the sprinkling of the people before Mass (see ASPERGEs), for use at the door of the church, and for the blessing of persons and things in the church and at horne, sometimes used with salt, as a symbol of wisdom and of preservation from corruption; Baptismal water, in which the oil of catechumens and the holy chrism are mingled, used only in the administration of Baptism; water of consecration, or Gregorian water, and Easter water
Proselyte - ...
These according to the rabbins, by means of circumcision, Baptism, and an offering, obtained all the rites of Jewish citizenship, Exodus 12:48-49
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - The "fight of martyrdom and the Baptism of blood" which ensued is perhaps to be traced in Tertullian's de Fuga and Scorpiace (between 202–212). Bonwetsch and Salmon) attributed to Tertullian himself, have preserved a picture of the times—a reluctant proconsul, all-willing martyrs, and a scoffing crowd saluting their Baptism of blood with the mocking cry, "Salvum lotum" (see the Acts in Migne's Patr. ...
(b ) Other works of this period, but of less certain date: de Oratione; de Baptismo; de Poenitentia; de Spectaculis; de Cultu Feminarum , i. de Baptismo , cc. Questions concerning heretical Baptism, and the attitude of the church towards the heretical sects, were very probably discussed, and Tertullian's lost treatise on heretical Baptism was written in Greek to circulate the synod's decisions beyond the confines of the African church. The flock looked to their pastors for guidance: prayer, Baptism, repentance, and the discipline connected with them; woman's dress and woman's life, married or unmarried; pleasures, amusements, how far lawful or unlawful,—all were matters upon which direction was desirable, and to all does Tertullian apply himself. '"...
De Baptismo. —One Quintilla, "a viper of the Cainite heresy," had sought to destroy Baptism. " Her sneers had corrupted some; others were disturbed by such doubts as, Why was Baptism necessary? Abraham was justified without it. No mention was made in Scripture of the Baptism of the apostles; St. ...
(a ) The foundation for the sacrament (religionem ) of Baptism Tertullian finds in (cc. The hovering of the Spirit of God over the waters was typical of Baptism; and water still, after invocation of God, furnished the sacrament of sanctification. Shortly but beautifully he describes the Baptismal ceremonies (cf. ), notes the types and figures of Baptism in O. , and the testimony to Baptism in the life and passion of the Lord. ...
(b ) Larger questions acquiescing in the necessity of Baptism awaited consideration. ...
(i) Heretical Baptism . —Christians held firmly to a belief in one God, one Baptism, one Church. This unity was, as regards Baptism, imperilled by heretical Baptism
Regeneration - In the other passage ( John 1:12-13 ), the expression ‘the washing [1] of regeneration’ connects ‘the renewing of the Holy Ghost’ with the rite of Baptism, which is its outward symbol and seal (see below). This is the error of sacerdotalism, which binds up this spiritual change with the rite of Baptism . It would be wrong to say that Baptism has no connexion with the change, for it is often brought into most intimate relation with it ( Romans 6:4 , Titus 3:5 , 1 Peter 3:21 ; perhaps even in Christ’s words, John 3:5 ; with the historical examples of the connexion of the receiving of the Spirit with Baptism, Acts 2:38 ; Acts 19:2-8 etc. Baptism is connected with regeneration as outwardly representing it, and being a symbol of it; as connected with profession ( 1 Peter 3:21 ), and pledging the spiritual blessing to faith; but it neither operates the blessing, nor is indispensable to it, nor has any virtue at all apart from the inward susceptibility in the subjects of it. In some cases we read of those on whom the Spirit of God fell, that they were baptized afterwards ( Acts 10:44 ; Acts 10:48 ), and in all cases faith is presumed to be already present before Baptism is administered; that is, the inward decisive step has already been taken
Confirmation - InHebrews 6:1, 2, we find Confirmation or the Laying on of Handsmentioned as a first or foundation principle of the Doctrine ofChrist, as necessary to the health of the soul as Repentance, Faith,Baptism, Resurrection and eternal judgment
Euchites - The same denomination was used in the twelfth century to denote certain fanatics who infested the Greek and Eastern churches, and who were charged with believing a double trinity, rejecting wedlock, abstaining from flesh, treating with contempt the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's supper, and the various branches of external worship, and placing the essence of religion solely in external prayer; and maintaining the efficacy of perpetual supplications to the Supreme Being for expelling an evil being or genius, which dwelt in the breast of every mortal
Proselytes - This involved fulfilling the Jewish demands of circumcision (males) which related one to the covenant (see Galatians 5:3 ), Baptism (males and females) which made one ritually clean, and an offering (males and females) in the Jerusalem Temple which atoned for sin
Luke, Gospel of Saint - The Gospel contains 24 chapters and maybe divided into: ...
the hidden life (1-2)
preaching of Saint John, Baptism, and temptation (3:1 to 4:13)
teaching, miracles, and works of mercy in Galilee and the founding of the Church (4:14 to 9:50)
the "Perean Ministry," work of Jesus outside of Galilee (9:51 to 19:28)
ministry in Jerusalem (19:29 to 21:38)
Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension (22-24)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that the harmonious tradition from the earliest ages, the testimony of ancient writers, the use of the Gospel by the early Church, constitute certain proof that Saint Luke wrote the entire Gospel as contained in our Bibles before the year 70, and that it is a true historical document
Hope - The virtue of hope infused into the soul at Baptism is sufficient for those who have not attained the use of reason; in all others an act of hope is required, such at least as is included in living a Christian life
Gospel of Saint Luke - The Gospel contains 24 chapters and maybe divided into: ...
the hidden life (1-2)
preaching of Saint John, Baptism, and temptation (3:1 to 4:13)
teaching, miracles, and works of mercy in Galilee and the founding of the Church (4:14 to 9:50)
the "Perean Ministry," work of Jesus outside of Galilee (9:51 to 19:28)
ministry in Jerusalem (19:29 to 21:38)
Passion, Death, Resurrection and Ascension (22-24)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that the harmonious tradition from the earliest ages, the testimony of ancient writers, the use of the Gospel by the early Church, constitute certain proof that Saint Luke wrote the entire Gospel as contained in our Bibles before the year 70, and that it is a true historical document
Zaretan - Bethabara, "the house of the ferry," was beyond Jordan; but the ferry or ford was doubtless the place of Christ's Baptism. ...
The name and site did not originate from Christian tradition, for this makes the fords of Jericho the scene of John's Baptisms (John 1:28)
Eastern Church - The Eastern Church accepts the first seven ecumenical councils (and is hence styled only schismatic, not heretical, by the Roman Catholic Church), has as its creed the Niceno-Constantinopolitan (without the later addition of the filioque, which, with the doctrine it represents, the church decisively rejects), baptizes infants with trine immersion, makes confirmation follow immediately upon Baptism, administers the Communion in both kinds (using leavened bread) and to infants as well as adults, permits its secular clergy to marry before ordination and to keep their wives afterward, but not to marry a second time, selects its bishops from the monastic clergy only, recognizes the offices of bishop, priest, and deacon as the three necessary degrees of orders, venerates relics and icons, and has an elaborate ritual
Chrysippus, Guardian of the Holy Cross - 171) records his having read in a writing of Chrysippus a statement relating to the Baptism of Gamaliel and Nicodemus by SS
Constans i - He was a baptized Christian; his Baptism is referred to in Ap
Augsburgh - It consisted of twenty-one articles, including the following points:—The Trinity, original sin, the incarnation, justification by faith, the word and sacraments, necessity of good works, the perpetuity of the church, infant Baptism, the Lord's Supper, repentance and confession, the proper use of the sacraments, church order, rites and ceremonies, the magistracy, a future judgment, free will, the worship of saints, &c
Luke (2) - And then commences the history of Christ's public ministration, headed with a mention of his Baptism, vs
Heir - ...
The title of ‘heir,’ then, passes on to those who have obtained the blessing of Divine sonship in Baptism or Regeneration, corresponding spiritually to the promise made to Abraham. We are called to inherit a blessing as all true servants of God through Baptism
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - Either at his Baptism or consecration he adopted the name Jacob in addition to his own, and for this reason his works have sometimes been attributed to better-known namesakes. Any one who doubts his own capacity for the keeping of a vow of virginity, which apparently was often taken at the time of Baptism, is advised to marry before that rite, a fall subsequent to it being a heinous sin (vii
Name (2) - James speaking of ‘the honourable name which was called upon you’ (James 2:7 (Revised Version margin) ), the reference being apparently to Christ’s name as a designation that came to be applied to His people—probably from the fact that His name had been invoked over them at the time of their Baptism. —Christian Baptism, as we meet with it in the Apostolic Church, is performed in (or into) the name of Christ (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48; Acts 19:5, Romans 6:3, Galatians 3:27). Baptism, § 5). The suggestion that the shorter form is simply a designation of the fact that Baptism was administered on confession of Jesus as Christ and Lord, and that the Trinitarian formula would invariably be employed in the actual administration of the sacrament, does not meet the case, for we know that in the 3rd cent, a Baptism in the name of Christ was still common, and that in the time of Cyprian the controversy about re-baptism gathered round this very point. ...
The solution of the problem may lie in the fact that at first the efficacy of Baptism was not attached to any set form of words
Waldenses - It is also said, that several of the Waldenses denied the obligation of infant Baptism, and that others rejected water Baptism entirely; but Wall has laboured to prove that infant Baptism was generally practised among them
Elkesai, Elkesaites - The great controversy then agitating the church of Rome was whether, and with what limitations, forgiveness might be bestowed on grievous post-baptismal sin. This book of Elkesai announced a new method of forgiveness of sin, asserted to have been revealed in the third year of Trajan, by which any person, no matter of what sins he might have been guilty (some of the very grossest are expressly mentioned), might obtain forgiveness by submitting to a new Baptism with the use of a certain formula of which we shall speak presently. A similar Baptism was prescribed as a remedy for the bite of a mad dog or a serpent or for disease. The formula of Baptism runs, In the name of the Most High God and of His Son, the Great King; but this Great King is not exclusively identified with Jesus of Nazareth, for He appeared in the world in successive incarnations, Adam being the first
Donatio Constantini - The account of the Baptism, cure, and donation are entirely legendary, the last being built up, no doubt, on the contributions of Constantine to the Patrimony of Saint Peter
Donation of Constantine - The account of the Baptism, cure, and donation are entirely legendary, the last being built up, no doubt, on the contributions of Constantine to the Patrimony of Saint Peter
Insanity - An insane individual may not be a sponsor at Baptism
Flavius Valerius Constantinus - He remained a catechumen till shortly before his death, when he received Baptism
Oils, Holy - The O S and the S C are kept also at the Baptismal font, to be used in the ceremonies of Baptism
Michigan - It was destroyed by fire, 1703, but immediately rebuilt and the registry, still preserved, records the Baptism of a daughter of Cadillac, February 2, 1704, by the Recollect pastor, Father Constantine Delhalle
Mark, Gospel of Saint - " The sixteen chapters are written in the chronological order, with some exceptions, and follow these general divisions: ...
preparation through the preaching of Saint John, the Baptism, and temptation (1,2-13)
the preaching and miracles of Jesus in Galilee (1,14, to 9,50)
the journey to Jerusalem for the feast of the Pasch, and the last days of Our Lord's teaching (10-13)
the Passion, Death, Resurrection, and Ascension (14-16)
The Biblical Commission, June 26, 1912, declared that all reasonable doubt that Saint Mark is the author of the second Gospel as now contained in our Bibles, and that the Gospel was written before the year 70 and according to the preaching of Saint Peter, has been removed by the clear evidence of tradition from the earliest ages, as found in the testimony of the Fathers, in the use of the Gospel by early Christians, and its place in ancient codices and versions
Matthias - It was taken during the season when the disciples were waiting, according to the Lord’s command (Acts 1:4 ), for ‘the promise of the Father,’ the Baptism of the Spirit
Holy Oils - The O S and the S C are kept also at the Baptismal font, to be used in the ceremonies of Baptism
Ethiopian Eunuch - There are no means hitherto available for identifying this personage who so early in the history of the Church was admitted to her fold by holy Baptism* Great, Constantine the - He remained a catechumen till shortly before his death, when he received Baptism
Son, the; Son of God - Baptism is "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost
Christmas - Before the fourth century, churches in the East—Egypt, Asia Minor, and Antioch—observed Epiphany, the manifestation of God to the world, celebrating Christ's Baptism, His birth, and the visit of the Magi
Sign of the Cross - In Baptism it is made 14 times; in Extreme Unction, 17 times; in the blessing of holy water, 12 times; and in the Mass, in various waysl 51 times
ga'za - It is the account of the Baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return from Jerusalem to Egypt
Holy Communion - It is called the Holy Communion, because it is the means of keepingthat union with Almighty God through the Incarnation which wascommenced in our Baptism, and because thereby all the faithful arespiritually one with each other
Accountability, Age of - Infant Baptism has been the usual prescription for this innate sin. This position, however, misinterprets both the biblical doctrine of sin and the ordinance of Baptism
Mennonites - They teach that infants are not the proper subjects of Baptism; that ministers of the Gospel ought to receive no salary. As they reject infant Baptism, they refuse to commune at the Lord's table with any who administer the ordinance to children, unless resprinkled
Cross - Paul explained the meaning of the Baptism of believers in relation to the cross of Christ. Their union with Christ means that they have, so to speak, died on the cross with Christ, been buried with Christ, and risen with Christ to new life (Romans 6:3-4; Galatians 2:20; Colossians 2:12-14; see Baptism)
Water (2) - Others take it as referring to the Baptism of John, and as indicating that repentance is an essential factor in the new birth (Expos. It has also been interpreted as referring to the sacrament of Baptism. This is the most probable conclusion, unless the words are interpreted as referring to the Baptism of John unto repentance; see Expos
Enthusiasm - As a youth He was enthusiastic for His Father’s house (Luke 2:49); at the Baptism He devoted Himself to His calling (Matthew 3:15), and was conscious of receiving the Spirit (Matthew 3:16), the spirit of zeal and power. The Baptist contrasted his own Baptism with water and the Messiah’s Baptism with the Holy Spirit and fire (Matthew 3:11)
Bethabara - ’ The place was, therefore, one suitable for the purposes of the Baptist in preaching and baptizing; and it has been usually identified, though this is not precisely stated in the text, with the scene of the Baptism of our Lord. ’ And if Bethabara or Bethany is the scene of the Baptism, then it would seem that the site must be looked for in the northern part of the Jordan Valley, since Christ comes hither apparently direct from Galilee (Matthew 3:13, Mark 1:9). ...
The traditional site of the Baptism of Christ at Makhâdet Hajlah in the Jordan Valley near Jericho, though defended by Sir Charles Wilson and others, seems to be too far south
Philip the Evangelist - ’ But at the moment he seems to have been completely over-awed by the spiritual energy of Philip, received Baptism at his hands, and joined the band of his disciples and associates. True, our Lord had made converts among the Samaritans partly through the testimony of the Samaritan woman, partly by His own teaching and influence (John 4:39-42), but it is not clear that they were actually admitted to Baptism, and they were directly excluded from those to whom during the continuance of His ministry the disciples were to address themselves (Matthew 10:5). In this neighbourhood he fell in with an Ethiopian eunuch of Queen Candace, whom he converted by explaining to him part of Isaiah 53, and received at once to Baptism (perhaps also to confirmation)
Silvester, Bishop of Rome - ...
But the most memorable fable about Silvester is that of the Baptism of Constantine by him, and the celebrated "Donation. ...
The attribution of Constantine's conversion and Baptism to Silvester is as legendary as the rest. There is abundant testimony that he did not seek Baptism, or even imposition of hands as a catechumen, till in a suburb of Nicomedia, as death drew near, he received both from Eusebius, the Arian bishop of that see
John the Baptist - John stated that Jesus was greater than he, and that Jesus had a more powerful ministry and Baptism (Mark 1:7-8 ; Luke 3:16 ; John 1:26-27 ). Apollos was from Alexandria in North Africa and at one point knew only of the Baptism of John (Acts 18:24-25 ). They too had only experienced the Baptism of John (Acts 19:1-7 ). In the spirit of Elijah, he preached a message of repentance and Baptism
Proselyte - ...
‘The bath of purity’ here spoken of refers to the Baptism of proselytes. 408) as ‘a practice of ceremonial ablution altogether new,’ which ‘we may safely assume … was not of later origin than Christian Baptism. _ ‘Baptism,’ HDB_ i. _ ‘Baptism (Jewish),’ in ERE_ ii. _ ‘Baptism,’ in HDB_ i
Adoption - Adoption and Baptism. This points to the adoption being given on the admission of the person to the Christian body, in his Baptism. In the case of the ‘potential’ adoption of the Jews (to borrow Lightfoot’s phrase), it is the expression of the covenant between God and His people, and therefore must be ascribed to the moment of entering into the covenant at circumcision, the analogue of Baptism. In view of what has been said, we can understand how ‘adoption’ came in later times to be an equivalent term for ‘baptism. 2564) quotes a Syriac phrase to the effect that ‘the Baptism of John was of water unto repentance, but the Baptism of our Lord Mediator - All the accounts of our Lord’s Baptism represent Him as hearing the words which declare that He is the Son in whom the Father is well pleased (Matthew 3:17, Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22). In submitting to Baptism, He identified Himself with a race that has sinned; in submitting to the subsequent temptation, He identified Himself with a race which suffers when Satan lures it to sin. Later, He tells how He has to submit to the Baptism of His Passion, and feels anguish until it is accomplished. With these words we must compare the question addressed to the ambitious sons of Zebedee, whether they can drink of His cup and be baptized with His Baptism (Mark 10:38). The Baptism and the cup represent the will of the Father with all the suffering which the doing of that will entailed. Our Lord had so identified Himself, as is shown not only by the quotation in Luke 22:37 but by the whole tenor of His life from the time of His Baptism. Repentance, faith, Baptism, the gift of the Holy Spirit, are the distinctive gifts which flow from the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. In consequence of His resurrection, Baptism ‘saves’ us (1 Peter 3:21). His is the ‘honourable name’ (James 2:7) which was named over Christians in Baptism. The second is that inward, vital, and ethical union with Christ, the ‘life-giving Spirit’ (1 Corinthians 15:45), involved in our Baptism ‘into Christ. ’ Baptism begins our new supernatural life (Romans 6:4 f
Quakers - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Quakers, Fighting - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Quakers, Free - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Friends - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Friends, Hicksite Society of - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Friends of Truth - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Children of Light - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Friends, Orthodox Society of - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Friends, Wilburite Orthodox Conservative - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Children of Truth - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Fighting Quakers - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Free Quakers - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Orthodox Society of Friends - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Light, Children of - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Missouri - The settlement of Saint Louis by Laclede in 1764 was antedated by those of Old Mines and Saint Genevieve by French miners and traders, c1735 By 1750 they were visited by Jesuit missionaries, and one of the oldest documents of the State is the register of the first little wooden church of Saint Genevieve which opens with the record of a Baptism, February 24, 1760, by Father Philibert Watrin, S
Unction - In the ancient Christian church, unction accompanied the ceremonies of Baptism and confirmation
Dip - ) To immerse for Baptism; to baptize by immersion
Hicksite Society of Friends - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch - 3, 361, and received from him the sacrament of Baptism
Copts - They have seven sacraments; Baptism, the eucharist, confirmation, ordination, faith, fasting, and prayer
Society of Friends (Orthodox) - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Truth, Children of - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Truth, Friends of - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Religious Society of Friends of Philadelphia - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Wilburite Orthodox Conservative Friends - Although the doctrine of the Orthodox Friends agrees in essential points with that of the Christian Church, they differ in the manner of worship and appointment of ministers; attach great importance to the immediate personal teaching of the Holy Spirit, or Light Within, or Inner Light; have no outward ordinances, including Baptism and the Supper, on the ground that they are not essential, were not commanded by Christ, and, moreover, tend to draw the soul away from the essential to the non-essential and formal; and teach the doctrine of peace and nonresistance, in accordance with which no Friend can fight or directly support war
Oceanus, a Roman of Noble Birth - who, having married before his Baptism and lost his wife, had, as a Christian, married a second wife
Petrus, First Bishop of Parembolae - The application was successful, the boy recovered, and the grateful father, his brother-in-law Maris, and all his Saracen followers received Baptism (Cyrill
Probus, Sextus Anicius Petronius - 31) at the age of nearly 60, after having received Baptism ( Corp Inscrip
Proselyte - When the proselyte was well proved and instructed, they gave him circumcision; and when the wound of his circumcision healed, they gave him Baptism, by plunging his whole body into a cistern of water, by only one immersion. Baptism in respect of girls had the same effect as circumcision in respect of boys
Encratites - Basil on Encratite Baptism (clxxxviii. Basil wished to reject the Baptism of these Encratites not because the orthodox formula of Baptism was lacking but because regarding them as tainted with Marcionite error he could not accept the verbal acknowledgment of the Father in the Baptismal formula as atonement for the insult offered to the Creator Whose work they looked on as evil
Linus (1) - Among those who thus urge him are his jailors Martinianus and Processus who had already received Baptism from him and who represent that the plan to destroy Peter is entirely the prefect's own and has no sanction from the emperor who seems to have forgotten all about the apostle. The story ends with an account of the Baptism of the three soldiers who had had charge of St. Luke and Titus praying and receive Baptism at their hands
Faith - For infants the virtue of faith received at the time of Baptism suffices, but for adults an act of supernatural faith that God exists and rewards the good and punishes the evil is necessary for salvation
Name - ...
Christians receive their new name at Baptism, indicating their new relation
Easter - 200 shows that the climax of the vigil was the Baptism of new Christians and the celebration of the Lord's Supper
Water - ...
In figurative speech, water was a picture of cleansing from sin (Psalms 51:1-2; Ezekiel 36:25-26; John 13:5-10; Acts 22:16; Ephesians 5:26; Hebrews 10:22; see also Baptism)
Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit - The third Person in the Trinity, as seen in the formula of Baptism
Matthias - We there gather (1) that he was one of those who had ‘companied with’ the apostles ‘all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among’ them, ‘beginning from the Baptism of John’ until the Ascension; (2) that he was antecedently the less prominent of the two put forward, his bare name only being given, while Joseph is further described by a patronymic ‘called Barsabbas,’ and also by a surname ‘Justus’ (δίκαιος); for, says Bengel, ‘eo cognomine videri poterat praeferri debere, nisi,’ as he justly adds ‘postea demum hoc cognomen nactus est ut agnosceret quamvis Matthias electus esset, ipsum tamen sua laude non excidisse’; and (3) that anyhow the Lord who is καρδιογνώστης unerringly declared him (ἀναδεῖξαι) the more suitable for the apostleship
Brother - The passage particularly refers to the false teachings of Romanism, with its masses for the dead, and Mormonism with its Baptism for the dead
Apollos - In Ephesus, Apollos may have preached only John’s Baptism of repentance
Abortion - ...
