What does Assyria mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
אַשּׁ֔וּר the second son of Shem 30
אַשּׁ֖וּר the second son of Shem 20
אַשּׁ֑וּר the second son of Shem 16
אַשּֽׁוּר the second son of Shem 15
אַשּׁוּר֙ the second son of Shem 13
אַשּׁ֛וּר the second son of Shem 6
אַשּׁ֜וּר the second son of Shem 3
אַשּׁ֥וּר the second son of Shem 3
؟ אַשּֽׁוּר the second son of Shem 3
אַשּׁ֣וּר ׀ the second son of Shem 3
אַשּׁ֑וּרָה the second son of Shem 3
אַשּׁ֗וּר the second son of Shem 3
מֵֽאַשּׁ֑וּר the second son of Shem 2
וְאַשּׁ֖וּר the second son of Shem 2
אַשּׁ֤וּר ׀ the second son of Shem 2
אַשּׁ֡וּר the second son of Shem 2
אַשּׁ֔וּרָה the second son of Shem 2
אַשּׁ֨וּר the second son of Shem 2
אַשּׁ֤וּר the second son of Shem 2
אַ֭שּׁוּר the second son of Shem 1
וּלְאַשּׁ֑וּר the second son of Shem 1
מֵֽאַשּׁ֔וּר the second son of Shem 1
מֵאַשּֽׁוּר the second son of Shem 1
וּמֵֽאַשּׁ֖וּר the second son of Shem 1
אַ֠שּׁוּר the second son of Shem 1
אַשֻּׁ֑ר the second son of Shem 1
אַשּׁוּר֩ ׀ the second son of Shem 1
בְּאַשּׁ֑וּר the second son of Shem 1
מֵאַשּׁ֨וּר the second son of Shem 1
וּבְאַשּׁ֖וּר the second son of Shem 1
אַשּׁ֣וּר the second son of Shem 1
לְאַשּׁ֣וּר the second son of Shem 1
אַשּׁוּר֮ the second son of Shem 1
אַשּֽׁוּרָה the second son of Shem 1
מֶ֣לֶךְ king. 1

Definitions Related to Assyria

H804


   1 the second son of Shem, eponymous ancestor of the Assyrians.
   2 the people of Assyria.
   3 the nation, Assyria.
   4 the land, Assyria or Asshur.
   Additional Information: Asshur or Assyria = “a step”.
   

H4428


   1 king.
   

Frequency of Assyria (original languages)

Frequency of Assyria (English)

Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Assyria
A celebrated country and empire, had its name from Ahur, or Assur, the second son of Shem, who settled in that region, Genesis 10:22 . In the Bible the name Assyria is employed in three different significations: namely, 1. Assyria ancient and proper lay east of the Tigris, between Armenia, Susiana, and Media, and appears to have comprehended the six provinces attributed to it by Ptolemy, namely, Arrapachis, Adiabene, Arbelis, (now Erbil,) Calachene, (Heb. Halah? 2 Kings 17:6 ,) Apollonias, and Sittacne. It is the region which mostly comprises the modern Kurdistan and the pashalik of Mosul. Of these provinces, Adiabene was the most fertile and important; in it was situated Nineveh the capital; and the term Assyria, in its most narrow sense, seems sometimes to have meant only this province. 2. Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isaiah 7:20 ; 8:7 . In one instance, the idea of the empire predominates so as to exclude that of Assyria proper, namely, Genesis 2:14 , where the Hiddekel or Tigris is said to flow eastward of Assyria. 3. After the overthrow of the Assyrian state, the name continued to be applied to those countries which had been formerly under its dominion, namely, (a) To Babylonia, 2 Kings 23:29 ; Jeremiah 2:18 . (b) To Persia, Ezra 6:22 , where Darius is also called king of Assyria.
The early history of Assyria is involved in obscurity. We know from the sacred narrative that it was a powerful nation. Israel was subjugated by one of its monarchs in the period of the Judges, and during the reign of the kings the Assyrian power was an object of perpetual dread. Pul, king of Assyria, invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem. Tiglath-pileser assisted Ahaz against a confederate army formed of the Syrian forces in league with those of the ten tribes. Shalmanezer invaded Israel, conquered Hoshea, and made him a vassal, bound to pay a yearly tribute. Hoshea wishing however to throw off the yoke, attempted to form a league with Egypt, and refused the tribute. On ascertaining this secret design of the Israelitish prince, Shalmanezer again invaded Israel, reduced Samaria, loaded its king with fetters, and transported the people of the land into Media, and put an end to the separate kingdom of the ten tribes. The three tribes located east of Jordan had already been deported into Media by Tiglath-pileser, when he ravaged Israel to save Ahaz, and the kingdom of Judah. Sennacherib of Assyria come into Judah with a powerful army in the reign of Hezekiah, but was miraculously defeated. Esarhaddon, his son and successor, ravaged Judah in the days of Manasseh, and carried the conquered sovereign in chains to Babylon. After this period the empire of Assyria suddenly waned, and its last monarch was the effeminate Sardanapalus, Numbers 24:22 . Its capital was one of the most renowned of the eastern world. See NINEVEH . But the kingdom fell at length into the hands of the Medes, the monarchy was divided between them and the Babylonians, and the very name of Assyria was thenceforth forgotten.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Assyria
The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians were Semites (Genesis 10:22 ), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military people, the "Romans of the East." Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel, Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre and Sidon.
About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name of Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. 740) Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a yearly tribute.
In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings 15:19 ). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8 ); who accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 722. He also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5 ), but was deposed in favour of Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into captivity, B.C. 722 (2 Kings 17:1-6,24 ; 18:7,9 ). He also overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:6,12,22,24,34 ). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C. 705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13 ; 19:37 ; Isaiah 7:17,18 ); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 ).
Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In B.C. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan ( 2 Kings 20:12 ), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria fell according to the prophecies of (Isaiah 10:5-19 ), (Nahum 3:19 ), and (Zephaniah 3:13 ), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19 ; Isaiah 36:4 ). Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be a nation. (See NINEVEH; BABYLON .)
Holman Bible Dictionary - Assyria, History And Religion of
Assyria (Assihrya) was a nation in northern Mesopotamia in Old Testament times that became a large empire during the period of the Israelite kings. Assyrian expansion into the region of Palestine (about 855-625 B.C.) had enormous impact on the Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. The name Assyria (in Hebrew, Ashshur ) is from Asshur, its first capital, founded about 2000 B.C. The foundation of other Assyrian cities, notably Calah and Nineveh, appears in Genesis 10:11-12 .
The history of Assyria is well documented in royal Assyrian annals, building inscriptions, king lists, correspondence, and other archaeological evidence. By 1900 B.C. these cities were vigorously trading as far away as Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor. An expanded Assyria warred with the famous King Hammurabi of Babylon shortly before breaking up into smaller city states about 1700 B.C.
Beginning about 1300 B.C., a reunited Assyria made rapid territorial advances and soon became an international power. Expanding westward, Tiglath-pileser I (1115-1077 B.C.) became the first Assyrian monarch to march his army to the shores of the Mediterranean. With his murder, however, Assyria entered a 166-year period of decline.
Assyria awoke from its dark ages under Adad-nirari II (911-891 B.C.), who reestablished the nation as a power to be reckoned with in Mesopotamia. His grandson, Ashurnasirpal II (883-859 B.C.) moved Assyria toward the status of an empire. Ashurnasirpal II used a well-deserved reputation for cruelty to extort tribute and taxes from states within the reach of his army in predatory campaigns. He also rebuilt the city of Calah as the new military and administrative capital. Carved stone panels in Ashurnasirpal's palace there show violent scenes of the king's vicious campaigns against unsubmissive enemies.
Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C.) continued a policy of Assyrian expansion through his annual campaigns in all directions. These were no longer mere predatory raids. Rather they demonstrated a systematic economic exploitation of subject states. As always, failure to submit to Assyria brought vicious military action. The results, however, were not always a complete victory for Assyria. In such a context Assyria first encountered the Hebrew kingdoms of the Bible. In 853 B.C., at Qarqar in north Syria, Shalmaneser fought a coalition of twelve kings including Hadad-ezer (Ben-Hadad, 1Kings 20:26,1 Kings 20:34 ) of Aram-Damascus and Ahab of Israel. This confrontation is not mentioned in the Bible, but it may have taken place during a three-year period of peace between Israel and Aram-Damascus (1 Kings 22:1 ). In his official inscriptions Shalmaneser claims victory, but the battle was inconclusive. In 841 B.C., he finally defeated Hazael of Damascus and on Mt. Carmel received tribute from Tyre, Sidon, and King Jehu of Israel. A scene carved in relief on the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser, unearthed at Calah, shows Jehu groveling before Shalmaneser, the only known depiction of an Israelite king.
With the death of Shalmaneser, Assyria entered another period of decline during which she was occupied with the nearby kingdom of Urartu. For the next century only one Assyrian king seriously affected affairs in Palestine. Adad-nirari III (810-783 B.C.) entered Damascus, taking extensive tribute from Ben-hadad III. He is probably the “savior” of 2 Kings 13:5 , who allowed Israel to escape domination by Aram-Damascus. Nevertheless, Adad-nirari also collected tribute from Jehoash of Israel.
Assyrian preoccupation with Urartu ended with the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B.C.). The true founder of the Assyrian Empire, he made changes in the administration of conquered territories. Nations close to the Assyrian homeland were incorporated as provinces. Others were left with native rule, but subject to an Assyrian overseer. Tiglath-pileser also instituted a policy of mass deportations to reduce local nationalistic feelings. He took conquered people into exile to live in lands vacated by other conquered exiles. Compare 2 Kings 17:24 .
As Tiglath-pileser, also called Pul, arrived on the coast of Phoenicia, Menahem of Israel (2 Kings 15:19 ) and Rezin of Aram-Damascus brought tribute and became vassals of Assyria. An anti-Assyrian alliance quickly formed. Israel and Aram-Damascus attacked Jerusalem about 735 B.C. in an attempt to replace King Ahaz of Judah with a man loyal to the anti-Assyrian alliance (2 Kings 16:2-6 ; Isaiah 7:1-6 ) and thus force Judah's participation. Against the protests of Isaiah (Isaiah 7:4 ,Isaiah 7:4,7:16-17 ; Isaiah 8:4-8 ), Ahaz appealed to Tiglath-pileser for assistance (2 Kings 16:7-9 ). Tiglath-pileser, in response, campaigned against Philistia (734 B.C.), reduced Israel to the area immediately around Samaria (2 Kings 15:29 ; 733 B.C.), and annexed Aram-Damascus (732 B.C.), deporting the population. Ahaz, for his part, became an Assyrian vassal ( 2 Kings 16:10 ; 2Chronicles 28:16,2 Chronicles 28:20-22 ).
Little is known of the reign of Tiglath-pileser's successor, Shalmaneser V (726-722 B.C.), except that he besieged Samaria for three years in response to Hoshea's failure to pay tribute (2 Kings 17:3-5 ). The city finally fell to Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:6 ; 2 Kings 18:9-12 ), who apparently died in the same year. His successor, Sargon II (722-705 B.C.), took credit in Assyrian royal inscriptions for deporting 27,290 inhabitants of Samaria.
Sargon campaigned in the region to counter rebellions in Gaza in 720 B.C. and Ashdod in 712 (Isaiah 20:1 ). Hezekiah of Judah was tempted to join in the Ashdod rebellion, but Isaiah warned against such action (Isaiah 18:1 ). Meanwhile, unrest smoldered in other parts of the empire. A rebellious king of Babylon, Merodach-baladan, found support from Elam, Assyria's enemy to the east. Though forced to flee Babylon in 710 B.C., Merodach-baladan returned some years later to reclaim the throne. He sent emissaries to Hezekiah in Jerusalem (2 Kings 20:12-19 ; Isaiah 39:1 ), apparently as part of preparations for a concerted anti-Assyrian revolt.
News of Sargon's death in battle served as a signal to anti-Assyrian forces. Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) ascended the throne in the midst of widespread revolt. Merodach-baladan of Babylon, supported by the Elamites, had inspired the rebellion of all southern Mesopotamia. A number of states in Phoenicia and Palestine were also in rebellion, led by Hezekiah of Judah. After subduing Babylon, Sennacherib turned his attentions westward. In 701 B.C., he reasserted control over the city-states of Phoenicia, sacked Joppa and Ashkelon, and invaded Judah where Hezekiah had made considerable military preparations (2 Kings 20:20 ; 2Chronicles 32:1-8,2 Chronicles 32:30 ; Isaiah 22:8-11 ). Sennacherib's own account of the invasion provides a remarkable supplement to the biblical version (2 Kings 18:13-19:36 ). He claims to have destroyed 46 walled cities (see 2 Kings 18:13 ) and to have taken 200,150 captives. Sennacherib's conquest of Lachish is shown in graphic detail in carved panels from his palace at Nineveh. During the siege of Lachish, an Assyrian army was sent against Jerusalem where Hezekiah was “made a prisoner like a bird in a cage.” Three of Sennacherib's dignitaries attempted to negotiate the surrender of Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17-37 ), but Hezekiah continued to hold out with the encouragement of Isaiah (2Kings 19:1-7,2 Kings 19:20-35 ). In the end, the Assyrian army withdrew, and Hezekiah paid an enormous tribute (2 Kings 18:14-16 ). The Assyrian account claims a victory over the Egyptian army and mentions Hezekiah's tribute but is rather vague about the end of the campaign. The Bible mentions the approach of the Egyptian army (2 Kings 19:9 ) and tells of a miraculous defeat of the Assyrians by the angel of the Lord (2 Kings 19:35-36 ). The fifth century B.C. Greek historian Herodotus relates that the Assyrians suffered defeat because a plague of field mice destroyed their equipment. It is not certain whether these accounts can be combined to infer an outbreak of the plague. Certainly, Sennacherib suffered a major setback, for Hezekiah was the only ruler of the revolt to keep his throne.
On a more peaceful front, Sennacherib conducted some major building projects in Assyria. The ancient city of Nineveh was rebuilt as the new royal residence and Assyrian capital. War continued, however, with Elam, which also influenced Babylon to rebel again. An enraged Sennacherib razed the sacred city in 689 B.C. His murder, at the hands of his own sons (2 Kings 19:37 ) in 681 B.C., was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for destroying their city.
Esarhaddon (681-669 B.C.) emerged as the new king and immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon, an act which won the allegiance of the local populace. He warred with nomadic tribes to the north and quelled a rebellion in Phoenicia, while Manasseh of Judah remained a loyal vassal. His greatest military adventure, however, was an invasion of Egypt conducted in 671 B.C. The Pharaoh Taharqa fled south as Memphis fell to the Assyrians, but returned and fomented rebellion two years later. Esarhaddon died in 669 B.C. on his way back to subjugate Egypt.
After conducting a brief expedition against eastern tribes, Esarhaddon's son, Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.), set out to reconquer Egypt. Assisted by 22 subject kings, including Manasseh of Judah, he invaded in 667 B.C. He defeated Pharaoh Taharqa and took the ancient capital of Thebes. Some 1,300 miles from home, Ashurbanipal had no choice but to reinstall the local rulers his father had appointed in Egypt and hope for the best. Plans for revolt began immediately; but Assyrian officers got wind of the plot, captured the rebels, and sent them to Nineveh. Egypt rebelled again in 665 B.C. This time Ashurbanipal destroyed Thebes, also called No-Amon (Nahum 3:8 , NAS). Phoenician attempts at revolt were also crushed.
Ashurbanipal ruled at Assyria's zenith but also saw the beginning of her swift collapse. Ten years after the destruction of Thebes, Egypt rebelled yet again. Assyria could do nothing because of a war with Elam. In 651 B.C., Ashurbanipal's brother, the king of Babylon, organized a widespread revolt. After three years of continual battles Babylon was subdued, but remained filled with seeds of hatred for Assyria. Action against Arab tribes followed, and the war with Elam continued until a final Assyrian victory in 639 B.C. That same year the official annals of Ashurbanipal came to an abrupt end. With Ashurbanipal's death in 627 B.C., unrest escalated. By 626, Babylon had fallen into the hands of the Chaldean Nabopolassar. Outlying states, such as Judah under Josiah, were free to rebel without fear. War continued between Assyria and Babylon until, in 614 B.C., the old Assyrian capital Asshur was sacked by the Medes. Then, in 612 B.C., Calah was destroyed. The combined armies of the Babylonians and the Medes laid siege to Nineveh. After two months, the city fell. And all who look on you will shrink from you and say, Wasted is Nineveh; who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for her? There is no assuaging your hurt, your wound is grievous. All who hear the news of you clap their hands over you. For upon whom has not come your unceasing evil? (Nahum 3:7 ,Nahum 3:7,3:19 ). An Assyrian general claimed the throne and rallied what was left of the Assyrian army in Haran. An alliance with Egypt brought a few troops to Assyria's aid; but in 610 B.C. the Babylonians approached, and Haran was abandoned. Assyria was no more.
Religion Assyrian religion, like that of most Near Eastern nations, was polytheistic. Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. The important part of the pantheon can be divided into several broad categories: old gods, astral deities, and young gods.
1. The old gods, Anu, Enlil, and Ea, were patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities and were each given a share of the universe as their dominion. After the rise of Babylon, Marduk was also considered one of the rulers of the cosmos. Anu, god of the heavens and patron god of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ), did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur was god of the earth. Ea, the god of Eridu, was lord of the subterranean waters and the god of craftsmen.
2. Astral deities—gods associated with heavenly bodies—included the sun-god Shamash, the moon-god Sin, and Ishtar, goddess of the morning and evening star (the Greek Aphrodite and Roman Venus). Sin was the patron god of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ,Jeremiah 44:17-19,44:25 ) and served as the patron goddess of Nineveh.
Younger gods were usually associated with a newer city or none at all. Adad, the Canaanite Hadad, was the god of storms and thus both beneficial and destructive. Ninurta, the god of war and hunting, became a fitting patron for the Assyrian capital Calah. Most important, however, is the unique figure of Asshur. As patron god and namesake of the original Assyrian capital Asshur and the state itself, Asshur rose in importance to be lord of the universe and the supreme god. Since the god Asshur stood above all others, the Assyrian king was duty-bound to show his corresponding dominance on earth. Most Assyrian military campaigns were initiated “at the command of Asshur.” See Babylon, History and Religion of .
Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. The enuma elish, or Epic of Creation, originated in Babylon where it was recited and reenacted at the New Year's Festival. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other gods.
The various gods were thought of as residing in cosmic localities, but also as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The temples varied in size according to the god's importance. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and given three meals a day. On occasion, especially at the New Year's Festival, the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to visit one another in different sanctuaries. It is difficult to know what meaning the images and temples of the various gods had for the average person, and even more difficult to ascertain what comfort or help he might expect through worship of them. It seems clear, however, that beyond the expectations of health and success in his earthly life, he was without eternal hope.
Daniel C. Browning, Jr.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Assyria
The great kingdom of Assyria was situated near the river Tigris,having Armenia on the North, Mount Zagros and Media on the east, Babylonia on the south, Syria and the Syrian desert on the west; but its boundaries were doubtless not always the same. Nineveh became its capital. The first allusion to Assyria is found in Genesis 2:14 , where we read that one of the rivers of Paradise went "toward the east of Assyria," or "went eastward to Assyria," margin.
The name of Assyria appears to have arisen from its first capital, Asshur (now called Kalah Sherghat ) on the Tigris. Apparently a monarchy was established there by some from Babylonia, and there were several kings before SHALMANESERI. (about B.C. 1300), whose family kept the throne for six generations until TIGLATH- PILESERI. (about B.C. 1130), who may be said to be the founder of the first Assyrian Empire. He beautified Nineveh and carried his arms in various directions. After him the kingdom became feeble until RIMMON-NIRARI II., B.C. 911, but his victorious career was excelled by his grandson, the great ASSUR-NATSIR-PAL, B.C.883, who made conquests over the Phoenicians and the 'Kaldu' (Chaldeans).
SHALMANESERII succeeded, B.C. 858. He carried his arms still farther. We have his conquests told by himself on three monuments in the British Museum, one of which is known as the Black Obelisk. If the names are correctly interpreted he mentions as allied against him Benhadad king of Syria and Ahab king of Israel. These were defeated at the battle of Karkar, B.C. 853. Hazael of Damascus was also defeated; and from Yahua, the son of Khumri, that is, Jehu, whom he incorrectly calls son of Omri, king of Israel, he received tribute; but of this scripture says nothing.
The next king who invaded Syria was RIMMON-NIRARI III B.C. 810. He extended his victories to what he calls, 'the shore of the sea of the setting sun,' which is doubtless the Mediterranean, and imposed tribute on the Phoenicians, Israelites, Edomites, Philistines, and the king of Damascus. After this king the power of Assyria waned for a time.
The next king of note was TIGLATH -PILESER II. or III. B.C. 745, who is considered to have founded the second Assyrian kingdom. He consolidated the various dependencies, turbulent populations were removed, and the empire was divided into provinces, each of which paid a fixed annual tribute. In his inscriptions occur the names of Jehoahaz (Ahaz) of Judah; Pekah, and Hoshea of Israel; Reson (Resin) of Damascus; and Hiram of Tyre. The name of Merodach-baladan is also found. Hamath was taken and then all Palestine was at his feet. He attacked those on the east of the Jordan, and carried away the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. 1 Chronicles 5:26 . Ahaz sought his alliance against Rezin the king of Damascus. Rezin was slain and the city taken; and there Ahaz met the king of Assyria. 2 Kings 16:1-10 ; 2 Chronicles 28:16-21 . He also made himself master of Babylonia; but this afterwards gained its independence under Merodach-baladan. Some Assyrian scholars take Tiglath-pileser (whose name appears to have been Pulu) to be the same person as the Pul mentioned in the Bible; but this does not at all agree with the dates of scripture, and in 1 Chronicles 5:26 the names of Pul and Tiglath-pileser are mentioned as of two persons. See PUL.
In B.C. 727 SHALMANESER IV. succeeded to the throne. Hoshea king of Israel was subject to him; but on being found in treaty with the king of Egypt, Samaria was besieged. 2 Kings 17:3-5 .
In B.C. 722 SARGON succeeded, and apparently it was he who captured Samaria. An inscription of his at Khorsabad reads, "I besieged the city of Samaria and carried away 27,280 men who dwelt there into captivity, and took fifty chariots from among them, and ordered the rest to be taken. I set my judges over them, and imposed upon them the tribute of the former kings." He also placed colonists in Samaria, but it is supposed by the names of the places mentioned from which these were sent, that this was not done immediately. Sargon captured Carchemish, punished the king of Syria, flayed alive the king of Hamath, and then successfully overcame So or Sabako. Sargon is mentioned in Isaiah 20:1 as sending his general to Ashdod, who took it. An inscription also mentions the fall of the city. Sargon defeated Merodach-baladan in Babylonia, but was assassinated in B.C. 705. He was called SHARRU-KENU, that is, 'faithful king.'
SENNACHERIB succeeded Sargon his father, B.C. 705. Hezekiah had been tributary; but on his revolting Sennacherib took the fenced cities of Judah, and then Hezekiah sent him the treasures of his own house and the house of the Lord. Still Jerusalem was attacked, and profane speeches made against the God of Israel. Hezekiah humbled himself before God, and the angel of the Lord smote of the Assyrians 185,000. Sennacherib returned to his land and was eventually murdered by two of his sons. 2 Kings 18:13 - 19:37. In Sennacherib's own account he says, "Hezekiah himself I shut up like a bird in a cage in Jerusalem, his royal city . . . . in addition to his former tribute and yearly gifts I added other tribute and the homage due to my majesty, and I laid it upon them." The above date would clash with the date of Hezekiah, but it is probable that Sennacherib was co-regent with his father some nine years before he reigned alone.
A tablet shows Sennacherib sitting on a throne to receive the spoils of the city of Lachish. It is supposed he lived 20 years after he left Palestine before he was assassinated. He says nothing of the loss of his army, and perhaps never recovered the shock.
ESAR-HADDON succeeded, B.C. 681. He is said to have reigned from the Euphrates to the Nile. He also conquered Egypt, and divided it into 20 provinces, governed by Assyrians. According to an inscription he claimed the sovereignty of Babylon, and held his court there. This accounts for him, as king of Assyria , carrying Manasseh captive to Babylon. 2 Chronicles 33:11 . He is mentioned also in Ezra 4:2 as having sent the colonists into Judaea. After reigning about 10 years he associated with him his son the noted ASSUR-BANI-PAL. Egypt was again conquered. He gathered a famous library at Kouyunjik, the terra cotta tablets of which have been preserved. Assur-bani-pal died about B.C. 626. The glory of the Assyrian kingdom was permanently departing, and about B.C. 606 Nineveh was taken and destroyed. Nahum 1 - 3.
There are many monuments and inscriptions on tablets which the learned are deciphering; but the difficulties of distinguishing the proper names on the Assyrian monuments are shown by M. Joachim Menant, who gives as an instance one sign which may be read kal , rip , dan, or lip , being one of the signs called 'polyphones.'
The following list of kings is from Rawlinson, Sayce, and other Assyrian scholars. The early dates are uncertain and several of the later dates do not agree with the usual chronology of scripture.
ASSYRIAN KINGS. B.C.
Shalmaneser I. 1300
Tiglath-Adar I., his son 1280
Bel-kudur-utsur (Belchadrezzar) his son 1260
Assur-narara and Nebo-dan 1240
Adar-pal-esar (Adar-pileser) 1220
Assur-dan I., his son 1200
Mutaggil-Nebo, his son 1180
Assur-ris-ilim, his son 1160
Tiglath-pileser I., his son 1140
Assur-bel-kala, his son 1110
Samas-Rimmon I., his brother 1090
Assur-rab-buri ?
Assur-zalmati ?
Assur-dan II 930
Rimmon-nirari II., his son 911
Tiglath-Adar II., his son 889
Assur-natsir-pal, his son 883
Shalmaneser II., his son 858
Samas-Rimmon II., his son 823
Rimmon-nirari III., his son 810
Shalmaneser III. 781
Assur-dan III. 771
Assur-nirari 753
Pulu, usurper, Tiglath-pileser II. or III 745
Ulula (Elulaeos) of Tinu, usurper, Shalmaneser IV. 727
Sargon, usurper 722
Sennacherib of Khabigal, his son 705
Esar-haddon, his son 681
Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalus) his son 668
Assur-etil-ili-yukinni, his son ? 626
Esar-haddon II. (Sarakos) ?
Fall of Nineveh ? 606
The Assyrians were idolaters: from the inscriptions the names of hundreds of gods can be gathered.
The Assyrian language was a branch of the Semitic, and came from the Accadian. It was written in Cuneiform or wedge-shaped characters.
Assyria was used by God as His rod to punish His guilty people Israel, and then, as in other instances, the rod itself, for its pride and wickedness, had to bear God's judgement. See Isaiah 10:5-19 ; Isaiah 14:25 ; Ezekiel 31:3-17 ; Nahum 3:18,19 ; Zephaniah 2:13 . Some of the passages that speak of the kings of Assyria are prophetic, and refer to the still future, when as 'kings of the north' they will again have to do with Israel and will be judged of God. The indignation against Israel ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian: see Isaiah 10:12 ; Isaiah 14:25 ; Isaiah 30:27-33 . One remarkable passage speaks of Assyria with Egypt and Israel as being brought into blessing, Isaiah 19:23-25 , "Whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance." We thus see that the Assyrians have a large place in scripture both in the past and in the future, doubtless because they have had, and will yet have, to do with Jehovah's earthly people, "the Israel of God." The Assyrian is the over-flowing scourge of God's anger because of Israel's connection with idolatry.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Assyria
(Hebrew: Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the two rivers) A country which occupied the northern and middle part of Mesopotamia, extended as far south as the Persian Gulf, and included Babylonia and Chaldea. The Assyrians were probably of Semitic origin, descendants of Assur, one of the sons of Sem (Genesis 10), and an independent Assyrian kingdom began about the seventeenth century B.C. The sources of Assyrian history are the Old Testament, the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers, and the records and remains of the Assyrian people. Their religion and civilization were in many respects identical with that of Babylonia, their language belonged to the Semitic family, closely related to the Hebrew, and they had a cuneiform (Latin: cuneus, wedge) system of writing. Their most famous rulers were: Theglathphalasar I (1120-1110 B.C.), under whom Assyria rose to the height of military glory; Asshur-nasir-pal (885-860 B.C.), in whose reign Assyria first came into touch with Israel; Theglathphalasar III (745-727 B.C.), founder of the second Assyrian empire; Sargon II (722-705 B.C.), who conquered Samaria and destroyed Israel; Sennacherib (705-681 B.C.), who invaded Juda and crushed the rebellion of Ezechias (4Kings 18); Esarhaddon (681-668 B.C.), a great ruler who conquered Egypt and destroyed Sidon; and Asshur-bani-pal (668-626 B.C.), greatest of all Assyrian kings, to whom we owe part of our knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most important historical texts and inscriptions to be copied and placed in a fine library which he built in his palace. With his death, Assyrian power declined. In 606 B.C. Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians, and Assyria became a province of these countries.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Assyria
Country of Assur or Ashur
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Assyria
a kingdom of Asia, of the extent, origin, and duration of which very different accounts have been given by ancient writers. Ctesias and Diodorus Siculus affirm, that the Assyrian monarchy, under Ninus and Semiramis, comprehended the greater part of the known world: but, if this had been the case, it is not likely that Homer and Herodotus would have omitted a fact so remarkable. The sacred records intimate that none of the ancient states or kingdoms were of considerable extent; for neither Chederlaomer, nor any of the neighbouring princes, were tributary or subject to Assyria; and "we find nothing," says Playfair, "of the greatness or power of this kingdom in the history of the judges and succeeding kings of Israel, though the latter kingdom was oppressed and enslaved by many different powers in that period." It is therefore highly probable that Assyria was originally of small extent. According to Ptolemy, this country was bounded on the north by part of Armenia and Mount Niphates; on the west by the Tigris; on the south by Susiana; and on the east by part of Media and the mountains Choatra and Zagros. Of the origin, revolutions, and termination of Assyria, properly so called, and distinguished from the grand monarchy which afterward bore this appellation, the following account is given by Mr. Playfair, as the most probable:—"The founder of it was Ashur, the second son of Shem, who departed from Shinar, upon the usurpation of Nimrod, at the head of a large body of adventurers, and laid the foundations of Nineveh, where he resided, and erected a new kingdom, called Assyria, after his name, Genesis 10:11 . These events happened not long after Nimrod had established the Chaldean monarchy, and fixed his residence at Babylon; but it does not appear that Nimrod reigned in Assyria. The kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon were originally distinct and separate, Micah 5:6 ; and in this state they remained until Ninus conquered Babylon, and made it tributary to the Assyrian empire. Ninus, the successor of Ashur, Genesis 10:11 , seized on Chaldea after the death of Nimrod, and united the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. This great prince is said to have subdued Asia, Persia, Media, Egypt, &c. If he did so, the effects of his conquests were of no long duration; for, in the days of Abraham, we do not find that any of the neighbouring kingdoms were subject to Assyria." Ninus was succeeded by Semiramis, a princess bold, enterprising, and fortunate; of whose adventures and exploits many fabulous relations have been recorded. Playfair is of opinion that there were two princesses of this name, who flourished at different periods; one, the consort of Ninus; and another, who lived five generations before Nitocris, queen of Nebuchadnezzar. Of the successors of Ninus and Semiramis nothing certain is recorded. The last of the ancient Assyrian kings was Sardanapalus, who was besieged in his capital by Arbaces, governor of Media, in concurrence with the Babylonians. These united forces defeated the Assyrian army, demolished the capital, and became masters of the empire, B.C. 821.
"After the death of Sardanapalus," says Mr. Playfair, "the Assyrian empire was divided into three kingdoms; namely, the Median, Assyrian, and Babylonian. Arbaces retained the supreme authority, and nominated governors in Assyria and Babylon, who were honoured with the title of kings, while they remained subject and tributary to the Persian monarchs. Belesis," he says, "a Chaldean priest, who assisted Arbaces in the conquest of Sardanapalus, received the government of Babylon as the reward of his services; and Phul was intrusted with that of Assyria. The Assyrian governor gradually enlarged the boundaries of his kingdom, and was succeeded by Tiglath-pileser, Salmanasar, and Sennacherib, who asserted and maintained their independence. After the death of Assar-haddon, the brother and successor of Sennacherib. the kingdom of Assyria was split, and annexed to the kingdoms of Media and Babylon. Several tributary princes afterward reigned in Nineveh; but we hear no more of the kings of Assyria, but of those of Babylon. Cyaxares, king of Media, assisted Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in the siege of Nineveh, which they took and destroyed, B.C. 606."
