What does Babylon mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
בָּבֶ֖ל Babel or Babylon 40
בָּבֶ֔ל Babel or Babylon 38
בָּבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 25
בָּבֶל֙ Babel or Babylon 19
בָּבֶֽלָה Babel or Babylon 16
בָּבֶ֑ל Babel or Babylon 16
בָּבֶ֛ל Babel or Babylon 15
בָּבֶ֜ל Babel or Babylon 9
בָּבֶ֗ל Babel or Babylon 8
בָבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 6
בָבֶ֔ל Babel or Babylon 5
βαβυλὼν a very large and famous city 5
βαβυλῶνος a very large and famous city 4
בָבֶ֑ל Babel or Babylon 4
בָבֶל֙ Babel or Babylon 4
בָּבֶ֤ל Babel or Babylon 4
מִבָּבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 4
בְּבָבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 4
בָּבֶ֑לָה Babel or Babylon 3
לְבָבֶ֑ל Babel or Babylon 3
בָבֶ֖ל Babel or Babylon 3
בָבֶ֗ל Babel or Babylon 3
בָּבֶ֧ל Babel or Babylon 2
מִבָּבֶ֑ל Babel or Babylon 2
בָּבֶ֥ל Babel or Babylon 2
בָבֶ֜ל Babel or Babylon 2
בָּבֶ֥לָה Babel or Babylon 2
בָּבֶ֕ל Babel or Babylon 2
בָּבֶל֮ Babel or Babylon 2
לְבָבֶ֜ל Babel or Babylon 2
מִבָּבֶ֔ל Babel or Babylon 2
מִבָּבֶ֖ל Babel or Babylon 2
בָּבֶ֣ל ׀ Babel or Babylon 2
בָבֶ֗לָה Babel or Babylon 2
! בָבֶל֙ Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֤ל ׀ Babel or Babylon 1
[ידרך] to tread 1
לְבָבֶ֤ל ׀ Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֣ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶל֒ Babel or Babylon 1
בְּבָבֶל֒ Babel or Babylon 1
בָבֶ֨ל ׀ Babel or Babylon 1
בְּבָבֶ֗ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָבְלָיֵא֙ Babylonian. 1
לְבָבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֔לָה Babel or Babylon 1
וּבָבֶ֗ל Babel or Babylon 1
לְבָבֶ֥ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֖לָה Babel or Babylon 1
וּבָבֶ֥ל Babel or Babylon 1
בְּבָבֶ֔ל Babel or Babylon 1
βαβυλων a very large and famous city 1
βαβυλῶνι a very large and famous city 1
לְבָבֶ֖ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָבֶ֔לָה Babel or Babylon 1
מִבָּבֶ֡ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָבֶ֙לָה֙ Babel or Babylon 1
בָבֶ֣ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּ֠בֶל Babel or Babylon 1
מִבָּבֶל֮ Babel or Babylon 1
וּבָבֶ֞ל Babel or Babylon 1
וּבָבֶ֣ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֡ל Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶל֩ Babel or Babylon 1
؟ בָּבֶֽל Babel or Babylon 1
מִבָּבֶ֖לָה Babel or Babylon 1
בָּבֶ֗לָה Babel or Babylon 1
לְבָבֶ֛ל Babel or Babylon 1
בְּבָבֶ֖ל Babel or Babylon 1
מֶ֨לֶךְ king. 1

Definitions Related to Babylon

H894


   1 Babel or Babylon, the ancient site and/or capital of Babylonia (modern Hillah) situated on the Euphrates.
   Additional Information: Babel or Babylon = “confusion (by mixing)”.
   

H895


   1 Babel or Babylon, the ancient site and/or capital of Babylonia (modern Hillah) situated on the Euphrates.
   Additional Information: Babel or Babylon = “confusion (by mixing)”.
   

G897


   1 a very large and famous city, the residence of the Babylonian kings, situated on both banks of the Euphrates.
   Cyrus had formerly captured it, but Darius Hystaspis threw down its gates and walls, and Xerxes destroyed the temple of Belis.
   At length the city was reduced to almost solitude, the population having been drawn off by the neighbouring Seleucia, built on the Tigris by Seleucus Nicanor.
   2 of the territory of Babylonia.
   3 allegorically, of Rome as the most corrupt seat of idolatry and the enemy of Christianity.
   Additional Information: Babylon = “confusion”.
   

H4428


   1 king.
   

H1869


   1 to tread, bend, lead, march.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to tread, march, march forth.
         1a2 to tread on, tread upon.
         1a3 to tread (a press).
         1a4 to tread (bend) a bow.
         1a5 archer, bow-benders (participle).
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to tread, tread down.
         1b2 to tread (bend with the foot) a bow.
         1b3 to cause to go, lead, march, tread.
         

H896


   1 Babylonian.
   Additional Information: Babylonian = “confusion (by mixing)”.
   

Frequency of Babylon (original languages)