Indirect abortion is sometimes permitted, provided that there be sufficient and grave reason, such as the saving of the mother's life, and that every precaution be taken to save the life of the child and, in case the child's life be in danger, that it receive timely Baptism
Circumcision - " (Romans 15:8) And by the ceasing of this Jewish rite, and the institution of Baptism to supersede it, it should seem, that it was understood by Christ's submitting to this act, he thereby became debtor to the whole law, and fulfilled it: and hence, all his redeemed not only are freed from it, but, in fact, they are prohibited the observance
Church Year - By the next century, at least in the East, many churches held a special observance of Christ's birth and Baptism at Epiphany
Maximianus, a Donatist - Notwithstanding the defection of the Maximianists, who appear to have rebaptized those who joined them, the validity of their Baptism was not denied by the other Donatists, a point which Augustine frequently uses against them
Laying on of Hands - This again appears to be so in those cases where the apostles laid their hands on people who received the Holy Spirit in unusual circumstances (Acts 8:17; Acts 19:6; see Baptism WITH THE SPIRIT)
Remigius, Saint, Archbaptist of Rheims - The story of his Baptism on Christmas Eve, 496, with his sisters Albofledis and the Arian Lanthechildis and more than 3,000 Franks, is well known
Unity, Church - There is one Body andone Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; oneLord, one Faith, one Baptism, one God and Father of all"(Ephesians 4:3-6)
Deacon - Deacons continued to fill an important role in the ministry of the early church, serving the needs of the poor, assisting in Baptism and the Lord's Supper, and performing other practical ministerial tasks. They cared for needy fellow believers, visited the sick, and were especially charged with assisting in the Baptism of women converts
Seal - The Father anointed Christ with the Spirit at his Baptism, the inauguration of his messianic ministry (Luke 3:22 ; 4:18 ). Similarly, a believer's Baptism marks him or her out as God's
Jericho - ...
By tradition, Jericho has been closely associated with the Baptism of Jesus and the Temptation. But the uncertainty of the scene of the Baptism and the vagueness of the phrase ‘the wilderness’ (Matthew 4:1 ||) make this a matter of tradition only
Turtle - ...
I am not to be told that the custom hath arisen from the subject of our Lord's Baptism, where it is said that "when Jesus went up straightway out of the water, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him. ...
And I beg the reader before he dismisseth the subject, that he will take with him the consideration what a blessed, full, and unanswerable testimony this passage, concerning Christ's Baptism, affords to the glorious doctrine of our holy faith
Jericho - ...
By tradition, Jericho has been closely associated with the Baptism of Jesus and the Temptation. But the uncertainty of the scene of the Baptism and the vagueness of the phrase ‘the wilderness’ (Matthew 4:1 ||) make this a matter of tradition only
Profession - His resurrection (Romans 10:9), His Divine Sonship (1 John 1:4; 1 John 1:7), His coming in the flesh (1 John 4:2), and the Baptismal confession or formula (Matthew 28:19). As the custom of baptizing immediately after conversion gave way to the system of the catechumenate, the particular elements of Christian doctrine in which the catechumens had been instructed would naturally reappear in the questions that were asked, or the confession of faith that was made, before Baptism. The process of creed-formation was largely assisted by the catechizing of the candidates for Baptism (q
John the Baptist - When Jesus Christ presented himself to receive Baptism from him, this sign was vouchsafed; and from that time he bore his testimony to Jesus, as the Christ. ...
The Baptism of John was much more perfect than that of the Jews, but less perfect than that of Jesus Christ. Chrysostom, "as it were, a bridge, which, from the Baptism of the Jews, made a way to that of our Saviour, and was more exalted than the first, but inferior to the second. John did not enjoin his disciples to continue the Baptism of repentance, which was of his institution, after his death, because, after the manifestation of the Messiah, and the establishment of the Holy Ghost, it became of no use; yet there were many of his followers who still administered it, and several years after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, did not so much as know that there was any other Baptism than that of John. Paul came after Apollos to the same city, there were still many Ephesians who had received no other Baptism, and were not yet informed that the Holy Ghost was received by Baptism in the name of Jesus Christ, Acts 19:1 . Those who went out to John "were baptized unto John's Baptism;" that is, into the expectation of the person whom John announced, and into repentance of those sins which John condemned
Church - This was the Baptism with the Holy Spirit of which Jesus had spoken and through which all who were already believers were bound together to form one united body, the church (Acts 1:4-5; Acts 2:33; see Baptism WITH THE SPIRIT). ...
From that time on, all who repent and believe the gospel are, through that same Baptism with the Spirit, immediately made part of that one body and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:38; Acts 2:47; 1 Corinthians 12:13). ...
According to Christ’s command and the early church’s example, those who repent and believe the gospel should be baptized (Matthew 28:19-20; Acts 2:38; Acts 2:41; Acts 10:48; see Baptism)
Joseph, Litany of Saint - It is a time-honored prayer in honor of the holy foster-father of Jesus Christ and was sanctioned in March, 1909, by Pius X, who was tenderly devoted to Saint Joseph whose name he bore from Baptism
Litany of Saint Joseph - It is a time-honored prayer in honor of the holy foster-father of Jesus Christ and was sanctioned in March, 1909, by Pius X, who was tenderly devoted to Saint Joseph whose name he bore from Baptism
Philip - " Philip was instantly caught away by the Spirit after the Baptism, and the eunuch saw him no more
Vows - It is therefore in accordance with a natural religious instinct and with the assumption of the rightness of making vows which underlies our Lord’s rebuke of the Pharisaical abuse of them, that the Church subsequently imposed vows upon candidates for Baptism. The Baptismal vow is in reality a dedication of the whole person to God, and is in harmony with the general spirit of the gospel as well as with the Apostolic teaching (Romans 5:11; Romans 12:1-2, 1 Corinthians 7:16-17)
Sealing - The Lord Jesus spoke of Himself as sealed by God the Father, John 6:27 , doubtless referring to the Holy Ghost having come upon Him at His Baptism
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - Baronius, Labbe, and other Roman writers have been anxious to prove that the Baptismal dispute originated with Firmilian and the East, but the attempt is against the whole tenor of Cyprianic correspondence as well as the express statement of Eusebius (vii. ) speaks of his discourses as early testimonies to the exactness of his own doctrine, and quotes his agreement with Cyprian on Baptism in the epistle to Amphilochius ( Ep
Whitsun Day - Some derive it from theword white, shortened to "whit," in reference to the diffusionsof light and knowledge which on this day were shed upon the Apostles,in order to the enlightening of the world; also in reference tothis being the time of Baptism in the ancient Church, each candidatebeing clothed with white garments
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - Photius says that she came to Constantinople in 437 and obtained his conversion and Baptism at the hands of Proclus
Thieves - ...
The place on Christ's right hand in the kingdom, desired by Zebedee's sons, was reserved for the penitent thief, first in the kingdom of suffering, then in the kingdom of glory, His case proves that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of the law, yet not by a dead faith, for his faith evidenced its vitality by confession of sin and of Christ crucified, by faithful reproof of the scorner if haply he too might be led to repent, by humility, and by hope in the Saviour looking beyond present pain to the eternal state; also that Baptism is only "generally "necessary to salvation, a baptized man may be lost and an unbaptized man may be saved; the Baptism of blood supplied the place of the outward sign of regeneration (Hilary, de Trin
Anabaptists - Those who maintain that Baptism ought always to be performed by immersion. The Anabaptists of Germany, besides their notions concerning Baptism, depended much upon certain ideas which they entertained concerning a perfect church establishment, pure in its members, and free from the institutions of human policy
Dates (2) - ...
The points of chronology in our Lord’s life which have to be settled before any table of dates can be drawn up are (1) date of nativity, (2) age at Baptism, (3) length of ministry, (4) date of crucifixion. The Baptism of Jesus might be settled, but not very approximately, by (1) the statement (Luke 3:23) that He was ὡσεὶ ἐτῶν τριάκοντα ἀρχόμενος (at the beginning of His ministry); (2) the date of the Baptist’s preaching, Luke 3:1 ‘Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar … the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness’; and (3) by the retort of the Jews in John 2:20 ‘Forty and six years was this temple in building. ’...
(1) This is an elastic expression, which gave the Valentinian Gnostics a basis for their belief that Jesus was in His 30th year when He came to His Baptism (Haer, ii. ...
(2) The preaching of the Baptist is the terminus a quo of the Baptism of Jesus, and is assigned to the 15th year of Tiberius. 27–28 for our Lord’s Baptism. Passover time would also account for the presence of so many Galilaeans in Judaea, while the atmosphere of the scenes of the Baptism of Jesus and of His interviews with His first disciples in John 1 is spring, the budding life of the year, in the buoyant sunshine when men’s hearts are most ready for a change of life. Passover seems a favourite time for Baptism. That variant and the traditional site of our Lord’s Baptism, Makhadet Hojla, are strongly against Col. ‘Marriage’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible), and it was quite possible for Him and His disciples to have accomplished the journey from the vicinity of Jericho to Nazareth (about 60 miles) in three or four days; so that there is no necessity to select a site for His Baptism within one day’s journey of Cana. So that we have another indication of the early season of the year, which supports the hypothesis of a Baptism at the Passover preceding the Passover of John 2:13, a period of time required for the preparation and selection of the disciples, and for the nursing of their nascent faith by miracles, of which one, a typical sign, as are all the seven signs in the Fourth Gospel, is narrated in John 2:1-12
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - (jee' zuhss) The story of Jesus begins abruptly in the Gospel of Mark when He presented Himself at the Jordan River to the desert prophet John the Baptist as a candidate for Baptism. His Origins Matthew's Gospel demonstrates that although Nazareth was Jesus' home when He came to John for Baptism, He was not born there. The reflection on Jesus' Baptism in the Gospel of John centers on John the Baptist's acknowledgement that Jesus “is preferred before me: for he was before me” (John 1:30 ; compare John 1:15 ). ...
Jesus and the God of Israel Even after the momentous events associated with Jesus' Baptism in the Jordan River—the descent of God's Spirit on Him like a dove and the voice from heaven announcing “Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Mark 1:10-11 )—His identity as Son of God remained hidden from those around Him. Ironically, the first intimation after the Baptism that He was more than simply “Jesus of Nazareth” came not from His family or friends nor from the religious leaders of Israel, but from the devil!...
Twice the devil challenged him: “If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread” (Luke 4:3 ), and (on the pinnacle of the Temple in Jerusalem), “If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence” (Luke 4:9 )
Dove - ...
As a symbol of the Holy Spirit it is specially connected with Baptism (Matthew 3)
Cornelius - This left no doubt as to the propriety of baptizing these Gentile proselytes of the gate with Christian Baptism
Alexandria - ...
Hence Apollos, born at Alexandia, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, being instructed in the way of the Lord and fervent in the spirit, taught diligently (Greek accurately) the things of the Lord, though he knew only the Baptism of John (Acts 18:25); i
Beloved - The influence of the OT is plainly visible in the words heard at the Baptism
Apollos - He was an eloquent man, and mighty in the Scriptures; but he knew only the Baptism of John, and was not fully informed of the higher branches of Gospel doctrine
Philadelphia - ’ Doubtless there is a reference here, as in the message to Pergamus, to the new name taken at Baptism, and apparently sometimes kept secret
ma'ry the Virgin, - These four occasions are--
The marriage at Cana in Galilee took place in the three months which intervened between the Baptism of Christ and the passover of the year 27
Beloved - The influence of the OT is plainly visible in the words heard at the Baptism
Laurentius (15) - The sin inherited from Adam is in Baptism entirely put away through the merits of Christ
Caecilianus, Archdeacon And Bishop of Carthage - As regarded Caecilian personally, the validity of his ordination was confirmed, the charge raised against his consecrator, Felix, being proved baseless; and as regarded the general questions debated—such as traditorship, its proof or disproof; ordination by traditors, when valid or not; Baptism and re-baptism—canons of extreme importance were passed
Confession (of Christ) - With this developed Johannine type of confession may be compared the later gloss that has been attached to the narrative of the Baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:37, see (Revised Version margin)), which is not improbably the reproduction of a formula of question and answer which had come to be employed as a Baptismal confession in the early Church. ...
It may be noticed here that it was out of the confession of personal faith which was demanded of the candidate for Baptism that the formulated ‘Confessions’ of the Church appear to have sprung. There can be little doubt that the so-called Apostles’ Creed was originally a Baptismal confession. And Hort, Harnack, and others have shown that what is known as the Nicene Creed is in reality not the original creed of the bishops of Nicaea, but a creed which gradually grew up in the East out of the struggles of the Church with varying shapes of heresy, and the nucleus of which is probably to be sought in the Baptismal formula of the Jerusalem Church (Hort, two Dissertations, ii. Even if Baptism ‘into the name of the Lord Jesus’ did not imply an explicit confession of Jesus as Lord (though this seems by no means improbable), at all events the Christian Baptism which meets us constantly from the earliest days of the Church (Acts, passim) clearly involved, in the relations of Christianity whether to the Jewish or the Gentile world, a confessing of Christ before men. It is to the psychological experiences that were naturally attendant on the public confession of Christ that we must attribute much of the language used in the NT with regard to the effect of Baptism upon the soul (Acts 22:16, Romans 6:3 ff. Peter’s powerful testimony to Jesus as the risen Lord and Christ (Acts 10:48) that 3000 souls on the day of Pentecost were led gladly to receive the word, and in Baptism to confess Christ for themselves (Acts 2:37-41)
Greek Church - They do not baptize their children till they are three, four, five, six, ten, nay, sometimes eighteen years of age: Baptism is performed by trine immersion. They insist that the sacrament of the Lord's supper ought to be administered in both kinds, and they give the sacrament to children immediately after Baptism. The Roskolniki, or, as they now call themselves, the Starovertzi, were a sect that separated from the church of Russia, about 1666: they affected extraordinary piety and devotion, a veneration for the letter of the Holy Scriptures, and would not allow a priest to administer Baptism who had that day tasted brandy
Aquila And Priscilla - Would not his presence overshadow Aquila and Priscilla, tending to make their work more difficult? The elementary and even chaotic state of things in Ephesus at this period is shown by the incident of the twelve men ‘knowing only the Baptism of John’ whom St. As nothing is said about the Baptism of Apollos, and as the twelve men ‘had not heard whether the Holy Spirit was given,’ it seems unlikely that there had been any Christian Baptism in Ephesus before St
John the Baptist - The leading sects he denounced as a "generation of vipers" (compare Genesis 3:15, the serpent's "seed"), warning them that descent from Abraham would not avail with out doing Abraham's works (compare John 8:39), and telling all practically and discriminatingly that the repentance needed required a renunciation of their several besetting sins; and that whereas, on their confession, he baptized with water Baptism, the Mightier One would come baptizing with the Holy Spirit and fire (Matthew 3:11-12). (See Baptism. (See JESUS; Baptism
Proselyte - The ritual conditions imposed on the proselyte on entering Judaism were three: (1) circumcision, (2) cleansing or Baptism, (3) sacrifice. Baptism took place after the healing of the wound caused by circumcision. Cleansing or Baptism lay in the very nature of Judaism, the heathen was unclean and so had to be cleansed by washing in water before admission into Judaism. ...
Among individual Jewish teachers there was difference of opinion as to the necessity of circumcision and Baptism, but all early usage seems to confirm their actual observance
Name - ...
Christian name, the name a person receives by Baptism, as distinguished from surname
Mithra - Among the more prominent are: December 25 the god's birthday, Sunday the holy day, Baptism, a sacred meal, categorical ethics, belief in a final judgment with eternal life for the righteous and punishment for the wicked, and that the world would finally be destroyed by fire
Euphrates - In this way the evil condition of Euphrates passed easily into the conception of it as the water of Baptism
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - He received Baptism, and soon after died
Joannes, the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople - 26) attributes to him only a letter, not now extant, on Baptism addressed to St
Valens, Emperor - Valens had recourse to the saint, who promised to heal him if he received orthodox Baptism
Augustine - His secession, however, was only a temporary one; for he and Alipius were, a few months afterward, received by Baptism into the Christian church. Augustine had thus in a great degree new moulded the science of theology, and had combined with it as an essential part of divine truth, that the fate of mankind was determined by the divine decree independently of their own efforts and conduct, and that they were thus divided into the elect and reprobate, it became necessary, in order to preserve consistency, to introduce into his system a limitation with respect to Baptism, and to prevent the opinions concerning it from interfering with those which flowed from the doctrine of predestination. He accordingly taught, that Baptism brings with it the forgiveness of sins; that it is so essential, that the omission of it will expose us to condemnation; and that it is attended with regeneration. He also affirmed that the virtue of Baptism is not in the water; that the ministers of Christ perform the external ceremony, but that Christ accompanies it with invisible grace; that Baptism is common to all, whilst grace is not so; and that the same external rite may be death to some, and life to others. By this distinction he rids himself of the difficulty which would have pressed upon his scheme of theology, had pardon, regeneration, and salvation been necessarily connected with the outward ordinance of Baptism; and limits its proper efficacy to those who are comprehended, as the heirs of eternal life, in the decree of the Almighty. Bishop Bedell speaks thus in disparagement of his Baptismal views, in a letter to Dr. Ward: "This I do yield to my Lord of Sarum most willingly, that the justification, sanctification, and adoption which children have in Baptism, is not univoce [1] the same with that which adulti [2] have. ]'>[7] Consider that if you will aver, that Baptism washes away otherwise than sacramentally, that is, obsignatorily, original sin; yet you must allow that manner of washing for future actual sins; and you must make two sorts of justification, one for children, another for adulti; [8] and (which passes all the rest) you must find some promise in God's covenant wherein he binds himself to wash away sin without faith or repentance. Austin and many more of the ancients do maintain, I believe you will not easily condescend unto, or that children dying without Baptism are damned
Trinity - The Gospel is every where in Scripture represented as a covenant or conditional offer of eternal salvation from God to man; and Baptism was the appointed ordinance by which men were to be admitted into that covenant, by which that offer was made and accepted. Since Baptism is to be performed in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, they must be all three persons; and since no superiority or difference whatever is mentioned in this solemn form of Baptism, we conclude that these three persons are all of one substance, power, and eternity. We learn from Ambrose, that persons at the time of their Baptism, declared their belief in the three persons of the Holy Trinity, and that they were dipped in the water three times. In his Treatise upon the Sacraments he says, "Thou wast asked at thy Baptism, Dost thou believe in God the Father Almighty? and thou didst reply, I believe, and thou wast dipped; and a second time thou wast asked, Dost thou believe in Jesus Christ the Lord? thou didst answer again, I believe, and thou wast dipped; a third time the question was repeated, Dost thou believe in the Holy Ghost? and the answer was, I believe, then thou wast dipped a third time. We are not baptized in the names of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, but in one name, which is God's; and, therefore, though we be thrice put under water to represent the mystery of the Trinity, yet it is reputed but one Baptism. " Thus the mysterious union of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, as one God, was, in the opinion of the purer ages of the Christian church, clearly expressed in this form of Baptism. To these writers of the second century, we may add Origen and Cyprian in the third; the former of whom mentions Baptism (alluding to its appointed form) as "the source and fountain of graces to him who dedicates himself to the divinity of the adorable Trinity. " And the latter, after reciting the same form of Baptism, says that "by it Christ delivered the doctrine of the Trinity, unto which mystery or sacrament the nations were to be baptized
John - Because of his life in the wilderness, his priestly background, his preaching of repentance to Israel, and his practice of Baptism, it is often suggested that John grew up among the Essenes at Qumran. John's Baptism may owe something to the Essene practices, but we cannot determine the extent of this influence. ” Luke recorded that John was thrown in prison before he said that Jesus also was baptized ( Luke 3:20-21 ), and John told of the Baptism of Jesus but only through the testimony of John the Baptist himself. See Baptism
Popery - Farther; the doctrine of the seven sacraments is a peculiar and distinguishing doctrine of the church of Rome; these are Baptism, confirmation, the eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony. Baptism, confirmation, and orders, are said (c. ) has expressly decreed, that every one is accursed who shall affirm that penance is not truly and properly a sacrament instituted by Christ in the universal church, for reconciling those Christians tot he Divine Majesty, who have fallen into sin after Baptism; and this sacrament, it is declared, consists of two parts, the matter and the form: the matter is the act of the penitent, including contrition, confession, and satisfaction; the form of it is the act of absolution on the part of the priest. Accordingly it is enjoined, that it is the duty of every man who hath fallen after Baptism, to confess his sins once a year, at least, to a priest; that this confession is to be secret; for public confession is neither commanded nor expedient: and that it must be exact and particular, including every kind and act of sin, with all the circumstances attending it
Monnica - It is a sign of the popular Christian opinion and usage at the time that she did not bring him as an infant to Baptism but merely to the initiation of a catechumen ( Conf. She evidently thought that Baptism required evidence of a previous true change of will. 12), though it involved not only his Baptism but his acceptance of a life of celibacy. Between his conversion and Baptism she retired with him to Cassiciacum, the campagna of his friend Verecundus
Voice (2) - —A ‘voice from heaven’ is mentioned in the Synoptics in Matthew 3:17 || (φωνὴ ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν), in the narrative of the Baptism (‘And lo, a voice out of the heavens, saying, This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased’), and again in Matthew 17:5 || in the narrative of the Transfiguration a ‘voice out of the cloud’ is spoken of (‘And behold, a voice out of the cloud, saying,’ etc. —Parallel with the true Bath Kol, which was regarded as one of the organs of Divine revelation, is the Heavenly Voice, heard at the Baptism of Jesus (Matthew 3:17, Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22), at the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5, Mark 9:7, Luke 9:35), before the Passion (John 12:28), as well as that heard by St. It is to be noticed that the Voice at the Baptism and the Transfiguration combines two sentences of Scripture (Psalms 2:7 and Isaiah 41:1) quite in the manner of the Bath Kol spoken of in Rabbinical literature
Augustinus, Archbaptist of Canterbury - ...
The conversion of their chief was, as is illustrated again and again in the history of medieval missions, the signal for the Baptism of the tribe. 25, 597, upwards of 10,000 received Baptism in the waters of the Swale, at the mouth of the Medway, and thus sealed their acceptance of the new faith. He proposed that the British church should (1) conform to the Roman usage in the celebration of Easter; and (2) the rite of Baptism; and (3) that they should aid him in evangelizing the heathen Saxons
Charlemagne - He waged victorious warfare against the pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of Baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Charles the Great - He waged victorious warfare against the pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of Baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Casuistry - The minister of the sacrament in Baptism must use the proper water and pronounce the correct form
John the Baptist - John's special office ceased with the Baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase" as the King come to his kingdom
Regeneration - It is to be distinguished from Baptism which is an external rite, though some have confounded them together
Unity - Christian unity has various aspects: the shared experience of Christ as Lord and confession of Christ in Baptism (Ephesians 4:5 ,Ephesians 4:5,4:13 ); the shared sense of mission (“one mind,” Philippians 2:2 ); the shared concern for one another (1 Corinthians 12:25 ; “same love,” Philippians 2:2 ; 1 Peter 3:8 ); and the shared experience of suffering for Jesus' sake (2 Corinthians 1:6 ; Philippians 1:29-30 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:14 ; 1 Peter 5:9 )
Quartus - ), and Saul before his Baptism was called ‘brother Saul’ by a Christian, Ananias (Acts 9:17)
Donatists - The Donatists, it is said, held that Baptism conferred out of the church, that is, out of their sect, was null; and accordingly they rebaptized those who joined their party from other churches; they also re- ordained their ministers
Son of God - ...