The history of Assyria, deduced from Scripture, and acknowledged as the only authentic one by Sir Isaac Newton and many others, ascribes the foundation of the monarchy to Pul, or Phul, about the second year of Menahem, king of Israel, twenty-four years before the aera of Nabonassar, 1579 years after the flood, and, according to Blair, 769, or, according to Newton, 790, years before Christ. Menahem, having taken forcible possession of the throne of Israel by the murder of Shallum, 2 Kings 15:10 , was attacked by Pul, but prevented the hostilities meditated against him by presenting the invader with a thousand talents of silver. Pul, thus gratified, took the kingdom of Israel under his protection, returned to his own country, after having received voluntary homage from several nations in his march, as he had done from Israel, and became the founder of a great empire. As it was in the days of Pul that the Assyrians began to afflict the inhabitants of Palestine, 2 Kings 11:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 , this was the time, according to Sir Isaac Newton, when the Assyrian empire arose. Thus he interprets the words, "since the time of the kings of Assyria,"
Nehemiah 9:32 ; that is, since the time of the kingdom of Assyria, or since the rise of that empire. But though this was the period in which the Assyrians afflicted Israel, it is not so evident that the time of the kings of Assyria must necessarily be understood of the rise of the Assyrian empire. However, Newton thus reasons; and observes, that "Pul and his successors afflicted Israel, and conquered the nations round about them; and upon the ruin of many small and ancient kingdoms erected their empire; conquering the Medes, as well as other nations." It is farther argued, that God, by the Prophet Amos, in the reign of Jeroboam, about ten or twenty years before the reign of Pul, (see Amos 6:13-14 ,) threatened to raise up a nation against Israel; and that, as Pul reigned presently after the prophecy of Amos, and was the first upon record who began to fulfil it, he may be justly reckoned the first conqueror and founder of this empire. See 1 Chronicles 5:26 . Pul was succeeded on the throne of Assyria by his elder son Tiglath-pileser; and at the same time he left Babylon to his younger son Nabonassar, B.C. 747. Of the conquests of this second king of Assyria against the kings of Israel and Syria, when he took Damascus, and subdued the Syrians, we have an account in 2 Kings 15:29 ; 2 Kings 15:37 ; 2 Kings 16:5 ; 2 Kings 16:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ; by which the prophecy of Amos was fulfilled, and from which it appears that the empire of the Assyrians was now become great and powerful. The next king of Assyria was Shalmaneser, or Salmanassar, who succeeded Tiglath-pileser, B.C. 729, and invaded Phoenicia, took the city of Samaria, and, B.C. 721, carried the ten tribes into captivity, placing them in Chalach and Chabor, by the river Gazon, and in the cities of the Medes,
2 Kings 17:6 . Shalmaneser was succeeded by Sennacherib, B.C. 719; and in the year B.C. 714, he was put to flight with great slaughter by the Ethiopians and Egyptians. In the year B.C. 711 the Medes revolted from the Assyrians; Sennacherib was slain, and he was succeeded by his son Esar-Haddon, Asser-haddon, Asordan, Assaradin, or Sarchedon, by which names he is called by different writers. He began his reign at Nineveh, in the year of Nabonassar 42; and in the year 68 extended it over Babylon. He then carried the remainder of the Samaritans into captivity, and peopled Samaria with captives brought from several parts of his kingdom; and in the year of Nabonassar 77 or 78 he seems to have put an end to the reign of the Ethiopians over Egypt. "In the reign of Sennacherib and Asser-Hadon," says Sir I. Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks." Asser-Hadon was succeeded in the year B.C. 668 by Saosduchinus. At this time Manasseh was allowed to return home, and fortify Jerusalem; and the Egyptians also, after the Assyrians had harassed Egypt and Ethiopia three years, Isaiah 20:3-4 , were set at liberty. Saosduchinus, after a reign of twenty years, was succeeded at Babylon, and probably at Nineveh also, by Chyniladon, in the year B.C. 647. This Chyniladon is supposed by Newton to be the Nebuchadonosor mentioned in the book of Judith, Judges 1:1-15 , who made war upon Arphaxad, king of the Medes; and, though deserted by his auxiliaries of Cilicia, Damascus, Syria, Phoenicia, Moab, Ammon, and Egypt, routed the army of the Medes, and slew Arphaxad. This Arphaxad is supposed to be either Dejoces or his son Phraortes, mentioned by Herodotus. Soon after the death of Phraortes, in the year B.C. 635, the Scythians invaded the Medes and Persians; and in 625, Nabopolassar, the commander of the forces of Chyniladon in Chaldea, revolted from him, and became king of Babylon. Chyniladon was either then or soon after succeeded at Nineveh by the last king of Assyria, called Sarac by Polyhistor. The authors of the Universal History suppose Saosduchinus to have been the Nebuchadonosor of Scripture, and Chyniladon or Chynaladan to have been the Sarac of Polyhistor. At length Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, married Amyit, the daughter of Astyages, king of the Medes, and sister of Cyaxares and by this marriage, the two families having contracted affinity, they conspired against the Assyrians. Nabopolassar being old, and Astyages dead, their sons Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares led the armies of the two nations against Nineveh, slew Sarac, destroyed the city, and shared the kingdom of the Assyrians. This victory the Jews refer to the Chaldeans; the Greeks, to the Medes; Tobit, Tob_14:15 , Polyhistor, and Ctesias, to both. With this victory commenced the great successes of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares, and it laid the foundation of the two collateral empires of the Babylonians and Medes, which were branches of the Assyrian empire; and hence the time of the fall of the Assyrian empire is determined, the conquerors being then in their youth. In the reign of Josiah, when Zephaniah prophesied, Nineveh and the kingdom of Assyria were standing; and their fall was predicted by that Prophet, Zephaniah 1:3 ; Zephaniah 2:13 . And in the end of his reign, Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, the successor of Psammitichus, went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates, to fight against Carchemish, or Circutium; and in his way thither slew Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20 ; and therefore the last king of Assyria was not yet slain. But in the third and fourth years of Jehoiakim, the successor of Josiah, the two conquerors having taken Nineveh, and finished their war in Assyria, prosecuted their conquests westward; and, leading their forces against the king of Egypt, as an invader of their right of conquest, they beat him at Carchemish, and took from him whatever he had recently taken from the Assyrians, 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2 ; "and therefore we cannot err," says Sir Isaac Newton, "above a year or two, if we refer the destruction of Nineveh, and fall of the Assyrian empire, to the third year of Jehoiakim," or the hundred and fortieth, or according to Blair, the hundred and forty-first year of Nabonassar; that is, the year B.C. 607.
Of the government, laws, religion, learning, customs, &c, of the ancient Assyrians, nothing absolutely certain is recorded. Their kingdom was at first small, and subsisted for several ages under hereditary chiefs; and their government was simple. Afterward, when they rose to the sublimity of empire, their government seems to have been despotic, and the empire hereditary. Their laws were probably few, and depended upon the mere will of the prince. To Ninus we may ascribe the division of the Assyrian empire into provinces and governments; for we find that this institution was fully established in the reigns of Semiramis and her successors. The people were distributed into a certain number of tribes; and their occupations or professions were hereditary. The Assyrians had several distinct councils, and several tribunals for the regulation of public affairs. Of councils there were three, which were created by the body of the people, and who governed the state in conjunction with the sovereign. The first consisted of officers who had retired from military employments; the second, of the nobility; and the third, of the old men. The sovereigns also had three tribunals, whose province it was to watch over the conduct of the people. The Assyrians have been competitors with the Egyptians for the honour of having invented alphabetic writing. It appears, from the few remains now extant of the writing of these ancient nations, that their letters had a great affinity with each other. They much resembled one another in shape; and they ranged them in the same manner, from right to left.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Assyria
Assyria (as-syr'i-ah). A great empire of western Asia, founded at a very early date probably the oldest on the Euphrates, and is traced to Asshur, Genesis 10:10-11, who built Nineveh, Rehoboth (?), Calah, and Resen. Assyria proper, the northern (Babylonia the southern portion), had about the same territory as Kurdistan. The empire at times covered a far larger extent of territory, and in its prosperity nearly all of western Asia and portions of Africa were subject to its power. According to Prof. F. Brown, "the Babylonio-Assyrian territory was about 600 miles from northwest to southeast, and in the widest part 300 miles from east to west, including Mesopotamia." The Persian Gulf formerly extended about 130 miles further to the northwest than it does now, the gulf having been filled up by mud borne down by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. There are immense level tracts of the country, now almost a wilderness, which bear marks of having been cultivated and thickly populated in early times. Among its products, besides the common cereals, were dates, olives, cotton, mulberries, gum-arabic, madder, and castor-oil. Of animals, the bear, deer, wolf, lynx, hyena, antelope, lion, tiger, beaver, and camel were common. The fertility of the country is frequently noted by ancient writers.
History. Of the early history of Assyria little can be said. Profane historians differ; and scripture gives but scanty information. The deciphered inscriptions are revealing more, but are not yet folly examined; new ones are coming to light every year. Babylon is older than Nineveh; it was the beginning of Nimrod's empire, but not content with the settlements he had acquired, he invaded the country called Asshur from the son of Shem, and there founded cities afterwards most famous. Genesis 10:8-12. So far the sacred record would seem to teach us. But that it mentions an early Assyrian kingdom is not certain. Certain eastern monarchs are named, Genesis 14:1; Genesis 14:9, as pushing their conquests westwards, but there is a record of a Chaldean but not of an Assyrian king among them. Says Prof. Brown: "We find mention in the inscriptions of Persia (Parsua), Elam (Elamtu), with Susa (Shushan, cf. Nehemiah 1:1, etc.), its capital, and Media (Mada), with Ecbatana (Agamtanu = Achmetha, Ezekiel 26:7-128), its capital, and Armenia (Urartu = Ararat, 2 Kings 19:37), and the land of the Hittites (Chatti), who, we thus learn, as well as from the Egyptian inscriptions, had their chief seat far to the north of Damascus—Carchemish (Gargamish), their capital, being on the Euphrates, not far from the latitude of Nineveh (modern Jerabis). The river Habor (Chabur), of 2 Kings 17:6, is a river often named that flows into the middle Euphrates from the northeast, and Gozan (Guzanu) (ib.) is a city and district in the immediate vicinity. These are but a few of the important identifications." At first the Assyrian empire was confined within narrow limits; it became at length, by the addition of neighboring districts, a formidable state. Left partially under the sway of their own chiefs, who were reduced to vassalage, they continually had or took occasion for revolt. This led to the deportations of captives, to break the independent spirit of feudatory states, and render rebellion more difficult and hopeless. The Assyrian empire, at its widest extent, seems to have reached from the Mediterranean Sea and the river Halys in the west, to the Caspian and the Great Desert in the east, and from the northern frontier of Armenia south to the Persian Gulf. Abraham came from Ur Kasdim (Ur of the Chaldees), according to Genesis 11:28; Genesis 11:31; Genesis 15:7; Nehemiah 9:7. "The only known Ur situated in the territory of the Chaldeans is the city of Uru, lying on the right bank of the Euphrates, far below Babylon, whose site now bears the name Muqayyar (Mugheir). The identification of this with the biblical Ur Kasdim has been disputed, but the arguments against it are not conclusive, and no other satisfactory identification has been proposed. We are therefore entitled to hold that the Hebrews were, from the beginning of their history, under the influence not only of the common stock of Shemitic endowments, customs, and beliefs, but also of those that were specifically Babylonian." After Abraham, for nearly 1200 years, we have no record of the contact of Hebrews with Assyrian or Babylonian peoples. In the ninth century, b.c., Nineveh and Assyria push into Hebrew territory. Shalmanezer II. encounters Benhadad of Damascus, and probably Ahab of Israel. The dark cloud threatening Israel and Judah from Assyria for their unfaithfulness to God is described in strains of solemn warning. Sometimes "the nations from far" are spoken of; and their terrific might and mode of warfare are detailed without naming them. Isaiah 5:26-30. Sometimes in express words the king of Assyria is said to be summoned as the Lord's executioner, and the desolation he should cause is vividly depicted. Isaiah 8:17-22. Samaria would fall; and her fall might well admonish Judah. Judah should deeply suffer. The invader should march through her territory; but the Lord would effectually defend Jerusalem. Isaiah 10:5-34. The Assyrian king, in the might of his power, subjected the ten tribes, and carried multitudes of them into the far east; he passed also like a flood over the country of Judah, taking many of the cities throughout her territory; and in his presumptuous boldness he conceived that no earthly power could resist him, and even defied Jehovah, the God of Jacob. But the firm purpose of the Lord was to defend that city to save it. The catastrophe is related with awful brevity: "Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred and four score and five thousand; and, when they arose early in the morning, behold they were all dead corpses." Isaiah 37:1-38. The Assyrian empire attained afterwards probably its greatest power and widest extent. But it was doomed.
In later Persian times "the Ahashwerosh (Ahasuerus) of Ezra 4:6 and the book of Esther is Xerxes, the son of Darius, b.c. 486-464; and the Artachshashta (Artaxerxes) of Ezra 4:7-8; Ezra 4:11; Ezra 4:23, etc., Nehemiah 2:1; Nehemiah 5:14, etc., is the son of Xerxes, Artaxerxes Longimanus, b.c. 464-420. Ezra 4:7-8, etc., is thought by many to refer to the false Smerdis, the pretended brother of Cambyses, who in b.c. 522 reigned eight months; but the difficulty in supposing both that he had the name Artaxerxes ana that Artaxerxes in the different passages does not refer to the same persons is too great." Finally, in "Darius the Persian," Nehemiah 12:22, we have a reference to Darius Codomannus, b.c. 836-330. He who rules justly in the world would destroy Assyria (which had been long before warned by Jonah), as Assyria had destroyed other kingdoms. Accordingly, in the prophecies of Nahum and Zephaniah, we find denunciations predicting the entire downfall of this haughty power. The language is fearfully precise. Nahum 1:1-15; Nahum 2:1-13; Nahum 3:1-19; Zephaniah 2:13-15. The work of destruction seems to have been effected by the Medes and Babylonians. Assyria fell, and was never again reckoned among the nations; the very places being for long centuries unknown where her proudest cities had stood. The people.— The excavations which have been so successfully prosecuted have supplied a fund of information as to the manners and habits of the Assyrians. The sovereign was the despotic ruler and the pontiff, and the palaces contained also the temples. With no limitation of the monarch's power, the people were kept in a servile condition and in moral degradation. The conquered provinces being placed under the authority of dependent princes, insurrections were frequent; and the sovereign was almost always engaged in putting down some struggle for independence. War was waged with ruthless ferocity. Cities were attacked by raising artificial mounds; the besieging armies sheltered themselves behind shields of wicker-work, and battered the defences with rams. In the field they had formidable war chariots. And the sculptures exhibit the modes of cruelty practiced upon those that were subdued. They were flayed, they were impaled; their eyes and tongues were cut out; rings were placed in their lips; and their brains were beaten out with maces. Comp. 1618102094_44. The Assyrians worshipped a multitude of gods. Asshur (probably the Nisroch of the Scriptures, and the eagle-headed deity of the sculptures), was the chief. But there were 4000 others, presiding over the phenomena of nature and the events of life. The architecture of the Assyrians was of a vast and imposing character. In the fine arts they made considerable proficiency. Their sculptures are diversified, spirited, and faithful. They had, however, little knowledge of perspective, and did not properly distinguish between the front and the side views of an object. Animals, therefore, were represented with five legs; and sometimes two horses had but two forelegs. The later sculptures are found to be better than the earlier. The Assyrians were skilled in engraving even the hardest substances. They were familiar with metallurgy, and manufactured glass and enamels; they carved ivory, and varnished and painted pottery. They indulged in the luxuries of life. Men wore bracelets, chains, and earrings, flowing robes ornamented with emblematic devices wrought in gold and silver; they had long-fringed scarfs and embroidered girdles. The vestments of officials were generally symbolical; the head-dress was characteristic; and the king alone wore the pointed tiara. The beard and hair were carefully arranged in artificial curls; and the eyebrows and eyelashes were stained black. Of the women there are few representations. The weapons of war were richly ornamented, especially the swords, shields and quivers. The helmets were of brass, inlaid with copper. The chariots were embellished, and the horses sumptuously caparisoned. Their literature was extensive—grammars, dictionaries, geographies, sciences, annals, panegyrics on conquerors, and invocations of the gods. Little, however, can be expected from a series of inscriptions, dictated by the ruling powers, who did not hesitate sometimes to falsify the records of their predecessors. The wealth of Assyria was derived from conquest, from agriculture, for which their country was favorably circumstanced, and from commerce, for which they had peculiar facilities. The recent explorations have brought to light immense libraries illustrating the habits and life of a cultured people, recording their history on clay tablets, 2000 years before Abraham. The ruins are a splendid monument in testimony of the truth of prophecy and of Scripture.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Assyria
Assyria: An ancient empire located in modern-day northern Iraq, Assyria becomes prominent in Jewish history in the sixth century BCE when the Assyrians dominated the Mediterranean region and exiled the ten tribes.

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Assyrian - ) Of or pertaining to Assyria, or to its inhabitants. ) A native or an inhabitant of Assyria; the language of Assyria
Hoshea - The closing years of the northern kingdom of Israel were dominated by Assyria. When the Israelite king Pekah tried to oppose Assyria, the result was a disaster for Israel. Hoshea, a sympathizer with Assyria, assassinated Pekah and became king himself (2 Kings 15:29-30). ...
Hoshea survived as Israel’s king only by buying protection from Assyria. When, with Egypt’s help, he rebelled against Assyria by refusing to pay any further money, Assyria attacked Samaria (Israel’s capital) and imprisoned Hoshea. After a three-year siege, Assyria crushed Samaria and took the people into captivity (2 Kings 17:1-6)
as'Shur, - second son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22 ) also the Hebrew form for Assyria. [1]
Assur - (ass' ssuhr) KJV spelling in Ezra 4:2 ; Psalm 83:8 for Assyria. See Assyria
Jareb - Apparently a symbolical name for the king of Assyria. Israel had sent to Assyria for help; but Assyria had proved to be no help, but rather a Jareb, or 'adversary, enemy' (Fürst)
Pekah - The closing years of the kingdom of Israel (the northern part of the divided kingdom) were marked by the domination of Assyria. The Israelite kings Menahem and Pekahiah had survived only by buying protection from Assyria. The commander of the Israelite army, Pekah, tired of this pro-Assyrian policy, assassinated Pekahiah, seized the throne and tried to make Israel independent of Assyria (2 Kings 15:19; 2 Kings 15:23-25; 2 Kings 15:27). ...
Pekah formed an alliance with Rezin, king of Syria, with the aim of withstanding Assyria. Ahaz, against the advice of the prophet Isaiah, went to Assyria for help. Assyria replied by conquering Syria (732 BC), then overrunning much of northern and eastern Israel and taking the people into captivity (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 16:5-9; for details see AHAZ). Pekah’s policy had proved disastrous, and he was assassinated by Hoshea, a sympathizer with Assyria, who then became king (2 Kings 15:30)
Sennacherib - (sseen nak' uhr ihb) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Sin (the god) has replaced my brother. ” King of Assyria (704-681 BC). See Assyria; Israel
Assyria - Assyria: An ancient empire located in modern-day northern Iraq, Assyria becomes prominent in Jewish history in the sixth century BCE when the Assyrians dominated the Mediterranean region and exiled the ten tribes
Asshur - 11 it reads that "he went out into Assyria," that is, Nimrod went forth into Asshur or Assyria (the Hebrew is the same). This is confirmed by Micah 5:6 , where Assyria and Nimrod are associated together. Assyria is traced to Asshur or Assur, a son of Shem
Asshur - See Assyria
Ashurbanipal - Son and successor of Esarhaddon on the throne of Assyria, b. He included Manasseh of Judah among his tributaries, and kept an Assyrian garrison at Gezer. See Assyria, Osnappar
Asshur - See Assyria
Asshur - This tribe may also be meant in Balaam's oracle (Numbers 24:22-24 ), but a reference to Assyria is more likely. The nation Assyria and its inhabitants are generally meant by the Hebrew term Asshur . See Assyria
Shalmaneser - A king of Assyria, b. But meantime a rebellion headed by Sargon had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. It is not stated in 2 Kings 17:6 that Shalmaneser took Samaria, but that the king of Assyria did, probably Sargon
Caleh - See Assyria
Sumer, Sumerians - See the Assyria AND BABYLONIA entry
Hammurabi - See Assyria and Babylonia, ii
Assyria - In the Bible the name Assyria is employed in three different significations: namely, 1. Assyria ancient and proper lay east of the Tigris, between Armenia, Susiana, and Media, and appears to have comprehended the six provinces attributed to it by Ptolemy, namely, Arrapachis, Adiabene, Arbelis, (now Erbil,) Calachene, (Heb. Of these provinces, Adiabene was the most fertile and important; in it was situated Nineveh the capital; and the term Assyria, in its most narrow sense, seems sometimes to have meant only this province. Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isaiah 7:20 ; 8:7 . In one instance, the idea of the empire predominates so as to exclude that of Assyria proper, namely, Genesis 2:14 , where the Hiddekel or Tigris is said to flow eastward of Assyria. After the overthrow of the Assyrian state, the name continued to be applied to those countries which had been formerly under its dominion, namely, (a) To Babylonia, 2 Kings 23:29 ; Jeremiah 2:18 . (b) To Persia, Ezra 6:22 , where Darius is also called king of Assyria. ...
The early history of Assyria is involved in obscurity. Israel was subjugated by one of its monarchs in the period of the Judges, and during the reign of the kings the Assyrian power was an object of perpetual dread. Pul, king of Assyria, invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem. Sennacherib of Assyria come into Judah with a powerful army in the reign of Hezekiah, but was miraculously defeated. After this period the empire of Assyria suddenly waned, and its last monarch was the effeminate Sardanapalus, Numbers 24:22 . But the kingdom fell at length into the hands of the Medes, the monarchy was divided between them and the Babylonians, and the very name of Assyria was thenceforth forgotten
Ichthyomorphous - ) Fish-shaped; as, the ichthyomorphic idols of ancient Assyria
Beerah - Prince of the Reubenites, carried to Assyria
Assur - Another form of Asshur or Assyria
Tiglath-Pileser - ” King of Assyria from 745 to 727 B. See Assyria, History and Religion of
Assyriology - , of ancient Assyria
Sannecherib - king of Assyria, who attempted to capture Jerusalem but was thwarted by a miracle...
Pul - king of Assyria. But Manahem, by a present, of one thousand talents of silver, prevailed on the king of Assyria, not only to withdraw his forces, but to recognize his title to the crown of Israel before he left the kingdom. This is the first time that we find any mention made of the kingdom of Assyria since the days of Nimrod; and Pul is the first monarch of that nation who invaded Israel, and began their transportation out of their own country
Asnapper - One called 'great and noble' who brought colonists from Assyria to Samaria
Calah - (cay' lah) Assyrian place name. ) made it the capital of Assyria. Major Assyrian archaeological discoveries including the six-acre palace of Ashurnasirpal have been dug up. See Assyria
Sargon - King of Assyria, successor of Shalmaneser 4, but called a usurper. He made various conquests and strengthened the kingdom of Assyria, and built some of the palaces
Asshur - He probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes retained (Numbers 24:22,24 ; Ezekiel 27:23 , etc. In Genesis 2:14 "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat, on the west bank of the Tigris
Shalmaneser - (sshal muhn ee' ssuhr) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Shalmanu (a god) is the most distinguished. ” See Assyria
Pub - King of Assyria. The name is not Hebrew, but rather Assyrian, from Phol, which some read Bean
a'va - (ruin ), a place in the empire of Assyria, apparently the same as Ivan
Shalmaneser - (sshal muhn ee' ssuhr) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Shalmanu (a god) is the most distinguished. ” See Assyria
Ashima - An idol introduced into Samaria by the colonists sent from Hamath by the king of Assyria
Ava - Place subject to Assyria from which colonists were sent to Samaria: possibly the same as AHAVAand IVAH
Ashur - the son of Shem, who gave his name to Assyria. It is believed that Ashur originally dwelt in the land of Shiner and about Babylonia, but that he was compelled by the usurper Nimrod to depart from thence, and settle higher toward the springs of the Tigris, in the province of Assyria, so called from him, where some think he built the famous city of Nineveh, and those of Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen, Genesis 10:11-12
Betharbel - A city destroyed by Shalman, who was possibly Shalmaneser king of Assyria; nothing further is known of the city
Rezin - When Ahaz refused to join Rezin and Pekah in fighting against Assyria, Rezin pursuaded Pekah to ally with him against the Judean king (2 Kings 15:37 ; 2 Kings 16:5 ). Ahaz appealed for help to Tiglath-pileser of Assyria, who came against Rezin and Pekah and destroyed their kingdoms. when Damascus fell to the Assyrians
Pul - See Assyria and Babylonia, p
Menahem - He survived for ten years, but only by buying the protection of Assyria. This policy was not only economically costly to Israel, but it also opened the way for eventual conquest by Assyria (2 Kings 15:17; 2 Kings 15:19-20)
Esar-Haddon - Son of Sennacherib, and his successor as king of Assyria, 2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 ; B. He is supposed to be the Sardanapalus of profane historians, the last king of Assyria, infamous for his luxury and effeminacy
Shalmaneser - King of Assyria, successor to Tiglath-pileser, B. It may be noticed that Shalmaneser's name is mentioned only in these two passages, afterwards the term 'the king of Assyria' is employed; and in 2 Kings 18:10 it is said, "at the end of three years they took it. " This leaves room for SARGON,the next king of Assyria, to have finished the siege, and to have carried away the captives. He succeeded to the Assyrian throne in the year B
Shal'Man - (fire-worshipper ), a contraction for Shalmaneser king of Assyria. ( Hosea 10:14 ) Others think it the name of an obscure Assyrian king, predecessor of Pul
Apharsathohites Apharsites Apharsachites - Colonists from Assyria to Samaria
Archevites - People removed from Assyria to Samaria
Shroud - The 'shadowing shroud' signifies the shelter given by the spreading boughs of a great tree: such as the one to which Assyria is compared
Nahum - At the time of Nahum’s prophecy, Assyria had passed the peak of its power and was heading for inevitable conquest by the rising power of Babylon. Nahum, as God’s spokesman, announced a fitting judgment on Assyria, enlivening his message with graphic descriptions of the destruction of Assyria’s capital, Nineveh. ...
Background to the book...
About one hundred years previously, Assyria had conquered the northern kingdom Israel and taken its people into captivity (722 BC; 2 Kings 17:6). Through the reign of one Judean king after another, tension and conflict existed between Judah and Assyria (2 Kings 16:7-20; 2 Kings 18:7-37; 2 Kings 19; 2 Chronicles 28:20-21; 2 Chronicles 30:6; 2 Chronicles 33:11). ...
By the time Josiah became king of Judah (640 BC), Assyria had weakened sufficiently for Josiah to carry out extensive political and religious reforms in Judah. ...
Most nations of the region had at some time suffered from the brutality of Assyria (Nahum 3:19). Nahum, who had been deeply stirred over Assyria’s injustice and cruelty, had a feeling of satisfaction that at last a fitting divine judgment was to fall upon the ruthless oppressor (Nahum 2:10; Nahum 2:13; Nahum 3:5-7; Nahum 3:19)
Captivities of the Jews - The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. --The kingdom of Israel was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria. Isai 9:1 To Assyria. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took. Those who were left in Assyria, (Esther 8:9,11 ) and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion. ...
Many remained in Assyria, and were recognized as an integral part of the Dispersion; see (Acts 2:1 ; 26:7 ) ...
Most, probably, apostatized in Assyria, adopted the usages and idolatry of the nations among whom they were planted, and became wholly swallowed up in them
Beerah - ” A leader of the tribe of Reuben taken captive by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, about 732 B
ma'Her-Shal'al-Hash'-Baz - hasten-booty speedspoil ), whose name was given by divine direction to indicate that Damascus and Samaria were soon to be plundered by the king of Assyria
Shalmaneser - Sharezer - (God) protect the king!, a son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria
Apharasachites - Ezra 4:9 ; 5:6 ; named among the heathen subjects of the king of Assyria, transplanted into Samaria
Osnapper - (ahss nap per) Assyrian king who repopulated Samaria with foreigners following its capture in 722 B. See Assyria
Nahum, Book of - The suggestion (since the 16th century) that Elcese, or Elcesai, was in Assyria, as well as the older theory that it was in Galilee are not very probable. Israel was already destroyed, Juda humbled, Manasses probably a prisoner in Assyria (2Par
Sargon - , Sargon II of Assyria succeeded his brother, Shalmaneser V. See Assyria; Israel
Calah - a city of Assyria, built by Ashur, Genesis 10:12
Telassar - Or Thelasar, (Isaiah 37:12 ; 2 Kings 19:12 ), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia
Asbasareth - A king of Assyria, probably a corrupt form of the name Esarhaddon , which is found in the parallel passage Ezra 4:2
Ava - A place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria (2 Kings 17:24 )
Ivah - District or city that had been conquered by Assyria
Esarhaddon - (ee' ssahr had' dahn) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Ashur (the god) has given a brother. ” King of Assyria (681-669 B. He returned to Assyria and mustered enough support to defeat his brothers in battle and end the civil war. Esarhaddon ruled Egypt through Assyrian advisors and Egyptian district commanders. However, Egyptian rebellion to Assyrian domination came quickly. See Assyria
Shalman - An Assyrian king (Hosea 10:14 ), identified with Shalmaneser II. (Lenormant), the successor of Pul on the throne of Assyria (B. Hoshea, however, soon after rebelled against his Assyrian conquerer. A revolution meantime had broken out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed
Beth-Arbel - The Shalman here named was probably Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:3 )
Adrammelech - ...
A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38 )
Hena - A city of which Rabshakeh boasted that neither its god nor its king had been able to resist the power of Assyria
Rabshakeh - Rabshakeh was sent by Sennacherib, king of Assyria, to summon Hezekiah to surrender Jerusalem, 2 Kings 18:17-18 ; 2 Kings 19:4 ; Isaiah 36
Ijon - A ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20 ), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 ) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam
Merodach - This name frequently occurs as a surname to the kings of Assyria and Babylon
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - A symbolical name given to one of Isaiah’s sons to signify the speedy destruction of the power of the allied kings Rezin and Pekah by the king of Assyria
Sepharvaim - Place conquered by Assyria, and from whence people were sent to colonise Samaria
Calah - A city of Assyria, built by Ashur or by Nimrod, Genesis 10:11,12
a'Bel-Beth-ma'Achah - (meadow of the house of oppression ), a town of some importance, ( 2 Samuel 20:15 ) in the extreme north of Palestine, which fell an early prey to the invading kings of Syria, (1 Kings 15:20 ) and Assyria
Jareb - Modern translations see the term as part of a Near Eastern expression “the great king” often applied to the king of Assyria, as in the Aramaic treaty inscriptions from Sefire and in the Assyrian equivalent in 2 Kings 18:19 . Hosea accused Israel and Judah of turning to the “great king” of Assyria, probably Tiglath-pileser III (at least for Judah), to cure their ills rather than going to Yahweh, the great King of the universe and the Great Physician (Hosea 5:13 )
Chushan Rishathaim - he was king of the Syrian country about Haran, the region between the Euphrates and the Khabour, held by the Nairi, divided into petty tribes, as Assyria had not at this time extended her dominion to the Euphrates. the Assyrian empire rose. Chushan Rishathaim, a chieftain, probably had established a temporary dominion over the petty tribes of Mesopotamia, which ceased long before Assyria marched there
Pul (2) - (See Assyria. ) The first Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture. When Menahem neglected to apply for "confirmation in his kingdom," on ascending the throne of Israel, to the Assyrian king, his lord paramount (for the black obelisk shows that Jehu paid tribute to Shalmaneser as early as 884 B. Menahem's smiting Tiphsah (1 Chronicles 5:16) or Thapsacus was a direct attack on the Assyrian dominion W. Assyrian records make no mention of Pul; but Berosus mentions Pul a Chaldoean king exactly at this time, while Assbur-lush was reigning at Nineveh. The Jews called him "king of Assyria," that being the dominant empire at the time; so Nabopolassar of Babylon is called "king of Assyria," (2 Kings 23:29), and Darius Hystaspes Ezra 6:22. some western Assyrian provinces had been broken off and joined to the Babylonian king's empire. He being thus master of the Assyrian portion next Palestine appeared to the Jews to be "king of Assyria," about 763-760 B
Pul - Alternate name of the Assyrian king Tiglath-Pileser III (2 Kings 15:19 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). See Assyria
Sho'a - The three apparently designate districts of Assyria with which the southern kingdom of Judah has been intimately connected, and which were to be arrayed against it for punishment
Bene-Berak - Sennacherib, king of Assyria, in 701 B
Hiddekel - One of the rivers of Eden, the river which "goeth eastward to Assyria," Genesis 2:14, and which Daniel calls "the great river," Daniel 10:4, rightly identified with the Tigris
Apharsachites - a people sent by the kings of Assyria to inhabit the country of Samaria, in the room of those Israelites who had been removed beyond the Euphrates, Ezra 5:6
Dumah - Rulers in Dumah apparently led coalitions supported by Damascus and later by Babylon against Assyria between 740,700 B. Thus Assyria punished Dumah in 689 when they also defeated Babylon. The remainder of Assyrian history is filled with troubled relationships with Arabian vassals, particularly those around Dumah
Calah - One of the most ancient cities of Assyria. , Nimrod]'>[1] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Genesis 10:11 , RSV)
Pul - Pul (pŭl), lord? The first king of Assyria who invaded Canaan, and by a present of 1000 talents of silver, equivalent to nearly $2,000,000 in our day, was prevailed on by Menahem to withdraw his troops and recognize the title of that wicked usurper
Ava - Ava, in Assyria; colonists thence re. The Assyrians according to their usual policy, having conquered Ivah, transplanted its inhabitants to Samaria, vacated by Israel's deportation
Hannathon - The El-Amarna tablets and the annals of Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria also mention it
Shalmanezer - King of Assyria, whose name would, most probably never have reached the present day, but from his connection with Scripture history
Rehoboth - A city of Assyria, near Nineveh, founded by Asshur or Nimrod
Semite - These people spread geographically from Lydia to Syria, to Assyria, to Persia. The Elamites, Assyrians, Lydians, Arameans, and numerous Arab tribes are said to have been descendants of Shem. East Semitic would include Akkadian used in ancient Babylon and Assyria. See Languages of the Bible ; Assyria; Babylon ; Canaan
Tiglathpileser, Tilgathpilneser - Successor to Pul, king of Assyria. He is called a usurper and the founder of the second Assyrian empire. In the days of Ahaz, when Pekah had formed an alliance with Rezin, king of Damascus, against Judah, Ahaz appealed to the king of Assyria. Israel remained tributary to Assyria. Some Assyrian scholars hold that Tiglath-pileser is the same person as PUL
Mesopotamia - (Greek: mesas, middle; potamos, river; country between rivers) ...