Frequency of Babylon (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Babylon
After passing through various vicissitudes the city was occupied by Cyrus, "king of Elam," B.C. 538, who issued a decree permitting the Jews to return to their own land (Ezra 1 ). It then ceased to be the capital of an empire. It was again and again visited by hostile armies, till its inhabitants were all driven from their homes, and the city became a complete desolation, its very site being forgotten from among men.
On the west bank of the Euphrates, about 50 miles south of Bagdad, there is found a series of artificial mounds of vast extent. These are the ruins of this once famous proud city. These ruins are principally (1) the great mound called Babil by the Arabs. This was probably the noted Temple of Belus, which was a pyramid about 480 feet high. (2) The Kasr (i.e., "the palace"). This was the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. It is almost a square, each side of which is about 700 feet long. The little town of Hillah, near the site of Babylon, is built almost wholly of bricks taken from this single mound. (3) A lofty mound, on the summit of which stands a modern tomb called Amran ibn-Ali. This is probably the most ancient portion of the remains of the city, and represents the ruins of the famous hanging-gardens, or perhaps of some royal palace. The utter desolation of the city once called "The glory of kingdoms" (Isa.13:19) was foretold by the prophets (Isa.13:4-22; Jeremiah 25:12 ; 50:2,3 ; Daniel 2:31-38 ).
The Babylon mentioned in 1 Peter 5:13 was not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews at the time Peter wrote.
In Revelation 14:8 ; 16:19 ; 17:5 ; and 18:2, "Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. Rome, pagan and papal, is regarded as one power. "The literal Babylon was the beginner and supporter of tyranny and idolatry...This city and its whole empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it was her method to adopt the worship of the false deities she had conquered; so that by her own act she became the heiress and successor of all the Babylonian idolatry, and of all that was introduced into it by the immediate successors of Babylon, and consequently of all the idolatry of the earth." Rome, or "mystical Babylon," is "that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth" (17:18).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Rivers of Babylon
(Psalm 137:1 ), i.e., of the whole country of Babylonia, e.g., the Tigris, Euphrates, Chalonas, the Ulai, and the numerous canals.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Babylon, Mystical
(Revelation 16:19; Revelation 16:17; Revelation 16:18; Revelation 19:2-3). Not 1 Peter 5:13, where "Babylon" can only mean the literal Babylon: "the (church) at Babylon .... saluteth you." A friendly salutation is hardly the place wherein to find mystical phraseology. The whole epistle, moreover, is remarkably plain, and contains none of the imagery of prophecy. Moreover the literal Babylon was the center from which the Asiatic "dispersion" (dispersed Jews), whom Peter addresses, was derived. Babylon contained many Jews in the apostolic age ("one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world:" Lightfoot, quoted in Smith's Dictionary), and doubtless "the apostle of the circumcision," Peter, who had among his hearers on Pentecost (Acts 2) "the dwellers of Mesopotamia," would visit the Jews there. "Bosor," which Peter uses for Pethor (Numbers 22:5; 1 Peter 5:15), is the Aramaic pronunciation moreover; Josephus contra Apion, 1:7, Ant. 15:3, section 1, also favors the Aramaic Babylon.
The "woman arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication, and upon her forehead having a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH" (Revelation 17:4-5), is avowedly mystical. The later Jews regarded Rome in the same light as their fathers regarded Babylon (Jeremiah 51:7, compare Revelation 14:8.) John had seen the woman "clothed with the sun, and the moon (the earth's satellite) under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars "; i.e. God's pure church of the Old Testament and of the New Testament clothed with the Sun of righteousness, and having the twelve patriarchs and the twelve apostles as her coronet (Revelation 12).
Then she was "persecuted" by" the dragon, Satan," but nourished by divine Providence for "three and a half times" "in the wilderness" of the Gentile world. But now he prophetically sees her sadly and awfully changed. So he "wondered great admiration." The spiritual Jerusalem has become mystical Babylon; the church has become the harlot! The same truth under the same imagery appears in Isaiah 1:21, "How is the faithful city become an harlot!" That the world should be beastly (Daniel 7) is natural, but that she whose calling was to be the faithful bride should become the Babylonian whore is monstrous (Jeremiah 2:12-13; Jeremiah 2:20). Not that the elect apostatize; but Christendom, as a whole, and as the visible "woman," has apostatized from its first faith and love. The elect invisible church, the true "woman" and "bride," remains hidden in the visible that has become the harlot, and shall only be manifested when Christ our Life is manifested (Colossians 3:1).
External prevalence over the world, and internal corruption by the world, (the spirit of the world ruling the church) is symbolized by the world-city's name Babylon; the contrast to "Jerusalem above, the mother of all" believers (Galatians 4:26), the "holy Jerusalem, that great city," which shall hereafter on the "new earth" "descend out of heaven from God, having the glory of God" (Revelation 21:10). The Roman Catholic Church is the prominent type of Babylon, resting on the world power, and arrayed like it in its "scarlet" gauds, and ruling it by its claim of supremacy, while the beast or secular power on which it rests is "full of names of blasphemy," which after the harlot's overthrow shall be more glaringly displayed. It and the Greek apostasy are whorish in principle, by external and internal idolatry and systematized worldliness.
The evangelical Protestant church is pure in theory, and eschews image and host-mass worship; but in so far as it yields to "covetousness which is idolatry," and conforms to the world, it partakes of the harlot and ceases to be the bride. Compare Achan's "Babylonian garment," Joshua 7:21; Hebrew: "a robe of Shinar." While the Syrians were noted for dyeing, and the Phrygians for patchwork, the Babylonians inwove their garments (Tertullian De Habitu Mul., i.), i.e. tapestry work with colored figures inwoven or wrought with the needle: Pliny H.N., 8:48. Septuagint has psilee poikilee , "a smooth, pictured coat." Such garments passed through Jericho in the trade between the Phoenicians and Babylon (Ezekiel 27:24.) In the case of both the Catholic churches and the Protestant churches God's retributive law holds good.
When the church forsakes her true Husband for the love of the world (contrast Psalms 45:10-11), the world, the instrument of her sin, becomes the instrument of her punishment. Already this is taking place in Spain, Italy, Austria, and France (Revelation 17:16). Our turn shall come next; as in the case of Israel first, then Judah (Ezekiel 23), then the restored Jews at the destruction of Jerusalem by Rome, for whom Jerusalem gave up the true "King of the Jews" (John 11:48; John 11:50; John 19:15). Then "iniquity" shall be no longer as now in "mystery," but openly developed in the last awful Antichrist who shall combine the world against Christ in a system of superstitious credulity and infidelity together (2 Thessalonians 2; Revelation 16:13-16; Revelation 17:17; Revelation 19:19). The final judgment on Babylon the whore (Revelation 17), after the elect shall have been translated out of it and transfigured, seems to be just before the judgment on Antichrist.
Babylon, the spiritual whore, is succeeded "the false prophet," who ministers to Antichrist and perishes with him (Revelation 19:20). Rome's forced outward unity, of which its one official language, Latin, is the symbol while inwardly there is spiritual confusion, answers to Babel, the scene of the forced attempt at concentration of power and peoples, issuing in utter confusion of tongues; so too, in a wider sense; does all Christendom in its apostasy from apostolic unworldly purity, faith, and love.
The harlot retains human shape as woman, does not become a beast; i.e., has "the form of godliness while denying the power." (Manliness is godliness, because man was made in the image of God.) The worldliness of the church is therefore the most worldly of all worldliness, and shall be terribly judged by God. But the whore or Babylon is not to be confounded with the beast. She, however degraded, has borne the divine image; the beast never has. She must fall before the beast develops all his hostility to God.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Babylon
(See BABEL.)
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Babylon, Kingdom of
Called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jeremiah 24:5 ; Ezek 12:13 ), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezekiel 17:4 ; Isaiah 43:14 ). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech (Genesis 10:10 ) (now Warka), between Ur and Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Genesis 14:1 , a little to the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon; Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24 ), "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba), considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles distant from it. Another city was Kulunu, or Calneh (Genesis 10:10 ). The salt-marshes at the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris were called Marratu, "the bitter" or "salt", the Merathaim of Jeremiah 50:21 . They were the original home of the Kalda, or Chaldeans.
The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B.C.3800) and his son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia, establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to the Sinaitic peninsula. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. This was put an end to by Khammu-rabi (Amraphel), who drove the Elamites out of the country, and overcame Arioch, the son of an Elamite prince. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. About B.C. 1750 it was conquered by the Kassi, or Kosseans, from the mountains of Elam, and a Kassite dynasty ruled over it for 576 years and 9 months.
In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites." In the epoch of the Kassite dynasty, however, Canaan passed into the hands of Egypt.
In B.C. 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III.; but on the death of Shalmaneser IV. it was seized by the Kalda or "Chaldean" prince Merodach-baladan (2 Kings 20:12-19 ), who held it till B.C. 709, when he was driven out by Sargon.
Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B.C. 689. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2 Chronicles 33:11 ). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty.
When Nineveh was destroyed, B.C. 606, Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. His son Nebuchadrezzar (Nabu-kudur-uzur), after defeating the Egyptians at Carchemish, succeeded him as king, B.C. 604, and founded the Babylonian empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and other buildings. His son, Evil-merodach, who succeeded him in B.C. 561, was murdered after a reign of two years. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B.C. 555-538, whose eldest son, Belshazzar (Bilu-sar-uzur), is mentioned in several inscriptions. Babylon was captured by Cyrus, B.C. 538, and though it revolted more than once in later years, it never succeeded in maintaining its independence.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Babylon
Capital of the Neo-Babylon Empire of the mid-first millennium b.c. Babylon has both a historic role and a theological role in the Bible. Certain themes become associated with it. In the Book of Revelation, these themes culminate in the image of the whore of Babylon. As a result of this biblical imagery, Babylon has transcended its historical significance to become synonymous with sin and pride in Western art and literature.
Babylon first appears in the Bible under the guise of the tower of Babel (Genesis 11 ). The Hebrew word for "confused" in verse 9 is babal , which sounds like babel [1] (Babylon). The great evil of the tower builders is their sinful pride against the rule of God. This theme will reappear in the prophetic writings against the city.
During the reign of Hezekiah, envoys from Babylon came to Jerusalem (2 Kings 20:12-19 ). The prophet Isaiah chastised the king for showing off the treasures of Judah and predicted that Babylon would some day carry these riches off. This was a startling revelation, for Assyria was the great power of the day and seemingly unassailable. The visit was probably an attempt by Babylon to foment problems for Assyria in the west, thereby diverting attention from Babylon. The postexilic reader would have seen the roots of the destruction of Jerusalem in the foolish pride of Hezekiah and in the greed of Babylon.
The prophets describe Babylon as a city of pride and idolatry. Yet the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon presents the prophets with a dilemma. If God is sovereign and makes use of Babylon to punish Judah, can Babylon—as a tool in the hand of its Masterbe blamed for its behavior? Isaiah addresses this problem by portraying Babylon as a woman, the queen of kingdoms (47:5), who should be tender and delicate but is not. God gave his people over into her power, but rather than caring for them she has shown them no mercy. This is a result of her overweening pride, evidenced in her statement that "I am, and there is none besides me" (v. 8). Although the conquest of Jerusalem is in keeping with the will of God, the brutality and greed of the conquerorsthe fruit of Babylon's idolatry and failure to recognize the kingship of Godare not. Because of Babylon's pride, she will be destroyed. Psalm 137 personifies Babylon as a woman who is doomed to destruction and whose infant children will be savagely killed.
Jeremiah sees the future destruction of Babylon as a punishment because the Babylonians rejoiced at the destruction of Judah and ruthlessly plundered the people of God (50:11). Babylon herself will become a "heap of ruins" (51:37). Daniel reinforces the picture of Babylon as full of pride and defiance toward God. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, is punished with madness because he denied God's control over "Babylon the Great" (4:30).
Centuries after the destruction of the Neo-Babylonian state by Cyrus of Persia, Babylon reappears in a dramatic role in the Book of Revelationa role marked by numerous references to Old Testament imagery. Pride, idolatry, cruelty, and greed are associated with the city.
The dominant image of Babylon in Revelation is the city's personification of a rich woman, the "mother of prostitutes" (17:5). Babylon is a great city that rules over the earth.
Babylon, the historic oppressor of God's people, represents the new oppressor of Christ's church. Like the Mesopotamian city, the "great city" (Rome) will be judged and will become a desolate wilderness. The metaphor extends beyond the physical Rome to the entire world, "intoxicated with the wine of her adulteries" (17:2). The people of God, however, will be delivered from the grasp of the prophetic Babylon just as Ezekiel foretold for the exiles held captive in the historic Babylon.
Thomas W. Davis
Bibliography . J. M. Ford, Revelation ; R. E. Clemens, Jeremiah ; G. E. Wright, The Book of Jonah .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Babylon
(bab ih' luhn), a capital city in ancient Mesopotamia (mostly modern Iraq), is mentioned some 200 times in the Bible, nearly all in the Old Testament and referring to the city of the Neo-Babylonian Period (625-539 BC). It was then the largest and most beautiful city in the Middle East, considered by classical tradition with its renowned Hanging Gardens and massive walls to have been one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Jeremiah the prophet, while anticipating its downfall, named Babylon “a golden cup in the Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken” (Jeremiah 51:7 ). The Greek historian Herodotus (484-425 BC), commonly thought to have visited the site near 460 B.C., reported that its splendor surpassed any city of the known world.
Origin Information about Babylon's origin has been lost in antiquity, but it did not rank among the leading Mesopotamian cities before 3000 B.C., such as Erech, Kish, Nippur, Ur, Sippar, or Akkad. Among such great cities it alone bore a Semitic name. Such names first appeared near 2200 B.C. It became a provincial and cult center, later to become the grand capital of the eighteenth century B.C. King Hammurabi. Thereafter, it remained a great center of culture and religion. It was sacked in 689 B.C. by the Assyrian King Sennacherib, who destroyed much of it. Later, Babylonian kings aligned themselves with the Medes to conquer Assyria in 612 B.C., and then the Neo-Babylonian rulers dedicated themselves to reconstructing Babylon's ancient temples and walls. Its main significance lies in these times. Due largely to Sennacherib's deliberate destruction of the city, very little of pre-Sargonid Babylon (before 721 B.C.) remained. Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, and Nabopolassar undertook a rebuilding, but Nebuchadrezzar II (605-562 B.C.) brought Babylon to her glory, making it “the Palace of Heaven and Earth, the Seat of Kingship.” His work appears everywhere, so with justification the author of Daniel 4:30 could attribute to this king, “Is not this great Babylon, that I have built by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?” Cyrus the Persian took Babylon in 539 B.C. and permanently ended her dominance in Near Eastern affairs, but later in the time of Alexander the Great (c. 330 B.C.) some great structures of old Babylon were still wonders.
Location Traditionally, a mound called Babil, near the Euphrates River and some six miles northeast of Hillah (southwest of Iraq's capital city Baghdad), has been identified as the location of ancient Babylon. However, the city's location proved to be represented by a number of mounds downstream on the Euphrates 1 1/2-2 1/2 miles south of Babil, the main ones being Qasr, Amran ibn Ali, Merkes, and Homera.
Archaeology Regrettably, the ruins of Babylon have long served as a quarry for building materials. Before 1811, the few antiquities coming from Babylon were mostly surface finds recovered casually or by random digging by the natives. The first planned and organized excavation came in 1811 with C. J. Rich making a careful survey and hiring ten men to aid him in exploration at Babil and Qasr. A second visit followed in 1817.
Babylon was one of a number of Mesopotamian sites excavated seriously from 1842 onwards. A.H. Layard was prevented by national disturbances from opening more than a few trial trenches in 1850 at Babil, Qasr, and Amran ibn Ali. Between 1852-1854 the Frenchmen F. Fresnel and J. Oppert achieved very little. For 45 years nothing of real value was undertaken. The major excavations of ancient Babylon began in 1899 led by the German architect Robert Koldewey and lasted year-round until 1917 when British occupation caused cessation of his projected labors far from their completion.
Ancient Babylon was divided in two by the Euphrates river. The eastern section with the “Summer Palace” to the north was enclosed by a triangular defensive system of walls running over eight miles from the Euphrates about one and one half miles north of the city southeast to turn southwest to rejoin the river about 750 feet south of the city. Nebuchadnezzar first built this awesome defense network.
In reality this outer wall system involved three walls. The innermost, about 22 feet thick, was made of sun-dried mud-brick. Beyond this by 39 feet was a second slightly thicker wall of baked bricks. Outside this wall was another some 10 feet thick of baked bricks forming the scarp of a moat perhaps as wide as 330 feet. Evidence of projecting towers was found at regular intervals along the inner wall, but no such indication remains for the outer one although there probably were towers there as well. The space between the walls was filled with rubble, perhaps for a base for a protected roadway wide enough to allow Herodotus' “four-horse chariot to turn around.”
Just inside the outer wall system at the north and along the Euphrates was the mound Babil, some 1 1/2-2 1/2 miles north of the other mounds. It covered Nebuchadrezzar's “Summer Palace,” and perhaps the Bit Akitu, the Temple of the New York Festival.
Sprawling ancient Babylon covered an area of nearly 1000 acres, making it the largest ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, some fifteen percent larger than Nineveh. According to records, it contained 1,179 temples of varying sizes. Its normal population was near 100,000, but the walls could have sheltered at least 250,000 persons. The area east of the river comprised the city's older section where most excavations were carried out and where most of the principal buildings were located. The smaller western area constituted Babylon's “new” city about which little is known.
Greater Babylon, excluding its western suburb, was a triangular fortified island with one-third of its area being an inner, elaborately defended fortress which contained the royal palace, the ziggurat, the temple of Marduk, and a vast residential area.
Processional Way Access to the city was provided by ramps bridging the moat and by eight gates named after gods in the inner walls. The streets of the magnificent city layout were roughly parallel to the river, meeting others at right angles and terminating in great bronze gates. Ancient Babylon's most famous street was the Processional Way, Aibur-shabu (“the enemy shall never pass”) along which the images of the gods were transported from the Euphrates into Babylon during the New Year Festival. Perhaps Isaiah 46:1 satirizes such a procession involving the god Marduk and his son Nabu. From the Euphrates along this street the distance was about 2000 feet to the northern side of the rectangular wall system.
The magnificent and 63-foot wide Aibur-shabu gently sloped upwards as it led southward toward the city walls. The east 225 feet of the roadway outside the city walls lay between two thick walls hardly less impressive than the gate itself. The eastern wall was that of the Northern Fortress (sometimes called the Museum because of finds there) and the eastern that of the eastern outer bastion. Each of these walls was lined with 60 lions, symbols of Ishtar, molded of bricks of blue ceramic and having red or yellow manes.
The Processional Way passed through the most famous of the city gates, the Ishtar Gate. Its original height was some 70 feet and had an arched opening 15 feet wide. On the earlier gate are still visible alternate rows of some 150 bulls and dragons, symbols of Adad and Marduk, in plain molded bricks. The latest gate was colorfully decorated with similar animals, now of bricks glazed a vivid blue with the animals alternately yellow and white. Inside the gate the Processional Way, sloping downward, extends some 4000 feet southward to turn west between the ziggurat enclosure and the Marduk temple toward the Euphrates bridge built by either Nabopolassar or his son Nebuchadnezzar.
Babylon's principal palace was on the right upon passing through the Ishtar Gate, lying between a canal at its south and the city walls at its north. Its dimensions were expansive, 1020 feet east to west and 660 feet north to south. In it was the king's throne room, perhaps the scene of Belshazzar's feast and the death of Alexander the Great. On the west Nebuchadnezzar built a huge fortified citadel which was 85 feet thick, apparently to keep out dampness from the adjacent river. In this palace the excavators found an underground “crypt” consisting of a series of 14 vaulted rooms surrounded by a mysteriously thick wall, the vaults clearly constructed as supports for an enormous weight. Nearby was a unique water system with three shafts tied together in a manner suggesting a hydraulic lifting system with an endless chain of buckets drawn up in continuous rotation. These may be the remains of the famous Hanging Gardens. Here the four clay tablets were found listing the rations of grain and oil for King Jehoiachin of Judah and his sons. Across the road from this Southern Palace was the temple of the mother-goddess Ninmakh.
Babylon's most significant temple was Esagila (“The Temple that raises it head”), the home of the city god Marduk. Located about five-eights of a mile south of the royal palaces, its paved floor had inscriptions stating that it had been laid by the Assyrian Kings Ashurbanipal and Esarhaddon. Esagila was surrounded by an enclosure of about 1410 by 720 feet which, according to cuneiform documents, housed more than 50 other temples and shrines, many of which have been excavated. Jeremiah's comment on Babylon is remembered: “It is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their idols (Jeremiah 50:38 ). Over 6,000 figures were uncovered, and ten street altars were found from the period from Esarhaddon to Nabonidus (681-539 B.C.) In addition to the temples there were “300 daises of the Igigi gods and 1200 daises of the Anunanki gods,” as well as “180 open-air shrines for Ishtar” and 200 places for other deities.
Adjacent to Esagila was the great staged tower or ziggurat named Etemenanki, “the foundation house of heaven and earth.” It was of considerable age, but first mention of it is in the 7th century B.C. It has been plundered for building materials in more recent times, but it was partially dismantled near the end of the fourth century B.C. by Alexander the Great to prepare for a proposed building. It measured about 298 feet square at the base and rose in seven stages to at least a height of 200 feet. The inner core of unbaked bricks was enclosed in a shell of baked bricks 49 feet thick. This was apparently the model for the “Tower of Babel.” On its southern side a triple flight of steps led to the second story, the rest of the tower being ascended by means of ramps. On the top was a shrine called sahuru in which rested a bed on which a god was thought to lie at times with a native woman.
Karen Joines
Holman Bible Dictionary - Babylon, History And Religion of
Babylon was a city-state in southern Mesopotamia during Old Testament times, which eventually became a large empire that absorbed the nation of Judah and destroyed Jerusalem.
History The city of Babylon was founded in unknown antiquity on the river Euphrates, about 50 miles south of modern Baghdad. The English names Babylon and Babel (Genesis 10:10 ; Genesis 11:9 ) are translated from the same Hebrew word (babel ). See Babel . Babylon may have been an important cultural center during the period of the early Sumerian city-states (before 2000 B.C.), but the corresponding archaeological levels of the site are below the present water table and remain unexplored.
Babylon emerged from anonymity shortly after 2000 B.C., a period roughly contemporary with the Hebrew patriarchs. At that time, an independent kingdom was established in the city under a dynasty of Semitic westerners, or Amorites. Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.), the sixth king of this First Dynasty of Babylon, built a sizable empire through treaties, vassalage, and conquest. From his time forward, Babylon was considered the political seat of southern Mesopotamia, the region called Babylonia.
The political and socio-economic history of Babylonia in Hammurabi's time is well known thanks to extensive collections of cuneiform tablets discovered at various cities in Mesopotamia, especially at Mari. The famous stele containing the Law Code of Hammurabi was inscribed about 1765 B.C. in Babylonia. It was found, however, in Susa, where it had been taken as booty by the Elamites about 1160 B.C. This standing stone, now in the Louvre, preserves some 282 laws governing various aspects of life and regulating justice to three recognized levels of society. Similarities between the Law Code and biblical Mosaic laws are a result of the common Semitic culture. Wide divergences between the two are indicative of a different religious outlook.
The Amorite dynasty of Babylon reached its apex under Hammurabi. Subsequent rulers, however, saw their realm diminished, and in 1595 B.C. the Hittites sacked Babylon. After their withdrawal, members of the Kassite tribe seized the throne. The Kassite Dynasty ruled for over four centuries, a period of relative peace but also stagnation. Little is known up to about 1350 B.C., when Babylonian kings corresponded with Egypt and struggled with the growing power of Assyria to the north. After a brief resurgence, the Kassite dynasty was ended by the Elamite invasion in 1160 B.C.
When the Elamites withdrew to their Iranian homeland, princes native to the Babylonian city of Isin founded the Fourth Dynasty of Babylon. After a brief period of glory in which Nebuchadnezzar I (about 1124-1103 B.C.) invaded Elam, Babylon entered a dark age for most of the next two centuries. Floods, famine, widespread settlement of nomadic Aramean tribes, and the arrival of Chaldeans in the south plagued Babylon during this time of confusion.
During the period of the Assyrian Empire, Babylon was dominated by this warlike neighbor to the north. A dynastic dispute in Babylon in 851 B.C. brought the intervention of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. Babylon kings remained independent, but nominally subject to Assyrian “protection.”
A series of coups in Babylon prompted the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser III to enter Babylon in 728 B.C. and proclaim himself king under the throne name Pulu (Pul of 2 Kings 15:19 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). He died the next year. By 721 B.C., the Chaldean Marduk-apal-iddina, Merodach-baladan of the Old Testament, ruled Babylon. With Elamite support he resisted the advances of the Assyrian Sargon II in 720 B.C. Babylon gained momentary independence, but in 710 B.C. Sargon attacked again. Merodach-baladan was forced to flee to Elam. Sargon, like Tiglath-pileser before him, took the throne of Babylon. As soon as Sargon died in 705 B.C., Babylon and other nations, including Judah under King Hezekiah, rebelled from Assyrian domination. Merodach-baladan had returned from Elam to Babylon. It is probably in this context that he sent emissaries to Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:12-19 ; Isaiah 39:1 ). In 703 B.C., the new Assyrian king, Sennacherib, attacked Babylon. He defeated Merodach-baladan, who again fled. He ultimately died in exile. After considerable intrigue in Babylon, another Elamite-sponsored revolt broke out against Assyria. In 689 B.C., Sennacherib destroyed the sacred city of Babylon in retaliation. His murder, by his own sons (2 Kings 19:37 ) in 681 B.C., was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for this unthinkable act.
Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon to win the allegiance of the populace. At his death, the crown prince Ashurbanipal ruled over Assyria, while another son ascended the throne of Babylon. All was well until 651 B.C. when the Babylonian king rebelled against his brother. Ashurbanipal finally prevailed and was crowned king of a resentful Babylon.
Assyrian domination died with Ashurbanipal in 627 B.C. In 626 B.C., Babylon fell into the hands of a Chaldean chief, Nabopolassar, first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh. The remnants of the Assyrian army rallied at Haran in north Syria, which was abandoned at the approach of the Babylonians in 610 B.C. Egypt, however, challenged Babylon for the right to inherit Assyria's empire. Pharaoh Necho II, with the last of the Assyrians (2 Kings 23:29-30 ), failed in 609 to retake Haran. In 605 B.C., Babylonian forces under the crown prince Nebuchadnezzar routed the Egyptians at the decisive Battle of Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ). The Babylonian advance, however, was delayed by Nabopolassar's death which obliged Nebuchadnezzar to return to Babylon and assume power.
In 604,603 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562 B.C.), king of Babylon, campaigned along the Palestinian coast. At this time Jehoiakim, king of Judah, became an unwilling vassal of Babylon. A Babylonian defeat at the border of Egypt in 601 probably encouraged Jehoiakim to rebel. For two years Judah was harassed by Babylonian vassals (2 Kings 24:1-2 ). Then, in December of 598 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar marched on Jerusalem. Jehoiakim died that same month, and his son Jehoiachin surrendered the city to the Babylonians on March 16,597 B.C. Many Judeans, including the royal family, were deported to Babylon (2 Kings 24:6-12 ). Ultimately released from prison, Jehoiachin was treated as a king in exile (2 Kings 25:27-30 ; Jeremiah 52:31-34 ). Texts excavated in Babylon show that rations were allotted to him and five sons.
Nebuchadnezzar appointed Zedekiah over Judah. Against the protests of Jeremiah, but with promises of Egyptian aid, Zedekiah revolted against Babylon in 589 B.C. In the resultant Babylonian campaign, Judah was ravaged and Jerusalem besieged. An abortive campaign by the Pharaoh Hophra gave Jerusalem a short respite, but the attack was renewed (Jeremiah 37:4-10 ). The city fell in August of 587 B.C. Zedekiah was captured, Jerusalem burned, and the Temple destroyed (Jeremiah 52:12-14 ). Many more Judeans were taken to their Exile in Babylonia (2 Kings 25:1-21 ; Jeremiah 52:1-30 ).
Apart from his military conquests, Nebuchadnezzar is noteworthy for a massive rebuilding program in Babylon itself. The city spanned the Euphrates and was surrounded by an eleven-mile long outer wall which enclosed suburbs and Nebuchadnezzar's summer palace. The inner wall was wide enough to accommodate two chariots abreast. It could be entered through eight gates, the most famous of which was the northern Ishtar Gate, used in the annual New Year Festival and decorated with reliefs of dragons and bulls in enameled brick. The road to this gate was bordered by high walls decorated by lions in glazed brick behind which were defensive citadels. Inside the gate was the main palace built by Nebuchadnezzar with its huge throne room. A cellar with shafts in part of the palace may have served as the substructure to the famous “Hanging Gardens of Babylon,” described by classical authors as one of the wonders of the ancient world. Babylon contained many temples, the most important of which was Esagila, the temple of the city's patron god, Marduk. Rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar, the temple was lavishly decorated with gold. Just north of Esagila lay the huge stepped tower of Babylon, a ziggurat called Etemenanki and its sacred enclosure. Its seven stories perhaps towered some 300 feet above the city. No doubt Babylon greatly impressed the Jews taken there in captivity and provided them with substantial economic opportunities.
Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king of the Neo-Babylonian Period and the last truly great ruler of Babylon. His successors were insignificant by comparison. He was followed by his son Awel-marduk (561-560 B.C.), the Evil-Merodach of the Old Testament (2 Kings 25:27-30 ), Neriglissar (560-558 B.C.), and Labashi-Marduk (557 B.C.), murdered as a mere child. The last king of Babylon, Nabonidus (556-539 B.C.) was an enigmatic figure who seems to have favored the moon god, Sin, over the national god, Marduk. He moved his residence to Tema in the Syro-Arabian Desert for ten years, leaving his son Belshazzar (Daniel 5:1 ) as regent in Babylon. Nabonidus returned to a divided capital amid a threat from the united Medes and Persians. In 539 B.C., the Persian Cyrus II (the Great) entered Babylon without a fight. Thus ended Babylon's dominant role in Near Eastern politics.
Babylon remained an important economic center and provincial capital during the period of Persian rule. The Greek historian Herodotus, who visited the city in 460 B.C., could still remark that “it surpasses in splendor any city of the known world.” Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian Empire, embarked on a program of rebuilding in Babylon which was interrupted by his death in 323 B.C. After Alexander the city declined economically, but remained an important religious center until New Testament times. The site was deserted by A.D. 200.
In Judeo-Christian thought, Babylon the metropolis, like the Tower of Babel, became symbolic of man's decadence and God's judgment. “Babylon” in Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:5 ; Revelation 18:2 and probably in 1 Peter 5:13 refers to Rome, the city which personified this idea for early Christians.
Religion. Babylonian religion is the best known variant of a complex and highly polytheistic system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia. Of the thousands of recognized gods, only about twenty were important in actual practice. The most important are reviewed here.
Anu, Enlil, and Ea, were patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities and were each given a share of the Universe as their dominion. Anu, god of the heavens and patron god of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ) did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur was god of the earth. The god of Eridu, Ea, was lord of the subterranean waters and the god of craftsmen.
After the political rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. The son of Ea and patron god of Babylon, Marduk began to attain the position of prominence in Babylonian religion in the time of Hammurabi. In subsequent periods, Marduk (Merodach in Jeremiah 50:2 ) was considered the leading god and was given the epithet Bel (equivalent to the Canaanite term Baal), meaning “lord” (Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; Jeremiah 51:44 ). Marduk's son Nabu (the Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), god of the nearby city of Borsippa, was considered the god of writing and scribes and became especially exalted in the Neo-Babylonian Period.
Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). Sin was the patron god of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), had a major temple in Babylon and was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ).
Other gods were associated with a newer city or none at all. Adad, the Canaanite Hadad, was the god of storms and thus both beneficial and destructive. Ninurta, god of war and hunting, was patron for the Assyrian capital Calah.
A number of myths concerning Babylonian gods are known, the most important of which is the Enuma elish , or Creation Epic. This myth originated in Babylon, where one of its goals was to show how Marduk became the leading god. It tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess, representative of chaos). From the blood of another slain god, Ea created mankind. Finally, Marduk was exalted and installed in his temple, Esagila, in Babylon.
The Enuma elish was recited and reenacted as part of the twelve-day New Year Festival in Babylon. During the festival, statues of other gods arrived from their cities to “visit” Marduk in Esagila. Also, the king did penance before Marduk, and “took the hand of Bel” in a ceremonial processing out of the city through the Ishtar Gate.
The gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and given three meals a day. On occasion the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to visit one another in different sanctuaries. It is very difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them. It seems clear, however, that beyond the expectations of health and success in his earthly life, he was without eternal hope.
Dan Browning
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Babylon
Same as Babel
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Babylon
Jeremiah 50:14 (b) Throughout chapters 50,51of this book, the actual city of Babylon is directly in view, but what is said about that city indicates clearly that it refers to the great religions and idolatries of the world which seek to depose GOD and enthrone their own philosophies. This is particularly true of Jeremiah 51:6 and Jeremiah 51:8 which evidently refer to the same situation that we find in the New Testament.
Revelation 17:5 (b) This is plainly a type of the great false religious systems of the world, particularly Romanism, which knew nothing of the grace of GOD, nor the Blood of CHRIST, nor the personal ministry of the Holy Spirit. It refers to those religious sects and heresies which deny the faith of our fathers, and reject the truth of GOD. This Babylon is represented as a woman.
Revelation 18:2 (b) As in the above Scripture we see the religious side of false religions So in this verse we find the political aspect of those great apostate religions, the political religious world. Under this description we see the wickedness of the merchants, the politics of the church, and the filthiness of her society which are all to be brought under the judgment of GOD. We should note that in Revelation 18:13, the last two items of merchandise of this great apostate religious group consists of slaves (bodies and souls of men). This is particularly true of the Romish church, whose members are slaves in body, soul and spirit to their religious leaders. This Babylon is described as a city in Revelation 18:16.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon
Nimrod's BABELwas doubtless in some way connected with the renowned city ofBabylon and of the kingdom of which it was the capital. The Hebrew is Babel, the same for Babel and Babylon. In Genesis 11:2 , it speaks of Babel being built in a plain in the land of Shinar, whichthey reached by travellingfrom the east; this reads in the margin travelling 'eastward,' a reading preferred by many and by the Revisers. This direction agrees well with the locality of Babylon on the river Euphrates.
Historians speak of the great size of the city, though they are not agreed as to its dimensions. It had 25 gates on each side, and from the gates were streets which crossed one another at right angles. The houses were not built close together, so that there was ample room inside the city for gardens and even fields and vineyards. The walls were said to be 75 feet thick and 300 feet in height; and the gates were of brass. The river Euphrates ran through the city; but on the banks of the river strong walls were built with gates of brass; there was also a bridge from side to side near the centre of the city. A lake was formed outside the city into which the waters of the rivercould be turned when the water rose too high, and deep ditches filled with water surrounded the walls of the city.
We also read of 'hanging gardens' which Nebuchadnezzar built for his wife Amyitis, or Amyhia, daughter of a Median king,to give the place a measure of resemblance to the mountains and wooded hills of her native country. These gardens are supposed to have been built in terraces of different heights.
In several particulars scripture corroborates the statements of the historians. In Jeremiah 50:11 of Babylon it is said, 'O ye destroyers of mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls;' its broad walls are mentioned, Jeremiah 51:12,58 ; its gates of brass and bars of iron, Isaiah 45:2 ; and Nebuchadnezzar boasted of the 'great Babylon' which he had built by the might of his power and for the honour of his majesty. Daniel 4:30 .
Among the relies recovered from the various mounds of ruins are some bricks with the names of the kings Neriglissar and Labynetus stamped upon them, but the great majority of those found bear the name of Nebuchadnezzar. Babylon was built with bricks, there being no stone at all near, and in later years the mounds were ransacked for bricks for other cities.
Of the early governments in Babylon but little is known with certainty. Berosus, as arranged by Rawlinson, gives from B.C. 2458 to 625 various dynasties of Medes, Chaldaeans, Arabs, and Assyrians; and lastly Babylonians from B.C. 625 to 538.
Babylon and Assyria are much blended together in history, sometimes being independent one of the other, and at other times being tributary to one another. In B.C. 745 Tiglath-pileser may be said to have founded the later kingdom of Assyria, and among his victories he became master of Babylonia, as the kingdom of Babylon was called. About 721Merodachbaladan became king of Babylon, and in 712 he sent ambassadors to Hezekiah on hearing of his sickness. This is recorded in 2 Kings 20:12 , where he is called Berodach-baladan. In B.C. 702Sennacherib king of Assyria expelled Merodach, and Babylon was governed by viceroys from Assyria. In B.C. 681Esar-haddon became king of Assyria but held his court at Babylon, to which place Manasseh king of Judah was carried prisoner about B.C. 677. 2 Chronicles 33:11 . About B.C. 625 Nabo-polassar revolted from the king of Assyria and established the later kingdom of Babylon. He with Cyaxares (the Ahasuerus of Daniel 9:1 ) founder of the Median kingdom, attacked and took Nineveh, and put an end to the Assyrian rule. Nebuchadnezzar, co-regent with Nabo-polassar, took Jerusalem, and carried many captives and the holy vessels to Babylon, about B.C. 606. In B.C. 604Nabo-polassar died and Nebuchadnezzar reigned alone. In B.C. 603Jehoiakim revolted and in 599 Nebuchadnezzar again took Jerusalem, and Ezekiel was carried to Babylon: this is called the great captivity. 2 Kings 24:1-16 . Mattaniah was left as king in Jerusalem, his name being changed to Zedekiah: he reigned 11 years. 2 Kings 24:17-20 . Having rebelled against Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, after a siege of eighteen months, once more took Jerusalem, destroyed the city and burnt the house of the Lord, bringing the kingdom of Judah to an end: B.C. 588. 2 Kings 25:1-26 . For the personal history of the king see NEBUCHADNEZZAR. In B.C. 561Nebuchadnezzar died. He was the 'head of gold' in Daniel's great image. The glory of the later Babylonian Empire virtually began and ended with him. The succession of kings was somewhat as follows:
KINGS OF BABYLON.
B.C.
625 Nabo-polassar.
606 Nebuchadnezzar, co-regent.
604 Nabo-polassar dies. Nebuchadnezzar reigns alone.
561 Evil-Merodach succeeds. He raises up Jehoiachin in the 37th year of his captivity.
2 Kings 25:27 .
559 Neriglissar succeeds. Perhaps the same as one of the princes called Nergal-sharezer in
Jeremiah 39:3,13 .
556 Laborosoarchod succeeds. Reigned 9 months and is slain.
555 Nabonidus or Nabonadius (also called Labynetus), a usurper : Belshazzar his son
afterwards reigning with him.
538 Babylon taken, and Belshazzar slain. End of the Empire of Babylon.
Babylon has a large place in the O.T. with reference to its intercourse with Israel, in nearly every chapter of Jeremiah, from 20 - 52, Babylon is mentioned. Babylon is also of note as being the first of the four great empires prophesied of by Daniel. The kingdom of the Lord, established in the house of David, and maintained in Judah, had for the time come to an end because of iniquity, and the 'times of the Gentiles' had begun.* Of Nebuchadnezzar it was said, "Thou, O king, art a king of kings: for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, and strength and glory . . . . Thou art this head of gold." Daniel 2:37,38 . Babylon was God's instrument by which Judah was punished; and then because of the pride and wickedness of the king of Babylon he also was brought under the rod of the Almighty.
* The times of the Gentiles will end when the power returns to Judah, the house of David, in the person of the Lord Jesus.
The destruction of Babylon was fully foretold in scripture, though some of these prophecies may refer also to still future events, namely, the overthrow by the Lord (typified by Cyrus) of the last holder of Nebuchadnezzar-like authority, namely, the beast, the last head of the revived Roman empire. Isaiah 13:6-22 ; Isaiah 14:4-23 ; Isaiah 21:2-9 ; Isaiah 47:1-11 ; Jeremiah 25:12-14 and Jeremiah 50,51 . Its downfall was unexpected. For 24 years after the death of Nebuchadnezzar Babylon continued the seat of the imperial court. In B.C. 538 the city was taken in a remarkable way. A night was chosen when the inhabitants were about to hold a festival, when the whole city would be given up to drunkenness and debauchery. The water of the river was diverted from its bed so as to render it shallow enough to let the troops pass along. The gates were found open, and the city was taken.
This also was prophesied of in scripture: it specifies that Cyrus was God's shepherd, and He had holden him to subdue nations: God would loose the loins of kings to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates should not be shut: the gates of brass should be broken, and the bars of iron be cut asunder. Isaiah 45:1,2 . Again the suddenness and unexpectedness of the attack is also mentioned: "evil shall come upon thee; thou shalt not know from whence it riseth: and mischief shall fall upon thee; thou shalt not be able to put it off: and desolation shall come upon thee suddenly, which thou shalt not know." Isaiah 47:11 . We also find that it was on the night of the revelry of Belshazzar's feast that the king was slain. Daniel 5:30 .
The monuments show that Babylon was taken by Gobryas the general of Cyrus, and that the capture of the city was, as some think, aided by treachery among its inhabitants. Daniel 5:31 says, "Darius the Median took the kingdom." This king has not been found mentioned by name on the monuments, but he is well accredited as king in Daniel. He was probably ASTYAGES, who was a Median king. He had been conquered by Cyrus, who may have found it to his advantage to let him reign at Babylon as long as he lived. Astyages being a Mede and Cyrus a Persian agree with the second great empire being called by the two names. Persia gained the ascendancy, and Babylon was a royal residence during part of the year. There were occasional revolts, in the putting down of which the city was more and more destroyed. In the year B.C. 478 Xerxes returning from his inglorious invasion of Greece passed through the city, robbed the temple of Belus of its wealth and left its lofty towers a heap of ruins. In B.C. 324Alexander the Great attempted to rebuild that edifice, and employed 10,000 men; but his sudden death, before the ruins had been cleared away, left it still in desolation.
Scripture is very decisive as to the utter destruction of the city: "Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there: but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there, and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces." Isaiah 13:19-22 .
Now vast mounds extend for miles. If Hillah (about 32 27' N, 44 25' E ) be taken as a centre, the mounds extend northward about 3 miles. About 6 miles S.W. of Hillah stands the celebrated heap known as Birs Nimrood, supposed to be the site of the ancient temple of Belus. There are three large piles on the east of the river: the Mujelibe or Mukallibe, the Kasr or palace, and the Amran.
The moral features of Babylon were idolatrous corruption and worldliness, which will be seen in full manifestation in Babylon the Great. It is the place where the people of God get into captivity through dalliance with the world.
In the N.T. Babylon is mentioned in 1 Peter 5:13 . There is evidence in Josephus that there were many Jews in the district forty years after Christ. On the occasion of the gathering at Jerusalem in Acts 2:9-11 mention is made of the Parthians, Medes and Elamites; and when Peter commences his epistle, supposing he was in the district of Babylon, he naturally puts Pontus first and then passes on to Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. There can be no reason therefore to doubt that the ancient district of Babylon is alluded to by Peter, where, through God's grace, there were some of the 'elect.'
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Babylon the Great
This is also called "MYSTERY," "THE MOTHER OF THE HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH." Revelation 17:5 . Some great religious system is alluded to, with whom the kings of the earth had had illicit intercourse, and by whom the merchants of the earth had been made rich. It had also been guilty of shedding the blood of the saints and the blood of the martyrs of Jesus It is compared to a woman arrayed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a cup in her hand, full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication. Could there possibly be drawn a more vivid and life-like portrait of the worldly and idolatrous system of the apostate Church, whose centre is at Rome, than is here drawn by the pen of the Holy Spirit ? To make it doubly sure as to who is represented by the description it is added "The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth," Revelation 17:9 , 'the seven-hilled city' being a well-known appellation of Rome.
It is further revealed that the ten horns (the ten kingdoms of the future Roman empire) will make war with the woman, make her desolate and naked, will eat her flesh and burn her with fire. Heaven, the apostles and prophets are called on to rejoice over the fall of that seductive and soul-destroying system: cf. Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:1-18 ; Revelation 18:1-24 ; Revelation 19:1-3 .
It should be noted that though Papal Rome is one of the worst of the antichrists, and the one that has had sway for the longest period; yet she is not what is called in scripture the Antichrist or Man of sin: she is rather the anti-church. He also is found in the Revelation as a beast, having two horns like a lamb, and speaking as a dragon; and also as the false prophet. Revelation 13:11 ; Revelation 20:10 . See ANTICHRIST.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Babylon
See Apocalypse and Peter, First Epistle of.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Babylon
This eminent city, which was once the most noble and magnificent in the whole earth, the capital of the Chaldean empire: and concerning which the Scriptures themselves speak so highly, (See Daniel 4:30) is now so totally overthrown, that not a vestige remains. By Isaiah the prophet, the Lord declared this ruin, (Isaiah 13:19 to the end;) (Isaiah 13:19-22) and every traveller that hath seen the ground it stood on confirms it. The approach to the ruins, on account of the venomous creatures which inhabit it, is so dangerous, that no man durst venture, and many parts for ages have not been explored. Who that considers this, and connects with it what the prophets declared concerning it, years before the event took place, but must be struck with wonder and praise! I beg the reader to look again at Isaiah's prophecy, chap. 13:19 to the end. (Isaiah 13:19-22) And when the reader hath duly pondered the subject, concerning the natural history of Babylon, thus desolated as the enemy of Christ and his church; he will do well to consider the subject in the spiritual sense of it, according to what the Scriptures have declared of mystical Babylon. Let him turn to the Revelations of John, and hear what the Spirit saith, concerning the awful close to all the enemies of Christ and his church. (See Revelation 17:1-18 and Revelation 18:1-24)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Babylon
2 Kings 24:1 . The capital of Chaldea, built by Nimrod, Genesis 10:10 . It was under Nebuchadnezzar that Babylon, then become the seat of universal empire, is supposed to have acquired that extent and magnificence, and that those stupendous works were completed which rendered it the wonder of the world and of posterity: and accordingly, this prince, then the most potent on the earth, arrogated to himself the whole glory of its erection; and in the pride of his heart exclaimed, "Is not this great Babylon that I have built?" The city at this period stood on both sides of the river, which intersected it in the middle. It was, according to the least computation, that of Diodorus Siculus, 45 miles in circumference; and according to Herodotus, the older author of the two, 60 miles. Its shape was that of a square, traversed each way by 25 principal streets; which of course intersected each other, dividing the city into 626 squares. These streets were terminated at each end by gates of brass, of prodigious size and strength, with a smaller one opening toward the river. The walls, from the most moderate accounts, were 75 feet in height and 32 in breadth; while Herodotus makes them 300 in height and 75 in breadth: which last measurement, incredible as it may seem, is worthy of credit, as Herodotus is much the oldest author who describes them, and who gives their original height; whereas, those who follow him in their accounts of these stupendous walls, describe them as they were after they had been taken down to the less elevation by Darius Hystaspes. They were built of brick, cemented with bitumen instead of mortar; and were encompassed by a broad and deep ditch, lined with the same materials, as were also the banks of the river in its course through the city: the inhabitants descending to the water by steps through the smaller brazen gates before mentioned. The houses were three or four stories high, separated from each other by small courts or gardens, with open spaces and even fields interspersed over the immense area enclosed within the walls. Over the river was a bridge, connecting the two halves of the city, which stood, the one on its eastern, and the other on its western, bank; the river running nearly north and south. The bridge was 5 furlongs in length, and 30 feet in breadth, and had a palace at each end, with, it is said, a subterraneous passage beneath the river, from one to the other: the work of Semiramis. Within the city was the temple of Belus, or Jupiter, which Herodotus describes as a square of two stadia, or a quarter of a mile: in the midst of which arose the celebrated tower, to which both the same writer, and Strabo, give an elevation of one stadium, or 660 feet; and the same measure at its base; the whole being divided into eight separate towers, one above another, of decreasing dimensions to the summit; where stood a chapel, containing a couch, table, and other things of gold. Here the principal devotions were performed; and over this, on the highest platform of all, was the observatory, by the help of which the Babylonians arrived to such perfection in astronomy, that Calisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied, Alexander to Babylon, found astronomical observations for 1903 years backwards from that time; which reach as high as the 115th year after the flood. On either side of the river, according to Diodorus, adjoining to the bridge, was a palace; that on the western bank being by much the larger. This palace was eight miles in circumference, and strongly fortified with three walls one within another. Within it were the celebrated pensile or hanging gardens, enclosed in a square of 400 feet. These gardens were raised on terraces, supported by arches, or rather by piers, laid over with broad flat stones; the arch appearing to be unknown to the Babylonians: which courses of piers rose above one another, till they reached the level of the top of the city walls. On each terrace or platform, a deep layer of mould was laid, in which flowers, shrubs and trees were planted; some of which are said to have reached the height of 50 feet. On the highest level was a reservoir, with an engine to draw water up from the river by which the whole was watered. This novel and astonishing structure, the work of a monarch who knew not how to create food for his own pampered fancy, or labour for his debased subjects or unhappy captives, was undertaken to please his wife Amyitis; that she might see an imitation of the hills and woods of her native country, Media.
Yet, while in the plenitude of its power, and, according to the most accurate chronologers, 160 years before the foot of an enemy had entered it, the voice of an enemy had entered it, the voice of prophecy pronounced the doom of the mighty and unconquered Babylon. A succession of ages brought it gradually to the dust; and the gradation of its fall is marked till it sinks at last into utter desolation. At a time when nothing but magnificence was around this city, emphatically called the great, fallen Babylon was delineated by the pencil of inspiration exactly as every traveller now describes its ruins.
The immense fertility of Chaldea, which retained also the name of Babylonia till after the Christian aera, corresponded with the greatness of Babylon. It was the most fertile region of the whole east. Babylonia was one vast plain, adorned and enriched by the Euphrates and the Tigris, from which, and from the numerous canals that intersected the country from the one river to the other, water was distributed over the fields by manual labour and by hydraulic machines, giving rise, in that warm climate and rich exhaustless soil, to an exuberance of produce without a known parallel, over so extensive a region, either in ancient or modern times. Herodotus states, that he knew not how to speak of its wonderful fertility, which none but eye witnesses would credit; and, though writing in the language of Greece, itself a fertile country, he expresses his own consciousness that his description of what he actually saw would appear to be improbable, and to exceed belief. Such was the "Chaldees' excellency," that it departed not on the first conquest, nor on the final extinction of its capital, but one metropolis of Assyria arose after another in the land of Chaldea, when Babylon had ceased to be "the glory of kingdoms."
2. Manifold are the prophecies respecting Babylon and the land of the Chaldeans; and the long lapse of ages has served to confirm their fulfilment in every particular, and to tender it at last complete. The judgments of Heaven are not casual, but sure; they are not arbitrary, but righteous. And they were denounced against the Babylonians, and the inhabitants of Chaldea, expressly because of their idolatry, tyranny, oppression, pride, covetousness, drunkenness, falsehood, and other wickedness. The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amos did see: "The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people: a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the Lord of Hosts mustereth the host of the battle. They come from a far country, from the end of heaven, even the Lord and the weapons of his indignation, to destroy the whole land. Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there: neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there: and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there. And the wild beasts of the islands shall cry in their desolate houses, and dragons in their pleasant palaces." "Thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. Thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit. Thou art cast out of the grave like an abominable branch.—I will cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, the son, and nephew, saith the Lord. I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction, saith the Lord of Hosts." "Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground." "Thus saith the Lord, that saith unto the deep, Be dry; and I will dry up thy rivers: that saith of Cyrus, He is my shepherd, and shall perform all my pleasure,—and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two-leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut." "Bel boweth down," &c. "Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon: sit on the ground, there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans. Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for thou shalt no more be called the lady of kingdoms."
Many other prophecies against Babylon, and the whole land of Chaldea, are found in the Old Testament; and though the limits of this article will only allow a reference to be made to the exact fulfilment of a few, there is not one of the great number of predictions on record, the accomplishment of which has not been remarked by numerous writers, and more especially by those who have visited the spot. For, though for many centuries the site of Babylon was unknown, or the ruins of other Chaldean cities mistaken for its remains, its true situation and present condition have been, within a few years, satisfactorily ascertained, and accurately described, by several most intelligent and enterprising travellers.
When in the plenitude of its greatness, splendour and strength, Babylon first yielded to the arms of Cyrus, whose name, and the manoeuvre by which the city was taken, were mentioned by Isaiah nearly two hundred years before the event; which was also predicted by Jeremiah: "Go up, O Elam, (or Persia,) besiege, O Media. The Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes, for his device is against Babylon, to destroy it." The kings of Persia and Media, prompted by a common interest, freely entered into a league against Babylon, and with one accord entrusted the command of their united armies to Cyrus, the relative and eventually the successor of them both.—But the taking of Babylon was not reserved for these kingdoms alone: other nations had to be "prepared against her." "Set up a standard in the land; blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Aschenaz: Lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country" &c. Cyrus subdued the Armenians, who had revolted against Media, spared their king, bound them over anew to their allegiance, by kindness rather than by force, and incorporated their army with his own.—"The mighty men of Babylon have foreborne to fight. They have remained in their holds; their might hath failed, they became as women." So dispirited became its people, that Babylon, which had made the world to tremble, was long besieged, without making any effort to drive off the enemy. But, possessed of provisions for twenty years which in their timid caution they had plentifully stored, they derided Cyrus from their impregnable walls, within which they remained. Their profligacy, their wickedness and false confidence were unabated; they continued to live carelessly in pleasures: and Babylon the great, unlike to many a small fortress and un-walled town, made not one struggle to regain its freedom or to be rid of the foe.—Much time having been lost, and no progress being made in the siege, the anxiety of Cyrus was strongly excited, and he was reduced to great perplexity, when at last it was suggested and immediately determined to divert the course of the Euphrates. And while the unconscious and reckless citizens were engaged in dancing and merriment, the river was suddenly turned into the lake, the trench, and the canals; and the Persians, both foot and horse, so soon as the subsiding of the water permitted, entered by its channel, and were followed by the allies in array, along the dry part of the river. "I will dry up thy sea, and make thy springs dry. That saith to the deep, Be dry, I will dry up thy rivers."—One detachment was placed where the river first enters the city, and another where it leaves it. And "one post did run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to show the king of Babylon that his city is taken at the end, and that the passages are shut." "They were taken," says Herodotus, "by surprise; and such is the extent of the city, that, as the inhabitants themselves affirm, they who lived in the extremities were made prisoners before any alarm was communicated to the centre of the place," where the palace stood. Thus a "snare was laid for Babylon, it was taken, and it was not aware; it was found and also caught; for it had sinned against the Lord. How is the praise of the whole earth surprised!"—
"In their heat I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not awake, saith the Lord. I will bring them down like lambs to the slaughter," &c. "I will make drunken her princes and her wise men, her captains and her rulers, and her mighty men, and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep," &c. Cyrus, as the night drew on, stimulated his assembled troops to enter the city, because in that night of general revel within the walls, many of them were asleep, many drunk, and confusion universally prevailed. On passing, without obstruction or hinderance, into the city, the Persians, slaying some, putting others to flight, and joining with the revellers, as if slaughter had been merriment, hastened by the shortest way to the palace, and reached it ere yet a messenger had told the king that his city was taken. The gates of the palace, which was strongly fortified, were shut. The guards stationed before them, were drinking beside a blazing light, when the Persians rushed impetuously upon them. A louder and altered clamour, no longer joyous, caught the ear of the inmates of the palace, and the bright light showed them the work of destruction, without revealing its cause. And not aware of the presence of an enemy in the midst of Babylon, the king himself, (who had been roused from his revelry by the hand writing on the wall,) excited by the warlike tumult at the gates, commanded those within to examine from whence it arose; and according to the same word, by which "the gates" (leading from the river to the city) "were not shut, the loins of kings were loosed to open before Cyrus the two-leaved gates" of the palace. The eager Persians sprang in. "The king of Babylon heard the report of them; anguish took hold of him;" he and all who were about him perished; God had "numbered" his kingdom and finished it; it was "divided," and given to the Medes and Persians; the lives of the Babylonian princes, and lords, and rulers, and captains, closed with that night's festival; the drunken slept "a perpetual sleep, and did not wake."— "I will fill thee with men as with caterpillars." Not only did the Persian army enter with ease as caterpillars, together with all the nations that had come up against Babylon, but they seemed also as numerous. Cyrus, after the capture of the city, made a great display of his cavalry in the presence of the Babylonians, and in the midst of Babylon. Four thousand guards stood before the palace gates, and two thousand on each side. These advanced as Cyrus approached; two thousand spearmen followed them. These were succeeded by four square masses of Persian cavalry, each consisting of ten thousand men: and to these again were added, in their order, the Median, Armenian, Hyrcanian, Caducian, and Sacian horsemen,—all, as before, "riding upon horses, every man in array,"—with lines of chariots, four abreast, concluding the train of the numerous hosts. Cyrus afterward reviewed, at Babylon, the whole of his army, consisting of one hundred and twenty thousand horse, two thousand chariots, and six hundred thousand foot. Babylon, which was taken when not aware, and within whose walls no enemy, except a captive, had been ever seen, was thus "filled with men as with caterpillars," as if there had not been a wall around it. The Scriptures do not relate the manner in which Babylon was taken, nor do they ever allude to the exact fulfilment of the prophecies. But there is, in every particular, a strict coincidence between the predictions of the prophets and the historical narratives, both of Herodotus and Xenophon.
3. Every step in the progress of the decline of Babylon was the accomplishment of a prophecy. Conquered, for the first time, by Cyrus, it was afterward reduced from an imperial to a tributary city. "Come down and sit in the dust, O daughter of Babylon: sit on the ground, there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans." After the Babylonians rebelled against Darius, the walls were reduced in height, and all the gates destroyed. "The wall of Babylon shall fall, her walls are thrown down."— Xerxes, after his ignominious retreat from Greece, rifled the temples of Babylon, the golden images alone of which were estimated at 20,000,000 l. beside treasures of vast amount. "I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he has swallowed up; I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon."—Alexander the Great attempted to restore it to its former glory, and designed to make it the metropolis of a universal empire. But while the building of the temple of Belus, and the reparation of the embankments of the Euphrates, were actually carrying on, the conqueror of the world died, at the commencement of this his last undertaking, in the height of his power, and in the flower of his age. "Take balm for her pain, if so be that she may be healed. We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed." The building of the neighbouring city of Seleucia was the chief cause of the decline or Babylon, and drained it of a great part of its population. And at a later period, or about 130 years before the birth of Christ, Humerus, a Parthian governor, who was noted as excelling all tyrants in cruelty, exercised great severities on the Babylonians; and having burned the forum and some of the temples, and destroyed the fairest parts of the city, reduced many of the inhabitants to slavery on the slightest pretexts, and caused them, together with all their households, to be sent into Media. "They shall remove, they shall depart, both man and beast." The "golden city" thus gradually verged, for centuries, toward poverty and desolation. Notwithstanding that Cyrus resided chiefly at Babylon, and sought to reform the government, and remodel the manners of the Babylonians, the succeeding kings of Persia preferred, as the seat of empire, Susa, Persepolis, or Ecbatana, situated in their own country: and in like manner the successors of Alexander did not attempt to complete his purpose of restoring Babylon to its preeminence and glory; but, after the subdivision of his mighty empire, the very kings of Assyria. during their temporary residence even in Chaldea, deserted Babylon, and dwelt in Seleucia. And thus the foreign inhabitants, first Persians and afterward Greeks, imitating their sovereigns by deserting Babylon, acted as if they verily had said, "Forsake her, and let us go every man unto his own country; for her judgment is reached unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies."
4. But kindred judgments, the issue of common crimes, rested on the land of Chaldea, as well as on its doomed metropolis. "They come from a far country, from the end of the earth, to destroy the whole land. Many nations and great kings shall serve themselves of thee also," &c. The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror. And though the names of some of these nations were unknown to the Babylonians, and unheard of in the world at the time of the prophecy, most of these "many nations and great kings" need now but to be named, to show that, in local relation to Chaldea, "they came from the utmost border, from the coasts of the earth."
— "I will punish the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations; cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest. A drought is on her waters, and they shall be dried up. Behold the hinder-most of the nations, a dry land and a desert." The land of the Chaldeans was indeed made—perpetual, or long continued, desolation. Ravaged and spoiled for ages, the Chaldees' excellency finally disappeared, and the land became desolate, as still it remains. Rauwolff, who passed through it in 1574, describes the country as bare, and "so dry and barren that it cannot be tilled." And the most recent travellers all concur in describing it in similar terms. On the one side, near to the site of Opis, "the country all around," says Mr. Buckingham, "appears to be one wide desert, of sandy, and barren sod, thinly scattered over with brushwood and tufts of reedy grass." On the other, between Bussorah and. Bagdad, "immediately on either bank of the Tigris, observes Mignan, "is the untrodden desert. The absence of all cultivation, the sterile, arid, and wild character of the whole scene, formed a contrast to the rich and delightful accounts delineated in Scripture. The natives, in travelling over these pathless deserts, are compelled to explore their way by the stars."
"The whole country between Bagdad and Hillah is a perfectly flat and (with the exception of a few spots as you approach the latter place) uncultivated waste. That it was at some former period in a far different state, is evident from the number of canals by which it is traversed, now dry and neglected; and the quantity of heaps of earth covered with fragments of brick and broken tiles, which are seen in every direction, the indisputable traces of former population. At present the only inhabitants of the tract are the Sobeide Arabs. Around, as far as the eye can reach is a trackless desert." — "Her cities are desolations." The course of the Tigris through Babylonia, instead of being adorned with cities, is marked with the sites of "ancient ruins." Sitace, Sabata, Narisa, Fuchera, Sendia, "no longer exist." A succession of longitudinal mounds, crossed at right angles by others, mark the supposed site of Artemita, or Destagered. Its once luxuriant gardens are covered with grass; and a higher mound distinguishes "the royal residence" from the ancient streets. "Extensive ridges and mountains, (near to Houmania,) varying in height and extent, are seen branching in every direction." A wall, with sixteen bastions, is the only memorial of Apollonia. The once magnificent Seleucia is now a scene of desolation. There is not a single entire edifice, but the country is strewed for miles with fragments of decayed buildings. "As far," says Major Keppel, "as the eye could reach, the horizon presented a broken line of mounds; the whole of this place was a desert flat." On the opposite bank of the Tigris, where Ctesiphon its rival stood, beside fragments of walls and broken masses of brick work, and remains of vast structures encumbered with heaps of earth, there is one magnificent monument of antiquity "in a remarkably perfect state of preservation," "a large and noble pile of building, the front of which presents to view a wall three hundred feet in length, adorned with four rows of arched recesses, with a central arch, in span eighty-six feet, and above a hundred feet high, supported by walls sixteen feet thick, and leading to a hall which extends to the depth of a hundred and fifty-six feet," the width of the building. A great part of the back wall, and of the roof, is broken down; but that which remains "still appears much larger than Westminster Abbey. It is supposed to have been the lofty palace of Chosroes; but there desolation now reigns. "On the site of Ctesiphon." says Mignan, the smallest insect under heaven would not find a single blade of grass wherein to hide itself, nor one drop of water to allay its thirst." In the rear of the palace, and attached to it, are mounds two miles in circumference, indicating the utter desolation of buildings, formed to minister to luxury.