At Jesus' Baptism and transfiguration, God the Father identified Jesus as His son, in passages reflecting Psalm 2:7
Joel - Peter at once recognized its fulfilment in that outpouring of the Spirit, that Baptism of fire, that Divine intoxication, which was experienced on the day of Pentecost
Ark of Noah - It is thus referred to in 1 Peter 3:20,21 , "into which few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water: which figure also now saves you, [1] Baptism, not a putting away of [2] filth of flesh, but [2] demand as before God of a good conscience, by [2] resurrection of Jesus Christ
Excommunication - Excommunication directly affects only the individual, who does not cease thereby to be a Christian, owing to the indelible character of Baptism
Chromatius, Bishop of Aquileia - ...
Chromatius was also an early friend of Rufinus, who, whilst an inmate of the monastery at Aquileia, received Baptism at his hands c
Pastor - Thus in the Acts of Nemesius pope Stephen is said to have held a Baptism there (Baronius a
Nicodemus - working Teacher is not enough for seeing the kingdom of God, Jesus with a twice repeated Amen solemnly declares; there must be new birth from above (margin John 3:3; John 3:5; John 3:7), "of water (the outward sign) and of the Spirit" (the essential thing, not inseparably joined to the water Baptism: Ezekiel 36:25-26; Acts 2:38 (See Baptism)), so that, as an infant just born, the person is a "new creature"; compare Naaman the type, 2 Kings 5:14; 2 Corinthians 5:17; Mark 16:16
Circumcision - ...
The name was given at circumcision, as at Baptism (Luke 1:59; Luke 2:21). The painfulness of Old Testament initiatory rite, as compared with the New Testament sacrament of Baptism, marks strongly the contrast between the stern covenant of the law and the loving gospel
Nazarene - Origen seems to know a second Ebionite party, who, while holding these Ebionite tenets, said that Christ at His Baptism received the fullness of the Holy Spirit, constituting Him a Prophet and Son of God in a high degree. He holds that the recognition by the latter of the Holy Spirit who fell on Christ at the Baptism, and who is pre-existent and Divine, comes near to the acknowledgment of Deity in Christ
Organization (2) - He certainly accepted from the past the act of Baptism as employed by John (Matthew 21:25 || Mark 11:30, Luke 20:4), and commanded its practice (Matthew 28:19), though not Himself actually baptizing (John 4:2), and clearly impressing one Apostle with the minor importance of Baptism (1 Corinthians 1:17) as compared with preaching—the Baptism of the Spirit (Acts 1:21-22,7 || Mark 1:8, Luke 3:16, John 1:26). For outward helps they have the institutions of Judaism, with the Baptism of John; the continual remembrance of Christ through praying in His name, and in the prayer He had given; and in the communion of the Lord’s Supper. Baptism became the recognized entrance; Baptism ‘into the name of Christ’ (Acts 2:38; Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48; Acts 19:5, Romans 6:3, Galatians 3:27)—in St
Transfiguration, the - A cloud came over them, and God spoke from the cloud identifying Jesus as His Son (compare the voice at the Baptism) and commanding the disciples to hear Him
Instruction - In the early church, the catechumens or learners were those given instruction in Christian faith prior to receiving Baptism and full membership in the community of faith
Body of Christ - He strongly declared there is one Spirit, hope, Lord, faith, Baptism, and one God and Father of all
Maryland - At the last place a bark chapel was erected for the Baptism of the chief, Chitomachen or Chilomacon, and his wife
Directory - ...
The Directory recommends the use of the Lord's Prayer, as the most perfect model of devotion; it forbids private or lay persons to administer Baptism, and enjoins it to be performed in the face of the congregation; it orders the communion-table at the Lord's supper to be so placed, that the communicant may sit about it
Gilead - ) Twice our Lord withdrew to the trans-jordanic hills: after His Baptism; again just before His last stay at Jerusalem (John 10:39-40)
Oil - His anointing with "the oil of exulting joy" took place not at His Baptism when He began His ministry for us, but at His triumphant completion of His work, at His ascension (Ephesians 4:8; Psalms 68:18), when He obtained the Holy Spirit without measure (John 3:34), to impart to us in measure
Jordan - Thus there were two or more places at which the Jordan was usually forded; and it must have been at one of these, if not at both, that Baptism was afterwards administered by John the Baptist, and by the disciples of our Lord
Liturgy - Some farther alterations were introduced, in consequence of the review of the common prayer book, by order of king James, in the first year of his reign, particularly in the office of private Baptism, in several rubrics, and other passages, with the addition of five or six new prayers and thanksgivings, and all that part of the catechism which contains the doctrine of the sacraments
Dove - ...
In Christian Art in representations of the Lord’s Baptism, the presence of the Holy Spirit is indicated by the dove
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - 59 is a hymn asserting, against the Cathari or Novatianists, that fallen man recovers innocence not only by Baptism, but also by penitence
Infant Communion - ...
The most obvious answer to all this, is that which is taken from the incapacity of infants to examine themselves, and discern the Lord's body; but he answers that this precept is only given to persons capable of understanding and complying with it, as those which require faith in order to Baptism are interpreted by the Paedo-baptists
Liturgy - Some farther alterations were introduced, in consequence of the review of the Common Prayer Book, by order of King James, in the first year of his reign, particularly in the office of private Baptism, in several rubrics, and other passages, with the addition of five or six new prayers and thanksgivings, and all that part of the catechism which contains the doctrines of the sacraments
Apostle - Wherefore of these men which have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the Baptism of John, unto that same day that he was taken up from us, must one be ordained to be a witness with us of bis resurrection
Pergamum - The allusion in 2:17 to ‘a w hite stone , and in the stone a new name written,’ may be an allusion to a practice of keeping secret a new name taken at Baptism in a place where it was dangerous to be known as a Christian
Theodotus of Byzantium - He taught that at the Baptism of Jesus, Christ descended on Him in the form of a dove, and that He was then able to work miracles, though He had never exhibited any before: but even so He was not God; though some of the sect were willing to acknowledge His right to the title after His resurrection
Timotheus Salofaciolus - "In his episcopal administration," says Liberatus, "he was exceedingly gentle, so that even those who were of his communion complained of him to the emperor for being too remiss and easy-going towards heretics, in consequence of which the emperor wrote to him not to allow the heretics to hold assemblies or to administer Baptism; but he continued to treat them gently, and while he thus discharged his office the Alexandrians loved him, and cried aloud to him in the streets and in the churches, 'Even if we do not communicate with thee, yet we love thee
Church - John the Baptist and the apostles required no more than outward appearance of faith and repentance in order to Baptism, Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 3:7 . Baptism is not properly a church ordinance, since it ought to be administered before a person be admitted into church fellowship. ...
See Baptism
Church - The ministry of the word and the two sacraments, Baptism, and the supper of the Lord, (both in part derived from existing Jewish rites, Matthew 26:26-28; 1 Corinthians 5:7-8). ...
Baptism, the Lord's Supper were appointed as the church's distinctive ordinances (Matthew 28:19-20, Greek text): "make disciples of all nations, baptizing them . (See Baptism; LORD'S SUPPER
Purity (2) - ’...
It is in the fullest accordance with Christ’s habitual standpoint and with His teaching elsewhere that He adopted Baptism, which had long been a symbolic and ceremonial rite of purification in Judaism, as a fundamental ordinance for His followers: but it is equally in character with His mind and teaching that in the place of its old negative significance He gave it a new and positive meaning, by making it Baptism into the Divine Name He had revealed, and into the practical observance of His commands, and the enduring possession of His Spirit (Matthew 28:19-20). The reference of Christian Baptism is thus far less to the past-which it was in Jewish usage-than to the future; to the life, i
Augustinus, Aurelius - As a child he had a severe illness, and demanded Baptism. His mother had agreed to allow it; but when he recovered, in accordance with the then prevailing dread of post-baptismal sin, she put off his Baptism to riper years. ); his mother, hoping that it would lead to his Baptism, encouraged him in the selection of a wife. Augustine decided to resign his chair before the next term and meanwhile wrote to Ambrose to announce his desire for Baptism. His friend Verecundus who was himself on the eve of conversion lent his country house at Cassiciacum near Milan to Augustine and his party; there they spent the vacation and the months which were to elapse before Baptism (winter 386–387). The time to give in his name for Baptism was approaching and the party returned to Milan. —While waiting for Baptism at Milan, Augustine had written a short book, de Immortalitate Animae, and the first part, de Grammatica, of a work on the "liberal arts": the latter, though included by Possidius in his list of Augustine's literary remains, was early lost by him (Retr. After the Baptism, Augustine, with Alypius, and Evodius, a fellow-townsman, converted before Augustine himself, who had joined him at Milan, set out for Africa, with the intention of continuing their common life. His addresses to the candidates for Baptism on that occasion are still extant (Serm
Chronology of the New Testament - Interval between our Lord’s birth and Baptism . 21) has merely ‘Jesus was coming to his Baptism, being about,’ etc. are not exclusive; that Jesus was a little less than 30 years old at His Baptism, and over 40 when He died. 160) speaks of Jesus working miracles for three years after His Baptism ( Ante-Nic
Ebionism - At His Baptism the whole fount of the Holy Spirit (omnis fons Spiritus Sancti) descended on Him. On His Baptism, a higher Spirit united itself with Him, and so He became the Messiah. The Ebionite version was accommodated to their peculiar views by both mutilation and interpolation; thus it omitted the first two chapters, and began the life of Jesus with the Baptism. The latter is manifest in their abstinence from flesh and wine, their rejection of sacrifices, their oft-repeated, even daily, Baptism (xxx. There were also the Nasaraeans, who exhibited the very peculiarities described in the Ebionites by Epiphanius, except perhaps as regards the Baptisms (Epiphan. Its main points are: bindingness of the Law; substitution of frequent Baptisms for sacrifices; rejection of the Prophets and St
the Mother of Zebedee's Children - James had long ago drunk of Christ's cup and been baptized with Christ's Baptism. And it was the sight of all this that made our Lord's rising anger turn to an infinite pity, till He said to her two sons: 'Are ye able to drink of My cup, and to be baptized with My Baptism?' And what do you think the two insane men said? They actually said: "We are able!" In such sin had their mother Salome conceived them. What a cup of red wine that miserable mother and her two sons like her, made our Lord to drink that day! 'O Salome,' He said, 'and O James and John her sons, you little know the Baptism you are all baptizing Me with. But your own Baptism, also, will soon come
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - The question whether those who had married one wife before and another after Baptism were to be accounted deuterogamists, and so incapable of ordination, he discussed at length also in other epistles. He decides that they are to be so accounted, for Baptism is not the commencement of a new life in such sort as to relax the obligations of a previous marriage. (9) Converts from Novatianism and Montanism are to be received by imposition of hands only, without iteration of Baptism; but such as, having left the church, had been rebaptized by heretics, are only to be received after long penance. (2) To the question whether such as had led continually loose lives after Baptism might be admitted to penance and communion at the approach of death, Innocent replies that, though in former times penance only and not communion was accorded in such cases, the strict rule may now be relaxed, and both given. As to other prevalent irregularities—such as the ordination of persons who had, after Baptism, pleaded as advocates, served in the army, or as courtiers (curiales ) been concerned in objectionable ceremonies or entertainments—he directs that such past irregularities should be condoned for fear of scandal and disturbance, but avoided in the future. He insists, as so often in his letters, on the incapacity for ordination of such as had married widows or had married twice, and again protests that Baptism cannot annul the obligation of a previous marriage. (3) Infants after Baptism may not be confirmed by unction except by the bishop; but priests may anoint other parts of the body than the forehead, using oil blessed by the bishop
Blood - " Also, "this is My body which is broken for you" (1 Corinthians 11:24) is explained by the breaking of the heart, though it was true "a bone of Him shall not be broken" (John 19:32-27); compare also 1 John 5:6, "this is He that came by water (at His Baptism by John in Jordan) and blood" (by His bloody Baptism, at Calvary)
Mark, Gospel of - At Jesus’ Baptism, the starting point for his public ministry, a statement from God showed what this unique ministry would involve. ...
Summary of contents...
An introductory section deals with Jesus’ Baptism and his subsequent temptation by Satan (1:1-13)
Forgiveness - It is more frequent in the Acts: Acts 2:38 (baptism for forgiveness of sins in the name of Christ), Acts 5:31 (repentance and forgiveness of sins), Acts 10:43 (forgiveness of sins through His name), Acts 13:38 (through Him the forgiveness of sins is preached), Acts 26:18 (forgiveness of sins … by faith that is in Christ). Here, the object is always ‘sins’; forgiveness is sometimes explicitly joined to repentance and Baptism; but more particularly connected with Christ, Christ’s name, or faith in Christ
Apostolic Fathers - Part two gives directions concerning Baptism (7), fasting and prayers (8), the eucharist (9-10), travelers who seek hospitality (11-13), worship on the Lord's day (14), and bishops and deacons (15). Using the form of an apocalypse or revelation, the Shepherd of Hermas deals with the heatedly debated question of repentance for serious post-baptismal sins such as apostasy, adultery, or murder. Hermas proposed one repentance following Baptism, a view widely accepted in the early churches
Waldenses - That there are no other sacraments but Baptism and the Lord's Supper. On the subject of infant Baptism, they held different opinions, as Christians do in the present day
Trinity - Matthew 28:19 , for example, follows the triple formula of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit that distinguishes Christian Baptism. In the accounts of the Baptism of Jesus (Matthew 3:3-17 ; Mark 1:9-11 ; and Luke 3:21-22 ), the three synoptic writers recorded the presence of the Trinity when the Son was baptized, the Spirit descended, and the Father spoke with approval. The Docetists understood Christ as an appearance of God in human form, while Ebonites described Jesus as an ordinary man indwelt with God's power at Baptism
Manicheans - , expressly assert that they rejected Baptism with water; and Timotheus C. classes them among those heretics who must receive Baptism on joining the church, a rule which seems to have prevailed from the 4th cent. would support this latter view, as they then substituted their Consolamentum or laying on of hands—which they called the Baptism of the Holy Ghost—for water Baptism, which they scorned (cf. For the Manicheans to admit Baptism with water would seem inconsistent with their fundamental principle of the essentially evil nature of matter (cf
Synzygus - 2 [1] 282) suggests that the name may have been assumed at Baptism as a proper name
Pardon - There is nothing that man has, or can do, by which pardon can be procured: wealth cannot buy pardon, Proverbs 11:1-31 ; Proverbs 12:1-28 ; Proverbs 13:1-25 ; Proverbs 14:1-35 ; Proverbs 15:1-33 ; Proverbs 16:1-33 ; Proverbs 17:1-28 ; Proverbs 18:1-24 ; Proverbs 19:1-29 ; Proverbs 20:1-30 ; Proverbs 21:1-31 ; Proverbs 22:1-29 ; Proverbs 23:1-35 ; Proverbs 24:1-34 ; Proverbs 25:1-28 ; Proverbs 26:1-28 ; Proverbs 27:1-27 ; Proverbs 28:1-28 ; Proverbs 29:1-27 ; Proverbs 30:1-33 ; Proverbs 31:1-4 ; human works or righteousness cannot merit it, Romans 11:6 ; nor can water Baptism wash away sin
Foot - ‘It seems impossible not to see in the word “bathed” a foreshadowing of the idea of Christian Baptism’ (Westcott, ad loc
Circumcision - Circumcision as a symbol shadowing forth sanctification by the Holy Spirit has now given way to the symbol of Baptism (q
Water - Some have taken the phrase, "being born of water, " to mean being born again by means of water Baptism
Gennadius (11) Massiliensis, Presbyter of Marseilles - Heretical Baptism is not to be repeated, unless it has been administered by heretics who would have declined to employ the invocation of the Holy Trinity (52)
Peter, First Epistle of - Baptism has, in the case of Christians, much of the same character and import
Jor'Dan - (2 Samuel 10:17 ; 17:22 ) Thus there were two customary places at which the Jordan was fordable; and it must have been at one of these, if not at both, that Baptism was afterward administered by St
Praedestinatus, an Author - These men taught that certain were by God's foreknowledge so predestined to death that neither Christ's passion nor Baptism, faith, hope, nor charity could help them
Romanianus, Citizen of Tagaste - Romanianus appears to have had another son, Olympius, frequently mentioned in the various discourses composed by Augustine at Cassiciacum near Milan, who received Baptism at the same time as Augustine, and who afterwards became bp
Odes of Solomon - (b) The second theory regards them as entirely Christian hymns, and Bernard, a well-known holder of this view, goes so far as to believe them to be hymns recited by new proselytes, for Baptismal purposes. ...
‘The conclusion which seems to the present writer to emerge most clearly from an examination of the Odes is, … that they are Baptismal hymns intended for use in public worship, either for catechumens or for those who have recently been baptized. ‘The Odes do not differ in this respect from Ephraim’s Baptismal hymns’ (ib. ...
On the other hand, Bernard’s theory, while recognizing the perfect unity of the Odes and their Christian character, assigns to them too narrow a scope in restricting them to exclusively Baptismal purposes. The nineteen features already mentioned, which, generally speaking, form the essence of the Odes, are cast into a Baptismal mould, by means of some coincidences of speech found in the style of Christian Fathers or in the phraseology of Baptismal rituals. ’ To prove that this verse alludes to Baptism, a sentence is cited from the book entitled Exposition of Baptism by the Syrian writer Moses Bar Kéfa (9th cent. So also are the betrothals of the Holy Church beside the waters of Baptism. ...
(1) It is scientifically inexplicable that a book written for Baptismal purposes should not so much as name Baptism, or even allude with any clearness to immersion, aspersion, or affusion, essential ceremonies of this sacrament. Why should we extend the ‘secret discipline’ to the simple practice of washing with water represented in Israelite circles by various ablutions with which the commonest pagan was familiar? How then could Tertullian have written his treatise de Baptismo? The field that this theory gives to the disciplina arcani is probably too extensive to be taken seriously into consideration. Yet he tells us that Baptism was already called φωτισμός (illumination)-the technical term for initiation in the mysteries. ...
(2) We are also unable to subscribe to the possibility of a constant relation between the Odes and the Baptismal Hymns of St. The hymns of this Father, written exclusively for Baptism, contain always in their tone allusions which unmistakably refer to this sacrament, while the Odes are devoid of anything that would turn the thought of a reader in this direction. ...
There are two verses which might seem to point to Baptismal practices. ’ But it is obvious that the first quotation refers to the Baptism of Christ in the same manner as other Odes refer to the mysteries of the Incarnation or of redemption; and we are not entitled to infer from it that either this Ode or the whole collection has any special interest in the ritual of Baptism. At all events, even if the word ‘water’ be taken in its material sense, it affords no support for the notion that the forty-two Odes as a whole were written for Baptismal purposes
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - 14) he had Baptism with water, anointing with oil, a mixture of milk and honey was given to the newly baptized, and sacramental bread represented the Saviour's Body. A married man was received as a catechumen, but not admitted to Baptism until he had agreed to separate from his wife ( ib. Nor need we disbelieve the statement of Epiphanius that a second or a third Baptism was permitted. If a member married, or one who had put away his wife took her back, it is not incredible that on repentance a second Baptism was necessary before restoration to full privileges of membership. Again, since the Baptism of a married person was only permitted in articulo mortis , it would sometimes happen that catechumens were surprised by death before Baptism, and it is not incredible that in such cases the device of a vicarious Baptism may have been resorted to, as Chrysostom tells in speaking on the passage in Corinthians about being baptized for the dead. The Marcionite Baptism was not recognized by the church
Consciousness - The Baptism occupies an important place in the data of our subject. It is clear that all the Evangelists intend to point out that our Lord’s Baptism was unlike all others performed by John the Baptist. It was not a Baptism of repentance. The Baptism was part of God’s will for Him. , English translation) think that at the Baptism Jesus first attained to the consciousness of His Messiahship, though already aware of His Sonship. The Temptation of our Lord, following immediately (Mark 1:12) after His Baptism, shows the nature of the internal conflict which He had to face when He set about the work of His life
Mediation Mediator - On the strength of the claim that Jesus is both Lord and Messiah as shown by His resurrection, Peter urges repentance and Baptism in the name of Jesus Christ. This intimate bond between the disciple and his Lord, the blood-bond, is set forth by the ordinances of Baptism and communion in a far wider sense than was contemplated by the ‘mystery-religions’ and their ‘redeemer-gods’ (1 Corinthians 10:2 ff. Jesus Christ, not Baptism and not the Lord’s Supper, is the Mediator. Paul expressly places Baptism on a lower plane than the gospel which he preached (1618453076_39), which he could not have done if it had per se saving efficacy or was the means of obtaining the benefit of Christ’s mediatorial work
Confession - The references to Baptism into the name of the Lord most probably refer to the confession of faith in Him which was made by all candidates for Baptism. But there is great risk in the attempts which have been made to extract a full parallel with a later Baptismal creed, such as the Old Roman, from passages like the following. But there is no evidence that it had as yet been fitted into the setting of the Trinitarian Baptismal formula. Paul reminds Timothy of the confession which he made before many witnesses, we may suppose at his Baptism (1 Timothy 6:12). -The repentance demanded from all candidates for Christian Baptism (Acts 2:38) must have included confession of sins as a necessary element, in private if not in public
Roman Catholics - That seven sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ, namely, Baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony; and that they confer grace. " Penance is a sacrament in which the sins we commit after Baptism, duly repented of, and confessed to a priest, are forgiven; and which they think was instituted by Christ himself when he breathed upon his Apostles after his resurrection, and said, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost; whose sins ye remit, are remitted; and whose sins ye retain, are retained," John 20:23 . I profess also that there are truly and properly seven sacraments of the new law, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and for the salvation of mankind, (though all are not necessary for every one,) namely, Baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony; and that they confer grace; and of these, Baptism, confirmation, and order cannot be reiterated without sacrilege
Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis - the sacred writings, the Sacraments of Holy Baptism and Holy Communion, the miraculous birth of our Lord (the most probable reference of παρθένος ἁγνή ), His omnipresent and omniscient energy, the fellowship of the members of the church, not only in Rome but elsewhere—all these (together with the mixed cup, wine and water; the prayer for the departed; the symbolic ΙΧΘΥΣ, one of its earliest instances) have a place in the picture of early Christian usage and belief gained from this one epitaph; however widely Abercius travelled, to the far East or West, the same picture, he assures us, met his gaze. For He was my Teacher, teaching me (διδάσκων, so Ramsay, omitted by Zahn) the faithful writings; who sent me to Rome to behold the King ( βασιλῆαν, so Ramsay, but Lightfoot βασίληαν, Zahn, βασιλῆ ἀναθρῆσαι ), and to see the Queen in golden robes and golden sandals, and there, too, I saw a people bearing a shining seal (a reference to Baptism)
Regeneration - Its only occurrence as applied to the individual is Titus 3:5, a passage of very doubtful Pauline authenticity, where the most obvious interpretation is that salvation is effected by Baptism. The schema of the new religion is clearly set forth; Jesus is the Messiah (Acts 2:36, Acts 5:42), predicted in the Scriptures (Acts 7:52, Acts 8:35, Acts 13:47), attested by the Resurrection (Acts 2:32, Acts 10:41, Acts 13:33, Acts 26:23); acceptance of Him as such is the basis of salvation (Acts 4:12, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:39); but there must be also a very definite repentance, not merely for having crucified the Messiah (Acts 2:38), but a turning from iniquities (Acts 3:26), and from darkness to light (Acts 26:18), and this is to be followed by works worthy of repentance (Acts 26:20); Baptism follows on repentance and seems to have a sacramental efficacy (βαπτισθήτω … εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, Acts 2:38; βάπτισαι καὶ ἀπόλουσαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου, Acts 22:16). As regards Baptism, it is noteworthy that Cornelius and his company are accepted of God and receive the gift of the Holy Spirit before they are baptized (Acts 10:44; Acts 10:47), though in every other case the gift of the Spirit is subsequent to Baptism. -Under the symbol of Baptism, the believer is pictured as dead and risen again, in order to enforce the obligation of living in newness of life (Romans 6:3-11). Paul writes in the most absolute terms of a fore-ordained adoption as sons (Ephesians 1:5) and of salvation as a free gift (Ephesians 2:8), and the metaphor of the new life is a resurrection (Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5-6), not as in Romans a dying and rising with Christ, which is merely a bold use of the symbol of Baptism, but a resurrection to new life of a nature so corrupt as to be regarded as morally dead
Regeneration (2) - He speaks of the new covenant of which he is a minister (2 Corinthians 3:6), of the new creature (καινὴ κτίσις, 2 Corinthians 5:17, Galatians 6:15) which he has become, of the new world in which he lives (2 Corinthians 5:17), of the new man who has been created according to God in righteousness and holiness of truth (Ephesians 2:1-5), and who is being renewed unto knowledge after the image of Him that created him (Colossians 3:10); he speaks also of being transformed by renewal of the mind (Romans 12:2), and (if Titus 3:5 be his) of a renewal wrought by the Holy Spirit at Baptism; of walking in newness of life (Romans 6:4), and serving God in newness of spirit (Romans 7:6); but he never speaks formally of being born again. In Paul the process is normally connected with Baptism, and in view of Romans 6:2 ff. Paul spoke of Baptism, however, as involving men in the death and resurrection of Jesus,—making them mysteriously participant in all that was meant by both, a death to sin and a life to God, with the assurance of immortality at the heart of it,—he was not thinking of Baptism as a sacrament which produced these effects as an opus operatum. Baptism there is a picture of what is meant by the faith which looks to a dead, buried, and risen Saviour as its one object; in faith we identify ourselves with Christ in all these aspects, and so are taken out of the region to which sin belongs: this is what Baptism shows even to the malignant or unintelligent persons who carped at Paul’s gospel of salvation by faith alone
Household - The motivation for conversion was at times social and not wholly individual, though in Baptism each confessed Christ as Lord and showed forth His death and resurrection
Jordan River - The most important New Testament event relating to the Jordan is the Baptism of Jesus, which was performed by John the Baptizer (Mark 1:9 )
Moloch - The passing through the fire may have been sometimes only a fire Baptism for purification of the dross of the body; but Psalms 106:37-38, shows that often expiatory human sacrifice was perpetrated, "they sacrificed their sons and daughters to "devils" (shedim , "destroyers", as Moloch was), and shed innocent blood
Fire - See Baptism of Fire ; Molech ; Lake of Fire
Tongues - (See also Baptism WITH THE SPIRIT
Titus, Epistle to - This act is symbolized by believers' Baptism
Anoint - He was anointed with the Holy Spirit from the womb, then at His Baptism (1618453076_47-41)
Gaza - ...