A great plain between the Euphrates and the Tigris; the upper part covered ancient Assyria; the lower comprised ancient Chaldea and Babylonia
Shalman - ” Mysterious figure in Hosea 10:14 , sometimes identified by scholars as an abbreviation of Shalmanezer V of Assyria and sometimes as a ruler of Moab listed by Tiglath-Pileser III among kings paying him tribute
Ninevites - (nihn' uh vitess) Residents of the Assyrian capital Nineveh (Luke 11:30 ,Luke 11:30,11:32 ). See Assyria
Cuth, Cuthah - One of the places whence the king of Assyria brought colonists into Palestine
Rab-Shakeh - Chief butler or cup-bearer, an officer sent from Lachish by Sennacherib king of Assyria, to summon Hezekiah to surrender; which message he delivered in a most audacious and insolent manner
ca'Lah - (completion, old age ), one of the most ancient cities of Assyria
Asnapper - They throw much light on the history and antiquities of Assyria. The rebellion was finally put down, but Egypt was lost, and the military power of Assyria was so exhausted that it could with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians who poured over Western Asia
Lud - Lud is to be looked for between Assyria and Syria. of Palestine, near Mesopotamia and Assyria
Tigris - ) Genesis 2:14, "running eastward to Assyria. ) It ran through Armenia and Assyria, and then separated Babylonia from Susiana
Esar-Haddon - son of Sennacherib, and his successor in the kingdom of Assyria: called Sargon, or Saragon, Isaiah 20:1 . He sent priests to the Cuthaeans, whom Salmaneser, king of Assyria, had planted in Samaria, instead of the Israelites: he took Jerusalem, and carried King Manasseh to Babylon, of which he had become master, perhaps, because there was no heir to Belesis, king of Babylon
Shoa - They are usually identified with the Sutu, a nomadic people from the Syrian and Arabian desert known from documents from Mari, Amarna, and Assyria
Anammelech - (Babylonian: Anu is prince) ...
A god, whose worship the Sepharvites introduced and perpetuated in Samaria, after the overthrow of the Kingdom of Israel and the capture of the capital by Sargon, King of Assyria (4Kings 17); probably another name for the Babylonian god Anu
Halah - One of the places to which Israelites were deported by the king of Assyria on the capture of Samaria ( 2 Kings 17:6 ; 2 Kings 18:11 , 1 Chronicles 5:26 )
Sepharvaim - a country of Assyria, 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Kings 17:31
Rabshakeh - An officer—the chief butler or cupbearer—who was sent with Rab-saris, the chief of the eunuchs, and Tartan, messengers of the king of Assyria, to Hezekiah, summoning him, in the most indecent and blasphemous manner, to surrender his capital
Janoah - It was taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 )
Merathaim, the Land of - "of double rebellion", namely, the double captivity inflicted on Israel by Chaldoea (Jeremiah 50:21); referring also to Babylon's general accumulated rebellions against God (Jeremiah 50:17-20, especially Jeremiah 50:18), "Babylon, Assyria," (Jeremiah 50:33; Jeremiah 50:24; Jeremiah 50:29) "striven against Jehovah, proud against
Bel - See also Baal, Assyria and Babylonia
Earth - Thus, the phrase, Ezra 1:2, "all the kingdoms of the earth," means only Chaldea and Assyria; and it is often restricted to Judæa only
Pekah - In the latter part of his evil reign he formed an alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, and they attacked Ahaz king of Judah, who in turn sought the aid of Assyria. The result was, that Damascus was taken by Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria, and with it all the lands of Israel east of the Jordan and north of the Sea of Galilee, their inhabitants being carried captive
Nimrod - The "land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6 ) is a designation of Assyria or of Shinar, which is a part of it
Tellssar - "Hill (or sanctuary) of Asshur"; a place wrested from the children of Eden by Assyria
Gederoth - ) sent to Assyria for help (2 Chronicles 28:18 )
Medan - The Medan should perhaps be identified with the Badan, a people conquered by Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria (732 B
Enemessar - Name of a king of Assyria in Gr
Arphaxad - Nebuchadrezzar, king of Assyria, made war upon him, defeated him, and put him to death
Chebar - A river of Assyria, made memorable by the church, when in the captivity of Babylon, being placed there
Cush - ), north of Assyria
Rezeph - Place which the king of Assyria boasted of his 'fathers' having destroyed
Adrammelech - The Assyrian king Sargon spread the people of Israel all over his empire and replaced them with settlers from other cities he conquered (2 Kings 17:24 ). One of these gods was from the city of Sephervaim, possibly in Assyria. Murderer of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, during the king's worship in the temple of Nisroch (2 Kings 19:37 )
Assyria - Ctesias and Diodorus Siculus affirm, that the Assyrian monarchy, under Ninus and Semiramis, comprehended the greater part of the known world: but, if this had been the case, it is not likely that Homer and Herodotus would have omitted a fact so remarkable. The sacred records intimate that none of the ancient states or kingdoms were of considerable extent; for neither Chederlaomer, nor any of the neighbouring princes, were tributary or subject to Assyria; and "we find nothing," says Playfair, "of the greatness or power of this kingdom in the history of the judges and succeeding kings of Israel, though the latter kingdom was oppressed and enslaved by many different powers in that period. " It is therefore highly probable that Assyria was originally of small extent. Of the origin, revolutions, and termination of Assyria, properly so called, and distinguished from the grand monarchy which afterward bore this appellation, the following account is given by Mr. Playfair, as the most probable:—"The founder of it was Ashur, the second son of Shem, who departed from Shinar, upon the usurpation of Nimrod, at the head of a large body of adventurers, and laid the foundations of Nineveh, where he resided, and erected a new kingdom, called Assyria, after his name, Genesis 10:11 . These events happened not long after Nimrod had established the Chaldean monarchy, and fixed his residence at Babylon; but it does not appear that Nimrod reigned in Assyria. The kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon were originally distinct and separate, Micah 5:6 ; and in this state they remained until Ninus conquered Babylon, and made it tributary to the Assyrian empire. Ninus, the successor of Ashur, Isaiah 20:3-4 , seized on Chaldea after the death of Nimrod, and united the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. If he did so, the effects of his conquests were of no long duration; for, in the days of Abraham, we do not find that any of the neighbouring kingdoms were subject to Assyria. The last of the ancient Assyrian kings was Sardanapalus, who was besieged in his capital by Arbaces, governor of Media, in concurrence with the Babylonians. These united forces defeated the Assyrian army, demolished the capital, and became masters of the empire, B. Playfair, "the Assyrian empire was divided into three kingdoms; namely, the Median, Assyrian, and Babylonian. Arbaces retained the supreme authority, and nominated governors in Assyria and Babylon, who were honoured with the title of kings, while they remained subject and tributary to the Persian monarchs. Belesis," he says, "a Chaldean priest, who assisted Arbaces in the conquest of Sardanapalus, received the government of Babylon as the reward of his services; and Phul was intrusted with that of Assyria. The Assyrian governor gradually enlarged the boundaries of his kingdom, and was succeeded by Tiglath-pileser, Salmanasar, and Sennacherib, who asserted and maintained their independence. the kingdom of Assyria was split, and annexed to the kingdoms of Media and Babylon. Several tributary princes afterward reigned in Nineveh; but we hear no more of the kings of Assyria, but of those of Babylon. "...
The history of Assyria, deduced from Scripture, and acknowledged as the only authentic one by Sir Isaac Newton and many others, ascribes the foundation of the monarchy to Pul, or Phul, about the second year of Menahem, king of Israel, twenty-four years before the aera of Nabonassar, 1579 years after the flood, and, according to Blair, 769, or, according to Newton, 790, years before Christ. As it was in the days of Pul that the Assyrians began to afflict the inhabitants of Palestine, 2 Kings 11:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 , this was the time, according to Sir Isaac Newton, when the Assyrian empire arose. Thus he interprets the words, "since the time of the kings of Assyria,"...
Nehemiah 9:32 ; that is, since the time of the kingdom of Assyria, or since the rise of that empire. But though this was the period in which the Assyrians afflicted Israel, it is not so evident that the time of the kings of Assyria must necessarily be understood of the rise of the Assyrian empire. Pul was succeeded on the throne of Assyria by his elder son Tiglath-pileser; and at the same time he left Babylon to his younger son Nabonassar, B. Of the conquests of this second king of Assyria against the kings of Israel and Syria, when he took Damascus, and subdued the Syrians, we have an account in 2 Kings 15:29 ; 2 Kings 15:37 ; 2 Kings 16:5 ; 2 Kings 16:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ; by which the prophecy of Amos was fulfilled, and from which it appears that the empire of the Assyrians was now become great and powerful. The next king of Assyria was Shalmaneser, or Salmanassar, who succeeded Tiglath-pileser, B. 711 the Medes revolted from the Assyrians; Sennacherib was slain, and he was succeeded by his son Esar-Haddon, Asser-haddon, Asordan, Assaradin, or Sarchedon, by which names he is called by different writers. Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks. At this time Manasseh was allowed to return home, and fortify Jerusalem; and the Egyptians also, after the Assyrians had harassed Egypt and Ethiopia three years, Genesis 10:11 , were set at liberty. Chyniladon was either then or soon after succeeded at Nineveh by the last king of Assyria, called Sarac by Polyhistor. At length Nebuchadnezzar, the son of Nabopolassar, married Amyit, the daughter of Astyages, king of the Medes, and sister of Cyaxares and by this marriage, the two families having contracted affinity, they conspired against the Assyrians. Nabopolassar being old, and Astyages dead, their sons Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares led the armies of the two nations against Nineveh, slew Sarac, destroyed the city, and shared the kingdom of the Assyrians. With this victory commenced the great successes of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares, and it laid the foundation of the two collateral empires of the Babylonians and Medes, which were branches of the Assyrian empire; and hence the time of the fall of the Assyrian empire is determined, the conquerors being then in their youth. In the reign of Josiah, when Zephaniah prophesied, Nineveh and the kingdom of Assyria were standing; and their fall was predicted by that Prophet, Zephaniah 1:3 ; Zephaniah 2:13 . And in the end of his reign, Pharaoh-Necho, king of Egypt, the successor of Psammitichus, went up against the king of Assyria to the river Euphrates, to fight against Carchemish, or Circutium; and in his way thither slew Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20 ; and therefore the last king of Assyria was not yet slain. But in the third and fourth years of Jehoiakim, the successor of Josiah, the two conquerors having taken Nineveh, and finished their war in Assyria, prosecuted their conquests westward; and, leading their forces against the king of Egypt, as an invader of their right of conquest, they beat him at Carchemish, and took from him whatever he had recently taken from the Assyrians, 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2 ; "and therefore we cannot err," says Sir Isaac Newton, "above a year or two, if we refer the destruction of Nineveh, and fall of the Assyrian empire, to the third year of Jehoiakim," or the hundred and fortieth, or according to Blair, the hundred and forty-first year of Nabonassar; that is, the year B. ...
Of the government, laws, religion, learning, customs, &c, of the ancient Assyrians, nothing absolutely certain is recorded. To Ninus we may ascribe the division of the Assyrian empire into provinces and governments; for we find that this institution was fully established in the reigns of Semiramis and her successors. The Assyrians had several distinct councils, and several tribunals for the regulation of public affairs. The Assyrians have been competitors with the Egyptians for the honour of having invented alphabetic writing
Hamath - King Irhuleni of Hamath joined a coalition including Ben-hadad II of Damascus and Ahab of Israel which successfully thwarted the advance of Shalmaneser II of Assyria into northern Syria. Adad-nirari III of Assyria crushed Damascus and levied a heavy tax upon it. Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria exacted tribute from Hamath together with other states including Israel. by Sargon II of Assyria (Amos 6:2 ). Refugees from Samaria may have been exiled to Hamath by the Assyrians, while refugees from Hamath were brought to Samaria along with their god, Ashima (2Kings 17:24,2 Kings 17:30 ; Isaiah 11:11 )
Northward - The "kingdoms of the north" are Chaldea, Assyria, Media, etc
Nimrod - He established an empire in Shinar, the classical Babylonia, the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh: and extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen
Gimzo - ), leading him to ask Assyria for help and pay tribute to them (2 Chronicles 28:18 )
Arkite - Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria conquered it in 738 B
Sennacherib - (Assyrian: the Moon God increases the brothers) ...
One of the greatest kings of Assyria, warrior, and builder (705-681
Rehoboth - A city of ancient Assyria, site unknown, Genesis 10:11
Rab'Shakeh - one of the officers of the king of Assyria sent against Jerusalem in the reign of Hezekiah
Rab'Saris -
An officer of the king of Assyria sent up with Tartan and Rabshakeh against Jerusalem in the time of Hezekiah
Hena - City Sennacherib, king of Assyria, captured prior to threatening Hezekiah and Jerusalem in 701 B
Ellasar - The oak or heap of Assyria, a territory in Asia of which Arioch was king (Genesis 14:1,9 )
Elkosh - of Mosul, believed by Jewish pilgrims to be Nahum's birthplace and burial place, is less probable, as his prophecies show only a general acquaintance with Assyria but a particular knowledge of Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3)
Mahershalalhashbaz - ' The child was to be so called because before he should "have knowledge to cry, My father, and my mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria" should be taken away before the king of Assyria
Rehoboth (2) - (See NIMROD; Assyria; NINEVEH
Oholah - God declared through the prophet that Samaria eventually would be delivered into the hands of her “lover,” Assyria (Ezekiel 23:9 )
Gozan - One of the places to which Israelites were deported by the king of Assyria on the capture of Samaria ( 2 Kings 17:6 ; 2Ki 18:11 , 1 Chronicles 5:26 ; mentioned also in 2 Kings 19:12 , Isaiah 37:12 ). Gozan was the district termed Guzanu by the Assyrians and Gauzanitis by Ptolemy, and it was situated on the Khâbûr
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - It derived its name apparently from Asshur, the son of Shem, (Genesis 10:22 ) who in later times was worshipped by the Assyrians as their chief god. -- The boundaries of Assyria differed greatly at different periods, Probably in the earliest times it was confined to a small tract of low country lying chiefly on the left bank of the Tigris. --Scripture informs us that Assyria was peopled from Babylon, ( Genesis 10:11 ) and both classical tradition and the monuments of the country agree in this representation. --As a country, Assyria was evidently known to Moses. ( Genesis 2:14 ; 25:18 ; Numbers 24:22,24 ) The foundation of the Assyrian empire was probably not very greatly anterior to B. Sargon's son Sennacherib became the most famous of the Assyrian kings. In Scripture it is remarkable that we hear nothing of Assyria after the reign of Esarhaddon, and profane history is equally silent until the attacks began which brought about her downfall. The fall of Assyria, long previously prophesied by Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:5-19 ) was effected by the growing strength and boldness of the Medes, about 625 B. The prophecies of Nahum and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15 ) against Assyria were probably delivered shortly before the catastrophe. -- The Assyrian monarchs bore sway over a number of petty kings through the entire extent of their dominions. It is not quite certain how far Assyria required a religious conformity from the subject people. ( Genesis 10:22 ) ...
Civilization of the Assyrians. -- The civilization of the Assyrians was derived originally from the Babylonians. ...
Modern discoveries in Assyria. -- (Much interest has been excited in reference to Assyria by the discoveries lately made there, which confirm and illustrate the Bible
So - King of Egypt, made an alliance with Hoshea king of Israel, and promised him assistance; but was unable to prevent Shalmaneser king of Assyria from taking Samaria and subverting the kingdom, B. The Bible shows that Egypt and Assyria, though remote, were often in conflict during the height of the Assyrian ruins power, and that So was at war with Shalmaneser. After war comes the treaty of peace; and as the Bible prepares us to suppose such treaties were made, the Assyrian ruins furnish evidence of their existence. ...
It was impressed, as was then the custom, on a piece of fine clay, which also bore the impress of a royal signet of Assyria; thus showing the probability that such a treaty between the two nations had here been deposited
Hezekiah - At this time in history, the nation of Assyria had risen to power. Hezekiah's reign can best be understood against the background of Assyria's military activities during the years Hezekiah served as king of Judah. When Ahaz succeeded Jotham as king of Judah, he began pro-Assyrian policies by making Judah a vassal to Assyria. Ahaz's political involvements with Assyria brought idolatry and paganism into the Temple (2 Kings 16:7-20 ). Hezekiah was not willing to court the favor of the Assyrian kings. The tribes in the Northern Kingdom (Israel) had been subjected to Assyrian dominance. , just a few years after Hezekiah had become king, Sargon II of Assyria captured Ashdod. Hezekiah anticipated the time when he would have to confront Assyrian armies. ...
Isaiah warned Hezekiah not to become involved with Assyria (Isaiah 20:1-6 ). when Sennacherib became king of Assyria. God answered by promising Hezekiah fifteen more years of life and deliverance of Jerusalem from Assyria (Isaiah 38:4-6 )
Gog And Magog - Ezekiel's historical reference may have been Gyges, king of Lydia, who asked Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, for help in 676 B. but then joined an Egyptian-led rebellion against Assyria about 665 B
Ahava - The name of a river of Babylonia, or rather of Assyria, where Ezra assembled those captives whom he afterward brought into Judea, Ezra 8:15 . This is probably the country called Ava, whence the kings of Assyria translated the people called Avites into Palestine, and where they settled some of the captive Israelites, 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Kings 18:34 ; 2 Kings 19:13 ; 2 Kings 17:31
Israelites, Captivities of the - (1) The Assyrian Captivity, when the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were carried off to Assyria (4Kings 15; 17) ...
(2) The Babylonian Captivity, when the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda were deported to Babylon (4Kings 24; 25)
Captivities of the Israelites - (1) The Assyrian Captivity, when the inhabitants of the Northern Kingdom were carried off to Assyria (4Kings 15; 17) ...
(2) The Babylonian Captivity, when the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda were deported to Babylon (4Kings 24; 25)
Ashima - The idol of Hamath, introduced by the Hamathites, the colonists planted in Samaria by Esarhaddon king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:24; 2 Kings 17:30; Ezra 4:2; Ezra 4:10); represented as a goat with short hair, answering to the Egyptian form of the Greek god Pan, to whom the goat was sacred
Sennacherib - 548 BCE) King of Assyria, he conquered all the areas surrounding Judea. King Hezekiah prayed for deliverance, and that night all the Assyrian soldiers – hundreds of thousands of them – were killed by an angel of G-d
Nineveh - Capital of Assyria: The prophet Jonah, in approximately 650 BCE, describes Nineveh as being "an exceedingly great city, a walk of three days" and having 220,000 inhabitants
Calah - One of the early cities built by Asshur, or, probably by Nimrod, if we read 'out of the land he (Nimrod) went forth to Assyria,' as in the margin
a'Vim - ...
The people of Avva, among the colonists who were sent by the king of Assyria to reinhabit the depopulated cities of Israel
Hid'Dekel - (rapid ), one of the rivers of Eden, the river which "goeth eastward to Assyria," ( Genesis 2:14 ) and which Daniel calls "the great river," (Daniel 10:4 ) seems to have been rightly identified by the LXX
Assur - Assyria, Asshur. Kurdistan and the pachalik of Mosul nearly answer to Assyria. Named from Asshur, Shem's son, latterly made the Assyrian god. They are numbered by hundreds, and when examined exhibit traces of their Assyrian origin. of Nineveh, rebuilt the temple; the region round Nineveh in the 19th century being under Assyria's rulers. Classical tradition and the Assyrian monuments confirm Scripture, that Assyria was peopled from Babylon. ...
The remains prove that Babylon's civilization was anterior to Assyria's. The cuneiform writing is rapidly punched on moist clay, and so naturally took its rise in Babylonia, where they used "brick for stone" (Genesis 11:3), and passed thence to Assyria, where chiseling characters on rock is not so easy. In Assyria too the writing is of a more advanced kind; in early Babylonia of a ruder stage. Babylon is Hamitic in origin; Assyria Shemitic. The monuments confirm Genesis 10:9-12, that the Shemitic Assyrians proceeding out of Babylonia founded Nineveh long after the Cushite foundation of Babylon. The Babylonian shrines were those at which the Assyrians thought the gods most accessible, regarding Babylon as the true home of their gods (Arrian, Exp. Moses knew Assyria (Genesis 2:14; Genesis 25:18; Numbers 24:22; Numbers 24:24), but not as a kingdom; had it been a kingdom in Abraham's time, it must have appeared among Chedorlaomer's confederates (Genesis 14). ) Assyria can have had no great power. He first brought Assyria into contact with Israelite history by making Menahem his tributary vassal (2 Kings 15:19). Under Tiglath Pileser the Assyrian empire included Media, Syria, and N. Palestine, besides Assyria proper. Assyrian monuments, pillars, boundary tablets, and inscriptions are found as far as in Cyprus at Larnaka (a portrait of a king with a tablet, now in Berlin), and in the desert between the Nile and the Red Sea. The Assyrians knew the arch, the lever, the roller, gem engraving, tunneling, drainage. The apocryphal book of Baruch describes the Assyrian deities exactly as the ancient monuments do. " But this rule was not always enforced and in no case required the supplanting of the local worship, but merely the superaddition of the Assyrian rite. of Mosul, still represents the name Assyria. of Palestine is probably a shortened form of Assyria, the name being extended by the Greeks to the country which they found subject to Assyria. Ctesias' list of Assyrian kings is evidently unhistorical. ...
The oldest Assyrian remains are found at Kileh Sherghat on the right bank of the Tigris, 60 miles S. which had lain under the four grainer stones of the great temple of Assyria at Kileh Sherghat for 3000 years, and which relate the five successive campaigns of Tiglath Pileser I. He is the first Assyrian king of whose exploits we have full details; two duplicate cylinders in the British Museum were deciphered by Sir H. A religious character appears in all the Assyrian kings' names. ("Be worship given to Nin" or "Hercules") claims to have conquered in the first five years of his reign "42 countries from the Lower Zab to the Upper Sea of the setting sun," the region from Assyria proper to the Euphrates, from Babylon's borders to mount Taurus, and to have fought the Hittites in northern Syria, and invaded Armenia and Cappadocia. Later on he was defeated by the Babylonian king, who carried captive several Assyrian idols. Most, of the Assyrian sculptures in the British Museum are from it; and from them we learn that Sardanapalus I. Pul, Phul, or Phaloch, supposed to be his grandson, is the first Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture. Identified by some with Vul-lush of the Assyrian lists, who reigned at Calah (Nimrud) from 800 to 750 B. But as it is impossible to identify Tiglath Pileser's predecessor Asshut-lush with Pul, and as Assyria was then in a depressed state through internal troubles, Pul was probably monarch at Babylon (Berosus, the Babylonian historian, calls him "king of the Chaldoeans") while Asshur-lush reigned at Nineveh. ...
In the disturbed 10 years before Tiglath Pileser's accession, he probably deprived Assyria of her western province and invaded Palestine from the Assyrian direction, and so was loosely designated "king of Assyria" instead of "Babylon. The Assyrian monuments dear the seeming discrepancy of Isaiah 20 mentioning Sargon, while he is ignored in 2 Kings. there is a break in the line of Assyrian kings and a loosening of the He which held together the subject nations under Assyria, so that 23 years after Pul, 747 B. The magnificent palace of Sennacherib (the assailant of (See HEZEKIA) at Nineveh, as also the buildings erected by Sargon and Esarhaddon (the carrier away of Manasseh to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11) show the power and wealth of Assyria at this period. The growing power of the Medes gave the final blow (foretold long ago, Isaiah 10:5-19) to Assyria, already enervated by luxury and having lost in prosperous ease its military spirit. ) is said to have made himself king of Assyria. they began attacking Assyria, at first unsuccessfully; but Cyaxares the Mede having gained the Babylonians under Nabopolassar, the Assyrian viceroy of Babylon, as allies, about 625 B. attests how completely Assyria was overthrown, as a warning of the fatal end of pride. Never again did Assyria rise as a nation, for God had said (Nahum 3:19) "there is no healing of thy bruise. feudatories, rendering homage and tribute to the great monarch; as Menahem (2 Kings 15:19), Hoshea (2 Kings 17:4), Ahaz (2 Kings 16:8), Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:14), Manasseh (2 Chronicles 33:11); and ready therefore at the first opportunity, whether the king's death or some Assyrian disaster or the promise of some antagonistic ally, to revolt
Rabshakeh - "...
Rabshakeh was a zealous pleader for his master, reckless of truth, glossing over the real miseries of deportation by Assyria (Isaiah 36:16-17), pretending to have Jehovah on his side, yet classing Jehovah with the idols of other lands overthrown by Assyria (Isaiah 36:18-20, liars need to have good memories), trying to rob the godly of their one only but sure trust in trouble, misrepresenting Hezekiah's faithful act in removing forbidden high places to Jehovah, as though he thereby had dishonored and so forfeited the favor of Jehovah (Isaiah 36:7), boasting of Assyria's might, as if, because Judah could not supply 2,000 riders if even Assyria supplied the horses, it were impossible the Jews could repel one of the least of Assyria's captains (Isaiah 36:8-9); in filthy and blasphemous language he threatens to reduce them to eat their own excrement in the extremity of famine (Isaiah 36:12; 2 Chronicles 32:11): a sample of the true nature of the pagan attack on Jerusalem, at once arrogant, blasphemous, and reckless of all decency
Assyria - The Assyrians were probably of Semitic origin, descendants of Assur, one of the sons of Sem (Genesis 10), and an independent Assyrian kingdom began about the seventeenth century B. The sources of Assyrian history are the Old Testament, the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers, and the records and remains of the Assyrian people. ), under whom Assyria rose to the height of military glory; Asshur-nasir-pal (885-860 B. ), in whose reign Assyria first came into touch with Israel; Theglathphalasar III (745-727 B. ), founder of the second Assyrian empire; Sargon II (722-705 B. ), greatest of all Assyrian kings, to whom we owe part of our knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most important historical texts and inscriptions to be copied and placed in a fine library which he built in his palace. With his death, Assyrian power declined. Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians, and Assyria became a province of these countries
Oracle - Communication - This form of divination existed in Babylon and Assyria, among the Hebrews, and in Greece and Rome
Nineveh - Situated on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia, Nineveh was one of the great cities of the ancient world, and became capital of the powerful Assyrian Empire (Genesis 10:11-12; 2 Kings 19:36). (For map of Assyria and details of Nineveh’s history see Assyria. ...
Though the Assyrians were used by God to punish his people Israel, they were among the most brutal oppressors in recorded history
Pul - King of Assyria who invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem, who gave him 1,000 talents of silver to confirm the kingdom to him. Pul has not been identified among the kings of Assyria
Esarhaddon - He succeeded Sennacherib as king of Assyria. He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon. This will account for the captain of the Assyrians carrying Manasseh to Babylon. From the records on the monuments he appears to have been one of the most powerful of the Assyrian kings. He divided Egypt into twenty provinces, placing some of them under native princes, and others under Assyrian governors with Assyrian troops
Ahaz - He came to the throne about 735 BC, when Assyria was rapidly expanding its power and becoming a threat to all the countries of the region. ...
To resist the Assyrian threat, Israel and Syria asked Judah to join them in a three-part defence alliance. Ahaz panicked and, against the advice of Isaiah the prophet, asked Assyria to help defend him. In the short term, Assyrian help might save Jerusalem, but in the long term it would bring Judah under the power of Assyria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Kings 16:7-9; Isaiah 7:1-9; Isaiah 8:5-8). His hiring of Assyria was costly (2 Kings 16:7-8; 2 Kings 16:17-18; 2 Chronicles 28:20-21), and though it enabled him to repel the Israelite-Syrian army, he lost thousands of soldiers killed in the battle (2 Chronicles 28:5-7)
Menahem - ), king of Assyria, came with a powerful force against Israel, but was induced to retire by a gift from Menahem of 1,000 talents of silver
Avim, Avites - A people localised in Samaria by the king of Assyria
Huzzab - A-diab-ene, the best part of Assyria representing the who1e
Razor - It is the King of Assyria, who was to take away from Israel much of their possessions and many of their people
Esar-Haddon - Esar-haddon (ç'sar-kăd'don), son and successor of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, and one of the greatest of her kings
ja'Reb - Jareb is most probably the name of some city of Assyria or another name of the country itself
Rezin - Turning away from before Jerusalem, Rezin extended his conquests to the south as far as Elath; but was erelong conquered and slain by Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, whose aid had been procured by king Ahaz
Carchemish - In Isaiah 10:9 , it appears as taken by some king of Assyria
Nim'Rod - , from which we learn (1) that he was a Cushite; (2) that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia) the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh; and (3) that he extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah and Resen
Rezin - Isaiah was sent to comfort Ahaz, but he asked the aid of Assyria, sending him silver and gold
Syria - Second, this was followed by a short period of independence, when the Jewish nation in the south was growing in power, until it reached its early zenith in the golden days of Solomon; and when Tyre and Sidon were rich cities, sending their traders far and wide, over land and sea, as missionaries of civilization, while in the north the confederate tribes of the Hittites held back the armies of the kings of Assyria. The third, and to us most interesting, period is that during which the kings of Assyria were dominant over the plains of Syria; when Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib; and when at last Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power of the rulers of Nineveh and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed with terrible fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold by the Hebrew prophets
ti'Gris - It appears, indeed, under the name of Hiddekel, among the rivers of Eden, ( Genesis 2:14 ) and is there correctly described as "running eastward to Assyria;" but after this we hear no more of it, if we accept one doubtful allusion in Nahum (Nahum 2:6 ) until the captivity, when it becomes well known to the prophet Daniel. " The Tigris, in its upper course, anciently ran through Armenia and Assyria
Hezekiah - The policies of Ahaz had left Judah economically weak, politically dominated by Assyria, and religiously corrupted through false religions (see AHAZ). ...
Upon becoming king, Hezekiah set out on the bold task of strengthening the nation’s economy, overthrowing Assyrian domination, and reforming Judah’s religion. ...
Political achievements...
Assyrian influence in Palestine was at its peak during the time of Hezekiah. In the early part of his reign Assyria conquered the northern kingdom Israel and carried the people into captivity (722 BC; 2 Kings 17:6; 2 Kings 18:9-12). He then revolted against Assyria by refusing to pay further tribute (2 Kings 18:7). ...
As expected, Assyria sent its army to attack Judah, but Hezekiah had prepared Judah well and had equipped Jerusalem to withstand the siege (2 Kings 18:13; 2 Chronicles 32:1-6). ...
The Assyrian attack was far more damaging to Jerusalem than Hezekiah had expected. Even when the Assyrians had forced Hezekiah to pay them large amounts of money, they did not retreat. The outcome was that God intervened and dramatically overthrew the Assyrians (2 Kings 19:35-37). In answer to his prayers, God extended his life by fifteen years, enabling him to lead Judah through its period of conflict with Assyria (2 Kings 20:1-11). ...
Throughout this period Babylon was increasing in power and was looking for allies to help it conquer Assyria. An illness of Hezekiah gave the Babylonians the opportunity to visit him, in the hope of persuading him to join them against Assyria. He was very anti-Assyrian and very proud that his achievements for Judah had attracted Babylon’s admiration (2 Kings 20:1-13; 2 Chronicles 32:24-25; 2 Chronicles 32:31)
Israel, Kingdom of - Internal disturbances were frequent; Juda and Syria were a constant menace; finally Assyria invaded the kingdom and destroyed it, after capturing the capital Samaria, B
Kingdom of Israel - Internal disturbances were frequent; Juda and Syria were a constant menace; finally Assyria invaded the kingdom and destroyed it, after capturing the capital Samaria, B
Elteke - Sennacherib of Assyria met an Egyptian army there about 701 B
Thicket - ...