5. But let us come to the fulfilment of these wonderful prophecies in the present condition of Babylon itself, as described by those who have most recently visited it.
"Babylon shall become heaps." Babylon the glory of kingdoms is now the greatest of ruins. "Immense tumuli of temples, palaces, and habitations of every description," are every where seen, and form "long and varied lines of ruins," which in some places, says Sir R. K. Porter, "rather resemble natural hills than mounds which cover the remains of great and splendid edifices." These buildings, which were once the labour of slaves and the pride of kings, are now misshapen heaps of rubbish. "The whole face of the country," observes Rich, "is covered with vestiges of building, in some places consisting of brick walls surprisingly fresh, in others, merely a vast succession of mounds of rubbish, of such indeterminate figures, variety, and extent, as to involve the person who should have formed any theory in inextricable confusion."— "Let nothing of her be left." "Vast heaps constitute all that now remains of Ancient Babylon," says Rich. All its grandeur is departed; all its treasures have been spoiled; all its excellence has utterly vanished; the very heaps are searched for bricks, when nothing else can be found; even these are not left, wherever they can be taken away; and Babylon has for ages been "a quarry above ground," ready to the hand of every successive despoiler. Without the most remote allusion to this prophecy, Captain Mignan describes a mound attached to the palace, ninety yards in breadth by half that height, the whole of which is deeply furrowed, in the same manner as the generality of the mounds. "The ground is extremely soft, and tiresome to walk over, and appears completely exhausted of all its building materials; nothing now is left, save one towering hill, the earth of which is mixed with fragments of broken brick, red varnished pottery, tile, bitumen, mortar, glass, shells, and pieces of mother of pearl,"—worthless fragments, of no value to the poorest. "From thence shall she be taken, let nothing of her be left." While the workmen "cast her up as heaps" while excavating for bricks, that they may "take" them "from thence," and that "nothing may be left;" they labour more than trebly in the fulfilment of prophecy: for the numerous and deep excavations form pools of water, on the overflowing of the Euphrates, and, annually filled, they are not dried up throughout the year. "Deep cavities are also formed by the Arabs, when digging for hidden treasure." Thus "the ground," says Buckingham, "is sometimes covered with pools of water in the hollows."
"Sit in the dust, sit on the ground, O daughter of the Chaldeans." The surface of the mounds which form all that remains of Babylon, consists of decomposed buildings, reduced to dust; and over all the ancient streets and habitations, there is literally nothing but the dust of the ground on which to sit.— "Thy nakedness shall be uncovered." "Our path," says Captain Mignan, "lay through the great mass of ruined heaps on the site of ‘shrunken Babylon;' and I am perfectly incapable of conveying an adequate idea of the dreary, lonely nakedness that appeared before me."—"Sit thou silent, and get thee into darkness." "There reigns throughout the ruins," says Sir R. K. Porter, "a silence profound as the grave." "Babylon is now a silent scene, a sublime solitude."— "It shall never be inhabited, nor dwelt in from generation to generation." From Rauwolff's testimony it appears that, in the sixteenth century, "there was not a house to be seen." And now "the eye wanders over a barren desert, in which the ruins are nearly the only indication that it had ever been inhabited." "It is impossible," adds Major Keppel, "to behold this scene and not to be reminded how exactly the predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled, even in the appearance Babylon was doomed to present, that ‘she should never be inhabited;' that ‘the Arabian should not pitch his tent there;' that she should ‘become heaps;' that her cities should be ‘a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness.'" "Babylon is spurned alike by the heel of the Ottomans, the Israelites, and the sons of Ishmael." It is "a tenantless and desolate metropolis," remarks Mignan. "It shall not be inhabited, but be wholly desolate. Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall the shepherds make their folds there." It was prophesied of Ammon that it should be a stable for camels and a couching place for flocks; and of Philistia, that it should be cottages for shepherds, and a pasture of flocks.
But Babylon was to be visited with a far greater desolation, and to become unfit or unsuited even for such a purpose; and that neither a tent would be pitched there, even by an Arab, nor a fold made by a shepherd, implies the last degree of solitude and desolation. "It is common in these parts for shepherds to make use of ruined edifices to shelter their flocks in." But Babylon is an exception. Instead of taking the bricks from thence, the shepherd might very readily erect a defence from wild beasts, and make a fold for his flock amidst the heaps of Babylon; and the Arab who fearlessly traverses it by day, might pitch his tent by night. But neither the one nor the other could now be persuaded to remain a single night among the ruins. The superstitious dread of evil spirits, far more than the natural terror of the wild beasts, effectually prevents them. Captain Mignan was accompanied by six Arabs, completely armed; but he "could not induce them to remain toward night, from the apprehension of evil spirits. It is impossible to eradicate this idea from the minds of this people, who are very deeply imbued with superstition." "Wild beasts of the deserts shall lie there, and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs (goats) shall dance there," &c. "There are many dens of wild beasts in various parts. And while the lower excavations are often pools of water, in most of the cavities are numbers of bats and owls." The king of the forest now ranges over the site of that Babylon which Nebuchadnezzar built for his own glory. And the temple of Belus, the greatest work of man, is now like unto a natural den of lions. Two or three majestic lions were seen upon its heights by Sir Robert Ker Porter, as he was approaching it; and "the broad prints of their feet were left plain in the clayey soil." Major Keppel saw there a similar footprint of a lion. It is also the unmolested retreat of jackals, hyenas, and other noxious animals. Wild beasts are numerous at the Mujelibe, as well as on Birs Nimrood. "The mound," says Kinneir, "was full of large holes: we entered some of them, and found them strewed with the carcasses and skeletons of animals recently killed. The ordure of wild beasts was so strong, that prudence got the better of curiosity; for we
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon
Babylon (băb'by-lon), Greek form of Babel. The noted capital of the Chaldæan and Babylonian empires, situated on both sides of the Euphrates river, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, 300 miles from the Persian Gulf. The valley is broad, and the river Euphrates is now about 600 feet wide and 18 feet deep at this place. Babylon, according to Herodotus, was a vast square on both sides of the Euphrates, enclosed by a double line of walls, about 56 miles in circuit and including about 200 square miles. Ctesias and others make the circuit about 42 miles, enclosing about 106 square miles. The walls, according to Herodotus, were about 335 feet high and 75 feet broad. Ctesias, quoted by Diodorus, states that they were 200 feet high and built by 2,000,000 men. Later writers, regarding these measurements as incredible, give the circuit of the walls at about 40 miles, their height at 75 to 190 feet, and their width at 32 feet, or wide enough to allow four chariots to drive abreast on the top. M. Oppert and Rawlinson, as explorers, hold that the ruins warrant the statement of Herodotus as to the extent of Babylon. The wall of Babylon was surmounted by 250 towers, and it had 100 gates of brass. Jeremiah 51:58; Isaiah 45:2. Babylon is described as cut into squares—some say 676—by straight streets crossing each other at right angles, those at the river being closed by brazen gates, as the banks of the river were fortified by high walk; the river was crossed by drawbridges and lined with quays; the two palaces on opposite sides of the river were connected by a bridge, and also by a tunnel under the river. Among the wonderful buildings were: 1. Nebuchadnezzar's palace, an immense pile of buildings, believed to be nearly six miles in circumference. 2. The hanging-gardens, one of the seven wonders of the world, built by Nebuchadnezzar to please his Median queen, Amytis, who longed for her native mountains. These gardens were 75 feet high and covered three and a half acres, enclosed in an area of larger extent, some say 1000 feet on each side. Upon this mountain was soil of depth to support the largest trees, and the water was drawn up from the river by means of a screw. 3. The temple of Belus, a vast pyramid or tower, 600 feet square, having eight stages or stories, and according to Rawlinson 480 feet high, with a winding ascent passing around it, and a chapel of a god at the top. Babylon is named over 250 times in the Bible. It was founded by Nimrod, Genesis 10:10; its builders were dispersed, Genesis 11:9. Then, except some allusion to Shinar, Genesis 14:1, the Chaldæans, Job 1:17, and the Babylonish garment (R. V. "mantle"), Joshua 7:21, it drops out of Scripture history until the era of the captivity. It was often subject to Assyria, 2 Chronicles 33:11, and was the residence of at least one Assyrian king. After the fall of Nineveh, b.c. 625, it became an independent kingdom, and under Nebuchadnezzar was enlarged, beautified, and reached the height of its magnificence. In Isaiah 13:19; Isaiah 14:4, it is called "the glory of kingdoms," "the golden city," and in Jeremiah 51:41 "the praise of the whole earth," etc. It was the home of the chief of the captive Jews. Daniel 1:1-4. Its desolation was frequently foretold. Isaiah 13:4-22; Jeremiah 25:12; Jeremiah 50:2-3; Jeremiah 51:1-64; Daniel 2:31-38; Habakkuk 1:5-10. Even before Babylon reached the summit of its glory, Isaiah prophesied: "Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah: It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation; neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there; but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there." Isaiah 13:19-22; Isaiah 14:22. This prophecy has been literally fulfilled. It describes Babylon as it has been for many centuries and is now. Cyrus took it; Darius afterwards rifled it; Xerxes stripped its temples; and Alexander died in attempting its restoration. The modern town of Hillah now occupies a portion of the space covered by the ruins of ancient Babylon, and a telegraph connects it with the city of Bagdad. See Chaldæa and Assyria.
Babylon, in Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2; Revelation 18:21, is a symbolical name for heathen Rome, which took the place of ancient Babylon as a persecuting power. This is also the sense given to Babylon in 1 Peter 5:13 by the fathers and many commentators; but others refer it to Babylon in Asia, since it is quite possible that Peter labored for a while in that city, where there was at that time a large Jewish colony; still others maintain that Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo, is meant.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon (2)
Babylon, Province or Kingdom of. The country of which Babylon was the capital. Daniel 2:49; Daniel 3:1; Daniel 3:12; Daniel 3:30; Daniel 4:29. Its boundaries and history are involved in much obscurity. It was originally known as the "land of Shinar" and the "land of Nimrod." Genesis 10:10; Micah 5:6. It was chiefly between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. Asshur or Assyria and Mesopotamia were on the north, Elam and Media on the east, Chaldæa on the south. As Chaldæa gained in power its name was applied to the whole country, including Babylon. See Chaldæa. The early kingdom of Babylon is generally regarded as covering an extent of about 27,000 square miles, rich of soil and abundant in resources, the home of one of the earliest civilized nations. After the time of Nimrod Babel or Babylon appears to be displaced in Scripture history by Chaldæa until the time of Joshua, Joshua 7:21; after this both again disappear, until about the time of the captivity. At the fall of Nineveh, b.c. 625, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b.c. 538, and soon after dropped out of history as a separate country. In architecture, sculpture, science, philosophy, astronomical and mathematical knowledge, and in learning, the Babylonians made original investigations and discoveries not surpassed by any other ancient people. "To Babylonia," says G. Rawlinson, "far more than to Egypt, we owe the art and learning of the Greeks."—Five Ancient Monarchies, iii. 76. In religion the Babylonians differed little from the early Chaldæans. Their chief deities were Bel, Merodach, and Nebo. The names of these gods frequently appear in the names of noted princes, as Bel-shazzar, Nabo-polassar, Merodach-baladan, Evil-merodach, Abed-nebo or -nego. Their gods were worshipped with great pomp and magnificence. The temples erected in honor of the gods and devoted to their worship were celebrated for their vastness, and for the massiveness and finish of their sculptures. Of the precise mode of their worship little is known. It was conducted by priests, through whom the worshippers made offerings, often of great value, and sacrifices of oxen and goats. Images of the gods were exhibited, probably on frames or sacred vehicles, and, as some suppose, were sometimes set up in a public place, as on the plain of Dura, Daniel 3:1; but late investigations indicate that the image there set up was a statue of Nebuchadnezzar.—Schaff's Dict. The empire began with the accession of Nabo-polassar, b.c. 625; was in its greatest prosperity during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, lasting 44 years, to b.c. 661. See Nebuchadnezzar. Under the less able rulers who followed, the power of the empire declined, and it fell a comparatively easy prey to the Medo-Persians under Cyrus, b.c. 538.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Babylon
(Assyrian: bab-ili, gate of the god)
Ancient city on the Euphrates River, about 60 miles south of Baghdad. As early as 2872 B.C. it was the capital of Sargon of Agade. From 2250 it was the capital of Babylonia and the holy city of western Asia. After being destroyed by Sennacherib, 689 B.C., it was rebuilt by his successor. After the downfall of Assyria, Babylon again, under Nabopolassar, became the seat of empire. Nabuchodonosor made it one of the wonders of the world. It was captured by Cyrus, 538 B.C. In 275 B.C. it was destroyed and the inhabitants transferred to Seleucia. Among its buildings were the temples of E-Zida and E-Saggila. It is mentioned in Apocalypse, 17, as the city of abominations. The Patriarchate of Babylon was founded, 1681, for the Chaldean Rite. Present patriarch, appointed, 1900, Emmanuel Thomas, residing at Mosul, Iraq.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylon
1. A celebrated city situated on the Euphrates, the original foundation of which is described under the word Babel. Wit this coincide many ancient traditions, while some speak of Semiramis as the founder, and others of Nebuchadnezzar. These accounts may all be reconciled, by supposing that Semiramis rebuilt the ancient city, and the Nebuchadnezzar. These accounts may all be reconciled, by supposing that Semiramis rebuilt the ancient city, and that Nebuchadnezzar afterwards greatly enlarged and adorned it.
Babylon lay in a vast and fertile plain watered by the Euphrates, with flowed through the city. Its walls are described as 60 miles in circumference, 300 feet high, and 75 feet wide, 46 51:1-64 - 58 . A deep trench ran parallel with the walls. In each of the four sides were 25 brazen gates, from which roads crossed to the opposite gates. On the squares thus formed countless houses and gardens were made. Nebuchadnezzar's palace was in an inclosure six miles in circumference. Within this were also "the hanging gardens," an immense artificial mound 400 feet high, sustained by archers upon arches, terraced off for trees and flowers, the water for which was drawn from the river by machinery concealed in the mound, Daniel 4:29,30 .
Under Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon reached the summit of her greatness and splendor. She was renowned for learning especially in astronomy, and for skill in various arts, as the making of carpets and cloths, of perfumes, jewelry, etc. Her location gave her to a great extent the control of the traffic, by the Euphrates and by caravans, between Central Asia and Arabia and Egypt. She was "a city of merchants," Isaiah 43:14 Ezekiel 17:4 ; and into her lap flowed, either through conquest or commerce, the wealth of almost all known lands. Justly therefore might the prophets call her "the great," Daniel 4:20 ; "the praise of the whole earth," Jeremiah 51:41 ; "the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency," Isaiah 13:19 ; "the lady of kingdoms," Isaiah 47:5 ; but also "the tender and delicate," and "given to pleasures," Isaiah 47:1,8 . In consequence of the opulence and luxury of the inhabitants, corruptness and licentiousness of manners and morals were carried to a frightful extreme. Bel, Nebo, Nergal, Merodach, Succoth-benoth, and other idols, were there worshipped with rites in which impurity was made a matter of religion. Well might we expect Jehovah to bring down vengeance on her crimes. Indeed, the woes denounced against Babylon by the prophets constitute some of the most awfully splendid and sublime portions of the whole Bible, Isaiah 13:1-22 14:22 21:9 47:1-15 Jeremiah 25:1-38 50:1-Jeremiah 51:44 , etc.
The city did not long remain the capital of the world. Under the reign of Nebuchadnezzar's grandson. Nabonnidus, the Belshazzar of the Scriptures, it was besieged and taken by Cyrus. The accounts of Greek historians harmonize here with that of the Bible: that Cyrus made his successful assault on a night when the whole city, relying on the strength of the walls, had given themselves up to the riot and debauchery of a grand public festival, and the king and his nobles were reveling at a splendid entertainment. Cyrus had previously caused a canal, which ran west of the city, and carried off the superfluous water of the Euphrates into the lake of Nitocris, to be cleared out, in order to turn the river into it; which, by this means, was rendered so shallow, that his soldiers were able to penetrate along its bed into the city, Daniel 5:1-31 . 538 B.C. From this time its importance declined, for Cyrus made Susa the capital of his kingdom. It revolted against Darius Hystapis, who again subdued it, broke down all its gates, and reduced its walls to the height of fifty cubits. According to Strabo, Xerxes destroyed the tower of Belus. Under the Persians, and under Alexander's successors, Babylon continued to decline, especially after Seleucus Nicator had founded Selencia, and made it his residence. A great portion of the inhabitants of Babylon removed thither; and in Strabo's time, that is, under Augustus Babylon had become so desolate, that it might be called a vast desert. There was a town on its site until the fourth century, and many Jews dwelt there, 1 Peter 5:13 . But from this time onward, Babylon ceases almost to be mentioned; even its ruins have not been discovered until within the last two centuries; and it is only within the present century that these ruins have been traced and described. These consist of numerous mounds, usually of brick, deeply furrowed and decayed by time, strewn with fragments of brick, bitumen, pottery, etc. One of these is described above. See Isaiah 13:14 .
The name of Babylon is used symbolically in Revelation 14:8 16:1-21 17:1-18 18:1-24 , to mark the idolatry, superstition, lewdness luxury, and persecution of the people of God, which characterized heathen Rome and modern Antichrist. Some thus interpret 1 Peter 5:13 2 . There was also a Babylon in Egypt, a city not far from Heliopolis. Some suppose this to be the Babylon mentioned 1 Peter 5:13 ; but this is not probable.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Babylon
BABYLON . Bâbel is the Hebrew form of the native name Bâb-ili , ‘Gate of God.’ It was also Tin-tir or ‘Seat of life,’ and E or E-ki . It is likely that these names once denoted separate towns gradually incorporated. Other quarters of Babylon were Shu-anna, Tç, Shuppatu, and Litamu. According to the Heb. tradition ( Genesis 10:10 ), it was as old as Erech, Akkad, and Calneh. Native tradition makes it as old as Erech and Nippur, the latter being proved by excavations to date back to prehistoric times. Babylon is from Bâb-ilani . It lay on the E. bank of the Euphrates, part of its site being now occupied by Hillah, about 50 miles S. of Baghdad. The ruins extend for 5 miles N. to S. Bâbil, the N. ruin, covers 120,000 sq. ft. and is still 90 ft. high. It covers the remains of the celebrated Esagila temple. The Mujellibeh is not much less in area, and 28 ft. high.
The Kasr contains the ruins of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace, along whose E. side ran the sacred procession street, decorated with enamelled tiles representing the dragon and the re’çm , to the Istar-gate at the S.E. corner. The whole was enclosed within an irregular triangle, formed by two lines of ramparts and the river, an area of about 8 sq. miles. The city crossed the river to the W., where are remains of a palace of Neriglissar. In later times it became coterminous with many other large cities, and Herodotus ascribes to it a circuit of 55 miles. The German excavations now being carried on may be expected to solve the many problems connected with the site.
From the very earliest times the kings and rulers of Babylonia worked at the building of its temples, palaces, walls, bridges, quays, etc. Hammurabi first raised it to be the capital of all Babylonia. It was sacked by Sennacherib in b.c. 689, the chief palaces, temples, and city walls levelled with the ground, and the waters of the Euphrates turned over it. Esarhaddon began to rebuild it, and it stood another long siege under his son, Ashurbanipal. Nabopolassar began its restoration; Nebuchadrezzar raised it to its height of glory. Cyrus took it without resistance, and held his court there. Darius Hystaspis besieged, took it, and destroyed its walls. Xerxes plundered it. Alexander the Great planned to restore it. Antiochus Soter actually began the restoration of its great temple. The foundation of Seleucia robbed it of its population, but the temple services continued to b.c. 29, at least. See, further, Assyria and Babylonia.
C. H. W. Johns.
BABYLON (in NT). Babylon was apparently used by the early Church as a symbol for Rome. 1 . In Rev. ( Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:5 ; Revelation 18:2 ; Revelation 18:10 ; Revelation 18:21 ) its destruction is foretold, because of its sins, and particularly because of its persecution. Such identification is, however, somewhat uncertain, and rests ultimately on the Improbability that the word in the connexion in which it appears can refer to the city of Mesopotamia (the word is so used in Matthew 1:11 ; Matthew 12:17 , Acts 7:43 ). This basal probability is supported by the fact that Babylon is called ‘mystery’ in Revelation 17:5 , is said to be seated on seven mountains ( Revelation 17:9 ), and to be a centre of commerce and authority ( Revelation 18:3-19 ; Revelation 18:17 ; Revelation 14:8 ). Rome is apparently called Babylon in Sib. Or . V. 143, 158; 2 Es.; Apoc. [1] Baruch.
This identification of Babylon in Revelation with Rome dates at least from the time of Jerome. The attempt to identify it with an apostate Judah and Jerusalem can hardly be taken seriously. The fact that Revelation utilized the Jewish apocalyptic material further makes it imperative that the term symbolize a power which stood related both to Christians and Jews, in a way parallel with the relation of Babylon to the ancient Hebrew nation.
2 . The reference to Babylon in 1 Peter 5:13 has had three interpretations: ( a ) Babylon in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo and Epiphanius; ( b ) Babylon on the Euphrates; and ( c ) Rome. In view of the symbolic use of the word ‘Babylon,’ as mentioned in the foregoing, the last seems the most probable. Eusebius ( HE ii. 15) so interprets the reference, and, in view of the ancient and persistent tradition, there is nothing improbable in St. Peter’s having been in Rome. This probability is strengthened by the reference to the persecution to which Christians were being subjected. Assyrian Babylon in the second half of the 1st elm was in decay, and 1Peter would be particularly appropriate if sent out from the seat of a persecution, such as that of Nero, or possibly of Domitian.
Shailer Mathews.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Babylon
Although its boundaries varied from one era to the next, the land of Babylon was always centred on Mesopotamia, the region of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. This was the region where the biblical story of early human history is centred and where the Garden of Eden was located (Genesis 2:10-14). In ancient times the northern part was often known as Akkad (or Accad; Genesis 10:10), and the southern part as Sumer, then Shinar, and later Chaldea (Genesis 10:10; Genesis 11:2; Genesis 11:28; Ezekiel 12:13; Ezekiel 23:15). The land was named after its chief city, Babylon, which earlier was known as Babel (Genesis 11:9; Jeremiah 51:31; see BABEL).
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Babylon - Capital of the Neo-Babylon Empire of the mid-first millennium b. Babylon has both a historic role and a theological role in the Bible. In the Book of Revelation, these themes culminate in the image of the whore of Babylon. As a result of this biblical imagery, Babylon has transcended its historical significance to become synonymous with sin and pride in Western art and literature. ...
Babylon first appears in the Bible under the guise of the tower of Babel (Genesis 11 ). The Hebrew word for "confused" in verse 9 is babal , which sounds like babel [1] (Babylon). ...
During the reign of Hezekiah, envoys from Babylon came to Jerusalem (2 Kings 20:12-19 ). The prophet Isaiah chastised the king for showing off the treasures of Judah and predicted that Babylon would some day carry these riches off. The visit was probably an attempt by Babylon to foment problems for Assyria in the west, thereby diverting attention from Babylon. The postexilic reader would have seen the roots of the destruction of Jerusalem in the foolish pride of Hezekiah and in the greed of Babylon. ...
The prophets describe Babylon as a city of pride and idolatry. Yet the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon presents the prophets with a dilemma. If God is sovereign and makes use of Babylon to punish Judah, can Babylon—as a tool in the hand of its Masterbe blamed for its behavior? Isaiah addresses this problem by portraying Babylon as a woman, the queen of kingdoms (47:5), who should be tender and delicate but is not. Although the conquest of Jerusalem is in keeping with the will of God, the brutality and greed of the conquerorsthe fruit of Babylon's idolatry and failure to recognize the kingship of Godare not. Because of Babylon's pride, she will be destroyed. Psalm 137 personifies Babylon as a woman who is doomed to destruction and whose infant children will be savagely killed. ...
Jeremiah sees the future destruction of Babylon as a punishment because the Babylonians rejoiced at the destruction of Judah and ruthlessly plundered the people of God (50:11). Babylon herself will become a "heap of ruins" (51:37). Daniel reinforces the picture of Babylon as full of pride and defiance toward God. Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, is punished with madness because he denied God's control over "Babylon the Great" (4:30). ...
Centuries after the destruction of the Neo-Babylonian state by Cyrus of Persia, Babylon reappears in a dramatic role in the Book of Revelationa role marked by numerous references to Old Testament imagery. ...
The dominant image of Babylon in Revelation is the city's personification of a rich woman, the "mother of prostitutes" (17:5). Babylon is a great city that rules over the earth. ...
Babylon, the historic oppressor of God's people, represents the new oppressor of Christ's church. The people of God, however, will be delivered from the grasp of the prophetic Babylon just as Ezekiel foretold for the exiles held captive in the historic Babylon
Bab'Ylon - (Revelation 14:8 ; 17:18 ) The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. (Jeremiah 51:7 ) with Reve 14:8 The occurrence of this name in (1 Peter 5:13 ) has given rise to a variety of conjectures, many giving it the same meaning as in the Apocalypse; others refer it to Babylon in Asia, and others still to Babylon in Egypt. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question
Dura - Plain in the province of Babylon, where Nebuchadnezzar's golden image was set up. of Babylon
Nebushasban - One of those princes who was sent from Babylon at the taking of Jerusalem. (Jeremiah 39:13) A compound word, principally having a regard to the idol of Babylon, Nebo
Babylonish - ) Of or pertaining to, or made in, Babylon or Babylonia. ) Pertaining to the Babylon of Revelation xiv
Battle-ax - Jeremiah 51:20 (a) GOD uses this figure to describe the great armies of Babylon. GOD had used the mighty King of Babylon to destroy, to cut down, and to whip the nations of the earth
Bavel - Babylon...
Chaldea - See Babylon...
Babylon, History And Religion of - Babylon was a city-state in southern Mesopotamia during Old Testament times, which eventually became a large empire that absorbed the nation of Judah and destroyed Jerusalem. ...
History The city of Babylon was founded in unknown antiquity on the river Euphrates, about 50 miles south of modern Baghdad. The English names Babylon and Babel (Genesis 10:10 ; Genesis 11:9 ) are translated from the same Hebrew word (babel ). Babylon may have been an important cultural center during the period of the early Sumerian city-states (before 2000 B. ...
Babylon emerged from anonymity shortly after 2000 B. ), the sixth king of this First Dynasty of Babylon, built a sizable empire through treaties, vassalage, and conquest. From his time forward, Babylon was considered the political seat of southern Mesopotamia, the region called Babylonia. ...
The political and socio-economic history of Babylonia in Hammurabi's time is well known thanks to extensive collections of cuneiform tablets discovered at various cities in Mesopotamia, especially at Mari. in Babylonia. ...
The Amorite dynasty of Babylon reached its apex under Hammurabi. the Hittites sacked Babylon. , when Babylonian kings corresponded with Egypt and struggled with the growing power of Assyria to the north. ...
When the Elamites withdrew to their Iranian homeland, princes native to the Babylonian city of Isin founded the Fourth Dynasty of Babylon. ) invaded Elam, Babylon entered a dark age for most of the next two centuries. Floods, famine, widespread settlement of nomadic Aramean tribes, and the arrival of Chaldeans in the south plagued Babylon during this time of confusion. ...
During the period of the Assyrian Empire, Babylon was dominated by this warlike neighbor to the north. A dynastic dispute in Babylon in 851 B. Babylon kings remained independent, but nominally subject to Assyrian “protection. ”...
A series of coups in Babylon prompted the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser III to enter Babylon in 728 B. , the Chaldean Marduk-apal-iddina, Merodach-baladan of the Old Testament, ruled Babylon. Babylon gained momentary independence, but in 710 B. Sargon, like Tiglath-pileser before him, took the throne of Babylon. , Babylon and other nations, including Judah under King Hezekiah, rebelled from Assyrian domination. Merodach-baladan had returned from Elam to Babylon. , the new Assyrian king, Sennacherib, attacked Babylon. After considerable intrigue in Babylon, another Elamite-sponsored revolt broke out against Assyria. , Sennacherib destroyed the sacred city of Babylon in retaliation. , was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for this unthinkable act. ...
Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon to win the allegiance of the populace. At his death, the crown prince Ashurbanipal ruled over Assyria, while another son ascended the throne of Babylon. when the Babylonian king rebelled against his brother. Ashurbanipal finally prevailed and was crowned king of a resentful Babylon. , Babylon fell into the hands of a Chaldean chief, Nabopolassar, first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh. The remnants of the Assyrian army rallied at Haran in north Syria, which was abandoned at the approach of the Babylonians in 610 B. Egypt, however, challenged Babylon for the right to inherit Assyria's empire. , Babylonian forces under the crown prince Nebuchadnezzar routed the Egyptians at the decisive Battle of Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ). The Babylonian advance, however, was delayed by Nabopolassar's death which obliged Nebuchadnezzar to return to Babylon and assume power. ), king of Babylon, campaigned along the Palestinian coast. At this time Jehoiakim, king of Judah, became an unwilling vassal of Babylon. A Babylonian defeat at the border of Egypt in 601 probably encouraged Jehoiakim to rebel. For two years Judah was harassed by Babylonian vassals (2 Kings 24:1-2 ). Jehoiakim died that same month, and his son Jehoiachin surrendered the city to the Babylonians on March 16,597 B. Many Judeans, including the royal family, were deported to Babylon (2 Kings 24:6-12 ). Texts excavated in Babylon show that rations were allotted to him and five sons. Against the protests of Jeremiah, but with promises of Egyptian aid, Zedekiah revolted against Babylon in 589 B. In the resultant Babylonian campaign, Judah was ravaged and Jerusalem besieged. Many more Judeans were taken to their Exile in Babylonia (2 Kings 25:1-21 ; Jeremiah 52:1-30 ). ...
Apart from his military conquests, Nebuchadnezzar is noteworthy for a massive rebuilding program in Babylon itself. A cellar with shafts in part of the palace may have served as the substructure to the famous “Hanging Gardens of Babylon,” described by classical authors as one of the wonders of the ancient world. Babylon contained many temples, the most important of which was Esagila, the temple of the city's patron god, Marduk. Just north of Esagila lay the huge stepped tower of Babylon, a ziggurat called Etemenanki and its sacred enclosure. No doubt Babylon greatly impressed the Jews taken there in captivity and provided them with substantial economic opportunities. ...
Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king of the Neo-Babylonian Period and the last truly great ruler of Babylon. The last king of Babylon, Nabonidus (556-539 B. He moved his residence to Tema in the Syro-Arabian Desert for ten years, leaving his son Belshazzar (Daniel 5:1 ) as regent in Babylon. , the Persian Cyrus II (the Great) entered Babylon without a fight. Thus ended Babylon's dominant role in Near Eastern politics. ...
Babylon remained an important economic center and provincial capital during the period of Persian rule. ” Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian Empire, embarked on a program of rebuilding in Babylon which was interrupted by his death in 323 B. ...
In Judeo-Christian thought, Babylon the metropolis, like the Tower of Babel, became symbolic of man's decadence and God's judgment. “Babylon” in Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:5 ; Revelation 18:2 and probably in 1 Peter 5:13 refers to Rome, the city which personified this idea for early Christians. Babylonian religion is the best known variant of a complex and highly polytheistic system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia. ...
After the political rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. The son of Ea and patron god of Babylon, Marduk began to attain the position of prominence in Babylonian religion in the time of Hammurabi. Marduk's son Nabu (the Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), god of the nearby city of Borsippa, was considered the god of writing and scribes and became especially exalted in the Neo-Babylonian Period. Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), had a major temple in Babylon and was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ). ...
A number of myths concerning Babylonian gods are known, the most important of which is the Enuma elish , or Creation Epic. This myth originated in Babylon, where one of its goals was to show how Marduk became the leading god. Finally, Marduk was exalted and installed in his temple, Esagila, in Babylon. ...
The Enuma elish was recited and reenacted as part of the twelve-day New Year Festival in Babylon
Merodach - Death; slaughter, the name of a Babylonian god, probably the planet Mars (Jeremiah 50:2 ), or it may be another name of Bel, the guardian divinity of Babylon. This name frequently occurs as a surname to the kings of Assyria and Babylon
Ellasar - The Chaldeaan Larsa, Greek Larissa, a town of lower Babylon, half way between Ur (Mugheir) and Erech (Warka) on the left bank of the Euphrates. The inscriptions prove it a primitive capital, probably older than Babylon
Shinar - Shinar was an ancient name for the land of Babylon. (For details see BABEL; Babylon
Zedekiah - Others who bore the name Zedekiah were a prophet in the court of Ahab (1 Kings 2:11; 1 Kings 2:24), an administrator in the government of Jehoiakim (Jeremiah 36:12), a son of Jehoiakim (1 Chronicles 3:16) and a false prophet among the Jewish captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:21-23). The king of Babylonian appointed him king after the former king and all Judah’s best people had been taken captive to Babylon (in 597 BC; 2 Kings 24:10-17). Little is known of the early part of Zedekiah’s reign, except that in his fourth year he paid a visit to Babylon (Jeremiah 51:59). ...
With all Jerusalem’s best administrators now captive in Babylon, Zedekiah’s government was immature and weak. His officials encouraged him to seek help from Egypt and rebel against Babylon. He advised the people to submit to Babylon, and so at least soften the judgment that was to fall upon them (2 Kings 24:18-20; 2 Chronicles 36:11-14; Jeremiah 27:1; Jeremiah 27:12-15). ...
Zedekiah, however, followed the advice of the pro-Egypt party and rebelled against Babylon. As a result he brought upon Jerusalem the besieging armies of Babylon (2 Kings 24:20 b; 25:1; Jeremiah 32:1-2). When he asked Jeremiah to pray that God would remove the Babylonians, Jeremiah replied that God would not remove them. Jeremiah advised that it would be better to surrender and be taken captive to Babylon than to resist and die in the siege (Jeremiah 21:1-10). ...
When Egypt came to Jerusalem’s aid, Babylon lifted the siege temporarily, but Jeremiah warned Zedekiah that Babylon would return and crush both Egypt and Judah (Jeremiah 37:1-10). Meanwhile in Babylon, Ezekiel likewise warned of the increased suffering that Zedekiah’s rebellion against Babylon would bring upon Jerusalem (Ezekiel 17:12-21). ...
After eighteen months of siege, the Babylonian army broke through the walls of Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:1-4; Jeremiah 39:1-3). They then executed his sons in front of him, blinded him and took him in chains to Babylon, where later he died (2 Kings 25:4-7; Ezekiel 12:10-13; Ezekiel 21:25-27...
Chebar - (chee' bahr) River in Babylon where Ezekiel had visions (Ezekiel 1:1 ; Ezekiel 3:15 ; Ezekiel 10:15 ; Ezekiel 43:3 ). This is probably to be identified with the nar Kabari, a channel of the Euphrates River southeast of Babylon
Ahava - (ay' hay' vuh) River in Babylon and town located beside the river where Ezra assembled Jews to return to Jerusalem from Exile (Ezra 8:15 ,Ezra 8:15,8:21 ,Ezra 8:21,8:31 ). Ahava was probably located near the city of Babylon, but the exact site is not known
Zerubbabel - A stranger at Babylon; dispersion of confusion
Chaldea - or Babylonia, the country lying on both sides of the Euphrates, of which Babylon was the capital; and extending southward to the Persian Gulf, and northward into Mesopotamia, at least as far as Ur, which is called Ur of the Chaldees. See Babylon
Merodach-Baladan - King of Babylon, Isaiah 39:1—signifying sorrow
Lebkamai - Cryptic term Jeremiah used to refer to Babylon as Israel's enemy. ” See Babylon ; Chaldea; Jeremiah
Sheshach - (Jeremiah 25:26 ), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jeremiah 51:41 , where Sheshach and Babylon are in parallel clauses. There seems to be no reason to doubt that Babylon is here intended by this name
Mishael or Meshach - A fellow-captive with Daniel in Babylon
Casiphia - On the road between Babylon and Jerusalem (Esther 8:17)
Belshazzar - Son of Nebuchadnezzar, last king of Babylon, before its capture by Cyrus ( Daniel 5:1 ). He was regent in Babylon during the latter part of his father’s reign. It is probable that he was in command of Babylon on its surrender, as he had been in command of the army in Akkad till the 11th year of his father’s reign
Archevites - Their name is mentioned in Ezra 4:9 along with dwellers in Babylon; and the deportation of Archevites most probably indicates that Erech sided with Babylon in the revolt of Samas-sum-ukin against the Assyr
ne'Hum - (consolation ), one of those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Asnah - Father of some of the Nethinim, who returned from Babylon
Casiphia - Place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided: otherwise unknown
Perida, the Children of - Returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Merodach - An idol of Babylon
Preexilic - Period in Israel's history before the Exile in Babylon (586-538 B
Dura - The plain in Babylon where Nebuchadnezzar set up his golden image
Gib'Bar - (gigantic ), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon
Mis'Pereth, - one of those who returned with Zerubbabel and Jeshua from Babylon
Marduk - (mahr' dyook) Chief god of Babylon, sometimes called Merodach or Bel, the Babylonian equivalent of Baal meaning lord. The prophets mocked Marduk and his worshipers as products of human craftsmen who would lead Babylon to defeat and exile (Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ,Jeremiah 50:2,50:38 ; Jeremiah 51:47 ). See Babylon ; Bel ; Gods, Pagan
Sheshach - Mystical name applied to Babylon. According to Jerome the name Babylon, from Babel, was made up of the letters B B L (the 2nd and the 12th letters of the Hebrew alphabet) these were changed into SH SH CH (the 2nd and the 12th letters reckoning from the end of the same alphabet), a mode well known to later Jews. It has been supposed that the Jews made this alteration in the name in order that they might speak of the judgements coming upon Babylon without giving offence to those who had carried them away captive
Captivities of Judah - The captivities of Judah are generally reckoned four: the first, in the year of the world 3398, under King Jehoiakim, when Daniel and others were carried to Babylon; the second, in the year of the world 3401, and in the seventh year of the reign of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried three thousand and twenty-three Jews to Babylon; the third, in the year of the world 3406, and in the fourth of Jehoiachin, when this prince, with part of people, was sent to Babylon; and the fourth in the year 3416, under Zedekiah, from which period begins the captivity of seventy years, foretold by the Prophet Jeremiah. Hales computes that the first of these captivities, which he thinks formed the commencement, of the Babylonish captivity, took place in the year before Christ 605. The Jews were removed to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, who, designing to render that city the capital of the east, transplanted thither very great numbers of people, subdued by him in different countries. In Babylon the Jews had judges and elders, who governed them, and who decided matters in dispute juridically, according to their laws. Cyrus, in the year of the world 3457, and in the first year of his reign at Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their own country, Ezra 1:1 . The Jews assert that only the refuse of their nation returned from the captivity, and that the principal of them continued in and near Babylon, where they had been settled, and where they became very numerous. It may, however, be doubted whether the refuse of Judah was really carried to Babylon. It appears from incidental observations in Scripture that some remained; and Major Rennell has offered several reasons for believing that only certain classes of the Jews were deported to Babylon, as well as into Assyria
Captivity - Term used for Israel's Exile in Babylon between 597 B
Feroher - ) A symbol of the solar deity, found on monuments exhumed in Babylon, Nineveh, etc
Casiphia - Silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided (Ezra 8:17 ); otherwise unknown
Chaldea - Ancient Babylonia was occupied largely by people belonging to two racial groups, the Sumerians and the Amorites. The most important of the smaller groups were the Chaldeans, who lived in the south of Babylon around the lower reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. ...
In the time before Abraham, the Babylonian rulers were mainly of Sumerian descent and their capital was the Chaldean city of Ur, from which Abraham originally came (Genesis 11:28; Acts 7:4). About 2000 BC Babylonians of Amorite descent overthrew the dynasty in Ur and established a new capital at the city of Babylon. (For a map of the region and further details of Babylon’s history see Babylon. )...
Many centuries later, during the period covered by the biblical books of Kings, a Babylonian of Chaldean descent seized the throne in Babylon (about 720 BC). Chaldeans continued to rule till Babylon was overthrown by Persia in 539 BC. As a result of this Chaldean domination, the practice arose of using ‘Chaldea’ as a name for the land of Babylon as a whole, and ‘Chaldeans’ as a name for Babylonians in general (Isaiah 13:19; Isaiah 47:1; Isaiah 48:14; Isaiah 48:20; Jeremiah 25:12; Daniel 5:30; Daniel 9:1)
Nebuchadnezzar - ” King of Babylon 602-562 B. See Babylon, History and Religion of
Lucifer - Brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isaiah 14:12 ) to denote his glory
Hatita - He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Anan - Cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 10:26 )
Sam'Gar-ne'bo - (sword of Nebo ), one of the princes or generals of the king of Babylon
Cutha - His sons were among the Temple servants who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Peri'da - (grain, kernel ), The children of Perida returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Casiph'ia - (silvery, white ), a place of uncertain site on the road between Babylon and Jerusalem
Battle-Axe - Applied metaphorically (Jeremiah 51:20 ) to Cyrus, God's instrument in destroying Babylon
Babylonical - ) Pertaining to Babylon, or made there; as, Babylonic garments, carpets, or hangings
Bil'Shan - (eloquent ), one of Zerubbabel's companions on his expedition from Babylon
Sud - The name of a river or canal of Babylon named in Bar 1:4 . This name has not yet been found in the literature of Babylonia, and it seems probable that there is a mistake in the text, the true reading being Sur . A Babylonian text mentions a river or canal in the neighbourhood of Babylon called Nâr Suru , and this may be the stream intended
Evil-Merodach - Merodach's man, the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (2 Kings 25:27 ; Jeremiah 52:31,34 ). Influenced probably by Daniel, he showed kindness to Jehoiachin, who had been a prisoner in Babylon for thirty-seven years
Carrying Away - A — 1: μετοικεσία (Strong's #3350 — Noun Feminine — metoikesia — met-oy-kes-ee'-ah ) "a change of abode, or a carrying away by force" (meta, implying "change," oikia, "a dwelling"), is used only of the carrying away to Babylon, Matthew 1:11,12,17 . ...
B — 1: μετοικίζω (Strong's #3351 — Verb — metoikizo — met-oy-kid'-zo ) akin to A, is used of the removal of Abraham into Canaan, Acts 7:4 , and of the carrying into Babylon, 7:43
Merathaim - Double rebellion, probably a symbolical name given to Babylon (Jeremiah 50:21 ), denoting rebellion exceeding that of other nations
Mizpar - Number, one of the Jews who accompanied Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezra 2:2 ); called also Mispereth (Nehemiah 7:7 )
Hariph, the Children of - (Nehemiah 7:24), called also Jorah in Ezra 2:18; 112 returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 10:19)
Eliaonias - A descendant of Phaathmoab, who returned from Babylon with Esdras
Leb'Ana - (white ), one of the Nethinim whose descendants returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Haku'Pha - Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
ha'Gab - Bene-Hagab were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Naham'Aai - (merciful ), a chief man among those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel and Jeshua
Azi'za - (strong ) a layman of the family of Zattu, who had married a foreign wife after the return from Babylon
ma-Asi'ai - (work of the Lord ), a priest who after the return from Babylon dwelt in Jerusalem
Babylon - Nimrod's BABELwas doubtless in some way connected with the renowned city ofBabylon and of the kingdom of which it was the capital. The Hebrew is Babel, the same for Babel and Babylon. This direction agrees well with the locality of Babylon on the river Euphrates. In Jeremiah 50:11 of Babylon it is said, 'O ye destroyers of mine heritage, because ye are grown fat as the heifer at grass, and bellow as bulls;' its broad walls are mentioned, Jeremiah 51:12,58 ; its gates of brass and bars of iron, Isaiah 45:2 ; and Nebuchadnezzar boasted of the 'great Babylon' which he had built by the might of his power and for the honour of his majesty. Babylon was built with bricks, there being no stone at all near, and in later years the mounds were ransacked for bricks for other cities. ...
Of the early governments in Babylon but little is known with certainty. 2458 to 625 various dynasties of Medes, Chaldaeans, Arabs, and Assyrians; and lastly Babylonians from B. ...
Babylon and Assyria are much blended together in history, sometimes being independent one of the other, and at other times being tributary to one another. 745 Tiglath-pileser may be said to have founded the later kingdom of Assyria, and among his victories he became master of Babylonia, as the kingdom of Babylon was called. About 721Merodachbaladan became king of Babylon, and in 712 he sent ambassadors to Hezekiah on hearing of his sickness. 702Sennacherib king of Assyria expelled Merodach, and Babylon was governed by viceroys from Assyria. 681Esar-haddon became king of Assyria but held his court at Babylon, to which place Manasseh king of Judah was carried prisoner about B. 625 Nabo-polassar revolted from the king of Assyria and established the later kingdom of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar, co-regent with Nabo-polassar, took Jerusalem, and carried many captives and the holy vessels to Babylon, about B. 603Jehoiakim revolted and in 599 Nebuchadnezzar again took Jerusalem, and Ezekiel was carried to Babylon: this is called the great captivity. Having rebelled against Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, after a siege of eighteen months, once more took Jerusalem, destroyed the city and burnt the house of the Lord, bringing the kingdom of Judah to an end: B. The glory of the later Babylonian Empire virtually began and ended with him. The succession of kings was somewhat as follows: ...
KINGS OF Babylon. ...
538 Babylon taken, and Belshazzar slain. End of the Empire of Babylon. ...
Babylon has a large place in the O. with reference to its intercourse with Israel, in nearly every chapter of Jeremiah, from 20 - 52, Babylon is mentioned. Babylon is also of note as being the first of the four great empires prophesied of by Daniel. Babylon was God's instrument by which Judah was punished; and then because of the pride and wickedness of the king of Babylon he also was brought under the rod of the Almighty. ...
The destruction of Babylon was fully foretold in scripture, though some of these prophecies may refer also to still future events, namely, the overthrow by the Lord (typified by Cyrus) of the last holder of Nebuchadnezzar-like authority, namely, the beast, the last head of the revived Roman empire. For 24 years after the death of Nebuchadnezzar Babylon continued the seat of the imperial court. ...
The monuments show that Babylon was taken by Gobryas the general of Cyrus, and that the capture of the city was, as some think, aided by treachery among its inhabitants. He had been conquered by Cyrus, who may have found it to his advantage to let him reign at Babylon as long as he lived. Persia gained the ascendancy, and Babylon was a royal residence during part of the year. ...
Scripture is very decisive as to the utter destruction of the city: "Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. ...
The moral features of Babylon were idolatrous corruption and worldliness, which will be seen in full manifestation in Babylon the Great. Babylon is mentioned in 1 Peter 5:13 . On the occasion of the gathering at Jerusalem in Acts 2:9-11 mention is made of the Parthians, Medes and Elamites; and when Peter commences his epistle, supposing he was in the district of Babylon, he naturally puts Pontus first and then passes on to Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. There can be no reason therefore to doubt that the ancient district of Babylon is alluded to by Peter, where, through God's grace, there were some of the 'elect
Senaah - Thorny, a place many of the inhabitants of which returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:35 ; Nehemiah 7:38 )
Sheshach - A poetical name for Babylon, signifying, as some judge, house or court of the prince, Jeremiah 25:26 ; 51:41
Ur - The ancient city of Ur was in the land of Chaldea, which was part of a larger territory commonly known as Babylon. (For further details see AMORITES; Babylon
Bebai - (bee' bay i) Babylonian personal name meaning, “child. Original ancestor of clan of whom 623 (Nehemiah 7:16,628 ) returned with Zerubbabel from Exile in Babylon about 537 B. His son, or at least a member of the clan, led 28 men from Babylon to Jerusalem with Ezra (Ezra 8:11 )
Mehi'da - returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Jews - The name borne by the Hebrews among foreign nations, especially after the return from Babylon; from Judah their ancestor
Hak'Katan - Johanan son ,of Hakkatan, was the chief of the Bene-Azgad who returned from Babylon with Ezra
Tel-Haresha - Hill of the wood, a place in Babylon from which some captive Jews returned to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:59 ; Nehemiah 7:61 )
Bilshan - ” Leader of returning exiles with Zerubbabel from Babylon about 537 B
Baladan - A king of Babylon
Har'Sha - Bene-Harsha were among the families of Nethinim who came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Sheshach - Babylon, from their goddess Shach reduplicated, as they named Misael Meshach. SHACE was the designation of a Babylonian feast to Shach, of five days' duration, during which unbridled license prevailed as at the Roman saturnalia. Cyrus during it took Babylon; thus Jeremiah prophesies the concomitants of the capture. But in Jeremiah 51:41 concealment cannot have been Jeremiah's object, for he mentions "Babylon" (Jeremiah 51:42)
Esar-Haddon - He sent priests to the Cuthaeans, whom Salmaneser, king of Assyria, had planted in Samaria, instead of the Israelites: he took Jerusalem, and carried King Manasseh to Babylon, of which he had become master, perhaps, because there was no heir to Belesis, king of Babylon. He is said to have reigned twenty-nine or thirty years at Nineveh, and thirteen years at Babylon; in all forty-two years
Erech - of Babylon, now Warka; in the land of Shinar. (See Babylon
Besom - The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isaiah 14:23 , of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon
Nabonidus - ” Last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (555-539 B. See Babylon
Ramiah - One who returned from Babylon, (Ezra 10:25) The compound makes the name, raised up of the Lord
Nabonidus - ” Last king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (555-539 B. See Babylon
Har'Hur - The sons of Harhur were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Medes - And as the Lord had appointed these nations for the destruction of Babylon when her time was come, so she was the Lord's scourge for Israel. Isaiah begins the relation at Isaiah 13:1-22 with the burden of Babylon, and the subject continues, in respect to Israel's deliverance from Babylon, through that add the following chapter Isaiah 14:1-32. The prophet resumes the subject of Babylon's destruction at Isaiah 21:1-17; but the chief prophecy concerning the final ruin of Babylon, is in Isaiah 45:1-25 and following chapters, where Cyrus the Persian, as the destroyer of Babylon, is called by his name, although this was near two hundred years before the events there predicted were intended to be fulfilled. Daniel takes up the subject at the period where the prophecy of Isaiah came to be accomplished, and in Daniel 5:1-31 relates to the church the downfall of Babylon, and the death of the impious gang Belshazzar
Lucifer - ) Symbol of the once bright but now fallen king of Babylon. The title belongs of right to Christ (Revelation 22:16), therefore about to be assumed by antichrist, of whom Babylon is type and mystical Babylon the forerunner (Revelation 17:4-5). The language is primarily drawn from that of Satan himself, the spirit that energized the pagan world power Babylon, that now energizes the apostate church, and shall at last energize the last secular antichrist (the fourth kingdom little horn) and his champion, the false prophet (the third kingdom little horn), the harlot's successor, who shall oppress Israel, as the fourth kingdom little horn oppresses the Gentile world: Daniel 7:8-26 (Chaldee); Daniel 8:9-11 (Hebrew); Revelation 13:4; Revelation 16:13-14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9
Heldai - ...
...
Zechariah 6:10 , one who returned from Babylon
Enrimmon - Reinhabited by the Jews who returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:29)
Minni - A kingdom summoned to a war against Babylon, with Ararat and Ashchenaz, Jeremiah 51:27 ; supposed to denote Armenia, or a portion of it
Babylon - Babylon . Other quarters of Babylon were Shu-anna, Tç, Shuppatu, and Litamu. Babylon is from Bâb-ilani . ...
From the very earliest times the kings and rulers of Babylonia worked at the building of its temples, palaces, walls, bridges, quays, etc. Hammurabi first raised it to be the capital of all Babylonia. See, further, Assyria and Babylonia. ...
Babylon (in NT). Babylon was apparently used by the early Church as a symbol for Rome. This basal probability is supported by the fact that Babylon is called ‘mystery’ in Revelation 17:5 , is said to be seated on seven mountains ( Revelation 17:9 ), and to be a centre of commerce and authority ( Revelation 18:3-19 ; Revelation 18:17 ; Revelation 14:8 ). Rome is apparently called Babylon in Sib. ...
This identification of Babylon in Revelation with Rome dates at least from the time of Jerome. The fact that Revelation utilized the Jewish apocalyptic material further makes it imperative that the term symbolize a power which stood related both to Christians and Jews, in a way parallel with the relation of Babylon to the ancient Hebrew nation. The reference to Babylon in 1 Peter 5:13 has had three interpretations: ( a ) Babylon in Egypt, mentioned by Strabo and Epiphanius; ( b ) Babylon on the Euphrates; and ( c ) Rome. In view of the symbolic use of the word ‘Babylon,’ as mentioned in the foregoing, the last seems the most probable. Assyrian Babylon in the second half of the 1st elm was in decay, and 1Peter would be particularly appropriate if sent out from the seat of a persecution, such as that of Nero, or possibly of Domitian
Babylon - The little town of Hillah, near the site of Babylon, is built almost wholly of bricks taken from this single mound. ...
The Babylon mentioned in 1 Peter 5:13 was not Rome, as some have thought, but the literal city of Babylon, which was inhabited by many Jews at the time Peter wrote. ...
In Revelation 14:8 ; 16:19 ; 17:5 ; and 18:2, "Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not considered as pagan, but as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. "The literal Babylon was the beginner and supporter of tyranny and idolatry. This city and its whole empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon. And it was her method to adopt the worship of the false deities she had conquered; so that by her own act she became the heiress and successor of all the Babylonian idolatry, and of all that was introduced into it by the immediate successors of Babylon, and consequently of all the idolatry of the earth. " Rome, or "mystical Babylon," is "that great city which reigneth over the kings of the earth" (17:18)
Babylon - Babylon (băb'by-lon), Greek form of Babel. The noted capital of the Chaldæan and Babylonian empires, situated on both sides of the Euphrates river, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, 300 miles from the Persian Gulf. Babylon, according to Herodotus, was a vast square on both sides of the Euphrates, enclosed by a double line of walls, about 56 miles in circuit and including about 200 square miles. Oppert and Rawlinson, as explorers, hold that the ruins warrant the statement of Herodotus as to the extent of Babylon. The wall of Babylon was surmounted by 250 towers, and it had 100 gates of brass. Babylon is described as cut into squares—some say 676—by straight streets crossing each other at right angles, those at the river being closed by brazen gates, as the banks of the river were fortified by high walk; the river was crossed by drawbridges and lined with quays; the two palaces on opposite sides of the river were connected by a bridge, and also by a tunnel under the river. Babylon is named over 250 times in the Bible. Then, except some allusion to Shinar, Genesis 14:1, the Chaldæans, Job 1:17, and the Babylonish garment (R. Even before Babylon reached the summit of its glory, Isaiah prophesied: "Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah: It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation; neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there; but wild beasts of the desert shall lie there. It describes Babylon as it has been for many centuries and is now. The modern town of Hillah now occupies a portion of the space covered by the ruins of ancient Babylon, and a telegraph connects it with the city of Bagdad. ...
Babylon, in Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2; Revelation 18:21, is a symbolical name for heathen Rome, which took the place of ancient Babylon as a persecuting power. This is also the sense given to Babylon in 1 Peter 5:13 by the fathers and many commentators; but others refer it to Babylon in Asia, since it is quite possible that Peter labored for a while in that city, where there was at that time a large Jewish colony; still others maintain that Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo, is meant
Peter, Epistles of - It was written probably at Babylon on the Euphrates, 1 Peter 5:13 . See Babylon. Some, however, interpret this of Rome, and others of a petty town in Egypt called Babylon
Berodach-Baladan - The king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:12 )
Samgar-Nebo - Be gracious, O Nebo! or a cup-bearer of Nebo, probably the title of Nergal-sharezer, one of the princes of Babylon (Jeremiah 39:3 )
Bran - The burning of bran for incense is mentioned in Bar 6:43 as an accompaniment of the idolatrous worship of the women of Babylon
Hat'Ipha - sons of Hatipha) were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Dar'Kon - Children of Darkon were among the "servants of Solomon" who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Besai - A clan of Temple employees who returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Baladan - ” Father of Merodach Baladan, king of Babylon (722-711; 705-703 B
Jezaniah - Army captain loyal to Gedaliah, the governor Babylon appointed over Judah immediately after Babylon destroyed Jerusalem and took the Jewish leaders into Exile about 586 B
Rav - Last of the Mishnaic sages and the first of the Babylonian Talmudic sages. Born in Babylon, he studied in Israel in his youth, but returned to Babylon and studied in Nahardea, where he befriended and was appointed as "Inspector of the Markets" by the exilarch
Nathan (2) - Nathan of Babylon, Rabbi: (2century CE) Mishnaic sage, student of Rabbi Ishmael and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus. He left a privileged life in Babylon to study Torah in Israel, where he was eventually appointed as the head of the Sanhedrin
Ages of the World - ...
YEARS...
* The first, from the creation to the flood containing a period of 1656...
* The second, from Noah to Abraham 425...
* The third, from Abraham to the going forth of Israel from Egypt 430...
* The fourth, from the departure from Egypt to Solomon's temple 479...
* The fifth from Solomon's in the captivity in Babylon 424...
* The sixth, from the going into Babylon to the coming of Christ 584...
Bilgah - ...
A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:5,18 )
Alexander Iii, the Great - ) King of Macedon, born Pella, Macedonia; died Babylon
Habai'ah, - Bene-Habaiah were among the sons of the priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Babylo'Nians, - the inhabitants of Babylon, a race of Shemitic origin, who were among the colonists planted in the cities of Samaria by the conquering Assyrian
Merodach - The name of the city-god of Babylon, worshipped, after the establishment of Babylon as capital of the Babylonian Empire, as chief god of Babylonia. The Babylonian name was Marduk , older form Maruduk . Hence he was in later times the Bçl of Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar was specially devoted to his worship, but the Assyrians reverenced him no less; and even Cyrus, on his conquest of Babylon, treated him with the deepest respect. The name occurs in many Babylonian proper names, and appears in the Bible in Merodach-baladan and Evil-merodach , and probably in Mordecai
Nebo (2) - The idol of Babylon and Assyria. Νabiu (Hamitic Babylonian), Νabu (Semitic Babylonian). Pul, from some special connection with Babylon (Ivalush III) gave Nebo a prominence in Assyrian worship which he had not before. Babylon from early ages held Nebo among the chief gods. is prostrate, "a burden to the weary beast" of the conqueror who carried the idol away; so far was Nebo from saving Babylon (Isaiah 46:1; 1 Samuel 5:3-4; Psalms 20:8)
Belteshazzar - (behl teh sshaz' zuhr) Babylonian name meaning, “protect the king's life. ” Name prince of eunuchs under Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, gave to Daniel (Daniel 1:7 )
Reelaiah - One of the priests which returned to Jerusalem from the captivity of Babylon, Ezra 2:2
Samgarnebo - One of the princes of Babylon present at the taking of Jerusalem, unless, as some suppose, the words are really the title of Nergal-sharezer
Melzar - The government of the person of Daniel and his companions when captives in Babylon, (Daniel 1:16) The word Melzar is of the Chaldean language, and signifies steward
Kolaiah - Father of Ahab the false prophet 'whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire
Nergal-Sharezer - Nergal, protect the king!
One of the "princes of the king of Babylon who accompanied him in his last expedition against Jerusalem" (Jeremiah 39:3,13 ). " He was a Babylonian grandee of high rank. From profane history and the inscriptions, we are led to conclude that he was the Neriglissar who murdered Evil-merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar, and succeeded him on the throne of Babylon (B. 555-538), at the close of which period Babylon was taken by Cyrus. Belshazzar, who comes into notice in connection with the taking of Babylon, was by some supposed to have been the same as Nabonadius, who was called Nebuchadnezzar's son (Daniel 5:11,18,22 ), because he had married his daughter. But it is known from the inscriptions that Nabonadius had a son called Belshazzar, who may have been his father's associate on the throne at the time of the fall of Babylon, and who therefore would be the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar
Babel - Babel is also the Hebrew word for Babylon. ...
Ruins of numerous temple-towers, called ziggurats, have been found in the region of Babylon. It is possible that ruins of the great temple-tower to Marduk found in the center of ancient Babylon is the focus of this narrative. The city of Babylon became to the Old Testament writers the symbol of utter rebellion against God and remained so even into the New Testament (Revelation 17:1-5 ). See Babylon
Hakkatan - ” Father of the clan leader who accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem about 458 B
Habaiah - ” Clan leader of exiled priests who returned from Babylon to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Soph'Ereth - "The children of Sophereth" were a family who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel among the descendants of Solomon's servants
Nehushta - She was taken a prisoner to Babylon with her son in 597 ( 2 Kings 24:12 )
Nabopolassar - ) who revolted from the Assyrians and established the Neo-Babylonian Empire. See Babylon
Nabopolassar - ) who revolted from the Assyrians and established the Neo-Babylonian Empire. See Babylon
Ebed - One of those who returned from Babylon with Ezra ( Ezra 8:6 ); called in 1Es 8:32 Obeth
Malluch - ...
...
A priest who returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:2 )
She'Shach - (from the goddess Shach , reduplicated) is a term which occurs only in ( Jeremiah 25:26 ; 51:41 ) where it is evidently used as a synonym for either Babylon or Babylonia
Golden City - "The golden city ceased," Isaiah 14:4 is better translated, as in the margin, "the exactress of gold ceased!" Babylon, which had heaped up gold by its conquests, was overcome
Athai'ah - (whom Jehovah made ), a descendant of Pharez, the son of Judah, who dwelt at Jerusalem after the return from Babylon, ( Nehemiah 11:4 ) called UTHAI in (1 Chronicles 9:4 )
Succoth-Benoth - A deity whose image was made and set up in Samaria by the colonists from Babylon. ]'>[1] Banith ) suggests ‘Banitu’ as it appears in the name Zarpanîtu in the inscriptions Zer-banitu the wife of Marduk, patron god of Babylon
Doctor - Schools were established after the destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon and Tiberias, in which academical degrees were conferred on those who passed a certain examination. Those of the school of Tiberias were called by the title "rabbi," and those of Babylon by that of "master
Bel - (behl) Name of Babylonian god, originally as city patron of Nippur, but then as a second name for the high god Marduk of Babylon. Isaiah mocked Babylon by describing their gods burdening down donkeys in procession out of the city into captivity
Nathan - Nathan of Babylon, Rabbi: (2century CE) Mishnaic sage, student of Rabbi Ishmael and Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus. He left a privileged life in Babylon to study Torah in Israel, where he was eventually appointed as the head of the Sanhedrin
Dura, Plain of - The precise locality is uncertain, but it must have been in the vicinity of Babylon. Doleful Creatures - , "shrieks;" hence "howling animals"), a general name for screech owls (howlets), which occupy the desolate palaces of Babylon
ja-a'la - Bene-Jaala were among the descendants of "Solomon's slaves" who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
e'Pha-i - (gloomy ), a Netophathite, whose sons were among the "captains of the forces" left in Judah after the deportation to Babylon
Mene - (Daniel 5:25,26 ), numbered, one of the words of the mysterious inscription written "upon the plaister of the wall" in Belshazzar's palace at Babylon
Nehelamite - The name given to a false prophet Shemaiah, who went with the captives to Babylon (Jeremiah 29:24,31,32 )
Ebed - Son of Jonathan; one of "the sons of Adin" (Ezra 8:6), who returned from Babylon with Ezra
Noadiah - Ezra 8:33; weighed the temple gold and silver vessels brought from Babylon
Mystical - ) Importing or implying mysticism; involving some secret meaning; allegorical; emblematical; as, a mystic dance; mystic Babylon
Archer - ...
Jeremiah 51:3 (b) This is a type of GOD's own people who are instructed to spare no effort in attacking "Babylon. " Babylon is a type of false religions (see under "BABYLON")
e'Sar-Had'Don - He is the only one of them whom we find to have actually reigned at Babylon, where he built himself a palace, bricks from which have been recently recovered bearing his name. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen years, from B. 667; and it was doubtless within this space of time that Manasseh king of Judah, having been seized by his captains at Jerusalem on a charge of rebellion, was brought before him at Babylon, ( 2 Chronicles 33:11 ) and detained for a time as prisoner there. Besides his palace at Babylon, he built at least three others in different parts of his dominions, either for himself or his sons, and thirty temples
Telabib - City of Chaldea or Babylon, on the river Chebar
Nebuchadnezzar - The remaining provinces of the Assyrian empire were divided between Babylonia and Media. The Egyptians met him at Carchemish, where a furious battle was fought, resulting in the complete rout of the Egyptians, who were driven back (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ), and Syria and Phoenicia brought under the sway of Babylon (B. ...
Three years after this, Jehoiakim, who had reigned in Jerusalem as a Babylonian vassal, rebelled against the oppressor, trusting to help from Egypt (2 Kings 24:1 ). A third time he came against it, and deposed Jehoiachin, whom he carried into Babylon, with a large portion of the population of the city, and the sacred vessels of the temple, placing Zedekiah on the throne of Judah in his stead. He also, heedless of the warnings of the prophet, entered into an alliance with Egypt, and rebelled against Babylon. Zedekiah was taken captive, and had his eyes put out by order of the king of Babylon, who made him a prisoner for the remainder of his life. " The inscription has been thus translated:, "In honour of Merodach, his lord, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in his lifetime had this made. " ...
A clay tablet, now in the British Museum, bears the following inscription, the only one as yet found which refers to his wars: "In the thirty-seventh year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon, he went to Egypt [1] to make war. Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, and inflicted chastisement on Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar now set himself to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon (Daniel 4:30 ), and to add to the greatness and prosperity of his kingdom by constructing canals and aqueducts and reservoirs surpassing in grandeur and magnificence everything of the kind mentioned in history (Daniel 2:37 ). ...
"Modern research has shown that Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest monarch that Babylon, or perhaps the East generally, ever produced. He must have possessed an enormous command of human labour, nine-tenths of Babylon itself, and nineteen-twentieths of all the other ruins that in almost countless profusion cover the land, are composed of bricks stamped with his name. His inscriptions give an elaborate account of the immense works which he constructed in and about Babylon itself, abundantly illustrating the boast, 'Is not this great Babylon which I have build?'" Rawlinson, Hist. 562, in the eighty-third or eighty-fourth year of his age, after a reign of forty-three years, and was succeeded by his son Evil-merodach, who, after a reign of two years, was succeeded by Neriglissar (559-555), who was succeeded by Nabonadius (555-538), at the close of whose reign (less than a quarter of a century after the death of Nebuchadnezzar) Babylon fell under Cyrus at the head of the combined armies of Media and Persia. Rawlinson, "the bricks belonging perhaps to a hundred different towns and cities in the neighbourhood of Baghdad, and I never found any other legend than that of Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. " Nine-tenths of all the bricks amid the ruins of Babylon are stamped with his name