The water in wady el Hasy was probably the scene of the eunuch's Baptism
Harlot - Even the austere John the Baptist had evidently welcomed them as penitents and as candidates for Baptism (Matthew 21:32),—a fact of which Jesus reminded His Pharisaic hearers
Cerinthus - Christ descended on Jesus after Baptism and left Him before the crucifixion
Lollards - He is likewise said to have set aside Baptism, as a thing of no effect; and repentance as not absolutely necessary, &c
Philip the Evangelist - The Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus manuscripts omit Acts 8:37, the confession of Jesus required before Baptism, an early Christian usage (1 Peter 3:21 end)
Answer - " Baptism is therefore the ground of an "appeal" by a good conscience against wrong doing
Apostle - Peter on the occasion of electing a successor to the traitor Judas, was that he should have been personally acquainted with the whole ministerial course of our Lord from his Baptism by John till the day when he was taken up into heaven
Harlot - Even the austere John the Baptist had evidently welcomed them as penitents and as candidates for Baptism (Matthew 21:32),—a fact of which Jesus reminded His Pharisaic hearers
Leo i, Emperor - When Isocasius, a philosopher and magistrate of Antioch, was forced by torture to accept Baptism at Constantinople, the emperor seems to have personally superintended the deed (Joan
Severianus, Bishop of Gabala - Gennadius read with pleasure treatises of his on Baptism and the Epiphany
Tichonius, an African Donatist - In support of his argument he quoted the decision of a council at Carthage of 270 bishops who having debated for 75 days concluded as the words of Augustine seem to imply that traditors ought to be invited to receive rebaptism but if they declined to do so ought to be admitted to communion. and the promise of Baptism there contained
Salvation - Salvation means death to and freedom from sin (Romans 6 ), a new perspective that transcends the human point of view and participation in a new creation (Romans 5:16-17 ), peace with God (Romans 5:1 ), life as adopted children of God's (Galatians 4:4 ), Baptism into Christ's death (Romans 6:4 ), and the reception of the Holy Spirit (Romans 5,8 ). ...
The subjective basis of salvation is personal repentance and faith, often associated closely with water Baptism. John the Baptist preached a Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew 3:2 ; Mark 1:4 ), a message echoed by Peter (Acts 2:38 ) and Paul (Acts 20:21 )
Matthew, Gospel According to - in connexion with our Lord’s Baptism, and His appearance to James after the Resurrection (cf. The Baptist’s preaching, Jesus’ Baptism and temptation, the early ministry, and the calling of Simon, Andrew, James, and John (chs. in the Baptism and Temptation), from which also the Sermon on the Mount (chs. The Gospel is to be preached, and Baptism and discipleship are to be given, to all nations ( Matthew 28:19 )
Timothy - ) Timothy "professed a good profession before many witnesses" at his Baptism and his ordination, whether generally or as overseer at Ephesus (1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 6:12; 2 Timothy 1:6). " (homologia ) at thy Baptism and ordination; carry out thy profession, as in the sight of Christ who attested the truth at the cost of His life "before or under" (epi ) Pilate
Proselyte (2) - (2) Baptism, which was analogous to the ceremonial purifications so frequently required of the Jews (Schürer, HJP Donatus And Donatism - "...
It was probably soon after the cessation of the persecution that Gratus, Caecilian's successor, summoned a synod at Carthage, which established (1) the non-iteration of Baptism, when duly administered in the name of the Trinity; (2) the necessary restrictions on reverence for martyrs, and on the assignment of that title. "...
There were two points about which, theoretically, both men were agreed: (1) That there was only one church; and (2) that in that one church there was only one Baptism, and this not to be repeated. "A church," said the Donatist, "in which traditors both existed and dispensed the sacraments was no church, and Baptism administered by traditors was no Baptism. They allowed returning Donatist clergy to retain their clerical position and functions, if they had not rebaptized, and if they brought their congregations with them; and decided that children of Donatists, even if they had received Donatist Baptism, should not be excluded from the service of the altar. In the same year imperial laws forbade rebaptism, condemned the Donatists as heretics, confiscated their meeting-houses and the goods of those who rebaptized, excluded them from testamentary inheritance, and proclaimed to all "that the one and true Catholic faith of Almighty God was to be received. Augustine issued other works which throw much light on the Donatist controversy: (a ) On the One Baptism, written between a. It was not heresy but schism which separated them and the Catholic church"; and Cresconius claimed that it was not they who were in schism, but the Catholics, who thereby had lost church and Baptism
Pelagianism And Pelagius - The first established the positions that death in man was the penalty of sin, and not a mere condition of his natural constitution; that the whole offspring of Adam was affected by his sin, and that Baptism of infants was for the remission of original sin, the guilt of which they bear from their birth. In a sermon preached June 27 413 he dealt with infant Baptism and refuted some new phases of Pelagian opinion. If they scoffingly asked men are born sinners from a sinful parent why are not men born righteous from believing parents who have been justified by Baptism? If Adam's sin hurt those who had not sinned why by parity of consequence should not the death of Christ profit those who have not believed on Him? Towards the close of his sermon Augustine read to the congregation from the epistle of their martyred bishop St. 255 a passage in which the judgment of the church of his day was emphatically pronounced that Baptism was administered to infants for the remission of sin which they had contracted through their birth and ended by making an earnest appeal to his opponents not to continue to maintain opinions which being hostile to such a fundamental point of church doctrine and practice as infant Baptism must be disowned by the church as heretical. Granting that the synods of Jerusalem and Diospolis might have been justified in the acquittal of Pelagius on the ground of his explanations, evasions, and disclaimers of responsibility for some of the positions alleged, they called attention to the continued prevalence of doctrines which affirmed the sufficiency of nature for the avoidance of sin and fulfilment of the commandments of God (thus virtually superseding the need of divine grace), and which denied the necessity of Baptism in the case of infants, as the way of obtaining deliverance from. Anathemas were pronounced on the doctrine that infants derive no original sin from Adam which needs expiation in Baptism, and that there is some middle place of happiness in the kingdom of heaven for infants who die unbaptized
si'Mon - " ( Acts 8:10 ) The preaching and miracles of Philip having excited his observation, he became one of his disciples, and received Baptism at his hands, A
Nestorians - ...
The prince of that country, whom the Nestorians converted to the Christian faith, assumed, according to the vulgar tradition, the name of John after his Baptism, to which he added the surname of Presbyter, from a principle of modesty; whence, it is said, his successors were each of them called Prester John until the time of Gengis Khan
Lord's Day - He noted that the early Sunday morning service began with Baptism, included Scripture readings, expository preaching, and prayer, and then concluded with the observance of the Lord's Supper (Apology 65-67)
Caesarea - Cæsarea was the scene of the Baptism of Cornelius ( Acts 10:1-48 )
Hymenaeus - Whence it follows that they who have by faith attained to the resurrection are with the Lord after they have once put Him on in their Baptism
Adoption - ’ to be received in Baptism or at conversion, or on the other hand to be the natural cry of the human heart
Colossians, Epistle to the - In Christ they had the reality of the things signified in the ordinances of circumcision and Baptism
Chosen One - Mark and the editor of the First Gospel after him seem to have avoided the ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου of the LXX Septuagint (Isaiah 42:1) in their accounts of the Baptism and Transfiguration, and to have fallen back on a Christianized version of Isaiah 42:1 preserved for us in Isaiah 42:1, in which ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου had taken the place of ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου of the LXX Septuagint
Hermes (1) Trismegistus, Writings of Unknown Authorship - Even the well-known terms of Baptism and regeneration occur, though in different connexions, and the former in a metaphorical sense
Clouds - ...
In 1 Corinthians 10:1-2 the clouds and the sea of the Exodus of Israel form a type of the Baptism of Christians which had been falsely understood by the Corinthians
Church - That this family is considered capable of an ordered extension is evident ( a ) from the steps immediately taken to fill a vacant post of authority ( Acts 1:25 ), and ( b ) from the way in which converts on receiving Baptism are spoken of as added to a fellowship ( Acts 2:47 AV Matthew, Theology of - Matthew's symbols include the Messiah, the Torah (as understood by Jesus), the church as the new people of God, Baptism, and the Lord's Supper. ...
Symbols that did seem to function sociologically and theologically in Matthew are Baptism and the Lord's Supper. In fact, this Baptism is in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, demonstrating the theological convictions inherent to such a commitment. And this Baptism was the prelude to a life of obedience to all the commandments of Jesus (28:20), surely an allusion in part to the Sermon on the Mount
Mennonites - ...
He retained, indeed, the doctrines commonly received among the Anabaptists, in relation to the Baptism of infants; the millennium, or one thousand years' reign of Christ upon earth; the exclusion of magistrates from the Christian church; the abolition of war; and the prohibition of oath enjoined by our Saviour; and the vanity, as well as the pernicious effects of human science. In consequence of this doctrine, they admit none to the sacrament of Baptism but persons that are come to the full use of their reason; they neither admit civil rulers into their communion, nor allow any of their members to perform the functions of magistracy; they deny the lawfulness of repelling force by force; and consider war, in all its shapes, as unchristian and unjust: they entertain the utmost aversion to the execution of justice, and more especially to capital punishments: and they also refuse to confirm their testimony by an oath
Apollos - Apollos ‘spake and taught carefully the things concerning Jesus’; but his knowledge of Jesus was limited, for he knew ‘only the Baptism of John. It seems unlikely that Apollos was baptized at Ephesus, for the twelve disciples are still ignorant of Baptism, nor was there a Christian Church in Ephesus until after St
Delight - ...
God points out his delight in his Son at both the Baptism and transfiguration of Jesus (Matthew 3:17 ; 17:5 )
Nazareth - ...
As "John the Baptist; was in the desert until the day of his showing unto Israel," so Messiah was growing up unknown to the world in the sequestered town among the mountains, until His Baptism by the forerunner ushered in His public ministry
Martin Luther - At this time the main points of his creed, seem to have been: the Bible is the sole rule of faith; man is totally corrupt; he lacks moral free will and all his acts, even sin, are the work of God; he is justified by believing God will save him; this faith includes a pardon of sin and all its penalties; Baptism, the Eucharist, and Penance are the only sacraments; the hierarchy and exterior worship are unnecessary; the priesthood is universal; there is no visible Church
Luther, Martin - At this time the main points of his creed, seem to have been: the Bible is the sole rule of faith; man is totally corrupt; he lacks moral free will and all his acts, even sin, are the work of God; he is justified by believing God will save him; this faith includes a pardon of sin and all its penalties; Baptism, the Eucharist, and Penance are the only sacraments; the hierarchy and exterior worship are unnecessary; the priesthood is universal; there is no visible Church
Fulfill - In the New Testament Jesus submitted to John's Baptism, identifying Himself with sinful people, in order “to fulfill all righteous” (Matthew 3:15 ), that is, to meet God's expectation for His life
Laying on of Hands - Paul did the same for some disciples at Ephesus who had been baptized into John the Baptist's Baptism (Acts 19:6 )
Church - (See Baptism
Laying on of Hands - In the early Church the imposition of hands was used, sometimes in close association with the act of Baptism ( Acts 9:17-18 ; Acts 19:5-6 ; cf. Augustine, de Baptismo , iii
Transfiguration - Whereas the voice at the Baptism is directed to Jesus (Mark 1:11 ), here it directed to the three disciples
Isaiah - John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1
Sergius Paulus - It has to be said that we know nothing more of his Christian life-whether he professed Christianity openly by Baptism, and used his influence to further the religion, or whether he relapsed
Gregorius Theopolitanus, Bishop of Antioch - 1847), and two sermons on the Baptism of Christ , which have been erroneously ascribed to Chrysostom
New Testament - ) Mark 1:1-11 ...
Baptism of Jesus
Excommunication - ...
To the same exclusion from religious privileges, those unhappy persons were doomed, who, whether from choice or from compulsion, had polluted themselves, after their Baptism, by any act of idolatrous worship; and the penance enjoined on such persons, before they could be restored to communion, was often peculiarly severe
Isaiah - John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the language of Isaiah 42:1
Perpetua, Vibia - 9, where he maintains that Dinocrates was in punishment for sins committed after Baptism
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - During his episcopate occurred the sanguinary insurrection against the Christians of the Samaritans, goaded to madness by the persecution of Justinian, offering only the alternative of Baptism or rebellion (Gibbon, c
Possidius, Bishop of Calama - He seems to have established a monastery there, and, probably early in his episcopate, consulted Augustine on ( a ) the ornaments to be used by men and women, and especially earrings used as amulets; (b ) the ordination of some one who had received Donatist Baptism (Aug
Hermas Shepherd of - ...
Indeed, the little book would almost seem to have been written partly as an attempt to break through the iron ring of despair resulting from a rigorous acceptance of those words in the Epistle to the Hebrews which speak of the impossibility of repentance for sin committed after Baptism (Hebrews 6:6; Hebrews 12:17). ...
The main part of the third Vision is the revelation by the lady of the Church under the image of a tower being built by angels upon the waters of Baptism. If she repents after divorce her husband sins if he does not receive her again (after Baptism only one opportunity of repentance is given, over which the Shepherd has authority). In view of the Roman character of the Shepherd, it is interesting to note that the tower which represents the Church is represented as founded, not on Peter, but, in the third Vision, upon the waters of Baptism, and, in the ninth Parable, upon the rock of the Son of God. It seems curious that while Baptism is plainly mentioned two or three times (Vis
Announcements of Death - —(a) Jesus first exhibits knowledge of His death at the time of the Temptation, immediately after the Baptism and the formal entrance upon the Messianic ministry. It is a Baptism of death that presses as a Divine compulsion upon Him, like the ‘must’ of the earlier time (John 3:14, Mark 8:31). Waiving their ignorance, He asked if they could drink His cup of death and take His Baptism of blood (Matthew 20:22, Mark 10:38). And James was the first of the Twelve to die a martyr’s death, and John the last; for Jesus had said that they would have His cup and Baptism (Mark 10:39). This view of the redemptive death of Christ is further emphasized by the symbol of Baptism and also of the Supper, in both of which the vital aspect of mystic union is expressed
Psalms (2) - ’ This verse, or the first part of it, underlies Nathanael’s confession (John 1:49), Peter’s confession (Matthew 16:16), the high priest’s question (Matthew 26:63), and the voice which is said to have been heard on the occasion of the Baptism (Matthew 3:17 = Mark 1:11 = Luke 3:22) and the Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5 = Mark 9:7 = Luke 9:35). According to the Codex Bezae in Matthew 3:17, the words heard on the occasion of the Baptism were, ‘Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee. ’ This attests the belief in some quarters that the Divine sonship of Jesus, which the psalm is supposed to foreshadow, dated from the day of His Baptism. Paul regards the Psalmist’s utterance as fulfilled not in the Baptism, but in the resurrection of Jesus; and this view appears to underlie the Apostle’s statement in Romans 1:4 that it was by the resurrection that Jesus was declared to be the Son of God with power. ...
Here, then, are three different interpretations of the verse within the NT: the Divine sonship of the Messiah is variously connected with His Baptism, His resurrection, or His eternal generation
Ebionism And Ebionites - The Ebionites divided the life of Jesus Christ into two parts—one preceding the other following His Baptism. But at His Baptism a great change took place. The day of Baptism was thus the day of His "anointing by election and then becoming Christ" (cf. But by declining to fix the precise moment of the union of the Christ with the man Jesus—a union assigned by Pharisaic Ebionites to the hour of Baptism—they admitted His miraculous origin
Hymns - ...
The fragment in Ephesians 5:14...
‘Awake, thou that sleepest,...
And arise from the dead,...
And Christ shall shine upon thee’...
is possibly a fragment of a hymn addressed to a convert at Baptism. ’ He attributes absence of direct references to Baptism and the Eucharist to the fact that the author was ‘writing in the style appropriate for pseudepigraphical composition
Leander (2) - 497) in answer to his old friend, who had congratulated him on his elevation, reported the Visigothic conversion and the third council of Toledo, and inquired as to the form of Baptism to be thenceforward observed in Spain, whether by single or threefold immersion. head; but as in Spain the Arian mode of Baptism had been by threefold immersion, it would be well henceforward to allow one immersion only, lest the heretics be supposed to have triumphed and confusion ensue
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - The permission of warm water at Baptism is omitted (ch. A number of liturgical forms are appended, among which the Baptismal symbol in ch. ...
Baptism ritual is elaborate. Deaconesses are useful, especially in the Baptism of women (ib
Symbol - Water, bread and wine, as the material elements in Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, are the symbols of those Sacraments
Tradition - ...
We receive the Christian Lord's day and infant Baptism not on the inherent authority of the fathers, but on their testimony as witnesses of facts which give force to the infiltrations of Scripture
Form - 32); the reference is to a course of simple instruction, like that in the first part of the Didache (‘The Two Ways’), which preceded Baptism
Eudoxius, Bishop of Constantinople - In 367 Valens, as he was setting out for the Gothic war, was induced by his wife to receive Baptism from Eudoxius
Jacobus Sarugensis, Bishop of Batnae - ...
(2) An order of Baptism; one of four used by the Maronites (Assemani, Cod
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - He was instructed in the rudiments of the Christian faith and received Baptism, but sought to combine the Christian profession with Cynic philosophy
Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis - Peter preached against the Meletians, and rejected their Baptism (Soz
Death of Christ -
The centrality of the deathand resurrectionin the worship of the church, especially in relation to its ordinances of Baptism and the Lord's Supper. The words spoken to Jesus at his Baptism (Matthew 3:17 ; Mark 1:11 ; Luke 3:22 ), and his attitude in his temptations and often subsequently in his ministry make clear that Jesus was conscious of his messianic vocation, but that that vocation was to be fulfilled by him as Suffering Servant. Baptism expresses the commitment of the believer to die (with Christ) to the old sinful way of life (Romans 6:2-7 ). Baptism is an identifying with Christ in his death and resurrection, speaking of the whole lifestyle of the Christian as (in Christ's name) a dying to self and living for him who has loved us and given himself for us (Galatians 2:20 )
Life And Death - Paul also conceives of life as a present reality when he proclaims that Christ is out life (Colossians 3:4), and that our life is hid with Christ in God (Colossians 3:3), when he makes our Baptism into Christ’s Death, and resurrection in His likeness, determinative of our present walk in newness of life (Romans 6:4), and declares that to be spiritually-minded is life and peace (Romans 8:6). Paul declares in Romans that we died to sin (Revelation 6:2), that we were buried through Baptism into death (Revelation 6:4), that he that hath died is justified from sin (Revelation 6:11); or when in Galatians he says of himself, ‘For I through the law died unto the law’ (Revelation 2:19), the death he speaks of, as the last passage shows, is a legal or judicial death which carries with it a deliverance from the state of condemnation into which the sinner has been brought by his sin (Romans 6:7). Baptism into Jesus Christ is the symbol and seal of a Baptism into His Death, which means not only a dying to the retribution of the of offended law but a crucifixion of the old man, a destruction of ‘the body of sin,’ so that we should no longer be in bondage to sin’s power (Romans 6:2-7; cf
Holy Spirit - The Spirit himself descends and anoints Jesus at his Baptism to prepare him for ministry. Christ gives as part of the Great Commission a trinitarian Baptismal formula (Matthew 28:19 ), which even if it reflects the liturgical language of the later church (contrast Acts 2:38 ), gathers together Jesus' authentic self-understanding as uniquely one with God and the Spirit (cf. Although Baptism is closely linked as a testimony to this repentance, Peter does not likely see it as essential for reception of forgiveness or the Holy Spirit, since his next closely parallel sermon concludes only with the call for repentance (3:19). The four elements of this "Pentecostal package" (repentance, Baptism, the coming of the Spirit, and forgiveness) nevertheless provide a paradigm for much subsequent New Testament theology (cf. The Baptism then, though well-intentioned, would have been premature
Atonement (2) - Paul met the charge by an abrupt appeal not only to elementary moral convictions, but to the implications of Baptism as a new and spiritual birth (Romans 6:1-4). Baptism is the initiatory Christian rite, and whether it conveys or only represents the forgiveness of sins, stood from the first in close relation to the Death and Resurrection of Christ (Matthew 28:19, Mark 16:15-16, Acts 2:38; Acts 8:13; Acts 8:16; Acts 8:36; Acts 9:18; Acts 10:47-48; Acts 16:33; Acts 19:5; Acts 22:16, Romans 6:3-4, Galatians 3:26-27, Ephesians 4:4-6, Colossians 2:12, Titus 3:4-6; 1 Peter 3:21; cf. ...