Jeremiah 4:7 (b) The word is used to illustrate the evil surroundings and the wicked society of the countries of Assyria, Babylonia and other foreign nations which were to invade Israel and lay it waste
Adrammelech - the son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria
Eden, House of - Its most formidable competitor, Bit-Adini , a district on either bank of the Middle Euphrates, frequently mentioned in the cuneiform inscriptions, is too far 200 miles from Damascus, and in the days of Amos had long been subject to Assyria
Samaritan - Pertaining to Samaria, the principal city of the ten tribes of Israel, belonging to the tribe of Ephraim, and after the captivity of those tribes, repeopled by Cuthites from Assyria or Chaldea
Damascus - ...
The new Syrian city-state faced a strong opponent from the east as Assyria rose to power. Shalmaneser III of Assyria (858-824) claimed to have defeated both Ben-hadad and Hazael. ...
Having fought against Damascus in campaigns in 853,849, 848, and 845, Shalmaneser III of Assyria severely weakened Damascus, besieging it in 841 and then receiving tribute again in 838. This was possible because Assyria threatened Syria again, as Adad-nirari III, king of Assyria (810-783), invaded Syria from 805 to 802 and again in 796. ...
Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria (744-727), threatened Damascus anew. in an effort to stop the Assyrians. They marched on Jerusalem, trying to force Ahaz of Judah to join them in fighting Assyria (2 Kings 16:5 ). He also said that Assyria would destroy Damascus (Isaiah 8:4 ; compare Isaiah 17:1 ). The Assyrians responded readily and captured Damascus in 732 B. Damascus sought to gain independence from Assyria in 727,720 but without success. Thus Damascus became a captive state of first the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Ptolemies, and Seleuccids
Cushan - ); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not yet founded
Shebna - He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to confer with the Assyrian ambassador (2 Kings 18:18,26,37 ; 19:2 ; Isaiah 36:3,11,22 ; 37:2 ), was a different person
Captivity, Assyrian - The exile of the Israelites in the provinces of the Assyrian Empire. Theglathphalasar III conquered Israel and deported many of the leading Israelites to Assyria (4Kings 15)
Tarsus - It is said to have been founded by Sardanapalus, king of Assyria
Nergal - Following the fall of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, the Assyrians resettled Samaria with Mesopotamian peoples who brought their gods, including Nergal, with them (2 Kings 17:30 ). See Assyria
Anastasius, Saint - (Greek: resurrection) ...
Martyr (628), died Bethsaloe, Assyria
Assyrian Captivity - The exile of the Israelites in the provinces of the Assyrian Empire. Theglathphalasar III conquered Israel and deported many of the leading Israelites to Assyria (4Kings 15)
Elam - Stephanus takes it to be a part of Assyria, but Pliny and Josephus, more properly, of Persia, whose inhabitants, this latter tells us, sprung from the Elamites
Eliakim - The master of the household of Hezekiah, and one of the commissioners appointed to treat with the king of Assyria
Pethor - of Assyria regarding a certain city which he calls Pitru , that it lay on the river Sâgûr (modern Sâjûr ), near its junction with the Euphrates
Sepharvaim - When Shalmaneser king of Assyria carried away Israel from Samaria to beyond the Euphrates, he sent people in their stead into Palestine, among whom were the Sepharvaim, 2 Kings 17:24,31
re'Zin - " (2 Kings 16:6 ) Soon after this he was attacked defeated and slain by Tiglath-pileser II, king of Assyria
East - Nearly all the references in scripture to the East or to other quarters are of course reckoned from Palestine; so that 'children of the East,' 'men of the East,' point out Assyria, Babylon, etc
Assyria, History And Religion of - Assyria (Assihrya) was a nation in northern Mesopotamia in Old Testament times that became a large empire during the period of the Israelite kings. Assyrian expansion into the region of Palestine (about 855-625 B. ...
History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. The name Assyria (in Hebrew, Ashshur ) is from Asshur, its first capital, founded about 2000 B. The foundation of other Assyrian cities, notably Calah and Nineveh, appears in Genesis 10:11-12 . ...
The history of Assyria is well documented in royal Assyrian annals, building inscriptions, king lists, correspondence, and other archaeological evidence. An expanded Assyria warred with the famous King Hammurabi of Babylon shortly before breaking up into smaller city states about 1700 B. , a reunited Assyria made rapid territorial advances and soon became an international power. ) became the first Assyrian monarch to march his army to the shores of the Mediterranean. With his murder, however, Assyria entered a 166-year period of decline. ...
Assyria awoke from its dark ages under Adad-nirari II (911-891 B. ) moved Assyria toward the status of an empire. ) continued a policy of Assyrian expansion through his annual campaigns in all directions. As always, failure to submit to Assyria brought vicious military action. The results, however, were not always a complete victory for Assyria. In such a context Assyria first encountered the Hebrew kingdoms of the Bible. ...
With the death of Shalmaneser, Assyria entered another period of decline during which she was occupied with the nearby kingdom of Urartu. For the next century only one Assyrian king seriously affected affairs in Palestine. ...
Assyrian preoccupation with Urartu ended with the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B. The true founder of the Assyrian Empire, he made changes in the administration of conquered territories. Nations close to the Assyrian homeland were incorporated as provinces. Others were left with native rule, but subject to an Assyrian overseer. ...
As Tiglath-pileser, also called Pul, arrived on the coast of Phoenicia, Menahem of Israel (2 Kings 15:19 ) and Rezin of Aram-Damascus brought tribute and became vassals of Assyria. An anti-Assyrian alliance quickly formed. in an attempt to replace King Ahaz of Judah with a man loyal to the anti-Assyrian alliance (2 Kings 16:2-6 ; Isaiah 7:1-6 ) and thus force Judah's participation. Ahaz, for his part, became an Assyrian vassal ( 2 Kings 16:10 ; 2Chronicles 28:16,2 Chronicles 28:20-22 ). ), took credit in Assyrian royal inscriptions for deporting 27,290 inhabitants of Samaria. A rebellious king of Babylon, Merodach-baladan, found support from Elam, Assyria's enemy to the east. He sent emissaries to Hezekiah in Jerusalem (2 Kings 20:12-19 ; Isaiah 39:1 ), apparently as part of preparations for a concerted anti-Assyrian revolt. ...
News of Sargon's death in battle served as a signal to anti-Assyrian forces. During the siege of Lachish, an Assyrian army was sent against Jerusalem where Hezekiah was “made a prisoner like a bird in a cage. In the end, the Assyrian army withdrew, and Hezekiah paid an enormous tribute (2 Kings 18:14-16 ). The Assyrian account claims a victory over the Egyptian army and mentions Hezekiah's tribute but is rather vague about the end of the campaign. The Bible mentions the approach of the Egyptian army (2 Kings 19:9 ) and tells of a miraculous defeat of the Assyrians by the angel of the Lord (2 Kings 19:35-36 ). Greek historian Herodotus relates that the Assyrians suffered defeat because a plague of field mice destroyed their equipment. ...
On a more peaceful front, Sennacherib conducted some major building projects in Assyria. The ancient city of Nineveh was rebuilt as the new royal residence and Assyrian capital. The Pharaoh Taharqa fled south as Memphis fell to the Assyrians, but returned and fomented rebellion two years later. Plans for revolt began immediately; but Assyrian officers got wind of the plot, captured the rebels, and sent them to Nineveh. ...
Ashurbanipal ruled at Assyria's zenith but also saw the beginning of her swift collapse. Assyria could do nothing because of a war with Elam. After three years of continual battles Babylon was subdued, but remained filled with seeds of hatred for Assyria. Action against Arab tribes followed, and the war with Elam continued until a final Assyrian victory in 639 B. War continued between Assyria and Babylon until, in 614 B. , the old Assyrian capital Asshur was sacked by the Medes. An Assyrian general claimed the throne and rallied what was left of the Assyrian army in Haran. An alliance with Egypt brought a few troops to Assyria's aid; but in 610 B. Assyria was no more. ...
Religion Assyrian religion, like that of most Near Eastern nations, was polytheistic. Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. Ninurta, the god of war and hunting, became a fitting patron for the Assyrian capital Calah. As patron god and namesake of the original Assyrian capital Asshur and the state itself, Asshur rose in importance to be lord of the universe and the supreme god. Since the god Asshur stood above all others, the Assyrian king was duty-bound to show his corresponding dominance on earth. Most Assyrian military campaigns were initiated “at the command of Asshur. ...
Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other gods
Nebaioth - The people of Nebaioth have an important place among the Arabian tribes subdued by Ashurbanipal of Assyria, named by him along with the people of Kedar (wh. Their exact location cannot be definitely determined, but the inscriptions tell us that they were very remote from Assyria, and their place at the head of the tribes of Ishmael, as well as their affiliation with the Edomites ( Genesis 28:1-22 ; Genesis 36:1-43 ), makes it probable that they were well known to the Hebrews
Sennacherib - Son and successor of Sargon, king of Assyria. But an angel of God destroyed the Assyrian army. The king returned to Assyria, and did not venture to invade Palestine again
Seal - As the plastic clay presents various figures impressed on it by the revolving cylinder seal (one to three inches long, of terra cotta or precious stone, such as is found in Assyria), as "it is turned," so the morning light rolling on over the earth, previously void of form through the darkness, brings out to view hills, valleys, etc. Clay hardens in the heat, and was therefore used in Assyria and Babylon rather than wax, which melts. The Assyrian documents were often of baked clay, sealed while wet and burnt afterwards
Mesopotamia - Assyrian inscriptions confirm Scripture in asserting that Mesopotamia was independent of Assyria until after David ("the tribes of the Nairi," stream lands, were under their several independent princes, until in 880 B. , Jehu's time, Assyria became completely their master); also that Mesopotamians used chariots in battle, and that after David's time Mesopotamia became absorbed in Assyria
Huzzab - The verbal translation is probably correct, pointing to God's established plan announced through the prophet to defeat Assyria and its capital Nineveh
Tartak - An idol introduced by the Avvites into Samaria when Sargon of Assyria transported them thither ( 2 Kings 17:31 )
Arphaxad - There was a portion of Assyria called Arrapachitis, from Arapkha, "the city of the four sacred fish," often seen on cylinders; but the affinity is doubtful
Hauran - One of four or five provinces through which the Assyrians and their successors administered Syria. It was a battle ground among Assyria, Syria, Israel, Judah, and Egypt, appearing in Egyptian and Assyrian records
Hena - A city with its king subjugated by Assyria before Sennacherib's invasion of Judea (2 Kings 19:13). The Assyrian inscriptions mention Anat, a town on an island in the Euphrates, some distance below its union with the Chabour
Resen - (See Assyria; NINEVEH
Massa - ) of Assyria
Adrammelech - The idol of the Sepharvite colonists of Samaria planted by Assyria (2 Kings 17:31); means "burning splendor of the king" (compare Molech). Astrology characterized the Assyrian idolatry
Ivory - It was imported into Palestine by the Assyrians and was brought by the ships of Solomon. Ancient ivories of Egypt and Assyria have been found
Abel-Beth-Maachah or Abel-Beth-Maacah - Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, captured the city from Pekah, king of Israel (2 Kings 15:29 )
Rehoboth-ir - One of the four cities in Assyria built by Nimrod ( Genesis 10:11 ). Assyria - The great kingdom of Assyria was situated near the river Tigris,having Armenia on the North, Mount Zagros and Media on the east, Babylonia on the south, Syria and the Syrian desert on the west; but its boundaries were doubtless not always the same. The first allusion to Assyria is found in Genesis 2:14 , where we read that one of the rivers of Paradise went "toward the east of Assyria," or "went eastward to Assyria," margin. ...
The name of Assyria appears to have arisen from its first capital, Asshur (now called Kalah Sherghat ) on the Tigris. 1130), who may be said to be the founder of the first Assyrian Empire. After this king the power of Assyria waned for a time. 745, who is considered to have founded the second Assyrian kingdom. Rezin was slain and the city taken; and there Ahaz met the king of Assyria. Some Assyrian scholars take Tiglath-pileser (whose name appears to have been Pulu) to be the same person as the Pul mentioned in the Bible; but this does not at all agree with the dates of scripture, and in 1 Chronicles 5:26 the names of Pul and Tiglath-pileser are mentioned as of two persons. Hezekiah humbled himself before God, and the angel of the Lord smote of the Assyrians 185,000. He also conquered Egypt, and divided it into 20 provinces, governed by Assyrians. This accounts for him, as king of Assyria , carrying Manasseh captive to Babylon. The glory of the Assyrian kingdom was permanently departing, and about B. ...
There are many monuments and inscriptions on tablets which the learned are deciphering; but the difficulties of distinguishing the proper names on the Assyrian monuments are shown by M. '...
The following list of kings is from Rawlinson, Sayce, and other Assyrian scholars. ...
AssyriaN KINGS. (Sarakos) ?...
Fall of Nineveh ? 606...
The Assyrians were idolaters: from the inscriptions the names of hundreds of gods can be gathered. ...
The Assyrian language was a branch of the Semitic, and came from the Accadian. ...
Assyria was used by God as His rod to punish His guilty people Israel, and then, as in other instances, the rod itself, for its pride and wickedness, had to bear God's judgement. Some of the passages that speak of the kings of Assyria are prophetic, and refer to the still future, when as 'kings of the north' they will again have to do with Israel and will be judged of God. The indignation against Israel ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian: see Isaiah 10:12 ; Isaiah 14:25 ; Isaiah 30:27-33 . One remarkable passage speaks of Assyria with Egypt and Israel as being brought into blessing, Isaiah 19:23-25 , "Whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance. " We thus see that the Assyrians have a large place in scripture both in the past and in the future, doubtless because they have had, and will yet have, to do with Jehovah's earthly people, "the Israel of God. " The Assyrian is the over-flowing scourge of God's anger because of Israel's connection with idolatry
Nebo -
A Chaldean god whose worship was introduced into Assyria by Pul (Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 48:1 ). A statue of Nebo found at Calah, where it was set up by Pul, king of Assyria, is now in the British Museum
Shem - ...
ASSHUR — strictly Assyria, but in an extended sense may have included Babylonia and the land of the Chaldees. The name is supposed to have been preserved in the province Arrapachitis in northern Assyria
Israel, Kingdom of - Samaria was subsequently chosen as the capital (16:24), and continued to be so till the destruction of the kingdom by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:5 ). During the siege of Samaria (which lasted for three years) by the Assyrians, Shalmaneser died and was succeeded by Sargon, who himself thus records the capture of that city: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men who dwelt in it I carried away" (2 Kings 17:6 ) into Assyria. ) ...
"Judah held its ground against Assyria for yet one hundred and twenty-three years, and became the rallying-point of the dispersed of every tribe, and eventually gave its name to the whole race. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine. " ...
After the deportation of the ten tribes, the deserted land was colonized by various eastern tribes, whom the king of Assyria sent thither ( Ezra 4:2,10 ; 2 Kings 17:24-29 )
Merodach Baladan - Read in the Assyrian inscriptions Mardoc Erapad, or Empalin Ptolemy's canon, Merodach Baldan in Polyhistor (Eusebius, Chron. Warred with Sargon and Sennacherib successively, having thrown off allegiance to them; so naturally drawn to Hezekiah who also had cast off the Assyrian yoke. It is an undesigned coincidence confirming Scripture that precisely at the time that Babylon revolted, though before and afterwards subject to Assyria, it mentions Merodach Baladan. ...
His sons, supported by the king of Elam, continued the struggle against Assyria under Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, and his grandsons against Asshur-bani-pal, Esarhaddon's son. Hincks suggests reasonably that "Sennacherib" should be omitted after "king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:13), Sargon reigning "in the 14th year of Hezekiah
Habor - The united stream, or, according to others, with beautiful banks, the name of a river in Assyria, and also of the district through which it flowed (1 Chronicles 5:26 )
Calneh - The place where the tower of Babel was built, according to the Septuagint and Arab tradition, taken by Assyria in the eighth century B
Gabael - To him Tobit, when purveyor to the king of Assyria, once entrusted, as a deposit, 10 talents of silver ( Tob 1:14 )
Pekah - The country was unsettled, and there was great discontent on account of the heavy tribute paid to Assyria. Once on the throne he set on foot a movement against the Assyrians in which all the kingdoms of Syria were to unite. The Assyrians were prompt in meeting the coalition, and the issue can hardly have been doubtful, except to those who were blinded by patriotism. The capital would no doubt have been besieged had not the party friendly to Assyria got the upper hand and removed Pekah by the usual method of assassination ( 2 Kings 15:30 ). The leader in this movement, Hoshea by name, had an understanding with the Assyrian king, and was perhaps from the first a creature of his
Captivity - It appears however that the events recorded in 1 Chronicles 5:26 occurred first, because of Pul king of Assyria being mentioned, for he reigned before Tiglath-pileser: here the latter is named as carrying away the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh: showing that the Israelites who stopped short of their privileges, and did not crossthe Jordan, were the first to be carried into captivity. So that this may be a summary of all that this king carried away captive to Assyria. It was in the ninth year of Hoshea, king of Israel and the sixth of Hezekiah that Samaria was taken by the Assyrians after a three years' siege: this would be B. These places are supposed to be in the north of Assyria; but in the above passage in Kings the words are added "and in the cities of the Medes. " This is a region much farther east, where they would be far removed from their brethren in Assyria and from Judah, who were afterwards carried to Babylon
Adrammelech - Son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, Isaiah 37:38 ; 2 Kings 19:37 , who, upon returning to Nineveh after his fatal expedition against Hezekiah, was killed by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, through fear, according to Jewish tradition, of being sacrificed to his idol Nisroch
Togarmah - Delitzsch suggests that Togarmah is the Til-garimmu of the Assyrian inscriptions, described by Sargon of Assyria as the capital of Melitene, which he captured and re-colonized
Shalman - Shalman may be a contraction for Shalmaneser , but it is impossible to say which, if any, of the four kings of Assyria bearing that name suits the connexion
Megiddo - When Pharaoh-necho came from Egypt against the king of Assyria, Josiah joined the latter, and was slain at Megiddo
Calneh - Similarly, Isaiah warned Jerusalem that Calno (another spelling of Calneh) was as good as Jerusalem and yet had suffered conquest by Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria in 738
Shiloah, Waters of - Isaiah (Isaiah 8:6) makes it represent the quiet confidence in Jehovah's benignant sway, exercised through David's line, to which he urged the Jews, in contrast to the overwhelming force of Assyria (like the flood of the Euphrates) which they sought as an ally
Abelbethmaachah - It was taken with other cities by Benhadad, 1 Kings 15:20 , and subsequently by Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kings 15:29 , when its inhabitants were carried away captive to Assyria
Sennacherib - king of Assyria, son and successor of Shalmaneser
Pekah - Pekah appeared to be the leader in Gilead during Menahem's reign but surrendered control there when Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria confirmed Menahem's rule
Babylonia - Babylonia was subjugated by Sargon II of Assyria, but regained independence c
Bab'Ylon - The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question
Nineveh - [1] Ninâ, Ninûa ) is said in Genesis 10:11 to have been founded by Nimrod in Assyria. It was early an important city, and is frequently referred to in the royal inscriptions, but Sennacherib first raised it to the position of capital of Assyria
Abel-Beth-Maacha - Its northern border position made it an early prey to Syria under Benhadad, and 200 years later to Assyria: 2 Kings 15:29. Tiglath Pileser sent away its inhabitants captive to Assyria
Damascus - His son, Benhadad II, who besieged Ahab (1 Kings 20:1), is the Ben-idri of the Assyrian inscriptions. These state that in spite of his having the help of the Phoenicians, Hittites and Hamathites, he was unable to oppose Assyria, which slew 20,000 of his men in just one battle. Hazael was defeated by Assyria in his turn, with great loss, at Antilibanus; but repulsed Ahaziah's and Jehoram's attack on Israel (2 Kings 8:28), ravaged Gilead, the land of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh (2 Kings 10:32-33); took also Gath, and was only diverted from Jerusalem by Jehoash giving the royal and the temple treasures (2 Kings 12:17-18). Rezin of Damascus, a century later, in a respite from the Assyrian invasions, allied himself to Pekah of Israel against Judah, with a view to depose Ahaz and set up one designated "the son of Tabeal. ) The successive invasions of Pul and Tiglath Pileser suggested the thought of combining Syria, Israel, and Judah as a joint power against Assyria. Ahaz' leaning to Assyria made him obnoxious to Syria and Israel. Whereupon Ahaz begged Assyria's alliance; and the very policy of Damascus and Israel against Assyria, namely, to absorb Judah, was the very means of causing their own complete absorption by Assyria (2 Kings 16:6-9; 2 Kings 16:17; Isaiah 7:14-25; Isaiah 8:6-10; Isaiah 10:9). Damascus was the center through which the trade of Tyre passed on its way to Assyria, Palmyra, Babylon, and the East
Nahum - The intimate acquaintance the book shows with Syrian affairs makes it probable that Nahum lived an exile in Assyria, and perhaps at the village on the Tigris
Tiphsah - This expedition implied a march of some 300 miles from Tirzah if by way of Tadmor, and about 400 if by way of Aleppo; and its success showed the strength of the Israelite kingdom, for it was practically a defiance to Assyria
Carchemish - The Assyrian monuments show it to be a city of the Hittites who held all Syria (between 1100 and 850 B. ) Assyria had originally taken it from the Hittites (Isaiah 10:9)
Janoah - City in northern Israel that Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria (744-727 B
Ramoth-Gilead - It was among the first places to fall when Assyria conquered Israel and carried the people into captivity (2 Kings 15:29)
Merodach-Baladan - He was little more than a puppet of Assyria, answering to Sargon. Merodach-baladan continued to rebel against the Assyrians, coming out of exile more than once to oppose the kings of Nineveh
Japheth - of Assyria, Javan (Ionians, i
Arpad - The Rab-shakeh, representing Sennacherib, Assyria's king, taunted the people of Judah in 701 B. Isaiah mimicked such statements, saying Assyria was only a rod of Yahweh's anger and would soon face punishment for its pride (Isaiah 10:5-19 ). Assyrian kings Adadnirari (806 B
Height - ...
Ezekiel 31:5, Ezekiel 31:10, Ezekiel 31:14 (a) Assyria is thus represented as being at the top of the nations
Hara - Mentioned in 1 Chronicles 5:26 as one of the places to which Israelites were deported by the king of Assyria on the capture of Samaria
Hazor - It was fortified by Solomon to defend the entrance into the kingdom from Syria and Assyria. When Tiglath-pileser, the Assyrian king, invaded the land, this was one of the first cities he captured, carrying its inhabitants captive into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 )
Diaspora - the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom (Israel). Following this victory, the Assyrians resettled large numbers of the Israelites in Assyria (2 Kings 17:6 ). See Assyria; Babylonia; Exile ; Synagogue
Chaldea - , the Chaldeans emerged as the champions of resistance against Assyria, a dangerous, aggressive imperial force in upper Mesopotamia. At this time the Chaldeans begin to appear in the Old Testament, first, as possible allies with Judah against Assyria, but later, as a direct threat to Judah and Jerusalem
Hazael - ...
For some time Hazael was attacked by Assyria, and his kingdom suffered severely; but when these hostilities ceased, he turned his arms against Israel, and was the instrument God used to punish His guilty people, and 'to cut Israel short. The name of Hazael has been identified on one of the obelisks of Assyria
Aramean - The first mention of Arameans outside of the Bible dates from the reign of Tiglath-pileser I of Assyria (1116-1076 B. They were able to seize large portions of Assyrian lands, defeating Tiglath-pileser I and II and Ashur-rabi II. See Assyria; Damascus ; Aramaic
e'Lam - (Genesis 14:1,9 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; 21:2 ) The Elam of Scripture appears to be the province lying south of Assyria and east of Persia proper, to which Herodotus gives the name of Cissia (iii. It is plain that at this early time the predominant power in lower Mesopotamia was Elam, which for a while held the place possessed earlier by Babylon, (Genesis 10:10 ) and later by either Babylon or Assyria
Sharezer - Assyrian records report the death as occurring in 681 B. See Assyria
Ashkenaz - see), which means apparently that the name represents a people akin to the Cimmerians, an Indo-European people who made trouble for the Assyrians in and about Armenia in the later days of their empire, in the 7th cent. The view now generally accepted by scholars is that Ashkenaz in the Hebrew text is a slight misreading for Ashkûz , an important tribe akin to the Cimmerians who had to do with Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, the last great kings of Assyria, the name appearing in the inscriptions as Ashgûz
Sepharvaim - Taken by Sargon, king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:24 ; 18:34 ; 19:13 ; Isaiah 37:13 )
Shalmane'Ser - (fire-worshipper ) was the Assyrian king who reigned probably between Tiglath-Pileser and Sargon, B. He led the forces of Assyria into Palestine, where Hoshea, the last king of Israel, had revolted against his authority. 721, when the Assyrian arms prevailed
Nimrod - A hunter and builder of the kingdom of Babel who some Bible students have linked to Tukulti-Ninurta, an Assyrian king (about 1246-1206 B. Regardless, extremely popular legends involve Nimrod as a ruler in both Assyrian and Egyptian lore. The prophet Micah called Assyria “the land of Nimrod” (1 Chronicles 5:6 )
Holofernes - General of the army of Nabuchodonosor, King of Assyria (Judith 2)
Arpachshad - Probably two words in the original of Genesis 10:22 were combined into one, the latter being Chesed and the former Arpach , which is a region south-west of Assyria, possibly the same as the Arrapachitis of Ptolemy
Goiim - Possibly in Genesis 14:1 the reference may be to the Umman-manda , or ‘hordes’ of northern peoples, who from time to time invaded Assyria (so Sayce)
East - By the east, they frequently describe, not only Arabia Deserta, and the lands of Moab and Ammon, which lay to the east of Palestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Chaldea, though they are situated rather to the north than to the east of Judea
Elam - It lay south of Assyria and west of Persia proper, and reached to the Persian Gulf. A remarkable statement illustrating the truth of the Scriptures in respect to Elam has been deciphered from Assyrian cylinders in the British Museum
Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz - ) Assyria will speedily spoil these
Ramoth-Gilead - the region was taken by Assyria
Hauran (1) - The name occurs also in the ancient inscriptions of Assyria
Shem - The portion of the earth occupied by the descendants of Shem, (Genesis 10:21,31 ) begins at its northwestern extremity with Lydia, and includes Syria (Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), parts Of Assyria (Asshur), of Persia (Elam), and of the Arabian peninsula (Joktan)
Havilah - The Havilah bordering on the Ishmaelites "as thou goest to Assyria" (Genesis 25:18), also on Amalek (1 Samuel 15:7), seems distinct
Ivah - From Ivah, along with Babylon, Cuthah, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, the king of Assyria (Esar-haddon) brought people to colonize Samaria
Elishah - ’ The Tell el-Amarna tablets include letters to the king of Egypt from the king of Alashia , Egyptian Alsa , which has been identified with Cyprus; known to Sargon, king of Assyria, as the land of the Ionians, Javan
Abrech - Menahem - Pul, king of Assyria, having invaded Israel during the reign of Menahem, obliged him to pay a tribute of a thousand talents, which Menahem raised by a tax on all his rich subjects of fifty shekels a head. The name of Menahem is found on the Assyrian tablets recently discovered
Assyria - Assyria (as-syr'i-ah). Assyria proper, the northern (Babylonia the southern portion), had about the same territory as Kurdistan. Brown, "the Babylonio-Assyrian territory was about 600 miles from northwest to southeast, and in the widest part 300 miles from east to west, including Mesopotamia. Of the early history of Assyria little can be said. But that it mentions an early Assyrian kingdom is not certain. Certain eastern monarchs are named, Genesis 14:1; Genesis 14:9, as pushing their conquests westwards, but there is a record of a Chaldean but not of an Assyrian king among them. " At first the Assyrian empire was confined within narrow limits; it became at length, by the addition of neighboring districts, a formidable state. The Assyrian empire, at its widest extent, seems to have reached from the Mediterranean Sea and the river Halys in the west, to the Caspian and the Great Desert in the east, and from the northern frontier of Armenia south to the Persian Gulf. " After Abraham, for nearly 1200 years, we have no record of the contact of Hebrews with Assyrian or Babylonian peoples. , Nineveh and Assyria push into Hebrew territory. The dark cloud threatening Israel and Judah from Assyria for their unfaithfulness to God is described in strains of solemn warning. Sometimes in express words the king of Assyria is said to be summoned as the Lord's executioner, and the desolation he should cause is vividly depicted. The Assyrian king, in the might of his power, subjected the ten tribes, and carried multitudes of them into the far east; he passed also like a flood over the country of Judah, taking many of the cities throughout her territory; and in his presumptuous boldness he conceived that no earthly power could resist him, and even defied Jehovah, the God of Jacob. The catastrophe is related with awful brevity: "Then the angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred and four score and five thousand; and, when they arose early in the morning, behold they were all dead corpses. The Assyrian empire attained afterwards probably its greatest power and widest extent. He who rules justly in the world would destroy Assyria (which had been long before warned by Jonah), as Assyria had destroyed other kingdoms. Assyria fell, and was never again reckoned among the nations; the very places being for long centuries unknown where her proudest cities had stood. — The excavations which have been so successfully prosecuted have supplied a fund of information as to the manners and habits of the Assyrians. The Assyrians worshipped a multitude of gods. The architecture of the Assyrians was of a vast and imposing character. The Assyrians were skilled in engraving even the hardest substances. The wealth of Assyria was derived from conquest, from agriculture, for which their country was favorably circumstanced, and from commerce, for which they had peculiar facilities
Sargon - , king of Assyria (b. Samaria was captured early in his reign, and Sargon carried away 27,200 of the chief inhabitants, the city being placed under Assyrian governors Sargon’s advent to the throne marked a change of dynasty, and he had to subdue Insurrection right and left. Sargon defeated the latter, but was obliged to leave Merodach-baladan undisturbed for twelve years, while he subdued the northern rivals of Assyria, Armenia and its neighbours. This was soon put down, Hamath was colonized by Assyrians, and the Philistines and Egyptians were defeated at Raphia. 711 an Assyrian army was sent against Palestine, where Merodach-baladan had been intriguing and had drawn Hezekiah into the conspiracy
Reuben, Tribe of - God "stirred up the spirit of Pul, king of Assyria, and the spirit of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria," to carry them away, the first of the tribes, into captivity (1 Chronicles 5:25,26 )
Hoshea - Taking into view the Assyrian annals along with the Biblical accounts, we gather that there were two parties in Samaria, one advocating submission to Assyria, the other hoping for independence. Pekah was placed on the throne by the latter; Hoshea was the candidate of the Assyrians, and was perhaps actively supported by them in his revolt against Pekah, whom he supplanted. The new king of Assyria (Shalmaneser iv. Sargon, who came to the throne just before the surrender, had no desire to experiment with more vassal kings, and set an Assyrian governor over the wasted province
Medes - But Media was not incorporated with Assyria, although Sargon, and afterward Sennacherib, subdued its people and exacted tribute. Media then became a great and powerful monarchy, comprising, besides Media proper, Persia, Assyria, Armenia, and other adjoining countries
Mesopotamia - Assyrian inscriptions and the Scripture record show that Mesopotamia was inhabited in the early times of the empire, b. 1200-1100, by a vast number of petty tribes, each under its own prince, and all quite independent of each other, Judges 3:8-10; 2 Kings 19:12-13; Isaiah 37:12, until subjugated by the kings of Assyria. Mesopotamia became an Assyrian province. The whole region is studded with mounds and ruins of Assyrian and Babylonian greatness. See Assyria
Ashurbanipal - (a' sshuhr ban' ih pal) Assyria's last great king who is identified in Ezra 4:10 as the king of Assyria who captured Susa, Elam, and other nations and settled their citizens in Samaria. The library was located in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh and was discovered in 1853. Ashurbanipal's copyists not only transcribed Assyrian books but also preserved Sumerian and Akkadian literature. Most of what we know about the Assyrian Empire is derived from his library. Of particular importance are the Assyrian copies of the Babylonian creation and flood stories. He also waged a campaign against Elam, captured its capital Susa, and took many of the inhabitants captive to Assyria. ...
The Assyrian empire disintegrated quickly under the reign of Ashurbanipal's son Sinsharishkun (627-612 B. Babylon, under Nabopolassar, threw off Assyrian domination and Nineveh, the capital city, fell to the Medes in 612
Nahum - The prophecy is against Nineveh, and foretells its destruction, though, like other prophecies, it has an application to the future, when 'Assyria' will again be the open enemy of Israel. Not only is the destruction of Nineveh foretold, but the Assyrian nation also should come to a full end. Compare the insulting language of Rab-shakeh, the general of the king of Assyria: at first he said that Jehovah had sent him, and then treated the God of Israel as no better than the heathen gods, who had not been able to protect their worshippers. But there was good news for Judah; God would break the yoke of Assyria off their necks. The reference to the lions, and the strangling, and the filling the dens with ravin, possibly applied to the cruelties which the Assyrians inflicted on their prisoners, and which are depicted by themselves on their monuments. Nahum 3:8-10 show that as 'populous No' (the renowned Thebes, with its hundred gates), had been brought to nought (probably by Sargon, king of Assyria), so should Nineveh fall
Isaiah - " ...