Zedekiah - His reign was evil; he did not humble himself before the prophet Jeremiah, and profaned the name of Jehovah by breaking his oath to the king of Babylon. ...
Zedekiah was many times warned by Jeremiah against his course, and was advised to submit to Babylon; but for this Jeremiah was persecuted by the princes of Judah. Two prophecies respecting him are remarkable: one that he shall speak with the king of Babylon, and "his eyes shall behold his eyes," Jeremiah 32:4 ; and the other that "he shall be brought to Babylon, yet shall he not see it, though he shall die there. And thus it came to pass: on being carried before Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, his sons were slain before his face, then his eyes were put out, and he was carried to Babylon. Son of Maaseiah: he was a false prophet in Babylon among the captives: with Ahab he was burnt to death
Cherub - One of the places from which certain families, on the return from Babylon, failed to prove their register as genuine branches of the Israelite people
Riblah - The ancient town was upon the great road from Palestine to Babylon, and was a convenient military headquarters for the Babylonian kings and others invading the country. Here the Egyptian king Pharaoh-nechoh put Jehoahaz in chains and made Eliakim king, and here Nebuchadnezzar brought Zedekiah, murdered his sons before his eyes, and then put out his eyes and bound him in chains to be carried to Babylon
Calneh - One of Nimrod' s original seats meaning "the fort of the god Anu" (worshipped afterwards at Babylon) in the land of Shinar, i. Babylonia. of Babylon, in the marshes on the left bank of the Euphrates, towards the Tigris
Jehoiachin - In his brief reign Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem and carried the king and royal family, the chief men of the nation, and great treasures, unto Babylon. For 37 years he was a captive, but Evil-merodach liberated him and made him share the royal bounty and be head of all the captive kings in Babylon
Baalis - (bay' uh lihss) Personal name of king of Ammon who sent Ishmael to kill Geduliah, governor of Judah immediately after Babylon captured Jerusalem and sent most of Judah's citizens into the Exile (Jeremiah 40:14 )
Belshazzar - King of Babylon
Nebuchadnezzar - Nebuchadnezzar (nĕb'u-kad-nĕz'zar), may Nebo protect the crown or, more correctly, Nebuchadrezzar, the son and successor of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Babylonish monarchy, was the most illustrious of these kings. In the Berlin Museum there is a black cameo with his head upon it, cut by his order, with the inscription: "In honor of Merodach, his lord, Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in bis lifetime had this made. Having learned that his father had died, Nebuchadnezzar hastened back to Babylon. Thus the remark, "In his days Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant three years," 2 Kings 24:1, is easily explained. After his death his son Jehoiachin reigned, and against him Nebuchadnezzar, for the third time, invaded Palestine and besieged Jerusalem, and all the principal inhabitants were carried to Babylon. Zedekiah's two sons were killed before his eyes, and then his eyes put out, and he, as a captive, was carried to Babylon, b. The words, "The king spake and said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of my kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" Daniel 4:30, are proved to be characteristic by those on an inscription: "I say it, I have built the great house which is the centre of Babylon for the seat of my rule in Babylon. I did not put up buildings in Babylon for myself and for the honor of my name. " He built the hanging-gardens of Babylon on a large and artificial mound, terraced up to look like a hill
Seraiah - He was carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar to Babylon, and there put to death (2 Kings 25:18,23 ). When Zedekiah made a journey to Babylon to do homage to Nebuchadnezzar, Seraiah had charge of the royal gifts to be presented on that occasion. Jeremiah took advantage of the occasion, and sent with Seraiah a word of cheer to the exiles in Babylon, and an announcement of the doom in store for that guilty city. Babylon was at this time in the height of its glory, the greatest and most powerful monarchy in the world
Pekod - Probably a place in Babylonia (Jeremiah 50:21 ; Ezekiel 23:23 ). It is the opinion, however, of some that this word signifies "visitation," "punishment," and allegorically "designates Babylon as the city which was to be destroyed
Nebushasban - Adorer of Nebo, or Nebo saves me, the "Rabsaris," or chief chamberlain, of the court of Babylon
Jehoiarib - His "course" went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36-39 ; Nehemiah 7:39-42 )
Baalis - He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah, who was appointed by the king of Babylon governor over the cities of Judah (Jeremiah 40:14)
Shinar - A level region of indefinite extent around Babylon and the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, Genesis 10:10 11:2 14:1 Joshua 7:21 Isaiah 11:11 Daniel 1:2 Zechariah 5:11
Babylon, Mystical - Not 1 Peter 5:13, where "Babylon" can only mean the literal Babylon: "the (church) at Babylon . Moreover the literal Babylon was the center from which the Asiatic "dispersion" (dispersed Jews), whom Peter addresses, was derived. Babylon contained many Jews in the apostolic age ("one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world:" Lightfoot, quoted in Smith's Dictionary), and doubtless "the apostle of the circumcision," Peter, who had among his hearers on Pentecost (Acts 2) "the dwellers of Mesopotamia," would visit the Jews there. 15:3, section 1, also favors the Aramaic Babylon. ...
The "woman arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication, and upon her forehead having a name written, MYSTERY, Babylon THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH" (Revelation 17:4-5), is avowedly mystical. The later Jews regarded Rome in the same light as their fathers regarded Babylon (Jeremiah 51:7, compare Revelation 14:8. " The spiritual Jerusalem has become mystical Babylon; the church has become the harlot! The same truth under the same imagery appears in Isaiah 1:21, "How is the faithful city become an harlot!" That the world should be beastly (Daniel 7) is natural, but that she whose calling was to be the faithful bride should become the Babylonian whore is monstrous (Jeremiah 2:12-13; Jeremiah 2:20). ...
External prevalence over the world, and internal corruption by the world, (the spirit of the world ruling the church) is symbolized by the world-city's name Babylon; the contrast to "Jerusalem above, the mother of all" believers (Galatians 4:26), the "holy Jerusalem, that great city," which shall hereafter on the "new earth" "descend out of heaven from God, having the glory of God" (Revelation 21:10). The Roman Catholic Church is the prominent type of Babylon, resting on the world power, and arrayed like it in its "scarlet" gauds, and ruling it by its claim of supremacy, while the beast or secular power on which it rests is "full of names of blasphemy," which after the harlot's overthrow shall be more glaringly displayed. Compare Achan's "Babylonian garment," Joshua 7:21; Hebrew: "a robe of Shinar. " While the Syrians were noted for dyeing, and the Phrygians for patchwork, the Babylonians inwove their garments (Tertullian De Habitu Mul. " Such garments passed through Jericho in the trade between the Phoenicians and Babylon (Ezekiel 27:24. The final judgment on Babylon the whore (Revelation 17), after the elect shall have been translated out of it and transfigured, seems to be just before the judgment on Antichrist. ...
Babylon, the spiritual whore, is succeeded "the false prophet," who ministers to Antichrist and perishes with him (Revelation 19:20). But the whore or Babylon is not to be confounded with the beast
Barkos - ” The original ancestor of a clan of Nethinim or Temple employees who returned to Jerusalem from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Casiphia - ” Place in Babylon where Levites settled in Exile (Ezra 8:17 ) and from which Ezra summoned Levites to return with him to Jerusalem
Chebar - :cannot be the same as Ilabor, but may be one of the canals which connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, near Babylon
Cut - Jeremiah 50:23 (b) This is a type of the judgment of GOD upon Babylon. GOD used Babylon as a hammer to punish the earth and having done so He sent another nation to destroy Babylon
Exile - In the Old Testament ‘the exile’, or ‘the captivity’, refers to the period of approximately seventy years that followed Babylon’s conquest of Jerusalem and deportation of the people into captivity in Babylon (2 Kings 24; 2 Kings 25:1-21; Jeremiah 25:11-12; Jeremiah 29:10; Daniel 1:1-4; Ezekiel 1:1-3). For details of life in captivity in Babylon see DANIEL; EZEKIEL. ) The exile came to an end after Persia’s conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when the new ruler gave permission to the captive Jews to return to their homeland (2 Chronicles 36:22-23; Ezra 1:1-4; Isaiah 48:20; see CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF; EZRA)
Bigvai - 2056 (Ezra 2:14), 2067 (Nehemiah 7:19), children of Bigvai returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel; 72 subsequently with Ezra (Ezra 8:14). The different circumstances under which the two registers were made account for the variation of numbers: Ezra's in Babylon, Nehemiah's in Judaea, after the walls had been built
Tema - Having conquered and rebuilt Tema, Nabonidus, the last king of Babylon, remained there ten years, leaving his son Belshazzar as vice-regent in Babylon ( Daniel 5:1 )
Calneh, Calno - Calneh is associated in Genesis 10:10 with Babylon, Erech, and Accad as the earliest cities of Shinar. Kulunu , the early name of an important city near Babylon, may be meant
Merodachbaladan - King of Babylon who sent letters and a present to Hezekiah when he heard that he had been sick. Doubtless the same occurrence is referred to in 2 Chronicles 32:31 , though the name of the king of Babylon is not mentioned, where it is stated that one object of the ambassadors being sent was to inquire respecting the "wonder that was done in the land," namely, the shadow going back ten degrees
Bittern - Nineveh and Babylon became a possession for "the bittern" and other wild birds, Isaiah 14:23 34:11 Zephaniah 2:14 . Rich says he found "great quantities" of porcupine quills among the ruins of Babylon; but others think this inconsistent with Zephaniah 2:14 , and understand the word is referring to the common night-heron, a bird like the bittern found among the marshes of Western Asia, resorting to ruined buildings, and uttering a peculiar harsh cry before and after its evening flight
Dial - The dial of Ahaz, 2 Kings 20:11 Isaiah 38:1-9 , seems to have been peculiar either in structure or size, and was perhaps borrowed from Babylon or Damascus, 2 Kings 16:10 . The causing the shadow upon it to go back ten degrees, to assure king Hezekiah of his recovery from sickness, was probably effected not by arresting and turning backwards the revolution of the earth, but by a miraculous refraction of the sun's rays, observed only in Judea, though the fame of it reached Babylon, 2 Chronicles 32:31
Miamin - ...
...
A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:5 ), called Mijamin (10:7) and Miniamin (12:17)
Meremoth - Exaltations, heights, a priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:3 ), to whom were sent the sacred vessels (Ezra 8:33 ) belonging to the temple
Magor-Missabib - Pashur was to be carried to Babylon, and there die
Perez - ) An important family of Judah, of whom one was "chief of all the captains of the host for the first month" (1 Chronicles 27:3); 468 returned from Babylon; some settled in Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:4-6)
Adoni'Kam, - The sons of Adonikam, 666 in number, were among those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Rab-Mag - He was, as his name signifies, a chief of the magi; a dignitary who had accompanied the king of Babylon in his campaign
Reai'ah - (1 Chronicles 4:2 ) ...
The children of Reaiah were a family of Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Ephai - ” Father of men who joined Ishmael in revolt against and murder of Gedaliah, the governor of Judah after Babylon captured and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B
Chephirah - returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezra 2:25; Nehemiah 7:29)
Besom - Isaiah 14:23 , ‘I will sweep it [1] with the sweeper of destruction
Minni - A people named in Jeremiah 51:27 along with the Armenians (‘Ararat’) and Scythians (‘Ashkenaz’) as coming assailants of Babylon
Sheshbazzar - (Ezra 1:8) The name seems to be compounded of Shush, joy—Beth, the preposition in-and Tzarar, tribulation; perhaps alluding to the faithful in Babylon still rejoicing in the Lord in the midst of tribulation
Raamah - (Genesis 10:7) There was a Raamiah also among them that returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 7:7) And as Raam, or Raamah is derived from Rabam, thunder, Raam-jah, means thunder of the Lord
Shadrach - Name given to HANANIAHin Babylon, one of the three faithful ones who refused to worship the golden image of Nebuchadnezzar, and were cast into the fiery furnace, and there miraculously preserved
Archives - ]'>[2] ‘rolls’) was a part of the ‘treasure house’ ( Ezra 5:17 ) of the Persian kings at Babylon, in which important State documents were preserved
Shinar - a province of Babylonia, where men undertook to build the tower of Babel, Genesis 11:2 ; Genesis 10:10 . See Babylon
Elasah - The son of Shaphau, who, along with Gemariah the son of Hilkiah, carried a message from king Zedekiah to Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:3 )
jo'Rah - (the early rain ), the ancestor of a family of 112 who returned from Babylon with Ezra
Peter, First Epistle of, - It was addressed to the churches of Asia Minor which had for the most part been founded by Paul and his companions, Supposing it to have been written at Babylon, (1 Peter 5:13 ) it ia a probable conjecture that Silvanus, By whom it was transmitted to those churches, had joined Peter after a tour of visitation, and that his account of the condition of the Christians in those districts determined the apostle to write the epistle. (On the question of this epistle having been written at Babylon commentators differ. "Some refer it to the famous Babylon in Asia, which after its destruction was still inhabited by a Jewish colony; others refer it to Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo; still others understand it mystically of heathen Rome, in which sense 'Babylon' is certainly used in the Apocalypse of John
Tobijah - One of a deputation that came from Babylon to Jerusalem with contributions of gold and silver ( Zechariah 6:10 ; Zechariah 6:14 )
Queen - 1: βασίλισσα (Strong's #938 — Noun Feminine — basilissa — bas-il'-is-sah ) the feminine of basileus, "a king," is used (a) of the "Queen of Sheba," Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 ; of "Candace," Acts 8:27 ; (b) metaphorically, of "Babylon," Revelation 18:7
Geshem - Or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 2:19 ; 6:1,2 )
Tanhumeth - ” Father of Seraiah, a captain of forces remaining with Gedaliah in Judah following the deportation of Babylon (2 Kings 25:23 ; Jeremiah 40:8 )
un'ni - ) ...
A second Levite (unless the family of the foregoing be intended) concerned in the sacred office after the return from Babylon
Elasah - Son of Shaphan, one of the two sent by king Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon (by whose permission alone be reigned) after the first deportation
Eneneus - One of the twelve leaders of the return from Babylon under Zerubbabel
Rehum - We meet with two of this name in Scripture, one a Levite, son of Beri, who returned from Babylon with the captives, Ezra 2:2—and another Rehum, the chancellor
Aha'va - (water ), a place, ( Ezra 8:15 ) or a river, Ezra 8:21 On the banks of which Ezra collected the second expedition which returned with him from Babylon to Jerusalem
Chaldea - A country in Asia, the capital of which, in its widest extent, was Babylon. It was originally of small extent; but the empire being afterwards very much enlarged, the name is generally taken in a more extensive sense, and includes Babylonia, which see
Kad'mi-el - (before God ), one of the Levites who with his family returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Bil'Gah - ) ...
A priest or priestly family who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel and Jeshua
mi'Amin - (Ezra 10:25 ) ...
A priest or family of priests who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Kola'Iah - ) ...
The father of Ahab the false prophet, who was burnt by the king of Babylon
Zephaniah - Priest whom King Zedekiah sent asking Jeremiah to pray for the nation threatened by Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon (Jeremiah 21:1-7 ; Jeremiah 37:3 ). He reported false prophecy from Babylon to Jeremiah (Jeremiah 29:24-32 )
Zedekiah - A prophet deported to Babylon with Jehoiachin. He and another, named Ahab , are denounced by Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 29:21-23 ) for gross immorality as well as for falsely prophesying a speedy restoration from Babylon
Jehoiakim - , however, Babylon defeated Egypt. Jehoiakim, who apparently had been content to be a vassal of Egypt, transferred his allegiance to Babylon, but rebelled after three years
Merodach-Baladan - ” A ruler of the Bit-Yakin tribe in southern Babylonia and king of Babylon 721-711 B. See Babylon ; Hezekiah ; Sargon ; Sennacherib
Cuth, Cuthah - ’ According to the old Arabic geographers, Cuthah was situated not far from Babylon. This view is borne out by the Assyrian inscriptions, from which we learn that Kuti (or Kutu ) was a city of Middle-Babylonia. of Babylon, where remains of the temple of Nergal (cf
Slime - 179) mentions that hot bitumen and burned bricks were used for building the walls of Babylon; the bitumen from the river Is falling into Euphrates not far from Babylon
Zedekiah - A prophet deported to Babylon with Jehoiachin. He and another, named Ahab , are denounced by Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 29:21-23 ) for gross immorality as well as for falsely prophesying a speedy restoration from Babylon
Hammer - ...
Jeremiah 50:23 (a) This type is used to describe Babylon. GOD picked out the armies of Babylon to punish and to destroy the nations of the earth. He used Babylon to whip Israel and Judah
Banner - ...
Isaiah 13:2 (a) Probably this banner indicates that Babylon must be exposed and advertised in her true colors. It may refer actually to the city of Babylon, or it may refer to the false Babylon, which is the Roman church, and her daughters
Pul (2) - " Pul's wife was the famous Semiramis of Babylon ( Babylon is called "king of Assyria," (2 Kings 23:29), and Darius Hystaspes Ezra 6:22. some western Assyrian provinces had been broken off and joined to the Babylonian king's empire. Smith regard Pul as the Babylonian name of Taglath Pileser, and as the "Porus" in the astronomical canon who began to reign at Babylon 781 B. , the very year in which the cuneiform records date Taglath Pileser's overthrow of Chinzir king of Babylon, whom the canon makes the immediate predecessor of Porus (a name identical with Pal)
Bondage - This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isaiah 14:3 ), and the oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8,9 )
Postexilic - Time in Israel's history between the return from Exile in Babylon in 538 B. During this period the Jews returned to Jerusalem and Palestine to rebuild what the Assyrians and Babylonians had destroyed
Rav zeira - In his native Babylon, he studied under Rav Huna and Rav Judah
Uthai - Son of Ammihud, of the children of Pharez of Judah (1 Chronicles 9:4), called Athaiah son of Uzziah, Nehemiah 11:4; dwelt in Jerusalem on the return from Babylon
Beth-Pelet - After the return from Exile in Babylon, the Jews lived there (Nehemiah 11:26 )
Koa - Some identify Koa with the Guti people of Babylon, but this is disputed
Succothbenoth - A goddess whose worship was established at Samaria by the heathen of Babylon who were settled there
Gemariah - A son of Hilkiah who carried a letter from Jeremiah to the captives at Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:3 )
e'Bed - ...
Son of Jonathan; one of the Bene-Adin who returned form Babylon with Ezra
Jehozadak - Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1 Chronicles 6:14,15 ). He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon
Nehel'Amite, the, - the designation of a man named Shemaiah, a false prophet, who went with the captivity to Babylon
Jushab Hesed - ("loving kindness is returned") (The name expressing the gratitude to God of pious Jews at the return from Babylon: 1 Chronicles 3:20
Kadmiel - The name of one of the captives returned from Babylon
Akkub - ...
A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (1Chronicles 9:17; Ezra 2:42 ; Nehemiah 7:45 )
Evil-Merodach - (ee' vihl-mih roh' dach) Babylonian royal name meaning, “worshiper of Marduk. ” Babylonian king (562-560 B. The Babylonian form of the name is Amel-Marduk. See Babylon
Meremoth - He weighed and registered the golden and silver vessels of the temple, which Ezra had brought from Babylon (Ezra 8:24-30; Ezra 8:33; Nehemiah 3:4)
Bazlith - ” Original ancestor of clan of Temple employees who returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel in 537 B
Shoa - ) Symbolical name for Babylon
Ahava - Place or river near which Ezra rested 3 days prior to his journey from Babylon to Jerusalem
Mat'Tathah - ) ...
An Israelite, son of Hashun, who divorced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon
e'Rech - (length ), one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom in the land of Shinar, ( Genesis 10:10 ) doubtless the same as Orchoe, 82 miles south and 43 east of Babylon, the modern designations of the site --Warka, Irka and Irak --bearing a considerable affinity to the original name
el'Asah - ...
Son of Shaphan, one of the two men who were sent on a mission by King Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon
Dumah - Rulers in Dumah apparently led coalitions supported by Damascus and later by Babylon against Assyria between 740,700 B. Thus Assyria punished Dumah in 689 when they also defeated Babylon
Meshach - Name given by the prince of the eunuchs to Mishael, one of Daniel's companions at Babylon: he was one of the three noble men who, faithful to God in refusing to worship the image set up by the king, were cast into the fiery furnace; but were miraculously preserved by God, there being not even the smell of fire on their garments. Nebuchadnezzar blessed their God, who had thus delivered them, and they were promoted in the province of Babylon
Zerubbabel - Zerubbabel (ze-rŭb'ba-bĕl), begotten in Babylon, 1 Chronicles 3:19, or Zorobabel, Matthew 1:12, A. , was the leader of the first colony of Jews that returned from the captivity in Babylon, Ezra 2:2, and was of the family of David, a son of Salathiel or Shealtiel, Haggai 1:1; Matthew 1:12, but called a son of Pedaiah, the brother or son of Salathiel, in 1 Chronicles 3:17-19
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - He took Jehoiakim, and put him in chains in order to carry him captive to Babylon; but afterward left him in Judea, on condition of paying a large tribute. He took away several persons from Jerusalem; among others Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, all of the royal family, whom the king of Babylon caused to be carefully instructed in the language and in the learning of the Chaldeans, that they might be employed at court, Daniel , 1. 3399, Nebuchadnezzar, who was then either in Egypt or in Judea, hastened to Babylon, leaving to his generals the care of bringing to Chaldea the captives whom he had taken in Syria, Judea, Phenicia, and Egypt; for, according to Berosus, he had subdued all those countries. ...
In the mean time, Nebuchadnezzar being at Babylon in the second year of his reign, had a mysterious dream, in which he saw a statue composed of several metals, a head of gold, a breast of silver, belly and thighs of brass, legs of iron, and feet half of iron and half clay; and a little stone rolling by its own impulse from the mountain struck the statue and broke it. " Then the king raised Daniel to great honour, set him over all the wise men of Babylon, and gave him the government of that province. At his request he granted to Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, the oversight of the works of the same province of Babylon. Hales thinks, in which he had this dream, he erected a golden statue, whose height was sixty cubits, and breadth six cubits, in the plains of Dura, in the province of Babylon. The effect of the miracle was so great that Nebuchadnezzar gave glory to the God of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego; and he exalted the three Hebrews to great dignity in the province of Babylon, Daniel 4. Nebuchadnezzar took him, with his chief officers, captive to Babylon, with his mother, his wives, and the best workmen of Jerusalem, to the number of ten thousand men. The king of Babylon came into Judea, reduced the chief places of the country, and besieged Jerusalem: but Pharaoh-Hophra coming out of Egypt to assist Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar overcame him in battle, and forced him to retire into his own country. The king of Babylon condemned him to die, caused his children to be put to death in his presence, and then bored out his eyes, loaded him with chains, and sent him to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar made an easy conquest of it, because the Egyptians were divided by civil wars among themselves: he enriched himself with booty, and returned in triumph to Babylon, with a great number of captives. Being now at peace, he applied himself to the adorning, aggrandizing, and enriching of Babylon with magnificent buildings. To him some ascribe those famous gardens, supported by arches, reckoned among the wonders of the world; and also the walls of Babylon, though many give the honour of this work to Semiramis. A year after, as Nebuchadnezzar was walking on his palace at Babylon, he began to say, "Is not this great Babylon, which I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?" and scarcely had he pronounced these words, when he fell into a distemper or distraction, which so altered his imagination that he fled into the fields and assumed the manners of an ox. Megasthenes, quoted by Eusebius, says, that this prince having ascended to the top of his palace, was there seized with a fit of divine enthusiasm, and cried out, "O Babylonians, I declare to you a misfortune, that neither our father Belus, nor Queen Baltis has been able to prevent. This story at least shows that the Heathens had traditions of an extraordinary kind respecting this monarch, and that the fate of Babylon had been the subject of prophecy
Merodach Baladan - Reigned twice in Babylon with an interval between. Inquiry about the astronomical wonder, the recession of the dial shadow, was the pretext; an alliance between Egypt (Isaiah 20:1;Isaiah 20:1-6), Babylon, and Judaea was the motive of the embassy (2 Chronicles 32:31). It is an undesigned coincidence confirming Scripture that precisely at the time that Babylon revolted, though before and afterwards subject to Assyria, it mentions Merodach Baladan. (See BABEL; Babylon; HEZEKIAH. ) Sargon in the inscriptions says that in the 12th year of his reign he drove Merodach Baladan from Babylon after ruling 12 years. Inscriptions say that Merodach Baladan, having been conquered in battle by Sargon, and Babylonia having been ravaged, fled to "the islands at the mouth of the Euphrates
Nebuchadnezzar - Towards the end of the seventh century BC, the ancient nation Babylon rose again to international prominence, largely through the new dynasty that had been established by Nabopolassar. ...
Nebuchadnezzar became king soon after he led Babylonian forces to victory over Egypt at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2). One outcome of this was that Judah fell under Babylonian power. After a series of Babylonian attacks over several years, Jerusalem was finally destroyed and its people taken captive to Babylon (587 BC). Nebuchadnezzar was the Babylonian king throughout this time, and the books of 2 Kings, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel mention him by name repeatedly. (For details of his dealings with Judah and his military successes among the nations of the region see Babylon. )...
Through his contact with Jews at his court in Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar learnt about the Jews’ God, Yahweh. Babylon proved to be an arrogant nation, and God’s prophet saw all its pride and evil embodied in its king (Isaiah 14:4-11). ...
Nebuchadnezzar was undoubtedly the greatest king of this period of Babylonian supremacy
Maul - " So Jeremiah 50:23 Babylon "the hammer of the whole earth," i
Berodach Baladan - (bih roh' dach bal' uh dan) King of Babylon who wrote Hezekiah, king of Judah (2 Kings 20:12 )
Tel-Abib - ” Tel-Abib on the Chebar Canal near Nippur in Babylon was home to Ezekiel and other Exiles (Ezekiel 3:15 ). The Babylonians may have thought it was the ruined site of the original flood
Babylonian - ) An inhabitant of Babylonia (which included Chaldea); a Chaldean. ) Of or pertaining to the real or to the mystical Babylon, or to the ancient kingdom of Babylonia; Chaldean
Minni - The Minni are among the tribes summoned to punish the wickedness of Babylon
Ashpenaz - (assh' peh naz) Chief eunuch guarding the family of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (605-562 B. He administered the diet and life-style of Daniel and his three friends, giving them new Babylonian names (Daniel 1:7 )
Babylonish - Pertaining to Babylon, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia, or to the kingdom
Marble - Babylon, or Papal Rome, in her luxury imported marble
Erech - A recent explorer finds its probable site in the mounds of primeval ruins now called Irka or Irak, a few miles east of the Euphrates, midway between Babylon and the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris
Cinnamon, - In (Revelation 18:13 ) it is enumerated among the merchandise of the great Babylon
Bricks - There is a brick from Babylon in the British Museum, which bears the inscription in cuneiform characters "I am Nebuchadnezzar, the king of Babylon, the restorer of the temples Sag-ili and Zida, the eldest son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon
Chaldea - The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. "In former days the vast plains of Babylon were nourished by a complicated system of canals and water-courses, which spread over the surface of the country like a network. " ...
Recent discoveries, more especially in Babylonia, have thrown much light on the history of the Hebrew patriarchs, and have illustrated or confirmed the Biblical narrative in many points. " "Chaldees" is a mistranslation of the Hebrew Kasdim , Kasdim being the Old Testament name of the Babylonians, while the Chaldees were a tribe who lived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, and did not become a part of the Babylonian population till the time of Hezekiah. Ur was one of the oldest and most famous of the Babylonian cities. Its site is now called Mugheir, or Mugayyar, on the western bank of the Euphrates, in Southern Babylonia. They were followed by a dynasty of princes whose capital was Babylon, and who seem to have been of South Arabian origin. But soon afterwards Babylonia fell under Elamite dominion. The kings of Babylon were compelled to acknowledge the supremacy of Elam, and a rival kingdom to that of Babylon, and governed by Elamites, sprang up at Larsa, not far from Ur, but on the opposite bank of the river. The contemporaneous king of Babylon in the north, in the country termed Shinar in Scripture, was Khammu-rabi. (See Babylon; ABRAHAM; AMRAPHEL
Jehoiakim - ...
Jeremiah warned that because of the idolatry of the king and his people, God would send the Babylonians against Jerusalem in judgment (Jeremiah 25:1-9). This judgment began in 605 BC, the year in which Babylon conquered Egypt at Carchemish and so replaced it as Judah’s overlord. In returning to Babylon, the conquerors took with them selected captives from the leading families of Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2; Daniel 1:1-4). ...
Conflict with Babylon...
After submitting to Babylon’s overlordship for three years, Jehoiakim rebelled by refusing to pay further tribute (2 Kings 24:1). Babylon did not attack Jerusalem immediately, but encouraged other countries within its empire to raid Judah and so gradually weaken it (2 Kings 24:2-4). ...
In due course Babylon attacked Jerusalem (597 BC). Jehoiakim was taken captive and chained ready to be sent to Babylon, but he died before the journey began
Day Star - It is applied to the King of Babylon (Isaiah 14), to the glory of Heaven by reason of its excellency (Apocalypse 2), and finally to Our Lord Himself (2 Peter 1; Apocalypse 22)
Sheshach - (sshee' sshach) Code word Jeremiah used to indicate Babylon (Jeremiah 25:26 ; Jeremiah 51:41 )
Bowls - Babylonian bowls are to be seen in the British Museum, with Chaldean inscriptions, probably designed as charms against evil and sickness (compare Joseph's "divining cup," Genesis 44:5). The writing is of a Hebrew type, and may have belonged to the descendants of the Jewish captives in Babylon
Jeremiah ben abba - (4th century) Talmudic sage, born in [1] but emigrated to Tiberias, Israel, where he diligently studied under Rabbis Abahu and Zeira
a'Din - (dainty, delicate ), ancestor of a family who returned form Babylon with Zerubbabel, to the number of 454, ( Ezra 2:15 ) or 655 according to the parallel list in (Nehemiah 7:20 ) (B
Nehemiah - The Tirshatha or Governor under the Persian king; a well known faithful character in the church after the return of the people from Babylon
Star, Day - It is applied to the King of Babylon (Isaiah 14), to the glory of Heaven by reason of its excellency (Apocalypse 2), and finally to Our Lord Himself (2 Peter 1; Apocalypse 22)
jo-i'Arib - )
A layman who returned form Babylon with Ezra
Ivah - Iva was a Babylonian god representing the sky; to it the town was sacred. 606) the bitumen was brought to cement the walls of Babylon. From Ivah, along with Babylon, Cuthah, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, the king of Assyria (Esar-haddon) brought people to colonize Samaria
Jehozadak - Led captive to Babylon after Seraiah his father's execution at Riblab (1 Chronicles 6:14-15; 2 Kings 25:18; 2 Kings 25:21). Father of Jeshua the high priest, who with Zerubbabel led the returning Jews from Babylon (Ezra 3:2; Nehemiah 12:26)
Baruch - He lived during the days of the decline and fall of the Kingdom of Juda, and, like Jeremias, was desolated at the prospect of the subjugation of Juda by Babylon. He warned them against provoking a foe whom they could not withstand; and, when they had fallen into captivity with the best of their people, he warned the remnant to cease arousing Babylon and place their trust in God
Ahab - 3406, seduced the Jewish captives at Babylon with hopes of a speedy deliverance, and stirred them up against Jeremiah. The Lord threatened them with a public and ignominious death, before such as they had deceived; and that their names should become a curse; men wishing that their foes might be made like Ahab and Zedekiah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon roasted in the fire, Jeremiah 29:21-22
Belshazzar - Belshazzar (bel-shăs'zar), Bel's prince, or may Bel protect the king, was the son or grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, and the last Assyrian king of Babylon. During the siege of the city of Babylon he gave a sumptuous entertainment to his courtiers, and impiously made use of the temple furniture (of which Nebuchadnezzar had plundered the temple at Jerusalem) as drinking-vessels
Babylon - It was under Nebuchadnezzar that Babylon, then become the seat of universal empire, is supposed to have acquired that extent and magnificence, and that those stupendous works were completed which rendered it the wonder of the world and of posterity: and accordingly, this prince, then the most potent on the earth, arrogated to himself the whole glory of its erection; and in the pride of his heart exclaimed, "Is not this great Babylon that I have built?" The city at this period stood on both sides of the river, which intersected it in the middle. Here the principal devotions were performed; and over this, on the highest platform of all, was the observatory, by the help of which the Babylonians arrived to such perfection in astronomy, that Calisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied, Alexander to Babylon, found astronomical observations for 1903 years backwards from that time; which reach as high as the 115th year after the flood. These gardens were raised on terraces, supported by arches, or rather by piers, laid over with broad flat stones; the arch appearing to be unknown to the Babylonians: which courses of piers rose above one another, till they reached the level of the top of the city walls. ...
Yet, while in the plenitude of its power, and, according to the most accurate chronologers, 160 years before the foot of an enemy had entered it, the voice of an enemy had entered it, the voice of prophecy pronounced the doom of the mighty and unconquered Babylon. At a time when nothing but magnificence was around this city, emphatically called the great, fallen Babylon was delineated by the pencil of inspiration exactly as every traveller now describes its ruins. ...
The immense fertility of Chaldea, which retained also the name of Babylonia till after the Christian aera, corresponded with the greatness of Babylon. Babylonia was one vast plain, adorned and enriched by the Euphrates and the Tigris, from which, and from the numerous canals that intersected the country from the one river to the other, water was distributed over the fields by manual labour and by hydraulic machines, giving rise, in that warm climate and rich exhaustless soil, to an exuberance of produce without a known parallel, over so extensive a region, either in ancient or modern times. Such was the "Chaldees' excellency," that it departed not on the first conquest, nor on the final extinction of its capital, but one metropolis of Assyria arose after another in the land of Chaldea, when Babylon had ceased to be "the glory of kingdoms. Manifold are the prophecies respecting Babylon and the land of the Chaldeans; and the long lapse of ages has served to confirm their fulfilment in every particular, and to tender it at last complete. And they were denounced against the Babylonians, and the inhabitants of Chaldea, expressly because of their idolatry, tyranny, oppression, pride, covetousness, drunkenness, falsehood, and other wickedness. The burden of Babylon, which Isaiah the son of Amos did see: "The noise of a multitude in the mountains, like as of a great people: a tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together: the Lord of Hosts mustereth the host of the battle. Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees' excellency, shall be as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. " "Thou shalt take up this proverb against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! Thy pomp is brought down to the grave, and the noise of thy viols: the worm is spread under thee, and the worms cover thee. —I will cut off from Babylon the name, and remnant, the son, and nephew, saith the Lord. " "Babylon is fallen, is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath broken unto the ground. "Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon: sit on the ground, there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans. "...
Many other prophecies against Babylon, and the whole land of Chaldea, are found in the Old Testament; and though the limits of this article will only allow a reference to be made to the exact fulfilment of a few, there is not one of the great number of predictions on record, the accomplishment of which has not been remarked by numerous writers, and more especially by those who have visited the spot. For, though for many centuries the site of Babylon was unknown, or the ruins of other Chaldean cities mistaken for its remains, its true situation and present condition have been, within a few years, satisfactorily ascertained, and accurately described, by several most intelligent and enterprising travellers. ...
When in the plenitude of its greatness, splendour and strength, Babylon first yielded to the arms of Cyrus, whose name, and the manoeuvre by which the city was taken, were mentioned by Isaiah nearly two hundred years before the event; which was also predicted by Jeremiah: "Go up, O Elam, (or Persia,) besiege, O Media. The Lord hath raised up the spirit of the kings of the Medes, for his device is against Babylon, to destroy it. " The kings of Persia and Media, prompted by a common interest, freely entered into a league against Babylon, and with one accord entrusted the command of their united armies to Cyrus, the relative and eventually the successor of them both. —But the taking of Babylon was not reserved for these kingdoms alone: other nations had to be "prepared against her. " "Set up a standard in the land; blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Aschenaz: Lo, I will raise and cause to come up against Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country" &c. —"The mighty men of Babylon have foreborne to fight. " So dispirited became its people, that Babylon, which had made the world to tremble, was long besieged, without making any effort to drive off the enemy. Their profligacy, their wickedness and false confidence were unabated; they continued to live carelessly in pleasures: and Babylon the great, unlike to many a small fortress and un-walled town, made not one struggle to regain its freedom or to be rid of the foe. And "one post did run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another, to show the king of Babylon that his city is taken at the end, and that the passages are shut. Thus a "snare was laid for Babylon, it was taken, and it was not aware; it was found and also caught; for it had sinned against the Lord. And not aware of the presence of an enemy in the midst of Babylon, the king himself, (who had been roused from his revelry by the hand writing on the wall,) excited by the warlike tumult at the gates, commanded those within to examine from whence it arose; and according to the same word, by which "the gates" (leading from the river to the city) "were not shut, the loins of kings were loosed to open before Cyrus the two-leaved gates" of the palace. "The king of Babylon heard the report of them; anguish took hold of him;" he and all who were about him perished; God had "numbered" his kingdom and finished it; it was "divided," and given to the Medes and Persians; the lives of the Babylonian princes, and lords, and rulers, and captains, closed with that night's festival; the drunken slept "a perpetual sleep, and did not wake. " Not only did the Persian army enter with ease as caterpillars, together with all the nations that had come up against Babylon, but they seemed also as numerous. Cyrus, after the capture of the city, made a great display of his cavalry in the presence of the Babylonians, and in the midst of Babylon. Cyrus afterward reviewed, at Babylon, the whole of his army, consisting of one hundred and twenty thousand horse, two thousand chariots, and six hundred thousand foot. Babylon, which was taken when not aware, and within whose walls no enemy, except a captive, had been ever seen, was thus "filled with men as with caterpillars," as if there had not been a wall around it. The Scriptures do not relate the manner in which Babylon was taken, nor do they ever allude to the exact fulfilment of the prophecies. Every step in the progress of the decline of Babylon was the accomplishment of a prophecy. "Come down and sit in the dust, O daughter of Babylon: sit on the ground, there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans. " After the Babylonians rebelled against Darius, the walls were reduced in height, and all the gates destroyed. "The wall of Babylon shall fall, her walls are thrown down. "— Xerxes, after his ignominious retreat from Greece, rifled the temples of Babylon, the golden images alone of which were estimated at 20,000,000 l. "I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which he has swallowed up; I will do judgment upon the graven images of Babylon. We would have healed Babylon, but she is not healed. " The building of the neighbouring city of Seleucia was the chief cause of the decline or Babylon, and drained it of a great part of its population. And at a later period, or about 130 years before the birth of Christ, Humerus, a Parthian governor, who was noted as excelling all tyrants in cruelty, exercised great severities on the Babylonians; and having burned the forum and some of the temples, and destroyed the fairest parts of the city, reduced many of the inhabitants to slavery on the slightest pretexts, and caused them, together with all their households, to be sent into Media. Notwithstanding that Cyrus resided chiefly at Babylon, and sought to reform the government, and remodel the manners of the Babylonians, the succeeding kings of Persia preferred, as the seat of empire, Susa, Persepolis, or Ecbatana, situated in their own country: and in like manner the successors of Alexander did not attempt to complete his purpose of restoring Babylon to its preeminence and glory; but, after the subdivision of his mighty empire, the very kings of Assyria. during their temporary residence even in Chaldea, deserted Babylon, and dwelt in Seleucia. And thus the foreign inhabitants, first Persians and afterward Greeks, imitating their sovereigns by deserting Babylon, acted as if they verily had said, "Forsake her, and let us go every man unto his own country; for her judgment is reached unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies. And though the names of some of these nations were unknown to the Babylonians, and unheard of in the world at the time of the prophecy, most of these "many nations and great kings" need now but to be named, to show that, in local relation to Chaldea, "they came from the utmost border, from the coasts of the earth. "...
— "I will punish the land of the Chaldeans, and will make it perpetual desolations; cut off the sower from Babylon, and him that handleth the sickle in the time of harvest. " The course of the Tigris through Babylonia, instead of being adorned with cities, is marked with the sites of "ancient ruins. But let us come to the fulfilment of these wonderful prophecies in the present condition of Babylon itself, as described by those who have most recently visited it. ...
"Babylon shall become heaps. " Babylon the glory of kingdoms is now the greatest of ruins. " "Vast heaps constitute all that now remains of Ancient Babylon," says Rich. All its grandeur is departed; all its treasures have been spoiled; all its excellence has utterly vanished; the very heaps are searched for bricks, when nothing else can be found; even these are not left, wherever they can be taken away; and Babylon has for ages been "a quarry above ground," ready to the hand of every successive despoiler. " The surface of the mounds which form all that remains of Babylon, consists of decomposed buildings, reduced to dust; and over all the ancient streets and habitations, there is literally nothing but the dust of the ground on which to sit. " "Our path," says Captain Mignan, "lay through the great mass of ruined heaps on the site of ‘shrunken Babylon;' and I am perfectly incapable of conveying an adequate idea of the dreary, lonely nakedness that appeared before me. " "Babylon is now a silent scene, a sublime solitude. " "It is impossible," adds Major Keppel, "to behold this scene and not to be reminded how exactly the predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled, even in the appearance Babylon was doomed to present, that ‘she should never be inhabited;' that ‘the Arabian should not pitch his tent there;' that she should ‘become heaps;' that her cities should be ‘a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness. '" "Babylon is spurned alike by the heel of the Ottomans, the Israelites, and the sons of Ishmael. ...
But Babylon was to be visited with a far greater desolation, and to become unfit or unsuited even for such a purpose; and that neither a tent would be pitched there, even by an Arab, nor a fold made by a shepherd, implies the last degree of solitude and desolation. " But Babylon is an exception. Instead of taking the bricks from thence, the shepherd might very readily erect a defence from wild beasts, and make a fold for his flock amidst the heaps of Babylon; and the Arab who fearlessly traverses it by day, might pitch his tent by night. " The king of the forest now ranges over the site of that Babylon which Nebuchadnezzar built for his own glory
Darius - ‘Darius the Mede’ ( Daniel 11:1 ), son of Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes ( Daniel 9:1 ), is said ( Daniel 5:31 ) to have succeeded to the kingdom of Babylon after Belshazzar’s death, and to have been sixty-two years old when he received the kingdom. Gobryas was he who actually received the kingdom for Cyrus, entering Babylon on the 16th of Tammuz, four months before Cyrus made his triumphal entry. He too appointed governors in Babylon (cf. Daniel 6:1 ), and seems from the Babylonian Chronicle to have been in the attack which resulted in Belshazzar’s death. It is certain that no king of Babylon called Darius succeeded Belshazzar or preceded Cyrus
Hazar-Shual - Jews returning from Exile in Babylon lived there (Nehemiah 11:27 )
Beth-Azmaveth - ” Home town of 42 people who returned to Palestine with Zerubbabel from Exile in Babylon about 537 B
Eliehoenai - One of the twelve clan heads who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon with Ezra (Ezra 8:4 )
Jarib - Accompanied Ezra (Ezra 8:16) from Babylon
Gittaim - of Jerusalem, on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:33)
Cage - 'A cage of every unclean and hateful bird,' is a character of mystical Babylon
Lady - Isaiah 47:5 (b) This name is a description of the city of Babylon
i'Vah - Isai 37:13 In connection with Hena and Sepharvaim, and once, (2 Kings 17:24 ) in connection with Babylon and Cuthah, must be sought in Babylonia, and is probably identical with the modern Hit, on the Euphrates
Seraiah - " He bore to the Jews in Babylon a message from the prophet Jeremiah
he'na - It Isaiah 20 miles from Babylon on the Euphrates
Babylon, Kingdom of - Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezekiel 17:4 ; Isaiah 43:14 ). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. Among its chief cities may be mentioned Ur (now Mugheir or Mugayyar), on the western bank of the Euphrates; Uruk, or Erech (Genesis 10:10 ) (now Warka), between Ur and Babylon; Larsa (now Senkereh), the Ellasar of Genesis 14:1 , a little to the east of Erech; Nipur (now Niffer), south-east of Babylon; Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24 ), "the two Sipparas" (now Abu-Habba), considerably to the north of Babylon; and Eridu, "the good city" (now Abu-Shahrein), which lay originally on the shore of the Persian Gulf, but is now, owing to the silting up of the sand, about 100 miles distant from it. ...
The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. ...
In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites. 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. ...
Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B. It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2 Chronicles 33:11 ). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty. 606, Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. 604, and founded the Babylonian empire. He strongly fortified Babylon, and adorned it with palaces and other buildings. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B. Babylon was captured by Cyrus, B
Mount of the Congregation - Part of Isaiah's exposure of the pride of the King of Babylon is the charge that he desired to ascend to the distant mountain where according to Babylonian myth the gods assembled (Isaiah 14:13 )
Cuthah - One of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser transplanted certain colonists to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24 ). Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east of Babylon
Hillel - 9 CE) Mishnaic sage, native of Babylon, student of Shemaiah and Abtalion, teacher of Jonathan ben Uzziel and Johanan ben Zakkai, Nasi of the Sanhedrin
Harim - CHILDREN OF Harim; 1017 came up with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezra 2:39; Ezra 10:21; Nehemiah 7:42; Nehemiah 10:5)
Bani - ...
A Levite who was prominent in the reforms on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 8:7 ; 9:4,5 )
Merathaim, the Land of - "of double rebellion", namely, the double captivity inflicted on Israel by Chaldoea (Jeremiah 50:21); referring also to Babylon's general accumulated rebellions against God (Jeremiah 50:17-20, especially Jeremiah 50:18), "Babylon, Assyria," (Jeremiah 50:33; Jeremiah 50:24; Jeremiah 50:29) "striven against Jehovah, proud against
Hammer - Besides its ordinary sense, used for any overwhelming power, earthly (Jeremiah 50:23, "the hammer of the whole earth," Babylon, as Martel, "little hammer," was a title of the Frank king) or spiritual (Jeremiah 23:29, "is not My word like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces?"
Rabmag - ) Probably Magis not Magus or Magusu ("the Magi") of the Behistun inscription; the Magi had no standing in Neriglissar's time at Babylon
Bel - [2] with Merodach, ‘the younger Bel,’ the tutelary god of Babylon ( Jeremiah 50:2 ; Jeremiah 51:44 , Isaiah 46:1 , Bar 6:41 ). See also Baal, Assyria and Babylonia
Gemariah - Son of Hilkiah: he was sent by Zedekiah to Babylon with a letter from Jeremiah unto the captives taken by Nebuchadnezzar
Ariel - One of Ezra's chief men who directed the caravan which Ezra led from Babylon to Jerusalem
no-Adi'ah -
A Levite, son of Binnui who with Meremoth, Eleazar and Jozabad weighed the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the temple which were brought back from Babylon
Thyine - 1: θύϊνος (Strong's #2367 — Adjective — thuinos — thoo'-ee-nos ) is akin to thuia, or thua, an African aromatic and coniferous tree; in Revelation 18:12 it describes a wood which formed part of the merchandise of Babylon; it was valued by Greeks and Romans for tables, being hard, durable and fragrant (AV marg
Nebuchadrezzar - The Nabû-kudur-uzur of the Babylonians, for which ‘Nebuchad n ezzar’ (the familiar form often retained in the present work) is an error, was son and successor of Nahopolassar, founder of the New Bab. Seventy Years - Prophetic and apocalyptic figure pointing to time of Israel's Exile in Babylon and to the end of tribulation in Daniel's vision. Isaiah 23:15 and the Babylonian Black Stone of Esarhaddon may indicate that seventy years was an expected time of punishment and desolation for a defeated city. Jeremiah predicted that Judah would serve Babylon 70 years ( Jeremiah 25:11 ; compare Jeremiah 29:10 ). This apparently sees the years as from the first deporting of Judeans into Babylon (about 605 B
Seraiah - Son of Neriah: to him was committed by Jeremiah a roll 'written against Babylon,' to be read at Babylon, and then with a stone tied to it, he was to cast it into the Euphrates; and to declare, "Thus shall Babylon sink
Zedekiah - Zedekiah was made king in Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (2 Kings 24:17 ). When he rebelled, the Babylonian army besieged Jerusalem and destroyed it. Then Zedekiah was taken to Babylon. Prophet who promised quick hope to Exiles in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:21 )
Tobiah - He was one of those who strenuously opposed the rebuilding of the temple, after the return from the captivity of Babylon, Nehemiah 2:10 ; Nehemiah 4:3 ; Nehemiah 5:1 ; Nehemiah 5:12 ; Nehemiah 5:14 . After some time, Nehemiah was obliged to return to Babylon, subsequent to having repaired the walls of Jerusalem. But at Nehemiah's return from Babylon, some years after, he drove Tobiah out of the courts of the temple, and threw his goods out of the holy place, Nehemiah 13:4-8
Babylon - ...
Babylon lay in a vast and fertile plain watered by the Euphrates, with flowed through the city. ...
Under Nebuchadnezzar, Babylon reached the summit of her greatness and splendor. Indeed, the woes denounced against Babylon by the prophets constitute some of the most awfully splendid and sublime portions of the whole Bible, Isaiah 13:1-22 14:22 21:9 47:1-15 Jeremiah 25:1-38 50:1-46 51:1-64 , etc. Under the Persians, and under Alexander's successors, Babylon continued to decline, especially after Seleucus Nicator had founded Selencia, and made it his residence. A great portion of the inhabitants of Babylon removed thither; and in Strabo's time, that is, under Augustus Babylon had become so desolate, that it might be called a vast desert. But from this time onward, Babylon ceases almost to be mentioned; even its ruins have not been discovered until within the last two centuries; and it is only within the present century that these ruins have been traced and described. ...
The name of Babylon is used symbolically in Revelation 14:8 16:1-21 17:1-18 18:1-24 , to mark the idolatry, superstition, lewdness luxury, and persecution of the people of God, which characterized heathen Rome and modern Antichrist. There was also a Babylon in Egypt, a city not far from Heliopolis. Some suppose this to be the Babylon mentioned 1 Peter 5:13 ; but this is not probable
Nabuchodonosor ii - (Hebrew: O! Nebo, protect the boundary) ...
King of Babylon (c. He took pride not only in the arts of war, but in works of peace, and his long reign marks the height of the grandeur reached by the second Babylonian Empire, when, through his efforts, Babylon became one of the wonders of the world
Babylon - From 2250 it was the capital of Babylonia and the holy city of western Asia. After the downfall of Assyria, Babylon again, under Nabopolassar, became the seat of empire. The Patriarchate of Babylon was founded, 1681, for the Chaldean Rite
Jeho-i'Achin - ( 2 Kings 24:10,11 ) In a very short time Jehoiachin surrendered at discretion; and he, and the queen-mother, and all his servants, captains and officers, came out and gave themselves up to Nebuchadnezzar, who carried them, with the harem and the eunuchs, to Babylon. , till the death of Nebuchadnezzar, when Evilmerodach, succeeding to the throne of Babylon, brought him out of prison, and made him sit at this own table
Darius - The first of three people named Darius mentioned in the Bible is Darius the Mede, who took control of Babylon when the city fell to the Medo-Persian armies in 539 BC (Daniel 5:30-31). The name may be that of a Median leader whom the Persian Emperor Cyrus placed in charge of Babylon, or it may be another name for Cyrus himself (see also DANIEL; PERSIA)
Elasah - ...
...
The son of Shaphan, one of the two who were sent by Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and also took charge of Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:3 )
Noadiah -
A Levite who returned from Babylon (Ezra 8:33 )
Sapphire - It is a precious stone of a sky-blue colour, probably the lapis lazuli, brought from Babylon
Koa - ) Babylon is the land of visitation; actively, visiting with judgment Judah; passively, to be visited with judgment (Jeremiah 50:21). Maurer explains, "the Babylonians and all the Chaldaeans (Ρekowd ), prefects (Shoa and Koa), rich," etc
Dura - The circle, the plain near Babylon in which Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, mentioned in Daniel 3:1
Dulcimer - Some Greek Ionian of western Asia probably introduced the instrument into Babylon
Sensual - God condemned Babylon for their sensual desires for pleasure and luxury (Isaiah 47:8 )
Nimrod - Powerful king of Shinar (Babylon) referenced in Genesis 10:8-10
Ono - The men of Lod, Hadid, and Ono, 721 in number, returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 7:37)
Harlot - The mystic Babylon is designated "The mother of harlots," Revelation 17:5 : not only unfaithful herself, but the mother of such
Pekod - Symbolical name for Babylon as doomed to be visited with judgment
Chebar - A river of Assyria, made memorable by the church, when in the captivity of Babylon, being placed there
Meremoth - Son of Uriah, a priest: he weighed the vessels brought from Babylon, and helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem
Calneh - It is possibly the modern Niffer, about 60 miles south-southeast of Babylon, on the eastern bank of the Euphrates
Dura - Layard identifies it with Dur, below Tekrit, on the east bank of the Tigris; but Oppert would place it, with more probability, to the southeast of Babylon, near a mound called Dúair, where he found the pedestal of a colossal statue
Erech - Its people are called Archevites and noticed in connection with the Babylonians. It corresponded to modern Warka, about 120 miles southeast of Babylon
Jedaiah - ...
...
One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 3:10 )
Accad - It was in the land of Shinar, and George Smith locates it at Agadi, on the Euphrates, north of Babylon
Jecamiah - Son of King Jeconiah (Jehoiachin), the Judean king exiled by Babylon (1 Chronicles 3:18 )
Nebuchadnezzar - He took Jehoiakim, and put him in chains to carry him captive to Babylon; but afterwards he left him in Judea, on condition of his paying a large annual tribute. He took away several persons from Jerusalem; among others, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, all of the royal family, whom the king of Babylon caused to be carefully educated in the language and learning of the Chaldeans, that they might be employed at court, 2 Kings 24:1 2 Chronicles 36:6 Daniel 1:1 . ...
Nabopolassar dying, Nebuchadnezzar, who was then either in Egypt or in Judea, hastened to Babylon, leaving to his generals the care of bringing to Chaldea the captives taken in Syria, Judea, Phoenicia, and Egypt; for according to Berosus, he had subdued all these countries. ...
His successor, Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, king of Judah, having revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, was besieged in Jerusalem, forced to surrender, and taken, with his chief officers, captive to Babylon; also his mother, his wives, and the best workmen of Jerusalem, to the number of ten thousand men. The king of Babylon came into Judea, reduced the chief places of the country, and besieged Jerusalem; but Pharaoh Hophra coming out of Egypt to assist Zedekiah, Nebuchadnezzar went to meet him, and forced him to retire to his own country. The king of Babylon condemned him to die, caused his children to be put to death in his presence, and then bored out his eyes, loaded him with chains, and sent him to Babylon, 2 Kings 24:1-25:30 2 Chronicles 36:1-23 . ...
During the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, the city of Babylon and the kingdom of Babylonia attained their highest pitch of splendor. He took great pains in adorning Babylon; and this was one great object of his pride. "Is not this," said he, "great Babylon that I have built for the house of my kingdom, by the might of my power, and for the honor of my majesty?" But God vanquished his pride, and he was reduced for a time to the condition of a brute, according to the predictions of Daniel. An inscription found among the ruins on the Tigris, and now in the East India House at London, gives an account of the various works of Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon and Borsippa. This could only be done in a country so level as Babylonia, by constructing an artificial mountain; and accordingly the king caused on e to be made, four hundred feet square and over three hundred feet high. Al the gates were of brass, which agrees with the language used by Isaiah in predicting the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, Isaiah 45:25 . Borsippa would seem to have been a suburb of ancient Babylon
Peter, First Epistle of - ...
It was written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour among the Jews. It has been noticed that in the beginning of his epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon
Dispersion - The "dispersed," or the "dispersion," was the term applied to those Jews who continued in other countries after the return from Babylon. Babylon thus became a centre from which offshoots spread; and colonies of Jews established themselves in Persia, Media, and other neighboring countries
Astyages - ...
ASTYAGES, otherwise called Ahasuerus in the Greek, Daniel 9:1 , or Cyaxares in Xenophon, or Apandus in Ctesias, was appointed by his father Cyaxares governor of Media, and sent with Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, against Saracus, otherwise called Chynaladanus, king of Assyria. Astyages was with Cyrus at the conquest of Babylon, and succeeded Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans, as is expressly mentioned in Daniel 5:30-31 , A
Dari'us - On the death of Belshazzar he possessed Babylon, being about 62 years of age: B. See Babylon and DANIEL
Jehoiachin - , and he reigned for three months in Jerusalem before being taken into captivity by Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. Nevertheless, he was ultimately released from prison by Evil-merodach of Babylon and accorded some honor in the land of his captivity (2 Kings 25:27-30 )
Exile - (ex' ile) The events in which the northern tribes of Israel were taken into captivity by the Assyrians and the events in which the southern tribes of Judah were taken into captivity by the Babylonians. ...
In Old Testament times the Assyrians and Babylonians introduced the practice of deporting captives into foreign lands. The Assyrians brought into Samaria people from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24 ; Ezra 4:10 ). ...
History of the Exile of Judah More than a hundred years before the Babylon Exile, Isaiah, the prophet, had predicted Judah's fall (Isaiah 6:11-12 ; Isaiah 8:14 ; Isaiah 10:11 ). King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon dashed Egypt's hopes when he defeated the Egyptians at the battle of Carchemish in 605 B. His son, Jehoiachin, reigned for three months before he was exiled to Babylon (2 Kings 24:6-16 ; 2 Chronicles 36:9-10 ; Esther 2:6 ; Jeremiah 22:24-30 ;). ) until the fall of Jerusalem when he was blinded and taken into Exile into Babylon (2 Kings 24:17-25:7 ; 2 Chronicles 36:10-21 ; Jeremiah 39:1-7 ; Jeremiah 52:1-11 ; Isaiah 46:1-2,46 ; Ezekiel 17:5-21 ). ...
There were three deportations of Jews to Babylon. After the second deporation, Gedeliah was appointed governor of Judah by the Babylonians but was assassinated (2 Chronicles 36:22-23 ). ...
Life in the Exile meant life in five different geographical areas: Israel, Judah, Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt. When Babylon took over the area, they established a provincial capital in Samaria. Judah The Babylonians did not completely demolish Judah. Some citizens who had fled the country before the Babylonian invasion returned to the land after Jerusalem was destroyed (Jeremiah 40:12 ). The Babylonians set up a government which may or may not have been dependent on the provincial government in Samaria. Many were probably not overjoyed to see Jews return from Babylon claiming land and leadership. Babylon The center of Jewish life shifted to Babylon under such leaders as Ezekiel. Babylon even recognized the royal family of Judah as seen in 2 Kings 25:27 and in recovered Babylonian records. Jehoiachin's grandson, Zerubbabel, led the first exiles back from Babylon in 538 (Ezra 2:2 ; Haggai 1:1 ). Most of the exiles in Babylon probably followed normal Near Eastern practice and became farmers on land owned by the government. Babylonian documents show that eventually some Jews became successful merchants in Babylon. Still, many longed for Jerusalem and would not sing the Lord's song in Babylon (Psalm 137:1 ). They laughed at Babylonian gods as sticks of wood left over from the fire (Isaiah 44:9-17 ; Isaiah 45:9-10 ; Isaiah 46:1-2 ,Isaiah 10:5:6-7 ; Jeremiah 1:16 ; Ezekiel 20:29-32 ). A Babylonian Jewish community was thus established and would exercise strong influence long after Cyrus of Persia permitted Jews to return to Judah. These Jews established their own worship, collected Scriptures, and began interpreting them in the Aramaic paraphrase and explanations which eventually became the Babylonian Talmud, but continued to support Jews in Jerusalem. Many Jews apparently became part of the Egyptian army stationed in northern border fortresses to protect against Babylonian invasion. (2 Kings 24:25 ; Ezra 1:1-4 ) released the Jews in Babylon to return to their homeland. , the date which traditionally marks the end of the Babylonian Exile
Nergal - The word is used in titles, as Nergal-sharezer, the name of two princes of Babylon
Jehucal - Apparently, Zedekiah wanted blessing on his efforts to cooperate with Egypt against Babylon about 587 B
Amraphel - ) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital
Gemara - The word Gemara (Aramaic, “to learn”) refers specifically to the discussions on the Mishna conducted in the rabbinic academies of ancient Palestine and Babylon. Two Gemaras exist, the Palestinian and the Babylonian
Samuel bar abba - 257) Talmudic sage, resident of Nahrdea, Babylonia, a contemporary of Rav. He later returned to his Babylon, and became the principal of the academy in Nahardea
Azgad - Clan of which 1222 (Nehemiah 7:17 says 2,322) returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem in 537 B
Arioch - He confided in Daniel, who was able to interpret the king's forgotten dream and prevent the death of the wise counselors of Babylon
Adonikam - ” Family head of 666 persons who returned to Jerusalem with Zerubbabel from Babylon about 537 B
Babel - The Hebrew name for Babylon, one of the cities founded by Nimrod
Thyine Wood - The Greek word is θύι>νος, and occurs in Revelation 18:12 only, as being brought to apostate Babylon
Lucifer - Name, signifying in Latin 'light-bringer,' being a translation of the Hebrew word, helel, associated with 'morning star,' given in irony to the king of Babylon, because in his pride he said he would exalt his throne above the stars of God
pu'Rosh - The descendants of Parosh, in number 2172, returned front Babylon with Zerubbabel
Daniel - 606), Daniel and other three noble youths were carried off to Babylon, along with part of the vessels of the temple. There he was obliged to enter into the service of the king of Babylon, and in accordance with the custom of the age received the Chaldean name of Belteshazzar, i. , "prince of Bel," or "Bel protect the king!" His residence in Babylon was very probably in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, now identified with a mass of shapeless mounds called the Kasr, on the right bank of the river. His training in the schools of the wise men in Babylon (Daniel 1:4 ) was to fit him for service to the empire. He soon became known for his skill in the interpretation of dreams (1:17; 2:14), and rose to the rank of governor of the province of Babylon, and became "chief of the governors" (Chald. Rab-signin) over all the wise men of Babylon. " ...
After the taking of Babylon, Cyrus, who was now master of all Asia from India to the Dardanelles, placed Darius (q. ), a Median prince, on the throne, during the two years of whose reign Daniel held the office of first of the "three presidents" of the empire, and was thus practically at the head of affairs, no doubt interesting himself in the prospects of the captive Jews (Daniel 9 ), whom he had at last the happiness of seeing restored to their own land, although he did not return with them, but remained still in Babylon
Cuth - Cuth was located at tell Ibrahim, about 18 miles northeast of Babylon
Evil-Merodach, - EVIL-MERODACH , the Amel-Marduk of the Babylonians, son and successor of Nebuchadrezzar on the throne of Babylon ( 2 Kings 25:27-30 ), promoted Jehoiachin in the 37th year of his captivity
Silk - The only undoubted notice of silk in the Bible occurs in (Revelation 18:12 ) where it is mentioned among the treasures of the typical Babylon
Harsha - ” Clan of Temple servants who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylonian Exile about 537 B. Tel-Harsha (Ezra 2:59 NAS) was one of the places where Jewish exiles lived in Babylon, so that the clan could have taken its name from the Babylonian home or given its name to the Babylonian home
Succoth Benoth - ” A pagan deity which people from Babylon brought with them to Israel when it was resettled by the Assyrians after the fall of Samaria in 722 B
Rabba bar nahmeini - His deep, penetrating logic, earned him the nickname "uprooter of mountains," and secured him the position of principal of the Torah academy at Pumbedita in Babylon
Achmetha - It was surrounded by seven walls, and at one period was considered the strongest and most beautiful city of the east, except Nineveh and Babylon
Evil-Merodach - The son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, B
Ger'Shom - , (1 Chronicles 6:16,17,20,43,62,71 ; 15:7 ) ...
The representative of the priestly family of Phinehas, among those who accompanied Ezra from Babylon
Euphrates And Tigris Rivers - Many significant cities were located on the Euphrates, Babylon being the most important. Others located on its banks were Mari and Carchemish, the latter being the site of a famous battle between Babylon and Egypt in 605 B. See Babylon ; Nineve h
Babylon - Jeremiah 50:14 (b) Throughout chapters 50,51of this book, the actual city of Babylon is directly in view, but what is said about that city indicates clearly that it refers to the great religions and idolatries of the world which seek to depose GOD and enthrone their own philosophies. This Babylon is represented as a woman. This Babylon is described as a city in Revelation 18:16
Jehoiakim - 606, he became tributary to Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar visited Jerusalem, bound Jehoiakim in chains to carry him to Babylon, but apparently altered his plans and left him at Jerusalem as a vassal; or, if he carried him to Babylon, allowed him to return
Accad - Thus it appears that Accad was contemporary with Babylon, and was one of the first four great cities of the world. ...
It would scarcely be expected that any thing should now remain to guide us in our search for this ancient city, seeing that Babylon itself, with which it was coeval, is reduced to heaps; and that it is not mentioned under its ancient name by any profane author. The resemblance of this mode of building to that in some of the structures at Babylon, cannot escape observation; and we may reasonably conclude it to be the workmanship of the same architects. The solidity and the loftiness of this pile, unfashioned to any other purpose, bespeak it to be one of those enormous pyramidal towers which were consecrated to the Sabian worship; which, as essential to their religious rites, were probably erected in all the early cities of the Cuthites; and, like their prototype at Babylon, answered the double purpose of altars and observatories. It was not Babylon; it was not Erech; it was not Calneh
Babylon (2) - Babylon, Province or Kingdom of. The country of which Babylon was the capital. As Chaldæa gained in power its name was applied to the whole country, including Babylon. The early kingdom of Babylon is generally regarded as covering an extent of about 27,000 square miles, rich of soil and abundant in resources, the home of one of the earliest civilized nations. After the time of Nimrod Babel or Babylon appears to be displaced in Scripture history by Chaldæa until the time of Joshua, Joshua 7:21; after this both again disappear, until about the time of the captivity. 625, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b. In architecture, sculpture, science, philosophy, astronomical and mathematical knowledge, and in learning, the Babylonians made original investigations and discoveries not surpassed by any other ancient people. "To Babylonia," says G. In religion the Babylonians differed little from the early Chaldæans
Morter - Hot bitumen was used for cement in the walls of Babylon (Herodotus i. At It, now Heets, eight days' journey from Babylon, the bitumen was obtained
Necho - Josiah, king of Judah, being tributary to the king of Babylon, opposed Necho on his first expedition against Nebuchadnezzar, and gave him battle at Megiddo, where he received the wound of which he died. Carchemish was retaken by the army of the king of Babylon, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, Jeremiah 46:2; so that Necho did not retain his conquests in Syria more than four years
Jehoiachin - Jehoiachin was carried to Babylon and kept in prison thirty-six years; on the accession of Evil-merodach, B. He is called JECONIAH in 1 Chronicles 3:16 17 ; Esther 2:6 ; Jeremiah 24:1 ; Jeremiah 27:20 ; Jeremiah 28:4 (where his return from Babylon is falsely prophesied of); Jeremiah 29:2
Babylonians - The inhabitants of Babylon or its districts. Thousands of tablets have been discovered which throw great light upon the social life and character of the Babylonians. Many tablets show that they held that the stars and signs of the heavens foretold events, agreeing with God's message to Babylon "Let now the astrologers, the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators stand up and save thee. These tablets, made thousands of years ago, now reveal how Satan succeeded in keeping the Babylonians completely under his dominion