The persistence with which early heresies connected themselves with the Baptism of Jesus reveals the prominence which the event assumed in the story of the ministry, and goes far to authenticate the details of the Synoptic narrative (Matthew 3:13-17, Mark 1:9-11, Luke 3:21-22, cf. by submitting to the Baptism which John would have withheld because it involved repentance and provided for the remission of sins. The Voice from Heaven, and the Temptation endured in the power of the Baptismal Spirit (Matthew 4:1, Mark 1:12, Luke 4:1), even if they be regarded merely as the interpretation of the subjective consciousness of Jesus, witness to the identity between the scheme of the ministerial life accepted from the first by the Son of Man and the gospel of the redeeming work preached by the Apostles
Apostles - Qualifications for an apostle were clear: participation in Jesus' earthly ministry beginning with His Baptism and a witness of the resurrection (Acts 1:21-22 ). ...
Summary The New Testament has taken a common Greek word from naval and commercial language and made it a technical term for a messenger Jesus sent on a mission and more specifically for the twelve whom Jesus selected to follow Him from His Baptism onward
Forgiveness - Closely connected with the exercise of this Divinely given authority is the rite of Baptism, conditioned by repentance and issuing in ‘the remission of sins’ ( Acts 2:38 ). It is symbolic, as was John’s Baptism, of a ‘death unto sin and a new birth unto righteousness’ ( Mark 1:4 = Luke 3:3 ; cf
Head - The frequent references in the Odes of Solomon to a crown on the Christian’s head are best explained from the Eastern practice of placing a garland on the head of candidates for Baptism (i. ...
The bodily union of the members with Christ the Head is conceived in close relation with the initial act of Baptism: ‘in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body’ (1 Corinthians 12:13)
Head - The frequent references in the Odes of Solomon to a crown on the Christian’s head are best explained from the Eastern practice of placing a garland on the head of candidates for Baptism (i. ...
The bodily union of the members with Christ the Head is conceived in close relation with the initial act of Baptism: ‘in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body’ (1 Corinthians 12:13)
Holy Spirit - ...
A watershed in biblical history occurred at the event of Jesus' Baptism when He was anointed by the Spirit of God (Luke 3:22 )
Corinth - Paul left the Baptism of his converts almost entirely to his subordinates, and himself baptized only Stephanas ( 1 Corinthians 16:15 ), Gaius ( Romans 16:23 ), and Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue ( 1 Corinthians 1:14-16 )
Elijah (2) - Baptism was then one of the preliminaries of the salvation which the Messiah was to bring
Carpenter - This flashlight photograph of the artisan in the workshop is all we know of the eighteen years between the visit to Jerusalem in His boyhood and the Baptism which marked the entry on public life
Eusebius of Alexandria, a Writer of Sermons - On the Baptism of Christ
Marcellinus, Bishop of Rome - True, Augustine treats it as probably a calumny, and says it "is by no means proved by any documentary evidence" (de Unico Baptism
Resurrection - Baptism is centered in Jesus' resurrection. He says, "When you were buried with him in Baptism, you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead" ( Colossians 2:12 ; NRSV see also Romans 6:3-5 ; 1 Peter 3:21-22 ). ...
The Lord's Supper is less connected in its symbolism than Baptism, but the early correlation that it was celebrated on the Lord's day, that is, on the day that Jesus raised from the dead, reveals an early association
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - Mark’s δὸς ἡμῖν; the omission of reference to the ‘baptism’ [2]), but the approved critical explanation of the change in the speaker is hardly convincing. ...
(3) The evidence of the tract de Rebaptismate (Vienna Corpus, iii. 86), which shows that the saying of Mark 10:38 was interpreted of the Baptism of blood, and the testimony of Aphraates (Homily 21), who speaks of James and John following in the footsteps of their Master, if they point to the tradition of martyrdom, also suggest the natural explanation of its origin, if it is not historical, viz. The Synoptic saying about the cup and Baptism (Mark 10:38) is certainly insufficient proof of actual martyrdom. Matthew drops the mention of the Baptism, retaining only the drinking of the cup, and St
Jesus Christ - ...
"Christ" implies His consecration and qualification for the work He undertook, namely, by His unction with the Holy Spirit, of which the Old Testament oil anointings were the type; in the womb (Luke 1:35), and especially at His Baptism, when the Holy Spirit (as a dove) abode on Him (Matthew 3:16; John 1:32-33). " Jesus received His solemn consecration to His redeeming work by John's Baptism with water (to which He came not, as all others, confessing sin, but undertaking to "fulfill all righteousness") and at the same time by the Holy Spirit's descent permanently, accompanied by the Father's acceptance of Him as our Redeemer, "this is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased," namely, as undertaking to become man's Saviour. John, though knowing His goodness and wisdom before, as he must have known from the intimacy between the cousin mothers, Mary and Elisabeth (Luke 1), and knowing that Messiah should come, and when Jesus presented Himself feeling a strong presentiment that this was the Messiah, yet knew not definitely Jesus' Messiahship, until its attestation by God the Father with the Holy Spirit at His Baptism (1618453076_72). ...
Under the power of the Spirit received at His Baptism He encountered Satan in the wilderness
Novatianus And Novatianism - The circumstances of his conversion and Baptism are stated by pope Cornelius in his letter to Fabius of Antioch (Eus. He was converted after he had come to manhood and received clinical Baptism but was never confirmed which furnishes Cornelius with one of his principal accusations. An expression uttered by Chrysostom in reference to their peculiar views about sin after Baptism, "Approach [3] though you may have repented a thousand times," led to a literary controversy between him and the learned and witty Sisinnius, Novatianist bp. Basil, though hesitating on grounds similar to those of Cyprian to recognize their Baptism, concludes in its favour on the express ground that it was for the advantage and profit of the populace that it should be received (Basil, Ep
Simeon - Simeon, viewing Baptism as the initiation into communion with some powerful spirit through whom he could do greater wonders than before, was baptized. His case shows that the apostles could not always infallibly read motives, and that the grace symbolized in Baptism is not indifferently conferred on all as Romanists teach giving sacraments a magic power as if they could profit without faith
Witness - Christ’s coming was by water (baptism) and blood (the Cross)
Indulgences - I remit to you all punishment which you deserve in purgatory on their account: and I restore you to the holy sacraments of the church, to the unity of the faithful, and to that innocence and purity which you possessed at Baptism: so that when you die, the gates of punishment shall be shut, and the gates of the paradise of delight shall be opened; and if you shall not die at present, this grace shall remain in full force when you are at the point of death
Ethelbert, King of Kent - " It was doubtless in Ethelbert's reign and under his influence that Redwald, king of the East Angles, while visiting Kent, received Baptism, although, as his after-conduct shewed, his convictions were not deep (Bede, ii
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - 24 as Easter Day, and expressed his belief that all Christians everywhere would "observe one faith, one Baptism, and one most sacred paschal solemnity
Confession - The council of Trent requires "secret confession to the priest alone, of all and every mortal sin, which, upon the most diligent search and examination of our consciences, we can remember ourselves to be guilty of since our Baptism; together with all the circumstances of those sins, which may change the nature of them; because, without the perfect knowledge of these, the priest cannot make a judgment of the nature and quality of men's sins, nor impose fitting penance for them. " According to Cyprian, the formula, to which assent was required from adults at their Baptism, was in these terms: "Dost thou believe in God the Father, Christ the Son, the Holy Spirit, the remission of sins, and eternal life, through the holy church?" This was called by him symboli lex, "the law of the creed;" and by Novatian, regula veritatis, "the rule of truth. Perhaps this word, at first, only denoted the formula of Baptism, and was afterward transferred to the confession of faith. I acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins, and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. These, beside recognising the authority of the Apostles' and the Nicene Creeds, embrace a multitude of dogmas which it is unnecessary particularly to specify, relating to traditions, the sacraments of Baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, order, and matrimony, transubstantiation, the sacrifice of the mass, worshipping of images, purgatory, indulgences, &c, &c
Holy Ghost - Three Persons, and three only, are associated also, both in the Old and New Testament, as objects of supreme worship; and form the one "name" in which the religious act of solemn benediction is performed, and to which men are bound by solemn Baptismal covenant. The form of Baptism next presents itself with demonstrative evidence on the two points before us, the personality and divinity of the Holy Spirit. " In what manner is this text to be disposed of, if the personality of the Holy Ghost is denied? Is the form of Baptism to be so understood as to imply that Baptism is in the name of one God, one creature, and one attribute? The grossness of this absurdity refutes it, and proves that here, at least, there can be no personification. If all the Three, therefore, are persons, are we to have Baptism in the name of one God and two creatures? This would be too near an approach to idolatry, or, rather, it would be idolatry itself; for, considering Baptism as an act of dedication to God, the acceptance of God as our God, on our part, and the renunciation of all other deities and all other religions, what could a Heathen convert conceive of the two creatures so distinguished from all other creatures in heaven and in earth, and so associated with God himself as to form together the one name, to which, by that act, he was devoted, and which he was henceforward to profess and honour, but that they were equally divine, unless special care were taken to instruct him that but one of the Three was God, and the two others but creatures? But of this care, of this cautionary instruction, though so obviously necessary upon this theory, no single instance can be given in all the writings of the Apostles
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - , which begins by treating of Baptism, directs that candidates shall first have received the preceding teaching. ) directions for the Baptism of candidates who have received the preceding instruction. 36) of the Baptism of Clement's mother. Peter directs that she shall fast one day previous to Baptism. An unbaptized person is the home of the demon and until this demon has been driven out by Baptism no Christian can safely admit him to a common table (Recog
Lord's Supper (ii) - Wright’s view must be rejected as (a) lacking positive support; (b) not really affording a parallel to the existence of a rite of Baptism (John 3:22; John 4:1-2) before the institution of Christian Baptism (Matthew 28:19); (c) being contrary to the tenor of John 6, which implies that, to the disciples as well as to the multitude, the teaching had the element of difficulty which shows that the Eucharist was not yet instituted; and (d) as contrary to the parallels by which the discourse about Baptism in John 3 is prior to the institution in Matthew 28:19, and the teaching about forgiveness in Mark 2:5-11 (= Matthew 9:2-8, Luke 5:20-24) is prior to John 20:21-23; but its plausibility at first sight is a significant indication of the truth that the discourse in John 6 was destined to find its explanation in the Institution of the Eucharist. Paul’s teaching the gift in Baptism, which makes men ‘the body of Christ’ (1 Corinthians 12:13), is not identified with the gift in the Holy Communion
Holy Spirit - Thus the possession of the Spirit was not the exclusive privilege of an official class, but was granted to the entire community entrusted with the service of God, and Baptism is accordingly offered to all in view of the promise of the Spirit (Acts 2:38; Acts 19:2 f. ’ Essentially the same formulation is found in the salutation of 1 Peter (1 Peter 1:2), and in a like sense we must interpret the Baptismal formula in Matthew 28:19, where the one Name into which the nations are to be baptized embraces the Son and the Spirit as well as the Father, because the work of calling man to God and of bringing him within the Divine grace is effected by Christ through the medium of the Spirit. It is inconceivable that in primitive Christian times there could have been a form of Baptism in which the Spirit was not named. Thus, when the Christian community is questioned regarding the nature of its Deity, it may give a complete answer by saying that beside the one Father it sets the one Lord (1 Corinthians 8:6); and in Baptism it was only necessary to invoke the name of Christ (Romans 6:3, 1 Corinthians 1:13, Galatians 3:27)
Baxterianism - Ward differed from Amyraut, Martinius, and others of that school, on the topic of Baptismal regeneration; and, as the subjects of Baptism, according to the sentiments of the two former, are invested with invisible grace, and are regenerated in virtue of the ordinance when canonically performed, such divines far more easily disposed of their baptized converts in the ranks of strict predestination, than the others could who did not hold those sentiments. " Their friend Bishop Bedell, however, maintained, that "reprobates coming to years of discretion, after Baptism, shall be condemned for original sin; for their absolution and washing in Baptism was but conditional and expectative; which doth truly interest them in all the promises of God, but under the condition of repenting, believing and obeying, which they never perform, and therefore never attain the promise
Lord's Supper, the - " The "person who had had a bath" points to Baptism, which cannot be repeated. " The Eucharist is one (or the ) way appointed by Christ for the washing away of postbaptismal sins. ...
Finally, the piercing of the side of Jesus and the coming forth of blood and water (19:34) graphically state that the two sacraments, Baptism and Eucharist, flowed from the atoning and liberating death of Jesus Christ (see also 1 John 5:6-8 )
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - He regarded his dream as a call to Baptism, which he straightway received. At the request of his military tribune, he stayed in the army two years after Baptism
Simon Magus - He therefore sought Baptism, and, being baptized, continued with Philip
Vision(s) - Ananias and Paul received visions to prepare Paul for Baptism (Acts 9:10-19 )
Excommunication - Excommunication in the church of Scotland, consists only in an exclusion of openly profane and immoral persons from Baptism and the Lord's supper; but is seldom publicly denounced, as, indeed, such persons generally exclude themselves from the latter ordinance at least; but it is attended with no civil incapacity whatever
Oracle - For example, such was the voice that was heard at the Baptism of Jesus Christ, saying, This is my beloved Son, &c
Fire - ...
A special use of fire imagery in the New Testament is that connected with Baptism with fire
Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit - One suspects that the advent of the Holy Spirit at the Baptism of Jesus fulfills this Old Testament hope, and yet Israel remains hardened and grieves the Spirit once again (1 Corinthians 6:18 ), postbaptismal sins (Origen), post-Pentecost rejection of the Spirit, and the attempt to achieve meritorious righteousness before God
Rock - ); and both the water and the manna were a foreshadowing of the Christian sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper (1 Corinthians 10:2; 1 Corinthians 10:16)
Confession - With this developed type of confession may be compared the gloss that has been attached to the narrative of the Ethiopian eunuch’s Baptism ( Acts 8:37 , see RVm [2] ), probably representing a formula that had come to be employed as a Baptismal confession. It was out of Baptismal formulas like this that there gradually grew those formal ‘Confessions’ of the early Church which are known as the Apostles’ and the Nicene Creeds
Temptation, Test - But the prime target of his attention is Christ, and in particular, at two critical points in Jesus' saving mission: his Baptism and death
Goodness - To them He was the human expression of the Divine Goodness, and it mattered little whether a man should say that the Goodness was from eternity, so that by its nature sin had never been a moment’s possibility, or that at birth Christ had been uniquely endowed with a passion for goodness that turned naturally from everything selfish, injurious to others, or sinful either to God or man; or that at His Baptism He had been set aside to that brief ministry (which is nearly all men know of His earthly life), when the voice from heaven was heard saying, ‘This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’ (Matthew 3:17)
Apostle - They insisted, therefore, that the person to replace Judas in the apostolic group be one who, like the other apostles, had been a genuine eye witness of the ministry of Jesus from his Baptism to his ascension (Acts 1:21-22; cf
Meletius, Bishop of Antioch - The Eustathian section could not conscientiously unite with one who, however orthodox in faith, had received consecration from Arian bishops; neither would they communicate with his followers who had received Arian Baptism
Unity (2) - It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that this ‘one thing’ is, spiritually, the Kingdom which His Incarnation brings among us (Luke 17:21); representatively, the Society which He builds (Matthew 16:18), to which by His institution the one Baptism (Ephesians 4:5) admits, and which the one Bread (1 Corinthians 10:17) shows. Baptism is into a unity to which neither race nor status nor sex is a barrier (Galatians 3:27-28). Thus Firmilian writes (with reference to the excommunication by Stephen of Rome of those who disallowed the Baptism of heretics): ‘While thou thinkest that all may be excommunicated by thee, thou hast excommunicated thyself alone from all’ (Epp
Forgiveness - His offer exemplified the tension between God as merciful and God as righteous, as shown by the fact John rejected some who had not first produced the fruit of repentance before seeking the Baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sin. ...
There are some passages in the New Testament that suggest Baptism is a necessary condition for acquiring eschatological forgiveness (Acts 2:38 ; Romans 6:3-4 ; Colossians 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:21 ). This is a controversial subject; suffice it to say that at the very least Baptism is intricately bound up with the reception of eschatological forgiveness
Christian Life - Baptism, Lord’s Supper, ritual and worship in general, bishops and elders, the relation of St. Paul to the Jerusalem Council, and the like (see articles Church, Baptism, Eucharist, Bishop, etc. The Christians lived a happy family life; the members were ‘brethren’; new converts were received into the fellowship by Baptism (Acts 2:41); the practice of charity produced noble examples of generosity like that of Barnabas (Acts 4:36), and incidentally provoked unworthy ambition, of which the deceit of Ananias and Sapphira (ch
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - It discourses also upon the world, the origin of evil, angels, man, the soul, and senses of the flesh, Christ and the Holy Spirit, the church and heresies, the heathen nations, the law, seven rules or principles for the understanding of Scripture, the difference between the two Testaments, symbol and prayer, Baptism and communion, martyrdom, the miracles wrought by the saints, Antichrist and his works, the resurrection and judgment, hell, the punishment of the wicked, and the glory of the just. ...
(11) De Ecclesiasticis Officiis treats of the services of the church, and of clerics, their rules and orders, the tonsure, the episcopal office, vicars episcopal, presbyters, deacons, sacristans and subdeacons, readers, psalmists, exorcists, acolytes, porters, monks, penitents, virgins, widows, the married, catechumens, exorcism, salt, candidates for Baptism, the creed, the rule of faith, Baptism, chrism, imposition of hands, and confirmation
Sinlessness - Thus, when He presented Himself for Baptism among the multitude at the Jordan, the Baptist forbade Him, saying, ‘I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me?’ (Matthew 3:14). ...
It has been held that the action of Jesus in presenting Himself before John to receive ‘the Baptism of repentance for the remission of sins,’ betrayed a consciousness of guilt. The movement of John had a positive as well as a negative side: it was not only a ‘baptism of repentance,’ but a great new consecration to God and country, in which Jesus was bound to take the lead; and many have believed that, even at this stage, He so identified Himself with His people that He felt their sin to be His own, and in the act of Baptism symbolized that washing of it away which was to be accomplished through His death
Sacrifice (2) - ‘I have a Baptism to be baptized with,’ He says on one occasion, ‘and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!’ (Luke 12:49-50). Manifestly the Baptism was the Baptism of death (cf. Just as the Baptism of John was valueless without change of mind, and could confer no forgiveness without the bringing forth of fruit worthy of repentance, so the sprinkling of the blood expressed the thought that purity and sincerity are necessary for all who would enter into the covenant relationship with God—that there can be no forgiveness except it be followed by sincere obedience
Christ in Art - The Fish symbolizes not only the Eucharist, but the sacrament of Baptism as well; this is brought out by the common representation of a fish as swimming in the water (see below under ‘Symbolic Scenes’). The Dove, at first used as an emblem of peace, sometimes with an olive branch in its mouth (though it occurs in pictures of the Baptism of Christ in the Catacombs), was the recognized symbol of the Holy Spirit in the apsidal mosaics of the 4th and 5th centuries, and thus has continued ever since: the Lamb, the Hand of God, and the Cross (see below), found in connexion with the Dove in these mosaics, also continued as common symbols in the Middle Ages, when interlaced triangles and circles further represented the Trinity. This is the case with Moses striking the Rock, where Moses becomes the type of Christ and the water a type of Baptism, the point being sometimes emphasized by the conjunction of Christ drawing a fish out of the water, or in the sarcophagi by the raising of Lazarus. , but the ark is a symbol both of deliverance and of Baptism (1 Peter 3:21), so that Noah represents the saved rather than the Saviour
Euchites - ...