In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5 ; 2 Chronicles 28:5,6 ). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 ; 16:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ). So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah (B. 726), who "rebelled against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 18:7 ), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isaiah 10:24 ; 37:6 ), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isaiah 30:2-4 ). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of Judah, and at length to invade the land. Hezekiah was reduced to despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16 ). Isaiah on that occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7), whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah, which he "spread before the Lord" (37:14). The judgement of God now fell on the Assyrian host
Ahaz - Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria, to the great injury of his kingdom and his own humilating subjection to the Assyrians (2Kings 16:7,9; 15:29)
Elath - Elath would then be the mainland base to which goods were transferred for loading onto pack animals for the long caravan travels northward to Judah, Israel, Syria, or Phoenicia or for travels eastward to Assyria or Babylonia or westward to Egypt
Massa - Its exact location is unknown, but it seems to be mentioned in an inscription containing a report to king Ashurbanipal of Assyria (b
Oholah And Oholibah - Though both were wedded to Jehovah, they were seduced by the gallant officers of the East, Samaria being led astray by Assyria and Jerusalem by Babylon
Haran - The city was in Mesopotamia, and more definitely in Padanaram, Genesis 24:10; Genesis 25:20, and also in western Assyria
Babylon - (Assyrian: bab-ili, gate of the god) ...
Ancient city on the Euphrates River, about 60 miles south of Baghdad. After the downfall of Assyria, Babylon again, under Nabopolassar, became the seat of empire
East - Besides the ordinary meanings of the word east, Joshua 4:19 ; Psalm 103:12 , the Jews often used it to designate a large region lying northeast and southeast of Palestine, including Syria and Arabia near at hand, and Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, etc
Recorder - All treaties came under his oversight; and he had the care of the national archives or records, to which, as royal historiographer, like the same state officer in Assyria and Egypt, he added the current annals of the kingdom
Calah - A most ancient Assyrian city founded by Asshur (Genesis 10:11), or rather by Nimrod; for the right translation is, "out of that city (namely, Babel in Shinar) he (Nimrod) went forth to Asshur (Assyria E
Manasseh, King of Judah - ...
Towards the end of Manasseh’s reign, Assyria attacked Judah and took Manasseh captive
Jareb - "Ephraim went to the Assyrian and (Judah) sent to king Jareb," "the calf shall be carried into Assyria . " The Assyrian king, seeking his own aggrandizement, proposed to undertake Israel's and Judah's cause. The Assyrian "distressed, but strengthened him not," as Hosea foretells, "he could not . Pusey explains James "the strifeful king," Assyrian history being, as their own inscriptions prove, one perpetual warfare. The Assyrian word jarbam is "to fight"; Gesenius explains James "the hostile king
Neco - The Twenty-Sixth Dynasty was established with Assyrian patronage. Neco began to reign three years after the fall of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital. The resulting power vacuum encouraged the ambitious Neco to seize Gaza as a base (Jeremiah 47:1 ) for a campaign to bring Syria under his control and to bring aid to the Assyrian remnant in their struggle with the rising force of Babylon. See Assyria; Egypt ; Josiah
Cavalry - Evidence outside Israel points to Assyria using cavalry troops shortly after 900 B
Overflow - ...
Isaiah 8:8 (a) This figure is used to describe the invasion of the King of Assyria into the nation of Israel
Scribe - Thus when the king of Assyria sent to Hezekiah a blasphemous message and letter, we are told that then came out to the messengers Eleakim, which was over the household, and Shebna the scribe, and Josh the recorder
Tear (Verb) - ...
Nahum 2:12 (b) In this way we learn of the wrath of Nineveh and Assyria against the people of Israel
Nimrod - And "out of that land went forth Asshur," or 'he went out to Assyria,' and built Nineveh and other cities
Ride - “To ride” upon horses is symbolic of an alliance with Assyria ( Cup-Bearer - Cup-bearers are mentioned in the description of Solomon's court, 1 Kings 10:5; and Rabshakeh, as his name indicates, was cup-bearer to the king of Assyria
Astyages - ...
ASTYAGES, otherwise called Ahasuerus in the Greek, Daniel 9:1 , or Cyaxares in Xenophon, or Apandus in Ctesias, was appointed by his father Cyaxares governor of Media, and sent with Nabopolassar, king of Babylon, against Saracus, otherwise called Chynaladanus, king of Assyria. These two princes besieged Saracus in Nineveh, took the city, and dismembered the Assyrian empire
Tig'Lath-Pile'Ser - ) Tiglath-pileser is the second Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture as having come into contact with the Israelites. probably because Pekah withheld his tribute, and having entered his territories, he "took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah and Janoah and Kedesh, and Hazer, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria. At first great successes were gained by Pekah and his confederate, (2 Kings 15:37 ; 2 Chronicles 28:6-8 ) but on their proceeding to attack Jerusalem itself, Ahaz applied to Assyria for assistance, and Tiglath-pileser, consenting to aid him, again appeared at the head of an army in these regions
Judah the Kingdom of - The two great foes of Judah were Egypt on the south and Assyria on the east. The armies of Assyria met with varied fortune
Media - Media Proper was bounded by Armenia and Assyria Proper on the west, by Persia on the east, by the Caspian provinces on the north, and by Susiana on the south. Into this country the ten tribes who composed the kingdom of Israel were transplanted, in the Assyrian captivity, by Tiglath-pileser and Salmaneser. They would also be opposed in their passage through Kir, or Assyria Proper, not only by the native Assyrians, but also by their enemies, the Syrians, transplanted thither before them
Fly - ...
In Isaiah 7:18 , the prophet describing the armies of Egypt and Assyria, each under the symbol of one of the prevalent insects in those countries, says, "And it shall come to pass in that day that the Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt;" (or rather, as the same Hebrew word is rendered in Exodus 16:35 , the fly that is in the borders of the streams of Egypt,)" and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria
Ethiopia - It even challenged Assyria, which was the leading power of the time (2 Kings 19:8-9; Nahum 3:8-9). The challenge brought little success and soon Ethiopia, along with its ally Egypt, suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Assyria (Isaiah 20:3-6)
Sargon - He is not mentioned in the Scripture histories nor the classics; but Assyrian inscriptions show he succeeded Shalmaneser, and was father of Sennacherib, and took Ashdod as Isaiah says; he finished the siege of Samaria (721 B. Scripture, while naming at the capture of Samaria Shalmaneser, 2 Kings 17:3, in 2 Kings 17:4-5-6, four times says "the king of Assyria," which is applicable to Sargon. " Isaiah was the sole witness to Sargon's existence for 25 centuries, until the discovery of the Assyrian monuments confirmed his statement. They also remarkably illustrate 2 Kings 17:6, that he placed the deported Israelites (in Halah, Habor, the river of Gozan, and at a later time) "in the cities of the Medes"; for Sargon in them states he overran Media and "annexed many Median towns to Assyria. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries. ) Then, according to the inscriptions, he invaded Egypt and Ethiopia, and received tribute from a Pharaoh of Egypt, besides destroying in part the Ethiopian No-Amon or Thebes (Nahum 3:8); confirming Isaiah 20:2-4, "as Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia, so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot," etc. Sargon built one of the most magnificent of the Assyrian palaces. He records that he thoroughly repaired the walls of Nineveh, which he raised to be the first city of the empire; and that near it he built the palace and town (Khorsabad) which became his chief residence, Dursargina; from it the Louvre derived its series of Assyrian monuments
Mesopotamia - To the south of Urfa lie the ruins of Harran, and along the western bank of the Habor stretched Gauzanitis, the Hebrew Gozan, to which Israelites were deported by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:6). After the Mitani supremacy, the country fell under the rule of the Assyrian kings, and in the 10th cent. seems to have become part of Assyria proper. When the Assyrian power declined, Mesopotamia was overrun (as it had been more or less all along) by Aramaean hordes from the west and south. Winckler, History of Babylonia and Assyria, Eng
Media - Called by the Hebrews Genesis 10:2 ; extended itself on the west and south of the Caspian Sea, from Armenia and Assyria on the north and west, to Farsistan or Persia proper on the south; and included the districts now called Shirvan, Adserbijan, Ghilan, Masanderan, and Irak Adjemi. After several centuries of subjugation under Assyria, the Medes rebelled under Arbaces in the time of Sardanapalus, and again in the time of Sennacherib, about 700 B. ...
Media is first mentioned in the Bible as the part of Assyria to which the ten tribes were transported: at first, those beyond the Jordan, by Tiglath-pileser, 1 Chronicles 5:26 ; and afterwards, about 721 B
Nineveh - Nineveh (nîn'e-veh), perhaps dwelling of Nina, the capital and greatest city of Assyria. Assyrian scholars are not agreed in respect to the size of this ancient city. " He further claims that Assyrian writers do not consider these places to be parts of Nineveh, but distinct and separate cities; that Calah was for a longtime the capital, while Nineveh was a provincial town; that Dur-sargina was built by Sargon—not at Nineveh, but near Nineveh; and that Scripture similarly distinguishes Calah as a place separate from Nineveh, and so far from it that there was room for a great city between them. When Nineveh became the capital of Assyria is not definitely known, but it is generally believed it was during the reign of Sennacherib. Nineveh was the capital of Assyria during the height of the grandeur of that empire, and in the time of Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, and Assur-bani-pal. See Assyria
Medes, me'Dia - Media lay northwest of Persia proper, south and southwest of the Caspian Sea, east of Armenia and Assyria, west and northwest of the great salt desert of Iran. 2458-2234, to their first appearance in the cuneiform inscriptions among the enemies of Assyria, about B. Cyaxares, the third Median monarch, took Nineveh and conquered Assyria B. We first hear of certain "cities of the Medes," in which the captive Israelites were placed by "the king of Assyria" on the destruction of Samaria, B
Medes - of Armenia and Assyria. Then the Medes appear in the cuneiform inscriptions as Assyria's enemies, inhabiting part of Media. Assyria ravaged their lands and exacted tribute. The range of Zagros inhabited by hardy mountaineers intervened between them and Assyria. So, in spite of Sargon's attempt by military colonies to occupy Media permanently, the Medes maintained their nationality and outlived Assyria. As Assyria declined Media rose. (See NINEVEH; Assyria. ...
Cyaxares after taking Nineveh tried to extend his empire even beyond Assyria's boundary, the Halys, to the Aegean Sea. ) Enervated by adopting Assyrian manners the Medes were defeated by the hardy Persian mountaineers under Cyrus, and their king Astyages taken
Tigris - of the Lesser Zab, was Assur (now Kalah Sherghat), the primitive capital of Assyria
Mesopotamia - They maintained their independence till after the time of David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire (2 Kings 19:13 )
Avim - The people of AVVA who were planted by Assyria in Samaria; their idols were Nibhaz and Tartak (2 Kings 17:81)
Cabul - Tiglath Pileser carried the inhabitants captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29)
Haran - In the eighth century Assyria conquered it (2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 )
Menahem - A significant event recorded about his reign is that he paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III, the king of Assyria. This is the first mention of the Assyrian monarch in the biblical record. In any event, Menahem was little more than a puppet of the Assyrians during his reign
Kir - to Assyria. It is said in 2 Kings 16:9 that Tiglath-pileser carried the people of Damascus captive to Kir, while in Isaiah 22:6 Kir is mentioned in connexion with Elam as furnishing soldiers to the Assyrian army which fought against Israel. Iron - ‘In Egypt, Chaldaea, Assyria, China, it reaches far back, to perhaps 4000 years before the Christian era
Shalman - Hosea 10:14 the 'eser common to Shalman with three other Assyrian kings is omitted, Tiglath Pil-eser, Esar-haddon, and Sharezer. The Assyrian canon agrees with Scripture in making Shalman king directly after Tiglath Pileser. Scripture (1 Kings 17:3-6, the general expression "the king of Assyria," and 1 Kings 18:9-10, "they took it,") accords with this: "Shalman spoiled Beth Arbel in the day of battle
Dial - Ahaz appears to have had a taste for curious things, 2 Kings 16:10, and might have borrowed this dial from Assyria
cy'Rus - Babylon fell before his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria were added to his empire B
e'Sar-Had'Don - (victor ), one of the greatest of the kings of Assyria, was the son of Sennacherib, ( 2 Kings 19:37 ) and the grandson of Sargon, who succeeded Shalmaneser. He appears by his monuments to have been one of the most powerful, if not the most powerful, of all the Assyrian monarchs
Brick - But in Assyria and Egypt the bricks are sundried, not fireburnt, though in Jeremiah 43:9 a brick kiln is mentioned in Egypt. In Assyria artificial mounds, encased with limestone blocks, raised the superstructure 30 or 40 feet above the level of the plain
Pekah - The project of the two allies was probably to unite the three kingdoms, Syria, Israel, and Judah, against Assyria. Ahaz' leaning to Assyria made them determine to depose him for a nominee of their own. In the Assyrian inscription Menahem is mentioned as the king of Israel whom Tiglath Pileser subdued; possibly a mistake of the engraver, confusing Pekah with the king whom Pal reduced to be tributary
Ararat - ...
Geography The Ararat of the Old Testament is known as the land of Urartu in sources outside the Bible, especially Assyrian sources. Culturally the Urartians were akin to the earlier Hurrians and to the Assyrians whose empire stretched to the south. , Urartu remained independent of Assyria, and in many ways was a political rival. ) in Assyria, followed by Sargon II (721-705 B
Nin'Eveh - (abode of Ninus ), the capital of the ancient kingdom and empire of Assyria. The name appears to be compounded from that of an Assyrian deity "Nin," corresponding, it is conjectured, with the Greek Hercules, and occurring in the names of several Assyrian kings, as in "Ninus," the mythic founder, according to Greek tradition of the city. Asshur, or according to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is there described, ( Genesis 10:11 ) as extending his kingdom from the land of Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh. Hence Assyria was subsequently known to the Jews as "the land of Nimrod," cf. The kingdom of Assyria and of the Assyrians is referred to in the Old Testament as connected with the Jews at a very early period, as in (Numbers 24:22,24 ) and Psal 83:8 But after the notice of the foundation of Nineveh in Genesis no further mention is made of the city until the time of the book of Jonah, or the eighth century B. In this book no mention is made of Assyria or the Assyrians, the king to whom the prophet was sent being termed the "king of Nineveh," and his subjects "the people of Nineveh. " Assyria is first called a kingdom in the time of Menahem, about B. 645) directs his prophecies against Nineveh; only once against the king of Assyria. The political history of Nineveh is that of Assyria, of which a sketch has already been given. [1] Previous to recent excavations and researches, the ruins which occupied the presumed site of Nineveh seemed to consist of mere shapeless heaps or mounds of earth and rubbish. --The Assyrian edifices were so nearly alike in general plan, construction an decoration that one description will suffice for all, They were built upon artificial mounds or platforms, varying in height, but generally from 30 to 50 feet above the level of the surrounding country, and solidly constructed of regular layers of sun-dried bricks, as at Nimroud, or consisting merely of earth and rubbish heaped up, as at Kouyunjik. Thus decorated without and within, the Assyrian palaces must have displayed a barbaric magnificence, not, however, devoid of a certain grandeur and beauty which probably no ancient or modern edifice has exceeded
Assyria - The Assyrians were Semites (Genesis 10:22 ), but in process of time non-Semite tribes mingled with the inhabitants. " Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is positively known. , the greatest of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean. " He may be regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the states of Northern Syria. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army against Hazael, king of Damascus. Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8 ); who accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to death, and besieged the city itself. 705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13 ; 19:37 ; Isaiah 7:17,18 ); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor, who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37 ; Isaiah 37:38 ). From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan ( 2 Kings 20:12 ), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. 625), and Assyria fell according to the prophecies of (Isaiah 10:5-19 ), (Nahum 3:19 ), and (Zephaniah 3:13 ), and the many separate kingdoms of which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" (2 Kings 18:19 ; Isaiah 36:4 ). 586) how completely Assyria was overthrown
Josiah - ...
Political affairs...
One factor that assisted Josiah in carrying out such wide-sweeping reforms was the decline of Assyria. He was even able to extend his control into areas of the former northern kingdom that Assyria had conquered (2 Kings 23:15; 2 Kings 23:19; 2 Chronicles 34:6-7). ...
Assyria eventually fell to Babylon in 612 BC
Ahaz - He turned yet more away from God in his distress, and sought aid from Pul, king of Assyria. Ahaz was reduced to great extremities, in buying off the Assyrians; but became more infatuated still in idolatry, and dying in his impiety at the of thirty-six, was refused a burial with the kings his ancestors, 2 Chronicles 28:1-27
Zebulun, Tribe of - Along with the other northern tribes, Zebulun was carried away into the land of Assyria by Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15:29 ). The 'rod of the scribe' on the Assyrian monuments was the stylus of wood or metal, with the help of which the clay tablet was engraved, or the papyrus inscribed with characters
Meshech - In the Assyrian annals the Tabalî and Mushkî , who are undoubtedly the same as Tuhal and Meshech, are found again together (as fierce opponents of Assyria in the 12th cent
Hazor - It was fortified by Solomon, and was afterwards taken by Tiglath-pileser, and the inhabitants carried to Assyria
Ahaz - Ahaz refused the prophet's advice and appealed for help to Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria (Isaiah 7:1 ). That appeal and the resulting entanglement had unfortunate results religiously and politically in that Ahaz surrendered to Assyrian domination
Megid'do - When Pharaoh-necho came from Egypt against the king of Assyria, Josiah joined the latter, and was slain at Megiddo
Nineveh - A city, and the capital of Assyria
Shoulder - And Isaiah 10:27 , comforting Israel with the promise of deliverance from Assyria, says, "His burden shall be taken away from off thy shoulder
Chalde'Ans, - It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and religious literature
Hezekiah - On the death of Sargon and the accession of his son Sennacherib to the throne of Assyria, Hezekiah refused to pay the tribute which his father had paid, and "rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not," but entered into a league with Egypt (Isaiah 30 ; 31 ; 36:6-9 ). Hezekiah yielded to the demands of the Assyrian king, and agreed to pay him three hundred talents of silver and thirty of gold (18:14). Hezekiah prayed to God, and "that night the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men
Damascus - ...
The Syrians were at length subdued by the Assyrians, the city of Damascus was taken and destroyed, and the inhabitants carried captive into Assyria (2 Kings 16:7-9 ; Compare Isaiah 7:8 ). The kingdom of Syria remained a province of Assyria till the capture of Nineveh by the Medes (B
Nose - ...
2 Kings 19:28 (b) In this graphic way the Lord is describing His control over the King of Assyria as when the farmer controls the bull by putting a ring in his nose. GOD is assuring His people that He will lead the King of Assyria away, back to his own land, and will save Israel from the invader. "...
Ezekiel 23:25 (a) The Lord is telling us in this passage that the Assyrians will invade Israel and will destroy their ability to serve acceptably, or to hear effectively, or to be of any blessing whatever in their land, or to each other
Ninevites - The Ninevites or Assyrians, as known in scripture and on the monuments, are judged to have belonged to the Semitic stock — the older inhabitants of the district having been expelled or destroyed. ...
The Accadians invented the cuneiform system of writing which was adopted by the Assyrians, and tablets have been found explaining Accadian words by Assyrian words. A learned Assyrian studied Accadian as a dead language, as Latin is now studied by educated people. The Assyrians were, however, a warlike people, and were not much given to literature and peaceful pursuits; yet various 'lesson books' have been discovered which show that literature was not altogether neglected. ...
The records give evidence of the great ferocity of the Assyrians, who were less humane than the Babylonians. "...
The greater part of the religious system of Babylon was transported into Assyria, though the Assyrians were less given to religious observances. " — Assyria: its Princes, Priests, and People
Nimrod - " Sargon in an inscription says: "350 kings of Assyria hunted the people of Bilu-Nipru"; probably meaning the Babylon of Nimrod, nipru "hunter", another form of Nebrod which is the Septuagint form of Nimrod. His going to Assyria (Genesis 10:10-11-12) accords with Micah's designating Assyria "the hind of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6). The fourfold group of cities which Nimrod founded in Babylonia answer to the fourfold group in Assyria. ), son of Ismi Dagon king of Babylon, founded a temple at Kileh Shergat (Asshur); so that the Scripture account of Babylon originating the Assyrian cities long before the Assyrian empire of the 13th century B
Israel, Kingdom of - An unsuccessful usurper, Shallum, is followed by the cruel Menahem, who, being unable to make head against the first attack of Assyria under Pul, became the agent of that monarch for the oppressive taxation of his subjects. Abandoning the northern and transjordanic regions to the encroaching power of Assyria under Tiglath-pileser, he was very near subjugating Judah, with the help of Damascus, now the coequal ally of Israel. But Assyria interposing summarily put an end to the independence of Damascus, and perhaps was the indirect cause of the assassination of the baffled Pekah. The irresolute Hoshea, the next and last usurper, became tributary to his invaders Shalmaneser, betrayed the Assyrian to the rival monarchy of Egypt, and was punished by the loss of his liberty, and by the capture, after a three-years siege, of his strong capital, Samaria. Even these were gathered up by the conqueror and carried to Assyria, never again, as a distinct people, to occupy their portion of that goodly and pleasant land which their forefathers won under Joshua from the heathen
Haran - It is afterwards mentioned among the towns taken by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 19:12 ; Isaiah 37:12 )
Naphtali - " They attended in force at the coronation of David, 1 Chronicles 12:34, and are mentioned with honor in the wars of the Judges, Judges 1:33; Judges 5:18; Judges 6:35; Judges 7:23, as much reduced by the Syrians, 1 Kings 15:20, and as among the first captives to Assyria, 2 Kings 15:29; Isaiah 9:1
Dedan - Arabia, and associated with Assyria (Ezekiel 27:23), i
Menahem, - Menahem seems not to have felt secure on the throne, and to have purchased the help of Assyria by paying a heavy tribute to Tiglath-pileser (called Pul in 2 Kings 15:19 ). Or we may suppose the Assyrians to have invaded the country because it was so weakened by civil war that it could no longer make effective resistance. From the Assyrian sources we learn that this tribute was paid in the year 738 b
Aholah - ...
Aholah (Samaria) gave her heart to the Assyrians, trusting in their power, and imitating their splendid luxury, and following their idols. The Assyrians on whom she had leaned carried her away captive to Assyria, whence she has never returned (2 Kings 15:18-29; 2 Kings 15:17)
Hoshea - He sought an alliance with the king of Egypt against the king of Assyria, who imprisoned him in bonds
Elamites - Winckler, History of Babylonia and Assyria, Eng
Asaph - ), who in sadness reported the threats of Assyria to the king (2 Kings 18:1 )
So - The Egyptian king to whom Hoshea, Israel's last king, applied in the ninth year of his reign for help, when casting off the obligation to pay tribute to Assyria (2 Kings 17:4). So did not venture to encounter the Assyrian king Shalmaneser, but deserted his protege, as Egyptian kings often did (Isaiah 30:3; Isaiah 36:6)
Jehoahaz - A turn for the better seems to have come before his death, because the forces of Assyria pressing on the north of Damascus turned the attention of that country away from Israel ( 2 Kings 13:3-5 )
Earth - is used for that gross element which sustains and nourishes us by producing plants and fruits; for the continent as distinguished from the sea, "God called the dry land earth," Genesis 1:10 ; for the terraqueous globe, and its contents, men, animals, plants, metals, waters, &c, "The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof," Psalms 24:1 ; for the inhabitants of the earth, or continent, "The whole earth was of one language," Genesis 11:1 ; for Judea, or the whole empire of Chaldea and Assyria
Ham - The first great empires of Assyria and Egypt were founded by them; and the republics of Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, were early distinguished for their commerce: but they sooner also fell to decay; and Egypt, which was one of the first, became the last and "basest of the kingdoms," Ezekiel 29:15 ; and has been successively in subjection to the Shemites, and Japhethites; as have also the settlements of the other branches of the Hamites
Samaritans - In the New Testament the word denotes the mixed race which sprang from the remnant of Israel and the colonists brought from various parts of Assyria at the captivity
Naphtali - They attended in force at the coronation of David, 1 Chronicles 12:34 ; and are mentioned with honor in the wars of the Judges, Judges 1:33 5:18 6:35 7:23 ; as much reduced by the Syrians, 1 Kings 15:20 ; and as among the first captives to Assyria, 2 Kings 15:29 Isaiah 9:1
Paint - We have abundant evidence of the practice of painting the eyes both in ancient Egypt and in Assyria; and in modern times no usage is more general
Dispersion - Some of these were descendants of people who had been taken captive to foreign lands by Assyria, Babylon and other invaders of Palestine
Hebrew Language - But through intercourse with Damascus, Assyria, and Babylon, from the time of David, and more particularly from the period of the Exile, it comes under the influence of the Aramaic idiom, and this is seen in the writings which date from this period. ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Hosea - Salmaneser, king of Assyria, being informed that Hoshea meditated a revolt, and had concerted measures with So, king of Egypt, to shake off the Assyrian yoke, marched against him, and besieged Samaria. The king of Assyria removed the Israelites of the ten tribes to countries beyond the Euphrates, and thus terminated the kingdom of the ten tribes
Nineveh - The capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria. In Ezekiel 31:3-17 Assyria is compared to a cedar of high stature, which had been brought to utter ruin. It was the power used by God to carry out His indignation against Israel: it is thus called "the rod of mine anger," and the indignation of Jehovah against His land and people ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian — a reference to some power in the last days which will morally succeed to the character of the Assyrian, and be destroyed subsequent to Babylon. Historically Assyria fell before Babylon. His efforts were in vain; he was repulsed again and again; but receiving reinforcements he overcame the Assyrian army and they were shut up in the city. The Assyrian king Saracus, in despair, burnt himself in his palace. 606, by the Medes and Babylonians, and the fall of this city was the end of the kingdom of Assyria
Nimrod - "And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar: out of that land he went forth to invade Assyria; and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resin, between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city," Genesis 10:8-12 . Though the main body of the Cushites was miraculously dispersed and sent by Providence to their destinations along the sea coasts of Asia and Africa, yet Nimrod remained behind, and founded an empire in Babylonia, according to Berosus, by usurping the property of the Arphaxadites in the land of Shinar; where "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel," or Babylon, and other towns: and, not satisfied with this, he next invaded Assur, or Assyria, east of the Tigris, where he built Nineveh, and several other towns. The marginal reading of our English Bible, "He went out into Assyria," or to invade Assyria, is here adopted in preference to that in the text: "And out of that land went forth Ashur, and builded Nineveh," &c. " ...
The Grecian name of this "mighty hunter" may furnish a satisfactory clue to the name given him by the impious adulation of the Babylonians and Assyrians. He was also called Baal, Beel, Bel, or Belus, signifying "lord," or "master," by the Phenicians, Assyrians, and Greeks; and Bala Rama, by the Hindus. And it is highly probable that the Assyrian Nimrod, or Hindu Bala, was also the prototype of the Grecian Hercules, with his club and lion's skin
Nahum, Theology of - Perhaps it is significant for dating that Assyria is called "intact" in 1:12. when Assyria's vulnerable position became public. , Assyria had been the dominant power in the Near East for centuries. Nahum's obvious anger may be understood against the background of the cruel Assyrian oppression that God's people, as well as other nations, had suffered. Nahum closes the long series of taunts by comparing Assyria to a locust horde (3:15d-17). ...
Nahum brought his generation a message from God about his relationship with his people: God is a warrior who is coming to free his people from the oppressive dominance of wicked Assyria. Nahum speaks an oracle of doom against Assyria, a nation that existed in the distant past. Before specific application is made to Judah and Assyria, Nahum presents us with a hymn that focuses on God as the saving and judging divine warrior (1:2-8)
Nebo (2) - The idol of Babylon and Assyria. Pul, from some special connection with Babylon (Ivalush III) gave Nebo a prominence in Assyrian worship which he had not before
Osnappar - A curiously distorted form of Ashurbanipal , the name of the last great king of Assyria (b
no, no-Amon - Ashurbanipal (of Assyria) sacked the sacred site
no - Assyria had been able to distress Egypt before this prophecy, and the reference there is probably to an attack on Egypt by Sargon (B
a'Haz - Ahaz, having forfeited God's favor by his wickedness, sought deliverance from these numerous troubles by appealing to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, who forced him from his most formidable enemies
Gad - They could not, however, withstand invasions for ever, and when Israel was later destroyed by Assyria, they were among the first Israelites to go into captivity (2 Kings 10:32-33; 2 Kings 15:29)
Cush - Cush's strength could not help Thebes escape from Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, in 663 B. Nahum used this historical example to pronounce doom on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria (Nahum 3:9 )
Manasseh - The eastern part of the tribe of Manasseh prospered much and spread to Mount Hermon, but they finally mixed with the Canaanites, adopted their idolatry, became scattered as Bedouins in the desert, and were the first to be carried away into captivity by the kings of Assyria. Having supported the Babylonian viceroy in his revolt against Assyria, he was at last taken captive by the Assyrian king and ignominiously transported to Babylon
Hezekiah - His father had submitted to Assyria, but the vassalage was felt to be severe. In the East the kingdom of Babylon under Merodach-baladan was also making trouble for the Assyrians. The Philistines were for revolt; only Padi, king of Ekron, held out for his master the king of Assyria. The laconic sentence: ‘Hezekiah sent to the king of Assyria at Lachish, saying: I have offended; that which thou puttest on me will I bear’ ( 2 Kings 18:14 ) shows that abject submission was made. ...
In our accounts we read of a great destruction which came upon the Assyrian army (2 Kings 19:35 , Isaiah 37:36 )
Samar'Itans - 721, and that they remained in this desolated state until, in the words of (2 Kings 17:24 ) "the king of Assyria brought men from Babylon and front Cuthah, and from Av. " Thus the new Samaritans were Assyrians by birth or subjugation. On their explaining their miserable condition to the king of Assyria, he despatched one of the captive priests to teach them "how they should fear the Lord. Such were the Samaritans of our Lord's day; a people distinct from the jews, though lying in the very midst of the Jews; a people preserving their identity, though seven centuries had rolled away since they had been brought from Assyria by Esar-haddon, and though they had abandoned their polytheism for a sort of ultra Mosaicism; a people who, though their limits had gradually contracted and the rallying-place of their religion on Mount Gerizim had been destroyed one hundred and sixty years before by John Hyrcanus (B
Nahum - , Israel and Judah had been Assyrian vassals. Almost a century later, the Assyrian Empire began its decline. A coalition of Medes, Babylonians, and Scythians attacked Assyrians and in 612 B. The Assyrians formed a coalition with the Egyptians, but in 605 B. ...
The Prophet's Message The Assyrian oppression created a troubling question. How could God allow such inhumanity to go unanswered? Nahum responded to Assyrian tyranny with a message marked by its vivid language. Assyria's might had been heavy upon Judah, but Nahum announced that God would destroy them. For over a century, the Assyrians seemed to have had an uncontrolled reign, but now God was responding. Perhaps the people of Judah doubted God's justness since Assyria seemed to have no restraints. ...
The second chapter graphically portrays the future fall of Assyria's capital, Nineveh. Ironically, as Assyria had destroyed Thebes in 663 B. They had been subjected to the cruel domination of Assyria for over a century, but now their faith in God to act on their behalf could be bolstered through God's response
Exile - (ex' ile) The events in which the northern tribes of Israel were taken into captivity by the Assyrians and the events in which the southern tribes of Judah were taken into captivity by the Babylonians. ...
In Old Testament times the Assyrians and Babylonians introduced the practice of deporting captives into foreign lands. Rather than impose deportation, Assyria demanded tribute from nations it threatened to capture. , Jehu, king of Israel, was paying tribute to Shalmaneser, king of Assyria. ) did the Assyrians began deporting people from the various tribes of Israel. and was taken captive by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:1-6 ). ...
The Assyrians exiled the Israelites into Halah, Gozan, and Media (2 Kings 17:6 ; 2 Kings 18:11 ; Obadiah 1:20 ). The Assyrians brought into Samaria people from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim (2 Kings 17:24 ; Ezra 4:10 ). These two prophets proclaimed that Israel's fall was due to moral and spiritual degeneration rather than to the superior military might of the Assyrian nation. Assyria was only the “rod of mine anger”' (Isaiah 10:5 ). ...
Assyria's last king, Ashurbanipal, died in 630 B. His death marked the end of Assyrian dominance of Judah. Both Judah and Egypt sought to take advantage of Assyria's diminishing power. ...
Life in the Exile meant life in five different geographical areas: Israel, Judah, Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt. Israel Assyria took the educated, leading people from the Northern Kingdom and replaced them with populations from other countries they had conquered (2 Kings 17:24 ). Assyria Exiles from the Northern Kingdom were scattered through the Assyrian holdings (2 Kings 17:6 )
Creation - These within the last few years have been brought to light in the tablets and cylinders which have been rescued from the long-buried palaces and temples of Assyria
Ararat - 900 they borrowed the cuneiform characters of Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of kings who at times contended with Assyria
Samaritans - 677), the king of Assyria, brought from Babylon and other places and settled in the cities of Samaria, instead of the original inhabitants whom Sargon (B
Gomer - Assyrian sources show they threatened Assyria after 700 B
Hook - So in the Assyrian remains at Khorsabad captives are represented with a hook in the nose or upper lip, and a cord attached in the king's hand. ...