Jehoiachin - On the approach of the Chaldæan army, the young king surrendered and was carried away to Babylon ( 2 Kings 24:8 ff. His reign had lasted only three months, but his confinement in Babylon extended until the death of Nebuchadrezzar thirty-seven years
Baruch - ...
He is supposed by some to have accompanied his brother Seraiah to Babylon, with the predictions of Jeremiah respecting that city, Jeremiah 51:59-64 . After the death of Jeremiah, the rabbins say, he returned to Babylon
Achmetha - Ezra 6:2 , supposed to mean Ecbatana, a city of Media, inferior to none in the East but Babylon and Nineveh
Israelites, Captivities of the - (1) The Assyrian Captivity, when the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were carried off to Assyria (4Kings 15; 17) ...
(2) The Babylonian Captivity, when the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda were deported to Babylon (4Kings 24; 25)
Shadrach - (sshad' rak) Babylonian name meaning, “circuit of the sun. ” One of Daniel's three friends taken to Babylon during the Exile (Daniel 1:6-7 )
Desolation - How is Babylon become a desolation among the nations
Captivities of the Israelites - (1) The Assyrian Captivity, when the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were carried off to Assyria (4Kings 15; 17) ...
(2) The Babylonian Captivity, when the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda were deported to Babylon (4Kings 24; 25)
Ishtar - See Fertility Cults; Astarte ; Tammuz ; Babylon
Shoa - Opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan. Some think it denotes a place in Babylon
Merodach - (mihr oh' dak) Hebrew form of Marduk, the chief god of Babylon, also called Bel, corresponding to the Semitic Baal or “Lord” (Jeremiah 50:2 ). Merodach is an element in the names of the Babylonian kings Merodach-baladan (2 Kings 20:12 ; Isaiah 39:1 ) and Evil-Merodach (2 Kings 25:27 ; Jeremiah 52:31 )
Achmetha - In the time of Ezra, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon
Shel'Omith - (1 Chronicles 23:9 ) ...
One whose sons returned from Babylon with Ezra
Mishael - (c, 400 BCE) Exiled to Babylon together with Daniel, Hananiah, and Azariah, where they were trained to be chamberlains in the royal court
Nebuchadnezzar - 397 BCE) Babylonian king. During the reign of Joiakim and Jehoiachin, Nebuchadnezzar exiled to Babylon many of the politically powerful Jews and members of the royal family, including Daniel and his colleagues Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah
Rehob - There was also a Rehob among the captives of Israel which returned from Babylon, Nehemiah 10:11
Sanballat - The great enemy to Israel after their return from the captivity of Babylon: (see Nehemiah 2:19 and Nehemiah 6:1-19) The name is not strictly derived from the Hebrew: it hath been thought that as Sene means bush, and Lut, to hide, the union of those words forming a suitable name for the enemies of God's people, Sanballat was so called to imply an enemy in secret
Magormissabib - He had prophesied lies, and should die in Babylon
Plaster - In Daniel 5:5 the accuracy of Scripture appears; the Nineveh walls were paneled with alabaster slabs, but no alabaster being procurable at Babylon enamel or stucco ("plaster") for receiving ornamental designs covers the bricks; on it Belshazzar's doom was written
Lucifer - ) The planet Venus, when appearing as the morning star; - applied in Isaiah by a metaphor to a king of Babylon
Lucifer - The title is applied to the king of Babylon in Isaiah 14:12, R
ha'Shum -
Bene-Hashum, 223 in number, came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Riblah - City in the land of Hamath, where Pharaoh-nechoh imprisoned Jehoahaz, and whence the king of Babylon carried Zedekiah, when he slew his sons and the priests and chief men of Judah
Chaldea - ...
Relation to Babylonia At first the Chaldeans lived in tribal settlements, rejecting the urban society of the Babylonians to the northwest—so-called after the leading city-state of the region, Babylon, to which the Old Testament refers over 300 times. Babylon was once the capital city of the great King Hammurabi (ca. ...
As time passed, the Chaldeans gradually acquired domination in Babylonia. In the process they also took on the title “Babylonians,” or more exactly, “Neo-Babylonians. ” As a result, the terms Chaldea(ns) and (Neo-) Babylonia(ns) may be used interchangeably ( Ezekiel 1:3 , RSV, NIV; Ezekiel 12:13 , NIV). See Babylon, History and Religion of
Jeremi'ah, Book of - 46-49, has been placed here as a kind of completion to the prophecy of the seventy years and the subsequent fall of Babylon. The message of comfort for the exiles in Babylon. The prophecies against foreign nations, ending with the great prediction against Babylon
e'Lam - It is plain that at this early time the predominant power in lower Mesopotamia was Elam, which for a while held the place possessed earlier by Babylon, (Genesis 10:10 ) and later by either Babylon or Assyria. (1 Chronicles 8:24 ) ...
"Children of Elam," to the number of 1254, returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon
Belshazzar - Contracted from Belsharezar: from Βel , the Babylonian idol, and shar , a "king"; zar is a common Babylonian termination, as in Nebuchadnez-zar. See BABEL; Babylon, for the remarkable confirmation of the Scripture account of his death on the night of revelry in the siege of Babylon; which is also stated by Xenophon; whereas Berosus in Josephus calls the last king Nabonedus (Nabonahit, i. Nebo makes prosperous) and says that in the 17th year of his reign Cyrus took Babylon, the king having retired to Borsippa (the Chaldaean sacred city of religion and science); and that having surrendered there, he had a principality assigned to him in Carmania by Cyrus. Belshazzar fell in the last assault of Babylon. Xenophon calls the last king of Babylon "impious," and illustrates his cruelty by the fact that he killed a courtier for having struck down the game in hunting before him, and unmanned Gadates a courtier at a banquet, because one of the king's courtiers praised him as handsome. To mark the inseparable connection of sin and punishment, "the same hour" that witnessed his impious insult to Jehovah witnessed the mysterious hand of the unseen One writing his doom in full view of his fellow transgressors on the same palace wall which had been covered with cuneiform inscriptions glorifying those Babylonian kings. Cyrus diverted the Euphrates into a channel, and guided by Gobryas and Gadatas, deserters, marched by the dry channel into Babylon, while the citizens were carousing at an annual feast to the idols (Isaiah 21:5; Isaiah 44:27; Jeremiah 50:29-35; Jeremiah 50:38-39; Jeremiah 51:36; Jeremiah 51:57)
Esarhaddon - Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. He is the only Assyrian king who reigned at Babylon; the bricks of the palace he built there still bearing his name. Scripture by a striking minute coincidence with truth represents Manasseh as carried to Babylon, not to the Assyrian capital Nineveh; which would seem inexplicable but for the above fact, revealed by the monuments. ...
Esarhaddon's Babylonian reign lasted from 680 to 667 B. , the very period when Manasseh was brought up by the Assyrian king's captains to Babylon on a charge of rebellion (2 Chronicles 33:11-19). " Ptolemy's canon shows he reigned 13 years in Babylon, and probably reigned in all 20 years, dying about 660 B
Oracle - Communication - This form of divination existed in Babylon and Assyria, among the Hebrews, and in Greece and Rome
Merodach-Baladan - Merodach has given a son, (Isaiah 39:1 ), "the hereditary chief of the Chaldeans, a small tribe at that time settled in the marshes at the mouth of the Euphrates, but in consequence of his conquest of Babylon afterwards, they became the dominant caste in Babylonia itself
Daric - A gold coin current in Palestine after the return from Babylon
Ahava - Water, the river (Ezra 8:21 ) by the banks of which the Jewish exiles assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon. In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia
Bigvai - Leader with Zerubbabel of exiles who returned from Babylon about 537 B
Gamad - They were apparently allies of Tyre in its fight against Babylon
Nergal-Sharezer - Mene - This sentence, which appeared on the wall of Belshazzar's banqueting-hall to warn him of the impending destruction of Babylon, is in the Chaldee language
Silk - Revelation 18:12 indicates that the rich in Babylon bought silk from merchants
Ahava - AHAVA was a settlement in Babylonia lying along a stream of the same name, probably a large canal near the Euphrates. Some district north or north-west of Babylon, near the northern boundary of Babylonia, is most probable
Nergalsharezer - Prince of the king of Babylon; he assisted at the destruction of Jerusalem
Net-Work - Exodus 27:4 ; Exodus 38:4 ; and in the temple there was net-work of brass along with checker work and chain work, as ornaments on the chapiters of the pillars, which were carried away to Babylon
Israelites - the descendants of Israel, who were first called Hebrews by reason of Abraham, who came from the other side of the Euphrates; and afterward Israelites, from Israel, the father of the twelve tribes; and, lastly, Jews, particularly after their return from the captivity of Babylon; because the tribe of Judah was then much stronger and more numerous than the other tribes, and foreigners had scarcely any knowledge but of this tribe
Persia, Persians - Media ruled them in early times, but under Cyrus the yoke was shaken off, and, together with the Medes, they formed the second Gentile empire, succeeding that of Babylon. ' He was the first head of the empire, and his taking the kingdom does not clash with Cyrus taking the city of Babylon, which is implied in Isaiah 45:1,2 . See Babylon. On the death of Darius, Cyrus succeeded and reigned in Babylon, and from thence the Persian element prevailed in the empire. ...
Babylon taken … … … … 538...
Cyrus reigns at Babylon … … … 536 Cyrus: Ezra 1:1 . The kingdom of Babylon was smaller in extent than that of Persia
Captivity - Twenty years later, Shalmaneser carried away the rest of Israel, the northern kingdom, 2 Kings 17:6, and located them in distant cities, many of them probably not far from the Caspian Sea; and their place was supplied by colonies from Babylon and Persia. Of Judah are generally reckoned three deportations, occurring during the Babylonian or great captivity: 1. 606, when Daniel and others were carried to Babylon. In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3023 Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, in the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, b. 588, when Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed, and all the better class of the people and their treasures were carried to Babylon. While in Babylonia, the Jews were treated more like colonists than slaves. When the 70 years were fulfilled, Cyrus, in the first year of his reign at Babylon, b. Fifty-eight years after, Ezra led a small company of 7000 from Babylon to Judæa
Captivity - 606, when Daniel and others were carried to Babylon, 2 Kings 24:1,2 Daniel 1:1 2 . In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3,023Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, that is, in the seventh and eighth years of Nebuchadnezzar, B. 588, when Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed, and most that was valuable among the people and their treasures was carried to Babylon, 2 Kings 25:1-30 2 Chronicles 36:1-23 . While at Babylon the Jews had judges and elders who governed them, and decided matters in dispute juridically according to their laws. ...
At length the seventy years were fulfilled, and Cyrus, in the first year of his reign at Babylon, B. Fifty-eight years after, Ezra led a small company of 7,000 from Babylon to Judea
Sera'Iah - (Nehemiah 11:11 ) ...
The head of a priestly house which went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Jeremiah 51:59,61 ) He went with Zedekiah to Babylon in the fourth year of his reign
Esarhaddon - He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon. This will account for the captain of the Assyrians carrying Manasseh to Babylon
Jehoiachin - At the time of Babylon’s attack on Jerusalem in 597 BC, the Judean king Jehoiakim died and was succeeded by his eighteen year old son Jehoiachin (also known as Jeconiah, or Coniah). The Babylonians then plundered Judah’s treasures and took Jehoiachin captive to Babylon, along with the royal family, palace officials and most of Judah’s best people (2 Kings 24:8-16; Esther 2:6; Jeremiah 22:24-30; Jeremiah 24:1; Jeremiah 27:20; Jeremiah 29:2). ...
In 561 BC a new Babylonian king released Jehoiachin from prison and treated him with special favour. When, after Persia’s conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, the Jews were released and returned to Jerusalem, a grandson of Jehoiachin, Zerubbabel, became their governor (1 Chronicles 3:17; Ezra 3:2; Haggai 1:1; Matthew 1:12)
Image, Nebuchadnezzar's - According to one interpretation, the various materials refer to the line of Neo-Babylonian kings which came to an end with the conquest of Cyrus who is identified as the divinely ordained rock (Daniel 2:45 ; compare Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ). Others see a succession of kingdoms rather than kings, for example, (1) Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece or (2) Babylon, Medo-Persia, Alexander the Great, and Alexander's Hellenistic successors. ...
Dispensationalist interpreters identify the succession of kingdoms as Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. ...
The charge of not worshipping the gods of Nebuchadnezzar leveled against the Jews (Daniel 3:12 ,Daniel 3:12,3:14 ) suggests a statue of Bel-merodach, the patron deity of Babylon, though the statue was possibly of Nebuchadnezzar himself
Nemrod - Descendant of Chus, represented as the founder of the Babylonian Empire (Genesis 10) and "a mighty hunter before the Lord," identified by some as Gilgamesh, the hero of the Babylonian epic. He reigned over Arach, Babylon, Achad, and Chalanne, and is described as builder of Ninive. From the supposed root of his name (Hebrew: marad, he revolted), he has been credited with having instigated the building of the Tower of Babel and as being the author of Babylonian idolatry
Gedaliah ben ahikam - Gedaliah advocated submission to Babylon as a means of ensuring continued partial Jewish autonomy, and under his administration, the Jewish colony prospered
Suc'Coth-be'Noth - Occurs only in (2 Kings 17:30 ) It has generally been supposed that this term is pure Hebrew, and signifies the tents of daughters; which some explain as "the booths in which the daughters of the Babylonians prostituted themselves in honor of their idol," others as "small tabernacles in which were contained images of female deities. Rawlinson thinks that Succoth-benoth represents the Chaldaean goddess Zerbanit , the wife of Merodach, who was especially worshipped at Babylon
Bricks - Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick
Mishael - ...
...
One of the three Hebrew youths who were trained with Daniel in Babylon (Daniel 1:11,19 ), and promoted to the rank of Magi
Hananiah - (a) (c, 400 BCE) Exiled to Babylon together with Daniel, Mishael, and Azariah, where they were trained to be chamberlains in the royal court
Gemariah - ) sent to Babylon
Lucifer - (Latin: light-bearer; the morning star, the sun) ...
Although it sometimes refers to a King of Babylon (in Isaiah 14), the Fathers apply it in a spiritual sense to the leader of the fallen angels, or Satan
Nimrod - Descendant of Chus, represented as the founder of the Babylonian Empire (Genesis 10) and "a mighty hunter before the Lord," identified by some as Gilgamesh, the hero of the Babylonian epic. He reigned over Arach, Babylon, Achad, and Chalanne, and is described as builder of Ninive. From the supposed root of his name (Hebrew: marad, he revolted), he has been credited with having instigated the building of the Tower of Babel and as being the author of Babylonian idolatry
Flames - ...
Isaiah 13:8 (a) Hatred and fierce cruelty shall characterize the people who besiege and destroy Babylon
Carpenter - The four horns mentioned in the previous verses may indicate the great Gentile kingdoms of Babylon, Persia, Greece and Rome
Esar-Haddon - 680 to 667, and during it Manasseh, the king of Judah, was taken prisoner by his captains and carried before him at Babylon, and kept a captive for some time
Nisan - The name Nisan was introduced only since the time of Ezra, and the return from the captivity of Babylon
Hanani - A brother of Nehemiah, who brought to Babylon an account of the wretched state of the Jews then at Jerusalem, and afterwards had charge of the gates of the city, Nehemiah 1:1-3 7:2,3 , B
Nisan - The name Nisan found only after the time of Ezra, and the return from the captivity of Babylon
Lucifer - The word Lucifer is used once only in the English Bible, and then of the king of Babylon, Isaiah 14:12
du'ra - Oppert places the plain (or, as he calls it, the "valley") of Dura to the southeast of Babylon, in the vicinity of the mound of Dowair or Duair , where was found the pedestal of a huge statue
Azariah - (a) (c, 400 BCE) Exiled to Babylon together with Daniel, Hananiah, and Azariah, where they were trained to be chamberlains in the royal court
Chananiah - (a) (c, 400 BCE) Exiled to Babylon together with Daniel, Mishael, and Azariah, where they were trained to be chamberlains in the royal court
Delai'ah - ) ...
"Children of Delaiah" were among the people of uncertain pedigree who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Disquiet - ...
That he may disquiet the inhabitants of Babylon
Boaz - These pillars were broken up and carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
Geruth - ” Fugitives stopped there near Bethlehem on their way to Egypt fleeing from Ishmael, who had killed Gedaliah, whom Babylon had appointed governor of Judah after the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B
Riblah - Syrian town located near Kadesh on the Orontes near the border with Babylonia. Later, when Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, he was taken to Riblah as a prisoner and viewed the execution of his sons before having his eyes put out (2 Kings 25:4-7 )
Heldai - A Jew from Babylon, from whom and Tobijah and Jedaiah the gold and silver which they presented toward building the temple were to be taken, and crowns made for Joshua's head, afterward to be deposited in the temple as a memorial of the donors (as Cornelius' prayers and ahns of faith "came up for a memorial before God," Acts 10:4), until Messiah should come
Leb-Kamai, Leb-Qamai - A code name for Babylon (Jeremiah 51:1 , NAS, NIV, NRSV, REB, RSV margin; Kambul, NEB)
Mordecai - A man who returned from Babylon to Jerusalem with Zerrubbabel (Ezra 2:2 ; Nehemiah 7:7 )
Samgar-Nebo - (ssam' gahr-nee' boh) Personal name of Babylonian official who accompanied Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon in capturing Jerusalem in 587 B. Such reconstructions relate the name to a city—Simmagir—known from other Babylonian records
Susa - Cyrus made Susa a capital city along with Ecbatana and Babylon
Pashur - Many descendants of this Pashur returned from captivity at Babylon, 1 Chronicles 9:12 ; Ezra 2:38
Satyrs - The gambols of these wild animals on the ruins of Babylon mark is as an uninhabited and lonely waste
Beb'a-i -
"Sons of Bebai," 623 (Nehe 6:28) in number, returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, (2:11; Nehemiah 7:16 ) (B
Jehoz'Adak - ( 1 Chronicles 6:14,15 ) When his father was slain at Riblah by order of Nebuchadnezzar, (2 Kings 25:18,21 ) Jehozadak was led away captive to Babylon
Sargon - Merodach-baladan, once king of the Chald¿an State of Bît-Yakîn, seized Babylon, and was supported by the Elamites. Merodach-baladan was expelled from Babylon (b. Sargon was welcomed as the deliverer of the native Babylonians, and became king of Babylon
Ashurbanipal - Of particular importance are the Assyrian copies of the Babylonian creation and flood stories. The most significant event of his reign was a drawn-out struggle against a coalition of nations led by his brother Shamashshumukin, regent of Babylon. The coalition of kings was not strong enough to defeat the powerful Ashurbanipal, and the downfall of Babylon was sealed. Babylon, under Nabopolassar, threw off Assyrian domination and Nineveh, the capital city, fell to the Medes in 612
Babylon - (bab ih' luhn), a capital city in ancient Mesopotamia (mostly modern Iraq), is mentioned some 200 times in the Bible, nearly all in the Old Testament and referring to the city of the Neo-Babylonian Period (625-539 BC). Jeremiah the prophet, while anticipating its downfall, named Babylon “a golden cup in the Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken” (Jeremiah 51:7 ). ...
Origin Information about Babylon's origin has been lost in antiquity, but it did not rank among the leading Mesopotamian cities before 3000 B. Later, Babylonian kings aligned themselves with the Medes to conquer Assyria in 612 B. , and then the Neo-Babylonian rulers dedicated themselves to reconstructing Babylon's ancient temples and walls. Due largely to Sennacherib's deliberate destruction of the city, very little of pre-Sargonid Babylon (before 721 B. ) brought Babylon to her glory, making it “the Palace of Heaven and Earth, the Seat of Kingship. ” His work appears everywhere, so with justification the author of Daniel 4:30 could attribute to this king, “Is not this great Babylon, that I have built by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?” Cyrus the Persian took Babylon in 539 B. ) some great structures of old Babylon were still wonders. ...
Location Traditionally, a mound called Babil, near the Euphrates River and some six miles northeast of Hillah (southwest of Iraq's capital city Baghdad), has been identified as the location of ancient Babylon. ...
Archaeology Regrettably, the ruins of Babylon have long served as a quarry for building materials. Before 1811, the few antiquities coming from Babylon were mostly surface finds recovered casually or by random digging by the natives. ...
Babylon was one of a number of Mesopotamian sites excavated seriously from 1842 onwards. The major excavations of ancient Babylon began in 1899 led by the German architect Robert Koldewey and lasted year-round until 1917 when British occupation caused cessation of his projected labors far from their completion. ...
Ancient Babylon was divided in two by the Euphrates river. ...
Sprawling ancient Babylon covered an area of nearly 1000 acres, making it the largest ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, some fifteen percent larger than Nineveh. The smaller western area constituted Babylon's “new” city about which little is known. ...
Greater Babylon, excluding its western suburb, was a triangular fortified island with one-third of its area being an inner, elaborately defended fortress which contained the royal palace, the ziggurat, the temple of Marduk, and a vast residential area. Ancient Babylon's most famous street was the Processional Way, Aibur-shabu (“the enemy shall never pass”) along which the images of the gods were transported from the Euphrates into Babylon during the New Year Festival. ...
Babylon's principal palace was on the right upon passing through the Ishtar Gate, lying between a canal at its south and the city walls at its north. ...
Babylon's most significant temple was Esagila (“The Temple that raises it head”), the home of the city god Marduk. Jeremiah's comment on Babylon is remembered: “It is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon their idols (Jeremiah 50:38 )
Esdras - Priest and scribe who left Babylon in the 7th year of Artaxerxes (458 B. Esdras brought with him an exemption from taxation for the temple officials, and gifts from Artaxerxes and the Jews of Babylon
Jesh'ua - ) ...
Son of Jehozadak, first high priest after the Babylonish captivity, B. Jeshua was probably born in Babylon, whither his father Jehozadak had been taken captive while young. He came up from Babylon in the first year of Cyrus, with Zerubbabel, and took a leading part with him in the rebuilding of the temple and the restoration of the Jewish commonwealth. ...
Head of a Levitical house, one of those which returned from the Babylonish captivity
Jesh'ua - ) ...
Son of Jehozadak, first high priest after the Babylonish captivity, B. Jeshua was probably born in Babylon, whither his father Jehozadak had been taken captive while young. He came up from Babylon in the first year of Cyrus, with Zerubbabel, and took a leading part with him in the rebuilding of the temple and the restoration of the Jewish commonwealth. ...
Head of a Levitical house, one of those which returned from the Babylonish captivity
Sennacherib - He was at once faced by troubles in Babylon, where Merodach-baladan had re-established himself. Sennacherib expelled him and placed Bçlibni of the Babylonian seed royal on the throne as a vassal king. Troubles in Babylonia led him to recall Bçl-ibni and set his own son Ashur-nâdin-shum on the throne. He then had once more to expel Merodach-baladan from Lower Babylonia. He was too far from his base, and the Elamites fell on his rear and captured Babylon, carried off Ashur-nâdin-shum to Elam, making a Chald¿an Nergal-ushçzib king in his stead; b. The Assyrians soon re-asserted their supremacy, but a fresh rebellion placed a Babylonian on the throne of Babylon. 691Samennacherib brought both Elamites and Babylonians to bay at Khalule. 689 Babylon was captured and razed to the ground
Persia - The greatest victory for the Medo-Persian army came in 539 BC, when it conquered Babylon and Cyrus became undisputed ruler of the region (Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:1-10; Ezra 6:8-10; Isaiah 45:1; Jeremiah 51:11; Jeremiah 51:28; Daniel 5:30-31; Daniel 8:20; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 10:1). ...
Upon becoming ruler of Babylon, Cyrus quickly gave permission for all the people held captive by Babylon in foreign lands to return to their homelands. (This Darius is a different person from Darius the Mede, the man who led the Medo-Persian attack on Babylon over twenty years previously; cf
Euphrates - ...
In one of Jeremiah's typical actions he hid his girdle by the Euphrates then found it spoiled and useless; so should the pride of Judah and Jerusalem be marred (Jeremiah 13:4-11 ) — a figure of the carrying away to Babylon of those who should have cleaved to the Lord for His praise, as a girdle to the loins of a man. The prophecy against Babylon was written by Jeremiah in a book, and given to Seraiah, who was to read the same when he arrived at Babylon, then tie a stone to the book and cast it into the Euphrates, and. say "Thus shall Babylon sink. The book was thus placed in the river in which the Babylonians trusted for safety, but which was the channel of their destruction
Caterpillar - ...
Jeremiah 51:14 (a) GOD compares with caterpillars the invading hosts of men who would attack and capture Babylon
Nebuzaradan - ” An officer in the Babylonian army during King Nebuchadnezzar's reign. See Babylon, History and Religion of
Sackbut - But certain it is that very little hath ever been understood, even among the Jews themselves, after their return from Babylon, concerning the instruments to which their fathers had been so partial
Amraphel - ” King of Shinar or Babylon who joined a coalition to defeat Sodom and Gomorrah, then other kings in Canaan and the Dead Sea area
Iddo - He returned from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:4 )
Baltasar - (Greek and Latin name for the Hebrew Aramaic, Belshazzar; Babylonian, Belshazzar, "Bel protect the king") According to the Bible the son of Nabuchodonosor, and the last king of Babylon
Pahath-Moab - Part of it returned with Zerubbabel, part with Ezra, and part remained in Babylon
Clay - The bricks of Babylon are found marked with a large seal or stamp, and modern travellers find the locks of doors in eastern khans and granaries sealed on the outside with clay
Den - Some recent discoveries among the ruins of Babylon have brought to light the fact that the practice of punishing offenders against the law by throwing them into a den of lions was common
Hattush - A descendant of David, who returned with Ezra from Babylon ( Ezra 8:2 [1]); see also 1 Chronicles 3:22 (but if we accept the LXX Merodach-Baladan - King of Babylon
Lucifer - (lyoo' cih fuhr) The Latin translation (followed by the KJV) of the Hebrew word for “day star” in Isaiah 14:12 , where the word is used as a title for the king of Babylon, who had exalted himself as a god
Queen - ...
Revelation 18:7 (b) This word describes the pride of Babylon (the great false religions of Christendom) in which she takes the place of being the bride of the King of kings, whereas in reality she is really a harlot, and is so named by our Lord
Astrologer - Babylon was wearied with its various counsellors, who doubtless often differed one from another; but it had no other resource, so it turned to its astrologers, stargazers, etc
Liver - Among the heathen the liver was one of the parts of an animal that were examined in order to foretell events, as practised by the king of Babylon
ja'Rib - ...
One of the "chief men" who accompanied Ezra on his journey from Babylon to Jerusalem
Jaha'zi-el - ) ...
The "son of Jahaziel" was the chief of the Bene-Shecaniah who returned from Babylon with Ezra
East - Nearly all the references in scripture to the East or to other quarters are of course reckoned from Palestine; so that 'children of the East,' 'men of the East,' point out Assyria, Babylon, etc
Harlot - 1: πόρνη (Strong's #4204 — Noun Feminine — porne — por'-nay ) "a prostitute, harlot" (from pernemi, "to sell"), is used (a) literally, in Matthew 21:31,32 , of those who were the objects of the mercy shown by Christ; in Luke 15:30 , of the life of the Prodigal; in 1 Corinthians 6:15,16 , in a warning to the Corinthian church against the prevailing licentiousness which had made Corinth a byword; in Hebrews 11:31 ; James 2:25 , of Rahab; (b) metaphorically, of mystic Babylon, Revelation 17:1,5 (AV, "harlots"),15,16; 19:2, RV, for AV, "whore
Cage - " In Revelation 18:2 , AV, Babylon is described figuratively, first as a "hold" and then as a "cage" of every unclean and hateful bird (RV, "hold" in both clauses; marg
Willows - The Jewish captives in Babylon hung their harps on the weeping willow along the Euphrates. Before the date of the Babylonian captivity the willow was associated with joy, after it with sorrow, probably owing to Psalm 137. Babylonia was a network of canals, and would therefore abound in willows. The willow of Babylon has long, pointed, lance-shaped leaves, and finely serrated, smooth, slender, drooping branches
Semite - East Semitic would include Akkadian used in ancient Babylon and Assyria. See Languages of the Bible ; Assyria; Babylon ; Canaan
Whelp - He was captured by the King of Babylon and was carried as a prisoner to Babylon
Baruch - It relates that the Jews in Babylon sent a deputation to Jerusalem with money for sacrifices, and requested that prayers might be offered for Nebuchadnezzar and his son Belshazzar. It ends with an Epistle of Jeremiah to those who were to be led captive into Babylon, warning them against the idols they would find there
Ambassador - The king of Babylon sent official ambassadors to learn of Hezekiah's power (2 Chronicles 32:31 ). ) for sending ambassadors to Egypt seeking help in rebelling against Babylon (Ezekiel 17:15 )
Jehoiachin - It seems he was born about the time of the first Babylonish captivity, A. 3398, when Jehoiakim, or Eliakim, his father, was carried to Babylon. Jehoiakim returned from Babylon, and reigned till A
Wine - The word is used metaphorically (a) of the evils ministered to the nations by religious Babylon, Revelation 14:8 ; 17:2 ; 18:3 ; (b) of the contents of the cup of Divine wrath upon the nations and Babylon, Revelation 14:10 ; 16:19 ; 19:15
Hananiah - The prophecy of Hananiah was to the effect that king Jeconiah and the captives in Babylon would all return in two years’ time, bringing back with them the vessels of the Lord’s house which Nebuchadnezzar had carried away (cf. Jeremiah 27:2 ) from Jeremiah’s neck and breaking it, with the words, ‘Thus saith the Lord: Even so will I break the yoke of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon within two full years from off the neck of all the nations’ ( Jeremiah 28:11 ). A priest, head of the house of Jeremiah, who returned with Nehemiah from Babylon ( Nehemiah 12:12 )
Jehoiakim - Jehoiakim was taken prisoner and carried captive to Babylon (2 Chronicles 36:6,7 ). It was at this time that Daniel also and his three companions were taken captive to Babylon (Daniel 1:1,2 ). ...
After three years of subjection to Babylon, Jehoiakim withheld his tribute and threw off the yoke (2 Kings 24:1 ), hoping to make himself independent
Dan'Iel - (Daniel 1:4 ) He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim" (B. In consequence of his success he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon. Dani 1:21 Though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, cf
Zedekiah - or MATTANIAH, was the last king of Judah before the captivity of Babylon. When Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, he carried Jehoiachin to Babylon, with his wives, children, officers, and the best artificers in Judea, and put in his place his uncle Mattaniah, whose name he changed into Zedekiah, and made him promise, with an oath, that he would continue in fidelity to him, A. In the first year of his reign, Zedekiah sent to Babylon Elasah, the son of Shaphan, and Gemariah, the son of Hilkiah, probably to carry his tribute to Nebuchadnezzar. By these messengers Jeremiah sent a letter to the captives at Babylon, Jeremiah 29:1-23 . The king of Chaldea, reproaching him with his perfidy, caused all his children to be slain before his face, and his eyes to be put out; then loading him with chains of brass, he ordered him to be sent to Babylon, 2 Kings 25:4-7 ; Jeremiah 32:4-7 ; Jeremiah 52:4-11 . Thus were accomplished two prophecies which seemed contradictory: one of Jeremiah, who said that Zedekiah should see and yet not see, Nebuchadnezzar with his eyes, Jeremiah 32:4-5 ; Jeremiah 34:3 ; and the other of Ezekiel 12:13 , which intimated that he should not see Babylon, though he should die there
Nimrod - The later Babylonians spoke Semitic, but the oldest inscriptions are Turanian or Cushite. Tradition points to Babylon's Cushite origin by making Belus son of Poseidon (the sea) and Libya (Ethiopia): Diodorus Siculus i. Oannes the fish god, Babylon's civilizer, rose out of the Red Sea (Syncellus, Chronog. "Cush" appears in the Babylonian names Cissia, Cuthah, Chuzistan (Susiana). Babylon's earliest alphabet in oldest inscriptions resembles that of Egypt and Ethiopia; common words occur, as Mirikh, the Meroe of Ethiopia, the Mars of Babylon. The Mahras is akin to the Abyssinian Galla language, representing the Cushite or Ethiopic of old; and the primitive Babylonian Sir H. The Egyptian and Ethiopic hyk (in hyk-sos , the "shepherd kings"), a "king," in Babylonian and Susianian is khak . "Tyrhak" is common to the royal lists of Susiana and Ethiopia, as "Nimrod" is to those of Babylon and Egypt. Ra is the Cushite supreme god of Babylon as Ra is the sun god in Egypt. " Sargon in an inscription says: "350 kings of Assyria hunted the people of Bilu-Nipru"; probably meaning the Babylon of Nimrod, nipru "hunter", another form of Nebrod which is the Septuagint form of Nimrod. The fourfold group of cities which Nimrod founded in Babylonia answer to the fourfold group in Assyria. So Κiprit Αrba , "king of the four races," is an early title of the first monarchs of Babylon; Chedorlaomer appears at the head of four peoples; "king of the four regions" occurs in Nineveh inscriptions too; after Sargon's days four cities had the pre-eminence (Rawlinson, 1:435, 438,4 47). ...
The early seat of empire was in the southern part of Babylonia, where Niffer represents either Babel or Calneh, Warka Erech, Mugheir Ur, Senkereh Ellasar. ), son of Ismi Dagon king of Babylon, founded a temple at Kileh Shergat (Asshur); so that the Scripture account of Babylon originating the Assyrian cities long before the Assyrian empire of the 13th century B
Captivity - The families thus removed were carried to distant cities, many of them not far from the Caspian Sea, and their place was supplied by colonists from Babylon and Cuthah, etc. After a brief siege he took that city, and carried away the vessels of the sanctuary to Babylon, and dedicated them in the Temple of Belus (2 Kings 24:1 ; 2 Chronicles 36:6,7 ; Daniel 1:1,2 ). At this time, from which is dated the "seventy years" of captivity (Jeremiah 25 ; Daniel 9:1,2 ), Daniel and his companions were carried to Babylon, there to be brought up at the court and trained in all the learning of the Chaldeans. But Jehoiachin's counsellors displeasing Nebuchadnezzar, he again a third time turned his army against Jerusalem, and carried away to Babylon a second detachment of Jews as captives, to the number of 10,000 (2 Kings 24:13 ; Jeremiah 24:1 ; 2 Chronicles 36:10 ), among whom were the king, with his mother and all his princes and officers, also Ezekiel, who with many of his companions were settled on the banks of the river Chebar (q. Nebuchadnezzar, with a powerful army, besieged Jerusalem, and Zedekiah became a prisoner in Babylon. 586), and all that remained of the people, except a number of the poorest class who were left to till the ground and dress the vineyards, were carried away captives to Babylon. ...
In the first year of his reign as king of Babylon (B
ba'Bel - The first rise of the Chaldean power was in the region close upon the Persian Gulf; thence the nation spread northward up the course of the rivers, and the seat of government moved in the same direction, being finally fixed at Babylon, perhaps not earlier than B. Topography of Babylon--Ancient description of the city. --All the ancient writers appear to agree in the fact of a district of vast size, more or less inhabited having been enclosed within lofty walls and included under the name of Babylon. The mound of Amram is thought to represent the "hanging gardens" of Nebuchadnezzar; but most probably it represents the ancient palace, coeval with Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks in his inscriptions as adjoining his own more magnificent residence. History of Babylon. ( Genesis 10:6-10 ) The early annals of Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties: one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion for 526 years. The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known to us from B. The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of Babylonian monarchs from B. 625, Babylon became not only an independent kingdom, but an empire. With the conquest of Cyrus commenced the decay of Babylon, which has since been a quarry from which all the tribes in the vicinity have derived the bricks with which they have built their cities. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia, they thought they recognized it in the famous temple of Beaus, the modern Birs Nimrod
Ellasar - (ehl lay' ssahr) Babylonian place name of unknown meaning. Identification with Larsa in Babylon was based on a false identification of Arioch
Rab-Mag - The title of Nergal-sharezer , a Babylonian official present at the taking of Jerusalem ( Jeremiah 39:3 ; Jeremiah 39:13 ). Tentatively adopting the oldest and most obvious account, that it means ‘chief magus,’ we note here that the name magus may very well have been applied to a sacred caste employed in Babylon long before it became associated with Zoroastrianism, to which the silence of the Avesta shows it was originally foreign
Zephaniah - The father of one Josiah in Babylon ( Zechariah 6:10 ; Zechariah 6:14 )
Bittern - Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 )
Mishael - One of Daniel's three companions at Babylon (Nehemiah 8:4; Daniel 2:17; Daniel 3)
Dial - Probably the sun-dial was a Babylonian invention. Daniel at Babylon ( Daniel 3:6 ) is the first to make mention of the "hour
Meni - Isaiah 65:11, "drink offering unto that number," rather to Meni, an idol worshipped by apostate Jews at Babylon
Elasah - He took Jeremiah's message to the exiled community in Babylon while on a mission for King Zedekiah (Jeremiah 29:3 )
Queen - The only other passage in which the title occurs is Revelation 18:7, where Babylon is represented as sitting as a queen, priding herself upon her power and immunity from sorrow (cf
Jarmuth - Occupied by children of Judah on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:29)
Jedaiah (1) - Some "children of Jedaiah of the house of Jeshua, 973," returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:36; Nehemiah 7:39)
Lydda - It was located at the intersection of the caravan routes from Egypt to Babylon and the road from Joppa to Jerusalem
Widow - ...
Revelation 18:7 (b) This is Babylon
Chaldeans (Wise Men) - These Chaldeans were a particular class of learned men, forming with others the Magi, or wise men of Babylon
Jaazaniah - Son of Hoshaiah, a Maachathite, and a captain among those left in the land by the king of Babylon
Calneh - , the east, bank of the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon
Canaan, the Language of - The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries. Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by the Canaanites
Nebo - the name of an idol of the Babylonians: "Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth," Isaiah 46:1 . The god Bel was the oracle of the Babylonians. The name Nebo, or Nabo, is found in the composition of the names of several princes of Babylon; as Nabonassar, Nabopolassar, Nebuchadnezzar, Nebuzaradan, Nebushasban, &c
Abednego - Abednego (a-bĕd'ne-gô), servant of Nego or Nebo, a Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of the three captive young princes of Judah, who were Daniel's companions at the court of the king of Babylon
Shinar - It would seem originally to have denoted the northern part of Babylonia, as "Chaldæa" denoted the southern part; but subsequently, like Chaldæa, it was sometimes used for the whole. In Joshua 7:21 it is rendered "Babylonish. " Among its cities were Babel (Babylon), Erech or Orech (Orchoi), Calneh or Calno (probably Niffer), and Accad
Gemariah - The son of Hilkiah, sent to Babylon by King Hezekiah with tribute money for Nebuchadnezzar
lu'Cifer - In this passage it is a symbolical representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture represented as the type of tyrannical and self idolizing power, and especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the Apocalypse
re'Hum -
One who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Kir - Kir was a Mesopotamian city east of the lower Tigris River (which is now identified with the modern Badrah) on the main road from Elam (Persia) to Babylon. During the Neo-Babylonian period (605-539 B. ; see Babylon), Kir was the capital of the province of Gutium. The governor of this province joined Cyrus the Persian in the overthrow of the Babylonian Empire in 539 B
Babylon - (Isaiah 13:19-22) And when the reader hath duly pondered the subject, concerning the natural history of Babylon, thus desolated as the enemy of Christ and his church; he will do well to consider the subject in the spiritual sense of it, according to what the Scriptures have declared of mystical Babylon
Wonder - Babylon, the wonder of all tongues. The seven wonders of the world were the Egyptian pyramids, the Mausoleum erected by Artemisia, the temple of Diana at Ephesus, the walls and hanging gardens of Babylon, the colossus at Rhodes, the statue of Jupiter Olympius, and the Pharos or watch-tower of Alexandria
Daniel - A priest of the Ithamar lineage (Ezra 8:2 ; Nehemiah 10:6 ) who returned with Ezra from the Babylonian captivity. This young man of nobility was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, and elevated to high rank in the Babylonian and Persian kingdoms. ...
The Babylonians sought to remove all vestiges of Daniel's nationality and religion. ...
Daniel was transported from Judah to Babylon in his early youth at the battle of Carchemish, 605 B. He was trained in the arts, letters, and wisdom in the Babylonian capital. Eventually, he rose to high rank among the Babylonian men of wisdom. ...
Daniel was in Babylon when the forces of Cyrus, the Persian, captured Babylon
Judah - The satrap reported to a higher official over Babylon and Abarnaharah with headquarters in Babylon. When Judah's exiles returned from Babylon, Zerubbabel was governor of Judah; Tattenai, satrap of Abarnaharah or Beyond the River; and Ushtannu, satrap of Babylon and Abarnaharah
Darius - (See DANIEL; Babylon; BELSHAZZAR; CYRUS. This Darius "received the kingdom" (Daniel 5:31) of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus, according to G. Abydenus makes Nebuchadnezzar prophesy that a Persian and a Mede," the pride of the Assyrians," should take Babylon, i. ...
Cyrus, having taken such a prince 20 years before Babylon's capture, advanced him to be deputy king of Babylon. Xenophon says Cyrus conquered Babylon by Cyaxares' permission, and appointed for him a royal palace and rule and home there (see Daniel 6:1-28; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 5:31). The shortness of his reign and the eclipsing brilliancy of Cyrus' capture of Babylon caused Herodotus and Berosus to pass Darius unnoticed. Their enemies, hoping that Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' decree, informed the king of the Jews' proceeding and proposed that the archives at Babylon should be searched to see whether Cyrus had ever really given such a decree. In this same year he suppressed with severity a Babylonian revolt
Daniel - He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim," and trained for the king's service. In consequence of his ability, by divine assistance, to reveal the dream to the king, he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon. Daniel 6:28, compare; Daniel 1:21, though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, and in "the third year of Cyrus" he saw his last recorded vision, on the banks of the Tigris
Babel - Βabel (Hebrew) means Babylon; so that "the tower" should be designated "the tower of Babel. because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth," in order to counteract their attempt by a central city and tower to defeat God's purpose of the several tribes of mankind being "scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth," and to constrain them, as no longer "understand one another's speech," to dispel The Talmud says, the site of tower of Babel is Borsippa, the Bits Nimrud, 7 1/2 miles from Hillah, and 11 from the northern ruins of Babylon. Borsippa (the Tongue Tower) was a suburb of Babylon, when the old Babel was restricted to the northern ruins. When the outer wall was destroyed by Darius Borsippa became independent of Babylon. He says in the inscription, "the house of the earth's base (the basement substructure), the most ancient monument of Babylon I built and finished; I exalted its head with bricks covered with copper . The substructure is 600 Babylonian ft. Genesis (Genesis 10:8-10) represents Nimrod as the son of Cush (Ethiopia), and that "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel (Babylon)" Bunsen held that there were no Cushites out of Africa, and that an "Asiatic Cush existed only in the imagination of Biblical interpreters," and was "the child of their despair. "...
But the earliest Babylonian monuments show that the primitive Babylonians whose structures by Nebuchadnezzar's time were in ruins, had a vocabulary undoubtedly Cushite or Ethiopian, analogous to the Galla tongue in Abyssinia. Several words of the Babylonians and their kinsmen the Susianians are identical with ancient Egyptian or Ethiopic roots: thus, hyk or hak, found in the Egyptian name hyksos or shepherd kings, appears in Babylonian and Susianian names as khak. Tirkhak is common to the royal lists of Susiana and Ethiopia, as Nimrod appears in those of both Babylon and Egypt. ...
As Ra was the Egyptian sun god, so was Ra the Cushite name of the supreme god of the Babylonians. Traces appear in the Babylonian inscriptions of all the four great dialects, Hamitic, Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian, which show that here the original one language existed before the confusion of tongues. The Babylonian and Assyrian traditions point to an early connection between Ethiopia, S. Rawlinson) ruled in Babylonia centuries before the earliest Semitic empire arose. Chedorlaomer (or Lagomer, an idol), king of Elam, is represented in Genesis 14 as leader of the other kings including the king of Shinar (Babylonia). Now Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions show that Elam (Elymais or Susiana, between Babylonia and Persia) maintained its independence through the whole Assyrian period, and that at a date earlier than that commonly assigned to Abraham (2286 B. ) an Elamite king plundered Babylonia. ...
About this date a Babylonian king is designated in the inscriptions "ravager of Syria. " Originally "the gate of the god's" temple, whereat justice used to be ministered, Babel or Babylon was secondary in importance at first to the other cities, Erech, Ur, and Ellasar. Thence they went higher up the river, and finally fixed at Babylon, 300 miles above the Persian gulf, and 200 above the junction of the Tigris with the Euphrates. " Oppert thinks that the lesser measurement of the interior of Babylon given by Strabo, Ctesias, etc. Herodotus says the Greeks learned from Babylon the pole, the sundial, and the division of the day into twelve parts. The first eclipse on record, a lunar one, was accurately observed at Babylon, March 19th, 721 B. Psalms 137:1, "By the waters of Babylon . Babylonia. " It is thought from the inscriptions to mark the site of Borsippa, beyond the bounds of Babylon. high, flat at the top, 200 yards long, 140 yards broad (the temple towers of lower Babylonia had all this oblong shape). The pale yellow burnt bricks are stamped with Nebuchadnezzar's name and titles; "Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. ...
The Amram mound is the ancient palace, as old as Babylon itself; its bricks containing the names of kings before Nebuchadnezzar; that king mentions it in his inscriptions. With only "brick for stone," and at first only "slime for mortar," the Babylonians by the forced labor of multitudes erected monuments of genius so vast as to be still among the wonders of the world. But originally the Hamitic races (Egypt and Babylon), now so depressed, took the lead the arts, sciences, and power. ...
This early Babylonian empire, which subsequently to Chedorlaomer's reign in Elam lasted 458 years, fell by the revision of barbarian hordes, probably Arabs. Nimrod is not mentioned in the Babylonian remains; he probably answers to their god Bel. The northern tetrarchy consisted of Babylon, Borsippa, and Sippara (Sepharvaim): Genesis 10:10-12. ...
The Assyrians adopted the Babylonian number on their emigration to the N. of 6 Babylonian kings 87 - 538 Urukh is mentioned earliest on the monuments after Nimrod; his bricks are the lowest down and the rudest in make. " Kudur Nakhunta of Elam, whose court was at Susa, in 2286 invaded Chaldaea and carried off the Babylonian images. , at Babylon. Urukh was the Chaldaean builder to whom belongs the credit of designing the Babylonian temple, with its rectangular base facing the four cardinal points, its receding stages, buttresses, drains, and sloped walls, external staircases, and ornamental shrine crowning the whole. No trace of the original Babylon exists in our day. Thenceforward, Semitic superseded Cushite influences and the Babylonian kings have Assyrian instead of Turanian or Cushite names. ...
The "canon of Ptolemy" gives the succession of Babylonian kings and their lengths of reign, from 747 B. Nabonassar destroyed all his predecessors' annals, that the Babylonians might date from himself. There was a Semiramis at this time, a Babylonian queen (Herodotus says) five generations before Nitocris, mother of the last king. Assyrian monuments also place her at this date, but do not expressly connect her with Babylon. ...
He held his court alternately in Nineveh and Babylon, which explains the difficulty and shows the accurate propriety of the Scripture statement that Manasseh, king of Judah, was carried by the captains of the king of Assyria to Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11). A new era begins with Nabopolassar, appointed ruler of Babylon by the last Assyrian king just when the Medes were making their final assault on Nineveh. So the Babylonian empire was extended over the whole Euphrates valley to the Taurus range, over Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Idumaea; and the Jews passed as tributaries under Babylon, as they had been under Assyria. ...
Josiah, as ally of Babylon, met him in spite of warning and was slain at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-25; 2 Kings 23:29). Nabopolassar sent Nebuchadnezzar; and the latter at the battle of Carchemish, on the Euphrates, regained all the lost territory for Babylon (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2-12. He reigned 43 years, during which he recovered Syria and Palestine, destroyed Jerusalem, and carried away the Jews to Babylon, reduced Phoenicia and Tyre, and ravaged Egypt; above all he was the great builder of the most beautiful monuments of his country and city. How appropriate the language assigned to him in Daniel 4:29-30, as he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon, possibly on the highest terrace of the hanging gardens: "Is not, this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power and for the honor of my majesty?" Evil Merodach, his son, succeeded in 561 B. son in law of the "king of Babylon. Nabonahit (as Berosus records) having allied himself to Creeses, king of Lydia, Cyrus' enemy, brought on himself Cyrus' assault of Babylon in 539 B. ...
Shut up in Borsippa (Birs-i-Nimrud, the sacred city of the Babylonians, containing their most revered objects of religion and science) he surrendered and was spared, and Cyrus gave him an estate in Carmania. Belshazzar (from Bel the idol, and shat, a prince), by a self confident careless watch and unseasonable and profane revelry (Daniel 5), allowed Cyrus' forces on a great Babylonian festival to enter by the bed of the river which the invader had drained into another channel, and was slain. Babylon's capture by surprise during a festival was foretold in Jeremiah 51:31; Jeremiah 51:39, and that the capture should be by the Medes and Persians, 170 years earlier in Isaiah 21:1-9. If he gave a history different from that current in Babylonia, the Jews of that region would not have received it as true. Rawlinson thinks that he was set up by Cyrus, the captor of Babylon, as viceroy there, and that he is identical with the Median king Astyages, son of Ahasuerus (Cyaxares), whom Cyrus, the Persian king, deposed but treated kindly. Thus, Cyrus, in assaulting Babylon, acted in his name, which accounts for the prominence given t
Sibmah (1) - shall be transported beyond sea to Cyprus and lands subject to Babylon; or else "they wandered through the wilderness, they are gone over the Dead Sea," in wild luxuriance overrunning the wilderness round Moab and spreading round the sea so as to reach beyond to the other side
Shechaniah - Priest who accompanied Zerubbabel back to Jerusalem from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:3 )
Abednego - Servant of Nego; a Chaldee name give to Azariah, one of the three captive young princes of Judah, who were Daniel's companions at the court of the king of Babylon, Daniel 1:7
Daniel - 400 BCE) Together with Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, was exiled to Babylon and trained to be a chamberlain in the royal court. During the reign of Belshazzar, Daniel deciphered writing that mysteriously appeared, predicting Babylon's downfall. par ...
Daniel, the Book of: The book of Tanach describing the experiences of Daniel - and his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah - in the Babylonian and Persian royal courts, as well as several of Daniel's prophecies
Liver - In Ezekiel 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination
Dulcimer - " It is probable that it was introduced into Babylon by some Greek or Western-Asiatic musician
Irijah - Since he had been preaching about ultimate victory for Babylon over Jerusalem, Irijah thought Jeremiah was trying to escape Jerusalem and join the Babylonian army, then retreating from Jerusalem
Figured Stone - Various identifications of the animals have been suggested, beasts similar to the lions and serpent-dragons of the “Ishtar Gate” in Babylon, animals similar to those serving as mounts for the gods in stone carvings at Maltaya, Egyptian mortuary deities, and totem animals
Bridge - , to connect the parts of Babylon together (Jeremiah 51:31-32; Jeremiah 50:38)
Mole - The ruins of Babylon are perforated on all sides with holes, the abode of "doleful creatures
Eliphelet - A clan leader who accompanied Ezra on his return from Exile in Babylon (Ezra 8:13 )
Targum - (tar' guhm) Early translations of the Bible into Aramaic, the native language of Palestine and Babylon in the first century A
Nebo (1) - Shi'Nar - (country of two rivers ), the ancient name of the great alluvial tract through which the Tigris and Euphrates pass before reaching the sea --the tract known in later times as Chaldaea or Babylonia. ( Genesis 11:3 ) Among the cities were Babel (Babylon), Erech or Orech (Orchoe), Calneh or Calno (probably Niffer ), and Accad, the site of which is unknown
Solomon's Servants - Their "children" or descendants discharged menial offices in the temple on the return from Babylon (Ezra 2:55-58; Nehemiah 7:57-60)
Picture - The walls in Babylon were ornamented with pictures on enamelled bricks: these seem to be alluded to in Ezekiel 23:14 : cf
Ararat - A kingdom which was called upon by God, in conjunction with Medes, Persians, and others, under one captain, Cyrus, to punish Babylon in revenge of Israel
Nebo - (Deuteronomy 34:1; Deu 34:5) One of the idols of Babylon bore the name of Nebo
Shechaniah - Priest who accompanied Zerubbabel back to Jerusalem from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:3 )
Haggai - One of the minor prophets, probably accompanied Zerubbabel in the first return of the Jew from Babylon, B
Daric - (from dara , a king ), Authorized Version "dram," ( 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 2:69 ; 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70,71,72 ) a gold coin current in Palestine in the period after the return from Babylon
Asai'ah - (1 Chronicles 15:6,11 ) ...
The first-born of "the Shilonite," from Shiloni, (1 Chronicles 9:5 ) who with his family dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon
Nebuchadnezzar, or Nebuchadrezzar - Son of Nabopolassar and virtually founder of the later kingdom of Babylon, the first of the four great Gentile empires. Judah about this time became tributary to Babylon, and some captives (including Daniel) and holy vessels were carried away. 599 the king and many captives, with the treasures of the temple, were taken to Babylon: this is called 'the great captivity. Twelve months were given him for repentance; but at the end of that time in his pride he said, "Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty?" Then a voice from heaven declared that his kingdom was departed from him. (A monument of Nebuchadnezzar says, "I completely made strong the defences of Babylon, may it last for ever
Nebuchadnezzar - ) His father Nabo-polassar having overthrown Nineveh, Babylon became supreme. 74) who led the Babylonian force under Cyaxares in his Lydian war and whose interposition at the eclipse (610 B. Daniel and the three children of the royal seed were at that time taken to Babylon. , having rapidly re-crossed the desert with his light troops and reached Babylon before any disturbance could take place. The deportation from Jerusalem was shortly before, namely, in the end of Jehoiakim's third year; with it begins the Babylonian captivity, 605 B. ) Jehoiakim after a three months' reign was carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar with the princes, warriors, and craftsmen, and the palace treasures, and Solomon's gold vessels cut in pieces, at his third advance against Jerusalem (2 Kings 24:8-16). Zedekiah's eyes were put out after he had seen his sons slain first at Riblah, where Nebuchadnezzar "gave judgment upon him," and was kept a prisoner in Babylon the rest of his life. Nebuchadnezzar is most celebrated for his buildings: the temple of Bel Merodach at Babylon (the Kasr), built with his Syrian spoils (Josephus, Babylon, three lines of walls 80 ft. The standard inscription ("I completely made strong the defenses of Babylon, may it last forever . ...
Daniel (
Daniel 4:30) also records his boast, "is not this great Babylon which I have built by the might of my power and for the honour of my majesty?" Sir H. , 76-77) states that the bricks of 100 different towns about Bagdad all bear the one inscription, "Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. His system of irrigation made Babylonia a garden, enriching at once the people and himself. Isaiah's patriotism was shown in counseling resistance to Assyria; Jeremiah's (Jeremiah 27) in urging submission to Babylon as the only safety; for God promised Judah's deliverance from the former, but "gave all the lands into Nebuchadnezzar's hands, and the beasts of the field also, to serve him and his son and his son's son. ) states: "Nebuchadnezzar having ascended upon his palace roof predicted the Persian conquest of Babylon (which he knew from Mark 5:18-19), praying that the conqueror might be borne where there is no path of men and where the wild beasts graze"; a corruption of the true story and confirming it. In the standard inscription Nebuchadnezzar says, "for four years in Babylon buildings for the honour of my kingdom I did not lay out. 183, similarly mentions Belus' image in the temple at Babylon as 40 ft
Ecbatana - The finding of Cyrus' decree at Ecbatana, whereas, when Ezra wrote, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa or Babylon, visiting only occasionally in summer time Ecbatana or Persepolis, is one of those little points of agreement between sacred and profane history which confirm the truth of Scripture, because their very minuteness proves the undesignedness of the harmony. Susa and Babylon were the ordinary depositories of the archives
Euphrates - It flows in a broad, deep current, filled to the level of its banks, and at Babylon is considerably less than a mile in width. In Scripture the Euphrates is named as one of the rivers of Eden, Genesis 2:14; called "the great river," Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 1:7; noted as the eastern boundary of the Promised Land, Deuteronomy 11:24; Joshua 1:4; 1 Chronicles 5:9; and of David's conquests, 2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Chronicles 18:3; of those of Babylon from Egypt, 2 Kings 24:7; is referred to in prophecy, Jeremiah 13:4-7; Jeremiah 46:2-10; Jeremiah 51:63; and in Revelation 9:14; Revelation 16:12
Jeremiah, Book of - To the people it was said that if they would surrender to the king of Babylon they should live; if not, they should die. The people carried away with Jeconiah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar are compared to good figs; but those left in the land under Zedekiah to bad ones. ...
Jeremiah 25 gives a summary of God's judgements by Nebuchadnezzar, with a seventy years' captivity for Judah: then Babylon and all the nations that surrounded Palestine should come under God's judgements, but judgement begins with the city called by God's name. The king is exhorted to submit to the king of Babylon. Jeremiah wrote to the captives in Babylon, urging them to make themselves homes there, and God would bring them back at the end of the seventy years. Zedekiah was captured by the Chaldeans; his sons were slain before his eyes, and he himself was blinded and taken to Babylon. Judgements were to fall upon Egypt, the Philistines, Moab, the Ammonites, Edom, Damascus, Kedar, Elam, and Babylon. The prophecy against Babylon was written in a book, and given to Seraiah, 'a quiet prince,' to carry to Babylon, to be read there; then he was to bind a stone to the book and cast it into the Euphrates. Babylon was to be desolate for ever. ...
Babylon has a special place in the prophecy of Jeremiah: Israel and Judah had been unfaithful, and the government of the world was entrusted to Babylon; but Babylon failed and its destruction was the setting free of Judah to return to their land
Meshach - The Babylonian name given to Mishael, one of Daniel's three companions, of the blood royal of Judah (fulfilling the prophetic threat, Isaiah 39:7); with the first syllable of Mish-ael retained, but Sheik the Babylonian goddess (from whom Babylon is called Shesbach, Jeremiah 25:26) being substituted for El; the goddess of love and mirth, during whose feast Cyrus took Babylon, Venus or the Earth. " Daniel, when promoted to be chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon and ruler over the whole province, remembered his three friends (contrast Genesis 40:23; Ecclesiastes 9:15-16; Amos 6:6); and at his request the king set them over the affairs of the province of Babylon (Daniel 2:48-49)
Daniel - Called Belteshazzar by the Chaldeans, a prophet descended from the royal family of David, who was carried captive to Babylon, when very young, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah, B. Here Daniel soon displayed his prophetic gifts in interpreting a dream of Nebuchadnezzar, by whom he was made governor of Babylon, and head of the learned and priestly class. ...
After the capture of Babylon by the Medes and Persians, under Cyaxares and Cyrus, Daniel was continued in all his high employments, and enjoyed the favor of these princes until his death, except at one short interval, when the envy of the other officers prevailed on the king of the other officers prevailed on the king to cast him into the lion's den, an act which recoiled on his foes to their own destruction. He was one of the chiefs who accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Judea, and afterwards took a prominent part in the reformation of the people, Ezra 8:2
Babylonia - The province of which Babylon was the capital; now the Babylonian or Arabian Irak, which constitutes the pashalic of Bagdad. Bot in ancient and modern times, Important tracts on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and on the western ban of the Euphrates, and still more on both banks of their united streams, were reckoned to Babylonia, or Irak el-Arab. Afterwards Babel, Babylon, and Babylonia became its common appellation with which at a later period, Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans, was used as synonymous, after this people had got the whole into their possession. ...
Babylonia is an extensive plain, interrupted by no hill or mountain, consisting of a fatty, brownish soil, and subject to the annual inundations of the Tigris and Euphrates, more especially of the latter, whose banks are lower than those of the Tigris. From this cause, the whole of Babylonia came to be divided up by a multitude of larger and smaller canals; in part passing entirely through from one river to the other; in part also losing themselves in the interior, and serving only the purposes of irrigation. These canals seem to be the "rivers of Babylon" spoken of in Psalm 137:1 . Besides this multitude of canals, which have long since vanished without trace, Babylonia contained several large lakes, partly the work of art and partly formed by the inundations of the two rivers. Babylonia, therefore, was a land abounding in water; and Jeremiah might therefore well say of it, that it "dwelt upon many waters," Jeremiah 51:13 . ...
The Babylonians belonged to the Shemitic branch of the descendants of Noah, and their language had an affinity with the Arabic and Hebrew, nearly resembling what is now called Chaldee. The Babylonian empire was founded by Nimrod twenty centuries before Christ, and then embraced the cities Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, Genesis 10:10 . , when the Assyrian empire gave way to the Chaldean, and Babylon reached its highest point in fame and power. Upon the return of the Jews from captivity, many still remained in Babylonia, and to their posterity the gospel was early conveyed. The Jews had thriving synagogues in Babylonia, and one of their Talmuds was there composed
Ezekiel - Among the people of Judah taken captive to Babylon in 597 BC was the young priest Ezekiel. After he had been in Babylon five years, God made it plain to him that he would not return to Jerusalem. He would become a prophet, or messenger of God, to the Jews in Babylon (Ezekiel 1:1-3; Ezekiel 2:3; Ezekiel 2:5; Ezekiel 2:7; Ezekiel 3:4). ...
Ezekiel’s preaching...
At the time Ezekiel began preaching in Babylon, Jerusalem had not been destroyed. He denounced the sins of its citizens, both those who had been taken to Babylon and those who were still in Jerusalem. He warned that when Babylon finally lost patience, it would destroy city and temple alike (Ezekiel 4:1-2; Ezekiel 5:12; Ezekiel 6:1-7; Ezekiel 7:5-9). Its judgment was certain, and all attempts to withstand Babylon’s attacks were useless (7:1-27). Exile in Babylon was certain (20:1-26), though after cleansing from the filth of idolatry there would be restoration (20:27-44). By further acted messages, Ezekiel indicated the ferocity of the Babylonians’ attack on Jerusalem (20:45-21:32)
Sheshbazzar - (sshehssh' baz zuhr) Babylonian name probably meaning, “may Shamash (sun god) protect the father. ” Jewish leader who accompanied the first group of Exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem in 538 BC (Ezra 1:8 ). King Cyrus of Persia apparently appointed Sheshbazzar governor of restored Judah and supplied his company of people with provisions and many of the treasures which the Babylonians had taken from Jerusalem
Habitation - ” Revelation 18:2 announces the fall of “Babylon,” which “is become the habitation of devils
Sepharva'im - , on the Euphrates above Babylon, which was near the site of the modern Mosaib
Shadrach - Aku's command, the Chaldean name given to Hananiah, one of the Hebrew youths whom Nebuchadnezzar carried captive to Babylon (Daniel 1:6,7 ; 3:12-30 )
Thyine Wood - Mentioned only in Revelation 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell
Daric - It was current among the Jews after their return from Babylon, i
Gemariah - ...
...
The son of Hilkiah, who accompanied Shaphan with the tribute-money from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and was the bearer at the same time of a letter from Jeremiah to the Jewish captives at Babylon (Jeremiah 29:3,4 )
Succoth Benoth - in which they prostituted themselves to the Babylonian goddess of love (Herodotus i. " But, as the parallelism to Nergal and Ashima require a deity, Succoth Benoth is probably Ζirbanit , called wife of the Babylonian idol Merodach, and "queen" of Babylon. Smith's reading of an inscription, defeated the Babylonians, and carried away the image of Ζirat Βanit or Succoth Benoth
Rameses - Its position may be fixed about six or eight miles above the modern Cairo, a little to the south of the Babylon of the Persians, the ancient Letopolis; as Josephus says that the children of Israel, after quitting this place, in their first march to Succoth, passed by the latter city
Jehoiakim - In the third year, Nebuchadnezzar carried to Babylon a part of his princes and treasures
Babylonia - ) who united Babylonia and became famous for the exhaustive code of civiland criminal law compiled during his reign. Babylonia was subjugated by Sargon II of Assyria, but regained independence c. Babylon, ancient capital of Babylonia, is regarded as the site of the Tower of Babel ...
Aza're-el, - ) ...
Father or ancestor of Maasiai, or Amashai, a priest who dwelt in Jerusalem after the return from Babylon
Exile - This was the first general deportation to Babylon. Thus the exiles formed a very considerable community in Babylon. ...
Large numbers had, however, settled in the land of Babylon, and formed numerous colonies in different parts of the kingdom
Aramaic - Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Syria were its proper home. ...
In Daniel 2:4 the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, the popular language of Babylon, and what follows to the end of chap. This must not be confounded with the 'learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans' in Daniel 1:4 , which is the Aryan dialect and literature of the Chaldeans, and probably the ordinary language which Daniel spoke in the court of Babylon. The Jews also who returned from Babylon brought many words of the same language
Nippur - (nihp puhr') City located in Mesopotamia, approximately fifty miles southeast of the ancient city of Babylon and approximately one hundred miles south of modern Baghdad, Iraq. The records, known as the Murashu documents after the banking family responsible for them, give some indication of the extent of Jewish involvement in the business world after the time of the Babylonian Exile. ...
Nippur's influence and prominence began to wane with the rise of Babylonian power. , Nippur had been replaced by Babylon as the religious and cultural center. See Babylon ; Cuneiform ; Hammurabi ; Mesopotamia ; Sumer
Babel - The place became afterwards the celebrated city of Babylon. It has been supposed that the tower of Babel was afterwards finished, and called the tower of Belus, within the city of Babylon. Its ruins are supposed to be the present Birs Nimroud, six miles south-west of Hilleh, the modern Babylon: an immense mound of coarse sun-dried bricks, laid with bitumen
Habakkuk - Nevertheless, the contents of the book make it clear that he delivered his message during that period of the Judean kingdom, when Babylon had risen to power and was threatening to conquer Judah. ...
Background to the book...
With its conquest of Assyria in 612 BC, Babylon had become the chief power in the region. ...
Babylon’s conquest of Judah was part of God’s will for his unfaithful and rebellious people. God replies that he is preparing the Babylonians (Chaldeans) to punish Judah (1:5-11). He asks: if God is holy, and if Judah is his people, how can he use Babylon to punish Judah when the Babylonians are worse sinners than the Judeans (1:12-17)? He awaits God’s answer (2:1). His answer is that wickedness, whether of the Babylonians or the Judeans, will always bring defeat in the end, but the person who remains morally upright has nothing to fear. ...
The prophet has had his question answered, but he goes on to announce God’s judgment on evil, particularly the evil of the Babylonians (2:6-20). As for the Babylonians, the ones whom God uses to carry out that punishment, Habakkuk will leave God to deal with them according to his wisdom and justice (3:16-19)
Zedekiah - Zedekiah was seized and carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him with his perfidy, caused all his children to be slain before his face and his own eyes to be put out, and then, loading him with chains of brass, ordered him to be sent to Babylon. Thus the double prophecy concerning him—that he should be carried to Babylon, but never see it—was literally fulfilled
Haggai - He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar
Ai - "Men of Bethel and Ai," (223 according to Ezra 2:28, but 123 according to Nehemiah 7:32,) returned from Babylon with Zerubbzbel. Ezra's list was made in Babylon; Nehemiah's in Judaea long after
Degrees - Calmet thinks, that they were called songs of degrees, or of ascent, because they were composed on occasion of the deliverance of the Jews from the captivity of Babylon, either to implore this deliverance from God, or to return thanks for it after it had been obtained; and that the Hebrews used the term to go up, when they spoke of their journeying from Babylon to Jerusalem
Gedaliah - In 587 BC the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem, abolished Judah’s monarchy, plundered the nation’s treasures and took all its best people into captivity (2 Kings 25:1-21). ...
Gedaliah set up his headquarters at Mizpah, north of Jerusalem, and with Jeremiah’s support followed a policy of submission to Babylon. He took no action against Judah’s anti-Babylonian military leaders who had managed to escape the Babylonian army, but encouraged them, and other Judeans who had fled for safety, to return and settle around Mizpah (2 Kings 25:23-24; Jeremiah 40:5-12). ...
One of Judah’s former army commanders, Ishmael, opposed this policy of submission to Babylon and plotted to overthrow Gedaliah. That did not stop Ishmael from murdering him, along with all the Judean officials and Babylonian supervisors at Gedaliah’s headquarters (2 Kings 25:25; Jeremiah 40:13-16; Jeremiah 41:1-3)
Aichmalotarch - The Jews pretend that this was the title of him who had the government of their people during the captivity of Babylon; and they believe these princes or governors to have been constantly of the tribe of Judah, and family of David. The princes of the captivity resided at Babylon, where they were installed with great ceremony, held courts of justice, &c, and were set over the eastern Jews, or those settled in Babylon, Chaldaea, Assyria, and Persia. The ceremonial of the installation is thus described: The spiritual heads of the people, the masters of the learned schools, the elders, and the people, assembled in great multitudes within a stately chamber, adorned with rich curtains, in Babylon, where, during his days of splendour, the Resch-Glutha fixed his residence. He sometimes paid a visit to the native sovereign in Babylon (Bagdad. His subjects in Babylonia were many of them wealthy