They held that in consequence of Adam's sin every one had from his birth a demon, substantially united to his soul, which incited him to sin, and which Baptism was ineffectual to expel. Dealing only with past sin, Baptism did but shear off the surface growth, and did not touch the root of the evil
John, the Epistles of - Finally, the truth on which our fellowship with God rests is, Christ came by water in His Baptism, the blood of atonement, and the witnessing Spirit which is truth, which correspond to our Baptism with water and the Spirit, and our receiving the atonement by His blood and the witness of His Spirit
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - God offers salvation to all, so that they who attain faith and receive Baptism are in the way of being saved. Infants dying without Baptism will be saved or not according as God foreknows what their conduct would have been if they had grown up
John, the Gospel According to - He omits Christ's Baptism, temptation, mission of the twelve, transfiguration (of which he was one of the three selected eye witnesses), the Lord's supper, and the agony in Gethsemane, yet incidental hints show his taking them for granted as known already (John 1:14; John 1:32; John 13:2; John 14:30; John 18:1; John 18:11), which last refers to the very words of His prayer during the agony, recorded by the synoptists, an undesigned coincidence and so a proof of authenticity; John 14:30 is the link between the temptation (Luke 4:13) and His agony (Luke 22:40-53); John 11:1 assumes the reader's acquaintance with Mary and Martha, from Luke 10:38. ) As John, though mainly treating of Jesus' ministry in Judea, yet has occasional notices of that in Galilee (John 1:43-2:13, after the temptation, recorded by the synoptists as following the Baptism, John 1:32; namely, the Galilean ministry before John's imprisonment, John 3:24, whereas they begin with it after John's imprisonment: Mark 1:14), so they, though mainly treating of the Galilean ministry, plainly hint at that in Judaea also (Matthew 4:25; Matthew 23:37; Matthew 27:57; Luke 10:38; Luke 13:34; Mark 3:7-8)
Ephesus - The twelve who had been baptized with the Baptism of John (Acts 19:3 ) may have been persons who had emigrated to Ephesus before the mission of Jesus began
Spirit - The Spirit was the agent of Jesus' miraculous conception (Matthew 1:18 ,Matthew 1:18,1:20 ), came down on Jesus at His Baptism (Matthew 3:16 ), led Him into the wilderness where He was tempted by the devil (Matthew 4:1 ), and enabled Him to heal diseases and cast out demons (Matthew 12:28 )
Circumcision - On the other hand, we can trace the gradual growth in the Church of the opposite view: the Baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch (q
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - He challenges the evidence of Christianity, and asks, "Who saw the dove lighting on the head of Jesus after His Baptism?" As to the Resurrection, he makes the remark which has been copied by Renan and others, that it was Mary Magdalene, "a fanatical woman," who was the first witness of the resurrection, according to all the accounts (ii
David, Welsh Saint - 43); David's Baptism by the bp
Cerinthians - In the other points he agreed with the Gnostics, and believed that Christ was one of the aeons who descended on Jesus at his Baptism
pe'Ter - (Acts 9:32 ) The most signal transaction after the day of Pentecost was the Baptism of Cornelius
Luke, Gospel of - It includes the preparatory preaching of John the Baptist (3:1-20), the Baptism of Jesus (3:21-22), Jesus’ genealogy (3:23-38) and the devil’s temptation of Jesus in the wilderness (4:1-13)
Sedulius, 5th-Cent. Poet - A–G in Lauds for Christmas week; and H, I, L, N, which celebrate the adoration of the Magi, the Baptism, and the miracle at Cana, on the feast of Epiphany
Circumcision - On the other hand, we can trace the gradual growth in the Church of the opposite view: the Baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch (q
Type - In 1 Peter the Apostle takes the unblemished lamb of the Passover (Exodus 12:5) to typify Christ as a lamb without blemish and without spot (1 Peter 1:19), and sees in Noah’s ark a prefiguration of Baptism as a means of salvation (1 Peter 3:21). Genesis 2:24), Christian Baptism by the passage of the Red Sea (1 Corinthians 10:1-2), the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper by the manna and water of the wilderness (1 Corinthians 10:3-4), and Christ Himself by the rock from which the water flowed (1 Corinthians 10:4). Romans 3:25, Ephesians 5:2), the Temple and the Christian Church (1 Corinthians 3:16, Revelation 7:4-8), the ministry of the altar and the ministry of the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:13), circumcision and Baptism (Colossians 2:11-12), the sacrificial communion of Judaism and communion at the Lord’s Table in the body and blood of Christ (1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 10:18)-these are particular instances he gives of the fact that the institutions of the old dispensation were anticipative and symbolic of the new
Union With Christ - ...
Union with Christ is the result of an act of divine grace, the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. 11), "buried with him in Baptism, " and "raised with him through faith" (v. "...
Union with Christ is the result of an act of divine grace, the Baptism of the Holy Spirit
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - "...
Gregory of Nyssa describes Gregory of Neocaesarea as spending much time in Alexandria, and says that before his Baptism, while resident there, he displayed a high tone of moral propriety. If Gregory's Baptism was deferred until Origen could return to Caesarea, it must have taken place at the close of their intercourse after the death of Maximin and the accession of Gordian in 238. Four Homiliae preserved by Vossius on "the Annunciation to the Holy Virgin Mary," and on "Christ's Baptism," are totally unlike the genuine writing of Gregory; they are surcharged with the peculiar reverence paid to the Mother of our Lord after the controversy between Nestorius and Cyril and they adopt the test-words of orthodoxy current in the Arian disputes
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - On the other hand, the writer of the Fourth Gospel omits the genealogy and the birth from a virgin, because it could be of no interest to him to prove that Jesus (or rather Joseph) was descended from king David, and the Incarnation of the Logos is a far grander conception than a miraculous birth by the operation of the Holy Ghost; he omits the Baptism of Jesus, of which notwithstanding he shows knowledge, because, again, the true Baptism is the Incarnation of the Logos in Jesus, and also partly, perhaps, because he is anxious to discountenance the Adoptionist views of the Person of Christ which were prevalent at the time when he wrote; he omits the Temptation, because it is no part of his plan to exhibit Jesus as experiencing any temptation or weakness; he omits the Transfiguration, because in his view the whole life of Christ on earth is a manifestation of His glory, not by visible light but to the spiritual eye; he omits the institution of the Eucharist, because he has already given his sacramental doctrine in his discourse about the Bread of Life (John 6:26 ff. Not only are incidents like the Baptism referred to incidentally (John 1:32), but an attempt is made to provide substitutes for several of the omitted narratives. The institution of Baptism is represented by the discourses with Nicodemus and the Samaritan woman; that of the Eucharist by the miracle in ch
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - ...
Nonna, in fulfilment of a vow, dedicated him to the Lord, but not by Baptism. Gregory's chief fear was lest he should die without Baptism. The mother had longed to see both her sons return together, and Gregory has left a touching account of their meeting; and at this point some of the biographers fix his Baptism. 461 A); nor could he have been ignorant that it was by Euzosïus that Baptism was administered to the penitent
Person of Christ - Full consciousness of His Messianic function must have come to Him not later than His Baptism the manner of its coming is for us inexplicable and at that crisis a wonderful bestowal of the Spirit equipped Him with the knowledge and power demanded by this vocation. Even when at the Baptism a Divine voice hails Him as God’s beloved Son, the words denote simply His definitive consecration to the Messianic office, as is shown by the clear echo of Psalms 2:7 . Nor may His participation in the Baptism of John be urged against this; for that was ‘a great act of loving communion with our misery,’ In which He identified Himself with sinful men, and took all their burdens and responsibilities as His own (cf. In the Gospels of Matthew and Luke the Divine Sonship of Jesus is viewed as being mediated in part by the bestowal of the Spirit at His Baptism, in part by the supernatural character of His conception
Honorius, Flavius Augustus, Emperor - 3, 14 were against the repetition of Baptism; which some persons seem to have thought might be repeated not only after heresy, but for forgiveness of repeated sins. ...
His later legislation has little historical interest, but the enactments on paganism and heresy from 413 to 423 were as follows: Two against repetition of Baptism, a. 58 houses of Eunomian clergy were confiscated to the fisc; or any in which second Baptism has been administered
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Certainly He had received the kingly anointing (Acts 10:38); but, as David was anointed long before he received the kingdom, so Jesus was from the time of His Baptism a king, indeed, but a secret one with an invisible crown. ’ The exaltation of Jesus marks His ascension of the throne; now He has become in reality what since His Baptism He was in claim and anticipation—‘the Anointed. Paul in Acts 13:33 applies the words of Psalms 2:7 (‘Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee’) not to the birth nor to the Baptism of Jesus, but to the day of His resurrection and exaltation
Sanctification, Sanctify - , while referring formally to Baptism, substantially describe sanctification, since God consecrates the believer for His use and marks him in Baptism with His ‘broad arrow
Matthew, the Gospel of - When Jesus came to John for Baptism, the voice from heaven proclaimed Him as God's Son. Twice God proclaimed Jesus' sonship: at His Baptism (Matthew 3:17 ) and at the transfiguration (Matthew 17:5 )
Metaphors - If, instead of spitting on the tongue, He ‘spat out,’ this would receive explanation from the custom of the Jews to spit in contempt when idols were mentioned; as also in the early Church, where converts coming to Baptism spat out as a sign that they renounced the kingdom of Satan. He, too, is responsible for the injunction ‘Make for yourselves purses which wax not old’ (Luke 12:33), and for the attractive Orientalism ‘son of peace’ (Luke 10:6) added to Matthew 10:13, and for the less commendable addition that the descent of the Spirit at the Baptism of Jesus, which Mk
Essenes - Here we have a parallel with Christian Baptism and Baptismal regeneration. Baptism, too, is no rare phenomenon. The Ebionites, as described by Epiphanius, show traces of Essenic influence in their asceticism and frequent Baptisms, The EIkesaites are Essenized Ebionites
Simon Magus - Only, Simon Magus was all the time such an impostor that in his conversion and Baptism he had completely deceived Philip. Believing, Baptism, communiontable and all, Simon Magus had neither part nor lot in this matter of the work of the law
Nicodemus - My whole mind and imagination and heart and conscience would have to be taken down and built up again upon an absolutely other pattern; my whole experience, observation, and study of all these divine things would have to be turned upside down before I could possibly believe in what is called "baptismal regeneration. He was not able to be baptized-not into regeneration, there is no such Baptism-but into evangelical repentance and the open loss of all things. There were a thousand things that held Nicodemus back from John's Baptism at his age and in his office, and our Lord saw and sympathised with every one of them
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - The remaining twenty-two New Testament occurrences of the word "cloud" appear in the context of theophany, and encompass six theologically crucial, eschatologically related events or visionary scenes in salvation history: (1) the pillar of cloud at the exodus, viewed as a type of Christian Baptism in the time of eschatological fulfillment (1 Corinthians 10:1-2 ); (2) Jesus' transfiguration, as a foretaste of the kingdom of God, during which the Father appears and speaks in a cloud (Matthew 17:5 ; Mark 9:7 ; Luke 9:34 ); (3) Jesus' ascension, explained by the angels as a paradigm for his return (Acts 1:9 ); (4) the "mighty angel" descending from heaven wrapped in a cloud, announcing (against the eschatological backdrop of Daniel 12:7 ) that time should be no longer (Revelation 10:1 ); (5) the two resurrected witnesses ascending to heaven in a cloud, described in the context of the eschatological measuring of the temple of God (Revelation 11:12 ); and (6) Jesus' parousia, against the backdrop of Daniel 7:13 , as the Son of Man coming with/on/in a cloud/the clouds/the clouds of heaven (Matthew 24:30 ; 26:64 ; Mark 13:26 ; 14:62 ; Luke 12:54 ; 21:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; Revelation 1:7 ; 14:14-16 )
Apostle - Peter states the qualifications before the election of Judas' successor (Acts 1:21), namely, that he should have companied with the followers of Jesus "all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among them, beginning from the Baptism of John unto the day that He was taken up, to be a witness with the others of His resurrection
Spirit - ...
The subject of the "Holy Spirit" in the NT may be considered as to His Divine attributes; His distinct Personality in the Godhead; His operation in connection with the Lord Jesus in His birth, His life, His Baptism, His death; His operations in the world; in the church; His having been sent at Pentecost by the Father and by Christ; His operations in the individual believer; in local churches; His operations in the production of Holy Scripture; His work in the world, etc
Resurrection - This is one of the truths that believers express when they are baptized (Romans 6:3-4; Romans 10:9; Colossians 2:12; see Baptism)
Son of God - The Father reaffirmed this special relation at some of the great moments of Jesus’ public ministry (Matthew 3:17; Matthew 17:5; see Baptism; TRANSFIGURATION)
Zacharias - ...
Godet remarks on the pleasant picture of family life presented by the scene of the Baptist’s circumcision, It had been a custom since the birth of Isaac (who received his name at his circumcision) to give a child his name on the same day in which he was signed as one of God’s people: for a similar reason, Christian children are named on the occasion of their entrance by Baptism into the Church
Motives - The most powerful symbols of spiritual identification (circumcision, Baptism) can be undermined by one who submits to them but is not inwardly changed (Jeremiah 9:25-26 ; Matthew 3:7-8 ; Romans 2:25-29 ; 1 Peter 3:21 )
Repentance - ...
According to Matthew 3 , John was not specific about "the fruits of repentance, " except in his call for Baptism with water
Hour - John 17:1); the hour when He should be betrayed into the hands of sinners (Matthew 26:45); the hour when the Father’s will gave Him over to the power of darkness (Luke 22:53)? If Jesus went down to the Jordan in order to participate in the Baptism of Repentance, conscious that His vocation as Messiah was to be that of the Suffering Servant, and to take upon Himself the sins of His brethren, then the thought of His hour as the hour of His sacrifice could never be absent from His mind
Numbers as Symbols - One hope, one faith, one Baptism
Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - The following propositions are laid down in canon 25: "This also do we believe, in accordance with the Catholic faith, that after grace received through Baptism, all the baptized are able and ought, with the aid and co-operation of Christ, to fulfil all duties needful for salvation, provided they are willing to labour faithfully
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - Boniface on threefold immersion in Baptism
Quakers - "There are two ceremonies in use among most professors of the Christian name water-baptism, and what is termed the Lord's supper. so his Baptism is one, in nature and operation; that nothing short of it can make us living members of his mystical body; and that the Baptism with water; administered by his forerunner John, belonged, as the latter confessed, to an inferior dispensation, John 3:30
Faith - More generally the gift of the Holy Spirit follows Baptism and the laying on of hands, as in the case of the disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19:2) and the Samaritans whom Philip had led to believe in Jesus Christ (Acts 8:17). ’ The sealing with the Spirit is posterior to the act of faith and may be associated with the rite of Baptism, which came to be known as a sealing ordinance. This confession finds its formal expression in Baptism, and the Apostle expected that in this way as well as in more homely ways this public confession would be made
Faith - More generally the gift of the Holy Spirit follows Baptism and the laying on of hands, as in the case of the disciples of John the Baptist (Acts 19:2) and the Samaritans whom Philip had led to believe in Jesus Christ (Acts 8:17). ’ The sealing with the Spirit is posterior to the act of faith and may be associated with the rite of Baptism, which came to be known as a sealing ordinance. This confession finds its formal expression in Baptism, and the Apostle expected that in this way as well as in more homely ways this public confession would be made
Ordination - Our Lord had made use of outward signs in instituting the two great sacraments of the gospel, Baptism and the Eucharist. But the same thing is true of the water in Baptism and the bread and wine in the Eucharist. ...
Fasting was frequently in early ages associated with solemn prayer (Psalms 35:13, Daniel 9:3, Mark 9:29 [5], Luke 2:37); and so with Baptism and the Eucharist. The pre-baptismal fast is mentioned in the Didache (7 f
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - The foolish virgins had the lamps of right faith, but not the oil of good works to burn in them; but what avails the oil of good works to Jews or heretics who have no lamps wherein to light it? He will not even own the Baptism of heretics as valid. Probably the same book told him that Joseph was not present when the angel appeared to Mary and related how our Lord conferred His own Baptism on John the Baptist
Leper - Christians, who at Baptism received the white garment, must shrink from what would defile it
Body - Those who follow Him in faith and Baptism experience the reality that the body does not have to remain a slave of sin (Romans 6:6 ,Romans 6:6,6:12 )
Fellowship - In other places Paul makes it clear that Christians were buried with Christ in Baptism and raised up with him into newness of life (Romans 6:4,6 , 11 ; Galatians 2:20 ; Ephesians 2:4-6 ; Colossians 2:20 ; 3:3 )
Restitution - John proclaimed in preaching the Baptism of repentance
Holy Spirit, the - His personal agency is marked by His "descending in a bodily shape like a dove" upon Christ at His Baptism (Luke 3:22; John 1:32-33). His Godhead, distinct personality, and oneness with the Father and the Son, are implied in the Baptismal formula enjoined by Christ (Matthew 28:19)
Judaizing - The vision of the sheet, with the clean and unclean animals, showed that the Apostle’s act was a new departure, requiring special and Divine sanction; and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, prior to Baptism, was needed to teach him that he might initiate his converts into the Christian Church by that sacrament
Heathen - Paul had warranted them in doing (Ephesians 6:14 f, 2 Timothy 2:3), and for which they found a further warrant in the early application of the word sacramentum, ‘the military oath,’ to Baptism, regarded as pagani (‘outsiders,’ not soldiers at all)* Jesus, the Lord - His Baptism by John; His being anointed with the Holy Ghost, and consequently John's testimony that He was the Lamb of God, the Baptiser with the Holy Ghost, and the Son of God
Communion - Paul, it is true, starts the idea of an unio mystica between the individual Christian and Christ (Galatians 2:20); this idea is prevalent in his doctrine of Baptism (Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12); but his predominant line of thought is the other view, which regards the two personalities as apart from each other, and may be described as the idea of ‘fellowship
Callistus, Pope - (4) He allowed second Baptisms, which perhaps means that a repetition of Baptism was substituted for the penance which had been necessary at the readmission of grievous sinners into the church
Culdees - They did not acknowledge auricular confession; they rejected penance and authoritative absolution; they made no use of chrism in Baptism; confirmation was unknown; they opposed the doctrine of the real presence; they withstood the idolatrous worship of saints and angels, dedicating all their churches to the Holy Trinity; they denied the doctrine of works of supererogation; they were enemies to the celibacy of the clergy, themselves living in the married state
Unitarians - Belsham goes on to state the Unitarian opinion to be, that Jesus was not conscious of his high character till after his Baptism; that he afterward spent some time in the wilderness, where he was invested with miraculous powers, and favoured with heavenly visions, like St
Pelagians - Some of the Pelagians taught that Christ was a mere man, and that men might lead sinless lives, because Christ did so; that Jesus became Christ after his Baptism, and God after his resurrection; the one arising from his unction, the other from the merit of his passion
Only Begotten - In the Synoptics (in the narratives of the Baptism and the Transfiguration), where Christ is called υἱὸς ἀγαπητός, μονογενής could hardly be substituted
Purification (2) - καθαρισμός: of washings before and after meals, John 2:6; of Baptism, a symbol of moral cleansing, John 3:25; of the Levitical purification of women after childbirth, Luke 2:22; of cleansing of lepers, Mark 1:44, Luke 5:14
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - ...
He almost at once openly united himself with the Acephali, repudiating his own Baptism and his baptizer, and even the Catholic church itself as infected with Nestorianism (Labbe, u
Sanctification - ἀπελούσασθε refers to Christian Baptism, as implying penitence and faith on the part of the worshipper. ’ In other words, just as we are born members of a certain family, and citizens of a particular State, so as Christians we are ‘born again’ in Christian Baptism into an obedience to the rule or Kingdom of God, and a responsibility for all the corresponding social duties that ought to be maintained as between man and man. In the experience of ‘conversion’ or ‘regeneration,’ symbolized in Christian Baptism, lies the root-idea of sanctification
John Epistles of - This faith rests historically on a three-fold witness-of the water (the Baptism in which He was set apart for His Messianic work), of the suffering (which culminated on the Cross, and which has dealt with sin), and of the Spirit (who interprets these facts to men). that the Sufferings and Death of Jesus were as essential a note of His Messianic work as the Baptism by John. 1): ‘post Baptismum descendisse in eum ab ea principalitate quae est super omnia Christum figura columbae et tunc annunciasse incognitum patrem, et uirtutes perfecisse, in fine autem reuolasse iterum Christum de lesu, et Iesum passum esse et resurrexisse, Christum autem impassibilem perseuerasse, existentem spiritalem. There are good reasons for thinking that Hippolytus in his Syntagma ascribed to Cerinthus the view that the Spirit (not the Christ) descended on Jesus at the Baptism
Montanus - the church had made converts enough from Montanists born in the sect for the question to arise, On what terms were converts to be received who had had no other than Montanist Baptism? Matter and form were perfectly regular; for in all essential points of doctrine these sectaries agreed with the church. But it was decided, at a council held at Iconium, to recognize no Baptism given outside the church. This we learn from the letter to Cyprian by Firmilian of Caesarea in Cappadocia, when the later controversy arose about heretical Baptism
Begetting - They must have been largely influenced by traditional opinions on the subject of the Messiah, and would therefore interpret the words, ‘This day have I begotten thee,’ as referring not to any event in a past eternity or to any period prior to the Incarnation of the Son of God, but to some definite point in the history of His manifestation to the world, as, for example, to the period of the birth of Jesus, or of the Baptism, when the voice from heaven declared Him to be God’s Beloved Son, or, as St. The three Synoptists record the Divine proclamation with which, at the Baptism, the first stage of Christ’s ministry was solemnly inaugurated: ‘This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased’ (Matthew 3:17 ||)
Jesus Christ - His Baptism showed on the one hand his complete willingness to carry out all God’s purposes, and on the other his complete identification with the people whose sins he would bear. God then showed, through the descent of the Spirit in the form of a dove upon Jesus, that he had equipped him for this task (Matthew 3:13-17; Acts 10:38; see Baptism; HOLY SPIRIT)
Preaching - Again, ‘the Baptism which John preached’ (ἐκήρυξεν, Acts 10:37), and to ‘preach circumcision’ (Galatians 5:11), indicate clearly other and wider contents than ‘baptism’ and ‘circumcision
Call, Calling - In Baptism converts were washed, sanctified, justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 6:11 ), so that his is "the noble name of him to whom you belong" (James 2:7 )
Bereans - As to their practice and discipline, they consider infant Baptism as a divine ordinance, instituted in the room of circumcision; and think it absurd to suppose that infants, who all agree are admissible to the kingdom of God in heaven, should, nevertheless, be incapable of being admitted into his visible church on earth
Mission - He wants to see them baptized, made disciples of Jesus, instructed in Christian teaching and built into local churches (Matthew 28:19-20; John 17:20-21; Acts 1:8; Acts 2:41-47; Acts 11:26; Colossians 1:25; Colossians 1:28; see Baptism; DISCIPLE; TEACHER)
Liberty (2) - ’ There are times when Christ seems deliberately to lead His hearers, and especially the formalists among them, into problems that find no solution in ‘the Law,’ but that compel an exercise of liberty of judgment, as in the ‘Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar’s’ (Luke 20:25, Matthew 22:21), ‘the Baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?’ (1 Corinthians 9:4-65), and the question, ‘Is it lawful to heal on the Sabbath day, or not?’ (Mark 3:4, Luke 6:9; Luke 14:3)
Interpretation - ...
OT language serves other important purposes in the Gospels, God speaks in this language at Jesus’ Baptism, and again at His Transfiguration; it is used in the conversation between Jesus and Satan; and it furnishes phraseology for some of Jesus most forceful and solemn pronouncements, where sometimes the sound of Holy Writ seems to be prized above perspicuity (e
Jesus Christ - Jesus sought Baptism at his hands, and was tempted of the devil
Maximus Magnus, Christian Emperor in the West - He set out after that memorable Easter which witnessed the Baptism of St
Faith - It begins with the ministry of John the Baptist, which climaxes with the Baptism of Jesus and the heavenly announcement of Jesus' Sonship (1:11; cf. "...