So God threatens the Assyrian king himself. So 2 Chronicles 33:11, "in the thorns," rather perhaps "the captains of the host of the king of Assyria took Manasseh with hooks" or "rings" passed through his lips (Maurer)
Kedesh - The inhabitants were exiled to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 )
Scythians - Their forces, in pursuit of the Cimmerians, drove south through or around the Caucasus Mountains to the borders of Assyria. A Scytho-Assyrian alliance was formed about 680-670 B
Ben-Hadad - of Assyria to conquer southern Syria. , son of Hazael, probably the same as the Man’ of the Assyrian inscriptions. ), and he also suffered heavily from the Assyrians
Fiery - ...
Isaiah 14:29 (a) Though the King of Assyria should depart from them, his posterity would yet pursue and injure Israel, destroying their land, and appropriating their property
Ashdod - It was on the high road from Palestine to Egypt which doubtless led Sargon king of Assyria to take it by his general, about B
Drowning - —Drowning never was or could be a recognized form of capital punishment in so poorly watered a country as Palestine, as it was in Assyria and Babylonia. Johns’ Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and Letters, p
Ararat - George Smith, however, places Ararat in the southern part of the mountains east of Assyria
Shalmaneser - King of Assyria between Tiglath-pileser and Sennacherib. The bas- relief copied in the next page was found on a fine Assyrian obelisk of black marble, six and a half feet high, and covered on all sides with inscriptions
Reuben - Their position on the frontier exposed them to many assaults from the east, 2 Kings 10:33 ; and they were among the first captives to Assyria, 1 Chronicles 5:26 , B
Her'Mon - (1 Chronicles 5:23 ) It stands at the southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Assyria
Josiah - On the international scene during those years Assyria's power was waning, and Babylon's was on the rise. Assyria had aligned itself with Egypt against Babylon. Pharoah Neco's troups were passing through territory north of Judah en route to join forces with Assyria
Immanuel, Emmanuel - And doubtless Isaiah 7:16 refers to Shearjashub; and before this child could have grown to maturity, Pekah had been killed by Hoshea, and Damascus had been taken and Rezin slain by the king of Assyria. In Isaiah 8:8 it is foretold that the wing of the king of Assyria should fill the breadth of the land — the land of Immanuel — which took place soon after, yet this is a type of the Assyrian's attacks in the last days
Samaritans - The king of Assyria had peopled the cities by colonists from the East, they were then in Jehovah's land, but they did not fear Him, therefore He sent lions among them. On the king of Assyria being informed of this, a priest who had been carried away from Samaria was sent thither, to teach them how they should fear the God of that land
Nahum (2) - The two themes alternate in Nahum 1; as the prophecy advances, vengeance on Assyria predominates. He writes while Assyria's power was yet unbroken (Nahum 1:12; Nahum 2:11-13; Nahum 3:1, "the bloody city, full of lies . ...
The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B. ...
The name "Huzzab" (Nahum 2:7) answers to Adiabene, from the Zab or Diab river on which that region lay; a personification of Assyria, and seems to be an Assyrian word. So the original words, minzaraik , taphsarika , for "crowned" or "princes" (Nahum 3:17) and "captains" or "satraps " (also in Jeremiah 51:27); contact with Assyria brought in these words. ...
The Assyrians, by just retribution, in turn should experience themselves what they caused to Israel and Judah (compare also Nahum 1:3 with Jonah 4:2; Nahum 1:13 with Isaiah 10:26-27; Nahum 1:8 with Isaiah 10:21-22; Isaiah 8:8; Nahum 1:9; Nahum 1:11 with Isaiah 37:23; Nahum 3:10 with Isaiah 13:16; Nahum 2:2 with Isaiah 24:1; Nahum 3:5 with Isaiah 47:2-3; Nahum 3:7 with Isaiah 51:19). Plainly, Nahum is the last of the prophets of the Assyrian period. Nahum encourages his countrymen with the assurance that, alarming as their position seemed, assailed by the mighty foe which had already carried captive the ten tribes, yet that not only should the Assyrian fail against Jerusalem, but Nineveh and his own empire should fall; and this not by chance, but by Jehovah's judgment for their iniquities
Rimmon (1) - ...
In Assyria, both the Aram Necho ii - For some reason he proclaimed war against the king of Assyria. ), where he met and conquered the Assyrian army, and thus all the Syrian provinces, including Palestine, came under his dominion
Nest - ) In Isaiah 10:14 Assyria boasts, "my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people," implying the ease with which he pillaged the most precious treasures, not his own, as a boy robbing a helpless bard's nest; "none moved the wing or peeped (chirped)" as a parent bird does when its young are stolen; none dare resist me even with a word
Goiim - This may represent the Hebrew way of referring to Assyria's governmental district which the Assyrians called Megiddo. Assyria controlled this region after its wars with Israel in 733 and in 722 B
to'Bit, Book of, - The scene of the book is placed in Assyria, whither Tobit, a Jew, had been carried as a captive by Shalmaneser
Flame - ...
Isaiah 30:30 (a) This represents the outpouring of GOD's wrath against Assyria
Hoof - Assyria was probably the one who used the hook, and the hooks were his various types of warfare and war machines
Abomination of Desolation - The desolator is the Assyrian, Isaiah 8:7,8 ; Isaiah 28:2,18 the northern king who will then hold the territory of Assyria
Oil - The Prophet Hosea thus upbraids his degenerate nation with the servility and folly, of their conduct: "Ephraim feedeth on wind, and followeth after the east wind; he daily increaseth falsehood and vanity; and a league is made with Assyria, and oil carried into Egypt," Hosea 12:1
Manasseh - For his shocking idolatries, tyranny, and cruelties, God suffered him to be carried as a prisoner to Babylon in the twenty-second year of his reign, probably by Esarhaddon king of Assyria. Here, however, he so humbled himself that God moved the Assyrians to restore him to his throne, as a tributary; and thenceforth he set himself to undo the evil he had done
Josiah - ), king of Egypt, in an expedition against the king of Assyria, with the view of gaining possession of Carchemish, sought a passage through the territory of Judah for his army. He had probably entered into some new alliance with the king of Assyria, and faithful to his word he sought to oppose the progress of Necho
Sennacherib - Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (B. Among these was Hezekiah, who had entered into an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. His own account of this invasion, as given in the Assyrian annals, is in these words: "Because Hezekiah, king of Judah, would not submit to my yoke, I came up against him, and by force of arms and by the might of my power I took forty-six of his strong fenced cities; and of the smaller towns which were scattered about, I took and plundered a countless number. ) Hezekiah was not disposed to become an Assyrian feudatory. "In that night" the angel of the Lord went forth and smote the camp of the Assyrians. " The Assyrian army was annihilated. ...
This great disaster is not, as was to be expected, taken notice of in the Assyrian annals
Bee - "The Lord shall hiss for the bee that is in the land of Assyria"; i. They were as numerous in Assyria as "the fly" in marshy Egypt
Dispersion - ...
Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. 721) by Shalmaneser (or Sargon), king of Assyria. The following table shows how the different families were dispersed: ...
| - Japheth | - Gomer | Cimmerians, Armenians | - Magog | Caucasians, Scythians | - Madal | Medes and Persian tribes | - Javan | - Elishah | Greeks | - Tarshish | Etruscans, Romans | - Chittim | Cyprians, Macedonians | - Dodanim | Rhodians | - Tubal | Tibareni, Tartars | - Mechech | Moschi, Muscovites | - Tiras | Thracians | | - Shem | - Elam | Persian tribes | - Asshur | Assyrian | - Arphaxad | - Abraham | - Isaac | - Jacob | Hebrews | - Esau | Edomites | - Ishmael | Mingled with Arab tribes | - Lud | Lydians | - Aram | Syrians | | - Ham | - Cush | Ethiopans | - Mizrain | Egyptians | - Phut | Lybians, Mauritanians | - Canaan | Canaanites, Phoenicians ...
Captivity - The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively invaded by several Assyrian kings. 738), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 ; Isaiah 9:1 ). During the siege he died, and was succeeded by Sargon, who took the city, and transported the great mass of the people into Assyria (B. A considerable number, 12,000 probably, from the ten tribes who had been carried away into Assyria no doubt combined with this band of liberated captives
Sennacherib - King of Assyria, son and successor of Shalmaneser, began to reign B. Hezekiah king of Judah having shaken off the yoke of the Assyrians, by which Ahaz his father had suffered under Tigloth-pileser, Sennacherib marched an army against him, and took all the strong cities of Judah. Hezekiah entreated the Lord, who sent a destroying angel against the Assyrian army, and slew in one night 185,000 men. Sennacherib returned with all speed to Nineveh, and turned his arms against the nations south of Assyria, and afterwards towards the north. ...
In another apartment of the same palace was found a series of wellpreserved bas-reliefs, representing the siege and capture by the Assyrians of a large and strong city. Above his head is an inscription, which is thus translated: "Sennacherib the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judging at the gate of the city Lachisa; I give permission for its slaughter
Isaiah - The Assyrians were invading Galilee and Palestine. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel
Isaias - The Assyrians were invading Galilee and Palestine. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel
Hiss - " (Isaiah 5:26) So again the bee of Egypt, and the bee of Assyria, meaning the armies of those nations, the Lord saith, he will hiss for: that is, will call them
Euphrates And Tigris Rivers - Nineveh, the ancient capital of the Assyrian Empire, was located on its east bank. Farther south was the site of Asshur, religious center and original capital of Assyria
Samaritans - Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, having besieged and taken Samaria, carried away all the people captives into the remotest parts of his dominions, and filled their place with Babylonians, Cutheans, and other idolaters
Nimrod - as the first of the ‘heroes,’ ‘a mighty hunter before the Lord,’ the ruler of four ancient Babylonian cities, and the founder of the Assyrian Empire. , and set up a dynasty which lasted 600 years: the rise of Assyria is said to date from the decline of Babylonia under the later Kassite kings
Tubal - ...
The Assyrian monarchs from 1100 to 700 B. In Sargon's time, according to inscriptions, Ambris, son of Khuliya, was their hereditary chief, and by alliance with the kings of Musak and Vararat (Mesech and Ararat) who were revolting from Assyria. 8, section 25) says the Tibareni were then an independent tribe; 24 kings of the Tuplai in previous ages are mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions (Hincks in Rawlinson's Herodotus i
Nest - ...
Isaiah 10:14 (a) The King of Assyria used this expression to describe his palace and his city which were filled with great riches and treasures which he had obtained by war
Ahaz - These two kings had made an alliance against the Assyrians, and were trying to compel Ahaz to join the coalition. He sent a message to Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, submitting himself unreservedly to him. Two years later the Assyrian king entered Damascus, and was visited there by Ahaz. The result of the visit was the construction of a new altar for the Temple at Jerusalem, and apparently the introduction of Assyrian divinities (2 Kings 16:10 ff
Fir (Tree) - ...
Ezekiel 31:8 (a) This is a type of the great men of Assyria who excelled in might, power, pomp and dress
Jehoiakim - He was at first tributary to Egypt; but Egypt being defeated by Assyria at Carchemish, B
zo'ba, - The name however, is found at a later date in the inscriptions of Assyria, where the kingdom of Zobah seems to intervene between Hamath and Damascus
Elam - It subsequently became subject to the great power of the Chaldeans and Assyrians. When Assyria declined, Elam was conquered by its Persian neighbours, and reigned over by the Achaemenian Dynasty
Ahaz - What mock humility in one who scrupled not to use God's brazen altar to divine with, and had substituted for God's altar in God's worship the pattern, which pleased his aesthetic tastes, of the idol altar at Damascus (2 Kings 16:11-15); perhaps the adoption of this pattern, an Assyrian one, was meant as a token of vassalage to Assyria, by adopting some of their religious usage's and idolatries; indeed Tiglath Pileser expressly records in the Assyrian monuments that he held his court at Damascus, and there received submission and tribute of both Pekah of Samaria and Ahaz of Judah. Ahaz's true reason for declining was his resolve not to do God's will, but to negotiate with Assyria and persevere in idolatry (2 Kings 16:7-8; 2 Kings 16:3-4; 2 Kings 16:10). Ahaz is named Jeho-Ahaz (or Yahu-Khazi) in the Assyrian inscriptions. ...
The Assyrian king "distressed him, but strengthened him not. It is true the Assyrian slew Rezin, and carried captive the Syrians of Damascus to Kir; but their ruin did not prove Ahaz's safety, "the king of Assyria helped him not. To impress this on Ahaz as the coming result of Assyrian interference, he took with him two witnesses, Uriah the priest and Zechariah. , a covered walk like a portico or standing place, to screen the royal worshippers in the temple, and the king's private entry, he removed into the temple, to please the king of Assyria, that none might go from the palace into the temple without the trouble of going round. He adopted the Babylonian sun dial (which he probably erected in the temple, perhaps in "the middle court," where Isaiah saw it and gave its shadow as a sign to Hezekiah), becoming acquainted with it through the Assyrians (2 Kings 20:11; 2 Kings 20:4; 2 Kings 20:9)
Babylon - 2458 to 625 various dynasties of Medes, Chaldaeans, Arabs, and Assyrians; and lastly Babylonians from B. ...
Babylon and Assyria are much blended together in history, sometimes being independent one of the other, and at other times being tributary to one another. 745 Tiglath-pileser may be said to have founded the later kingdom of Assyria, and among his victories he became master of Babylonia, as the kingdom of Babylon was called. 702Sennacherib king of Assyria expelled Merodach, and Babylon was governed by viceroys from Assyria. 681Esar-haddon became king of Assyria but held his court at Babylon, to which place Manasseh king of Judah was carried prisoner about B. 625 Nabo-polassar revolted from the king of Assyria and established the later kingdom of Babylon. He with Cyaxares (the Ahasuerus of Daniel 9:1 ) founder of the Median kingdom, attacked and took Nineveh, and put an end to the Assyrian rule
Jonas, Book of - Chapters 1,2 relate Jonas's attempt to resist the order of God that he go to preach in Ninive, the capital of Assyria, and the story of his being swallowed by a great fish specially prepared by God
Cedar - "The mighty conquerors of olden days, the despots of Assyria and the Pharaohs of Egypt, the proud and idolatrous monarchs of Judah, the Hebrew commonwealth itself, the war-like Ammonites of patriarchal times, and the moral majesty of the Messianic age, are all compared to the towering cedar, in its royal loftiness and supremacy (Isaiah 2:13 ; Ezekiel 17:3,22,23,31:3-9 ;; Amos 2:9 ; Zechariah 11:1,2 ; Job 40:17 ; Psalm 29:5 ; 80:10 ; 92:12 , etc)
Hamath - 740 Azariah formed a league with it against Assyria. It was, however, conquered by the Assyrians, and its nineteen districts placed under Assyrian governors
Megiddo - , on his march against the king of Assyria, passed through the plains of Philistia and Sharon; and King Josiah, attempting to bar his progress in the plain of Megiddo, was defeated by the Egyptians
Table, Tablet - ; works on Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt in general; allusions in Ramsay’s Letters to the Seven Churches
Embroider - Assyria too was famed for such embroidery
Tarsus - Founded by Sennacherub of Assyria; the Greeks too took part in its colonisation (Strabo xiv
Chedorlaomer - ...
Assurbanipal, king of Assyria 668 B. " He did not establish a lasting empire over Syria, as his Assyrian and Babylonian successors, but was simply its "ravager," exactly as the Bible represents him
Presents - Thus the king of Assyria desired the people to make an agreement with him by a present
Siloah, Siloam - In Isaiah 8:6 , under the name of SHILOAH, it is used symbolically: the people refused its waters that went softly, preferring Syria and the king of Israel: the strong waters of Assyria should sweep them away
Strange - ...
2 Kings 19:24 (b) The King of Assyria is boasting of the fact that he had satisfied all his desires by ravaging and robbing other nations, and obtaining their possessions
Tribute - Afterwards, because of their sin, Israel had to pay tribute to Assyria, Egypt, etc
Hezekiah - He tried to restore the worship of Jehovah, removing "high places," and destroying the brazen serpent; consult 2 Chronicles 28:22-25; for the final deportation of the Ten Tribes see 2 Kings 17:1-41; 2 Kings 18:9-12; and for his revolt against the Assyrians compare 2 Kings 18:1-37; 2 Chronicles 32:1-33. Assyrian annals of Sennacherib discovered at Nineveh agree with this account. Then came Sennacherib's letters from Lachish and Libnah, the destruction of a great part of his army, and the retreat of the rest to Assyria, in answer to Hezekiah's prayer
Lachish - The inscription reads, "Sennacherib, king of multitudes, king of Assyria, sitteth upon a lofty throne, and the spoil of the city of Lachish passeth before him
Medes, Media - They occupied a large district, having the Caspian Sea on the north-east; Armenia on the north-west; Parthia on the east; Persia on the south; and Assyria on the west. He pushed his conquests westward, and was able to overthrow the Assyrian empire
Cherub, Cherubim - The symbolical figure so called was a composite creature-form which finds a parallel in the religious insignia of Assyria, Egypt and Persia, e
Ephraim - Ephraim was led captive beyond the Euphrates, with all Israel, by Salmaneser, king of Assyria, A
Eber - Assyria)
Chaldeans - ...
The Chaldeans were originally a warlike people, who at first inhabited the Carduchian or Koordish mountains north of Assyria and Mesopotamia, Jeremiah 50:17 . As the Assyrian monarchs extended their conquests towards the north and west, the Chaldeans also came under their dominion; and this rough and energetic people appear to have assumed, under the sway of their conquerors, a new character, and to have been transformed from a rude horde into a civilized people
Josiah - He met death in battle with Pharaohnecho, whose passage across his territory to attack the king of Assyria, Josiah felt obliged to resist
Bashan - Israel lost Bashan again, this time without any hope of regaining it, when Assyria overran the northern and eastern sections of Israel and took the people into captivity (2 Kings 15:29)
Damascus - It is important in the Bible story as capital of the nation Syria, which was much involved in Israel’s affairs from the time of the division of the Israelite kingdom in 930 BC to the conquest of Syria by Assyria in 732 BC
Esarhaddon - (See Assyria. The Assyrian inscriptions state that for some months after his accession he warred with his half brothers (Rawlinson, Ant. ...
Esarhaddon was perhaps the most potent of the Assyrian kings, warring in the far East, according to the monuments, with Median tribes "of which his father had never heard the name"; extending his power W. Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. He is the only Assyrian king who reigned at Babylon; the bricks of the palace he built there still bearing his name. Scripture by a striking minute coincidence with truth represents Manasseh as carried to Babylon, not to the Assyrian capital Nineveh; which would seem inexplicable but for the above fact, revealed by the monuments. , the very period when Manasseh was brought up by the Assyrian king's captains to Babylon on a charge of rebellion (2 Chronicles 33:11-19). (See Assyria
Elam - The Assyrian Ashurbanipal brought an end to the periods of strength and weakness. As Assyria weakened, Elam and Anshan became part of the kingdom of the Medes. Thus, they participated, with the Babylonians, in the defeat of the Assyrian empire. See Persia ; Cyrus ; Assyria
Babylon - This was a startling revelation, for Assyria was the great power of the day and seemingly unassailable. The visit was probably an attempt by Babylon to foment problems for Assyria in the west, thereby diverting attention from Babylon
Manasseh - ...
The king of Assyria sent his army against him, who, seizing him among the briers and brambles where he was hid, fettered his hands and feet, and carried him to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11-12 , &c. It was probably Sargon or Esar-haddon, king of Assyria, who sent Tartan into Palestine, and who taking Azoth, attacked Manasseh, put him in irons, and led him away, not to Nineveh, but to Babylon, of which Esar-haddon had become master, and had reunited the empires of the Assyrians and the Chaldeans
Persia - It is probable that they enjoyed their independence for several ages, with a monarchical succession of their own; until they were subdued by the Assyrians and their country attached as a province to that empire. It is not improbable that, during this period, petty revolutions might have occasioned temporary disjunctions of Persia from Assyria, and that the Persian king was quickly again made sensible of his true allegiance. Media having vanquished her great rival Assyria enjoyed a long interval of peace, during the reign of Astyages, son of Cyaxares
Egypt - The Egyptian role as oppressor of the people of God soon shifts to Assyria and Babylonia. Yet the people reject God and he laments, "Will they not return to Egypt and will not Assyria rule over them because they refuse to repent?" (v. In this oracle, Egypt functions again as a place of oppression, this time under Assyria
Egypt - Hoshea, king of Israel, attempted an alliance with this king that he might be delivered from his allegiance to Assyria. ...
Another king of this dynasty was Tirhakah or Taharka (the Tehrak of the monuments) who came into collision with Assyria in the 14th year of Hezekiah. ...
Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, PHARAOH-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. By Necho being able to attack the king of Assyria, in so distant a place as Carchemish shows the strength of Egypt at that time, but the power of Babylon was increasing, and after three years Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of Necho at Carchemish, and recovered every place from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates; and "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land. ...
We have seen that at one time Egypt was able to bring a million soldiers into Palestine; and at another to attack Assyria. in that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance. The inscriptions are in cuneiform characters, but in the Aramaic language, which resembles Assyrian. Shabaka, or Sabaco, the So who was allied with Hoshea of Samaria, was defeated by Sargon of Assyria. Thebes destroyed by the Assyrians. ) Egypt became a province of Assyria. Or Psammetichus I: threw off the yoke of Assyria and ruled all Egypt. 610) on his way to attack the Assyrians at Carchemish
Samaria, Samaritans - Following the Northern Kingdom's fall to Assyria (721 B. Finally, Samaria fell to Assyria in 721 B. See Assyria. After the Assyrian conquest, Samaria began to shrink in size. When the Assyrians conquered Israel and exiled 27,290 Israelites, a “remnant of Israel” remained in the land. Assyrian captives from distant places also settled there (2 Kings 17:24 )
Immanuel - Recent study has pointed to Ahaz's wife as the woman expected to bear the child and show that God was still with the Davidic royal dynasty even in the midst of severe threat from Assyria. The Assyrian army would flood the land until Judah was up to its neck in trouble and could only cry out, “O Immanuel”; a cry confessing that God is with us in His destructive rage but at the same time a prayer, hoping for divine intervention
Table of Nations - See Assyria; Babylon ; Canaan; Habiru ; Israel ; Mesopotamia ; Semites
Cush - After the decline of the 22nd (Libyan) Dynasty, the Cushites became powerful and gradually encroached on northern Egypt, so that at length an Ethiopian dynasty was established (the 25th, 728 663), which was overthrown by the Assyrians. Within this period falls the attempt of Tirhakah, king of Cush, to defeat Sennacherib of Assyria in Palestine ( 2 Kings 19:9 )
Chaldean Language - ...
As to the writing , the inscriptions found at Assyria, Babylon, and Persia are cut in stone or stamped on bricks in the cuneiform (that is, wedge-shaped) characters
Sepharvaim - When Shalmeneser, king of Assyria, had besieged Samaria, and carried away the children of Israel captive, we are told that he brought men from Sepharvaim and other places, and put them in Samaria
Gilead - Jacob fled toward Gilead, Genesis 31:21; it was conquered by Israel, Numbers 21:24; Judges 10:18; Joshua 12:2; Deuteronomy 2:36; was given to Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, Joshua 17:6; under Jephthah it defeated the Ammonites, Judges 10:18; was a refuge for Saul's son and for David, 2 Samuel 2:9; 2 Samuel 17:22; 2 Samuel 17:24; the home of Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1; taken in part by Syria, 2 Kings 10:33; by Assyria, 2 Kings 15:25-29; referred to in the minor prophets, Hosea 6:8; Hosea 12:11; Amos 1:3; Amos 1:13; Obadiah 1:19; Micah 7:14; Zechariah 10:10
Ahaz - Being harassed and weakened by Pekah king of Israel, Rezin king of Damascus, and others, he called to his aid Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, to whom he gave the treasures of Jerusalem; who after dispersing those who warred against Ahaz, himself 'distressed' him and made him tributary. This brought the great desolator of Israel, the Assyrian, into the land
Satisfied, To Be - ” Instead of “wine,” the Habakkuk Dead Sea Scroll reads “wealth,” which seems more appropriate in the context which points to Assyria as the concern of Habakkuk’s complaint
Chald a - 1300; the Assyrian empire next, lasting about six and a half centuries, from b. For further notices see Babylon, Assyria, and Nineveh
na'Hum - The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. The allusions to the Assyrian power imply that it was still unbroken
Dan - It was one of the first parts of Israel to fall when Assyria conquered the land and took the people into captivity (2 Kings 15:29)
Euphrates - ) The Euphrates was the boundary between Assyria and the Hittite country, after Solomon's times, according to inscriptions. But Assyria at last drove back the Hittites from the right bank
Tiglath Pileser - Related to Αtargatis (Syriac), Dargeto , "great fish," tutelary god of the first Assyrian dynasty. ) we find him exacting tribute from a Merodach Baladan who ruled in southern Babylonia on the shores of the Persian gulf, a district of marsh lands for many centuries a refuge for Assyrian rebels. ) The Assyrian inscriptions mention that Menahem of Samaria (probably about 743 B. and took Ijon, Abel-beth-maachah, Janoah, Kedesh, Hazor, Gilead, Galilee, all the land of Naphtali (compare Isaiah 7; Isaiah 8; Isaiah 9:1, this stroke fell at first 'lightly,' 'afterward more grievously'), and carried them captive to Assyria. The king of Assyria hearkend unto Ahaz; went up against Damascus and took it, carried the people captive to Kir, and slew Rezin. " Probably it was an Assyrian altar which Ahaz copied, as a formal recognition of the gods of the sovereign nation (which required subject kings to set up in their capital "the laws of Asshur"), and a token of submission: the visit of Ahaz to Damascus (where "he saw the altar") "to meet king Tiglath Pileser" accords with Tiglath Pileser's inscription that before quitting Syria he held his court at Damascus, and there received submission and tribute from the neighbouring sovereigns, among whom he mentions Pekah and Jahu-Khaz (Ahaz) of Judah
Carry - And the king of Assyria did carry away Israel to Assyria
Elam - A change in relations gradually took place after Assyria began to control Babylonia and thus encroach upon Elam, which was thenceforth, as a rule, in league with the patriotic Babylonians, especially with the Chaldæans from the south-land. Shortly thereafter, when Assyria itself declined and fell, Elam was occupied by the rising Aryan tribes, the Medes from the north and the Persians from the south
Samaritans - When the inhabitants of Samaria and of the adjacent country were carried away by Shalmanezer king of Assyria, he sent in their place colonies from Babylonia, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, with which the Israelites who remained in the land became intermingled, and were ultimately amalgamated into one people, 2 Kings 17:24-41 . The new and mixed race indeed sent to Assyria for an Israelitish priest to teach them the law of Jehovah, and adopted in part the forms of the true religion; but most of them were but half converted from their native heathenism, Matthew 10:5 Luke 17:16-18
Hosea - Ephraim, instead of turning to Jehovah in his sickness, had sought the Assyrian — a king who could not cure them. Israel had 'made many altars to sin,' and had leaned upon Assyria, an arm of flesh. Assyria should be the place of their captivity. Assyria shall no more be appealed to, nor the work of their hands be called their God
Judah, Kingdom of - ) Judah included southern Benjamin and Jerusalem the joint city of both, Simeon, and many cities of Daniel In Abijah's and Asa's reign Judah gained parts of Ephraim (2 Chronicles 13:19; 2 Chronicles 15:8; 2 Chronicles 17:2); and after Israel's deportation to Assyria the king of Judah exercised a quasi authority in the N. ...
Israel interposed between Judah and Syria and Assyria; and Egypt in its military marches toward Assyria took the coast line of Philistia, not through Judah. But Ahaz, when smitten by the Syrian and Israelite confederacy of Rezin and Pekah (2 Chronicles 28; 2 Kings 16; Isaiah 7-9), which was the punishment from Jehovah of his idolatry, adopted the fatal policy of becoming the vassal of Assyria, which "distressed but strengthened him not
Nineveh - This capital of the Assyrian empire could boast of the remotest antiquity. Tacitus styles it, "Vetustissima sedes Assyriae;" [1] and Scripture informs us that Nimrod, after he had built Babel, in the land of Shinar, invaded Assyria, where he built Nineveh, and several other cities, Genesis 10:11 . He relates that the king of Assyria, elated with his former victories, and ignorant of the revolt of the Bactrians, had abandoned himself to scandalous inaction; had appointed a time of festivity, and supplied his soldiers with abundance of wine; and that the general of the enemy, apprised by deserters, of their negligence and drunkenness, attacked the Assyrian army while the whole of them were fearlessly giving way to indulgence, destroyed great part of them, and drove the rest into the city. "The Lord will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. And if the only spot that bears its name, or that can be said to be the place where it was, be indeed the site of one of the most extensive of cities on which the sun ever shone, and which continued for many centuries to be the capital of Assyria,—the principal mounds, few in number, which show neither bricks, stones, nor other materials of building,—but are in many places overgrown with grass, and resemble the mounds left by intrenchments and fortifications of ancient Roman camps, and the appearances of other mounds and ruins less marked than even these, extending for ten miles, and widely spread, and seeming to be the wreck of former buildings,—show that Nineveh is left without one monument of royalty, without any token whatever of its splendour or wealth: that their place is not known where they were; and that it is indeed a desolation, "empty, void, and waste," its very ruins perished, and less than the wreck of what it was
Media - We first hear of this people in the Assyrian cuneiform records, under the name of Amada, about B. They consisted for three or four centuries of a number of tribes, each ruled by its own chief, who at length were brought under the Assyrian yoke (2 Kings 17:6 ). This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B. 625), thus putting an end to the Assyrian monarchy (Nahum 1:8 ; 2:5,6 ; 3:13,14 )
Euphrates - Hebrew, Perath; Assyrian, Purat; Persian cuneiform, Ufratush, whence Greek Euphrates, meaning "sweet water. " The Assyrian name means "the stream," or "the great stream. In the ancient history of Assyria, and Babylon, and Egypt many events are recorded in which mention is made of the "great river. " Just as the Nile represented in prophecy the power of Egypt, so the Euphrates represented the Assyrian power (Isaiah 8:7 ; Jeremiah 2:18 )
Lachish - The inscription has been deciphered as follows:, "Sennacherib, the mighty king, king of the country of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish: I gave permission for its slaughter
Gad - The tribes on the east of the Jordan were the first carried away by the king of Assyria, about B
Immanuel - Achaz seeks salvation from the danger presented by the war with Rasin, King of Syria, and Phacee, King of Northern Israel, in an alliance with the Assyrians. The king, who is an idolater, does not deny Jehovah's power to work a miracle, but is doubtless equally convinced of the power of the gods of Assyria; he hypocritically refuses to "tempt the Lord. When the House of David sees the country overrun, first by the Syrians and the Israelites of the north and then by those very Assyrians in whom they place their trust, then they will be reminded of Isaias's teaching that "salvation is in Jehovah
Tribute - This was especially true of the Assyrian Period (850-600 B. ) shows Jehu of Israel paying tribute prostrate before the Assyrian king. was recorded in both biblical and Assyrian texts (2 Kings 18:13-16 ). See Assyria; Babylon ; Egypt ; Roman Empire
Megiddo - Here king Ahaziah ( 2 Kings 9:27 ) died; and the good king Josiah, interfering in a quarrel between Pharaoh-necho and the king of Assyria, and opposing the former’s progress in the dangerous passage of Megiddo, was also slain ( 2 Kings 23:29-30 , 2 Chronicles 35:22 ), to the grief of all Israel ( Zechariah 12:11 )
Ben-Hadad - Hadad-ezer who joined Ahab and other Syrian kings fighting Shalmaneser III of Assyria at Qarqar in 853 B
Bee - Deuteronomy 1:44 , Psalms 118:12 , and Isaiah 7:18 , where the hosts of Assyria are compared to such a swarm let loose
Wages - Still, a skilled shepherd, like Jacob, might receive a portion of the flock and thus begin his own herd (Genesis 30:32-33 ; Genesis 31:8 ; and legal texts from both Assyria and Babylonia)
Dragon - ...
...
Isaiah 13:22 (a) This is probably a type of the powers, such as Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, who invade Jerusalem and take up their dwelling places in the palaces of the GOD's city
Hadad - see) among the Aramæans of Damascus and apparently worshipped by all the Aramæan peoples, as well as among both South-Arabian and North-Arabian tribes, and also among the Assyrians. In Assyria and Babylonia, however, his cult, combined with that of Rammân, was apparently not native, but introduced from the Aram¿ans of the west
Emmanuel Title - Achaz seeks salvation from the danger presented by the war with Rasin, King of Syria, and Phacee, King of Northern Israel, in an alliance with the Assyrians. The king, who is an idolater, does not deny Jehovah's power to work a miracle, but is doubtless equally convinced of the power of the gods of Assyria; he hypocritically refuses to "tempt the Lord. When the House of David sees the country overrun, first by the Syrians and the Israelites of the north and then by those very Assyrians in whom they place their trust, then they will be reminded of Isaias's teaching that "salvation is in Jehovah
Esdraelon - This plain has likewise been used for the same purpose by the armies of every conqueror or invader, from Nabuchodonosor, king of Assyria, to his imitator, Napoleon Buonaparte, who, in the spring of 1799, with a small body of French, defeated an army of several thousand Turks and Mamelukes
Naphtali - The Naphtalites were, many, if not most of them, carried captive by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, 2 Kings 15:29
Rezin - Damascus and Israel were under the suzerainty of Assyria. On the approach of the Assyrians, Pekah was murdered by his own subjects
Beth'el - (2 Kings 10:29 ) After the desolation of the northern kingdom by the king of Assyria, Bethel still remained an abode of priests
Damas'Cus, - (1 Kings 15:20 ) Under Ahaz it was taken by Tiglath-pileser, (2 Kings 16:7,8,9 ) the kingdom of Damascus brought to an end, and the city itself destroyed, the inhabitants being carried captive into Assyria. Isai 7:8 and Amos 1:5 Afterwards it passed successively under the dominion of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Saracens, and was at last captured by the Turks in 1516 A
Hazael - ...