Jeremiah - )...
Meanwhile to the north, Babylon was growing in power, and with its conquest of Assyria in 612 BC, it established itself as the leading nation in the region. When Egypt, the leading nation to Judah’s south, decided to challenge Babylon, Josiah tried to stop the Egyptians from passing through Palestine and was killed in battle (609 BC; 2 Kings 23:28-30). )...
When Babylon conquered Egypt at the Battle of Carchemish in 605 BC (Jeremiah 46:2), it thereby gained control of Judah and took selected Jerusalemites captive to Babylon (Daniel 1:1-6). When Jehoiakim later tried to become independent of Babylon, the Babylonian army, under Nebuchadnezzar, besieged Jerusalem. Jehoiachin and most of the useful people were then taken captive to Babylon. The Babylonians appointed Zedekiah, another brother of Jehoiakim, as the new king (597 BC; 2 Kings 24:8-17). Jeremiah assured Zedekiah that Babylon’s overlordship was God’s judgment on Judah for its sin. Judah should therefore accept its punishment and submit to Babylon. ...
The opponents of Jeremiah assured Zedekiah that with the help of Egypt he could overthrow Babylonian rule. In the end Babylon destroyed the city and its temple, and took the king, along with all remaining useful citizens, into foreign captivity (587 BC; 2 Kings 25:1-21; Jeremiah 32:1-5; Jeremiah 32:28-29; Jeremiah 33:1-5; Jeremiah 37:16-17; Jeremiah 38:17-18; Jeremiah 39:1-10). Upon conquering the city, the victorious Babylonians released him and gave him full freedom to decide where he would like to live, Babylon or Judah. The Babylonians placed him under the protection of Gedaliah, the Jewish governor whom they had appointed over the Judeans left in the land (2 Kings 25:22; Jeremiah 39:13-14; Jeremiah 40:4-6). ...
Sadly, Gedaliah was murdered by some Judeans who were still opposed to Babylon (2 Kings 25:25; Jeremiah 40:13-16; Jeremiah 41). ...
Prophecies of captivity and return (Chapters 26-36) include a warning to the Jerusalemites to submit to Babylon or be destroyed (26:1-28:17); an assurance to those already in exile that there is no hope for an immediate return to Jerusalem (29:1-32); the promise of a new age after the nation’s restoration (30:1-33:26); and guarantees that though treachery and rebellion will be punished, fidelity will be rewarded (34:1-36:32). ...
Finally there is a collection of messages for foreign nations: Egypt (46:1-28), Philistia (47:1-7), Moab and Ammon (48:1-49:6), Edom (49:7-22), Damascus, Kedar, Hazor and Elam (49:23-39), and Babylon (50:1-51:64)
Hiss - ...
Other nations and cities were also the objects of hissing: Edom (Jeremiah 49:17 ); Babylon (Jeremiah 50:13 ); Tyre (Ezekiel 27:36 ); and Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:15 )
Carchemish - Important in position as commanding a passage of the Euphrates, from whence its possession was a matter of contest between Babylon and Egypt (2 Chronicles 35:20). Taken by Pharaoh Necho after the battle of Megiddo in which king Josiah, Babylon's ally, fell 610 B
Jareb - Hosea pronounced just punishment for Israel, their “calf-god” (REB) would be carried to Babylon as tribute to “the great king” (Hosea 10:5-6 )
Shinar, the Land of - and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Genesis 11:1-6 ), and the city of Babylon
Ashkenaz - ) Their accompanying Cyrus to the siege of Babylon (588 B
Binnui - Clan leader of 648 members who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon about 537 B. He came up with Zerubbabel from Babylonian Exile (Nehemiah 12:8 )
Elnathan - Three men of the same name plus a “Nathan” are listed in Ezra 8:16 as part of the delegation Ezra sent to search for Levites to return from Babylon to Jerusalem with him
Nephthar - The name given by Nehemiah to a ‘thick substance’ which was found in a dry pit after the return from Babylon ( 2Ma 1:18-35 )
Scribe - During the Exile in Babylon educated scribes apparently became the experts in God's written word, copying, preserving, and teaching it
Talmud - They have the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the Talmud of Babylon, according to the different periods in which they were compiled
Adaiah - A priest who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon after the Exile (1 Chronicles 9:12 )
Adonis - Similar rites were celebrated for Osiris in Egypt and possibly for Tammuz in Babylon
Zebadiah - Son of Shephatiah who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon (Ezra 8:8 )
id'do - (Zechariah 1:1,7 ) ...
The chief of those who assembled at Casiphia at the time of the second caravan from Babylon
Pitch - It abounded in the vicinity of Babylon, and was used as fuel
Eliph'Elet - ) ...
One of the leaders of the Bene-Adonikam who returned from Babylon with Ezra
Abednego - the Chaldee name given by the king of Babylon's officer to Azariah, one of Daniel's companions, Daniel 1:7 . Abednego was thrown into a fiery furnace, at Babylon, with his two companions Shadrach and Meshach for refusing to adore the statue erected by the command of Nebuchadnezzar. God suffered them not to be injured by the flames; but made the whole to redound to his own glory, and the shame of the idols of Babylon
Johanan - He led the effort against Ishmael, who had assassinated Gedaliah, the governor Babylon appointed over Judah. Johanan led the people into Egypt to escape Babylonian retaliation. Man who led a group going with Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem about 458 B
Diaspora - the Babylonians captured the Southern Kingdom (Judah) and followed the same policy of resettlement. Many of the residents of Judah were transported to Babylon (2 Kings 25:8-12 ). While some of these persons later returned to Judah, many of them remained permanently in Babylon. See Assyria; Babylonia; Exile ; Synagogue
Accad - It has been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. (See SEPHARVAIM ) It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. The Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia. (See Babylon ; CHALDEA
Zerubbabel - ” The grandson of King Jehoiachin (taken to Babylon in the first Exile in 597 B. See Babylon ; Israel ; Zechariah
Field - ...
Ezekiel 17:5 (a) Babylon in this case is represented as a field into which the King of Babylon took the leaders of Israel and most of the people
Seraiah - The high priest under king Zedekiah; taken by Nebuzaradan, captain of the Babylonian guard, and slain at Riblah (2 Kings 25:18; 1 Chronicles 6:14; Jeremiah 52:24). Son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite; came to the Babylonian viceroy Gedaliah to Mizpah, who promised security to the Jews who should dwell in the land, serving the king of Babylon (2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:8). Went with Zedekiah to Babylon in the fourth year of his reign. Jeremiah gave a special copy of the prophecy to Seraiah where with to console the Jews in their Babylonian exile. Though Seraiah was to cast it into the Euphrates, a symbol of Babylon's fate, he retained the substance in memory, to communicate orally to his countrymen
Prison - In Egypt, in Babylon, among the Romans, and doubtless in most other nations, these were used as places in which to secure prisoners. Jehoiachin was in prison in Babylon
Chaldeans - Of the date of their location in Babylonia nothing is now known. 713, a king of Babylon is mentioned, the first of whom we read after Nimrod and Amraphel. About one hundred years later we find the Chaldeans in possession of the kingdom of Babylon. The Chaldeo-babylonian dynasty continued probably not more than one hundred years
ez'ra - He was a learned and pious priest residing at Babylon in the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus. ) The journey from Babylon to Jerusalem took just four months; and the company brought with them a large freewill offering of gold and silver, and silver vessels
Hebrew - In Israel's bondages in the time of the judges they never lost their language; but in the 70 years' captivity in Babylon their language became in a great degree Aramaic or Chaldee, and they adopted the present Hebrew alphabet. The sense of Genesis 10:21 is: as in Genesis 10:6-20 the three Hamite settlements are mentioned, Babylon, Egypt, Canaan, so next the Shemite races are spoken of as commencing at the most easterly point of the Hamites, namely, Babylon and the Euphrates
Bel - or BELUS, a name by which many Heathens, and particularly the Babylonians, called their chief idol. Bel had a temple erected to him in the city of Babylon, on the very uppermost range of the famous tower of Babel, wherein were many statues of this pretended deity; and one, among the rest, of massy gold, forty feet high. It was, probably, the statue of this god which Nebuchadnezzar, being returned to Babylon after the end of the Jewish war, set up and dedicated in the plain of Dura; the story of which is related at large, Daniel 3. Daniel probably, by detecting the mercenary contrivances of the idolatrous priests of Babylon, and by opening the eyes of the people to the follies of superstition, might furnish some foundation for the story; but the whole is evidently charged with fiction, though introduced with a pious intent
Manasseh - ...
The king of Assyria sent his army against him, who, seizing him among the briers and brambles where he was hid, fettered his hands and feet, and carried him to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11-12 , &c. It was probably Sargon or Esar-haddon, king of Assyria, who sent Tartan into Palestine, and who taking Azoth, attacked Manasseh, put him in irons, and led him away, not to Nineveh, but to Babylon, of which Esar-haddon had become master, and had reunited the empires of the Assyrians and the Chaldeans. Manasseh, in bonds at Babylon, humbled himself before God, who heard his prayers, and brought him back to Jerusalem; and Manasseh acknowledged the hand of the Lord. Being returned to Jerusalem, he restored the worship of the Lord; broke down the altars of the false gods; abolished all traces of their idolatrous worship; but he did not destroy the high places: which is the only thing Scripture reproaches him with, after his return from Babylon
Heldai - Man who returned from Exile in Babylon, apparently with a gift of silver and gold, which God told Zechariah to take and have made into a crown for Joshua, the high priest
Hilkiah - Father of Gemariah, who was an emissary from Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (Jeremiah 29:3 )
Sharezer - The name probably indicates the person was born in Babylonian Exile. He may have come with his questions from Babylon and have come as a representative of the people of Bethel
Hyena - All the scriptural references concern judgment on foreign nations (Babylon or Edom) which are left desolate (Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:14 ; Jeremiah 50:39 )
Sepharad - , that not only the exiles from Babylon, but Jewish captives from other and distant regions, shall be brought back to live prosperously within the enlarged borders of their own land
Branch - , the song of victory shall be brought low by the destruction of Babylon and the return of the Jews from captivity
Lydda - fortified and enlarged, it originally (1 Chronicles 8:12) and reoccupied it after the return from Babylon (Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 11:35)
Eagle - The figure of the "eagle" is used in Ezekiel 17 to represent the great powers of Egypt and Babylon, as being employed to punish corrupt and faithless Israel
Mixed Multitude - As at the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 13:1-3; Nehemiah 13:30) "they separated from Israel all the mixed multitude
Nergal-Sharezer - He was a son-in-law of Nebuchadnezzar who usurped the Babylonian throne following the death of Evil-merodach. From the Babylonian Chronicle it is known that Nergal-sharezer mounted a military campaign across the Taurus Mountains to fight the Medes. See Babylon, History and Religion of
Congregation, Mount of the - But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern mountain, supposed by the Babylonians to be the meeting-place of their gods. In the Babylonian inscriptions mention is made of a mountain which is described as "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head rivals heaven, whose root is the holy deep
Anathoth - Among the restored captives from Babylon were 128 men of Anathoth The name is variously given: Anethothite, Anetothite, Antothite
Burden - Besides the common use of this word, it occurs at the commencement of several prophecies; as 'The burden of Babylon,' 'the burden of Moab
Frankincense, - It formed part of the gifts presented to the Lord by the Magi, Matthew 2:11 ; and was among the things carried to Babylon the Great
Shethar Boznai - Shethar Boznai with Tatnai and the Apharsachites tried to hinder the building of the temple under Zerubbabel, writing to Darius (Ezra 5) that search should be made whether the decree of Cyrus for its restoration, which the Jews alleged, was to be found in the house of the rolls at Babylon
a'Saph - ) ...
Ancestor of Mattaniah, the conductor of the temple-choir after the return from Babylon
Adul'Lam - (Genesis 38:1,12,20 ) Fortified by Rehoboam, (2 Chronicles 11:7 ) it was one of the towns reoccupied by the Jews after their return from Babylon, (Nehemiah 11:30 ) and still a city in the time of the Macabees
Elam - Its people aided in the destruction of Babylon, Isaiah 21:2; invaded Israel, 22:6
Nimrod - Nimrod is supposed to have begun the tower of Babel; and his name is still preserved by a vast ruinous mound, on the site of ancient Babylon
ha'Rim - ) ...
Bene-Harim, probably descendants of the above, to the number of 1017, came from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Cup - (1 Kings 10:21 ) Babylon is compared to a golden cup
Assyria, History And Religion of - ...
History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. An expanded Assyria warred with the famous King Hammurabi of Babylon shortly before breaking up into smaller city states about 1700 B. A rebellious king of Babylon, Merodach-baladan, found support from Elam, Assyria's enemy to the east. Though forced to flee Babylon in 710 B. Merodach-baladan of Babylon, supported by the Elamites, had inspired the rebellion of all southern Mesopotamia. After subduing Babylon, Sennacherib turned his attentions westward. War continued, however, with Elam, which also influenced Babylon to rebel again. , was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for destroying their city. ) emerged as the new king and immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon, an act which won the allegiance of the local populace. , Ashurbanipal's brother, the king of Babylon, organized a widespread revolt. After three years of continual battles Babylon was subdued, but remained filled with seeds of hatred for Assyria. By 626, Babylon had fallen into the hands of the Chaldean Nabopolassar. War continued between Assyria and Babylon until, in 614 B. The combined armies of the Babylonians and the Medes laid siege to Nineveh. the Babylonians approached, and Haran was abandoned. Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. After the rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. ” See Babylon, History and Religion of . ...
Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. The enuma elish, or Epic of Creation, originated in Babylon where it was recited and reenacted at the New Year's Festival. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other gods
Zerubbabel - When Persia conquered Babylon in 539 BC, the Persian king Cyrus released the captive Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem. ...
Ancestor of the Messiah...
Zerubbabel was a direct descendant of David in the line of kings that had reigned in Jerusalem before its destruction by Babylon (Matthew 1:6-12). As a descendant of David, Zerubbabel was like a new ‘branch’ springing from the ‘tree’ of David’s dynasty, a ‘tree’ that Babylon had earlier ‘cut down’ (Zechariah 6:11-13; cf
Eagle - ...
Ezekiel 17:3 (a) The King of Babylon is represented by the eagle in this verse. ...
Ezekiel 17:7 (a) The King of Egypt also is compared to an eagle because he too was just about equal in power to the King of Babylon and ruled over kings and nations. ...
Daniel 7:4 (a) The King of Babylon is described as an eagle in this passage, because of his supreme power, his swiftness, and his superiority
Darius - He succeeded Belshazzar, king of Babylon, his nephew's son, or his sisters grandson, in the year of the world, 3448, according to Calmet, or in 3468, according to Usher. This prince recovered Babylon after a siege of twenty months. The Babylonians employed four years in preparations, and when they thought that their city was furnished with provisions for a long time, they raised the standard of rebellion. Darius levied an army in great haste, and besieged Babylon. The Babylonians shut themselves up within their walls, whose height and thickness secured them from assault; and as they had nothing to fear but famine, they assembled all their women and children, and strangled them, each reserving only his most beloved wife, and one servant. Some believe that the Jews were either expelled by the Babylonians, as being too much in the interest of Darius; or that, in obedience to the frequent admonitions of the prophets, they quitted that city when they saw the people determined to rebel, Isaiah 48:20 ; Jeremiah 50:8 ; Jeremiah 51:6-9 ; Zechariah 11:6-7 . Darius lay twenty months before Babylon, without making any considerable progress; but at length, Zopyrus, one of his generals, obtained possession of the city by stratagem. Darius ordered the hundred gates of brass to be taken away, according to the prediction of Jeremiah 51:58 , "Thus saith the Lord, The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall be burnt with fire, and the people shall labour in vain. Alexander having wintered at Babylon and Persepolis, took the field in search of Darius, who quitted Ecbatana, with an intention of retreating into Bactria; but, changing his resolution, Darius stopped short, and determined to hazard a battle, though his army at this time consisted only of forty thousand men
Harlot - ...
Revelation 17:5 (a) Babylon is a type of the Roman Catholic Church
Asnapper - Towards the middle of his reign his empire was shaken by a great rebellion headed by his brother in Babylon
Beeroth - The men of Beeroth were among those who returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:25)
Bittern - The accompaniment of the desolation reigning in Babylon (Isaiah 14:23), Idumea (Isaiah 34:11), Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14). An aquatic solitary bird, frequenting marshy pools, such as the plain of Babylonia abounded in: the Al-houbara of the Arabic version, the size of a large fowl
Thyine Wood - (ξύλον θύϊνον, the tree being ἡ θυία or θύα, rarely τὸ θύον)...
Thyine wood is mentioned among the precious wares of the Apocalyptic Babylon, i
Sorcerer - , only in Daniel 2:2,10 , of the "enchanters," RV (AV, "astrologers"), of Babylon
Gershom - ...
...
A descendant of Phinehas who returned with Ezra from Babylon (Ezra 8:2 )
Berechiah - A descendant of David in period after Jews returned from Exile in Babylon (1 Chronicles 3:20 )
Shinar, Plain of - Daniel 1:1-2 and probably Zechariah 5:11 equate Babylon and Shinar, thus limiting Shinar to its major city in the writers' day
Device - In a good sense: ...
His device is against Babylon, to destroy it
Weapon - ...
Jeremiah 51:20 (a) This type is used to describe the nation of Babylon which GOD used as an instrument for destroying other nations that were rebellious against Him, including Israel
Posts, - In the prophecy of God's judgements on Babylon it is said that the news should be carried to the king by one post running to meet another
Artaxerxes - By him Ezra was permitted to go to Jerusalem from Babylon and restore the affairs of the Jewish community ( Ezra 7:1 ff; Ezra 8:1 )
Mero'Dach-Bal'Adan - (worshipper of Baal ) is mentioned as king of Babylon in the days of Hezekiah both in the second hook of Kings, ch
Jehoiachin - 509, reigned three months, and was then carried away to Babylon, where he was imprisoned for thirty-six years, and then released and favored by Evil-merodach, 2 Kings 24:6-16 25:27 2 Chronicles 3:9,10
Medes - eight Median kings reigned over Babylon for 224 years. 3) thinks that the Medes of Berosus' statement were really Scyths; but Berosus' statements are generally confirmed by recent deciphering of the Babylonian monuments. Nabopolassar with the Babylonians helped him in its overthrow (Abydenus), and was therefore made independent king of Babylon. ) The Median empire then was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or by a line half way between the Tigris and Euphrates; Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea falling to Babylon. But after a six years' war in which he had Babylon's help he failed to conquer Lydia, and the three great monarchies concluded a peace (ratified by engagements and intermarriages) which lasted throughout Cyaxares' and his son Astyages' reigns. ...
Together they conquered Babylon, as foreseen by Isaiah (Isaiah 13:17): "behold I will stir up the Medes against them, which shall not regard silver, and as for gold they shall not delight in it" (similarly Xenophon, Babylon shall be . Cyrus made Darius the Mede viceroy of Babylon until he assumed the government (Daniel 5; 6; Ezra 1). (See CYRUS; DARIUS; Babylon
Daniel - ...
A man of faith...
As a youth Daniel had been carried off captive to Babylon when Nebuchadnezzar first attacked Jerusalem (605 BC; Daniel 1:1-6). He proved the genuineness of his faith in God by resisting the pressures upon him to conform to the ungodly ways of Babylon. As a reward he was promoted to chief administrator in Babylon and head over Nebuchadnezzar’s council of advisers (Daniel 2:48). ...
Belshazzar was the last of Babylon’s rulers, for it was during his reign that Persia, under Cyrus, conquered Babylon. ...
Contents of the book...
After Daniel and his friends proved their faithfulness to God during their time of testing in the Babylonian palace (1:1-21), an occasion arose where Daniel showed his remarkable ability to interpret dreams. In his reign Babylon fell to Persia (5:1-31). ...
The first of Daniel’s visions was of four beasts that symbolized the successive empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome. ...
At the time of Daniel’s visions, the Jews were still in captivity in Babylon, but expected to return to their homeland soon
Chaldean Language - At Babylon Daniel and his companions had to acquire 'the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans,' that is, their ancient literature and language. ...
As to the writing , the inscriptions found at Assyria, Babylon, and Persia are cut in stone or stamped on bricks in the cuneiform (that is, wedge-shaped) characters
Obadiah, Book of - ...
Part of the prophecy may refer to the time when Jerusalem was destroyed by Babylon. In Psalm 137:7,8 , Edom is associated with Babylon as against Jerusalem
Pitch - The town Ιs (Hit), eight days' journey from Babylon, supplied from springs the bitumen which was used as mortar in building that city (Genesis 11:3; Herodotus i. Athenaeus (2:5) mentions a lake near Babylon abounding in bitumen which floated on the water
Babel - (Genesis 11:9) And here also was the foundation of that city of Babylon laid, which in after ages became the confusion and sorrow of the church during the seventy years' desolation. (Genesis 10:10) And to go farther still, mystical Babylon, in the error and follies by which it is distinguished, may well retain the name, as the Scriptures have given it, for nothing but confusion is in it, and in confusion must it end
Pitch - It was much used in ancient buildings in that region; and, in the ruins of Babylon, large masses of brick work cemented with it are discovered. It is known that the plain of Shinar did abound with it, both in its liquid and solid state; that there was there a cave and fountain which was continually casting it out; and that the famous tower and no less famous walls of Babylon were built by this kind of cement, is confirmed by the testimony of several ancient authors
Darius - Darius the Median, Daniel 5:31, was the son of Ahasuerus; he took Babylon from Belshazzar the Chaldæan, being at that time about 62 years old. "Only one year of the reign of Darius is mentioned, Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1; and if, as seems probable, Darius (Astyages) occupied the throne of Babylon as supreme sovereign, with Nerigalsarasser as vassal-prince, after the murder of Evil-merodach (Bel-shazzar), b
Darius - He removed the seat of government to Susa, whereupon Babylon rebelled against him; but he subdued the rebellion and broke down the walls of Babylon, as was predicted, Jeremiah 51:58
Necho or Pharaoh-Necho - Josiah king of Judah being tributary to the king of Babylon, opposed Necho on his first expedition against Nebuchadnezzar, and gave him battle at Megiddo, where he received the wound of which he died; and Necho pressed forward, without making any long stay in Judea. ...
They were colored white; and with them were four reds, four blacks, and four others white supposed to represent Babylonians, Ethiopians, etc. Jeremiah 46:2 , acquaints us that Carchemish was retaken by Nabopolassar king of Babylon, in the fourth year of Jehoiakim king of Judah; so that Necho did not retain his conquests in Syria more than four year, 2 Kings 23:29-24:7 2 Chronicles 35:20-36:6
Persia, Persians - In 539 Babylon surrendered to his troops without fighting, after a two weeks’ campaign, and became thenceforth one of the Persian capitals. Thus the Babylonian empire was added to the Medo-Persian. To them is possibly to be added Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great, made king of Babylon in 538, and thus corresponding to the misnomer’ Darius the Mede’ of Daniel 6:1 ff; Daniel 9:1 ; Daniel 11:1
Talmud - There are two works which bear this name...
the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the Talmud of Babylon. A similar addition was made to the Mishna by the Babylonish doctors in the beginning of the sixth century, according to Enfield; and in the seventh, according to others. As the learned reader may wish to obtain some notion of rabbinical composition and judgment, we shall gratify his curiosity sufficiently by the following specimen: "Adam's body was made of the earth of Babylon, his head of the land of Israel, his other members of other parts of the world. " The Talmud of Babylon is most valued by the Jews; and this is the book which they mean to express when they talk of the Talmud in general. ...
See MISCHNA, the last edition of the Talmud of Babylon, printed at Amsterdam, in 12 vols
Daniel the Prophet - One of the tribe of Judah and of the royal family of David, he was carried to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. He made Daniel ruler over the whole of Babylon and chief governor over all the wise men of Babylon. ...
This closes the history of Daniel in connection with the kings of Babylon and Persia
Hammer - Babylon is mocked as a hammer whose strength has failed (Jeremiah 50:23 )
Oholah And Oholibah - Though both were wedded to Jehovah, they were seduced by the gallant officers of the East, Samaria being led astray by Assyria and Jerusalem by Babylon
Queen of Heaven - Beltis, the female of Bel or Baal, was the Babylonian "queen of heaven. " Ishtar the Babylonian Venus (in the Sardanapalus inscriptions) was also "the mistress of heaven and earth. " Babylon, Israel's instrument of sin, was in righteous retribution made Israel's punishment (Jeremiah 2:19)
Liver - The only scriptural mention of the practice concerns the king of Babylon (Ezekiel 21:21 )
Sceptre - Psalms 125:3, "the sceptre of the wicked (world power; "Persia" at this time) shall not rest (permanently) upon the lot of the righteous," namely, on the Holy Land: a psalm written after the return from Babylon
Eighteen - He had the years of weakness and he had the beginning of something new, for the King of Babylon came and carried him into captivity
Bear - ...
Daniel 7:5 (b) This animal is used as a type of the Medo-Persian empire which was the second great world kingdom to appear following the fall of Babylon
Hang(ed) - Psalm 137:2 (a) This figure is used to describe the discouragement of Israel and the disheartening experience which they went through while slaves in Babylon
Cinnamon - (κιννάμωνον from קִנְמוֹן)...
Cinnamon is mentioned in Revelation 18:13 among the merchandise of ‘Babylon,’ i
Sweep - Isaiah 14:23 (b) This picture describes the thorough destruction of Babylon, which was foretold by our Lord, and was completely carried out to the extermination of that great city
Ada'Iah - (2 Chronicles 23:1 ) ...
One of the descendants of Bani, who had married a foreign wife after the return from Babylon
a'Riel -
One of the "chief men" who under Ezra directed the caravan which he led back from Babylon to Jerusalem
Shemaiah - A false prophet among the exiled Jews in Babylon, who opposed the prophet Jeremiah, and incurred divine judgments on himself and his family
Bricks - The bricks used were often a foot square; and great numbers of them are found, both in Babylon and Egypt, impressed with some royal or priestly stamp
Jehoiachin - He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility, all the leading men in Jerusalem, and a great body of the general population, some thirteen thousand in all (2 Kings 24:12-16 ; Jeremiah 52:28 )
Isa'Iah, Book of - 13-23 contain chiefly a collection of utterances, each of which is styled a "burden," fore-telling the doom of Babylon, Philistia, Moab, Ethiopia, Egypt and Tyre. The last 27 chapters form a separate prophecy, and are supposed by many critics to have been written in the time of the Babylonian captivity, and are therefore ascribed to a "later Isaiah;" but the best reasons are in favor of but one Isaiah. This second part falls into three sections, each consisting of nine chapters:--
The first section, chs 40-48 has for its main topic the comforting assurance of the deliverance from Babylon by Koresh (Cyrus), who is even named twice. The person of Cyrus as well as his name and the specification of Babylon, disappear altogether
Assyria - These events happened not long after Nimrod had established the Chaldean monarchy, and fixed his residence at Babylon; but it does not appear that Nimrod reigned in Assyria. The kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon were originally distinct and separate, Micah 5:6 ; and in this state they remained until Ninus conquered Babylon, and made it tributary to the Assyrian empire. Ninus, the successor of Ashur, Genesis 10:11 , seized on Chaldea after the death of Nimrod, and united the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. The last of the ancient Assyrian kings was Sardanapalus, who was besieged in his capital by Arbaces, governor of Media, in concurrence with the Babylonians. Playfair, "the Assyrian empire was divided into three kingdoms; namely, the Median, Assyrian, and Babylonian. Arbaces retained the supreme authority, and nominated governors in Assyria and Babylon, who were honoured with the title of kings, while they remained subject and tributary to the Persian monarchs. Belesis," he says, "a Chaldean priest, who assisted Arbaces in the conquest of Sardanapalus, received the government of Babylon as the reward of his services; and Phul was intrusted with that of Assyria. the kingdom of Assyria was split, and annexed to the kingdoms of Media and Babylon. Several tributary princes afterward reigned in Nineveh; but we hear no more of the kings of Assyria, but of those of Babylon. Cyaxares, king of Media, assisted Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in the siege of Nineveh, which they took and destroyed, B. Pul was succeeded on the throne of Assyria by his elder son Tiglath-pileser; and at the same time he left Babylon to his younger son Nabonassar, B. He began his reign at Nineveh, in the year of Nabonassar 42; and in the year 68 extended it over Babylon. Saosduchinus, after a reign of twenty years, was succeeded at Babylon, and probably at Nineveh also, by Chyniladon, in the year B. 635, the Scythians invaded the Medes and Persians; and in 625, Nabopolassar, the commander of the forces of Chyniladon in Chaldea, revolted from him, and became king of Babylon. With this victory commenced the great successes of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares, and it laid the foundation of the two collateral empires of the Babylonians and Medes, which were branches of the Assyrian empire; and hence the time of the fall of the Assyrian empire is determined, the conquerors being then in their youth
Hammer - Metaphorically of Babylon (Jeremiah 50:23 ) or Nebuchadnezzar
Erech - It lay on the left bank of the Euphrates, about 120 miles south-east of Babylon, and is now represented by the mounds and ruins of Warka
Tahapanes, Tahpanhes, Tehaphnehes - Jeremiah prophesied that the king of Babylon should set his throne in that city and smite the land of Egypt
Evil Merodach - When Evil Merodach mounted the throne therefore he brought him out of prison, changed his prison garments, and set his throne above the throne of the kings with him in Babylon, and "Jehoiachin did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life" (Jeremiah 52:31-34). , he was murdered by Neriglissar (Nergal Sharezer), a Babylonian noble (married to his sister), who seized the crown
Zerubbabel - The seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel (Haggai 1:1 ; Zorobabel, Matthew 1:12 ); called also the son of Pedaiah (1 Chronicles 3:17-19 ), i
Tobiah - A returned exile who apparently brought a gift of gold from Babylon for the Jerusalem community
Ramah - Ramah was the point at which Jeremiah parted from the exiles who were being carried away to Babylon (Jeremiah 40:1), and he associated it with Rachel in the passage (Jeremiah 31:15) which is quoted by the First Evangelist
Whirlwind - In Job 37:9 "out of the south (literally, chamber, God's unseen regions in the southern hemisphere) cometh the whirlwind" (Isaiah 21:1); the south wind driving before it burning sands comes from the Arabian deserts upon Babylon (Zechariah 9:14)
Barzillai - Some of these priests returned from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel about 537 B
Beeroth - Citizens of Beeroth returned with Zerubbabel from Exile in Babylon about 537 B
Neco - The resulting power vacuum encouraged the ambitious Neco to seize Gaza as a base (Jeremiah 47:1 ) for a campaign to bring Syria under his control and to bring aid to the Assyrian remnant in their struggle with the rising force of Babylon
Walls - Archaeologists estimate that the walls of Nineveh were wide enough to drive three chariots abreast and the walls of Babylon were wide enough to drive six chariots abreast on the top
Artificer - Nebuchadnezzar carried off all the craftsmen (same word as artificers) and smiths from Jerusalem, 2 Kings 24:14 , and he may have made use of their skill to adorn Babylon
Foul - Revelation 18:2 (a) In this way GOD reveals His utter hatred for the wicked practices and the evil beliefs which prevail in those great world systems of religion which are described as Babylon
Jesus Christ - Joshua the successor of Moses, and Joshua the high priest in the church, after the church was brought back from Babylon
Nimrod - So that Nimrod and his descendants were those who founded both Babylon and Nineveh. Babylonia was also called the land of Nimrod, which shows that the descendants of Ham settled in the East as well as in Egypt in the South
Divination - The Egyptian magicians used to practise divination: so did the Chaldæans at Babylon
Draughts - The prophet makes an allusion to the powerful effects of this stupifying draught, in that prediction which announces the judgments of God upon the empire of Babylon:...
"Take the wine cup of this fury at my hand, and cause all the nations to whom I send thee to drink it
Shushan - The site is nearly due east of Babylon and north of the Persian Gulf
Ner'Gal-Share'Zer - (prince of fire ) occurs only in ( Jeremiah 39:3 ) and Jere 39:13 There appear to have been two persons in the name among the "princes of the king of Babylon" who accompanied Nebuchadnezzar on his last expedition against Jerusalem. Profane history gives us reason to believe that he was a personage of great importance, who not long afterward mounted the Babylonian throne
Dial, Sun-Dial - Apparently a report of it reached Babylon, and ambassadors from the princes were sent to inquire of the 'wonder' that had occurred
Media - This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B. Soon afterwards (Isaiah 13:17 ; 21:2 ) speaks of the part taken by the Medes in the destruction of Babylon (Compare Jeremiah 51:11,28 )
Zedekiah - The kingdom was at that time tributary to Nebuchadnezzar; but, despite the strong remonstrances of Jeremiah and others, as well as the example of Jehoiachin, he threw off the yoke of Babylon, and entered into an alliance with Hophra, king of Egypt. 588) to Babylon (2 Kings 25:1-7 ; 2 Chronicles 36:12 ; Jeremiah 32:4,5 ; 34:2,3 ; 39:1-7 ; 52:4-11 ; Ezekiel 12:12 ), where he remained a prisoner, how long is unknown, to the day of his death
Tribute - ...
The Jews later paid tribute in one form or another to Babylon, Persia, the Ptolemies and Seleucids, and Rome. See Assyria; Babylon ; Egypt ; Roman Empire
Nahum - At the time of Nahum’s prophecy, Assyria had passed the peak of its power and was heading for inevitable conquest by the rising power of Babylon. Nineveh was conquered by the armies of Babylon in 612 BC
Dragon - The dragon temples are serpentine in form; dragon standards were used in Egypt and Babylon, and among the widely-scattered Celts. "The dragon in the sea," which Jehovah shall punish in the day of Israel's deliverance, is Antichrist, the antitype to Babylon on the Euphrates' waters (Isaiah 27:1)
Zedekiah - When Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, he carried Jeconiah to Babylon, with his wives, children, officers, and the best artificers in Judea, and put in his place his uncle Mattaniah, whose name he changed to Zedekiah, and made him promise with an oath that he would maintain fidelity to him. Zedekiah was taken and carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him with his perfidy, caused his children to be slain before his face and his own eyes to be put out; and then loading him with chains of brass, he ordered him to be sent to Babylon, 2 Kings 25:1-30 Jeremiah 39:1-18 52:1-34 Ezekiel 19:1-14
Haggai - In 539 BC the Persian king Cyrus conquered Babylon and promptly issued a decree that allowed the Jewish captives to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem. The outcome was that a good number of Jews moved out of Babylon and settled in Jerusalem
Tongues, Confusion of - The belief that the world, after the Flood, was re-populated by the progeny of a single family, speaking one language, is reconciled in the Bible with the existing diversity of tongues by a story which relates how the descendants of Noah, in the course of their wanderings, settled in the plain of Shinar, or Babylonia, and there built of brick a city, and a tower high enough to reach heaven, as a monument to preserve their fame, and as a centre of social cohesion and union. The particular explanation furnished was doubtless suggested partly by the name of the city of Babel , or Babylon (which, though really meaning ‘gate of God,’ was by a popular etymology connected with the Heb. word bâlal , ‘to confuse’), and partly by the presence, at or near Babylon, of the ruins of some great tower, which looked as though it had originally been designed as a means to scale heaven. Two such towers, or ziqqurats , were the temple of Merodach (or Marduk) in Babylon (supposed to be beneath the mound of Babil ), and the temple of Nebo in Borsippa (the ruins of which form the mound of Birs Nimroud ); and knowledge of one or other of these may have helped to shape the narrative
Temple - The desolation of Jerusalem by the king of Babylon at the captivity, brought on the desolation also of the temple, until it was totally destroyed in the eleventh year of Zedikiah, after it had stood amidst many ravages and injuries, from the plunder of the enemies of Israel, somewhat more than four hundred years. ...
During the captivity of Babylon the temple remained in ruins; but in the first year of Cyrus at Babylon, the Jews were permitted to return to Jerusalem, and to rebuild the temple of the Lord
Zerub'Babel - Babylon ), the head of the tribe of Judah at the time of the return from the Babylonish captivity in the first year of Cyrus. The history of Zerabbabel in the Scriptures is as follows: In the first year of Cyrus he was living at Babylon, and was the recognized prince of Judah in the captivity, --what in later times was called "the prince of the captivity," or "the prince. " It is probable that he was in the king of Babylon's service, both from his having, like Daniel and the three children, received a Chaldee name, Sheshbazzar, and from the fact that he was appointed by the Persian king to the office of governor of Judea. But in the second year of Darius, light dawned upon the darkness of the colony from Babylon
Shushan - It has for several hundred years, like Babylon, been reduced to a heap of undistinguished ruins. They extend as far as the eastern bank of the Kerah; occupying an immense space between that river and the Abzal; and, like the ruins of Ctesiphon, Babylon, and Kufa, consist of hillocks of earth and rubbish, covered with broken pieces of brick and coloured tile. These mounds bear some resemblance to the pyramids of Babylon; with this difference, that instead of being entirely made of brick, they are formed of clay and pieces of tile, with irregular layers of brick and mortar, five or six feet in thickness, to serve, it should seem, as a kind of prop to the mass
Mark, - (Colossians 4:10,11 ); Phle 1:24 We next have traces of him in (1 Peter 5:13 ) "The church that is in Babylon . " From this we infer that he joined his spiritual father, the great friend of his mother, at Babylon, then and for same hundred years afterward one of the chief seats of Jewish culture. From Babylon he would seem to have returned to Asia Minor; for during his second imprisonment A
Talmud - 220,500 the rabbinic schools in Palestine and Babylonia amplified and applied the teachings of the Mishnah for their Jewish communities. Two documents came to embody a large part of this teaching: The Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. By this means, the decisions of rabbis resident in Babylon became normative for a broad cross section of ancient Jewish life. ...
The Babylonian Talmud became the most authoritative of the two written Talmuds due both to the political fortunes of the Jewish communities in Palestine and Babylon in the first four centuries A. Later generations of Jewish scholars also recognized that the Babylonian Talmud was completed later and so supposed that it absorbed or superseded the Jerusalem one. ...
Apart from haggadic passages that are mostly Hebrew, it was written in Eastern Aramaic, the language of Babylon at the time. The Babylonian Talmud reflects a highly developed system for settling disputed questions of halakah (oral law). For example, discussion of the segments of Mishnah that deal with the Temple service are omitted, presumably because the Jewish community in Babylon did not anticipate the rebuilding of the Temple in the near future (interestingly, the Jerusalem Talmud does discuss these sections). ...
The Babylonian Talmud also contains theoretical legal discussion as well as information on the daily life of Jewish people in the first six centuries, history, medicine, astronomy, commerce, agriculture, demonology, magic, botany, zoology, and other sciences. It is succinct and concise in its presentation of legal arguments, and does not contain the considerable body of Haggadah included in the Babylonian Talmud. approximately a century before the Babylonian Talmud
Ezra - Resided in Babylon under Artaxerxes Longimanus. Ezra's book closes abruptly here, as probably the odium connected with this self denying ordinance made him judge it expedient to withdraw to Babylon for the present. ...
As Ezra is not mentioned after Nehemiah's departure for Babylon in Artaxerxes' 32nd year, and the Jews relapsed into irregularity during Nehemiah's absence (Nehemiah 13), it is likely Ezra died or returned to Babylon shortly after Nehemiah's departure. " The features of the psalm suit the Jews' position on their return from Babylon
Chronology of the Biblical Period - ...
The last days of the kingdom of Judah involve the kings of Babylon, thus giving an outside source to date Judah's history. had taken King Jehoiachin and his family and many top officials to Babylon. after the capture of Babylon by the Persians under Cyrus in 539 B. ...
SIGNIFICANT DATES IN OLD TESTAMENT BIBLE HISTORY...
Periods of History...
Critical...
Traditional...
Patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob)...
1700-1500...
2000...
Exodus...
1290...
1450...
Conquest...
1250...
1400...
Judges...
1200-1025...
1360-1025...
Kings...
...
...
Kings of United Israel...
Critical...
Traditional...
Saul...
1025-1005...
1020-1004...
David...
1005-965...
1004-965...
Solomon...
965-925...
965-931...
Kings of the Divided Kingdom...
Judah...
Israel...
Critical...
Traditional...
Rehoboam...
...
924-907...
931-913...
...
Jeroboam...
924-903...
926-909...
Abijam (Abijah)...
...
907-906...
913-910...
Asa...
...
905-874...
910-869...
...
Nadab...
903-902...
909-908...
...
Baasha...
902-886...
908-886...
...
Elah...
886-885...
886-885...
...
Zimri...
885...
885...
...
(Tibni, 1 Kings 16:21 )...
885-881...
885-880...
...
Omri...
885-873...
885-874...
Jehoshaphat...
...
874-850...
873-848...
...
Ahab...
873-851...
874-853...
...
Ahaziah...
851-849...
853-852...
Jehoram (Joram)...
...
850-843...
853-841...
...
Jehoram...
849-843...
852-841...
Ahaziah...
...
843...
841...
Athaliah...
...
843-837...
841-835...
...
Jehu...
843-816...
841-814...
Joash (Jehoash)...
...
837-796...
835-796...
...
Jehoahaz...
816-800...
814-798...
Amaziah...
...
798-767...
796-767...
...
Joash (Jehoash)...
800-785...
798-782...
Uzziah (Azariah)...
...
791-740...
792-740...
...
Jeroboam II...
785-745...
793-753...
Jotham...
...
750-742...
750-732...
...
Zechariah...
745...
753-752...
...
Shallum...
745...
752...
...
Menahem...
745-736...
752-742...
Jehoahaz I (Ahaz)...
...
742-727...
735-715...
...
Pekahiah...
736-735...
742-740...
...
Pekah...
735-732...
752-732...
...
Hoshea...
732-723...
732-723...
Hezekiah...
...
727-698...
715-686...
...
Fall of Samaria ...
722 ...
723/722 ...
Manasseh...
...
697-642...
696-642...
Amon...
...
642-640...
642-640...
Josiah...
...
639-606...
640-609...
Jehoahaz II...
...
609...
609...
Jehoiakim...
...
608-598...
609-597...
Jehoiachin...
...
598-597...
597...
Zedekiah...
...
597-586...
597-586...
Fall of Jerusalem ...
...
586 ...
586 ...
BabylonIAN EXILE AND RESTORATION UNDER PERSIAN RULE...
Jehoiachin and leaders exiled to Babylon including Ezekiel...
597...
Jerusalem destroyed, remaining leaders exiled to Babylon...
586...
Gedaliah set over Judea...
58...
Gedaliah assassinated...
581 (?)...
Jeremiah taken with other Judeans to Egypt...
581 (?)...
Judeans deported to Babylon...
581...
Cyrus, king of Persia...
559-530...
Babylon captured...
539...
Edict allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel...
538...
Temple restoration begun but quickly halted...
538...
Cambysses, king of Persia...
530-522...
Darius, king of Persia...
522-486...
Haggai and Zechariah lead rebuilding of Temple...
520-515...
Temple completed and rededicated...
515...
Xerxes, king of Persia...
486-465...
Artaxerxes I, king of Persia...
465-424...
Ezra returns to Jerusalem and teaches the law...
458...
Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem and rebuilds the walls...
445...
NOTE: Overlapping dates of kings such as between Uzziah and Jotham result from coregencies, that is, a father installing his son as king during the father's lifetime and allowing the son to exercise royal power
Hammurabi - (ham myoo ray' bi) King of Babylon about 1700 B. Two kings of Yamhad, who were contemporaries of the king of Babylon, bore the name. In addition, the name was borne by the king of Kurda and by an official from the Old Babylonian period. Prior to Hammurabi, the kings of Babylon had Akkadian names. ...
Kingdom Hammurabi was the sixth king of the First Dynasty of Babylon. He ruled over Babylon for 42-43 years. For the first ten years of Hamhymurabi's reign, Babylon appears to be subservient to Assyrian rule. The archives at Mari reveal about 140 letters sent between Babylon and Mari during this era. Hammurabi placed Marduk, a local deity, at the head of the Babylonian pantheon, where he remained for subsequent centuries. These fragments were thought to be part of an old “book of Law” dating to the First Babylonian Dynasty. It was probably set in the great Esagil Temple of Marduk in Babylon with copies sent to other centers. , following a successful raid on Babylon, the Elamite Shutruk-nahhunte carried it to Susa. In his first year, Hammurabi decreed the standard of law which would govern the economic and religious life of all Babylonians. The differences between the conditions in early Israel and the urban communities of Babylon are evident in these paragraphs. Seven of them are in the form of cuneiform documents: Ur-Nammu, Lipit-Ishtar, Eshnunna, Hammurabi, Assyrian Laws, Hittite Laws, and Neo-Babylonian Laws
Heifer - The heifer was used as a symbol for the splendor of Egypt (Jeremiah 46:20 ) and of Babylon (Jeremiah 50:11 )
Nethinim - Only 612Nethinim returned from Babylon (Ezra 2:58 ; 8:20 )
Reach - 1: ἀκολουθέω (Strong's #190 — Verb — akoloutheo — ak-ol-oo-theh'-o ) "to follow," is translated "have reached," in Revelation 18:5 , of the sins of Babylon
Scarlet - , in connection with the cleansing of a leper, Leviticus 14:4,6 , "scarlet;" with the offering of the red heifer, Numbers 19:6 ; (b) of the robe put on Christ by the soldiers, Matthew 27:28 ; (c) of the "beast" seen in symbolic vision in Revelation 17:3 , "scarlet-colored;" (d) of the clothing of the "woman" as seen sitting on the "beast," Revelation 17:4 ; (e) of part of the merchandise of Babylon, Revelation 18:12 ; (f) figuratively, of the glory of the city itself, Revelation 18:16 ; the neuter is used in the last three instances
Baruch - To him Jeremiah dictated his prophecies regarding the invasion of the Babylonians and the Captivity. He probably died in Babylon
Cuthah - There is also a town Cuthah, now Towiba, close to Babylon
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin - (mee' nih, mee' nih, tee' kehl, yoo fahr' ssihn) An inscription that King Belshazzar of Babylon saw a detached hand write on his palace wall as the king was hosting a drunken party (Daniel 5:1-29 )
Michmash - Exiles returning from Babylon reinhabited the city (Nehemiah 11:31 ; compare Nehemiah 7:31 )
Lucifer - In this connexion, helçl ( helâl ) can denote only the waning of some luminary, as it is forcibly compared with the impending fate of the then king of Babylon, whose utter destruction the prophet is engaged in foretelling, The waning luminary intended by the author may probably have been only the old moon crescent seen at dawn, just about to disappear
Hour - ) Ahaz' sundial implies the Jews' acquaintance with hours before the Babylonian captivity. During it, they would certainly meet with that division of time which prevailed for ages at Babylon
Tobiah, the Children of - from the Jews from Babylon, typified the return of the dispersed Israelites from afar (Isaiah 60:9) to the King of the Jews at Jerusalem, and secondarily the conversion of the Gentiles "far off" (Acts 2:39; Ephesians 2:12-17; Isaiah 60:10; Isaiah 57:19; Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:22-23)
Magi - In Babylon the magi were known by the name of "wise men" and "Chaldeans
Belshazzar - (behl sshaz' zuhr; Bel'ss prince) The Babylonian king whose drunken feast was interrupted by the mysterious appearance of the fingers of a human hand that wrote a cryptic message on the palace wall (Daniel 5:1 ). When the Babylonian seers were unable to interpret the writing, Daniel the Hebrew was called. Nabonidus travelled to Arabia and left Belshazzar in control according to a Babylonian inscription. From the standpoint of Babylonian history, Belshazzar was not a particularly important personage except that he participated in the decisions and events leading to the fall of the Babylonian empire. ...
See Babylon
Old Testament - It tells the history of the nation Israel and God's dealings with them to the return from Exile in Babylon
Rib - ...
Daniel 7:5 (b) Here is indicated the ferocity and devastating effect of this Medio-Persian kingdom in destroying the Babylonian kingdom and retaining some of the fragments of its characteristics. The three ribs represent the three great kings of Babylon
Iron - σιδήρεος)...
Iron, the commonest, cheapest, and most useful of heavy metals, is mentioned (Revelation 18:12) among the merchandise of ‘Babylon’ (= Rome)
Gemariah - Son of Hilkiah, the high priest who found the book of the law in the Lord's house, and showed it to Shaphan (2 Kings 22:8); sent by king Zedekiah on an embassy to Nebuchadnezzar; entrusted by Jeremiah with a letter to the captives in Babylon
Chaldees - Or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon was the capital
Targum - And it is more than probable that this Targum was read to the people at the reading of the Scriptures after their return from Babylon; for it is said that when they read in the book of the law, "they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading
Accad - Akkad was the name of the "great primitive Hamite race who inhabited Babylonia from the earliest time, and who originated the arts and sciences. The Babylonian Talmud mentions the site under the name Aggada. of Babylon was called Aceere (Knobel)
Mother - ) Babylon is called the mother of harlots, Revelation 17:5
Mark, Marcus - He was with Peter at Babylon, and when Paul was a second time a prisoner at Rome, he asked for Mark, saying he was serviceable for the ministry
Stumble, Be Weak - Babylon, too, will know God’s judgment: “And the most proud shall stumble and fall …” ( Dial - The inquiry from Babylon in regard to it would seem to imply that the miracle was heard of, but not witnessed there
je-i'el - ) ...
One of the Bene-Adonikam who formed part of the caravan of Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem
Nebuchadnezzar - King of Babylon. The idol name of Nebo forms apart in it, for the Babylonians were much disposed to this
Ashkenaz - It may farther be remarked on the identity of these countries, that the Prophet Jeremiah, predicting the capture of Babylon, and calling by name the countries which were to rise against it, exclaims, "Call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, (or Armenia,) Minni, and Ashkenaz:" which was literally fulfilled; as Xenophon informs us that Cyrus, after taking Sardis, became master of Phrygia on the Hellespont, and took along with him many soldiers of that country
Nehemiah - He was of the tribe of Judah, and was probably born at Babylon during the captivity
Degrees, Songs of - The Syriac Version heads them 'Songs of ascent from Babylon
Bittern - Harmer, "that a word which occurs but three times in the Hebrew Bible should be translated by three different words, and that one of them should be otter!" Isaiah, prophesying the destruction of Babylon, says that "the Lord will make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water;" and Zephaniah 2:14 , prophesying against Nineveh, says that "the cormorant and bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it: their voice shall sing in the windows
Zephaniah - He was among the captives slain by the king of Babylon at Riblah, 2 Kings 25:18-21 Jeremiah 21:1 29:25,29 37:3 52:24-27
Capernaum - A chief city of Galilee in the time of Christ, not mentioned before the captivity in Babylon
na'Than - (2 Samuel 23:36 ; 1 Chronicles 11:38 ) ...
One of the head men who returned from Babylon with Ezra on his second expedition
Hilki'ah - ) ...
Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiah's envoys to Babylon
ha'Nan - ...
The sons of Hanan were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel
cy'Rus - Babylon fell before his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria were added to his empire B
Chaldeans, Chaldees - Then, however, they cannot be distinguished from the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon was called a Chaldean, Ezra 5:12 , and on the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar it was the Chaldeans who destroyed the city, 2 Kings 25 ; and in 2 Chronicles 36:17 Nebuchadnezzar is called 'the king of the Chaldees. ' It is evident therefore that the Babylonians are called Chaldees; and at one time the Assyrians were associated with the Babylonians. " Herodotus says "the Assyrians built the towers and temples of Babylon. At first they were a number of tribes in South Babylonia, but were afterwards united and increased. , so as not to be distinguishable from the Babylonians
Zechariah - Men who accompanied Ezra on return from Babylon (Ezra 8:3 ,Ezra 8:3,8:11 ). Man Ezra sent to get Levites to return from Babylon (Ezra 8:16 )
Hanani'ah - But Jeremiah was bidden to go tell Hananiah that for the wooden yokes which he had broken he should make yokes of iron, so firm was the dominion of Babylon destined to he for seventy years. ) ...
One of the sons of Bebai who returned with Ezra from Babylon (Ezra 10:28 ) (B
an'Tichrist - the devil, the serpent of Genesis), continued for forty and two months, and was invested with the kingdom of the ten kings who destroyed the harlot Babylon, (Revelation 17:12,17 ) the city of seven hills. The destruction of Babylon is to be followed by the rule of Antichrist for a short period, (Revelation 17:10 ) to be in his turn overthrown in "the battle of that great day of God Almighty," (Revelation 16:14 ) with the false prophet and all his followers
Joshua the Son of Jehozadak - In 539 BC Cyrus of Persia conquered Babylon and immediately gave permission to the captive Jews to return to their homeland and rebuild Jerusalem and the temple. Standing beside Joshua was Satan, ready to make the accusation that the people were unclean because of their long exile in idolatrous Babylon
Zedeki'ah - 2 Kings 23:31 His original name was Mattaniah, which was changed to Zedekiah by Nebuchadnezzar when he carried off his nephew Jehoiachim to Babylon and left him on the throne of Jerusalem. It is evident from Jere 27,28 that the earlier portion of Zedekiah's reign was marked by an agitation throughout the whole of Syria against the Babylonian yoke. The first act of rebellion of which any record survives was the formation of an alliance with Egypt, of itself equivalent to a declaration of enmity with Babylon. He was then loaded with brazen fetters, and at a later period taken to Babylon, where he died. ...
The son of Maaseiah, a false prophet in Babylon
Elam - The Elamite presence continued in Babylon until the time of Hammurabi about 1700 B. Again the Babylonians brought Elamite power to an end. Thus, they participated, with the Babylonians, in the defeat of the Assyrian empire. He called Elam to attack Babylon in Isaiah 21:1 . No explanation for the judgment is given; but Elam, as a vassal of Babylon, may have participated in the attack on Jerusalem
Hananiah - In the fourth year of Zedekiah's reign Hananiah, in opposition to Jeremiah, foretold that Jeconiah and the captives at Babylon would return with all the vessels of the Lord's house within two years. Judah already had designed a league with Edom, Ammon, Moab, Tyre, and Sidon against Babylon. ...
A temporary raising of the siege of Jerusalem, through the Egyptian ally, was soon followed by the return of the Chaldaean army, the capture of Jerusalem, and the blinding of Zedekiah and his removal to Babylon (Ezekiel 37:5)
Hezekiah, King of Judah - ...
Hezekiah had great riches; and when Berodach-baladan, king of Babylon, sent ambassadors to him with a present, for they heard that he had been sick, and to inquire of the wonder that had been done in the land (doubtless the shadow going back ten degrees), Hezekiah showed them all his riches; and then he had to hear the sorrowful tidings that all he had shown them should be carried into Babylon, and his sons should be made eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon
Shemaiah - The Nehelamite, a false prophet at Babylon, who wrote urging Zephaniah the deputy priest to show his gratitude to God for his promotion to Jehoiada's place by exercising his power in imprisoning Jeremiah as "mad" (compare 2 Kings 9:11; Matthew 21:23; Acts 26:24; John 10:20 the Antitype) and putting him in stocks, because he had recommended the Jewish captives at Babylon to build, plant, and settle there as for a long time, in opposition to those who flattered them with promises of a speedy release. Jeremiah on hearing Shemaiah's letter read by Zephaniah, who was less prejudiced against him, declared from Jehovah, "Shemaiah shall not have a man to dwell among this people, neither shall he behold the good" (namely, the future restoration from Babylon), "because he caused you to trust a lie" and "hath taught rebellion against Jehovah," namely, against God's revealed will as to the time of the restoration (Jeremiah 29:24-32, compare Jeremiah 29:10; Jeremiah 28:16)
Daniel - He was carried away captive to Babylon when he was about eighteen or twenty years of age, in the year 606 before the Christian aera. He was placed in the court of Nebuchadnezzar, and was afterward raised to situations of great rank and power, both in the empire of Babylon and of Persia. Part of this book is written in the Chaldaic language, namely, from the fourth verse of the second chapter to the end of the seventh chapter; these chapters relate chiefly to the affairs of Babylon, and it is probable that some passages were taken from the public registers
Persia - In history, the empire defeated the Babylonians and then fell finally to Alexander the Great. The Medes controlled the territory northeast and east of the Babylonians. , Babylon fell to Cyrus due to his skill and internal dissension in the Babylonian Empire. See Babylon . Initially, Judah was a provincein the satrapy of Babylon. Babylon had conquered Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple in 586 B. When Cyrus conquered Babylon, he allowed the Jews to return to Judah and encouraged the rebuilding of the Temple (Ezra 1:1-4 ). Although Daniel was taken into Exile by the Babylonians (Daniel 1:1 ), his ministry continued through the fall of the Babylonians (Daniel 5:1 ) into the time of the Persians (Daniel 6:1 )
Assur - , and beyond it Babylonia, the mountains of Kurdistan, the ancient Lagres chain and Media on the E. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests in that quarter; but even then a temple was founded to the goddess at Koyunjik. Classical tradition and the Assyrian monuments confirm Scripture, that Assyria was peopled from Babylon. In Herodotus Ninus the founder of Nineveh is the son of Belus, the founder of Babylon. ...
The remains prove that Babylon's civilization was anterior to Assyria's. The cuneiform writing is rapidly punched on moist clay, and so naturally took its rise in Babylonia, where they used "brick for stone" (Genesis 11:3), and passed thence to Assyria, where chiseling characters on rock is not so easy. In Assyria too the writing is of a more advanced kind; in early Babylonia of a ruder stage. Babylon is Hamitic in origin; Assyria Shemitic. Babylonia, is Cushite or Ethiopian, of which the modern Galla of Abyssinia gives the best idea. At the same time traces exist in the Babylonian language of the other three great divisions of human speech, Shemitic, Aryan, and Turanian, showing in that primitive stage traces of the original unity of tongues. The monuments confirm Genesis 10:9-12, that the Shemitic Assyrians proceeding out of Babylonia founded Nineveh long after the Cushite foundation of Babylon. The Babylonian shrines were those at which the Assyrians thought the gods most accessible, regarding Babylon as the true home of their gods (Arrian, Exp. ...
According to Herodotus and the Babylonian historian Berosus, we can infer the empire began about 1228 B. Their alabaster quarries furnished a material better than the Babylonian bricks for portraying scenes. ("Be worship given to Nin" or "Hercules") claims to have conquered in the first five years of his reign "42 countries from the Lower Zab to the Upper Sea of the setting sun," the region from Assyria proper to the Euphrates, from Babylon's borders to mount Taurus, and to have fought the Hittites in northern Syria, and invaded Armenia and Cappadocia. Later on he was defeated by the Babylonian king, who carried captive several Assyrian idols. (Asshu-izir-pal) warred in Lower Babylonia and Chaldsea, as well as in Syria and upon the Mediterranean coast. He himself overran Cappadocia, Armenia, Azerbijan, Media Magna, the Kurd mountains, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia. , and who married Semiramis of Babylon (whose son Nabonassar Pul is supposed to have sat on the Babylonian throne). But as it is impossible to identify Tiglath Pileser's predecessor Asshut-lush with Pul, and as Assyria was then in a depressed state through internal troubles, Pul was probably monarch at Babylon (Berosus, the Babylonian historian, calls him "king of the Chaldoeans") while Asshur-lush reigned at Nineveh. ...
In the disturbed 10 years before Tiglath Pileser's accession, he probably deprived Assyria of her western province and invaded Palestine from the Assyrian direction, and so was loosely designated "king of Assyria" instead of "Babylon. , the Babylonians reckon as the era of their independence. " This more than revived the glories of the former empire, and recovered the supremacy over Babylon. The magnificent palace of Sennacherib (the assailant of (See HEZEKIA) at Nineveh, as also the buildings erected by Sargon and Esarhaddon (the carrier away of Manasseh to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11) show the power and wealth of Assyria at this period. ...
By the end of Esarhaddon's reign Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria had been absorbed, Judaea made tributary, Philistia and Idumea subjected, Babylon recovered, and cities planted in Media. they began attacking Assyria, at first unsuccessfully; but Cyaxares the Mede having gained the Babylonians under Nabopolassar, the Assyrian viceroy of Babylon, as allies, about 625 B
Nebuzaradan - By Nebuchadnezzar's direction, Nebuzaradan "looked well to Jeremiah," gave him his choice of going to Babylon or staying, then sent him with victuals and a present, to be protected by Gedaliah the governor left over Judah, after having first told the Jews "Jehovah hath done according as He hath said, because ye have sinned against Jehovah" (Jeremiah 39:11-14; Jeremiah 40:2-5)
Elishama - An ancestor with royal bloodlines of Ishmael, the person who murdered Gedaliah and took over political control of Judah immediately after Babylon had destroyed Jerusalem (2 Kings 25:25 )
Alexandria - It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness
Ark of the Covenant Item - According to a tradition, the value of which is much discussed, the Ark, with the Tabernacle and the altar of incense, was hidden by Jeremias before the siege of Jerusalem by Nabuchodonosor (2Machabees 2); however, the view that it was carried to Babylon as a trophy (4Esdas 10) seems to enjoy greater probability
Floor - ...
Jeremiah 51:33 (a) Here is a type of the severe threshing that GOD would give Babylon when He sent the enemy to destroy it
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - And though the captivity of Babylon lay between, yet the glorious redemption from sin, death, hell, and the grave, by the Lord Jesus Christ, was seen beyond it
Ambassador - Ambassadors came from Babylon to visit Hezekiah, 2 Chronicles 32:31 ; and from the king of Egypt to Josiah
Nineveh - And where is it now? Where is Nineveh and Babylon, and the seven churches of proconsular Asia? Alas! not a vestige of either remains
Athaliah - One whose son, with many of the same family, returned from Babylon with Ezra
Cup - Psalm 116:18 , "cup of salvation"); in the NT it is used most frequently of the sufferings of Christ, Matthew 20:22,23 ; 26:39 ; Mark 10:38,39 ; 14:36 ; Luke 22:42 ; John 18:11 ; also of the evil deeds of Babylon, Revelation 17:4 ; 18:6 ; of Divine punishments to be inflicted, Revelation 14:10 ; 16:19
Wilderness - Principal Douglas, referring to this expression, says: "A mysterious name, which must be meant to describe Babylon (see especially ver. Jerusalem is the "valley of vision," rich in spiritual husbandry; whereas Babylon, the rival centre of influence, is spiritually barren and as restless as the sea (comp 57:20)
Cup - Babylon was called a golden cup (Jeremiah 51:7), because of her sensuality, luxury, and idolatries which she gave draughts of to the subject nations; so mystical Babylon, the apostate church (Revelation 17:4)
Riblah - Riblah or Riblathah in the land of Hamath, on the high road between Palestine and Babylon, where the Babylonian kings remained in directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia; where Jehoahaz was put in chains by Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:33), and Zedekiah, after seeing his sons slain, had his own eyes put out (Jeremiah 39:5-7; literally, Jeremiah 39:9-10), and other leading captives were slain, probably by the Assyrian death of impaling (Jeremiah 39:24; Jeremiah 39:27), as depicted on the monuments. , and on a mountain stream; an admirable encampment for the Egyptian and Babylonian hosts. From Riblah the roads were open by the Euphrates to Nineveh, or by Palmyra to Babylon, by the S
Sumer - (ssyoo' mehr) One of the two political divisions originally comprising what came to be Babylonia. The Babylonians and other surrounding peoples adapted the cuneiform script to their own languages so that for centuries, cuneiform was the dominant mode of writing in ancient Mesopotamia. , Hammurabi of Babylon united Sumer (the southern division of ancient Babylon) into one empire
Zerubbabel - " The name Zerubbabel has been interpreted both 'dispersed in Babylon,' and 'blessed in Babylon
Armenia - Armenia, which is separated from Aram by Mount Taurus, was so denominated from Ar-Men, the mountainous country of Meni or Minni, the people of which country are mentioned under this name by Jeremiah, when summoning the nations against Babylon. In the flourishing times of Tyre, the Armenians, according to Ezekiel 27:14 , brought horses and mules to the markets of that city; and, according to Herodotus, they had a considerable trade in wine, which they sent down the Euphrates to Babylon, &c
Linen, Linen Cloth, Fine Linen - " This is used of the clothing of the mystic Babylon, Revelation 18:12,16 , and of the suitable attire of the Lamb's wife, 19:8,14, figuratively describing "the righteous acts of the saints. " The presumption of Babylon is conspicuous in that she arrays herself in that which alone befits the bride of Christ
Tradition - 370; and the Gemara of Babylon, A. 500; forming, with the Mishna, the Talmud of Jerusalem and that of Babylon
Nehemiah - The son of Hachaliah was born at Babylon during the captivity. , though perhaps not for the first time, he returned to his post at the court of Babylon, Nehemiah 2:6 5:14 13:6 ; but after a few years, was recalled to Jerusalem to reform certain growing irregularities neglect of the temple service, breaches of the Sabbath, marriages with the heathen, etc
Nebuchadnezzar - The proud position of the king of Babylon among all the kings of that day will best be seen from the words of Daniel who assuredly was no flatterer of great men. After we have read all that the historians and the travellers have to tell us about ancient Babylon, no wonder, we say to ourselves, that Nebuchadnezzar's dreams were the dreams of a magnificent imagination. No wonder that his heart swelled within him with pride: and no wonder that it took a stroke such as God has seldom struck before or since to humble and to abase Nebuchadnezzar, this great king of Babylon. ' Though long dead, King Nebuchadnezzar still speaks in the Book of Daniel, and on a thousand cylinders in the British Museum; and, as on every page of Daniel, so on every brick of Babylon, he that runs may read this evening's text:-'Those that walk in pride the King of heaven is able to abase. Look! your little Nebuchadnezzar cries after you as he pulls your gown, and will not give you peace till you lift up your hands in wonder over his great Babylon with its wonderful doors, and windows, and bridges, and portcullises. Let all fathers and mothers give their best heed to their little Nebuchadnezzar and to his little Babylon which he has built for the honour of his majesty. '...
But, with alt that, I see in my own children every day a far worse kind of pride than any that the big child Nebuchadnezzar shows either in the Book of Daniel, or on the bricks of Babylon. When I put myself into Nebuchadnezzar's place, when I recall my own temper and my own conduct, I honour Nebuchadnezzar, and I cannot cease from wondering that the king of Babylon has not been far more made of as a pattern of humility and meekness both under the dispensations of God and under the doctrines of Daniel. For Babylon was undoubtedly great. No greater city has ever been seen on the face of the earth than Babylon. And if Nebuchadnezzar had not built every single street of it, this, at any rate, he could say, that he had found Babylon a city of brick and had made it a city of marble. For how great are His signs, and how mighty are His wonders! I was walking proudly in my palace in the kingdom of Babylon, and I said, Is not this great Babylon, that I have built for the house of the kingdom by the might of my power, and for the honour of my majesty? And while the word was yet in my mouth, there fell a Voice from heaven, saying, O King Nebuchadnezzar, to thee it is spoken; The kingdom is departed from thee. Look in at that window in Babylon that stands open toward Jerusalem, and you will see Daniel on his knees and on the palms of his hands till all his comeliness is turned to corruption
Nineveh - We are not, however, to imagine that all this vast enclosure was built upon: it contained great parks and extensive fields, and detached houses and buildings, like Babylon, and other great cities of the east even at the present day, as Bussorah, &c. The same number Pliny assigns for the population of Seleucia, on the decline of Babylon. ...
The threatened overthrow of Nineveh within three days, was, by the general repentance and humiliation of the inhabitants, from the highest to the lowest, suspended for near two hundred years, until "their iniquity came to the full;" and then the prophecy was literally accomplished, in the third year of the siege of the city, by the combined Medes and Babylonians; the king, Sardanapalus, being encouraged to hold out in consequence of an ancient prophecy, that Nineveh should never be taken by assault, till the river became its enemy; when a mighty inundation of the river, swollen by continual rains, came up against a part of the city, and threw down twenty stadia of the wall in length; upon which, the king, conceiving that the oracle was accomplished, burned himself, his concubines, eunuchs, and treasures; and the enemy, entering by the breach, sacked and rased the city, about B. Diodorus, also, relates that Belesis, the governor of Babylon. obtained from Arbaces, the king of Media, the ashes of the palace, to erect a mount with them near the temple of Belus at Babylon; and that he forthwith prepared shipping, and, together with the ashes, carried away most of the gold and silver, of which he had private information given him by one of the eunuchs who escaped the fire. Gillies thinks it incredible that these could be transported from Nineveh to Babylon, three hundred miles distant; but likely enough, if Nineveh was only fifty miles from Babylon, with a large canal of communication between them, the Nahar Malka, or Royal River. Tauk Kesra, or the Palace of Chosroes, appears to have been built of bricks brought from the ruins of Babylon; and so was Hellah, as the dimensions are nearly the same, and the proportions so singular. And when such materials could conveniently be transported by inland navigations, they are to be found at very great distances from their ancient place, much farther, indeed, than are Bagdat and Seleucia, or Ctesiphon, from Babylon
Euphrates - At Babylon its width has decreased to 200 yards, with a depth of 15 ft. By this river the East and West carried on mutual commerce during the successive periods of Babylonian and Persian rule. As Babylon represents mystically the apostate church, so the waters of Euphrates, "where the whore sitteth" (in impious parody of Jehovah who "sitteth upon the flood"), represent the "peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues," which were her main support (Revelation 17:15-16). The drying up of Babylon's waters answers to the ten kings' stripping, eating, and burning the whore, which is now being enacted in many European countries (Revelation 16:12). The obstacles which stood in the way of Israel and her king returning, namely, the apostate church (both Rome and the Greek apostasy) and her multitudinous peoples, shall be dried up, her resources being drained off, just as Cyrus marched into Babylon through the dry channel of the Euphrates
Baruch - In the fourth year of the reign of Zedekiah, Baruch went to Babylon, carrying with him a long letter from Jeremiah, in which the Prophet foretold the judgments that should come upon Babylon, and promised the Jews, who were then captives in that country, that they should again be restored to their own land. They were, however, both of them at last compelled to follow the people into Egypt, where Jeremiah soon afterward died; on which Baruch retired to Babylon, where the rabbins say he also died in the twelfth year of the captivity, Jeremiah 36-43