In anticipation of the more formal analysis of the Epistles, faith in Acts is linked to Baptism (8:12-13; 18:8; 19:2), confession (19:18), forgiveness (10:43), grace (15:11; 18:27), healing (3:16; 14:9), the Holy Spirit (19:2), justification (13:39), purification (15:9), and sanctification (26:18)
Christ, Christology - ’ And specially in the address preceding the Baptism of Cornelius (Acts 10:36 ff. Nahum 1:15), proceeds to remind his hearers of something already familiar to them-the ministry of ‘Jesus the one from Nazareth,’ which began from Galilee after the Baptism proclaimed by John
Prayer (2) - Luke is alone in relating that Jesus prayed: at His Baptism (Luke 3:21); before His first collision with the Jewish hierarchy (Luke 5:16); before choosing the Twelve (Luke 11:5-8); before the first prediction of His Passion (Luke 9:18); at His Transfiguration (Luke 9:29); before teaching the Lord’s Prayer (Luke 11:1); and on the Cross (Luke 23:34; Luke 23:46). They cover the whole of Christ’s public life from His Baptism to the moment of His death, and show His dependence upon His Father for help and strength and refreshment
Toleration Act - that shall subscribe the aforesaid Articles of Religion, except before excepted, and also except part of the 27th article touching infant Baptism, and shall take the said oaths, &c
Temple - After the Baptism of fire on the Day of Pentecost they are found ‘continuing stedfastly with one accord in the temple’ (Acts 2:46)
Hunneric, King of the Vandals. - Habetdeus was bound and gagged by Antonius and forced to undergo the rite of a second Baptism, which was imposed also by force or fraud upon many of the orthodox
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - At her entreaty, he sought out the retreat of Urban, and received Baptism at his hands
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - 1), now it is Jesus Who is born like other men, born of Joseph and Mary; He differs from others only in being more righteous, more prudent, and more wise; it is not till after Baptism, when Jesus has reached manhood, that Christ, "that is to say, the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove," descends upon Jesus from above ( ἄνωθεν ἐκ τοῦ ἄνω Θεοῦ· ἀπὸ τῆς ὑπὲρ τὰ ὅλα αὐθεντείας , Iren. One last allusion to them is found in the ecclesiastical rule applied to them by Gennadius Massiliensis: "Ex istis si qui ad nos venerint, non requirendum ab eis utrum baptizati sint an non, sed hoc tantum, si credant in ecclesiae fidem, et baptizentur ecclesiastico Baptismate" ( de Eccles
Ambrosius of Milan - But he was an earnest Christian in his belief, and had only been kept from seeking Baptism by a religious awe, of which there were then many examples. Augustine ascribed to him his conversion, and sought Christian Baptism at his hands. He had died unbaptized; but Ambrose assures his sorrowing sisters that his desire was equivalent to the act of Baptism, and that he had been washed in his piety as the martyrs in their blood ( de Ob
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - The most doubtful instances are the passages cited presently on the Baptism and (in the Exc. That this descent of the light was represented as taking place at the Annunciation and not merely at the Baptism is clearly implied in the express reference to the words of the angel in Luk_1:35 "A Holy Spirit shall come upon thee," which are explained to mean "that ...
[5] which passed from the sonship through the Limitary Spirit to the Ogdoad and the Hebdomad till it reached Mary" (the interpretation of the following words "And a power of the Most High shall overshadow thee," appears to be hopelessly corrupt). On the other hand when it is described as a result of the descent of the light from the Hebdomad "upon Jesus the Son of Mary," that He "was enlightened being kindled in union with the light (συνεξαφθεὶς τῷ φωτί) that shone on Him," the allusion to the traditional light at the Baptism can hardly be questioned; more especially when we read in Clement's Excerpta (p
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - The date of Basil's Baptism is uncertain, but, according to the prevalent custom, it was almost certainly deferred until he reached man's estate. Basil's Baptism may be placed at this epoch. On his retiring, the Arians again got round the feeble prince, reminded him of a promise he had made to Eudoxius, by whom he himself had been baptized, and the child received Baptism from the hands of an Arian prelate
Church (2) - In Baptism He provided a definite means of incorporation, and in the Eucharist a corporate act and a visible bond of union. Nor is there any doubt, from the constant mention of Baptism throughout the book, that this was the invariable means of acquiring membership. And while the Church has recognized all its members as valid ministers of Baptism in case of necessity, the administration of the Eucharist has been confined amongst most Christians to those who have received special Apostolic authority for the purpose
Preaching Christ - But he was chosen from ‘the men that have companied with us all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and went out among us, beginning from the Baptism of John unto the day that he was received up from us’ (Acts 1:21 f). ‘Beginning from the Baptism of John unto the day that he was taken up’: these are the limits within which lies the Gospel according to Mark. It is natural to suppose that in the account of Jesus’ Baptism (Matthew 3:17 ||) the heavenly voice which pronounces Him Son of God, in words borrowed from Psalms 2, means the term there to be taken in the Messianic ‘official’ sense; it is the Messianic consciousness of Jesus, as the accompanying narrative of the Temptation proves, which is expressed in ὁ υἱός μον
Miracles (2) - The Baptism of John (robbed of the spiritual endowment of Jesus and its accompaniments). ...
(a) Preliminary Period, from Baptism to call of leading Apostles
Peter, First Epistle of - Quickened in spirit by death, Christ carried the gospel to the godless world that perished in the Flood, through which Noah and his family were saved, a type of the Christian who in his Baptism asks God for a good conscience, and is cleansed through the risen Christ now triumphant over all His enemies,1 Peter 3:18-22 1618453076_75 . At Baptism the believer has his conscience cleansed through the risen Christ; and the new life springing from the seed of the word of God planted in the heart grows by feeding upon that word
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - , from whom we learn that they were used by the Priscillianists, and that the Acts of Thomas related a Baptism, not in water but in oil, according to the Manichean fashion; and by Pseudo-Mellitus (Fabric. Some of the earliest Fathers who try to reconcile Mat_20:23 with the fact that John did not suffer martyrdom do not mention this story of the Baptism in oil (Origen in loc
Propitiation (2) - Interpreting His words at His Baptism (Matthew 3:15 ‘Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness’) in the light of Matthew 20:22-23, but especially of His words in Luke 12:50 (‘I have a Baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it be accomplished’), it would seem that His death was before Him from the first as an essential part of His mission
Galatians, Letter to the - Faith in and Baptism into Christ make us one in Christ (Galatians 3:26-29 )
Apostle - In addition to the divine call, the person must have been a disciple of Jesus from John's Baptism to the ascension, and specifically a witness of the resurrection (Acts 1:21-22 )
Self- Denial - This self-denial is typified by Baptism
Stone - Satan meant the stones to be stones of stumbling to Jesus, on that difficult path of obedience and self-renunciation to which in His Baptism He had just consecrated Himself
Blasphemy (2) - ), mortal sin after Baptism (Origen), persistence in sin till death (August
Foundation - The different elements that constitute the foundation, which is not to be laid again, are three, taken in pairs: (i) personal attitudes of heart and mind: repentance from dead works and faith toward God; (ii) church ordinances: Baptism and laying on of lands; (iii) leading beliefs: resurrection and judgment
Holy Spirit - As Jesus’ Baptism showed, God the Father was in heaven, God the Son was on earth, and God the Spirit had come from the Father to rest upon the Son (Matthew 3:16-17)
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - They probably believed that Baptism magically associated them with Christ and the Spirit, and that the Lord's Supper protected them from all physical harm (chaps. ...
According to 1,2Corinthians, the sacraments of the church are twofold: Baptism and the Lord's Supper
Missions - ) the Trinitarian formula of Baptism, which is found nowhere else in the NT. ), the Baptismal formula, as it has been called, may not have been a formula. If it was not a formula, there was nothing to hinder the Apostles and others from baptizing in the name of the Lord Jesus (‘The Baptismal Formula,’ by J. ‘Baptism’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible
Animals - ...
In all four Gospels the dove appears as the symbol of the Holy Ghost at our Lord’s Baptism. In Matthew 3:16 the vision of the Holy Ghost descending in the form of a dove (ὡσεὶ περιστεράν) seems to have been granted to all present at the Baptism
Jesus Christ - At Baptism He was sealed to be a suffering Messiah
Sea - The Apostle’s point is that ancient Israel started well; all were protected and guided by the cloud; all were safely brought through the sea; all were sealed as by a Baptism into trustful allegiance to Moses as their deliverer; yet in the end all except two failed to enter Canaan
Son - " There is probably some connection between this and those early heresies which taught that our Lord's Deity began at His Baptism
Covenant - Under the New it is administered in the preaching of the Gospel, Baptism, and the Lord's supper; in which grace and salvation are held forth in more fulness, evidence, and efficacy to all nations, 2 Corinthians 3:6-18
King, Christ as - ...
After receiving the divine anointing at his Baptism (Mark 1:9-11 ), Jesus begins to proclaim the inauguration of the kingdom in Galilee: "The time has come. With the same profound meaning, the early church adopted the Baptismal confession, "Jesus is Lord!" (Romans 10:9 ; 1Col 12:3)
Carpocrates, Philospher - ) that this was a Baptismal ceremony intended to represent the "baptism with fire," predicted of our Lord by the Baptist
Ebionites - But they could hardly help believing so; for they agreed with all the Gnostics in thinking (though it might seem as if this point had been forgotten) that Jesus and Christ were separate persons: they believed, as I have already stated, that Christ descended upon Jesus at his Baptism, and quitted him before his crucifixion
Swedenborgians - But in no place have any peculiar rites and ceremonies been introduced, the worshippers being content with retaining the celebration of the two sacraments of Baptism and the holy supper, since no other rites are insisted on by the author whose testimony they receive
Gnostics - The methods which they took to extricate themselves from the difficulty, were principally two: they either denied that Christ had a real body at all, and held that he was an unsubstantial phantom; or, granting that there was a man called Jesus, the son of human parents, they believed that one of the aeons, called Christ, quitted the pleroma, and descended upon Jesus at his Baptism
Jordan - John's next Baptisms were (John 1:29-34) at Bethabara (or "Bethany") the upper ford, within reach of the N. ; there out of Galilee the Lord Jesus and Andrew repaired after the Baptisms in the S. ) His third place of Baptism was near Aenon and Salim, still further to the N
Theodosius i., the Great - Meanwhile at Thessalonica, during the winter of 379–380, Theodosius had a severe illness which led to his Baptism by Ascolius, the local bishop, a devoted adherent of the orthodox party
John the Apostle - John as a "son of thunder" (Mark 3:17) was not the soft and feminine character that he is often portrayed, but full of intense, burning zeal, ready to drink the Lord's bitter cup and to be baptized with His fiery Baptism (Isaiah 58:1; Jeremiah 23:29; Matthew 20:22; Luke 12:49-50), impatient of anyone in separation from Jesus' company, and eager for fiery vengeance on the Samaritans who would not receive Him (Luke 9:49; Luke 9:53-54)
Jesus Christ - John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness near the Dead Sea preaching a message of Baptism and repentance for the forgiveness of sins. ...
A time of severe testing in the wilderness followed Jesus' Baptism, in which Jesus' commitment to his task and understanding of his mission were resolved
John, Theology of - The Spirit permanently alights on Jesus at his Baptism (1:32-33) and continues as an important presence throughout his life (3:34; 6:27). In particular, the Nicodemus dialogue in chapter 3 and the Passover discourse of chapter 6 betray hints of Baptism and the Lord's Supper respectively
Gospels (2) - The Resurrection, again, was declared to constitute an authentication by God Himself of the prediction of Jesus that He would come again to judge the living and the dead; and salvation from the terrors of the judgment to come was offered on the conditions of repentance, followed by Baptism into the name of Jesus. This is the barest outline of the main features in the first Christian preaching: the accomplishment in Jesus of all that was hoped for in the Christ; His death and resurrection illuminating the dark places of prophecy, and proving the truth of His own claims; judgment; repentance; Baptism
Matthew, Gospel According to - In the period of preparation for the Kingdom, the gospel was to be preached to all nations for a testimony (Matthew 24:14), and those who entered by Baptism into the Christian Church would become members of that new Israel, which in the days of the Kingdom should be judged and governed by the twelve Apostles as viceroys of the King Messiah (Matthew 18:1-144). How else could He come upon the clouds of heaven? And His disciples were to preach the good news of the coming Kingdom (Matthew 10:7, Matthew 24:14) among all nations, making disciples by Baptism (Matthew 28:19)
Son of God - When Satan, in the Temptation, played with the title, he was obviously referring back to the voice which, at the Jordan during the Baptism, recognized Jesus as ‘the Son of God’; but how much that voice intended, or how much the Tempter understood of what it meant, might require considerable discussion. Of course, its authenticity as a saying actually proceeding from Jesus has been fiercely disputed, and in certain quarters the air is affected of treating it as beyond dispute an addition to the actual words of Christ; but its place in the ordinance of Baptism connects it closely with the Author of that rite; and there is no reason for rejecting it which would not, at the same time, imply the rejection of the whole section of the life of our Lord which follows His death on the cross
Complacency - ...
At the Baptism, God spoke thus (Matthew 3:17 || Mark 1:11 || Luke 3:22). By these words He testified the peculiar pleasure with which He regarded His Son at the moment of His consecration to His mission; His satisfaction with the spirit of submission to the Father’s will which had characterized Jesus throughout the years of obscurity during which He prepared Himself for His ministry, and the lowliness with which He submitted to the Baptism of John—because thus it became Him ‘to fulfil all righteousness’; and His gracious acceptance of the voluntary offering which the Son now made to the Father
Peter Epistles of - ) the ordinance of Baptism, which formally ensured their spiritual union with the Risen Jesus; and (iii. They are no longer men of the flesh, for, having been united in Baptism with the heavenly spiritual Christ, they now enjoy a new state of existence; they are citizens of heaven (1 Peter 4:1-6)
Mary, the Virgin - ...
(1) At the marriage of Cana (John 2), in the three months between Christ's Baptism and the Passover of A
Harmony of the Gospels - In all three gospels:...
1) The appearance of John the Baptist, Jesus' Baptism and temptation, and the initiation of Jesus' public ministry are linked together
Zebedee - At the same time the people would become familiar with the ceremonials of admission to Judaism, including that of Baptism (Bab
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - Philaster, however, attributes to his heretics other doctrines which we have no reason to think were held by Hermogenes: that evil proceeded sometimes from God, sometimes from matter; that there was no visible Paradise; that water-baptism was not to be used, seeing that souls had been formed from wind and fire, and that the Baptist had said that Christ should baptize with the Holy Ghost and with fire; that angels, not Christ, had created men's souls; that this world was the only "infernum," and that the only resurrection is that of the human race occurring daily in the procreation of children
Manichees - ...
They also observed the Christian appointment of Baptism, and the eucharist
Holiness - (See Luke 1:35) So again, at the Baptism of Christ, the blessed Spirit seen by Christ, decending like the hovering of a dove, and lighting upon the person of Christ, and thus distinguished in point of personality from God the Father, whose voice from heaven, in the same moment, declared Jesus to be his beloved Son, in whom he was well pleased
Calling - The invitation, "the calling," of the first preachers was to all who heard them in Rome, in Ephesus, in Corinth, and other places; and those who embraced it, and joined themselves to the church by faith, Baptism, and continued public profession, were named, especially and eminently, "the called," because of their obedience to the invitation
David - Christ was the true Messiah, whom David prefigured, being anointed at His Baptism by the Holy Spirit before entering on His service toward Israel
Atonement - ...
(2) The Baptism and the Temptation of Jesus, which initiated Him into the course of His public ministry, were events associated in the minds of those who preserved the Synoptic tradition with the voice from heaven, ‘Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased’ (Luke 3:22). ) associated with Baptism, which in the primitive Church was always connected with remission of sins, they are suggestive, but not free from critical difficulties
Gospels - Their topics are the same; they deal chiefly with the Galilæan ministry, not explicitly mentioning visits to Jerusalem after Jesus’ Baptism until the last one; while the Fourth Gospel deals largely with those visits. , Jesus’ Baptism (without the knowledge of which John 1:32 would be unintelligible), the commission to baptize (cf
Paul - The sudden light from heaven; the voice of Jesus speaking with authority to his persecutor; Saul struck to the ground, blinded, overcome; the three-days suspense; the coming of Ananias as a messenger of the Lord and Saul's Baptism, --these were the leading features at the great event, and in these we must look for the chief significance of the conversion. The narrative tells of the earthquake, the jailer's terror, his conversion and Baptism
Prophet - If Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel were all introduced to their prophetic career by a vision granted and a voice heard (John 4:25 Jeremiah 1:4-10, Ezekiel 3:10-14), so Jesus commenced His ministry by receiving at His Baptism a vision from heaven and by hearing His Father’s voice. ” ’ This form shows how strong was the belief in the earliest days of the Church that Jesus at His Baptism was anointed specially to the office of Prophet
Cross, Crucifixion - In Romans 6:1-8 we are “buried with him” (using the imagery of Baptism) with the result that we are raised to “newness of life” ( Romans 6:4 )
Scripture, Unity And Diversity of - The Baptism of Jesus marks him as the anointed servant of the Lord
Tabernacle - Before the tabernacle was also the laver, signifying the same thing that Baptism does with us, the cleansing of the heart and life
Children of God, Sons of God - In John 3:5 the birth is described as a begetting of the Spirit which takes place at Baptism (‘of water,’ unless these words are an early gloss)
Luke, the Gospel According to - There are eight such instances: Luke 3:21, "Jesus praying, the heaven was opened" at His Baptism; Luke 5:16, "in the wilderness"; Luke 6:12, "continued all night in prayer to God before ordaining the twelve; Luke 9:18, as He was alone praying, His disciples were with Him, and He asked whom say the people that I am?" Luke 9:28 Luke 9:51-188 at the transfiguration, "He went up into a mountain to pray, and as He prayed the fashion of His countenance was altered;" Luke 11:1, "as He was praying in a certain place, when He ceased one of His disciples said (struck with the holy earnestness of His tone, words, and gestures), Lord teach us to pray" (Luke 3:1-2; 1 Corinthians 9:1; Luke 22:44-46; Luke 23:46)
Disciples - Though the criteria employed for replacing Judas among the twelve (Acts 1:12-22 ) included being an eyewitness not only of the resurrected Jesus but also of the ministry of Jesus from the days of His Baptism by John, there developed in the early church a slightly broader application of the term “apostle” which did not demand an eyewitness knowledge of Jesus' ministry
Flood, the - The salvation of Noah and his family in the ark through the waters of the flood finds its antitypical counterpart in New Testament eschatological salvation connected with water Baptism (1 Peter 3:18-22 )
Genesis, Theology of - They also learned of the origin and meaning of the covenant sign of circumcision, a sign that for Israel had the same importance as does Baptism and communion for the church
Lots - From the mass of the followers of Jesus, numbering about one hundred and twenty, those only were declared eligible who had proved their steadfastness by keeping in constant contact with Him from His Baptism
God (2) - There are three other* Brotherhood (2) - To that work He formally dedicated Himself in His Baptism, which also symbolized the means by which the redemption should be effected, namely, His own death (with Matthew 3:15, cf
Cross, Cross-Bearing - This spiritual crucifixion of the old man on the cross is the common experience of all genuine believers (Galatians 5:24, Romans 6:6) who have died to sin and have entered into the new life in Christ as symbolized by Baptism
Paul in Arabia - That solitude, the most complete and not short solitude, was the one thing that Paul determined to secure for himself immediately after his conversion and his Baptism
Independents - The hierarchy established by that princess in the churches of her dominions, the vestments worn by the clergy in the celebration of divine worship, the book of Common Prayer, and, above all, the sign of the cross used in the administration of Baptism, were very offensive to many of her subjects, who, during the persecutions of the former reign, had taken refuge among the Protestants of Germany and Geneva
Disciple (2) - of ‘certain disciples,’ who when they ‘believed’ heard nothing of the gift of the Holy Ghost and were baptized ‘into John’s Baptism,’ we must understand thereby Christian disciples, though in an ‘immature stage of knowledge’ (see Knowling’s note on the passage, Expos
James the Lord's Brother - John and his Baptism was the talk of week-day and Sabbath-day in Nazareth, as in all the land, till at last a company of young carpenters and fishermen went south to Bethabara beyond Jordan where John was baptizing
Ananias And Sapphira - But for the Pentecostal love, and but for Barnabas's Baptism into that love, Ananias and Sapphira would have lived to see their children's children and peace upon Israel
Church - Baptism or immersion in water was performed because Christ had commanded it (Matthew 28:18-20 ) and was itself a dramatic symbolic picturing of the burial and resurrection of Christ (Romans 6:3-4 )
Multitude - For the same reason the chief priests and elders dared not say that John’s Baptism was of men (Matthew 21:26)
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - Patrick and king Laoghaire and his priests is marked by a series of miracles and legends, terminating, however, with the defeat of paganism and the Baptism of great numbers of the Irish, including Laoghaire himself, who yielded a nominal adhesion to the truth
John, Gospel of (Critical) - —The locus classicus in Justin is the passage on Baptism (Apol. John expressly connected this thought with the rite of Baptism
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 468); and this indicates a serious bent, which culminated in his Baptism at Rome while Liberius was pope, i. The Baptism of Rufinus took place now (Ruf
Christ in the Middle Ages - Baptism represents the generation in us of the new Christ-life. Baptism simply transfers the saving efficacy to the individual
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - Chrysostom's life may be conveniently divided into five epochs: (a ) His life as a layman at Antioch till his Baptism and admission as a reader, a. —Baptism restored the balance which Chrysostom tells us had been so seriously disturbed by Basil's higher religious attainments (de Sacerdot
Clementine Literature - terminates with the Baptism of Clement and the ordination of a bishop, after which Peter sets out for Antioch, having spent 3 months at Tripolis. After the Baptism Peter and the three brothers, having bathed in the sea, withdraw to a retired place for prayer
Virgin Birth - The plan of their Gospels was apparently to record events witnessed by others, especially the disciples, beginning with Jesus' Baptism by John the Baptist
Wilderness of the Wanderings - Kibroth Hattaavah ("the graves of lust") follows, the burial of remaining lusts with Christ by spiritual Baptism
Lord - Baptism is performed in His name (Acts 8:16; Acts 10:48)
Paul Apprehended of Christ Jesus - And there was great joy in the presence of the angels of God over the conversion and the Baptism of Saul of Tarsus
Ephesians, Book of - He sought unity in the Spirit—one body, one Spirit, one hope, one Lord, one faith, one Baptism, one God and Father
Birds - ...