A black marble obelisk of the central palace of Nimrud, now in the British Museum, is inscribed with the names of Hazael and Benhadad of Syria, and Jehu of Israel, mentioned as tributaries of Shalmauubar king of Assyria. Hazael led the Syrians, we read in the Assyrian monuments, in confederacy with the Hittites, Hamathites, and Phoenicians, against Assyria; at Antilibanus the Assyrians slew 16,000 of his warriors, and took 1,100 chariots. Three years later Hazael submitted to the Assyrians when they again invaded Syria. ...
It was after this, when the Assyrians were prevented by internal troubles from continuing to invade, that Hazael assailed Gilead toward the close of Jehu's reign (about 860 B
Power - Isaiah rebuked the king of Assyria for his arrogance in claiming to have been successful in his conquests (10:12-14), and he remarked that the axe (Assyria) should not boast over the one who chops (God) with it (v
Nineveh - (See Assyria. Nin is the Assyrian Hercules. ...
The parallelogram in Assyria covered with remains has Khorsabad N. Rawlinson published 1862 an Assyrian canon from the monuments. Esarhaddon succeeded, as he styles himself "king of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Meroe, and Ethiopia;" or Asnapper; he imprisoned Manasseh. " No traces of such scythe-armed chariots are found in Assyria; either then it applies to the besiegers, or "the chariots shall come with the glitter of steel weapons. in Assyria, Babylonia, and eastern Persia. Chaldaea is as full of tombs as Assyria is void of them. Probably Chaldaea was the burial place of the Assyrian kings; Arrian (Exped. Egyptian art is characterized by calm repose, Assyrian art by energy and action. Egyptian architecture is derived from a stone prototype, Assyrian from a wooden one, in agreement with the physical features of the respective countries. The Chaldaean Nestorians in the Kurdistan mountains and the villages near Mosul are the sole representatives of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Nineveh - , Nimrod]'>[1] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh. " It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3 ; 4:11 ) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36 ; Isaiah 37:37 ). 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about B. The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them. It was God's doing, his judgement on Assyria's pride (Isaiah 10:5-19 ). ...
Forty years ago our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, one of the Assyrian kings. Botta, Sir Henry Layard, George Smith, and others, in the mounds of Nebi-Yunus, Nimrud, Koyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of old Assyrian art has been exhumed. ) This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets, all written over with Assyrian characters. They contain a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value. ) ...
"The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century [2]. Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G
Bethel - " Bethel remained an abode of priests even after the kingdom of Israel was desolated by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:28,29 )
Kir - An Armenian region subject to Assyria, Kurgistan or Georgia between the Black and Caspian seas (Isaiah 22:6). Esarhaddon had subdued Armenia (according to Assyrian inscriptions: Rawlinson, Herodotos i. Keil thinks Kir to be Kurena along the river Mardus in Media, or else Karine a town in Media, on the ground that the remote parts of Armenia were beyond the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:37); but Esarhaddon subdued it
Hamath - "The entering in of Hamath," indicates that it (the long valley between Lebanon and Antilebanon) was the point of entrance into the land of Israel for any invading army, as the Assyrians and Babylonians, from the N. Mentioned as an ally of the Syrians of Damascus in the Assyrian inscriptions of Ahab's time. Jeroboam II "recovered Hamath" (2 Kings 14:25); but it was subjugated soon by Assyria (2 Kings 18:34; Amos 6:2; Amos 6:14), Who calls it "Hamath the great
Taxes - Soon, Israel became a vassal state, paying tribute—a compulsory tax—to Assyria, and, eventually, to Rome
Bull - The king of Assyria boasted of his great strength with the term “abbir ” (Isaiah 10:13 )
Corn - ...
Isaiah 36:17 (b) This type is used by the King of Assyria to assure Israel that they would be contented in his land of Babylon even though they were strangers
Fenced Cities - Samaria yielded to the mighty hosts of Assyria only after a three years' siege (2 Kings 17:5; 2 Kings 18:10)
Isaiah (2) - Assyria, Babylon, 13:19 sq
Alliance - With the appearance of Assyria, relations with foreign nations become important and complicated
Zebulun - It is thought these tribes were the first carried into captivity beyond the Euphrates by Pul and Tiglath Pileser, kings of Assyria, 1 Chronicles 5:26
Hezekiah - ...
Hezekiah by letter invited not only Judah, but also Ephraim and Manasseh, to it: "Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and He will return to the remnant of you, escaped out of the hand of the king of Assyria. The Passover must have been five or six years later than the purification of the temple, which was in Hezekiah's first year; for it was not until the sixth year of Hezekiah that the king of Assyria took Samaria (ver. ...
Hezekiah bore for a time the yoke of tribute imposed by the Assyrian Tiglath Pileser on Ahaz (2 Kings 16:7); but having spent much on the Philistine war, trusting in the aid of Egypt, be now ventured to withhold payment from Assyria. Sargon moreover removed some of the Israelites to "the cities of the Medes"; the Scripture herein being confirmed by Assyrian monuments which mention his seizing and annexing several Median cities, to which Assyrian policy would of course transplant distant colonists. Light years subsequent to Samaria's fall, in Hezekiah's fourteenth year, Sennacherib, in the third year of his reign according to Assyrian records, undertook his first expedition against Judah. In the interval between Samaria's fall and this invasion Tyre's gallant resistance under their king Elulaeus had forced the Assyrians to retire after a five years' siege. In the first he took all Judah's fenced cities, and Hezekiah sent saying, "I have offended; return from me, that which thou puttest upon me I will bear"; and "the king of Assyria appointed 300 talents of silver, and 30 talents of gold. In the main facts there is a singular agreement between the sacred and the secular records, the variation in the number of talents of silver being probably due to the Hebrew recording the number appointed as permanent tribute, the Assyrian the whole that was actually carried off. The inscriptions record that Ekron had submitted to Hezekiah and delivered their king Padi up to him because of his adherence to Assyria. Hezekiah's sickness must have occurred just before Sennacherib's expedition, for God assures him (Isaiah 38:6), "I will deliver thee and this city out of the hand of the king of Assyria, and I will defend this city," in the 14th year of Hezekiah's reign. The Assyrian annals are silent as to Sennacherib's second expedition in the fifth year of his reign, which began by his "treacherously" (Isaiah 33:1) attacking Lachish, and which ended in the destruction recorded in 2 Kings 19:35; for, unlike the faithful Jewish historians, they never record any of their monarch's disasters. )...
But the disaster is tacitly deducible in the Assyrian records from the discontinuance subsequently of expeditions by Sennacherib westward further than Cilicia. The Assyrians did not resume aggression upon southern Syria and Egypt until the close of Esarhaddon's reign. Moreover the Egyptian priests told Herodotus, from their records, that, a century and a half before Cambyses, Sennacherib led a host of Assyrians and Arabs to the Egyptian border where king Sethos met them near Pelusium on the E. of the Nile; and that swarms of field mice ate the Assyrians' quivers, bowstrings, and shield thongs in the night, so in the morning, they fled, and multitudes fell, having no arms to defend themselves. ...
Sennacherib, according to Assyrian inscriptions, which mention the 22nd year of his reign, lived about 17 years after the invasion and was slain by his two sons. About this time precisely it was that Babylon had revolted from Assyria, and set up an independent kingdom. Scripture calls him "king of Babylon," though both before and after him Babylon was subject to Assyria. The Assyrian inscriptions say he reigned twice, and that Sennacherib in his first year expelled him and set up Belib in his stead. Probably he recovered the Babylonian kingdom when Sennacherib was weakened by his disaster in Judea, and sent the embassy not merely to congratulate Hezekiah on his recovery but mainly to court Hezekiah's alliance, as having like himself cast off the Assyrian yoke
Exile - carried away captive into Assyria (2 Kings 15:29 ; Compare Isaiah 10:5,6 ) a part of the inhabitants of Galilee and of Gilead (B
Court - The Eastern house represented on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria is much like that now found, and doubtless found in the time of Christ, in Palestine
Cush (2) - Nimrod's kingdom began with Babel or Babylon, from whence "he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh" (Genesis 10:11 margin). ...
Meroe of Ethiopia is called in the Assyrian inscriptions by the name Nimrod, which must therefore be a Cushite name
Gezer - Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria pictured the capture of Gezer about 734 B. Still, it marked an important military outpost for Philistines, Egyptians, Israelites, and Assyrians trying to control the important trade and military routes
River - Thus the Red "sea" and the Euphrates "river" in the former part of the verse answer to "Assyria
Hoshea (2) - "Shalmaneser" therefore invaded Israel and shut up Hoshea in Samaria, and after a siege of upward of two years (not "three "full years, for it began in Hoshea's seventh and ended in his ninth year of reign) "the king of Assyria," Sargon, Shalmaneser's successor, who usurped the throne (according to the Assyrian monuments), took him and "bound him in prison" (2 Kings 17:4-6), the sixth year of Hezekiah's reign, 722 B. " Sargon in the Assyrian inscriptions thus writes: "Samaria I looked at, I captured; 27,280 men (or families) who dwelt in it I carried away; I appointed a governor over them, and continued the tribute of the former people": like Julius Caesar's memorable "I came, I saw, I conquered
Leviathan - The identification of the kingdoms depends on the date of the prophecy: Assyria and Babylon, Persia and Greece, Syria and Parthia, are rival suggestions
Aramaic - This was a dialect known from documents from Assyria and known best from documents from the Persian empire, for which Aramaic had become the official court language
Glory - 10:12, tiph'ârâh (or tiph'ereth) represents a raising of oneself to a high rank in one’s own eyes: “… I will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks
Naphtali - This tribe was the first of those on the west of the Jordan to be carried away captive by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria
Captivities of Judah - It appears from incidental observations in Scripture that some remained; and Major Rennell has offered several reasons for believing that only certain classes of the Jews were deported to Babylon, as well as into Assyria
Habakkuk - ...
Background to the book...
With its conquest of Assyria in 612 BC, Babylon had become the chief power in the region
Naphtali - When the Syrian kingdom fell before the Assyrian armies, northern Israel was exposed, as never before, to the relentless legions of the East; and ‘in the days of Pekah, king of Israel, came Tiglath-pileser [4], king of Assyria, and took l jon, and Abel-beth-maacah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and he carried them captive to Assyria’ ( 2 Kings 15:29 )
Israel - 740 the two and a half tribes east of the Jordan were carried into captivity, and Israel became tributary to Assyria. He revolted against Assyria, trusting to Egypt; but Samaria was taken, and Israel carried into captivity
Root - ...
Isaiah 40:24 (b) By this we learn that GOD will destroy the wicked leaders of the earth such as Moab, Assyria, et cetera. ...
Ezekiel 31:7 (a) The picture represents the great King of Assyria who had access to great wealth and business opportunities, so that he grew to be a mighty monarch
Babylon - It was often subject to Assyria, 2 Chronicles 33:11, and was the residence of at least one Assyrian king. See Chaldæa and Assyria
Isaiah - ...
(6) Isaiah 28-33 concern Ephraim's overthrow, Judah's impious folly, the danger of the league with Egypt, their straits and deliverance from Assyria; Isaiah 28 before the sixth year of Hezekiah, when Israel fell; the rest before his 14th year of reign. ...
(8) The historical section (Isaiah 36-39) as to Sennacherib, Assyria, and Babylon, forms the fitting appendix to the prophecies concerning Assyria mainly, and the preface to the latter portion of the book, concerning the deliverance from Babylon. Isaiah's generation had before their eyes the historical fact of the Assyrian invasion, and the extraordinary deliverance from it, as recorded by Isaiah. ...
The history of the deliverance from Assyria, accomplished according to the previous prophecy, was the pledge that the far off deliverance from Babylon also, because foretold, would surely come to pass. The contemporary Micah (Micah 4:8-10) foretells the same exile in Babylon and the return from it, so that it is no objection to the genuineness of Isaiah 40-66, that herein Isaiah passes from Assyria to the restoration from Babylon much more than a century later. Thus Isaiah foretells Judah's deliverance from the Assyrian invasion, not by Egyptian aid (the only seeming possible deliverer), but by the Lord directly. Babylon was then under Assyria. His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt
Jonah - The mention of Nineveh's being "an exceeding great city" implies it was written before the Assyrian inroads had made them know too well its greatness. " The miracle is justified by the crisis then in the development of the kingdom of God, when Israel by impenitence was about to fall before Assyria, and God's principle of righteous government needed to be exhibited in sparing Nineveh through the preaching of Jonah, spared himself after living entombment. ...
Hosea too (Hosea 9:3) had foretold their eating unclean things in Assyria. (See Assyria), and by Pal the first weakening of Israel afterward took place. But God's plan was by pagan Nineveh's example to teach the covenant people Israel how inexcusable is their impenitence; Israel must, if she continue impenitent, go down, and pagan Assyria rise over her. Some Aramaean expressions naturally occur in the language of one who lived in Zebulun bordering toward Syria, and who had communications with Assyria
Libraries - Public libraries existed in the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Greece, and Rome
Sennacherib - [2] has increased the brothers’), son of Sargon, succeeded him on the throne of Assyria, on the 12th of Ab, b. The Assyrians soon re-asserted their supremacy, but a fresh rebellion placed a Babylonian on the throne of Babylon
Fish - The fish was worshipped as the emblem of fecundity; Dagon, among the Philistines, half man half fish; also in Assyria
Bel - But whether under this appellation they worshipped Nimrod, their first Baal, or lord, or Pul, king of Assyria, or some other monarch, or the sun, or all in one, is uncertain
Ishmaelites - His descendants, according to the Scripture account, spread themselves "from Havilah to Shur, that is, before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria
Judah, Kingdom of - Already in the fatal grasp of Assyria, Judah was yet spared for a checkered existence of almost another century and a half after the termination of the kingdom of Israel
Tiglath-Pileser - This Assyrian ruler, the Tukulti-apil-çsharra of the monuments, was the third of the name. 744 he went to Namri to punish the tribes who harassed the Assyrian border. 734 the Assyrian army invaded Pilishta (Philistia) according to Rost, the Mediterranean coastland S. Feeling that Judah would be compelled to submit to the allied powers in the end, Ahaz turned to Assyria, sending the best of his own treasures and those of the Temple at Jerusalem to make a worthy present to the Assyrian king ( 2 Kings 16:8 ), who therefore came to his aid. Pekah and Rezln withdrew their forces from Judah, but, instead of uniting against the common foe, awaited the Assyrian king’s attack each in his own territory. , hastened to propitiate the Assyrian king with gifts. Hoshea thereupon mounted the throne, and bought the recognition of the Assyrian king, who had continued to ravage Syria. After the fall of the capital, Damascus became an Assyrian province. Its States remained for many years more or less tributary to Assyria, according as that power seemed strong or weak. Ukin-zçr, a Chald¿an prince, having seized the Babylonian throne, the Assyrian king besieged him in his capital Sapia, which he captured in b
Ashtoreth - In Abyssinia, she was called Astar; in Assyria and Babylonia, Ishtar (used also in the pl. ...
The cults of this goddess were extant at various localities of Babylonia and Assyria. Among the Assyrians, three Ishtars, viz
Amos - Both Egypt and Assyria were in a period of decline, although Assyria was beginning to expand its power. Syria had become ineffective, but the reduction of this buffer state between Israel and Assyria was to have serious repercussions in the generation following Amos
Lachish - Sennacherib's siege of Lachish is still to be seen at Koyunjik represented on the slabs of his palace walls as successful, with the inscription "Sennacherib, the mighty king of Assyria, sitting on the throne of judgment before the city of Lachish, I give permission for its slaughter. " The Assyrian tents appear pitched within the walls, and the foreign worship going on
Shechem - Although Shechem lost its importance, it continued to exist, even after the Assyrians had destroyed the northern kingdom and taken most of the people into captivity (Jeremiah 41:5). ...
When Assyria brought people from elsewhere to live in the deserted northern kingdom, these immigrants intermarried with the Israelites left in the land
Carchemish - as the capital of a kingdom in alliance with the Assyrian king Shamshi-adad I against Yahdun-lim, king of Mari. Carchemish again became the head of an independent kingdom and successfully resisted capture by the Assyrian Empire during the whole of its first period of expansion. Only under Sargon II were the Assyrians able to capture and destroy Carchemish in 717 B. Sargon helped to rebuild the city, and it became the capital of a western Assyrian province. Assyria's ultimate capture of the city was noteworthy enough that Isaiah used it as a rhetorical example in one of his oracles (Isaiah 10:9 ). At the very end of the Assyrian period, when Nebuchadrezzar was incorporating all former Assyrian territory within the new Babylonian Empire, Pharaoh Neco II of Egypt came to Carchemish to try to save the remnants of the Assyrian army. He hoped to preserve a weak Assyria as a buffer between him and a strong and aggressive Babylon. He arrived too late to save the Assyrians, perhaps held up by Josiah's unsuccessful challenge at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-24 )
Embroidery And Needlework - No actual specimens of Babylonian embroidery have survived, but the sculptures of Assyrian palaces, notably a sculptured figure of Ashurnazirpal. of Art in Chaldœa and Assyria , ii
Ram - 31:11, where 'ayil represents a central, powerful, earthly figure who will ruthlessly destroy Assyria: “I have therefore delivered him into the hand of the mighty one of the heathen; he shall surely deal with him: I have driven him out for his wickedness
Babylon (2) - Asshur or Assyria and Mesopotamia were on the north, Elam and Media on the east, Chaldæa on the south
Joel - This would explain why there is no mention of oppressive enemy nations such as Syria, Assyria and Babylon, which are constantly mentioned in the other prophets, for at that time those nations had not begun to interfere in Judean affairs
Dan - The Israelite city of Dan fell to the Assyrians under Tiglath-pileser III (Pul of Old Testament) about 743 B. He annexed the city into an Assyrian district. Many Danites were deported to Assyria, Babylon, and Media following the fall of Samaria in 722 or 721 B. , Assyria was on the decline. ” An upper gate to the city was built during this period, and the inscription found at this level, “belonging to Ba'alpelet,” demonstrates that Baal worship continued to influence this area after the Assyrian destruction
Hazor - when the Assyrians captured the city. ...
2 Kings 15:29 records that Tiglath-pileser III, king of Assyria, captured Hazor and carried its people captive to Assyria. Prior to the Assyrian invasion, Hazor had been greatly enlarged and strengthened by King Ahab of Israel in anticipation of the attack
Borrow - (Exodus 3:22)...
And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Isaiah 19:18-25; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the language of Canaan, even the gospel language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. And who shall say what eventual blessed consequences may arise out of it? Who knows, but from this may spring up, as from a grain of mustard seed, a glorious harvest to our God? Oh! for that happy period when, according to this sweet prophecy, "the Lord of hosts himself shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hand, and Israel mine inheritance
Kenites - The Kenites did not as Edom dwell in the rocks (Obadiah 1:3-4), but by leaving their nomadic life near Horeb to join Israel wandering in quest of a home the Kenite really placed his rest upon a safe rock, and would only be carried away when Assyria and Babylon took Israel and Judah; with the difference however that Judah should be restored, but the Kenites not so because they forfeited God's blessing by maintaining independence of Israel though intimately joined and by never entering inwardly into God's covenant of grace with Israel
Dispensations - ...
Judea's position at the head of the Mediterranean, near Phoenicia, Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, adapted it for a worldwide influence
Grove - The sacred tree in Assyrian sculptures is similar, a symbol of the goddess of nature. ...
Tree worship, perhaps a distortion of the tradition of the tree of life and the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3), may be traced in Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Assyria, Persia, India, Thibet, Siam, China, Japan, Ceylon, the Philippine isles
Hair - ...
Isaiah 7:20 (a) This strange figure is used to describe the "trimming" that the King of Assyria would administer to Israel
Pray - Sometimes prayer is made to Yahweh that He would act against an enemy: “That which thou hast prayed to me against Sennacherib king of Assyria I have heard” (2 Kings 19:20)
Captivities of Israel - Hosea says, "They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Assyria; and I will place them in their houses, saith the Lord," Hosea 11:11
Tribe - Some years after, Shalmaneser king of Assyria took the city of Samaria, destroyed it, took away the rest of the inhabitants of Israel, carried them beyond the Euphrates, and sent other inhabitants into the country to cultivate and possess 2 Kings 17:6 ; 2 Kings 18:10-11
Palace - Esther 1:6-7 describes the palace of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes I) of Assyria which featured fine curtains, marble pillars, and ornate mosaic floors
Hezeki'ah - He refused to acknowledge the supremacy of Assyria. ( 2 Kings 19:6,7 ) Accordingly that night "the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand
Josiah - ...
In the thirty-first year of his reign, Josiah, perhaps from fidelity to former treaties with Assyria, went out to oppose the king of Egypt when he himself was in no way attacked; and, though warned 'from the mouth of God,' he persisted in his purpose
Syria - The name may come from a Greek shortening of Assyria and was only accidentally applied to the area. There is no geographical connection between Assyria and Syria
Pharaoh - He made an expedition against Assyria, but was encountered by Josiah, king of Judah, at Megiddo
Deluge - The most remarkable of these traditions is that recorded on tablets prepared by order of Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria
Sama'Ria - 721Samaria was taken, after a siege of three years, by Shalmaneser king of Assyria, (2 Kings 18:9,10 ) and the kingdom of the ten tribes was put an end to
Baal - Baal was sent into exile by Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria. The reform movement of Hezekiah was reversed when Manasseh became king (2 Kings 21:2-16 ), as he reinstated Baal worship, along with worship of Assyrian gods and other gods
Bethel - The priest resided at Bethel, who was brought by the king of Assyria to teach the mixed peoples, who lived in the country during the Exile, the manner of the God of the land ( 2 Kings 17:29 ff
Alliances - Ahaz' appeal to Tiglath Pileser for help against Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Syria opened the way to Assyrian and Babylonian predominance (2 Kings 16). Hoshea's alliance with So or Sabacho of Egypt was his encouragement to rebel against Assyria, and brought on him the overthrow of Israel by Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:4). Hezekiah was tempted to lean on Egypt against the Assyrian Sennacherib (Isaiah 30:2), and Tirhakah of Ethiopia did make a diversion in his favor (2 Kings 19:9). Josiah on the other hand was Assyria's ally against Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, and fell a victim to meddling in the world's quarrels (2 Chronicles 35:20-25)
Ashkelon - Ashkelon subsequently was independent or under the control of Assyria, Egypt, Babylon, and Tyre
Flies - "The Lord" [1] "shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria
Book - In Assyria, the ancient writings were upon tablets, and cylinders made of clay
Outcasts - " And after many blessings of grace that the Lord promiseth shall be shown to Egypt in smiting and healing, it is added, "whom the Lord of hosts will bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of mine hands, and Israel mine inheritance
Babylonia - This celebrated province included the track of country lying on the river Euphrates, bounded north by Mesopotamia and Assyria and south by the Persian Gulf. , when the Assyrian empire gave way to the Chaldean, and Babylon reached its highest point in fame and power
Isaiah - The tragic fall of Samaria to the Assyrian King Sargon II in 722 B. ...
In northwest Mesopotamia, the energetic monarch Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) founded the mighty Assyrian Empire. ...
During this same period Egypt experienced a resurgence of power in the 25th Dynasty (about 716-663) and occasioned international intrigue among the Palestinian states to overthrow Assyria. The petty states of Palestine—Syria, Philistia, Moab, Edom, Ammon, Arabia, Tyre, Israel, and Judah—were ultimately conquered or made tributary to Assyria. ...
The prophet was married and was the father of two sons whose names symbolized Isaiah's public preaching: Mahershalalhashbaz (the spoil speeds; the prey hastes), a conviction that Assyria would invade Syria and Israel about 734 B. ...
During the dark days when the Assyrians took over one Palestinian state after another, Isaiah firmly contended that the Judean monarchs ought to remain as neutral as possible, to refrain from rebellious acts, and to pay tribute. When the Israelites and Syrians jointly attacked Judah for refusing to join the anti-Assyrian coalition (Isaiah 7:1-9 ; Isaiah 8:1-15 ), he deplored the dangerous policy of purchasing protection from the Assyrians. when the city of Ashdod rebelled against Assyria, Isaiah assumed the garb of a captive for three years calling on Hezekiah not to take the fatal step of joining the rebellion. despite the ominous outlook the Assyrian envoys forecast (Isaiah 36-37 ). He strongly affirmed God's plans that would not lack fulfillment, announcing that the Assyrian king was but the instrument of God and accountable to Him. ...
In Isaiah's time the great military power that threatened the Palestinian states was Assyria. Indeed, they mimicked sarcastically Isaiah's plain speech as childish prattle, to which he retorted that if they did not understand simple Hebrew, Yahweh would speak to them in Assyrian! Yet, those that trusted in God stood on a firm foundation, a foundation laid in righteousness and justice
Hosea - ...
His pictures of Israelite life, the rival factions calling in Egypt and Assyria, mostly apply to the interreign after Jeroboam's death and to the succeeding reigns, rather than to his able government. Assyria, the great northern power, which Israel foolishly regards as her friend to save her from her acknowledged calamities, Hosea foresees will be her destroyer (Hosea 5:13; Hosea 7:11; Hosea 8:9; Hosea 12:1; Hosea 14:3; Hosea 3:4; Hosea 10:6; Hosea 11:11)
Captivity - First in the reign of Pekah of Israel, when Tiglath Pileser, king of Assyria, carried away the people. ...
Secondly, in the reign of Hoshea of Israel, Shalmaneser king of Assyria, after letting him remain as a tributary prince for a time, at last when Hoshea omitted to send his yearly "present," and made a league with So or Sabacho II of Egypt (of which the record still exists on clay cylindrical seals found at Koyunjik), put Hoshea in prison and besieged Samaria three years, and in the ninth year of Hoshea's reign (721 B. Sargon (Isaiah 20:1), according to the Assyrian monuments, completed the capture of Samaria which Shalmaneser began. In striking minute coincidence with Scripture, he was the first Assyrian monarch who conquered Media. ) carried into Assyria 200,000 from the Jewish cities he captured (2 Kings 18:13). From Jeremiah 52:12; Jeremiah 52:15; Jeremiah 52:28-29; Jeremiah 52:30 we learn Nebuchadnezzar in his seventh (or eighth, according to the month with which the counting of the year begins) year carried away 3,023; but in 2 Kings 24:14; 2 Kings 24:16; 2 Kings 24:10; 2 Kings 24:000, and 7,000 men of might, and 1,000 craftsmen; the 3,023 were probably of Judah, the remaining 7,000 were of the other tribes of Israel, of whom some still had been left after the Assyrian deportation; the 1,000 craftsmen were exclusive of the 10,000. ...
Those who apostatized to Assyrian and Babylonian idolatry were absorbed among the pagan
Immanuel - 735 the kings of Syria and Ephraim formed an alliance against Judah, with the object of setting Tabeel, a nominee of their own, on the throne of David, and forcing the Southern Kingdom to join in a confederacy against Assyria. But the policy of Ahaz was to take the fatal step of Invoking the aid of Assyria itself. But Ahaz and his own kingdom shall become the prey of Assyria ( Isaiah 7:17 ); the rest of the chapter consists of pictures of desolation. It is perfectly true that Isaiah’s view of the future was that Ephraim and Syria should be destroyed, that Judah should also suffer from Assyrian invasion, but that salvation should come through the faithful remnant
Cyprus - ...
From the time the kings of Cyprus submitted to Sargon II of Assyria in 707 B
Nineveh - (nihn' uh vuh) The greatest of the capitals of the ancient Assyrian Empire, which flourished from about 800 to 612 B. ” The rooms were embellished with 9,880 feet of sculptured reliefs, depicting Assyrian victories over enemy cities, including the Judean city of Lachish, captured in 701 B. ), the last great Assyrian king, built the northern palace with its magnificent reliefs of royal lion hunts. See Assyria
Immanuel - At that time the wicked Ahaz ignored Isaiah's advice and appealed to the king of Assyria for help in a political crisis
Sennacherib - (See HEZEKIAH: Assyria; NINEVEH
Ahab - ), though not mentioned in the Bible, is recorded on an inscription of Shalmanezer III of Assyria
Samaria - At length Shalmanezer king of Assyria captured and destroyed the city, and removed the people of the land, B
Edom, Edomites - , Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, kings of Assyria (cf
Musical Instruments of the Hebrews - (There has been great obscurity as to the instruments of music in use among the Hebrews, but the discoveries on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria have thrown much light upon the form and nature of these instruments
Isaiah, the Book of - The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: ...
The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King
Joel, Book of - God will hear, and will destroy their enemies, especially the northern army (Joel 2:20 , elsewhere alluded to as Assyria) and He will bring His people into great blessing
Nahum - It is preceded by a psalm or proem consisting of two parts, of which the one is general in its assertion of God’s universal judgment, the other particular in its specific messages to Judah and to Assyria. The analogy of No-amon (Thebes) makes it certain that a similar fate is awaiting the Assyrian city ( Nahum 3:8 ff. 626, and before that date there cannot be said to have been any great decline in the strength of Assyria. The right date for Nahum seems to be a little after the death of Ashurbanipal, when the signs of Assyrian weakness were multiplying, and the outlying parts of the empire had already recovered their independence or been appropriated by other powers. About 623 or 624 Nahum would need no great discernment to see the approaching fall of Assyria, and in the equipment and quick movements of the Medes and Scythians he would find the imagery which he uses to such good effect in his oracles. In this respect he contrasts especially with his contemporary Zephaniah, who also looked for the collapse of the Assyrian kingdom, but saw clearly a similar fate about to overtake the sinners of Israel
Amos - But now Syria had more than enough to do to defend herself from the southward pressure of Assyria; and the result was that Israel once more began to be prosperous and to regain her lost territories. Even Assyria was not feared, because she was busy with the settlement of internal affairs, rebellion and pestilence. He saw that the Assyrian would eventually push past Damascus down into Palestine, and bring in the day of account; and although he nowhere names Assyria as the agent of God’s anger, the references are unmistakable ( Amos 5:27 , Amos 6:7 ; Amos 6:14 , Amos 7:17 )
Moab, Moabites - of Assyria enumerates the king of Moab among his tribute-payers ( KIB Immanuel - Probably under the influence of a wish to force Judah into a coalition against Assyria, an attack was made on the southern kingdom by Syria and Ephraim about 735–734 (Isaiah 7:1 ff. The invasion filled Ahaz with panic, and he resolved to call in the aid of Tiglath-pileser, the king of Assyria (2 Kings 16:7 ff. Between the great Empire of Assyria and the petty State of Judah there could be no talk of equal alliance, Judah must forfeit its independence and become a vassal of Assyria. The name might therefore be given in the midst of the trouble caused by the Syrian invasion or in the greater distress that was to follow from Assyria. It must even he granted that Marti may be right in regarding it as a later addition; for although the prophecy may be explained as Isaiah’s, on the supposition that he is addressing the forces of Assyria as composed of various nationalities, yet taken by itself the reference to the coalition of the far nations against Judah recurs as a standing feature of the later apocalyptic
Chariot - ...
Until the Macedonian period, when we first hear of chariots armed with scythes ( 2Ma 13:2 ), the war chariot of antiquity followed one general type, alike among the Assyrians and the Egyptians, the Hittites and the Syrians. In Assyrian representations a third horse sometimes appears, evidently as a reserve. ...
In Egypt and Assyria the normal number of the occupants of a war chariot was two the driver, who was often armed with a whip, and the combatant, an archer whose bow-case and quiver were usually attached to the right-hand side of the car
Bethel - " After the overthrow of Israel, the king of Assyria sent one of the Israelite priests to settle at Bethel, and teach the new settlers from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, "the manner of the god of the land," and "how they should fear Jehovah" (2 Kings 17:27-28)
Locust - So Assyria shall disappear. , the point of entrance to the Assyrians and Babylonians
Babylon, Kingdom of - 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. ...
Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B. After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty
Gath - , Sargon II, the king of Assyria, conquered and perhaps destroyed the city
Burn - ...
Isaiah 10:17 (a) Here is described the punishment which GOD would execute upon the King of Assyria
Shishak - He was not strong enough to attack Assyria; so he contented himself with subjugating Palestine and the parts of Arabia bordering on Egypt, so as to make them an effectual barrier against Assyria's advance
Manasseh - ...
God brought the king of Assyria against Manasseh, who took him 'among the thorns,' or 'bound him with chains of brass,' and carried him to Babylon
Go Away, Leave - ...
The best-known Old Testament captivity was the one brought by God through the kings of Assyria and Babylon ( Philistines - ...