Synagogue, the Great - On the return of the Jews from Babylon, a great council was appointed according to rabbinic tradition, to reorganize the religious life of the people
Slime, - It is first spoken of as used for cement by the builders in the plain of Shinar or Babylonia. 179, tells us of the bitumen found at Is, the modern Heet , a town of Babylonia, eight days journey from Babylon
Ariel - A brave "chief," who directed under Ezra (Ezra 8:16) the caravan from Babylon to Jerusalem
Iddo - Returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:4; Nehemiah 12:12; Nehemiah 12:16)
Obadiah, Book of - The book of Obadiah is largely an announcement of judgment upon Edom for its part in helping Babylon in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC (Obadiah 1:10-14; cf. They even captured the fleeing Jerusalemites and sold them to the Babylonian conquerors (Obadiah 1:14; for map and other details see EDOM)
Gershom - A man who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon to Jerusalem (Ezra 8:2 )
Jehoiarib - But the Talmud makes these professed representatives of the old 24 courses to have been not really descendants from the original heads, except from four of them, Jedaiah, Immer, Pashur, and Harim, for which the Babylonian Talmud has Joiarib (as implied in Ezra 2:36-39; Nehemiah 7:39-42); and that these four were subdivided into six each to make the 24; and that the 24 took the old names (Luke 1:5). Hervey infers that Jehoiarib did return from Babylon, but later than Zerubbabel's time, and that his name was added to the list subsequently
Dial - The sun dial arid the division of the day into 12 hours were Babylonian inventions. Ahaz' intimacy with Tiglath Pileser would naturally lead the "princes of Babylon to inquire of the wonder done in the land," which shows that the miracle of the recession of the shadow on the dial was local, perhaps produced by divinely ordered refraction, a cloud denser than the air being interposed between the gnomon and the "degrees" or "dial
Lydia - His kingdom was captured by Cyrus, who seven years later captured Babylon and freed the exiles
Nebo - Babylonian god of speech, writing, and water. Worship of Nebo was popular during the Neo-Babylonian era (612-539 B. Town reinhabited by exiles returning from Babylon (Ezra 2:29 )
Satyr - Isaiah promised that Babylon would become so desolate the desert-dwelling demons would live in the ruins (Isaiah 13:21 ; compare Isaiah 34:14 )
Seraiah - Chief priest taken into Babylonian Exile in 587 B. ) sent to Babylon with instructions from himself and from Jeremiah (Jeremiah 51:59-64 )
Marble - It is mentioned as part of the merchandise of ‘Babylon,’ i
Side - These two kingdoms were united against Babylon, but the side of the Medes was uppermost
Pharez - Pharez's house was the greatest of the houses of Judah; 468 valiant men of the children of Pharez alone of Judah dwelt in Jerusalem (Nehemiah 11:3-6; 1 Chronicles 9:3-6) after the return from Babylon
Amariah - A priest who returned to Jerusalem from Exile in Babylon with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:2 )
Dial - This kind of dial was invented in Babylon, and was very probably the same as that of Ahaz
Walls - As to the city walls, see Babylon , CITY , and JERUSALEM
Mark or Marcus - He afterwards accompanied Peter also to Babylon
Zerubbabel or Zorobabel - Zerubbabel, as his name imports, was born in Babylon, and was the leader of the first colony of Jews which returned from the Babylonish captivity, 536 B
Pashhur - ‘staying on every side’) but Magormissabib (‘terror [1] round about’), and added that he would die in Babylon ( Jeremiah 20:1-6 )
Divination - A fresh impulse to these superstitions was gained from intercourse with the Chaldeans, during the reign of the later kings of Judah and the captivities in Babylon, 2 Kings 21:6 2 Chronicles 33:6
Dispersion - Some of these were descendants of people who had been taken captive to foreign lands by Assyria, Babylon and other invaders of Palestine
Hebrew Language - For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew language underwent little or no modification. But through intercourse with Damascus, Assyria, and Babylon, from the time of David, and more particularly from the period of the Exile, it comes under the influence of the Aramaic idiom, and this is seen in the writings which date from this period. It was never spoken in its purity by the Jews after their return from Babylon. ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Dispersion - The dispersion included all the twelve tribes, the ten tribes carried away by the Assyrians as well as Judah carried to Babylon, though Judah alone returned to Palestine (James 1:1; Acts 26:7). The difficulties of literally observing the Mosaic ritual, while in Babylon and elsewhere, led them to see that they could be united by a common faith, though unable to meet at the same Jerusalem temple, and that the spirit of the law is the essential thing when the letter is providentially set aside. The three great sections of the dispersion at Christ's coming were the Babylonian, the Syrian, and the Egyptian (including Alexandria where the Grecian element was strongest, and with African offshoots, Cyrene and N
School - Until the Exile in Babylon (586 B. ...
A new stage in Jewish education came about due to the catastrophe of the Babylonian Exile when the upper classes of Judea were transported to Babylon
Jehoiachin - "Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren about the time they were carried away to Babylon," fixing his birth to the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion (2 Kings 24:1), namely, three years after Jehoiakim's accession, and eight before his reign ended and Jehoiachin succeeded; but Matthew's language hardly justifies this; Jeremiah's language implies Jehoiachin was a "man," and capable of having a "child" (2 Kings 22:28; 2 Kings 22:30). ), He had already taken at the first siege of Jerusalem in Jehoiakim's third year part of the vessels of God's house (Daniel 1:1-2; 2 Chronicles 36:7) and put them in the house of his god in Babylon, namely, the smaller vessels of solid gold, basins, goblets, knives, tongs, etc. ...
Jehoiachin wore prison garments for 36 years, until at the death of Nebuchadnezzar, having been for a time sharer of his imprisonment (Jeremiah 52:31-34), "in the 12th month, the 25th day of the month (in 2 Kings 25:27 'the 27th,' the day when the decree for his elevation, given on the 25th, was carried into effect) lifted up the head of Jehoiachin (compare Genesis 40:13-20; Psalms 3:3; Psalms 27:6), and brought him forth out of prison, and spoke kindly unto him, and set his throne above the throne of the kings that were with him in Babylon, and changed his prison garments (for royal robes; compare Zechariah 3:1-5; Luke 15:22), and he did continually eat bread before him all the days of his life (compare 2 Samuel 9:13); and there was a continual diet given him of the king of Babylon, every day its portion (compare margin 1 Kings 8:59) until the day of his death. This Zedekiah is mentioned separately from the other sons of Jehoiachin, Assir and Salathiel, because probably he was not led to Babylon as the other sons, but died in Judea (Keil). ) A party of the captives at Babylon also, through the false prophets, expected restoration with Jehoiachin and Nebuchadnezzar's overthrow. This accounts for the Babylonian king inflicting so terrible a punishment (compare Daniel 3), roasting to death Ahab (Jeremiah 29:4-9; Jeremiah 29:21-23; 2 Kings 24:14)
Zedekiah - But evidently (Jeremiah 27-28) Zedekiah had been secretly plotting before, in his fourth year; in that year he had gone to Babylon to allay Nebuchadnezzar's suspicion (Jeremiah 51:59), and also sent messengers to Babylon (Jeremiah 37:5-11; Jeremiah 34:21; Ezekiel 17:13-20). Zedekiah sent and took him out of prison, and asked, Is there any word from the Lord? to which the prophet, without regard to his personal interests, replied, "there is, for thou shalt be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon. ...
On the ninth day of the fourth month in the middle of July (Josephus) after a year and a half's siege (from the tenth month of the ninth year to the fourth month of the eleventh year of Zedekiah) about midnight a breach was made in the wall The Babylonian princes took their seats in state in the middle gate, between the upper and the lower city. ...
Thus were fulfilled the seemingly inconsistent prophecies, "his eyes shall behold his eyes," Jeremiah 32:4, and Ezekiel 12:13 "he shall not see Babylon, though he shall die there. Son of Maaseiah, a false prophet in Babylon, among the captives with Jeconiah. A proverbial formula of cursing should be taken up by all the captives, "Jehovah make thee like Zedekiah and like Ahab whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire!" (Isaiah 65:15
Isaiah - Thus, Shear-jashub signifies, "a remnant shall return," and showed that the captives who should be carried to Babylon should return thence after a certain time, Isaiah 7:3 ; and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, which denotes, "make speed (or run swiftly ) to the spoil," implied that the kingdoms of Israel and Syria would in a short time be ravaged, Isaiah 8:1 ; Isaiah 8:3 . It is worthy of remark, that no such promises are intermingled with the denunciations of divine vengeance against Babylon, although they occur in the threatenings against every other people. The prophet, after predicting the liberation of the Jews from their severe captivity in Babylon, and their restoration to their own country, Ezekiel 28:1-3 , introduces a chorus of them, expressing their surprise and astonishment at the sudden downfall of Babylon, and the great reverse of fortune that had befallen the tyrant, who, like his predecessors, had oppressed his own, and harassed the neighbouring kingdoms. These illustrious shades rise at once from their couches as from their thrones; and, advancing to the entrance of the cavern to meet the king of Babylon, they insult and deride him on being reduced to the same low state of impotence and dissolution with themselves, Ezekiel 28:10-11 . The Jews now resume the speech, Ezekiel 28:12 ; they address the king of Babylon as the morning star fallen from heaven, as the first in splendour and dignity, in the political world fallen from his high state: they introduce him as uttering the most extravagant vaunts of his power and ambitious designs in his former glory; these are strongly contrasted, in the close, with his present low and abject condition, Ezekiel 28:13-15 . Certain persons are introduced, who light upon the corpse of the king of Babylon, cast out and lying naked upon the bare ground, among the common slain, just after the taking of the city, covered with wounds, and so disfigured, that it is some time before they know him. To complete the whole, God is introduced, declaring the fate of Babylon; the utter extirpation of the royal family, and the total desolation of the city; the deliverance of his people, and the destruction of their enemies; confirming the irreversible decree by the awful sanction of his oath, Ezekiel 28:21-26 . How forcible, says Bishop Lowth, is this imagery, how diversified, how sublime! How elevated the diction, the figures, the sentiments! The Jewish nation, the cedars of Lebanon, the ghosts of departed kings, the Babylonish monarch, the travellers who find his corpse, and last of all Jehovah himself, are the characters which support this beautiful lyric drama
Gold - ...
In Daniel 2:38 , the Babylonian Empire is spoken of as a "head of gold" because of its great riches; and Babylon was called by (Isaiah 14:4 ) the "golden city" (RSV marg
Kabzeel - On its reoccupation after the return from Babylon it was called Jekabzeel (Nehemiah 11:25, where "its hamlets," Hebrew, are spoken of, namely, outlying pastoral settlements)
Nergal - Nimrod deified, "the mighty hunter before the Lord," from whom naturally the kings of Babylon and Nineveh would claim descent
Usury - ...
Nehemiah (Nehemiah 5:3-13) denounces the usurious exactions of some after the return from Babylon; he put a stop to the practice
Frontlets - But soon after their return from Babylon they began to interpret this injunction literally, and had accordingly portions of the law written out and worn about their person
Day - The Jews learned from the Babylonians the division of the day into twelve parts (John 11:9). Ahaz introduced the sun dial from Babylon (Isaiah 38:8)
Eliashib - A descendant of David in Judah after the return from Exile in Babylon (1 Chronicles 3:24 )
Ur - Ur, Kish, and Uruk were three important population centers in Sumerian and Babylonian civilization. and was important in Sumerian, Babylonian, and neo-Babylonian cultures. See Abraham ; Babylon ; Chaldees ; Mesopotamia ; Sumeria
Mule - the mules on the return from Babylon amounted to 245; but the horses about three times as many, 736; so that the mule was then, as we find in the Greek classics, rarer and more precious
Uz - Ptolemy mentions the Aesitae (related to "Uz") as in the northern part of Arabia Deserta, near Babylon and the Euphrates
Magi - The magi who greeted Jesus' birth may have been from Babylon, Persia, or the Arabian desert
Pain (And Forms) - ...
Jeremiah 51:8 (a) The sorrows of Babylon which overtook her when the Medio-Persian empire conquered her caused untold sorrow inside that magnificent city
Jehoiakim - For four years Jehoiakim was subject to Egypt, when Nebuchadnezzar, after a short siege, entered Jerusalem, took the king prisoner, and bound him in fetters to carry him to Babylon
Eunuch - ...
One of the things prophesied against Israel was that their sons should be made eunuchs in the palace of the king of Babylon
Remphan - " The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth; and the men of Cush made Nergal; and the men of Hamath made Ashima; and the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak; and the Sepharvites burnt their children in the fire to Adrammelech, and Anammalach, the gods of Sepharvaim
Seal - Clay hardens in the heat, and was therefore used in Assyria and Babylon rather than wax, which melts
Accad - of Babylon about 33 25' N, 44 15' E, called Akker-koof, and known to the Arabs as Akker-i-Nimrood or Tell-Nimrood. An inscription has been found showing the Accadian transition from the hieroglyphic to the wedge-shape letters; and others with the latter interlined with the Babylonian or Assyrian dialect. The Accadian was the principal dialect spoken by the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia, and in which some of their ancient legends are inscribed
a'sa - ...
Ancestor of Berechiah a Levite who resided in one of the villages of the Netophathites after the return from Babylon
Epoch - 1027; the end of the Babylonish captivity, B. 747; the reign of Cyrus at Babylon, B
Candlestick, - ( 1 Kings 7:49 ; 2 Chronicles 4:7 ) They were taken to Babylon
Naked, Nakedness - A — 1: γυμνός (Strong's #1131 — Adjective — gumnos — goom-nos' ) signifies (a) "unclothed," Mark 14:52 ; in Matthew 14:51 it is used as a noun ("his" and "body" being italicized); (b) "scantily or poorly clad," Matthew 25:36,38,43,44 ; Acts 19:16 (with torn garments); James 2:15 ; (c) "clad in the undergarment only" (the outer being laid aside), John 21:7 (see CLOTHING); (d) metaphorically, (1) of "a bare seed," 1 Corinthians 15:37 ; (2) of "the soul without the body," 2 Corinthians 5:3 ; (3) of "things exposed to the all-seeing eye of God," Hebrews 4:13 ; (4) of "the carnal condition of a local church," Revelation 3:17 ; (5) of "the similar state of an individual," Revelation 16:15 ; (b) of "the desolation of religious Babylon," Revelation 17:16
Hashabi'ah - ...
A Merarite Levite who accompanied Ezra from Babylon
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - or simply THE DISPERSION, was the general title applied to those Jews who remained settled in foreign countries after the return from the Babylonian exile, and during the period of the second temple. At the beginning of the Christian era the Dispersion was divided into three great sections, the Babylonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian. From Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, Media and Parthia
Candlestick, - ( 1 Kings 7:49 ; 2 Chronicles 4:7 ) They were taken to Babylon
Cush - Some Bible students identify Cush here with the Kassites, the successors to the old Babylonian empire, who controlled Babylon between about 1530,1151 B. Such students connect this with Genesis 10:8 , where Cush is associated with Nimrod, whose kingdom centered in Babylon (Genesis 10:10 )
Babel, Tower of - (See BABEL; Babylon. The Birs Nimrud was probably its site, and gives an idea of its construction, being the best specimen of a Babylonian temple tower. 9:14-15, preserves the Babylonian tradition. "Not long after the flood men were so puffed up with their strength and stature that they began to despise the gods, and labored to erect the tower now called Babylon, intending thereby to settle heaven. The character of the language in the earliest Babylonian monuments, as far back as 2800 B
Darius - On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. It was not found at Babylon, but at Achmetha (Ezra 6:2 ); and Darius forthwith issued a new decree, giving the Jews full liberty to prosecute their work, at the same time requiring the Syrian satrap and his subordinates to give them all needed help
Carchemish - At the very end of the Assyrian period, when Nebuchadrezzar was incorporating all former Assyrian territory within the new Babylonian Empire, Pharaoh Neco II of Egypt came to Carchemish to try to save the remnants of the Assyrian army. He hoped to preserve a weak Assyria as a buffer between him and a strong and aggressive Babylon. This victory gave Babylon authority over all of western Asia within the next few years; for this reason it ranks as one of the most decisive battles of all time. The city of Carchemish appears to have declined after the Babylonian period of power, for references to it cease
Apries - Jeremiah threatened this prince with being delivered into the hands of his enemies, as he had delivered Zedekiah, king of Judah, into the hands of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. Apries advanced with a powerful army; and the king of Babylon raised the siege, and marched to meet him
Mark (John) - Peter speaks of a Mark as his ‘son’ ( 1 Peter 5:13 ), and as being with him at ‘Babylon’ when he wrote the First Epistle. It is usually held that ‘Babylon’ means Rome, as there seems not to have been a Jewish colony in the real Babylon at the time, and as all ecclesiastical tradition connects St
Hezekiah - The king of Babylon having been informed of his sickness and recovery, sent ambassadors to congratulate him on his restoration: an honour with which the heart of Hezekiah was greatly elated; and, to testify his gratitude, he made a pompous display to them of all his treasures, his spices, and his rich vessels: and concealed from them nothing that was in his palace. In all this the pride of Hezekiah was gratified; and to humble him, Isaiah was sent to declare to him that his conduct was displeasing to God, and that a time should come when all the treasures of which he had made so vain a display should be removed to Babylon, and even his sons be made eunuchs to serve in the palace of the king of Babylon
Jeshua - First high priest of the third series, namely, that which succeeded the Babylonian captivity; ancestor of the 14 high priests down to Joshua (or Jason) and Onias (or Menelaus). Came from Babylon in Cyrus' first year; took part in rebuilding the temple; first of all restored the altar and daily sacrifice, then in the second month of the second year of the return from Babylon laid the foundation of the temple (Ezra 3). A town reinhabited by the people of Judah on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:26)
Mourning - Reference is made to several of these customs in the description given in Revelation 18 of the mourning over the destruction of Babylon. Babylon in her strength boasts, ‘No widow am I, and shall in no wise see mourning’ (Revelation 18:7). The representation changes-widowed Babylon is herself mourned for by others (Revelation 18:8-19); see 1
Belshazzar - the last king of Babylon, and, according to Hales and others, the grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel 5:18 . During the period that the Jews were in captivity at Babylon, a variety of singular events concurred to prove that the sins which brought desolation on their country, and subjected them for a period of seventy years to the Babylonish yoke, had not dissolved that covenant relation which, as the God of Abraham, Jehovah had entered into with them; and that any act of indignity perpetrated against an afflicted people, or any insult cast upon the service of their temple, would be regarded as an affront to the Majesty of heaven, and not suffered to pass with impunity, though the perpetrators were the princes and potentates of the earth. Isaiah, who represents the Babylonian dynasty as "the scourge of Palestine," styles Nebuchadnezzar "a serpent," Evil Merodach "a cockatrice," and Belshazzar "a fiery flying serpent," the worst of all, Isaiah 14:4-29 . If the character of the hand-writing was known to the Magi of Babylon, the meaning could not be conjectured. See Babylon
Guard - tabbah (properly a "cook," and in a secondary sense "executioner," because this office fell to the lot of the cook in Eastern countries), the bodyguard of the kings of Egypt (Genesis 37:36 ) and Babylon (2 Kings 25:8 ; Jeremiah 40:1 ; Daniel 2:14 )
Dedan - Nabonidus, king of Babylon (556-539), left control of his kingdom to his son Belshazzar and worked in Arabia for a period, controlling Dedan among other cities
Elam - ) lying to the east of Babylonia, and extending to the shore of the Mediterranean, a distance in a direct line of about 1,000 miles. " "The inhabitants of Elam, or 'the Highlands,' to the east of Babylon, were called Elamites. The race to which they belonged was brachycephalic, or short-headed, like the pre-Semitic Sumerians of Babylonia. Babylonia was frequently invaded by the Elamite kings, who at times asserted their supremacy over it (as in the case of Chedorlaomer, the Kudur-Lagamar, or 'servant of the goddess Lagamar,' of the cuneiform texts)
Obadiah - ...
...
One who accompanied Ezra on the return from Babylon (Ezra 8:9 )
Nebo - ...
...
The "children of Nebo" (Ezra 2:29 ; Nehemiah 7:33 ) were of those who returned from Babylon
Samaritans - 677), the king of Assyria, brought from Babylon and other places and settled in the cities of Samaria, instead of the original inhabitants whom Sargon (B
Tadmor - " Solomon fixed on the site, an oasis in the desert which lies between Palestine and Babylonia, as the commercial entrepot between Jerusalem and Babylon
Nethaneel - roA priest and son of Pashur who had married a foreign wife while exiled in Babylon (Ezra 10:22 )
Silk - Silk, the fibrous substance produced by the mulberry silk-moth of China, is mentioned (Revelation 18:12) as part of the costly merchandise of ‘Babylon’ (Imperial Rome)
Daniel - A priest who accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem ( Ezra 8:2 , Nehemiah 10:6 )
Fan - Babylon is conquered and scattered by her enemies
Gentiles, Times of the - Three other empires succeeded that of Babylon, and the times of the Gentiles still continue, under various phases of government
Thresh - ...
Jeremiah 51:33 (a) The time to destroy Babylon had come
Pashur - On the following day Jeremiah, when brought out of the stocks, foretold that he should be not Pashur but Magor-Missabib, a terror to himself and his friends; he and all in his house, and all his friends to whom he had "prophesied lies" (Jeremiah 5:31; Jeremiah 18:18), should go into captivity and die in Babylon
Hananiah - He prophesied that God would break the yoke of the king of Babylon within two years
Urim And Thummim - On the return of the Jews from Babylon some, who claimed to be priests but could not show their genealogy, were not allowed to eat of the holy things until there should stand up a priest with Urim and Thummim, and an answer be obtained from God
Ambush - He also called for ambushes to defeat Babylon (Jeremiah 51:12 )
Depart - 11:2, where nâsa‛ refers to the “migration” (RSV) of people to the area of Babylon
Martyr - The 'two witnesses ' in Revelation 11 will also be martyrs, and Babylon the Great is charged with being drunken "with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus
Alexan'Der Iii - 325, and proceeded to Babylon B
Violence, Violent, Violently - ...
A — 2: ὅρμημα (Strong's #3731 — Noun Neuter — hormema — hor'-may-mah ) "a rush" (akin to hormao, "to urge on, to rush"), is used of the fall of Babylon, Revelation 18:21 , AV, "violence," RV, "mighty fall
Babel - The captive Jews at Babylon imagined they recognized it, however, in the famous temple of Belus, which some identify with the temple of Nebo at Borsippa, the modern Birs Nimrûd
Jehiel - Father of man who returned with Ezra to Jerusalem from Babylon (Ezra 8:9 )
Syria - ...
The valley between the ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon was called Coele-Syria and Phoenicia were subject to the king of Babylon, and they afterwards were tributary to the Persian monarchs
Stone - Revelation 18:21 (see MILLSTONE); (e) the "tables (or tablets)" of the Law, 2 Corinthians 3:7 ; (f) "idol images," Acts 17:29 ; (g) the "treasures" of commercial Babylon, Revelation 18:12,16 ; (II) metaphorically, of (a) Christ, Romans 9:33 ; 1 Peter 2:4,6,8 ; (b) believers, 1 Peter 2:5 ; (c) spiritual edification by scriptural teaching, 1 Corinthians 3:12 ; (d) the adornment of the foundations of the wall of the spiritual and heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:19 ; (e) the adornment of the seven angels in Revelation 15:6 , RV (so the best texts; some have linon, "linen," AV); (f) the adornment of religious Babylon, Revelation 17:4 ; (III) figuratively, of Christ, Revelation 4:3 ; 21:11 , where "light" stands for "Light-giver" (phoster)
Zerubbabel - ("dispersed to Babylon". ...
At Babylon he bore the Babylonian or Persian name Shesh-bazzar, being governor or tirshatha there (Nehemiah 8:9; Nehemiah 10:1; Ezra 1:8-11; Ezra 5:14-16; Nehemiah 7:65). To him Cyrus, by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, had committed the precious vessels of the temple to bring to Jerusalem; at the same time he, Zerubbabel, with the chief of the fathers, the priests, and the Levites whose spirit God had raised, led back from Babylon the first caravan, consisting of 42,360 besides servants, etc. ...
They used the same psalm of praise, "because Jehovah is good, for His mercy endureth forever toward Israel" (Psalms 136:1; 2 Chronicles 5:13; 1 Chronicles 16:7-34), as David had delivered to Asaph for public liturgy, and as Solomon had used at the dedication of His temple; making use also probably of the same style of instrument, to some extent affected by their Babylonian and Assyrian experience. what are the names of the men that make this building?" and reported their answer to Darius, and requested that search should be made at Babylon for the alleged decree of Cyrus in their favor
Assyria - The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian masters. 705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13 ; 19:37 ; Isaiah 7:17,18 ); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 ). From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan ( 2 Kings 20:12 ), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (B. (See NINEVEH; Babylon
Mark, John - At his death Mark joined his old father in the faith, Peter, at Babylon. 6) that Mark was Peter's companion at Rome arose from misunderstanding "Babylon" (1 Peter 5:13) to be Rome. Babylon was the center from which the Asiatic dispersion whom Peter (1 Peter 1:1-2) addresses was derived
Pashur - He was carried captive to Babylon, and died there
Zephaniah - He, along with some other captive Jews, was put to death by the king of Babylon "at Riblah in the land of Hamath" (2 Kings 25:21 )
Nehemiah, Book of - ...
An account of the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem, and of the register Nehemiah had found of those who had returned from Babylon (ch
Babel, Tower of - " In the Babylonian tablets there is an account of this event, and also of the creation and the deluge. ) The Temple of Belus, which is supposed to occupy its site, is described by the Greek historian Herodotus as a temple of great extent and magnificence, erected by the Babylonians for their god Belus. ...
The Birs Nimrud, at ancient Borsippa, about 7 miles south-west of Hillah, the modern town which occupies a part of the site of ancient Babylon, and 6 miles from the Euphrates, is an immense mass of broken and fire-blasted fragments, of about 2,300 feet in circumference, rising suddenly to the height of 235 feet above the desert-plain, and is with probability regarded as the ruins of the tower of Babel
Remphan - ) Ken is related to Khem, the Egyptian god of productiveness, Remphan and Chiun answer to the Phoenician Baal and Astarte or Ashtoreth (Mylitta of Babylon)
Paradise - Earthly cities, Nineveh, Babylon, and Thebes, rested on mere force; Athens and Corinth on intellect, art, and refinement, divorced from morality; Tyre on gain; even Jerusalem on religious privileges more than on love, truth, righteousness, and holiness of heart before God
Jehoiachin - And if this be the meaning, it was literally fulfilled; for Salathiel was born in Babylon, and so was his son Zorobabel
Manasseh - For his shocking idolatries, tyranny, and cruelties, God suffered him to be carried as a prisoner to Babylon in the twenty-second year of his reign, probably by Esarhaddon king of Assyria
Saint Thomas Christians - Up to 496 it is certain that all the bishops were Catholic; from then the prelates came from Babylon, but for a long time the Thomas Christians were deprived of bishops, and when finally that patriarchate sent them priests and prelates, these must have been Nestorians, whom the people, in their anxiety for a hierarchy, unquestionably accepted, doubtless unaware that the Nestorian heresy existed
Jeho-i'Akim - For four years Jehoiakim was subject toi Egypt, when Nebuchadnezzar, after a short siege, entered Jerusalem, took the king prisoner, bound him in fetters to carry him to Babylon, and took also some of the precious vessels of the temple and carried them to the land of Shinar
Beersheba - Centuries later, when the Jews reconstructed their nation after the captivity in Babylon, Beersheba again became an important settlement
Elam - bank of the Tigris, opposite Babylonia, between it on the W. Chedorlaomer who invaded Palestine in Abraham's time (Genesis 14) was king of Elam, and then lord paramount over Amraphel, king of Shinar (Babylonia) on its confines. Discoveries in Elam prove Susa one of the oldest cities in the East and its monarchs quasiindependent, while acknowledging Assyria's and Babylon's successive supremacy. It was a province of Babylonia from Nebuchadnezzar's time (Daniel 8:2). Elam took part in destroying Babylon, on Cyrus' advance probably joining him in the assault (Isaiah 21:2). Children of Elam, 1,254, returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (Ezra 2:7; Nehemiah 7:12)
Drink, Drank - , whether literally (most frequently), or figuratively, (a) of "drinking" of the blood of Christ, in the sense of receiving eternal life, through His death, John 6:53,54,56 ; (b) of "receiving" spiritually that which refreshes, strengthens and nourishes the soul, John 7:37 ; (c) of "deriving" spiritual life from Christ, John 4:14 , as Israel did typically, 1 Corinthians 10:4 ; (d) of "sharing" in the sufferings of Christ humanly inflicted, Matthew 20:22,23 ; Mark 10:38,39 ; (e) of "participating" in the abominations imparted by the corrupt religious and commercial systems emanating from Babylon, Revelation 18:3 ; (f) of "receiving" Divine judgment, through partaking unworthily of the Lord's Supper, 1 Corinthians 11:29 ; (g) of "experiencing" the wrath of God, Revelation 14:10 ; 16:6 ; (h) of the earth's "receiving" the benefits of rain, Hebrews 6:7 . ...
B — 3: ποτίζω (Strong's #4222 — Verb — potizo — pot-id'-zo ) "to give to drink, to make to drink," is used (a) in the material sense, in Matthew 10:42 ; 25:35,37,42 (here of "ministering" to those who belong to Christ and thus doing so virtually to Him); 27:48; Mark 9:41 ; 15:36 ; Luke 13:15 ("to watering"); Romans 12:20 ; 1 Corinthians 3:7,8 ; (b) figuratively, with reference to "teaching" of an elementary character, 1 Corinthians 3:2 , "I fed (you with milk);" of "spiritual watering by teaching" the Word of God, 1 Corinthians 3:6 ; of being "provided" and "satisfied" by the power and blessing of the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 12:13 ; of the effect upon the nations of "partaking" of the abominable mixture, provided by Babylon, of paganism with details of the Christian faith, Revelation 14:8
Rama - road between Jerusalem and Bethel; Rama where Nebuzaradan gathered the captive Jews to take them to Babylon. Re-occupied by Benjamin on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:33)
Captivity - " This is a region much farther east, where they would be far removed from their brethren in Assyria and from Judah, who were afterwards carried to Babylon. Zedekiah was left as a vassal of Babylon
Antichrist - The destruction of Babylon is to be followed by the rule of Antichrist for a short period, Revelation 17:10, to be in his turn overthrown in "the battle of that great day of God Almighty," Revelation 16:14, with the false prophet and all his followers. All that the dark bints of the apostles teach us is, that they regarded Antichrist as a power whose influence was beginning to be felt even in their time, but whose full development was reserved till the passing away of the principle which hindered it, and the destruction of the power symbolized by the mystical Babylon
Nineveh - and grandson of Belus founder of Babylon; which implies that it was from Babylon, as Scripture says, that Nineveh's founder came. Babylon had a circuit of only 385 miles (Clitarchus in Diod. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests around. , finally succeeded in concert with the Babylonian Nabopolassar, 606 B. the rest is nothing!" The language of its inscriptions is Semitic, for the main population was a colony of Asshur, son of Shem; and besides the prevalent Semitic a Turanian dialect has been found on tablets at Koyunjik, derived from its original Cushite founder Nimrod of Babylon and his band. Tiglath-i-nin his son inscribes himself" conqueror of Babylon"; Sargon finally conquered it. Then Asshurdahil, Mutaggil Nebo, Asshur-ris-ilim (conqueror of a Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon), Tiglath Pileser I (subdued Meshech), Asshur-belkala; a blank of two centuries follows when David's and Solomon's extensive dominion has place. Then Shamas-Iva, Iralush IV and his wife Semiramis, a Babylonian princess, Shalmaneser III, Asshur-danin-il II, Asshur-lush. Esarhaddon succeeded, as he styles himself "king of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Meroe, and Ethiopia;" or Asnapper; he imprisoned Manasseh. in Assyria, Babylonia, and eastern Persia. of Babylon. The Chaldaean Nestorians in the Kurdistan mountains and the villages near Mosul are the sole representatives of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Isaiah - Babylon fell, 689 B. Political parties were advocating relations with Egypt, Babylonia, Ethiopia. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel. The remaining 19 chapters foretell that Cyrus will liberate Israel from Babylonia, the sufferings of the Messias, and His Kingdom
Isaias - Babylon fell, 689 B. Political parties were advocating relations with Egypt, Babylonia, Ethiopia. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel. The remaining 19 chapters foretell that Cyrus will liberate Israel from Babylonia, the sufferings of the Messias, and His Kingdom
Seleucus - Seleucus I , ( Nikator ), originally a cavalry officer of Alexander the Great, became satrap of Babylon on the death of the king
Sargon - ), who kept him at bay for twelve years, out of Babylon, which he entered in triumph
Jozabad - Priest who witnessed transfer of gold Ezra's party brought from Babylon to the Temple in Jerusalem (Ezra 8:33 ), though a Hebrew manuscript reads Jonadab here
Cost, Costliness, Costly - 3, below), is connected with time, "honor, price," and used in Revelation 18:19 , in reference to Babylon
Boaz - The pillars, which were hollow, were broken up and carried to Babylon at the fall of Jerusalem before Nebuchadnezzar
Pool - " The "pools" spoken of in Isaiah 14:23 are the marshes caused by the ruin of the canals of the Euphrates in the neighbourhood of Babylon
Azekah - The tribe of Judah occupied it in Nehemiah's day (Nehemiah 11:30 ), after it had been one of the last cities to fall to Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 588 B
Molten Sea - , the basin was broken in pieces and taken to Babylon (2 Kings 25:13 ; Jeremiah 52:17 )
Lachish - Lachish and Azekah were the last cities to stand against the king of Babylon ( Jeremiah 34:7 )
Banner - The prophet Isaiah used the term in reference to a signal God would raise against Babylon as a warning of impending destruction (Isaiah 13:2 )
Feet (Under) - This truth is to be seen in the case of the King of Babylon whom GOD described as His "battle ax" to subdue the nations. Having accomplished this purpose, GOD destroyed the Babylonian empire
Gershom - A descendant of Phinehas, one of the ‘heads of houses’ who went up with Ezra from Babylon in the reign of Artaxerxes ( Ezra 8:2 )
Gemara - There are two gemaras, or two Talmuds, that of Jerusalem, and that of Babylon. The Babylonish gemara is, as the rabbins say, more modern
Ezekiel - He was a member of a community of Jewish exiles who settled on the banks of the Chebar, a "river" of Babylonia. He is reputed to have been murdered in Babylon, and his tomb, said to have been built by Jehoiachin, is shown, a few days' journey from Bagdad
Zechariah - He was born in Babylon, and was both a priest and a prophet
Molten Sea - , the basin was broken in pieces and taken to Babylon (2 Kings 25:13 ; Jeremiah 52:17 )
Jeremiah - That monarch released him, and offered him a home in Babylon; but he chose to remain with the remnant of the Jews, and was carried by them before long into Egypt, B
Pash'ur - For this indignity to God's prophet Pashur was told by Jeremiah that his name was changed to Magor-missabib (terror on every side ) and that he and all his house should be carried captives to Babylon and there die
Architecture - " To the race of Shem is attributed (Genesis 10:11,12,22 ; 11:2-9 ) the foundation of those cities in the plain of Shinar, Babylon Nineveh and others
Elam - He settled in a highland district east of Babylonia, which became the seat of a powerful monarchy. In Isaiah 21:2-10 Elam and Media were to destroy Babylon
Alexander - on the face of the whole earth and not touching the ground (implying the incredible swiftness of his conquests); and the goat had A NOTABLE HORN (Alexander) between his eyes, and he came to the ram that had two horns (Media and Persia, the second great world kingdom, the successor of Babylon; under both Daniel prophesied long before the rise of the Macedon-Greek kingdom) standing before the river (at the river Granicus Alexander gained his first victory over Darius Codomanus, 334 B. " The Graeco-Macedonian empire was in full strength at Alexander's death by fever, the result of drunken excesses, at Babylon. obtained Syria, Babylonia, Mede-Persia; Cassander in the W. Hence the leopard has four wings, whereas the lion (Babylon) had but two. It accords with Alexander's character of believing himself divinely chosen for the great mission of Greece to the civilized world, to join the east and west in a union of equality, with Babylon as the capital
Chronicles, Books of - When the people of the southern kingdom were taken into captivity by Babylon (605-582 BC), they remained together in Babylon and retained their national identity. It was people of this latter group who began returning to Palestine after Persia’s conquest of Babylon in 539 BC. Though he traces the history of the nation from the time of its first king, Saul, to the time of the captivity in Babylon, he mentions Saul only briefly and says little about the northern kingdom. ...
Babylon’s destruction of Jerusalem and the subsequent captivity are recorded, but with little detail
Isaiah - ...
(8) The historical section (Isaiah 36-39) as to Sennacherib, Assyria, and Babylon, forms the fitting appendix to the prophecies concerning Assyria mainly, and the preface to the latter portion of the book, concerning the deliverance from Babylon. The prophet further announced to Hezekiah that all his treasures which he had ostentatiously shown to the Babylonian ambassadors should be carried off to that very land, and his descendants be made eunuchs in the Babylonian king's palace, the world on which Judah rested instead of on God being made her scourger. ...
The history of the deliverance from Assyria, accomplished according to the previous prophecy, was the pledge that the far off deliverance from Babylon also, because foretold, would surely come to pass. The fulfillment of his past prophecies constituted the prophet's credentials to the unborn generation on which the Babylonian captivity should fall, that they might securely trust his word. For the law of prophetical suggestion carried him on to the greater deliverance from the spiritual Babylon and the God-opposed world power and Satan, by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah, the Saviour of the present elect church gathered from Jews and Gentiles, and the Restorer of Israel and Head of the worldwide kingdom yet to come. ...
Even in the former part Babylon's downfall through Elamite and Persian assailants is twice foretold (Isaiah 13 and Isaiah 21). He is no longer the godly politician taking part in public life in vindication of the truth, but is far away in the spirit amidst the Babylonian exiles whom he cheers. "...
(9) Isaiah 40 - Isaiah 48:22;...
(10) Isaiah 49-57;...
(11) Isaiah 58-66, which exchanges the previous refrain for the awful one that with moving pathos describes the apostates' final doom, "their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched, and they shall be an abhorring to all flesh!"...
The first of the three concerns the outward deliverance from Babylon by Cyrus. The contemporary Micah (Micah 4:8-10) foretells the same exile in Babylon and the return from it, so that it is no objection to the genuineness of Isaiah 40-66, that herein Isaiah passes from Assyria to the restoration from Babylon much more than a century later. ...
Moses' general prophecy (Leviticus 26:33; Deuteronomy 28:64) had assumed more definiteness in Ahijah's specification of the direction of the exile, "beyond the river," in Jeroboam's time 1 Kings 14:15), and Amos 5:27, "beyond Damascus"; and now the place is defined, Babylon. The former part ends with the Babylonian exile (Isaiah 39:6); the latter part begins with the deliverance from it, to remove the deep gloom which the prophecy of the captivity caused to all who looked for redemption in Israel. On the other hand Isaiah announces the captivity in Babylon when as yet it was but a secondrate power and moreover in alliance with Judah, and further the return of the exiles. " Blunt (Undesigned Coincidences) notices the absence of such allusions as one in the Babylonian captivity would have made and the presence of allusions to idolatry which had almost no place in Judah after the captivity. Israel in the Babylonian exile, suffering as God's representative amidst pagan conquerors, is viewed as "the servant of Jehovah"; but as the mass of Jews were suffering for their sins the idea of "servant of Jehovah" limited itself to the elect, the holy seed of Israel's future. Babylon was then under Assyria
Ahab - A false prophet, who seduced the Israelites at Babylon, and was denounced by Jeremiah, Jeremiah 29:21,22
Mortar And Pestle - ...
In Babylon, when a house was built, the seller handed the pestle of the house-mortar to the purchaser, in token of the conveyance of the house to its new owner
Cornerstone - Jeremiah declared that Babylon would be so utterly devastated that nothing useful would remain, not even a stone for use in a foundation (Jeremiah 51:26 )
Virgin - Israel ( Jeremiah 18:13 , Amos 5:2 ), Zion ( 2 Kings 19:21 , Lamentations 2:13 ), Babylon ( Isaiah 47:1 ), Egypt ( Jeremiah 46:11 )
Table, Tablet - ; works on Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt in general; allusions in Ramsay’s Letters to the Seven Churches
Mark - At a later period he was with Peter in Babylon (1 Peter 5:13 ), then, and for some centuries afterwards, one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second imprisonment (2 Timothy 4:11 )
Ashdod - ...
In Nehemiah's time Ashdod still retained its distinctive language and race, and ensnared by marriages the Jews returned from Babylon, after vainly striving to prevent the walls of Jerusalem being built (Nehemiah 4:7-8; Nehemiah 13:23-24). an alien; perhaps referring to an Arabian occupation of it during the Babylonian exile
Embroider - Babylon was early famed for garments of varied color attracting the eye, such as Achan coveted (Joshua 7:21)
Bear - Daniel 7:5; "it raised up itself on one side," lying on one of its fore feet and standing on the other; a figure still to be seen in Babylonian monuments, but see margin. It had three ribs in its mouth, namely, it seized on Babylon, Lydia, and Egypt
Meshullam - A son of Berechiah, he helped Nehemiah repair the walls around Jerusalem following the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 3:4 )
Idumaea - ...
After the fall of Babylon the pressure of the desert Arabs forced the Edomites across the Jordan-Arabah valley, and the people and name were extended westward
Dragon - The second term has four possible uses: (1) “great sea monster” (KJV, “great whales”) in the sense of a large sea creature (Genesis 1:21 ; Psalm 148:7 ), possibly a whale; this sense of tannin as created being may serve as a correction of sense 4; (2) a snake ( Exodus 7:9-10 ,Exodus 7:9-10,7:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Psalm 91:13 ); (3) a crocodile (Jeremiah 51:34 ; Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:3 ); here the beast is used as a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon or the Egyptian Pharaoh; (4) a mythological sea monster symbolic of the forces of chaos and evil in opposition to God's creative and redemptive work (Psalm 74:12-14 ; Job 7:12 ; Job 26:12-13 ; Isaiah 27:1 ; Isaiah 51:9-10 )
Shu'Shan, - In the time of Daniel Susa was in the possession of the Babylonians, to whom Elam had probably passed at the division of the Assyrian empire made by Cyaxares and Nabopolassar. ( Daniel 8:2 ) The conquest of Babylon by Cyrus transferred Susa to the Persian dominion; and it was not long before the Achaemenian princes determined to make it the capital of their whole empire and the chief place of their own residence
Chedorlaomer - In the 13th they revolted, whereupon he, with his subordinate allies, the kings of Shinar (Babylonia), and Ellasar, and Tidal, "king of nations" (Median Scyths, belonging to the old population) smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzims in Ham, the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, the Horites in mount Seir, the Amalekites, and the Amorites in Hazezon Tamar; and finally encountered and defeated the five allied kings in the vale of Siddim. A recently deciphered record states that an Elamite king, Kudur-Nakhunta, conquered Babylon about 2290 B. Babylonian documents of the age 2200-2100 B. There is mentioned among the Babylonian kings one who held his court at Ur in Lower Chaldaea, an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabuk (or Chedorlaomer; Lagomer being an Elamite goddess of which Mabuk is the Hamitic name). " He did not establish a lasting empire over Syria, as his Assyrian and Babylonian successors, but was simply its "ravager," exactly as the Bible represents him
Chain - Daniel was given by Belshazzar a chain of gold about his neck, a token of investiture as "the third ruler in the kingdom" of Babylon (Daniel 5:7; Daniel 5:29)
Dream - The revelation of God's will in dreams is characteristic of the early and less perfect patriarchal times (Genesis 28:12; Genesis 31:24; Genesis 37:5-10); to Solomon, 1 Kings 3:5, in commencing his reign; the beginnings of the New Testament dispensation (Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 2:22); and the communications from God to the rulers of the pagan world powers, Philistia, Egypt, Babylon (Genesis 20:3; Genesis 40:5; Genesis 41:1); Elihu, Job 33:15; Daniel 2; Daniel 4:5, etc
Liver - In Ezekiel 21:21 the king of Babylon, at the parting of the way, ‘looked in the liver’ as one of the three forms of divination he employed
Ezra - " He was among the captives in Babylon, and by his own request was permitted to return to Palestine
Alexander the Great - He returned to Babylon, where he died in 323 B
Foul - Babylon - the hold of every foul spirit
Hezekiah - Hezekiah's sickness, humiliation, and prolongation of life 15 years in peace, and the prediction that Babylon, then feeble and friendly, would one day carry his descendants into captivity are noticed in Old Testament history, Isaiah 39:1-8; Micah 4:10
Aramean - (ar uh mee' an) consisted of the loose confederation of towns and settlements spread over what is now called Syria as well as in some parts of Babylon from which Jacob and Abraham came (Deuteronomy 26:5 )
Abednego - And Nego most probably was one of the dunghill idols of Babylon
Medes, Media - They conquered Babylon and Asia Minor
Sleep - Jeremiah 51:39 , threatens Babylon, in the name of the Lord, with a perpetual sleep, out of which they shall not awake
Myrtle - The apocryphal Baruch, 5:8, speaking of the return from Babylon, expresses the protection afforded by God to the people by the same image: "Even the woods and every sweet-smelling tree shall overshadow Israel by the commandment of God
Abijah - A priest who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon
Temple - The most celebrated of the ancient pagan temples were that of Belus in Babylon, that of Vulcan at Memphis, that of Jupiter at Thebes, that of Diana at Ephesus, that of Apollo in Miletus,that of Jupiter Olympius in Athens, and that of Apollo at Delphi
Euphra'Tes - On its banks stood the city of Babylon; the army of Necho was defeated on its banks by Nebuchadnezzar; Cyrus the Younger and Crassus perished after crossing it; Alexander crossed it, and Trajan and Severus descended it
Mother - , of Christians, the metropolis, mother-city, used allegorically, just as the capital of a country is "the seat of its government, the center of its activities, and the place where the national characteristics are most fully expressed;" (3) symbolically, of "Babylon," Revelation 17:5 , as the source from which has proceeded the religious harlotry of mingling pagan rites and doctrines with the Christian faith
Habitation - 1, is used in Ephesians 2:22 of the church as the dwelling place of the Holy Spirit; in Revelation 18:2 of Babylon, figuratively, as the dwelling place of demons
Judea - On the return from Babylon the Jews, besides Judah, included large portions of Benjamin, Levi, Ephraim, and Manasseh (Ezra 1:5; Ezra 10:5-9; Nehemiah 11:4-36; 1 Chronicles 9:3; "Israel," Ezra 2:70; Ezra 2:59; Ezra 3:1; Ezra 10:5; Nehemiah 7:73), and many whose pedigree could not be found
Theophylactus Simocatta - 15), and of a woman of noble birth among the Magi of Babylon, named Golinducha, her escape, pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and life at Nisibis (v
Wing - These two kings (of Egypt and of Babylon) conquered easily and quickly the people of Israel, as the hawk swoops down onto its prey. ...
Daniel 7:4 (b) The lion represents the King of Babylon, and the wings represent the power and swiftness, as well as the ease with which this king operated his kingdom and conquered his enemies
Sennacherib - , crushed the revolt of Babylon, and drove away Merodach Baladan, made Belibus his officer viceroy, ravaged the Aramaean lands on the Tigris and Euphrates, and carried off 200,000 captives. ...
Sennacherib's second invasion of Babylon was apparently in 699 B
Alexander the Great - It is first spoken of as a part of the great image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar; it is foreshadowed by the belly and thighs, which are of brass, a depreciation in the character of the kingdom in comparison with the empires of Babylon and of the Medes and Persians, though it was larger in extent: it "shall bear rule over all the earth. 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323. He granted the Jews in Palestine, Media and Babylonia the free enjoyment of their laws and exemption from tribute during the Sabbatical year
Persia - But his successor, Cyaxares the Second, united with the Persians against the Babylonians, and gave the command of the combined armies to Cyrus, who took the city of Babylon, killed Belshazzar, the terminated that kingdom 538 B. The principal events relating to Scripture, which occurred during the reign of Cyrus, were the restoration of the Jews, the rebuilding of the city and temple, and the capture of Babylon, B
Josiah - ...
Assyria eventually fell to Babylon in 612 BC. Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, fearing this expansion of Babylonian power, set out to attack Babylon
Exodus - ...
The pattern repeated...
Even with the destruction of Jerusalem in 587 BC and the subsequent captivity in Babylon, God’s people never forgot his redeeming power. They prayed that as he had first brought them out of Egypt and into the promised land, so he would now bring them out of Babylon and back to their homeland (Isaiah 43:1-7; Isaiah 43:14-21; Isaiah 48:20-21; Isaiah 49:25-26; Isaiah 51:9-11; Isaiah 52:11-12; Jeremiah 31:10-12; Micah 7:14-17)
Haggai - Tradition represents him as returning with the first exiles from Babylon his birthplace, under Zerubbabel 536 B. ), whose accession virtually nullified the usurper's prohibition, they pretended that as the prophecy of the 70 years applied to the temple as well as to the captivity in Babylon (Haggai 1:2), they were only in the 68th year, and that, the time not yet having come, they might build splendid cieled mansions for themselves. The Hallelujah psalms belong certainly to the period after the return from Babylon
Zechariah - Zechariah was probably, like Ezekiel, priest as well as prophet, Iddo being the priest who returned with Zerubbabel and Joshua from Babylon (Nehemiah 12:4; Nehemiah 12:16). ...
He left Babylon, where he was born, very young. Leader of the sons of Pharosh, returned from Babylon with Ezra (Ezra 8:3)
Type - ...
Babylon as the centre of idolatry and Gentile apostasy from God and the abode of corruption in the activity of power — type of papal Rome whose name is Mystery, Babylon the Great, the mother of harlots and abominations of the earth. ...
(Consider the various events which happened to Israel in the wilderness, 1 Corinthians 10:11 , the passage of the Jordan, the return of a remnant from Babylon, etc
Ezra, the Book of - Ezra is supposed by some to have used the Babylonian era, Nehemiah the Persian. ...
A Zoroastrian, a worshipper of Ormuzd, the great God, he hated idolatry and the shameless licentiousness of the Babylonian worship, and so was disposed to patronize the Jews, whose religion so much resembled his own. "...
Daniel would necessarily, as just made "third ruler in the kingdom," and having foretold its transfer to "the Medes and Persians" (Daniel 5:28-29), come under Cyrus' notice immediately on the capture of Babylon; moreover, it is stated "he prospered in the reign of Cyrus the Persian" (Daniel 6:28), he would therefore be sure to mention to Cyrus Isaiah's prophecy. An undesigned coincidence, and therefore mark of genuineness, is that when Ezra wrote, a century later than Cyrus, the Persian kings usually lived at Susa or Babylon, where the archives were kept, and there Ezra would naturally have placed Cyrus' roll had he been forging. Their enemies, hoping Smerdis had destroyed Cyrus' edict, wrote to king Darius (Ezra 5:6) that they were building again on the plea of Cyrus' edict, and that search should be made at Babylon whether there were any such edict of Cyrus. Their mention of Babylon was either to mislead the king as to the real repository of the decree, or more probably from ignorance of Cyrus' habit of living at Ecbatana, which ignorance Providence overruled to save the roll from their destroying hands under Smerdis. The three books Ezra, (See CHRONICLES , probably compiled by Ezra, and Nehemiah have many phrases in common, peculiar to them, and that mixture of Chaldee and Hebrew which we should expect if the three were written at the new epoch in Jewish literature, when its writers were men brought up in Babylon and restored to Judaea. The king of Persia is called "king of Assyria" in Ezra 6:22, just as the king of Babylon is called so in 2 Kings 23:29, as having succeeded to the world-dominion formerly held by the king of Assyria. The narrator (Ezra 1) evidently wrote in Babylon not in Jerusalem; and Ezra might think the portion at the close of 2 Chronicles and beginning of Ezra more suitably placed there than in Daniel. A close connection of Ezra with Daniel is probable, and that Ezra wrote or compiled the former part of his book in Babylon
Jeremiah - The independent history (Jeremiah 12:1-4; 2 Chronicles 36:12; 2 Chronicles 36:21) mentions his "lamentation for Josiah," Zedekiah's "not humbling himself before Jeremiah the prophet speaking from the mouth of Jehovah," and the Babylonian captivity "to fulfill Jehovah's word by the mouth of Jeremiah until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths, for as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath to fulfill threescore and ten years" (Jeremiah 27:7; Jeremiah 25:9-12; Jeremiah 26:6-7; Jeremiah 29:10). , namely, the Babylonians entering into the Holy Land from the N. )...
Jeremiah, like Isaiah (Isaiah 30:1-7), foresaw that the tendency of many to desire an alliance with Egypt, upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire whose vassal Manasseh was, would end in sorrow (Jeremiah 2:18): "what hast thou to do in the way of (with going down to) Egypt? to drink the waters of Sihor (to seek hosts as allies from the Nile land)?" Josiah so far molded his policy according to Jeremiah's counsel; but he forgot that it was equally against God's will for His people to lean upon Assyrian or Babylonian "confidences" as upon Egyptian (Jeremiah 36 - 37); so taking the field as ally of Assyria and Babylon against the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho he fell (2 Kings 23:29). ) Jeremiah had shown his prophetic prescience by opposing as delusive what as a patriot he would have desired, the hopes cherished of his country's independence of Babylon (1 Corinthians 1:27-29; Jeremiah 27:6-8): "thus saith Jehovah of hosts, I have made the earth . Jeremiah had in this year foretold that not Judah alone, but all nations should be subject to Babylon for 70 years, having to drink God's wine cup of fury, and then Babylon itself should be made "perpetual desolations" (Jeremiah 25:8-38). Nebuchadnezzar was evidently acquainted with him, but whether it was by an actual journey of Jeremiah to Babylon is uncertain (Jeremiah 39:11). Nebuchadnezzar directed Nebuzaradan, and he gave him liberty to stay with the remnant or go to Babylon, and added "victuals and a reward. ...
Jeremiah wrote too an epistle to the exiles at Babylon, carried away with Jeconiah (Jeremiah 29), similar in form and style to the New Testament epistles, advising them to settle quietly in Babylon and pray for its peace, for the captivity must last 70 years. ...
Even among the captives at Babylon were false prophets, Ahab, Zedekiah, and Shemaiah (the writer to Zephaniah at Jerusalem that he should imprison Jeremiah as "mad"), who held out delusive hopes of a speedy return. Six whole years before Jerusalem's fall Jeremiah wrote the prophecy of Babylon's own doom, for Seraiah to take to Babylon when he went there on behalf of Zedekiah (margin, Jeremiah 51:59-64), and therewith to console the captives. Sheshach (which, on the Kabalistic system of making the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet express the first, would be Babel) is supposed to prove his using that mystic system (Jeremiah 25:26); but in Jeremiah 51:41 there can be no design of concealment, for he mentions expressly Babylon; the word is rather from Shech the Babylonian goddess, during whose feast Cyrus took the city
Jehoiakim - ) Pharaoh bound Jehoiakim to exact tribute from Judah, for Josiah's having taken part with Babylon against him: one talent of gold and 100 talents of silver (40,000 British pounds). In Jehoiakim's fourth year Necho suffered his great defeat from Babylon at Carehemish, wherein he lost his possessions between Euphrates and the Nile, and returned no more to Judaea; so that Josiah's death was not unavenged (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2). " Nebuchadnezzar from Carchemish marched to Jerusalem, and fettered him as Pharaoh Necho's tributary, in the third (Dan 1) or fourth year of his reign (the diversity being caused by reckoning Jehoahaz' reign as a year, or not), intending to take him to Babylon; bat afterward for the sake of his former ally Josiah, his father, restored him as a vassal. At this time Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, were taken to Babylon
Ezekiel - prophet during the Babylonian Exile, son of Buzi (Ezekiel 1:3 ), and priest as well as prophet. He was taken captive to Babylon in 597 B. , the “thirtieth year” (Ezekiel 1:1 ), probably Ezekiel's age (though it has been interpreted as 30 years since the discovery of the law book in 622,30 years since Jehoiachin's imprisonment, or a system of Babylonian chronology). ...
Scholars have long debated whether Ezekiel was in Babylon or Jerusalem during his ministry. The book bearing his name points unmistakably to a Babylonian locale (Ezekiel 1:1-3 ; Ezekiel 3:15 ; Ezekiel 8:1-3 ; Ezekiel 33:21 ). To resolve the difficulties, some have suggested that he was in Babylon part of the time and in Jerusalem at other times. ...
All objections to the Babylonian locale can be answered satisfactorily, however. Therefore, there is no need to reject Babylon as the location of Ezekiel's entire ministry. A tomb in Kifl, south of ancient Babylon, is claimed to be that of Ezekiel. Babylonia under Nabopolassar took advantage of Assyria's weakness and asserted her independence in 626. In 612, Nineveh surrendered to the Babylonians, marking the demise of the once great Assyrian power, although pockets of resistance held out for several years. ...
In 605, a showdown between Egypt and Babylonia at Carchemish established Babylonia as the dominant world power. Judah was able to maintain her independence by transferring her allegiance to Babylonia. ), who rebelled against his Babylonian overlords. ) was taken as prisoner to Babylon after a three-months' rule, along with Ezekiel and others. Introduction: Yahweh's Glory Watches Over the Captives in Babylon (Ezekiel 1:1-28 )
Manasseh - " Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in Babylon), took Manasseh prisoner (B. 681) to Babylon
Lucifer - (Isaiah 14:9) And agreeably to this opinion we find that the general name of Lucifer hath been assigned to the devil in all the christian church,...
But there are others, who in their comments on this part of Isaiah's prophecy, accept the whole passage as referring literally to the king of Babylon, with which the subject opens at the fourth verse. The greatness and power of the king of Babylon is described in very lofty characters: his city is called the golden city. And the taunting compliments from the kings and great men of the earth, whom the monarch of Babylon had hastened and sent there before their time, is wonderfully conceived, to shew what deep and bitter malignity the conversation of hell is made up of, to aggravate the torments of the damned, and to fill up the full-heaped measure of corrosive and everlasting misery
Mill - " How affecting, then, is the call to the daughter of Babylon!—"Come down, and sit in the dust, O daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate. That complete and perpetual desolation which, by the just allotment of Heaven, is ere long to overtake the mystical Babylon, is clearly signified by the same precept: "The sound of the mill stone shall be heard no more at all in thee," Revelation 18:22 . Samson, the ruler and avenger of Israel, labours, as Isaiah foretold the virgin daughter of Babylon should labour: "Come down, and sit in the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon: there is no throne," no seat for thee, "O daughter of the Chaldeans
Persia - 538 over Babylon, where the Persians came into contact with the captive Jews
Syria - The third, and to us most interesting, period is that during which the kings of Assyria were dominant over the plains of Syria; when Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib; and when at last Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power of the rulers of Nineveh and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed with terrible fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold by the Hebrew prophets
Table of Nations - See Assyria; Babylon ; Canaan; Habiru ; Israel ; Mesopotamia ; Semites
Jasher - ...
So the Book of Psalms, beginning with David's, received fresh accessions from age to age down to the time of the return from Babylon, when it was completed
Degrees, Songs of - Solomon wrote Psalm 127, round which as a center a third poet, on the return from Babylon, grouped, with David's four psalms, ten others, seven on one side and seven on the other. The posture of affairs contemplated in most of these psalms is that after the Babylonian captivity, when the building of the temple was interrupted by the Samaritans
Week - ...
As Judah's captivity in Babylon was for 70 years, so its time of deliverance by Messiah was to be 70 sevens of years (Daniel 9:24-27)
Ivory - "All manner vessels of ivory" are in mystic Babylon (Revelation 18:12)
Mizpah - After the destruction of Jerusalem it became the centre from which Gedaliah, the governor appointed by Babylon, administered the scattered remains of the former kingdom (2 Kings 25:23; 2 Kings 25:25; Jeremiah 40:6-16; Jeremiah 41)
Medes - Isaiah, in his prophecy against Babylon, reveals the agency and character of the Medes. Under Cyrus the two kingdoms of Babylonia and Media were united, b
Gourd - The region is one of great fertility (Layard, Nineveh and Babylon)
Mother - ...
Jeremiah 50:12 (a) Those who founded and established the great city of Babylon are described in this manner. They formed this mighty, powerful group, they nourished the Babylonians, and taught them to war
Bird - ...
Revelation 18:2 (b) As described under "Babylon," this passage represents the great religious and political combination which has spread over the whole earth - a mixture of religion and politics in which evil spirits (birds) of every kind revel and dwell
Forehead - ...
Upon the harlot's (the apostate church) forehead was written "MYSTERY, Babylon THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH
Sepharvaim - of Babylon, built on both banks of Euphrates (or of the canal nahr Αgane ), from whence arises its dual form, -aim , "the two Sipparas
Glory - Babylon, the glory of kingdoms
Daniel - His name is very significant, meaning, the judgment Daniel was descended from the royal family of David, and was carried away captive to Babylon when quite a youth
Beasts - In Isaiah 13:21 , several wild animals are mentioned as dwelling among the ruins of Babylon: "Wild beasts of the desert," ציים , those of the dry wilderness, as the root of the word implies, "shall dwell there
Chald a - In later times the "land of the Chaldæans" was applied to all Babylonia, and to the whole of the empire over which the Chaldæans ruled. 625; the Babylonian empire third in order, continuing from about b. 625, and established a new kingdom, known as the Babylonian empire. For further notices see Babylon, Assyria, and Nineveh
Jeiel - One of early members of tribe of Judah to return from Babylonian Exile (1 Chronicles 9:6 ). Man who went with Ezra from Babylon to Judah about 458 B
City - Some cities were adorned with vast parks and gardens; this was the case with Babylon, which embraced an immense at this day to form any reliable estimate of the population of the cities of Judea
Marvel, Marvellous - have the adjective thaumastos: see C, below), "(no) marvel;" in Revelation 17:6 , RV , "wonder" (AV, "admiration"), said of John's astonishment at the vision of the woman described as Babylon the Great
Fasting - The Jews later introduced a series of fasts to mourn the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon in 587 BC (Zechariah 8:19)
Wealth: Involves Danger - Flatterers haunt not cottages: the poor may hear an honest word from his neighbor, but etiquette forbids that the rich man should enjoy the like privilege; for is it not a maxim in Babylon, that rich men have no faults, or only such as their money, like charity, covereth with a mantle? What man can help slipping when every body is intent upon greasing his ways, so that the smallest chance of standing may be denied him? The world's proverb is, 'God help the poor, for the rich can help themselves;' but to our mind, it is just the rich who have most need of heaven's help
Peter - It was addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, and written probably at Babylon on the Euphrates. Some, however, interpret this of Some, and others of a town in Egypt called Babylon, near Old Cairo
Nehemiah - As governor of Jerusalem and author of a book, Nehemiah is an important character in the biblical record of Israel’s reconstruction after the captivity in Babylon. ...
Circumstances of the time...
When Persia conquered Babylon and released the captive peoples (539 BC), many Jews returned to Palestine
Chronicles, the Books of - The chief difficulty at the return from Babylon was to maintain the genealogical distribution of lands, which was essential in the Jewish polity. Accordingly, 1 Chronicles 1-8 give the genealogies and settlements; 1 Chronicles 9:1-24 their disturbance by the captivity, and partial restoration at the return; this portion is reinserted in Nehemiah 11:3-22 with additional matter from the archives, as to times succeeding the return from Babylon, down to Nehemiah 12:27, where Nehemiah's narrative is resumed from Nehemiah 11:2. The writer of the closing chapters of Kings lived in Judah, and died under Nebuchadnezzar; the writer of the close of Chronicles lived at Babylon and survived until the Persian dynasty began. ...
For the writer of Chronicles and Ezra gives no details of Jehoiachin or Zedekiah, or what occurred in Judah after the temple was burnt; but only dwells on the spiritual lessons which Jerusalem's overthrow teaches, and proceeds at once to the return from Babylon. One in Babylon would be the most likely to know all about Cyrus' decree, the presents to the captives, the bringing out of the temple vessels, their weight, the Chaldee treasurer Mithredath, and Zerubbabel's Chaldee name Sheshbazzar. Hervey conjectures that Daniel at Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar, and afterward under the Persian kings, vividly remembering Jeremiah's prophecies and bewailing the nation's perversity, wrote the close of Chronicles and Ezra 1, just as Jeremiah wrote the close of Kings
Chaldaea - part of Babylonia, chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but used to designate the whole country. , deciphered lately, prove that the early seat of the Babylonian empire was there rather than higher up the Euphrates. , the Babylonian period. Rawlinson considers the Chaldi to he more probably one of the Cushite (Ethiopian) tribes that crossed over the Persian gulf and settled in Babylonia. Now, while dry in some parts, it is a stagnant marsh in others, owing to neglect of the canals; as Scripture also foretells: "the sea is come up upon Babylon," etc. The Semitic language prevailed over the Cushite in Assyrian and later Babylonian times, and was used for all civil purposes; but for sacred and mystic lore the Cushite language was retained as a learned language. This is "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldaeans" (Daniel 1:4), in which the four Jewish youths were instructed, and which is quite distinct from the Aramaean, or Chaldee so-called (allied to Hebrew), of those parts of the book of Daniel which are not Hebrew, as not being so connected with the Jews as with the Babylonians. Their seats of learning were Borsippa, Ur, Babylon, and Sepharvaim. The serene sky and clear atmosphere favored their astronomical studies; Cahisthenes sent Aristotle from Babylon their observations for 1903 years
Mouth - 34:3, which has the same force): “And Zedekiah king of Judah shall not escape out of the hand of the Chaldeans, hut shall surely be delivered into the hand of the king of Babylon, and shall speak with him mouth to mouth, and his eyes shall behold his eyes. 29:10 uses the word in the sense “according to”: “After seventy years be accomplished at Babylon,” which can be read literally, “according to the fullness of the seventy years of Babylon
Babel - Shinar was the ancient name for the land of Babylon, or Babylonia. Babel was the ancient name for the city of Babylon, which later became the nation’s capital (Genesis 10:8-10). See also Babylon
Captivity - Thirdly, Nebuchadnezzar carried away Judith under Zedekiah to Babylon, 588 B. subjection of Judah to Babylon) begins. ...
Nebuchadnezzar had intended to carry Jehoiakim to Babylon (2 Chronicles 36:6-7); but Jehoiakim died before Nebuchadnezzar's intention could be effected (Jeremiah 22:18-19; Jeremiah 36:30), and. Acts 2:9-114 years elapsed from that time to the taking of Babylon (Ptolemy's canon). Cyrus' decree, granting liberty and encouragement to the Jews to return to their own land, was one or two years after taking Babylon, 536 B. ...
Those who apostatized to Assyrian and Babylonian idolatry were absorbed among the pagan. amply indemnified him for all he lost: which passages prove the error of those who refer to the times after the Babylonian captivity any passage which mentions "the captivity," as if it were the only one in the Bible
Hananiah - Prophet from Gibeon who opposed Jeremiah by promising immediate deliverance from Babylon. A priest immediately after the time of return from Babylonian Exile (Nehemiah 12:12 ) when Joiakim was high priest
Tal'Mud - There are two Gemaras; one of Jerusalem, in which there is said to be no passage which can be proved to be later than the first half of the fourth century; and the other of Babylon, completed about 500 A
Euphrates - In the ancient history of Assyria, and Babylon, and Egypt many events are recorded in which mention is made of the "great river
Daniel, Book of - , Nebuchadnezzar]'>[1] away to Babylon; where they were servants to him and his sons until the reign of the kingdom of Persia'" (2 Chronicles 36:20 )
Baruch - He was the friend to whom Jeremiah in prison entrusted the papers of the purchase of his uncle's field at Anathoth, the year before Jerusalem's destruction, to assure the Jews of the certainty of their return from Babylon
Reign - , "hath a kingdom," suggestive of a distinction between the sovereignty of mystic Babylon and that of ordinary sovereigns
Pharisees - , though they represent tendencies traceable much earlier in Jewish history, tendencies which became pronounced after the return from Babylon (537 B
City - The later dates assigned to the building of Nineveh, Babylon, etc
Horn - The four horns in Zechariah 1:18 represent the four ruling powers of the world, to be superseded finally by Messiah's kingdom: Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome
Jael - Besides the commendation of her real faith, though not of the treachery with which her act was alloyed, we should remember that the agents who execute God's righteous purposes are regarded in Scripture as God's "sanctified ones," not in respect to their own character and purposes, but in respect to God's work; so the Medes who executed His vengeance on Babylon (Isaiah 13:3; Psalms 137:9)
Mount - Though Babylon should mount up to heaven
Smoke - The smoke of burning Babylon-Imperial Rome-resembling that of the cities of the Plain (Genesis 19:28), is seen from afar by the kings of the earth (Revelation 18:9) and all shipmasters and mariners (Revelation 18:17 f
Judah the Kingdom of - Tiglath-pileser distressed Judah during the reign of Ahaz, 2 Chronicles 28:20; Sennacherib's host of 185,000 men was destroyed by the angel of the Lord in Hezekiah's reign, 2 Chronicles 32:21; 2 Kings 19:35; Manasseh was carried away captive into Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11 : Jehoiachin was also made captive; Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, and was defeated, his sons slain before his eyes, and he made captive; Jerusalem was taken in b
Dragon - ...
...
Isaiah 13:22 (a) This is probably a type of the powers, such as Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, who invade Jerusalem and take up their dwelling places in the palaces of the GOD's city
Gibeon - Ninety-five Gibeonites returned from Babylon under Zerubbabel ( Nehemiah 7:25 ), and Gibeonites were employed in repairing part of the wall of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 3:7 )
Apocalypse - ...
Chapters 12:1 to 19:10, describe the struggle between the Church and the world, ending in the destruction of Babylon