All four Gospels describe the Spirit of God descending like a dove upon Jesus after His Baptism (Matthew 3:1 ;Matthew 3:1;16:1 ; Mark 1:10 ; Luke 3:22 ; John 1:32 )
James - manuscripts omit in Matthew 20:22-23 the clause as to the "baptism") of suffering (Acts 12:1-2; James; Revelation 1:9; John), but to sit on His right and left, said He, "is not Mine to give, except to those for whom it is prepared of My Father" (so the Greek)
Reality - Knowing that a Baptism of suffering awaited Him as the result of the work He had undertaken, He was ‘straitened till it should be accomplished’ (Luke 12:50), and with serene inflexibility of purpose He moved on towards the tragic climax, and braved the death which had cast its shadow over Him for many a day
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - The figure of an opening heaven is employed at the revelation given to Ezekiel (1:1), the phenomena surrounding the Lord's Baptism (Mark 1:10 ), Stephen's vision of Christ (Acts 7:56 ), and John's vision of the apocalypse (Revelation 4:1 )
Testimony - In its technical usage, it strictly refers to Jesus' followers who witnessed his entire earthly ministry, from John's Baptism to the ascension
Mark, Theology of - By beginning the story of Jesus with his Baptism, divine empowerment, and temptation by Satan, Mark emphasizes that Jesus is a divine being who is the Son of God
Love - Like so many other words which possessed an antecedent affinity for the biblical world of thought from a formal point of view, it needed the Baptism of regeneration in order to become fit for incorporation into the vocabulary of Scripture
Gestures - It may be thought that this usage of Jesus in His ministry paved the way for His afterwards appointing outward signs in Baptism and the Eucharist, and for the Apostles’ employing them for other Christian rites, such as ordination
Mary, the Virgin - Yet of the Virgin’s life during the interval between our Lord’s twelfth year and His Baptism we know nothing but what is contained in these words and those which immediately precede, as to her Son’s subjection to her and Joseph
Call, Calling - ’ If there is any one point in our Lord’s life where it may be held that the ‘call’ definitely reached Him,—where He became conscious of Messiahship,—we must seek it at His Baptism (Mark 1:9-11; three parallels)
Henoticon, the - " On this account, and knowing also that the strength and shield of the empire rested in the one true faith declared by the holy Fathers gathered at Nicaea, confirmed by those who met at Constantinople and followed by those who had condemned Nestorius at the council of Ephesus, the emperor declares that "the creed so made and confirmed is the one only symbol of faith, and that he has held, holds, and will hold no other, and will regard all who hold another as aliens, and that in this alone those who desire saving Baptism must be baptized
Paul's Great Heaviness And Continual Sorrow of Heart - But He turned and said to the twelve, I have a Baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it be accomplished
Acts - Missionaries lead people to Baptism in Jesus' name and to receive God's Spirit (Acts 19:1-8 )
Barnabas - Barnabas alone believed Saul's wonderful story of his conversion and Baptism
Matthias the Successor to Judas Iscariot - At his conversion and Baptism Matthias had prepared his heart to leave all and to follow Christ
Plan - There is no indication that the two teachers ever met before the Baptism, and John’s, imprisonment must have followed almost immediately afterwards
Simon Magus - " We are further told that he was so impressed by the miracles wrought by Philip that he asked and obtained admission to Christian Baptism; but that he subsequently betrayed the hollowness of his conversion by offering money to Peter to obtain the power of conferring the gift of the Holy Ghost
Seceders - They condemn private Baptism; nor will they admit those who are grossly ignorant and profane to be sponsors for their children
Grace - Paul’s ‘baptism with Christ’ (" translation="">Romans 6:4, " translation="">Colossians 2:12). Paul’s ‘baptism with Christ’ (" translation="">Romans 6:4, " translation="">Colossians 2:12)
Humiliation of Christ - * Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - " "Do not deceive yourself, my lord king," Gregory replied; "you must follow in this matter the teaching of the apostles and doctors of the church, the teaching of Hilary and Eusebius, the confession that you made at Baptism
Heman - It is a terrible Baptism into the matters of God to have a soul from his youth up so full of inconsolable troubles
Lots - From the mass of the followers of Jesus, numbering about one hundred and twenty, those only were declared eligible who had proved their steadfastness by keeping in constant contact with Him from His Baptism
Presence (2) - It must find it in the water of Baptism, in the bread and wine of Communion, in the act of ordination, in the relies of saints, in the tombs of the martyrs, in the heart of monasteries, and in the walls of consecrated cathedrals
Paul - Ananias, a disciple living in Damascus, was informed by a vision of the change that had happened to Saul, and was sent to him to open his eyes and admit him by Baptism into the Christian church (9:11-16)
Colossians, Theology of - This transfer is pictured as a "circumcision" God performs as he buries us in Baptism and raises us to new life through faith (2:11-12)
Matthew, the Gospel According to - Introduction; Christ's genealogy, birth; visit of the wise men; flight to Egypt; return to Nazareth; John the Baptist's preparatory ministry; Christ's Baptism and consecration to His office by the Holy Spirit, with the Father's declared approval (Matthew 1-3)
Number - ‘one Lord, one faith, one Baptism, one God and Father’; and other Like passages
Faith - This task, marked out by OT prophecy, and laid on Him at His birth (Luke 1:68-79 ; Luke 2:38 ) and Baptism ( John 1:29 ), from an early period of His ministry Jesus connected with His death (see 1618453076_84 ; John 3:14 f
Leadership - ...
The substitute for Judas was chosen by lot under the direction of the Holy Spirit and also with the qualification of being an eyewitness from John's Baptism till the ascension (Acts 1:21-22 )
Justification - The answers are that it is gained in Baptism, through which are received not only remission of sins but sanctification and renewal of the inner man (sess
Elect, Election - The Matthaean and Markan versions bear evident traces of assimilation to the voice at Jesus’ Baptism
Influence - the effect of the descent of the Holy Ghost at His Baptism
Merit - the Pauline idea of Baptism into Christ’s death and resurrection as involving a death to sin and new life unto God, Romans 6:1-11)
Self-Control - The unction or illapse at His Baptism was not temporary, but the Spirit permanently abode with Him (John 1:32 f
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - The disciples must bear the cross He bears (Mark 8:34), drink His cup, and be baptized with His Baptism (Mark 10:38), carry His yoke (Matthew 11:29)
Peter, the Epistles of - Characteristic of Peter are the phrases "baptism
Alpha And Omega (2) - 1) maintained that Christ designated Himself Α Ω to set forth His own descent as the Holy Ghost on Jesus at His Baptism, because by Gematria Α Ω (= 800 +1) and περιστερά (= 80+5+100+10+200+300+5+100+1) are equivalent
Acts of the Apostles - Baptism. * Jonathan - The water is the seal of God's covenant in Baptism; and the bread and the wine in the supper
Circumcision - " See ABRAHAM , and See Baptism
Grace - Paul’s ‘baptism with Christ’ (" translation="">Romans 6:4, " translation="">Colossians 2:12)
Necessity - , Matthew 4:17 (the necessity of repentance), Matthew 18:3 (of conversion), Matthew 22:37 (of love), John 3:5 (of Baptism), John 6:53 (of the Holy Supper), John 15:4 (of abiding in Christ), etc
Dead Sea Scrolls - The centrality of the sacred Meal (and Drink) calls to mind the importance of the Lord's Supper in the early church and reference to being sprinkled with purifying water has led some to think of Baptism
Worship - The writer goes on to refer to the confession made at Baptism (v
Ebionism (2) - 33), Jesus was nothing more than a naturally-begotten man—the son of Joseph and Mary—upon whom at His Baptism the Christ came down from the absolute power (αὐθεντία) of God, thus making him the revealer of the Father and the miracle-working Messiah; but from whom this Christ-Spirit departed before the Passion, so that it was only the man Jesus who endured the cross, while the spiritual Christ remained untouched by suffering
Guilt (2) - Baptism, though the symbolism of cleansing is employed, is ‘unto remission’ (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3) rather than to the washing away of sins; remission being not a vital act by which sinners are made just, but a personal favour (Matthew 6:12, cf
Lord's Supper. (i.) - To say that Jesus could not have instituted the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper, because He looked for a speedy realization of the Kingdom, is to deny that He had the complete vision of the destiny of the Servant of the Lord whose function is assumed by the Son of Man, whereas it seems certain that He foretold a spiritual inheritance among the Gentiles in return for His faithful service even unto death (1 Corinthians 5:7-893 ff
Communion (2) - It is present in a special manner in the Baptism which signalized the beginning of His ministry among men (Mark 1:10-11 = Matthew 3:16-17 = Luke 3:21-22)
Dependence - ‘The Baptism, Temptation, and Transfiguration: A Study,’ in Ch
Offerings, the - He was begotten of the power of the Holy Ghost (antitype of the oil), and anointed at His Baptism; His graces and moral glory answer to the frankincense
John the Apostle - Many had been admitted into the Church by Baptism, and the two Apostles completed the reception by prayer and the laying on of hands, ‘that they might receive the Holy Spirit
Judea - This was the wilderness in which John first preached and baptized, and into which our Lord, after his own Baptism, was led by the Spirit to be tempted, Matthew 4; Luke 4
Woman - But the Baptismal context (v. As an initiation rite that included women (unlike Jewish circumcision), Baptism publicly affirmed the equal value of women and men in a way that suggests that the church should continue to seek outward, visible forms for demonstrating this equality
Church - If Baptism be the door of admission into the church, some must judge of the fitness of candidates, and administrators of the rite must be appointed; if the Lord's Supper must be partaken of, the times and the mode are to be determined, the qualifications of communicants judged of, and the administration placed in suitable hands; if worship must be social and public, here again there must be an appointment of times, an order, and an administration; if the word of God is to be read and preached, then readers and preachers are necessary; if the continuance of any one in the fellowship of Christians be conditional upon good conduct, so that the purity and credit of the church may be guarded, then the power of enforcing discipline must be lodged some where
High Priest - The high priest's consecration at the tabernacle door with washing in water, arraying in priestly vestments, anointing with costly oil, and sanctifying with sacrifices, answer to Christ's Baptism with water, anointing with the Holy Spirit, and clothing with His curiously wrought body (Hebrews 10:5; Psalms 139:15)
Redemption (2) - All the Gospels give prominence to the Baptism of Jesus, with its consecration of Himself ‘to fulfil all righteousness’ (in Mt
Galatians Epistle to the - At Baptism the believer ‘puts on Christ’ (Galatians 3:27)
Metaphor - All this is again linked up with Baptism and the eucharist-the only place in the NT where the two great Christian sacraments are mentioned together
Presbyterians - The Presbyterians believe, that the Gospel, to administer the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's supper, and to feed the flock of Christ, is derived from the Holy Ghost by the imposition of the hands of the presbytery; and they oppose the independent scheme of the common rights of Christians by the same arguments which are used for that purpose by the Episcopalians
Passover - So the Passover kept in faith was a kind of sacrament, analogous to the Lord's supper as circumcision was to Baptism
Peter - (See Baptism; LAYING ON HANDS
Jesus Christ - Baptism is an act of worship performed in his name, Matthew 28:19
Absolution - But very early in the history of the Church it became customary for those who, after Baptism, had fallen into gross sins, especially the sins of idolatry, adultery, or murder, to be cut off from fellowship, and to be readmitted after repentance manifested by public confession in the church
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - The subjects of these hymns were the Life of our Lord including His Nativity Baptism Fasting and chief incidents of his ministry His Passion Resurrection and Ascension
Presbyterians - The Presbyterians believe, that the Gospel, to administer the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's supper, and to feed the flock of Christ, is derived from the Holy Ghost by the imposition of the hands of the presbytery; and they oppose the independent scheme of the common rights of Christians by the same arguments which are used for that purpose by the Episcopalians
Mark, Gospel According to - The Second Gospel describes shortly the Baptist’s preaching and the Baptism of our Lord, and then records at length the Galilæan ministry
Education in Bible Times - Later, catechism or oral instruction in Christian doctrine became a necessary prelude to Baptism in early church practice
Romans, Theology of - 1) because participation in Christ's death and resurrection through the Baptism of faith enjoins the believer to walk in newness of life (vv
Law - , required a special revelation before he would enter the house of the uncircumcised Cornelius and admit the first Gentile convert into the Church by Baptism (Acts 10:1-48)-a step which did not fail to arouse opposition on the part of those who ‘were of the circumcision’ (cf
Justification (2) - It is still a receptivity and an obedience; but as that which it receives is different, it appears with new powers, as establishing a mystic union with Christ in His death and resurrection, the outward symbol of which is Baptism (Galatians 2:20, Romans 6:1-6, Colossians 2:11), from which union St
Individualism - Jesus ordained Baptism to receive every human child as equal into His Church, and the Eucharist to be a sacrament of equal brotherhood; and He made the first word in His prayer the recognition of a common Father, which must involve the equality of brethren
Inspiration - At His Baptism, Jesus was formally called to, and equipped for, His ministry; and His equipment consisted in His receiving the fulness of the Holy Spirit
Mark, Gospel According to - It begins the narrative at the point when Peter could give his own recollections—at the preaching of the Baptist and the Baptism of Jesus
Atonement - From the hour of His definite acceptance of His vocation of Messiahship in His Baptism, and at the Temptation, combined as this was with the clear consciousness of a break with the ideals of His nation, Jesus could not but have been aware that His mission would cost Him His life
Childhood - Their interest in Jesus in this respect begins pre-eminently with His Baptism, as the simple exordium of St
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - "Baptism," he writes to a count "does not only wash away the uncleanness derived through Adam's transgression for that much were nothing but conveys a divine regeneration surpassing all words—redemption sanctification adoption etc
Parousia - Peter, the Parousia is regarded as imminent, and Baptism is the only way of escape for those who desire to flee from the coming woes and participate in the ‘times of refreshing
Resurrection - Christian Baptism for him receives its spiritual validity ‘through the resurrection of Jesus Christ,’ which enables us to satisfy ‘the appeal of a good conscience toward God’ ( 1 Peter 3:21 )
Virgin Birth - It apparently formed no part of the early Apostolic teaching and preaching, and was not included in the common form of the Synoptic Gospel-tradition (note that the Second Gospel begins with the Baptism)
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - They were united by Baptism with Christ, not with him ( 1 Corinthians 1:13 )
Sin - Paul describes as dying to sin, being buried with Christ through Baptism into death, a crucifixion or dying with Christ, a resurrection and living with Christ (Romans 6:1-11, Ephesians 2:1-10)
Lord's Day - Between the 11th and the 15th centuries we meet with a wide-spread fiction of a ‘Letter from Heaven’ inculcating Sunday observance, wherein the largest claims are made for the day: how that on it the angels were created, the ark rested on Ararat, the Exodus took place, also the Baptism of Jesus, His great miracles
Gnosticism - All sorts of rites, Baptisms, stigmatizings, sealing, piercing the ears, holy foods and drinks, etc. Some, like Cerinthus, held that the Saviour united Himself with the man Jesus at the Baptism, and left him again before the Death
Luke, Gospel According to - It takes us first to the Jordan valley for our Lord’s Baptism, then to Galilee for His ministry; after that comes a journey to Jerusalem, followed by the Passion
Magi - 2) commemorated originally Christ’s manifestation to the Magi, together with His Baptism, His miracle at Cana (Max
Colossians, Epistle to the - Here we find both the emphasis on Judaism, though the Jewish angels have taken the position later occupied by the Gnostic aeons, and the reduced Christology in which the Christ is supposed to have descended upon the man Jesus at His Baptism
Terah - And Abram's first Baptism of suffering was not so much the leaving of his fatherland; it was much more the death of Terah his father and his fellow-traveller
Calendar, the Christian - 52), confuses Baptism and the Eucharist; but we may probably gather from his account that the Christians of Bithynia met before dawn on a fixed day to celebrate the Eucharist, and later in the day met for the Agape
Death of Christ - He had looked forward to His predestined ‘hour’; and His words, ‘I have a Baptism to be baptized with; and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!’ (Luke 12:50), suggest that, in anticipation of His cross, He may have spent many an hour in painful moral wrestling, in view of His destiny, long before His anticipations began actually to be realized
Beatitude - ’...
‘Blessed be they who keep the Baptism, for they shall rest in Father, Son, and Holy Spirit
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - A lioness protected her, but ultimately, after a series of miraculous rescues, she was forced to jump into a pond full of seals and committed herself to the water with the Baptismal formula. The narrative ends with the Baptism of Longinus and Cestus at the grave of Paul. -Since the discovery of the Coptic Acts, which show that the ‘Acts of Paul and Thekla’ is an extract from the Acts of Paul, there is no justification for doubting that Tertullian refers to the Acts of Paul in de Baptismo, 17:...
‘Quodsi qui Pauli perperam inscripta legunt, exemplum Theclae ad licentiam mulierum docendi tinguendique defendunt, sciant in Asia presbyterum, qui eam scripturam construxit quasi titulo Pauli de suo cumulans, convictum atque confessum se id amore Pauli fecisse loco decessisse
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - About this time, but not later than 389, he and his brother received Baptism at Bordeaux, from Delphinus, the bishop there ( Epp
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - Though there are several references to Baptism, there is not one to the Eucharist
Vicarious Sacrifice - Are ye able to drink the cup which I drink, or be baptized with the Baptism with which I am baptized?’ Then follows in an address to the disciples, who are indignant at James’ and John’s request, the notable words, ‘For the Son of Man also came not to be ministered to, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many
Gospels, Apocryphal - ...
The book is undoubtedly of Gnostic origin, and its chief motive seems to be to show that Jesus was possessed of Divine power before His Baptism
Eucharist - It stands with Baptism as one of the two rites which belong to Christianity
John (the Apostle) - The capital had not shown itself ready for the work He wished to do, so Jesus withdrew into the country of Judaea and summoned the people to the Baptism of repentance, just as the Baptist himself was doing. John was with Him all through this sojourn of over seven months in Judaea, and doubtless assisted in the administering of the Baptismal rite, for Jesus did not Himself baptize (John 4:2)
Joram - , in front of the so-called place of the Baptism at the latitude of Jericho
Mental Characteristics - What could be finer than His appeal to the image and superscription of the tribute-money when plied with the insidious question, ‘Shall we give, or shall we not give?’ (Mark 12:14); or than His rejoinder to the challenge of His own authority, ‘The Baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men? answer me’ (Mark 11:30),—a rejoinder which not only silenced objectors, but went to the root of the question they raised as to the criterion of ‘authority’? His dialectic skill sometimes passed into biting sarcasm, as when He pointed out how the scribes and Pharisees witnessed to themselves that they were the sons of them that slew the prophets, by the way they garnished their tombs (Matthew 23:29-31)
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - ...
After his Baptism he became an edifying example of a good Christian layman. especially discusses the Baptismal formula (Mat_28:19); bk
Jesus Christ - Beginning with the Baptism of Jesus, it gives a sketch of His Public Ministry, with specimens of His teaching, and carries the narrative to the morning of the Resurrection
Authority in Religion - ...
This explains His word at the Baptism, when the Baptist ‘would have hindered him,’ and He said, ‘Suffer it now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness’ (Matthew 3:15)
Divinity of Christ - The main points under consideration are: (1) Did the Messiah idea enter into His ministry at all? (2) If it did, when? From childhood? at Baptism? at some later point in His ministry? and from what causes? (3) How did He conceive of His Messiahship? Was His conception complete at first, or the subject of development? (see art
Forgiveness (2) - When the time came, John the Baptist is declared to have preached the Baptism of repentance ‘unto remission of sins’ (Mark 1:4, Luke 3:3)
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - Eusebius must still have retained the favour of Constantine, as he appears to have administered Baptism to the dying emperor, May 337
Paul - He found there some disciples, who had only been baptized with John's Baptism: he directed that they should be baptized in the name of Jesus, and then he communicated to them the Holy Ghost
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - It was this, we are told (Matthew 3:15), that led Him to undergo the ceremony of Baptism at the hands of John, as it was this also that on more than one occasion made Him quote the great spiritual commandments of the Law as containing within themselves the secret of eternal life
Pharisees (2) - 8), to look past the present legal life to a future world of grace and glory, to make proselytes, to have Baptisms and holy suppers in their brotherhood, to pray, to fast and give alms—these three were ‘the chief pillars of the Jewish religion’ (Bousset, Relig. From the time of His Baptism He looked toward the cross; for He was to give men rest by becoming a ransom for their sin (Matthew 11:28; Matthew 20:28)
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - " Then Polycarp made the memorable answer "Eighty and six years have I served Him and He has never done me wrong; how then can I blaspheme my King and my Saviour! " The 86 years must clearly count from Polycarp's Baptism; so that if we are not to ascribe to him an improbable length of life we must infer that he was the child of Christian parents and had been baptized if not in infancy in very early childhood
Tatianus - Holy Baptism and membership in the church did not enter into his argument
Victorinus Afer - (on Baptism) in Gal
Simon Magus - Simon, it is true, after Baptism, “continued with Philip; and beholding signs and great wonders wrought, he was amazed” (ἐζίστατο)
Incarnation (2) - Illustrative passages: (1) the Baptism, (2) the sermon at Nazareth, (3) the reply to John the Baptist, (4) the estimate of John the Baptist, (5) the threefold call of the disciples, (6) the answer to Peter, (7) later or more explicit announcements
Christ in Jewish Literature - After his death another Christian teacher arose in Rome, who annulled the laws given by Simon Kepha, and gave new ones, instituting Baptism instead of circumcision, and the Sunday in place of the Sabbath
Christ in the Early Church - This error was condemned at Constantinople (381); and it seems that at some later date other clauses were added to the original Nicene Creed, derived apparently from a Jerusalem Baptismal creed, which emphasized the true and perfect humanity of Christ. To Justin Martyr, the Eucharist, the conditions of receiving which are belief, Baptism, and a life according to the commandments of Christ, is not common bread and common drink, but the flesh and blood of the incarnate Jesus, by which our blood and flesh are nourished (1 Apol
Christianity - The Christian must know what is implied in worshipping Christ as Lord, must learn the meaning of the Baptismal formula, and must belong to a specific community, which for the sake of self-preservation must impose conditions of membership and translate abstract principles into definite codes and prescriptions. The Reformers claimed to be returning to original principles—to the New Testament instead of the Church; to justification by faith instead of salvation by Baptism, absolution, and the Mass; and to direct acknowledgment of the Headship of Christ instead of blind submission to the edicts of His vicar upon earth
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - The first had driven the Jews from their synagogues, and the last two had converted a number by offering them the choice of Baptism or exile
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - Not long before his death, in 337, Constantine received Baptism from Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian bishop
Methodists, Protestant - In order to favour this cause, so agreeable to the spirit of Christianity and the rights of Englishmen, several respectable preachers came forward; and by the writings which they circulated through the connection, paved the way for a plan of pacification; by which it was stipulated, that in every society where a threefold majority of class- leaders, stewards, and trustees desired it, the people should have preaching in church hours, and the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's supper administered to them
Clement of Alexandria - §§ 10–16 (the nature of spiritual existences); 39–65 (the relations of wisdom, Jesus, the Christ, the demiurge; the material, the animal, the spiritual); 67–86 (birth, fate, Baptism)
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - ...
The earthly conditions of the invisible and visible church had not yet been discussed as the Donatists compelled them to be, and Novatian's growing error, though in the present application it completely severed him from Cyprian and the church, was not in principle different from that which Cyprian (though without producing a schism) held in relation to Baptism
Eusebius of Caesarea - He laid before the council the creed in use in the Caesarean church, which had been handed down from the bishops who preceded him, which he himself had been taught at his Baptism, and in which, both as a presbyter and bishop, he had instructed others
Lutherans - By our natural birth, therefore, under this idea, we are alienated from God, innocent in our individual persons, but guilty in that of him from whom we derived our existence; a guilt which, although contracted through, the fault of another, yet so closely adheres to us that it effectually precludes our entrance at the gate of everlasting life, until the reception of a new birth in Baptism
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - He and Gallus were admitted to the office of Reader in the church—a proof that he had been baptized, though no mention of his Baptism is recorded
Originality - Among the parallels which the latter finds specially important, may be mentioned Simeon in the Temple, the twelve-year-old Jesus, the Baptism of Jesus, the temptation, the blessing of the mother of Jesus (Luke 11:27), the widow’s mite, the walking on the sea, the Samaritan woman at the well, and the world conflagration
Paul (2) - ’ This is the Divine answer to the faith by which he makes his profession and has it sealed by Baptism
Perfection (of Jesus) - And even after the Baptism, when the call had come, He went first to the wilderness, there in prayer and meditation to understand His work and His own heart
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Whether Theodore had been previously baptized is doubtful; Chrysostom, however, speaks of him shortly afterwards in terms which seem to imply his Baptism (ad Th