Candlestick - They were carried away to Babylon (Jeremiah 52:19 )
Gentile - The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10
Rome - Rome, as a persecuting power, is referred to by the "seven heads" and "seven mountains" in Revelation 17:9, and is probably described under the name of "Babylon" elsewhere in the same hook
Zechariah - He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, and began to prophesy while yet young, Zechariah 2:4 , in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B
Chronicles - The second book contains the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, from the beginning of the reign of Solomon only, to the return from the captivity of Babylon
Ethiopia - It subsequently fell under the control of Babylon, and then under the control of Persia (Esther 1:1)
Servant of the Lord - God punished Israel for its sins by sending the nation into captivity in Babylon, but after the removal of sin he restored the nation to its land. Israel’s sufferings at the hands of Babylon and its glory in the rebuilt Jerusalem were a picture of the sufferings of the Messiah and the glory that followed (Isaiah 52:13-15; Acts 2:23-24; Acts 2:36; Philippians 2:8-11; 1 Peter 1:18-21)
Hezekiah - In the East the kingdom of Babylon under Merodach-baladan was also making trouble for the Assyrians. ), which was intended to secure the co-operation of the Western States with Babylon in the effort then being made
Book - ” The prophet Jeremiah wrote a letter to the Babylonian exiles, instructing them to settle themselves, as they were to be in Babylon for 70 years: “Now these are the words of the letter (sêpher) that Jeremiah the prophet sent from Jerusalem unto the residue of the elders which were carried away captives, and to the priests, and to the prophets, and to all the people whom Nebuchadnezzar had carried away captive from Jerusalem to Babylon …” ( Teeth - ...
Daniel 7:5 (a) This is an excellent picture of the complete victory which the Medio-Persian empire won over Babylon. The three ribs probably represent the three kings that had built up so successfully the great Kingdom of Babylon, but now this bear destroys that Kingdom, and the teeth represent the power that accomplished it
Month - But it was only in the time of Solomon that the months were named, for we do not meet with the mention of the months by names, except that of Abib in Exodus and Deuteronomy, either before or after Solomon, until the Babylonish captivity. ...
It is probable, however, that the Jews learnt in Babylon, the custom of the Chaldeans, to mark their months as they did by names, and from thence (or the Persians, under whom for a time they dwelt when the monarchy of Babylon was destroyed), they formed the following to all the months in the year
Medes, me'Dia - The Medes were a nation of very high antiquity; we find a notice of them in the primitive Babylonian history of Berosus, who says that the Medes conquered Babylon at a very remote period (cir. The deepest obscurity hangs, however, over the whole history of the Medes from the time of their bearing sway in Babylonia, B. It was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or more probably by a line running about halfway between that river and the Euphrates. 721 (2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:12 ) Soon afterward Isaiah prophesies the part which the Medes shall take in the destruction of Babylon, (Isaiah 13:17 ; 21:2 ) which is again still more distinctly declared by Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 51:11,28 ) who sufficiently indicates the independence of Media in his day
Mystery - " So Revelation 17:5 , "And upon her forehead a name written, Mystery, Babylon the Great," that is, Babylon in a spiritual sense, "the mother of idolatry and abominations;" and, Revelation 17:7 , "I will tell thee the mystery" or spiritual signification "of the woman
Isaiah, Book of - ...
Isaiah 13 — Isaiah 27 : Judgements on Babylon and the nations where Israel was captive and outcast; ends in deliverance from their outcast condition and worship at Jerusalem. They are judgements on Babylon and the nations, especially on those who were in relationship with Israel. God would keep open the two-leaved gates (of Babylon, which were left open in their festivity). The idols of Babylon could not save her: she should be brought to shame for her pride
Kings, Books of - The two books of Kings (which were originally one book) trace the history of Israel over approximately four centuries from the end of David’s reign to the beginning of the captivity in Babylon. After his death, Judah lost its independence, first to Egypt and then to Babylon (23:28-37). Babylon conquered Jerusalem, took the best people into captivity, and appointed Zedekiah as king in Jerusalem (24:1-17). After Zedekiah proved treacherous, the Babylonians returned and destroyed Jerusalem
Zerubbabel - ...
This period of Jewish history presents not a few very difficult problems; one of the burning questions has reference to the respective parts played in the rebuilding of the Temple, and the re-organization of the Jewish State generally, by the returned exiles, and by the ‘people of the land’ who had been left behind when the rest were carried off to Babylon; this question has an important bearing on the subsequent history of Judaism
Ham - (On the Hamitic or Cushite origin of Babylon, alleged by Scripture and confirmed by the vocabulary in ancient remains. ) Solid grandeur characterizes the Hamitic architecture, as in the earliest of Egypt, Babylonia, and S. Arabia were at a very early date overcome by the Joktanites, and the Babylonians yielded to the Medes
Jeshua - High priest taken into the Exile by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon in 586 B
Nehemiah - One who returned in the first expedition from Babylon under Zerubbabel
Ur - p 7 A second tradition, which appears in the Talmud, finds Ur in Warka, 120 miles southeast from Babylon and four east of the Euphrates
Jebus - Some of them appear as late as the return from Babylon, termed "Solomon's servants" (Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 11:3; Ezra 9:1)
Bitumen - The springs at Kit, on the Euphrates, 150 miles above Babylon, are mentioned by Herodotus (i. ]'>[7] ‘bitumen’) was the mortar employed by the early Babylonian builders ( Genesis 11:3 , LXX Net - ...
Ezekiel 12:13 (b) This figure is used to describe the way in which the King of Babylon will capture the King of Israel as a bird is caught in the net
Drunk - (See also Jeremiah 51:57 where the same truth pertains to Babylon)
Corn - ...
Isaiah 36:17 (b) This type is used by the King of Assyria to assure Israel that they would be contented in his land of Babylon even though they were strangers
Scriptures - Especially after the return from Babylon Ezra held such meetings, when the restored exiles yearned for a return to the law
Captain - Nebuzar-adan (Jeremiah 39:13 ) and Arioch (Daniel 2:14 ) held this office in Babylon
Isaiah (2) - Assyria, Babylon, 13:19 sq. The prophecies of Babylon's desolation and of Tyre's ruin are among the most poetic and the sublimest passages in all literature. " It takes its position at the close of the Babylonian captivity, and prophesies its close and the glories of the Messianic period of Israel's history. 40-66," says Schaff, "has been assailed by modern critics, who regard it as a later production of some 'great unknown prophet' at the end of the Babylonian exile
Ararat - (ehr' uh rat) A mountainous region in western Asia mentioned on four occasions in the Bible: (1) the place where the ark came to rest after the flood (Genesis 8:4 ); (2) the region where Sennacherib's sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, fled for refuge after murdering their father (2 Kings 19:37 ); (3) Isaiah's version of 2 Kings 19:37 ( Isaiah 37:38 ); (4) Jeremiah's prophetic call for a war league as judgment against Babylon (Jeremiah 51:27 )
Ahab - A false prophet among the captives of Babylon who prophesied a lie, and was roasted in the fire by Nebuchadnezzar
a'Hab - (2 Kings 9:26 ) ...
A lying prophet, who deceived the captive Israelites in Babylon, and was burnt to death by Nebuchadnezzar
Jehovah - ...
The Jews, after their captivity in Babylon, out of an excessive and superstitious respect for this name, left off to pronounce it, and thus lost the true pronunciation
Japheth - , the Ethiopians; 'Mizraim,' the people of Egypt; 'Sheba and Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and 'Nimrod,' or the ancient people of Babylon, four races between which the latest linguistic researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's Hist
Ointment - ...
In Revelation 18:13 ‘ointment’ (so Revised Version ; Authorized Version ‘ointments’) appears in the list of the luxurious merchandise of ‘Babylon’ (i
Pentateuch - Lastly, they think they observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch which can hardly agree with Moses, who was born and bred in Egypt; as what he says of the earthly paradise, of the rivers that watered it and ran through it; of the cities of Babylon, Erech, Resen, and Calmeh; of the gold of Pison; of the bdellium, of the stone of Sohem, or onyx stone, which was to be found in that country. Add what he says concerning the ark of Noah, of its construction, of the place where it rested, of the wood wherewith it was built, of the bitumen of Babylon, &c
Gate - Daniel "sat in" such a "gate" before the palace of Babylon as "ruler over the whole province of Babylon" (Daniel 2:48-49) The courtiers of Ahasuerus attended him "in the gate" similarly (Esther 3:2)
Per'Sia - 539 or 538, Babylon was attacked, and after a stout defence fell into the hands of Cyrus. The conquerors found in Babylon an oppressed race--like themselves, abhorrers of idols, and professors of a religion in which to a great extent they could sympathize
Divination - Doubtless the above class of men were eminent for their learning, as those were at the court of Babylon, over whom Daniel was made chief. The king of Babylon had come to two roads, and wanting to know whether he should take the road to Rabbath or to Jerusalem, resorted to divination. The word for 'astrologers' throughout Daniel is a different word, ashshaph, and does not imply any connection with the heavens, but is rather 'sorcerers' or 'enchanters,' as we read with reference to Babylon in Isaiah 47:9,12 , where a multitude of sorceries and great abundance of enchantments are spoken of. Along with the Babylonish astrologers in Isaiah 47:13 are associated STAR-GAZERS, who may have prognosticated events from the altered positions of the planets in respect to the stars. Connected with Babylon is also the word SOOTHSAYER, gezar, 'to divide, determine fate or destiny' by any pretended means of predicting events. Sorcery is classed with the grossest of sins, and is also applied to the professing church in mystical Babylon
Hezekiah - Various ambassadors came to congratulate him on his recovery, and among them Merodach-baladan, the viceroy of Babylon (2 Chronicles 32:23 ; 2 Kings 20:12 )
Cush (2) - The Babylonian inscriptions of the mounds of Chaldaea proper, the primitive seat of the Babylonian empire close to the Persian gulf, prove there was a Cush on the E. Nimrod's kingdom began with Babel or Babylon, from whence "he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh" (Genesis 10:11 margin). ...
(2) A later one of Cushites through Arabia, Babylonia, Susiana, eastward to W. The 22nd Egyptian dynasty, to which Zerah the Cusbite who invaded Asa belonged, contains names of Babylonian origin, Shishak = Sheshak, Namuret = Nimrod, Tekhit = Tiglath
Irrigation - During the Exile of Judah in Babylon, canals as large as twenty-five yards wide and several miles long carried the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates to field and city
Sanhedrin - With the re-establishment of the Jewish nation after the Jews’ return from captivity in Babylon, there were significant developments in the Jewish religion
Medes, Media - So the Medes and not the Persians are mentioned in prophecy as the prospective destroyers of Babylon ( Isaiah 13:17 ; Isaiah 21:2 , Jeremiah 25:25 ; Jeremiah 51:11 ; cf
Prophecy - ...
There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating to those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3-5,14-21 ), Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10,15 ; 30:6,12,13 ), Ethiopia (Nahum 3:8-10 ), Nineveh (Nahum 1:10 ; 2:8-13 ; 3:17-19 ), Babylon (Isaiah 13:4 ; Jeremiah 51:7 ; Isaiah 44:27 ; Jeremiah 50:38 ; 51:36,39,57 ), the land of the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:4-7 ; Ezekiel 25:15-17 ; Amos 1:6-8 ; Zephaniah 2:4-7 ; Zechariah 9:5-8 ), and of the four great monarchies (Daniel 2:39,40 ; 7:17-24 ; 8:9 )
Harlot - "The men of Babylon made Saccoth Benoth" their idol in Samaria (2 Kings 17:30); the idol's name means "booths for their daughters," referring to their prostitution in this detestable worship. Herodotus (1:199) mentions the impure custom in the Babylonian worship of Mylitta, so that of the Dea Syra at Byblos very anciently
Nob - Inhabited again on the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:31-35)
Hoshea (2) - " Sargon in the inscriptions describes his transporting prisoners from Babylon to "the land of the Hittites" (Samaria), exactly as 2 Kings 17:24
Leviathan - Leviathan here has several heads; the great serpent of Babylonian tradition had seven. The identification of the kingdoms depends on the date of the prophecy: Assyria and Babylon, Persia and Greece, Syria and Parthia, are rival suggestions
Azariah - One carried away with Daniel to Babylon, probably of the seed royal: his name was changed to ABED-NEGO
Camel - ' Camels were not thus used in Palestine, but the prophecy refers to messengers coming from Babylon and there another species of camel was common, called the Bactrian Camel, with two humps; these were at times linked in pairs to rude chariots
Ninevites - They differed from the Babylonians who were a mixed race, partlyAccadian and partly Semitic. ...
The records give evidence of the great ferocity of the Assyrians, who were less humane than the Babylonians. "...
The greater part of the religious system of Babylon was transported into Assyria, though the Assyrians were less given to religious observances
Ahab - A false prophet in Babylon
Captivities of the Jews - The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple. The Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree, (Ezra 1:2 ) of Cyrus (B
Mourn, Mourning - ...
A — 2: πενθέω (Strong's #3996 — Verb — pentheo — pen-theh'-o ) "to mourn for, lament," is used (a) of mourning in general, Matthew 5:4 ; 9:15 ; Luke 6:25 ; (b) of sorrow for the death of a loved one, Mark 16:10 ; (c) of "mourning" for the overthrow of Babylon and the Babylonish system, Revelation 18:11,15 , RV, "mourning" (AV, "wailing"); Revelation 18:19 (ditto); (d) of sorrow for sin or for condoning it, James 4:9 ; 1 Corinthians 5:2 ; (e) of grief for those in a local church who show no repentance for evil committed, 2 Corinthians 12:21 , RV, "mourn" (AV, "bewail")
Rachel - Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:15) says as to Nebuzaradan's collecting the captive Jews at Ramah, previous to their removal to Babylon (Jeremiah 40:1), "a voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation and bitter weeping, Rachel weeping for her children . Besides the reference to the Babylonian exile of Rachel's sons, the Holy Spirit foreshadowed Messiah's exile to Egypt, and the accompanying desolation caused near Rachel's tomb by Herod's massacre, to the grief of Benjamite mothers who had "sons of sorrow," as Rachel's son proved to her. Israel's representative Messiah's return from Egypt, and Israel's (both the literal and the spiritual) future restoration (including the innocents) at His second advent, are antitypical to Israel's restoration from Babylon, the consolation held out by Jeremiah. were dead (Genesis 42:13), does not apply so strictly to the Babylonian exiles as it does to Messiah and His people, past, present, and future
Harp - In Revelation 18:22 the angel who doomed the great city of Babylon declared that it would hear no more the voice of harpers (cf. Being lighter in weight than the נֶבֶל, the lyre was much played in processions, and, as we learn from Psalms 137:2, it could be hung on the poplar trees of Babylon when the Hebrew exiles were in no mood for songs of rejoicing. The earliest representation of a stringed instrument is that excavated at Telloh in South Babylonia, which in size resembles a harp but is shaped like a lyre, i
Haggai - According to late traditions, he was born in Babylon, and went up with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem, where he died. The downfall of the Persian rule, which they threatened, might be expected, like the previous overthrow of Babylon by Cyrus, to redound to the advantage of Israel
Jude, the Epistle of - ...
As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses
Ezekiel - ), an era he naturally uses writing in Babylonia (Farrar). The first scene of his prophecies was near the river Chebar (identified by some with Khabour, but rather the nahr Malcha or royal canal of Nebuchadnezzar) (See BABEL; Babylon. ...
Ezekiel began prophesying the year after the communication of Jeremiah's predictions to Babylon (Jeremiah 51:59-64); Ezekiel's prophecies form a sequel to them (Ezekiel 1:2). He was contemporary also with Daniel, whose ministry was then in the Babylonian court whereas Ezekiel was among the Jews. ...
It is an undesigned proof of genuineness that, while prophesying against the enemies of the covenant people, he directs none against Babylon, whereas Jeremiah utters against her terrible denunciations. "His word fell like a hammer upon all the pleasant dreams in which the captives indulged, and ground them to powder, a gigantic nature fitted to struggle against the Babylonian spirit of the age, which reveled in things gigantic and grotesque" (Hengstenberg). Ezekiel was the only prophet, strictly, at Babylon. Striking instances of seeming contradictions, which when understood become strong confirmations of genuineness, are Ezekiel 12:13, "I will bring him (Zedekiah) to Babylon
Daniel - Calvin says that when Daniel and his three companions got far enough away from the royal table they would both eat flesh with pleasant bread, and would drink wine also in the wayside inns of Babylon, just as they had done when they were at home in Jerusalem. In nothing was Daniel's fine character finer seen, not even when his window was set open towards Jerusalem, not even when he stepped down into the den of lions, than it was when he was the last to rise from the royal feasts, with such sweetness, and geniality, and simplicity did he converse with the men of Babylon. Daniel foresaw that his whole life would have to be spent in Babylon, and he determined that his exile there should not be so much lost time either to his mind or to his heart. But the truly philosophic temper that Daniel exhibited among the wise men of Babylon is still the true and wise temper for us all among the studies and the speculations and the scepticisms of our more learned, more scientific, and more speculative day. And Babylon taught Daniel and his three friends all to pray, and to pray together in their chambers, as we read. To be arrested in their fathers' houses by Nebuchadnezzar's soldiers; to have Babylonian chains put on their hands and their feet: to see the towers of Zion for the last time: to be asked to sing some of the songs of Zion to amuse their masters as they toiled over the Assyrian sands-you would have become experts yourselves in a school of prayer like that
Libraries - Public libraries existed in the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome
Nethinim - ...
But when the Levites were slow in coming forward at the return from Babylon, 341 only under Zerubbabel as contrasted with 4,289 priests (Ezra 2:36-58) and none under Ezra until especially called (Ezra 8:15; Ezra 8:17; Ezra 8:20), the Nethinim became more conspicuous, 392 under Zerubbabel, 220 under Ezra, "all expressed by name," registered after the Levites (1 Chronicles 9:2) and admitted to join the covenant (Nehemiah 10:28, compare Deuteronomy 29:11)
Samaritan Pentateuch - The collection of the five books of Moses, written in Samaritan or Phoenician characters; and, according to some, the ancient Hebrew characters which were in use before the captivity of Babylon
Hart - The case of their parturition, through the instinct given them by God's care, stands in contrast to the shepherd's anxiety in numbering the months of the flock's pregnancy, and is an argument to convince Job (Job 39:1-3) of God's consummate wisdom; why then should he harbour for a moment the thought that God, who cares so providentially for the humblest creature, could be capable of harshness and injustice toward His noblest creature, man?...
The masculine ayal , Septuagint elafos , is the fallow deer (Dama commonis ) or the Barbary deer (Cervus Βarbarus ) according to Appendix, Smith's Bible Dictionary Timid and fleet especially when seeking and not able to find pasture (Lamentations 1:6); emblem of Zion's captive princes at Babylon
Amorites - They took control of the administration of Babylonia for approximately 400 years (2000-1595), their most influential king being Hammurabi (1792-1750). See also Canaan, History and Religion of ; Jebusites ; Babylon ; Syria ; Sihon
Tax Taxing Taxation - Under the Persian government, after the return from Babylon, there was a regular system of taxation, to which doubtless the provinces of the empire generally were subjected
Abyss - Lastly, in these dark dungeons the kings of Tyro, Babylon, and Egypt are described by the Prophets as suffering the punishment of their pride and cruelty, Isaiah 26:14 ; Ezekiel 28:10 , &c
Solomon - He established a lucrative commerce with Tyre, Egypt, Arabia, India, and Babylon, by the fruits of which he himself first and chiefly, and indirectly the whole land, were greatly enriched
Shushan - Near Persia, cooler than Babylon, and having excellent water, Shushan was a suitable metropolis of the Persian empire. The kings left it for Ecbatana or Persepolis only in the height of summer, and for Babylon in the depth of winter; here Alexander found twelve million and the regalia of the great king
Nineveh - It was the power used by God to carry out His indignation against Israel: it is thus called "the rod of mine anger," and the indignation of Jehovah against His land and people ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian — a reference to some power in the last days which will morally succeed to the character of the Assyrian, and be destroyed subsequent to Babylon. Historically Assyria fell before Babylon. Cyaxares, the Median monarch, aided by the Babylonians under Nabopolassar, laid siege to the city. 606, by the Medes and Babylonians, and the fall of this city was the end of the kingdom of Assyria
Zechari'ah - He seems to have entered upon his office while yet young, (Zechariah 2:4 ) and must have been born in Babylon whence he returned with the first caravan of exiles under Zerubbabel and Jeshua. Some faint traces, however, we may observe in them, of his education in Babylon
Babylon - Although its boundaries varied from one era to the next, the land of Babylon was always centred on Mesopotamia, the region of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The land was named after its chief city, Babylon, which earlier was known as Babel (Genesis 11:9; Jeremiah 51:31; see BABEL)
Magi - Now as there are so many authorities for fixing the time of Zoroaster or Zeratusht not many years subsequent to the death of the great Cyrus, the events connected with the conquest of Babylon may account for his success in that reformation of religion of which he was the author. The Jews were sent into captivity to Babylon to be reformed from their idolatrous propensities, and their reformation commenced with their calamity. This event takes place, also, in the accomplishment of a dream which none of the wise men of Babylon could interpret. After these singular events, Cyrus takes Babylon, and he finds there the sage and the statesman, Daniel, the worshipper of the true God, "who creates both good and evil," "who makes the light, and forms the darkness. " There is little doubt but that he and the principal Persians throughout the empire, would have the prophecy of Isaiah respecting Cyrus, delivered more than a hundred years before he was born, and in which his name stood recorded, along with the predicted circumstances of the capture of Babylon, pointed out to them. Beside, in the prophecy respecting Cyrus, the intention of almighty God in recording the name of that monarch in an inspired book, and showing beforehand that he had chosen him to overturn the Babylonian empire, is expressly mentioned as having respect to two great objects, first, the deliverance of Israel, and, second, the making known his supreme divinity among the nations of the earth. ...
The Persians, who had so vastly extended their empire by the conquest of the countries formerly held by the monarchs of Babylon, were thus prepared for such a reformation of their religion as Zoroaster effected
Zechariah, Book of - ...
When the book was written In 538, Cyrus the Great, emperor of the Persian Empire, issued an edict (Ezra 1:2-4 ; Ezra 6:3-5 ) allowing the Jews in Exile in Babylon to return to Jerusalem. The visions conclude with a call to Exiles to return home from Babylon. Two women with wings came to take the iniquity back to Babylon, from which it had come
Lachish - " The Jews returning from Babylon re-occupied Lachish (Nehemiah 11:30)
Presence of God - Ezekiel spoke of the Exile in terms of the glory (presence) of God leaving ancient Israel but then returning at the end of the Exile in Babylon (Ezekiel 43:1-5 )
u'Rim And Thum'Mim - When the Jewish exiles were met on their return from Babylon by a question which they had no data for answering, they agreed to postpone the settlement of the difficulty till there should rise up "a priest with Urim and Thummim
Manasseh - Having supported the Babylonian viceroy in his revolt against Assyria, he was at last taken captive by the Assyrian king and ignominiously transported to Babylon
Spirits in Prison - Yet if they were already “in prison,” what precisely could further defeat and subjection mean? A possible answer to this question is provided by Revelation 18:2 , where “Babylon the great” (or Rome) is seen under God's final judgment as “a haunt for every unclean spirit” (REB)
Mother - Revelation 17:5 calls Babylon (Rome) the mother of harlots (those who are unfaithful to God)
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin - Possibly ‘an actual inscription found on the walls of the palace at Babylon, or, at any rate, found somewhere, was worked by the author of Daniel into this dramatic scene and arbitrarily explained’ (D
Stranger - ...
The liberal spirit of the law contrasts with the exclusiveness of Judaism after the return from Babylon
Amorites - An ancient people whose presence can be traced in Palestine and Syria and also in Babylonia. 2250) show that Amorites were in Babylonia at that time (cf. ...
Because of the identity of their proper names, it is believed that the Amorites were identical in race with that Semitic wave of immigration into Babylonia which produced the first dynasty of Babylon, the dynasty of Hammurabi (cf. Paton holds that an Amoritic wave of migration overran Babylonia and the Mediterranean coast about b. 341) holds it probable, also on the basis of proper names, that the Amorites were in both Babylonia and the West before the time of Sargon, b
Dragon - is an adoption and application to Christian purposes of certain conceptions that played a large part in the literature of pre-Christian Judaism, and had originally been suggested to the Jewish mind by its contact with the Babylonian mythology. The Apocryphal book of Bel and the Dragon testifies to the existence in Babylon of a dragon-worship that must have been associated with belief in the ancient dragon-myth which forms so important a feature of the Babylonian cosmogony
Frontlets - And in confirmation of this opinion, it is said, that before the church was carried into Babylon, they were not known
Ram - The king of Babylon deported Judah’s kings, princes, and the “mighty of the land” ( Maiden, Virgin - 47:1— Babylon; Euphrates - At Seleucia, and Hilleh the ancient Babylon, it approaches near the Tigris, and some of its waters are drawn off by canals to the latter river
Genealogy - When Zerubbabel brought back the captivity from Babylon, one of his first cares seems to have been to take a census of those that returned, and to settle them according to their genealogies
Joel - This would explain why there is no mention of oppressive enemy nations such as Syria, Assyria and Babylon, which are constantly mentioned in the other prophets, for at that time those nations had not begun to interfere in Judean affairs
Dan - Many Danites were deported to Assyria, Babylon, and Media following the fall of Samaria in 722 or 721 B. Foreigners were brought in from Babylon, Aram, and other lands to settle Israel's territory. The partially rebuilt city survived until the onslaught of the Babylonian army of Nebuchadnezzar (about 589 B
Letter - The king of Babylon sent Hezekiah letters and presents (2 Kings 20:12 ). The prophet Jeremiah wrote a pastoral letter to Jewish exiles in Babylon
Chronology - ...
658 Manasseh carried to Babylon. Time of the Gentiles begins in the...
first great empire — Babylon
Peter - Alford translated 1 Peter 5:13 "she in Babylon" (compare 1 Peter 3:7); but why she should be called "elected together with you in Babylon," as if there were no Christian woman in Babylon besides, is inexplicable. Peter and John being closely associated, Peter addresses the church in John's province, Asia, "your co-elect sister church in Babylon saluteth you"; so 2 John 1:13 in reply. Babylon, a chief seat of the dispersed Jews, was his head quarters when he wrote 1 Peter 5:13, not Rome as some have argued. (See Babylon, (See MYSTICAL. From Colosse Mark probably went on to Peter at Babylon
Zechariah, the Book of - The mention of myrtles (representing the then depressed Jewish church, Zechariah 1:11) accords with the fact of their non mention before the Babylonian exile (Nehemiah 8:15); contrast the original command as to the trees at the feast of tabernacles, "palms, and willows of the brook" Esther's name Hadassah means "myrtle". The mention of Ephraim and Israel as distinct from Judah, in chapters 10 to 14, points to the ultimate restoration, not only of the Jews but of the northern Israelite ten tribes, who never returned as a body from their Assyrian captivity, the earnest of which was given in the numbers out of the ten tribes who returned with their brethren of Judah from the Babylonian captivity under Cyrus. ...
The second vision states how Jehovah will repair Jerusalem's breaches namely, as the four (the four cardinal points of the horizon marking worldwide extension) great world powers, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome, scattered Judah and Israel, so four "destroying artificers" shall fray (strike terror into) and cast out the horns of the Gentiles which lifted up their horn over Judah (Psalms 75:4-5; Ezekiel 34:21; Luke 21:24). The woman in the ephah symbolizes wickedness and idolatry removed for ever from the Holy Land to Babylon (from whence Israel is redeemed), there to mingle with kindred elements. ...
The red go northward to bathe in blood, Babylon; the white go north after the red, to conquer Medo-Persia; the grisled go south to deal with Graeco-Macedonian Egypt; the bay or rather fleet "walk to and fro through the earth" to counterwork "Satan's going to and fro in the earth" in connection with Rome, the last of the four world powers (Job 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 2:8-9; 1 Timothy 4:1). The crowns were made of silver and gold, presented for the temple by Heldah, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, coming from Babylon, and should be deposited in the temple' as a memorial of the donors until Messiah appear; and as typifying Israel's return from afar to the King of the Jews at Jerusalem (Isaiah 60:9), and secondarily the conversion of the Gentiles from "far off" (Zechariah 6; Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:22-23; Isaiah 60:10; Isaiah 57:19). After 14 years of interruption under Smerdis the rebuilding of the temple was resumed, 70 years after the fall of Solomon's temple; Haggai and Zechariah encouraged Zerubbabel and Jeshua amidst apathy on the part of the younger generation who were accustomed to the absence of Mosaic ritual in Babylon, and who undervalued the humble beginnings of the restored temple, in contrast with the gorgeous pomp of the Babylonian temples. (80 years almost after Zerubbabel's first expedition from Babylon to Jerusalem), and Nehemiah 445 B
Zechariah, Prophecy of - Babylon is not seen here: it had received its punishment. ...
Zechariah 1:18-21 refer to the four kingdoms as horns, so fully prophesied of in Daniel — the Babylonian, the Median and Persian, the Greek, and the Roman. In principle this was to be seen in the remnant returned from Babylon. Subsequently two women (emblematic of commercial covetousness) come forth (doubtless typical of twin forms of the development of evil), and carry it to the land of Shinar, where Babylon, the mother of idolatry, was built, there to build the ephah a house. It doubtless points to the apostasy of the Jews in the last days: its character is Babylonian. ...
Zechariah 6:1-8 introduce the administrative spirits of God's providential government connected with the four Gentile empires as horses: the red (Babylon), the black (Medes and Persians), the white (Greek), and the grisled and bay (Roman), the latter probably having two horses because of the double character of its government, relics of which exist in various forms until revived again before the Lord comes to reign. 31, the date of the establishment of the Roman empire), and Zechariah 6:8 to the fall of Babylon
Remnant - Most conclusive is the statement against Babylon, which combines the ideas of reputation (name ) and remnant, perhaps as an idiom for total destruction: "I will cut off from Babylon her name and survivors (sa'ar)" (Isaiah 14:22 ; cf. Such news of total destruction was evidence of God's determination to proceed in judgment, but the news was intended to persuade vacillating persons to spare their lives by defecting to the Babylonians (Jeremiah 21:8-9 ). Jeremiah addresses this question for his situation: God's future lay with those who had been taken to Babylon (the good figs), not with those who stayed in the land (the bad figs, Jeremiah 24 )
Persia - Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians. of Media has one inscription in three languages, Persian, Babylonian, and Stythic, read by Grotefend). ) The king lived at Susa (Esther 1:2; Nehemiah 1:1) or Babylon (Ezra 7:9; Nehemiah 13:6). ...
He condemns the notion of two independent eternal principles, good and evil, and makes the supreme God Creator of both (and that under Him the angel of light and the angel of darkness are in perpetual conflict) as Isaiah teaches, and in connection with the prophecy of Cyrus the Jews' deliverer from Babylon: "thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, Cyrus . Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon and restored the Jews (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-4; Ezra 1:2-4)
Josiah - On the international scene during those years Assyria's power was waning, and Babylon's was on the rise. Assyria had aligned itself with Egypt against Babylon
Iron (2) - Silver (Medo-Persia) is not so heavy as gold (Babylon), brass (Greece) not so heavy as silver, and iron not so heavy as brass; the weight being arranged in the reverse of stability
Strong, Stronger - ), "boisterous;" (2) famine, Luke 15:14 ; (3) things in the mere human estimate, 1 Corinthians 1:27 ; (4) Paul's letters, 2 Corinthians 10:10 ; (5) the Lord's crying and tears, Hebrews 5:7 ; (6) consolation, Hebrews 6:18 ; (7) the voice of an angel, Revelation 18:2 (in the best texts; some have megas, "great"); (8) Babylon, Revelation 18:10 ; (9) thunderings, Revelation 19:6
Kenites - The Kenites did not as Edom dwell in the rocks (Obadiah 1:3-4), but by leaving their nomadic life near Horeb to join Israel wandering in quest of a home the Kenite really placed his rest upon a safe rock, and would only be carried away when Assyria and Babylon took Israel and Judah; with the difference however that Judah should be restored, but the Kenites not so because they forfeited God's blessing by maintaining independence of Israel though intimately joined and by never entering inwardly into God's covenant of grace with Israel
Dispensations - It is made an objection to the Jewish dispensation that it was restricted to one nation; but its influence extended beyond Israel to the adjoining nations, Egypt famed for wisdom, the Canaanites for war, Phoenicia for commerce, and ultimately to Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome
Moon - The moon was worshipped as Isis in Egypt; as Karnaim, "two horns," of Ashtoreth, wife of Baal the king of heaven (the male and female symbolizing the generative powers of nature), in Syria; as Sin, "lord of the month," in Babylon
Taxes - This became an annual payment on the return from Babylon; at first only a third of a shekel (Nehemiah 10:32); afterward a half, the didrachma (Matthew 17:24); paid by every Jew wherever in the world he might be (Josephus Hebron - ...
On the return from Babylon some of the children of Judah dwelt in Kirjath Arba (Nehemiah 11:25)
Harvest - The nation of Babylon comes to "harvest" her (Jeremiah 51:33 )
Book - Many such tablets have been found in the excavations made at Nineveh, Babylon and other places
Zephaniah - Appealed to by Shemaiah in a letter from Babylon to punish Jeremiah with imprisonment and the stocks for declaring the captivity would be long (Jeremiah 29:25-26; Jeremiah 29:29)
Amen - ' Hananiah prophesied falsely that within two full years all the vessels of the Lord's house would be returned from Babylon; Jeremiah said "Amen, the Lord do so;" though he knew it was a false prophecy he could well hope that such a thing might be
Tribe - Nebuchadnezzar took the city of Jerusalem, entirely ruined it, and took away all the inhabitants of Judah and Benjamin to Babylon, and the other provinces of his empire, A
Hebron - During the captivity of Babylon, the Edomites having invaded the southern parts of Judea, made themselves masters of Hebron; hence Josephus sometimes makes it a part of Edom
Artaxerxes - He took Babylon from Belshazzar, son of Nebuchadnezzar; and he put in his place Kiresch, who by us is called Cyrus
Fitches - One would think from the intercourse of ancient Egypt with Babylon and with India, that this country could not be ignorant of a grain so well suited to its climate
Mordecai - He was carried captive, to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, with Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, king of Judah, A
Bird - Bar_3:17 , speaking of the kings of Babylon says, "They had their pastime with the fowls of the air;" and Daniel 2:38 , tells Nebuchadnezzar that God had made the fowls of the air subject to him
People of the Land - 2 Kings 25:18-21 records that Nebuchadrezzar put to death at Riblah “sixty men of the people of the land,” along with others held responsible for the revolt against Babylon resulting in the fall of Jersualem in 587 B. ...
The “people of the land” are also portrayed as “the poor of the land” who remained in Jerusalem during the Babylonian Exile (2 Kings 24:14 ; 2 Kings 25:12 )
Israel, Kingdom of - And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine
Hezeki'ah - (2 Kings 20:4 ) An embassy coming from Babylon ostensibly to compliment Hezekiah on his convalescence, but really to form an alliance between the two powers, is favorably received by the king, who shows them the treasures which he had accumulated
Miz'Pah - (Joshua 18:26 ; 1 Kings 15:22 ; 2 Chronicles 16:6 ; Nehemiah 3:7 ) It was one of the places fortified by Asa against the incursions of the kings of northern Israel, (1 Kings 15:22 ; 2 Chronicles 16:6 ; Jeremiah 41:10 ) and after the destruction of Jerusalem it became the residence of the superintendent appointed by the king of Babylon, (Jeremiah 40:7 ) etc
Vision(s) - It was Daniel's vision of the night that saved Daniel and the wisemen of Babylon from the irrational Nebuchadnezzar, who had been frightened by his own bizarre dream (Daniel 2:1,19 ). Daniel was the only "wiseman" in Babylon who could interpret Nebuchadnezzar's second dream (chap
Mouth - That nation, with the Medians in supremacy, destroyed the kingdom of his three predecessors in Babylon. He is represented as devouring that which had been built up by the three great kings of Babylon
Ezra - A Jewish exile in Babylon in the reign of Artaxerxes I. He doubtless stood at the head or, at any rate, was a leading figure of a new order which had grown up in the Exile among the Jews of the ‘Golah’ or captivity in Babylonia. The centre of Jewish culture, wealth, and leisure was at this time and for some time continued to be Babylonia, where external circumstances had become (since the Persian supremacy) comparatively favourable for the Jews. ’ Moved by religious zeal, and also, it would seem, with the statesman-like view of making Jerusalem once more the real spiritual metropolis of Judaism, Ezra conceived the idea of Infusing new life and new ideals into the Judæan community, by leading a fresh hand of zealously religious exiles from Babylonia back to Judæa on a mission of reform. All Jews who so wished could depart from Babylon; offerings were to be carried to the Temple in Jerusalem, and the Law of God was to be enforced
Antichrist - And the Albigenses and Waldenses, who may be called the Protestants of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, expressly asserted in their declarations of faith, that the church of Rome was the whore of Babylon. The Papists imagine they view in the prophetical picture of antichrist, imperial Rome, elated by her victories, exulting in her sensuality and her spoils, polluted by idolatry, persecuting the people of God, and finally falling like the first Babylon; whilst a new and holy city, represented by their own communion, filled with the spotless votaries of the Christian faith, rises out of its ruins, and the victory of the cross is completed over the temples of Paganism
Idol, Idolatry - Micah's teraphim also were the objects of idolatrous worship, even till the captivity of Israel in Babylon, Judges 17:5 18:30,31 . After the return from Babylon, we do not find the Jews any more reproached with idolatry
Assyria - Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isaiah 7:20 ; 8:7 . After the overthrow of the Assyrian state, the name continued to be applied to those countries which had been formerly under its dominion, namely, (a) To Babylonia, 2 Kings 23:29 ; Jeremiah 2:18 . Esarhaddon, his son and successor, ravaged Judah in the days of Manasseh, and carried the conquered sovereign in chains to Babylon. But the kingdom fell at length into the hands of the Medes, the monarchy was divided between them and the Babylonians, and the very name of Assyria was thenceforth forgotten
Shemaiah - A prophet, called ‘the Nehelamite,’ carried into captivity at Babylon with Jehoiachin, actively engaged in opposing Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 29:24-32 )
Sheshbazzar - Jeremiah - With the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, Nabuchodonosor gave Jeremias the choice of going to Babylon, or remaining at Jerusalem
Jeremias - With the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple, Nabuchodonosor gave Jeremias the choice of going to Babylon, or remaining at Jerusalem
Dispersion - ...
Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. They never returned to their own land as a distinct people, although many individuals from among these tribes, there can be no doubt, joined with the bands that returned from Babylon on the proclamation of Cyrus. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia
Fratricelli - ...
They held the Romish church to be Babylon, and proposed to establish another far more perfect one: they maintained that the rule of St
Repentance - A national repentance, such as the Jews in Babylon were called unto; to which temporal blessings were promised, Ezekiel 18:1-32 ; Ezekiel 19:1-14 ; Ezekiel 20:1-49 ; Ezekiel 21:1-32 ; Ezekiel 22:1-31 ; Ezekiel 23:1-49 ; Ezekiel 24:1-27 ; Ezekiel 25:1-17 ; Ezekiel 26:1-21 ; Ezekiel 27:1-36 ; Ezekiel 28:1-26 ; Ezekiel 29:1-21 ; Ezekiel 30:1-26 ; Ezekiel 31:1-18 ; Ezekiel 32:1-30
Council - As the permanent great council it probably took its rise after the return from Babylon, under the Graeco-Macedonian supremacy. The vice-president is called "father of the house of judgment" in the Talmud One scribe registered the votes for acquittal, another those for condemnation, according to the Babylonian Gemara
Servant, Service - ...
Many persons in the Old Testament are called "servants, " among them Abraham (Genesis 26:24 ), Jacob (Genesis 32:4 ), Joshua (Joshua 24:29 ), Ruth (Ruth 3:9 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 1:11 ), Samuel (1 Samuel 3:9 ), Jesse (1 Samuel 17:58 ), Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel 11:21 ), Joab (2 Samuel 14:20 ), Isaiah (Isaiah 20:3 ), Daniel (Daniel 9:17 ), Ben-Hadad of Aram (1 Kings 20:32 ), and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (Jeremiah 25:9 )
Lydda - Its importance was largely due to its position at the intersection of two highways of intercourse and traffic-the road from Joppa up to Jerusalem by the Vale of Ajalon, and the caravan route from Egypt to Syria and Babylon
Gedaliah - "Fear not to be servants of the Chaldees; dwell in the land, and serve the king of Babylon, and it shall be well with you. His death is commemorated in the Jewish calendar as a national calamity; and many Jews under Johanan, fearing Babylon's vengeance, fled to Egypt, forcing Jeremiah with them (Jeremiah 41:18)
Ahasuerus - Cyrus having taken Babylon set over it, as viceroy with royal state, his grandfather Astyages, or (as chronology requires) Astyages' successor, i
Alliances - Hence the care to guard against the same evil, at the return from Babylon (Ezra 9; 10; Nehemiah 13; Malachi 2:11-17). Ahaz' appeal to Tiglath Pileser for help against Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria opened the way to Assyrian and Babylonian predominance (2 Kings 16)
Ashkelon - Ashkelon subsequently was independent or under the control of Assyria, Egypt, Babylon, and Tyre
Vine - The first great eagle, the King of Babylon, invaded Israel and took some of the people away as captives to his own land
Mischna - By these they were transmitted to the seventy elders; by them to the prophets, who communicated them to the men of the great sanhedrim, from whom the wise men of Jerusalem and Babylon received them
Elect - (2 John 1:1:13) And Peter speaks of the elect church at Babylon
Rebel - ” This reference to Babylon ( Book - Large libraries of this character have been round in the ruins of Nineveh, Babylon, and adjacent cities
Mishna - By these they were transmitted to the seventy elders; by them to the prophets, who communicated them to the men of the great sanhedrim, from whom the wise men of Jerusalem and Babylon received them
Shushan - They occupy an immense space between the rivers Kerah and Abzal; and like the ruins of Ctesiphon, Babylon, and Kufa, consist of hillocks of earth and rubbish, covered with broken pieces of brick and colored tile
Kings, First And Second Books of, - , the liberation of Jehoiachin from his prison at Babylon --and a still further extension to Jehoiachin's death, the time of which is not known, but which was probably not long after his liberation
Jeremiah - He may have died at Tahpanhes, or, according to a tradition, may have gone to Babylon with the army of Nebuchadnezzar; but of this there is nothing certain
Daniel - ) Carried to Babylon in Nebuchadnezzar's first deportation of captives, in the fourth (Jeremiah 25:1; Jeremiah 46:2) or third (Daniel 1:1 counting only complete years) year of Jehoiakim, the first of Nebuchadnezzar (acting under Nabopolassar in the last year of the latter's reign, but reigning alone not until the year after; as Daniel 2:1 proves, for after Daniel's three years' training the year is nevertheless called the "second" of Nebuchadnezzar, i. Daniel was put in training with three others of the royal seed, still "children" (Daniel 1:4), according to eastern etiquette, to become courtiers; and to mark his new position he received a Babylonian name, Belteshazzar (compare 2 Kings 23:34; 2 Kings 24:17; Ezra 5:14; Esther 2:7). ...
Daniel was made by Nebuchadnezzar, governor of Babylonia and president of the Babylonian "wise men," not to be confounded with the later Persian magi. Under Belshazzar Daniel was in a lower office, and was occasionally away from Babylon (Daniel 5:7-8; Daniel 5:12) at Susa (Daniel 8:2; Daniel 8:27). ...
It is an accordance with Medo-Persian ideas which flows from the truth of Scripture, that the mode of capital punishment under the Babylonian rule is represented as burning (Daniel 3), but under the Medes and Persians' exposure to wild beasts, for they would have regarded fire as polluted by contact with a corpse, while they approved the devouring of bodies by animals. Berosus calls the last Babylonian king Nabonidus, and says that he surrendered to Cyrus in Borsippa, and was assigned an honorable abode in Carmania. Rawlinson has shown that the Babylonian inscriptions at Ur (Umqueir) explain the seeming discrepancy. Belshazzar or Bel-shar-ezer (on the mother's side descended front Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel 5:11) was joint king with his father; having shut himself up in Babylon he fell there while his father at Borsippa survived. ...
If Daniel's book had been a late one, he would have copied Berosus; if it had been at variance with that prevalent in Babylonia, the Jews there would have rejected it. Some allege that Daniel erroneously attributes to the Babylonians the satrapial form of government. " Daniel writing for Jews under Persia at the time uses naturally the familiar Persian term "satrap" instead of the corresponding Babylonian term
Temple - But the temple at Babylon is alluded to, 2 Chronicles 36:7; Ezra 5:14; the temple of Diana at Ephesus, Acts 19:27; the temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, meaning the saints, and the temple in the Holy City—the New Jerusalem. Its destruction was prophesied by Jeremiah, Jeremiah 7:2; Jeremiah 7:14, and it was at last broken down and destroyed by the king of Babylon, and the nation itself carried Into captivity. 536 Cyrus the Persian king of Babylon gave permission to the Jews to return
Jeremiah - He was, in truth, a man of unblemished piety and conscientious integrity; a warm lover of his country, whose misery he pathetically deplores; and so affectionately attached to his countrymen, notwithstanding their injurious treatment of him, that he chose rather to abide with them, and undergo all hardships in their company, than separately to enjoy a state of ease and plenty, which the favour of the king of Babylon would have secured to him. Their wickedness, however, did not long pass without its reward; for, in a few years after, they were miserably destroyed, by the Babylonian armies which invaded Egypt according to the prophet's prediction, Jeremiah 44:27-28 . The prophecies delivered in his reign are contained in the twenty-first and twenty-fourth chapters, the twenty-seventh to the thirty-fourth, and the thirty-seventh to the thirty-ninth inclusively, together with the last six verses of the forty-ninth chapter, and the fiftieth and fifty-first chapters concerning the fall of Babylon. He foretold the fate of Zedekiah, Jeremiah 34:2-5 ; 2 Chronicles 36:11-21 ; 2 Kings 25:5 ; Jeremiah 52:11 ; the Babylonish captivity, the precise time of its duration, and the return of the Jews. He describes the destruction of Babylon, and the downfall of many nations, Jeremiah 25:12 ; Jeremiah 9:26 ; Jeremiah 25:19-25 ; Jeremiah 42:10-18 ; Jeremiah 46, and the following chapters, in predictions, of which the gradual and successive completion kept up the confidence of the Jews for the accomplishment of those prophecies, which he delivered relative to the Messiah and his period, Jeremiah 23:5-6 ; Jeremiah 30:9 ; Jeremiah 31:15 ; Jeremiah 32:14-18 ; Jeremiah 33:9-26
Zechariah, Theology of - Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, destroyed Jerusalem and its temple, exiling many of Judah's leaders to Babylon. After a time God raised up Cyrus, the Persian king, to defeat Babylon (539) and to release the Jews from captivity by issuing an edict in 538 allowing them to return to their land. When the Jews returned from Babylon, they followed the restoration program of the earlier prophets, Ezekiel and Jeremiah. The prophet also sees iniquity and wickedness being transported from Judah to Babylon in the vision of the measuring basket (5:5-11)
John, the Epistles of - the Christians beyond the Euphrates, outside the Roman empire, "the church at Babylon elected together with" (1 Peter 5:13) the churches in the Ephesian region, where Peter sent his epistles (1 Peter 1:1; Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, Bithynia). 1011, "John's second epistle to the Parthians (so it ought to be read for parthenous ; see Augustine quoted, JOHN'S FIRST EPISTLE) is the simplest; it was to a Babylonian, the elect lady. " Now 1 Peter 1:1-2, addresses the elect in Asia, and closes (1 Peter 5:13) "the Church at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you. So John writes to the elect church in Babylon where his old associate Peter ministered, as Peter thence had sent salutations of the elect church in the then Parthian (see Clement Alex. quoted above) Babylon to her elect sister in Asia where John presided (Wordsworth)
Habakkuk - In their place, however, stood the Babylonians. The Babylonian armies were led by the energetic Nebuchadnezzar, who was soon to succeed his father Nabopolassar as king. Over the next ten or eleven years, Jehoiakim tried to play the Babylonians off against the Egyptians until he finally exhausted the patience of Nebuchadnezzar. People from the upper classes and skilled workmen were also among those taken to Babylon as captives. The apocryphal work Bel and the Dragon (Bel and the Dragon 1:33-39) tells a story about Habakkuk being taken to Babylon by an angel to feed Daniel while he was in the lions den
Micah - ...
The Babylonian captivity and deliverance in Micah 4:10; Micah 4:1-8; Micah 7:11, confirming the genuineness of the latter half of Isaiah his contemporary, with whom Micah has so much in common and who (Isaiah 39-66) similarly foretells the captivity and deliverance. The fall of Assyria and Babylon are referred to (Micah 5:5-6; Micah 7:8; Micah 7:10). ...
He is abrupt in transitions, and elliptical, and so obscure; the contrast between Babylon, which triumphs over carnal Israel, and humble Bethlehem out of which shall come forth Israel's Deliverer and Babylon's Destroyer, is a striking instance: Micah 4:8-5:7
Nations - ...
The feeling of national exclusiveness and antipathy was intensified by the captivity in Babylon, when the prophetic and priestly instructors of the exiled Jews taught them that their calamities came upon them on account of their disloyalty to Jahweh and the ordinances of His religion, and because they compromised with idolatrous practices and heathen nations. It was in Babylon that Ezekiel drew up the programme of worship and organization for the nation after the Return, laying stress on the doctrine that Israel was to be a holy people, separated from other nations (see Ezekiel 40:1-49 ; Ezekiel 41:1-26 ; Ezekiel 42:1-20 ; Ezekiel 43:1-27 ; Ezekiel 44:1-31 ; Ezekiel 45:1-25 ; Ezekiel 46:1-24 ; Ezekiel 47:1-23 ; Ezekiel 48:1-35 )
Prophets - Ezekiel, carried captive to Babylon with Jeconiah king of Judah, 598 B. He prophesied in Babylon to the end of the captivity and probably finished about 534 B
Joel - The freshness of style, the absence of allusion to the great empires Assyria and Babylon, and the mention of Tyre, Sidon, and the Philistines (Joel 3:4) as God's executioners of judgment on Israel, accord with an early date, probably Uzziah's reign or even Joash's reign. Joel 1-2:17 the fourfold invasion answering to the four successive world empires, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, Rome. Gazare, the first, "the palmerworm," represents the 50 years of Babylon's oppression, from the temple's destruction by Nebuchadnezzar (588 B. ) to Babylon's overthrow by Cyrus (538 B
Eye - For this reason the hapless Zedekiah was punished with the loss of sight, because he had rebelled against the king of Babylon, and endeavoured to recover the independence of his throne: "Then he put out the eyes of Zedekiah; and the king of Babylon bound him in chains, and carried him to Babylon, and put him in prison till the day of his death," Jeremiah 52:11
Nin'Eveh - Nineveh is situated on the eastern bank of the river Tigris, 50 miles from its mouth and 250 miles north of Babylon. Asshur, or according to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is there described, ( Genesis 10:11 ) as extending his kingdom from the land of Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh. (Micah 5:6 ) and was believed to have been first peopled by a colony from Babylon. Unlike the vast masses of brick masonry which mark the site of Babylon, they showed externally no signs of artificial construction, except perhaps here and there the traces of a rude wall of sun-dried bricks
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - Isaiah says that the day of the Lord will involve the fall of Babylon. God's immediate agent will be the Medes whom he will stir up against Babylon; their action will be decisive. "Babylon, the jewel of kingdoms, the glory of the Babylonians' pride, will be overthrown by God like Sodom and Gomorrah" (13:19). That future may be centuries distant, as in Isaiah's prophecy about Babylon (chap. The preview of the day of the Lord, as in the destruction of Babylon or at the time of the Christ-event, including the day of Pentecost, already shows evidence of God's extraordinary work and power, so that the day of the Lord at the end of history is quite beyond human description
Peter, the Epistles of - ...
In 1 Peter 5:13 Mark is mentioned as at Babylon; this must have been after Colossians 4:10 (A. Peter wrote from Babylon (1 Peter 5:13). The apostle of the circumcision would naturally be at Chaldaean Babylon where was "a great multitude of Jews" (Josephus, Babylon to be outside the Roman empire. , is such as one writing from Babylon would adopt
Ezra - ...
...
The "scribe" who led the second body of exiles that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem B
Bashan - ...
The name "Gilead," connected with the history of the patriarch Jacob (Genesis 31:47-48), supplanted "Bashan," including Bashan as well as the region originally called "Gilead," After the return from Babylon Bashan was divided into...
(1) Gaulanitis or Jaulan, the most western, on the sea of Galilee, and lake Merom, and rising to a table land 3,000 ft
Rechab - ...
The Rechabites are spoken of as "scribes" (1 Chronicles 2:55); at the return from Babylon they took a profession, almost exclusively a Levite one. , a Hebrew title existed declaring that the Rechabites shared the Babylonian captivity, and with the Levite psalmists expressed the nation's sorrows and aspirations
Linen - It was the fitting raiment of the Lamb’s wife, ‘the righteousness of the saints’ ( Revelation 19:3 ); presumptuously assumed by ‘the great city Babylon’ ( Revelation 18:16 ); in it are also arrayed ‘the armies that are in heaven’ ( Revelation 19:14 )
Chaos - The psalmist anticipated the day when Rahab and Babylon would be forced to recognize God's rule (Psalm 87:4 )
Spikenard - * Ashdod - ), Babylon soon captured this territory and took the king of Ashdod prisoner
Ahab - A false prophet ‘roasted in the fire’ by the king of Babylon ( Jeremiah 29:21 f
Peter, First Epistle of - It was apparently sent from Babylon on the Euphrates, where many Jews were located
Ahab - A false prophet living in Babylon who prophesied lies and faced Jeremiah's condemnation (Jeremiah 29:20-23 )
Thirteen - "...
isa13 - Here is a description of the destruction of Babylon under the wrath of GOD
Haggai - " Letters were sent to Babylon by the governors of the land, and then God so ordered it that formal permission was given to continue the building
Handicraft - For ordinary building mortar was used; sometimes bitumen, as at Babylon
Temple - The hekal with its 15 usages as “palace” refers to the palaces of Ahab (1 Kings 21:1), of the king of Babylon (2 Kings 20:18), and of Nineveh ( Calf - The "calves of the lips," mentioned by Hosea 14:2 , signify the sacrifices of praise which the captives of Babylon addressed to God, being no longer in a condition to offer sacrifices in his temple
Baal - Among the Babylonians, the same idol was worshipped under the name of Isaiah 46:1 Jeremiah 50:2 51:44 . The worship of Baal was established in Babylon in the famous tower of Babel, the uppermost room of which served at the same time as an observatory, and as the repository of a collection of astronomical observations. But the Greek and Roman writers give to the Babylonian Bel the name of Jupiter Belus, meaning the planet Jupiter, which was regarded, along with the planet Venus, as the guardian and giver of all good fortune; and formed, with Venus, the most fortunate of all constellations, under which alone fortunate sovereigns could be born
Azari'ah - ) ...
One of the leaders of the children of the province who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel
Isaiah, the Book of - ...
Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly. They assert that it must be the production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of the Babylonian captivity
Gospel - When God’s Old Testament people Israel were in captivity in Babylon and God announced to them that he was going to release them and bring them back to their homeland, that was good news (Isaiah 40:9; Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 61:1-2)
Music (2) - The existence of scales or modes, of some sort, cannot therefore be questioned, (c) They seem to have been in accord with those in use at Babylon (Psalms 137:1-3)
Canon of the Old Testament - Accordingly (as the rabbis allege, compare 2 Esdras) it was at the return from the Babylonian captivity that Ezra and "the great synagogue" (a college of 120 scholars) collected and promulgated all the Old Testament Scriptures in connection with their reconstruction of the Jewish church. " Daniel (Daniel 9:2) "understood by THE books (so the Hebrew) the number of the years whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem"; probably Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1-10), others explain it the books of the Old Testament or of the prophets. Israel is the real speaker throughout; and the features of the psalm suit the Jews' position just after their return from Babylon
Sanhedrim - During the captivity it was kept at Babylon. After the return from Babylon, it remained at Jerusalem, as it is said, to the time of the sicarii or assassins; afterward it was removed to Jamnia, thence to Jericho, to Uzzah, to Sepharvaim, to Bethsamia, to Sephoris, and last of all to Tiberias, where it continued till its utter extinction
Jeremiah - From this time ‘Babylon’ stands for the tyrannous and corrupting powers of the world; she becomes, for Scripture and the Church, the metropolis of the kingdom of Satan, as ‘Jerusalem’ of the kingdom of the saints. ...
Jehoiakim, after Carchemish, transferred his allegiance to Babylon. The fanaticism thus excited, of which the Jewish race has given so many subsequent examples, brought about the second, and fatal, rupture with Babylon. Jehoiakim died just before this; his youthful son Jehoiachin (called also Jeconiah and Coniah ) surrendered the city, and was carried captive, with the queen-mother and the élite of the nobles and people, to Babylon, where he lived for many years, to be released upon Nebuchadrezzar’s death in 561 ( 2 Kings 24:6-17 ; 2 Kings 25:27-30 , Jeremiah 22:24-30 ). The same false hopes were exciting the exiles in Babylon (ch. Nebuchadrezzar, aware of these movements, summoned Zedekiah to Babylon ( Jeremiah 51:59 ); the latter was able, however, to clear himself of complicity, and returned to Jerusalem. The Babylonian empire lasted from b
Hezekiah - The Babylonian leader, Merodachbaladan, even congratulated Hezekiah on his recovery. Hezekiah hosted this Babylonian leader at a reception, but Isaiah met this event with a warning that succeeding generations would be subjected to Babylonian captivity (Isaiah 39:1-8 ). ...
Sennacherib destroyed the city of Babylon in 689 B
Star of the Magi - ...
A somewhat more difficult question than that about the appearance of the star is, Why did the wise men connect it with the birth of a king of the Jews? The traditional answer to this question is that there had been handed down from generation to generation among the wise men of Babylon a knowledge of Balaam’s prophecy, ‘There shall come forth a star out of Jacob’ (Numbers 24:17 ), and that, when this notable star appeared, it was considered to be the herald of the appearance of a great person. There certainly was a Jewish population in Babylonia in our Lord’s day, and if this prophecy was recognized as coming from a Hebrew document, and reference was made to the Jews, it would be most natural for the wise men, if they were Babylonians, to set their faces towards Jerusalem
Temple, the Second - As in the tabernacle, there was in it only one golden lamp for the holy place, one table of shewbread, and the incense altar, with golden censers, and many of the vessels of gold that had belonged to Solomon's temple that had been carried to Babylon but restored by Cyrus (Ezra 1:7-11 )
Bethel - " After the overthrow of Israel, the king of Assyria sent one of the Israelite priests to settle at Bethel, and teach the new settlers from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, "the manner of the god of the land," and "how they should fear Jehovah" (2 Kings 17:27-28)
Beersheba - ...
"From Geba to Beersheba" or "from Beersheba to mount Ephraim" was the formula comprehending the southern kingdom of Judah after the severance of Israel's ten tribes (2 Kings 23:8; 2 Chronicles 19:4), and on the return from Babylon still narrower, "from Beersheba to the valley of Hinnom" (Nehemiah 11:30)
Peace - After the years of exile in Babylon, however, the good news of peace would prepare a repentant people for salvation from captivity and return to their homeland (Isaiah 52:7-10; cf
Epistle - Jeremiah wrote to the captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1-3)
Oaths - Among the Babylonians the seven planets each represented a god. ‘… saying, The Lord make thee like Zedekiah and like Ahab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire’ … ( Jeremiah 29:22 ; cf
Thebes - Ezekiel proclaims the destruction of Thebes by the arm of Babylon, ( Ezekiel 30:14-16 ) and Jeremiah predicted the same overthrow, (Jeremiah 46:25,26 ) The city lies to-day a nest of Arab hovels amid crumbling columns and drifting sands. 525) completed the destruction that the Babylonian had begun
Torment - ’ The torments of Babylon the Great consist of plagues, death, mourning, famine, and burning with fire (Revelation 18:7 f
Malachi - ...
The people of Israel who returned to Jerusalem from Babylon and Persia in 536 B
Obadiah, Book of - Its central section, Obadiah 1:10-14 , deals with the fall of Jerusalem to the Babylonians in 586 B. Despite treaty ties (“brother,” Obadiah 1:10 ) the Edomitea, along with others, had failed to come to Judah's aid and had even helped Babylon by looting Jerusalem and handing over refugees
Oath - An oath even to a pagan king is so binding that Jehovah's chief reason for dethroning Zedekiah and giving him over to die in Babylon was his violating his oath to Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 17:13-20; 2 Chronicles 36:13)
Gomorrah - Jerusalem when corrupted (for "the corruption of the best is the worst of all corruptions") is termed Sodom and her people Gomer (Isaiah 1:9-10); as the church apostate corrupted is termed "Babylon" (Revelation 17)
Ishmael - He treacherously slew Gedaliah, whom the king of Babylon had made governor over the cities of Judah, and all the Jews that were with him in Mizpah
Dancing - Even in places dedicated to relaxation and delight, by the rivers of Babylon, it was impossible for captive exiles to sing the songs of the Lord’s deliverance (Psalms 137:1-4)
Nahum - Here it is not the 'gates of the city,' as when Babylon was taken, but 'the gates of the rivers
Shishak - The name Shishak answers to Sheshach ("Babylon"), as Usarken and Tekerut, his successors, answer to Sargon and Tiglath, Semitic names; Νamuret ("Nimrod") too is a name of princes of this line
God - " (Deuteronomy 28:58)...
It is said in the history of the Jews, that after their return from Babylon, they lost the true pronunciation of this glorious name JEHOVAH
Manasseh - ...
God brought the king of Assyria against Manasseh, who took him 'among the thorns,' or 'bound him with chains of brass,' and carried him to Babylon
Go Away, Leave - ...
The best-known Old Testament captivity was the one brought by God through the kings of Assyria and Babylon ( Mother - “The mother of a way” is the starting point for roads: “For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination …” ( Tadmor - Josephus places it two days' journey from the Euphrates, and six days' journey from Babylon
Ezekiel - He was carried away captive to Babylon with Jehoiachim, king of Judah, B. The last nine chapters contain a remarkable vision of the structure of a new temple and a new polity, applicable in the first instance to the return from the Babylonian captivity, but in its ultimate sense referring to the glory and prosperity of the universal church of Christ
Abomination - Every thing in doctrine or practice which tended to corrupt the simplicity of the Gospel is also in Scripture called abominable; hence Babylon is represented, Revelation 17:4 , as holding in her hand a cup "full of abominations
Elam - An important country of Western Asia, called Elamtu by the Babylonians and Elymais by the Greeks (also Susiana , from Shushan or Susa the capital). , where it is mentioned as the suzerain of Babylonia and therewith of the whole western country including Palestine. For many centuries previous, Elam had upon the whole been subordinate to the ruling power of Babylonia, no matter which of the great cities west of the Tigris happened to be supreme. Not many years later, Hammurabi of Babylon (perhaps the Amraphel of Genesis 14:1-24 ) threw off the yoke of Elam, which henceforth held an inferior place. The splendidly defensible position of the capital contributed greatly to its independence and recuperative power, and thus Susa became a repository of much valuable spoil secured from the Babylonian cities. A change in relations gradually took place after Assyria began to control Babylonia and thus encroach upon Elam, which was thenceforth, as a rule, in league with the patriotic Babylonians, especially with the Chaldæans from the south-land. Particular interest attached to the part taken by the Elamites in the overthrow of Babylonia
Walk - At the end of twelve months, he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon
Handicraft - For ordinary building mortar was used; sometimes, perhaps, bitumen, as was the case at Babylon
Nehemi'ah - ...
One of the leaders of the first expedition from Babylon to Jerusalem under Zerabbabel
Paradise - (Isaiah 14:9-10) In the person of the impious king of Babylon, the sacred writer thus addresseth him: "Hell from beneath is moved for thee to meet thee at thy coming; it stirreth up the dead for thee, even all the chief ones of the earth; it hath raised up from their thrones all the kings of the nations
Oil (Olive) - In Revelation 18:13 oil appears in the list of the merchandise of the apocalyptic Babylon. Daiches (Babylonian Oil Magic in the Talmud and in the later Jewish Literature, 1913)
Isaiah - With Asshurbanipal (668-627) the empire began to crumble and ultimately fell to the Babylonians in 612-609 under the command of Nabopolassar (625-585). Isaiah soundly castigated Hezekiah for entertaining the seditious Babylonian princelet whose real purpose was to secure military aid for a rebellion in south Babylonia in an effort to overthrow Sennacherib (Isaiah 2:6-229 ). In much of the book that now bears the name of Isaiah, the reigning power was Babylon, which did not rise to power until after 625 B. Some Bible students think that the writings that reflect the Babylonian period may be the work of the disciples of Isaiah, who projected his thought into the new and changed situation of the Babylonian world. Those thus singled out included Babylon (Isaiah 13-14 ), Moab (Isaiah 15-16 ), Damascus (Isaiah 17:1-14 ), Ethiopia (Isaiah 18:1 ), Egypt (Isaiah 19-20 ), and Tyre (Isaiah 29:5-89 ). The setting of these chapters is incontestably that of the later years of the Babylonian Exile when Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ) was beginning his conquests which would ultimately overthrow the Babylonian power (550 B. The city of Jerusalem and its Temple had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B. , and a considerable segment of the upper classes had been forcibly exiled to Babylon. Was it their unforgivable guilt; had God forgotten them? The stunning victory of Cyrus over the mighty Babylonian power (538 B. The prophetic voice of Isaiah 40-55 affirmed the purpose of God in the dark days of the Babylonian Exile. What a sorry contrast was the Babylonian idolatry with its vaunted pretensions (Isaiah 46-47 ). The Persians were about to take over the Babylonian power; they would be trustworthy and friendly to the exiles. The difficulties of the journey would be provided for by the God who programmed the Exodus and would once more duplicate that performance in the release of the exiles from Babylonian tyranny. Here is a change of venue from Isaiah 40-55 ; no longer was Babylon the focus; Palestine was, with the Temple restored and sacrifice and worship being conducted
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - In this manner classes of professional diviners and magicians arose, as in Egypt ( Genesis 41:8 , Exodus 7:11 ), in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ), in connexion with Baal ( 1 Kings 18:19 ), and even among the Israelites in the lower rank of professed prophets ( Micah 3:5-11 ; see G. This explains the increasing severity with whic magic and divination are regarded in Scripture; nevertheless we find it recorded, without any adverse comment, that Daniel was made head of the ‘wise men’ of Babylon although these included magicians, enchanters, sorcerers, and ‘Chaldæans’ ( Daniel 2:2 ; Daniel 2:48 ); and that the wise men ( Matthew 2:1 ) were magi . In Babylon, not only were illicit magical practices widely indulged in, but the use of such arts was recognized by their being entrusted to a privileged class ( Daniel 2:2 ). [6] pharmakoi ], but this is not certain), and ‘ Chaldæans ’ ( kasdîm , a name which, from being a national designation, had come to mean those who were skilled in the occult lore of Babylonia and could interpret dreams). Recent discoveries have revealed that the Babylonians believed in a vast number of demons who could be compelled by proper spells; also they practised astrology ( Isaiah 47:12-13 ), augury from the inspection of victims ( Ezekiel 21:21 ), the tying of magic knots, and the designation of fortunate and unfavourable days. Books of incantations , reputed to have been the work of Solomon, were extant, and the Babylonian Talmud is full of superstition (Schürer, HJP
Without any indication of the method of divination, operations denoted by the word qesem appear among the Moabites (Balaam, Numbers 23:23 , payment being made for the service, Numbers 22:7 ), among the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 6:2 ), and among the Babylonians ( Isaiah 44:25 ). (2) But the belief in Divine warnings through dreams came very near to divination when Interpreters were sought to make clear their meaning, as in Egypt ( Genesis 40:5 ff; Genesis 41:1 Peterharaoh calls the chartummîm a word used only in the sense of scribes possessed of occult knowledge), among the Midianites ( Judges 7:13 ), and in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ). Professional astrologers were prominent among the Assyrians and Babylonians, among whom a standard astrological work was constructed as early as the 16th cent. Babylonian astrology, with its announcement of coming events and notification of favourable and unpropitious days (such as are now extant on Babylonian clay tablets), is mentioned in Isaiah 47:13 ; but astrology does not seem to have been practised by Israel in early times; Jeremiah speaks of it as ‘the way of the nations,’ and warns the people against it. This was common in Babylon (Diod
Palestine - He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and carried the people into captivity to Babylon (B. After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (B
Jehoiada - Either carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, or deposed by the Jewish rulers as a favorer of Jeremiah. This accords with the false prophet at Babylon, Shemaiah's, accusation by letter against Zephaniah, who was promoted to Jehoiada's place, for ingratitude to God in not apprehending Jeremiah, seeing that (in Shemaiah's view) "the Lord had made him priest in the stead of Jehoiada the priest" for this very purpose (Jeremiah 29:25-29; 2 Kings 25:18)
Number - Evidently these numbers symbolize the long "Gentile times" from the overthrow