They were partially subdued by Esar-haddon king of Assyria and afterwards by Psammetichus king of Egypt; and there is great probability that they were reduced by Nebuchadnezzar, as well as the other people of Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, during the siege of Tyre
Dispersion - carried many Israelites captive to Assyria ( 2 Kings 15:29 ), and Sargon transported from Samaria 27,290 Hebrews (cf
Balaam - Hence, while owning Jehovah for his God and following patriarchal tradition (Job 42:8, who is thought by the decipherers of the Assyrian and Babylonian monuments to have lived in the region about the mouth of the Euphrates, Uz, the early seat of the first Babylonian empire) in offering victims by sevens. ...
Balaam foretold also (See AMALEK'S utter ruin; the Kenites' being carried captive by Assyria; and Assyria in its turn being afflicted by the Greeks and Romans from Chittim (Cyprus, put for all western lands whence the approach to Palestine was by sea); and these, the last destroying power, in turn, "shall perish for ever" before Messiah's kingdom. "Eber," who was to be "afflicted" by Assyria, includes Eber's descendants through Peleg, and also through Joktan; the western Semites, sprung from Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Genesis 10:21)
Babylon, History And Religion of - , when Babylonian kings corresponded with Egypt and struggled with the growing power of Assyria to the north. ...
During the period of the Assyrian Empire, Babylon was dominated by this warlike neighbor to the north. brought the intervention of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III. Babylon kings remained independent, but nominally subject to Assyrian “protection. ”...
A series of coups in Babylon prompted the Assyrian Tiglath-pileser III to enter Babylon in 728 B. With Elamite support he resisted the advances of the Assyrian Sargon II in 720 B. , Babylon and other nations, including Judah under King Hezekiah, rebelled from Assyrian domination. , the new Assyrian king, Sennacherib, attacked Babylon. After considerable intrigue in Babylon, another Elamite-sponsored revolt broke out against Assyria. At his death, the crown prince Ashurbanipal ruled over Assyria, while another son ascended the throne of Babylon. ...
Assyrian domination died with Ashurbanipal in 627 B. In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh. The remnants of the Assyrian army rallied at Haran in north Syria, which was abandoned at the approach of the Babylonians in 610 B. Egypt, however, challenged Babylon for the right to inherit Assyria's empire. Pharaoh Necho II, with the last of the Assyrians (2 Kings 23:29-30 ), failed in 609 to retake Haran. Ninurta, god of war and hunting, was patron for the Assyrian capital Calah
Joel - No mention was made of the world empires of Assyria or Babylonia. After the Exile, there would be no need for announcing the coming destruction of Assyria and Babylon
Isaiah - This judgment of Jahweh on His people was to be executed by means of Assyria, which, since the accession of Tiglath-pileser in 745, had entered on a course of conquest, and, as early as 740, had achieved marked success in Northern Syria. But, so far as we can see, he exercised a more direct, immediate, and decisive influence, owing to the fact that over a long period of years he was able to apply this teaching to the changing political conditions, insisting, for example, at the several political crises mentioned above, that the duty of Jahweh’s people was to trust in Jahweh, and not in political ailiances, whether with Assyria, Egypt, or Ethiopia (cf
Josiah - His only fault was his supposition that by frustrating Necho's expedition to the Euphrates against Assyria he might avert God's predicted judgment on Judah. The Syrian princes, those independent as Josiah as well as Assyria's vassals, hoped now to be free from every foreign yoke; it was therefore necessary now to check the Egyptian, for though Necho was not marching against Judah but against Carchemish by Euphrates, Josiah knew that if once the Egyptians gained Coelosyria his independence would be gone. Josiah's greatness harmonizes with the parallel decline and fall of Assyria. Then Egypt cast off the Assyrian yoke, and Psammetik I attacked southern Syria. This gave Josiah the opportunity to free Judah from the Assyrian yoke which his grandfather had borne, and to enlarge his kingdom
Naphtali - " Tiglath Pileser swept away its people to Assyria; Benhadad of Syria had previously smitten all Naphtali (1 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 15:29)
Jonah - The title “king of Nineveh” (3:6) seems to imply that the city was the capital of Assyria, which it became only at the end of the eighth century. Even the Assyrians' later destruction of Israel (2 Kings 17:1 ) and their tyrannical imperialism (2 Kings 18:22-24 ; Nahum 3:1-4 , Nahum 3:19 ), which the book appears to presuppose, could not debar them from God's loving concern for their survival
Syria - ‘Syria’ was distinct from ‘Assyria,’ though Herodotus (vii
Ethiopia - In Isaiah 18:1, "the land shadowing with wings" is Ethiopia shadowing (protecting) with its two wings (Egyptian and Ethiopian forces) the Jews, "a nation scattered and peeled" (loaded with indignity, made bald) though once "terrible" when God put a terror of them into surrounding nations (Exodus 23:27; Joshua 2:9), "a nation meted out and trodden down whose land the (Assyrian) rivers (i. Isaiah announces Sennacherib's coming overthrow to the Ethiopian ambassadors and desires them to carry the tidings to their own land (compare Isaiah 17:12-14; not "woe" but "ho," calling attention (Isaiah 18:1-2); go, take back the tidings of what God is about, to do against Assyria, the common foe of both Ethiopia and Judah
Uriah - of the place where God's altar had stood, and let Ahaz offer thereon his burnt offering, meat offering, drink offering, and blood of his peace offering; it was probably Abaz's pledge of submission to Assyria and its gods
Nestorians - Such was his zeal and success, that the Nestorians who still remain in Chaldea, Persia, Assyria, and the adjacent countries, consider him alone as their parent and founder
am ha'Arez - These mingled with the neighbouring non-Israelites and perhaps also with the settlers from Assyria, intermarrying with them, and probably adopting their customs
Hypostatical Union - But whatever was the extent of the error of Nestorius, from him is derived that system concerning the incarnation of Christ, which is held by a large body of Christians in Chaldea, Assyria, and other regions of the east, and which is known in the ecclesiastical history of the west by the name of the Nestorian heresy
Hezekiah - In the fourth year of his reign, Salmanezer, king of Assyria, invaded the kingdom of Israel, took Samaria, and carried away the ten tribes into captivity, replacing them by different people sent from his own country. But Hezekiah was not deterred by this alarming example from refusing to pay that tribute to the Assyrians which had been imposed on Ahaz: this brought on the invasion of Sennacherib, in the fourteenth year of the reign of Hezekiah, of which we have a very particular account in the writings of the Prophet Isaiah, who was then living, Isaiah 36
Aichmalotarch - The princes of the captivity resided at Babylon, where they were installed with great ceremony, held courts of justice, &c, and were set over the eastern Jews, or those settled in Babylon, Chaldaea, Assyria, and Persia
Jeshua - ...
At the dedication a sin-offering was offered "for all Israel, 12 he-goats, according to the number of the tribes" (Ezra 6:15-22), and they kept the Passover "seven days with joy, for the Lord had made them joyful, and turned the heart of the king of Assyria unto them to strengthen their hands in the work of the house of the God of Israel
Jeroboam - ...
At that time Syria had declined in power and Assyria was concerned with struggles far removed from Palestine
Babel - The Babylonian and Assyrian traditions point to an early connection between Ethiopia, S. Now Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions show that Elam (Elymais or Susiana, between Babylonia and Persia) maintained its independence through the whole Assyrian period, and that at a date earlier than that commonly assigned to Abraham (2286 B. Smith reads an Assyrian fragment of writing in columns to the effect that "wickedness of men caused the gods to overthrow Babel; what they built in the day the god overthrew in the night; in his anger he scattered them abroad; their counsel was confused. ...
The Assyrians adopted the Babylonian number on their emigration to the N. ) under Assyria for five. At the close of the earlier and the beginning of the later Assyrian dynasties it again rose to the importance which it had when it colonized and gave letters and the arts to Assyria, and had the supremacy during the second or great Chaldean dynasty. Thenceforward, Semitic superseded Cushite influences and the Babylonian kings have Assyrian instead of Turanian or Cushite names. Assyrian monuments also place her at this date, but do not expressly connect her with Babylon. Hence, some guess that Nabonassar was her son or husband, Mardocempalus, the fourth king after him, is the Merodach or Berodach Baladan of Scripture; he reigned twice first for 12 years, contemporaneously with the Assyrian Sargon, and the second time for six months only. He shows his independence of Assyria in his embassy to Hezekiah; and his inquiry as to the astronomical wonder done in the land of Judah, the sun's shadow having gone back on Ahaz' dial, is characteristic of a prince of the Chaldees whose devotion to astronomy is well known. ...
He held his court alternately in Nineveh and Babylon, which explains the difficulty and shows the accurate propriety of the Scripture statement that Manasseh, king of Judah, was carried by the captains of the king of Assyria to Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11). A new era begins with Nabopolassar, appointed ruler of Babylon by the last Assyrian king just when the Medes were making their final assault on Nineveh. Nabopolassar deserted to the enemy, arranged a marriage between his son Nebuchadnezzar and the Median leader's daughter, and joined hi besieging the Assyrian capital. of Assyria was assigned to Nabopolassar in the division of the spoil. So the Babylonian empire was extended over the whole Euphrates valley to the Taurus range, over Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Idumaea; and the Jews passed as tributaries under Babylon, as they had been under Assyria
Immanuel - ...
Just two years after Pekah of Israel was slain by Hoshea, and Rezin of Damascus by Tiglath Pileser king of Assyria
Beast - ; Isaiah 1:21) sits first on the beast, which again is explained as "seven mountains upon which she sitteth"; probably seven universal God-opposed empires (contrast Jeremiah 51:25 with Isaiah 2:2) of which the seven-hilled Rome is the prominent embodiment, namely, Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, Mede Persia, Greece, Rome (including the modern Latin kingdoms), and the Germano-Sclavonic empire
Dreams - In such nations as Egypt and Assyria, these interpreters even developed “dream books” by which they could give interpretations according to the symbols of a dream
Amalekites - Arab writers represent them as sprung from Ham, and originally at the Persian gulf, and then pressed westward by Assyria, and spreading over Arabia before its occupation by Joktan's descendants
Damascus - Ahaz sent the royal and temple treasures to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria to induce him to resist Rezin
Babylon - See, further, Assyria and Babylonia. Assyrian Babylon in the second half of the 1st elm was in decay, and 1Peter would be particularly appropriate if sent out from the seat of a persecution, such as that of Nero, or possibly of Domitian
Hosea - Assyria's rise to power posed a constant threat to Israel's national existence. ...
Hosea's prophetic ministry included the period of Near Eastern history when Assyria emerged as a new world empire under the capable leadership of Tiglath-pileser III (745-727 B. Hosea rebuked efforts at alliance with Assyria and Egypt as the means to national security
Hittites And Hivites - ...
Languages of the Hittite World Records of the Assyrian trade colonies in the “Land of Hatti” suggest an earlier sub-stratum of linguistic and cultural development in the vicinity of Kanesh. Its role as a major Assyrian trading colony provided access to the Mesopotamian cuneiform system of writing. On the eastern frontier, however, Mitanni became an Assyrian vassal. Assyria continued its westward move and, in spite of the Egypt-Hittite treaty, reached the Euphrates and cut off Hittite copper supplies. The Hittite treaty with Amurru, along the Syrian coast, prohibited trade with Assyria. When Urartu was defeated as Assyria's rival for the resources of Anatolia, the neo-Hittite states of northern Syria, now without Urartian support, could not withstand Assyrian pressure. the Hittites had been absorbed into the Assyrian empire
Hittites - They are probably the people known in Egyptian inscriptions as Kheta , in Assyrian annals as Khatti , and in Homer ( Od . of Assyria fought with Hittites ( KIB Ass - Hosea (Hosea 8:9) compares Israel to a wild ass: "they are gone up to Assyria, (whereas he ought to dwell) a wild donkey alone by himself" (Numbers 23:9)
Games - Several boards for this game were also found in Assyria. Drawn on stone slabs, some have an inscription bearing the name of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon (680–669 B
Hosea, Book of - 2 Kings 15:8-26 ; factions favouring appeal to Egypt and Assyria respectively, Hosea 5:13 , Hosea 7:11 , Hosea 8:9 , Hosea 12:1 ), and probably in particular to the payment of tribute by Menahem to Tiglath-pileser [2], which took place in b
Obadiah, Theology of - While not confirmed by any other historical sources, Edom, which became a vassal first of Assyria and later of Babylonia, is credited with burning the temple in Jerusalem when Jerusalem fell to Babylon in 587 b
Harp - It is easier to describe the instruments of ancient Egypt and Assyria, for we are helped by sculptures and pictures, the like of which have not been found in Palestine. A picture which better illustrates the ordinary lyre is that of three Semitic captives guarded by an Assyrian warrior while they played; but perhaps the best illustration is that on the Jewish coins mentioned above
Dry Dried Drieth - ...
2 Kings 19:24 (a) The boastful King of Assyria uses this figure to describe how he has conquered other countries, hindered their water supply, and cut off their living
Ancestors - ...
Documents from ancient Assyria attest to the belief that the ghosts or troubled spirits of the dead could not find peace if, among other things, they died violently or were not properly buried. ...
These Assyrian documents, which may also reflect beliefs common in Syria and Palestine, indicate that some departed spirits were considered helpful or harmless while others were considered sinister
Glory - Thus the Lord, speaking of the pride of the king of Assyria, (Isaiah 8:7) declares, that all his glory shall come to nought
Rock - ‘Great Rock’ is a common title of Asshur and Bel in Assyria
Nebuchadnezzar - , the king of Egypt, gained a victory over the Assyrians at Carchemish. ) This secured to Egypt the possession of the Syrian provinces of Assyria, including Palestine. The remaining provinces of the Assyrian empire were divided between Babylonia and Media
Agriculture - ...
The sculptured monuments and painted tombs of Egypt and Assyria throw much light on this subject, and on the general operations of agriculture
Mesopotamia - (For details see ARAM; Assyria; BABYLON; EUPHRATES; SYRIA; TIGRIS
Galilee - ...
After the return of the Jews from the Exile, the population was concentrated for the greater part in Judæa, and the northern parts of Palestine were left to the descendants of the settlers established by Assyria. There was the native Jewish element, grafted no doubt on a substratum of the Assyrian settlers and other immigrants, whose intrusion dated from the Israelite Exile with probably yet a lower stratum, stretching back to the days of the Canaanites
Slave/Servant - Canaan, Aram, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia had fewer slaves because it proved less expensive to hire free persons
Glory - ...
"The glory of young men is their strength" (Proverbs 20:29 ), and glory as strength is illustrated in the righteous Job (Job 29:20 ), the arrogant king of Assyria (Isaiah 8:7 ), and the long life of the elderly (Proverbs 16:31 )
Zechariah - ) As Isaiah, in order to enforce upon Ahaz' attention the truth symbolized, namely, that Assyria whom Ahaz trusted would soon prey upon Judah, chose one witness from the king's bosom friends, so it is likely Zechariah the other witness was also a bosom friend of Ahaz
Type - ...
(Consider also Sodom and Gomorrah, Jericho, Gilgal, Assyria, Tyre
Remnant - ”...
Isaiah used the word she'êrı̂yth 5 times to denote those who would be left after the Assyrian invasions: “For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and they that escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this” ( Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea
Nineveh - Dwelling of Ninus, the metropolis of ancient Assyria, called by the Greeks and Romans "the great Ninus;" situated on the east bank of the Tigris, opposite and below the modern Mosul. The apartments of these buildings are lined with slabs of stone, covered with sculptures in basrelief, and inscriptions in arrow-headed characters which have been in part deciphered; and these sculptured memorials of the history and customs of the Assyrians, together with the various articles made of glass, wood, ivory, and metals, now brought to light after a burial of twenty-four centuries, furnish invaluable aid in the interpretation of Scripture, and most signally confirm its truth. Our surprise is equal to our gratification, when we behold the actual Assyrian account of events recorded in Kings and Chraonicles
Hammurabi - For the first ten years of Hamhymurabi's reign, Babylon appears to be subservient to Assyrian rule. ...
Despite an uneasy truce with Assyria and Eshnunna, Hammurabi spent the middle twenty years of his reign preoccupied with local affairs. ...
Lawgiver In 1898 some fragments were published of cuneiform tablets from the library of Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria. Seven of them are in the form of cuneiform documents: Ur-Nammu, Lipit-Ishtar, Eshnunna, Hammurabi, Assyrian Laws, Hittite Laws, and Neo-Babylonian Laws
Nebuchadnezzar - Married his father's Median ally, Cyaxares' daughter, Amuhia, at the time of their alliance against Assyria 625 B. Isaiah's patriotism was shown in counseling resistance to Assyria; Jeremiah's (Jeremiah 27) in urging submission to Babylon as the only safety; for God promised Judah's deliverance from the former, but "gave all the lands into Nebuchadnezzar's hands, and the beasts of the field also, to serve him and his son and his son's son
Head - ...
2 Kings 19:21 (b) Here we see a picture of the contempt with which Assyria was to be held by Israel. GOD compares Israel to a weak young woman, and her attitude as that of showing perfect disdain for the great nation and army of Assyria
Zebulun - Tigris - Two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, flowed through Mesopotamia, a fertile region that in biblical times was part of the lands of Aram, Assyria, Babylon and Persia (Genesis 2:14-15; Daniel 10:4). The Tigris is rarely mentioned in the Bible, though it features as the river on which Assyria’s capital, Nineveh, was built (Nahum 2:6-8; cf
Lot - The Moabites and Ammonites betrayed their relationship, however, by joining with Assyria at a later period (Psalm 83:5-8 )
Letter - The king of Assyria sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah (2 Kings 19:8-14 )
Hebrews - According to one passage in the OT (Numbers 24:24, Eber figures as a nation along with Asshur or Assyria, while in the genealogical lists of Genesis 10 f
Shem - " His descendants dwelt chiefly in western Asia, Shem of the Asiatic Japhethites, in an uninterrupted line from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan and the Indian Ocean, Lydia, Palestine, Syria (Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), Assyria (Asshur), Persia (Elam), northern and central Arabia (Joktan). Ethnologists, from the facts of language, divide the Semitic into five main branches, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, the Phoenician, the Assyrian or Assyro Babylonian, and the Arabian. Scripture in Shem's genealogy notices four out of the five: Asshur for the Assyrian, Aram for the Syrian or Aramaean, Eber for the Hebrew, and Joktan for the pure Arabic. The dead languages of the Semitic are Ethiopic and Himyaritic (inscriptions), both related to Arabic dialects; Hebrew, Samaritan, Carthaginian Phoenician (inscriptions); Chaldee, Syriac, Assyrian (cuneiform inscriptions)
Mesopotamia - According to Ptolemy, Mesopotamia had on the north a part of Armenia, on the west the Euphrates on the side of Syria, on the east the Tigris on the borders of Assyria, and on the south the Euphrates which joined the Tigris. The whole country was afterward seized by the Assyrians; to whom it pertained till the dissolution of their empire, when it was divided between the Medes and the Babylonians
Palesti'na - The rivals road by which the two great rivals of the ancient world could approach one another --by which alone Egypt could get to Assyria and Assyria to lay along the broad hat strip of coast which formed the maritime portion of the holy land, and thence by the plain of the Lebanon to the Euphrates. When compared with other nations of equal antiquity --Egypt, Greece Assyria --the contrast is truly remarkable. In Egypt and Greece, and also in Assyria, as far as our knowledge at present extends, we find a series of buildings reaching down from the most remote and mysterious antiquity, a chain of which hardly a link is wanting, and which records the progress of the people in civilization art and religion as certainly as the buildings of the medieval architects do that of the various nations of modern Europe
Canaan - ...
A great branch of the Hittites in the valley of the Orontes is mentioned in inscriptions concerning the wars of Egypt with Assyria. "The river (nahar ) of Egypt" is the Nile, or Sihor, here representing (according to Grove) Egypt in general, as "Euphrates" represents Assyria (compare Isaiah 8:7-8). It lay midway between the oldest world kingdoms, on one side Egypt and Ethiopia, on the other Babylon, Assyria, and India; then it had close by the Phoenicians, the great traffickers by sea, and the Ishmaelites the chief inland traders
Division of the Earth - 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [4] Babel, [2] Persia, and Hegiaz; [6] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [7] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [8] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [9] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. Of Cush's sons, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Sabtacha, and Raamah; and the sons of Raamah, Sheba, and Dedan, seem to have settled in Idumea and Arabia, from the similar names of places there; and of his descendants, Nimrod, the mighty hunter, first founded the kingdom of Babylon, and afterward of Assyria, invading the settlements of the Shemites, contrary to the divine decree. ) His son Ashur planted the land thence called Assyria, which soon became a province of the Cushite, or Cuthic empire, founded by Nimrod
Transjordan - ...
With the rise of Assyria, especially during and following the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 B. ), the various regions of Syria-Palestine fell under Assyrian domination. Several of the kings of Ammon, Moab, and Edom are mentioned in Assyrian records—usually listed among those paying tribute or providing other forms of involuntary support to the Assyrian monarch. When the Assyrian Empire collapsed and was superceded by the Babylonian Empire, presumably the Babylonians also controlled the Transjordan
Zidon - 877 Zidon, with other Phœnician cities, submitted to the Assyrian Ashur-nazir-pal and ‘sent him presents. The decline and fall of Assyria brought a period of rest to Phœnicia, and recuperation to her cities
Manasseh (1) - ...
But because of apostasy from the God of their fathers to the gods of the people whom He destroyed before them, Manasseh was first cut short by the Syrian Hazael (2 Kings 10:32), then God stirred up the spirit of Pul and of Tiglath Pileser of Assyria to carry the eastern half of Manasseh, Reuben, and Gad captives to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the river Gozan (1 Chronicles 5:25-26)
Tree of Life - In the Babylonian-Assyrian circle this tree was date-palm, cedar, or vine (F. Pinches, The OT in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia2, London, 1903, p
Exaltation - Sennacherib of Assyria threatened Hezekiah and the God of Judah (2 Kings 19:22 ), but God humiliated Sennacherib by destroying most of his army
Chaldaea - In Isaiah 23:13 the prophet reminds Tyre of the fact so humbling to her pride, that the upstart Chaldees should destroy her: "Behold the land of the Chaldaeans; this people was not, until the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness:" i. , their latter empire started into importance only after Assyria, in whose armies they had previously been mercenaries. , the Assyrian period. The Semitic language prevailed over the Cushite in Assyrian and later Babylonian times, and was used for all civil purposes; but for sacred and mystic lore the Cushite language was retained as a learned language. ...
The Cushite Chaldee had become a dead language to the mass of the people who had become Semitized by the Assyrians. They wore a peculiar dress, like that seen on the gods and deified men in Assyrian sculptures
Moab And the Moabite Stone - ...
In addition to biblical passages such as those indicated above and occasional references in Assyrian texts, our major source of information about ancient Moab is the so-called Moabite Stone. , Moab fell under the shadow of Assyria as did Israel, Judah, Ammon, and the other petty Syro-Palestinian Kingdoms
Gerizim - ’ More reliable, if less definite, ground is to be found in 2 Kings 17:24-28, from which we learn that the king of Assyria sent back one of the priests whom he had carried away from the Northern Kingdom, to teach the heathen peoples whom he had settled there ‘the manner of the God of the land
Sidon (2) - All the Phœnician cities seem to have known little but rivalry down to the appearance of such world-powers as Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, which made them all, sooner or later, subject and abject
Idol, Idolatry - The impious Jezebel endeavored to extinguish the worship of the Lord, by persecuting his prophets, (who, as a barrier, still retained some of the people in the true religion,) till God, incensed at their idolatry, abandoned Israel to the kings of Assyria and Chaldea, who transplanted them beyond the Euphrates
Philistines - Late in the same century the Assyrian king Adad-nlrari III. 190), and began the long series of Assyrian interferences in Philistine affairs. ...
The position of the Philistines exposed them to every approach of the Assyrians and Egyptians, and during the last third of the 8th cent. It is possible to follow these with much fulness in the Assyrian inscriptions, but full details cannot be given here. At the beginning of the reign of Sennacherib another effort was made to shake off the Assyrian yoke. With the decline of Assyria the Philistines began to suffer from the rise of Egypt under the XXVIth dynasty. The Assyrians call the Philistine rulers ‘kings. ...
The Philistines cease to be mentioned by this name after the time of the Assyrians
Pha'Raoh, - 610, he made war against the king of Assyria, and, being encountered on his way by Josiah, defeated and slew the king of Judah at Megiddo
Israel, History of - Israel fell to Assyria in 721, while Judah was conquered by Babylonia initially in 597. King Hoshea (732-721) of Israel staged an anti-Assyrian revolt in anticipation of Egypt's coming to Israel's defense. Instead, the Assyrian troops under Shalmaneser V came to Israel and took the area around Samaria quickly. Sargon II assumed the Assyrian throne and felled Samaria in 721. As per Assyrian policy, large numbers of the people of Samaria were deported to an unknown area, while peoples from another conquered area were imported into Samaria (2 Kings 17:1 ). In 711 he warned against an Egyptian-led revolt against Assyria (Isaiah 20:1 ), and in 701 he was—Yahweh's spokesman when Sennacherib of Assyria laid siege to Jerusalem (Isaiah 36-37 ; see also 2 Kings 18-19 ). Yahwistic prophets were persecuted; Baalism was encouraged; activities associated with the Assyrian astrological rites were incorporated; and the practice of human sacrifice was revived
Jonah - There is no mention in Kings of any connexion of Jonah with Assyria, but it is quite possible that the memory of a visit to Nineveh was preserved by tradition or in some lost historical work. 782 745, Assyria was comparatively weak, and was governed by relatively insignificant kings. The anonymous reference to the Assyrian king, and perhaps the description of him as ‘the king of Nineveh’ ( Jonah 3:6 ), suggests a considerable interval between Assyrian times and the composition of the book
Music And Musical Instruments - Seven of these harps, of a triangular shape, and used by a Semitic people in Assyria, are to be seen on a bas-relief found at Kouyunjik. ( a ) The tôph , ‘ tabret ’ or timbrel , was a small hand-drum, represented on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. Two shapes are found in Egypt and Assyria, the one consisting of two flat plates, played by being clashed together sideways, the other of two cones with handles at the peak, one cone being brought down on top of the other
Tongues, Confusion of - Ethnologists divide the Shemites into five main branches, Aramaean, Hebrew, Phoenician, Assyrian or Babylonian, and Arabian; Moses recognizes four of these, Asshur or Assyria, Aram or Syria, Eber or the Hebrew, Joktan the pure Arabs. The Semitic races in the region intermediate between the Japhetic and Hamitic: Syria, Palestine, northern and central Arabia, Assyria, Elymais, from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan. The Aryan Medes appear in the Assyrian annals 900 B
Habakkuk - The Assyrians, once the scourge of the Middle East, were only a shadow of their former selves. ...
Nineveh, Assyria's capital, fell in 612 B. King Josiah, attempting to block the Egyptians as they moved north along the Palestinian coast to aid Assyria, was killed at Megiddo in northern Palestine
Reuben - deported the tribes to Assyria in 734 ( 1 Chronicles 5:26 )
Micah - The fall of Assyria and Babylon are referred to (Micah 5:5-6; Micah 7:8; Micah 7:10)
Micah, Book of - ...
The Assyrian Empire began to dominate the Ancient Near East about 740 B. Israel felt the might of the Assyrian army. Hezekiah, king of Judah, instituted many reforms that caused the Assyrian king, Sennacherib, to respond with force. See Ahaz ; Assyria; Israel ; Hezekiah ; Jerusalem ; Prophet; Samaria
Nations - , Ahaz and Assyria against Israel and Syria), and by the needs of commerce (see Ezekiel 27:11 [7], 1 Kings 9:28 ; 1 Kings 10:11 ; 1 Kings 22:28 etc
Trajan - The Emperor himself set out for the East at the end of 113, and in a succession of campaigns he was able to subdue the enemies of Rome and to add three provinces to the Empire-Armenia minor, Mesopotamia, and Assyria
Slave, Slavery - The specific literary evidence, however, is contained in a number of law codes that have survived from Babylonia and Assyria
Galilee - Tiglath Pileser carried away captive its Israelite population to Assyria; then Esarhaddon colonized it with pagan (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2; Ezra 4:10). The region the first to be darkened by the Assyrian invasion was cheered by the prophet's assurance that it should be the first enlightened by Immanuel (1 Corinthians 1:27-29)
Damascus - ( 2 Kings 14:28 ), though the circumstances are not related; but must have been lost again immediately, for we find the Syrian king Rezin there ( 2 Kings 16:1-20 ) oppressing Ahaz, so that he was led to the policy, which (as Isaiah foresaw, Isaiah 7:1-25 ; Isaiah 10:5-11 ) proved suicidal, of calling in the aid of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, and submitting himself as a vassal of that great king
Gift, Giving - , by way of homage ( 1 Samuel 10:27 , Psalms 45:12 ), or tribute ( Judges 3:15 , 2 Samuel 8:2 ; 2 Samuel 8:6 , 1 Kings 4:21 , Psalms 72:10 ); the presents to Assyria, etc
Habakkuk - The rest of the chapters are then referred to another oppressor, either Assyria or Egypt, whom the Chaldæans are raised up to punish; and ch
Samaritans - Some affirm that Salmanazar, king of Assyria, having conquered Samaria, led the whole people captive into the remotest parts of his empire, and filled their places with colonies of Babylonians, Cutheans, and other idolaters
Flies - It was no trifling judgment, then, with which the prophet threatened the refractory Israelites: "The Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost parts of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria," Isaiah 7:18
Pentateuch - At this time Hoshea was king of Israel, and so far disposed to countenance the worship of the true God, that he appears to have made no opposition to the pious zeal of Hezekiah; who, with the concurrence of the whole congregation which he had assembled, sent out letters and made a proclamation, not only to his own people of Judah, 2 Chronicles 30:1 , "but to Ephraim and Manasseh and all Israel, from Beersheba even unto Dan, that they should come to the house of the Lord at Jerusalem, to keep the passover unto the Lord God of Israel; saying, Ye children of Israel, turn again to the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and he will return to the remnant of you who are escaped out of the hands of the kings of Assyria; and be not ye like your fathers and your brethren, which trespassed against the Lord God of their fathers, who therefore gave them up to desolation as ye see
Joel - The freshness of style, the absence of allusion to the great empires Assyria and Babylon, and the mention of Tyre, Sidon, and the Philistines (Joel 3:4) as God's executioners of judgment on Israel, accord with an early date, probably Uzziah's reign or even Joash's reign
Chronicles, Books of - When the people of the northern kingdom were taken into captivity by Assyria (732-722 BC), many became so widely scattered in the Assyrian Empire that they largely lost their national identity
Kings, Books of - Eventually it was conquered by Assyria and its people taken captive into different parts of the Assyrian Empire (17:1-41). Only Judah remained in the national homeland, and with new policies under the godly Hezekiah the nation freed itself from Assyrian domination (18:1-20:21)
Ezra, the Book of - The king of Persia is called "king of Assyria" in Ezra 6:22, just as the king of Babylon is called so in 2 Kings 23:29, as having succeeded to the world-dominion formerly held by the king of Assyria
Mining And Metals - The most famous ancient seat of its manufacture was among the Chalybes in the Highlands of Assyria
Feet - ...
Isaiah 7:20 (a) In this way GOD is warning Israel that He will send the King of Assyria to execute terrible vengeance on them, even to the smallest details of their lives
Ararat - Some have supposed that it was one of the mountains which divide Armenia on the south from Mesopotamia, and that part of Assyria inhabited by the Curds, from whom those mountains took the name of Curdue, or Cardu; by the Greeks denominated Gordyaei
Ammon - When Assyria conquered Israel and took its people into captivity (722 BC), Ammon again took the opportunity to seize some of Israel’s eastern territory
Palestine - The Israelites were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, B
King, Kingship - Kings were of three basic kinds in the Ancient Near East: (1) kings of great nations often identified with a god (for example, in Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt); (2) kings from a military elite who had taken control of a local population by force (for example, Canaanite city kings); and (3) kings who arose from tribal or clan-oriented groups whose election to or inheritance of the kingship was determined in part by the people's will (for example, Israel, Edom, Moab, and Ammon)
Malachi, Theology of - God had brought destruction on Edom and earlier on Assyria and Babylon, showing that he was superior to the gods of these nations (1:5)
Punishment - For example, Assyria was seen as the Lord's rod of wrath (Isaiah 10:5 )
Arabia, Arabs - ...
The Assyrian sources name the Arabs as early as the 9th cent. The name always follows Babylonia, Assyria (which as a province included Mesopotamia proper and also probably N
Abgar - In Moses’ account occurs the statement that after his conversion Abgarus wrote letters to the emperor Tiberius, to Narses, king of Assyria, to Ardaches, king of Persia, and others, recommending Christianity (Hist
Cloth, Clothing - In the Iron Age the cotton tree was introduced into Assyria, but the climate of southern Mesopotamia was more suitable to crop cultivation. Egyptian, Assyrian, Roman, and Hittite monuments provide extensive pictorial evidence of dress in the ancient world
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - His decision for some nations, such as Tyre, Sidon, Moab, Philistia, and Assyria, will be punishment (Joel 3:4-13 ; cf. Zephaniah's roll call is more extensive (Gaza, Moab, Ethiopia, Assyria) and the accusations include reproaching God's people (2:8,10) and arrogance (2:15)
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - On the Middle Euphrates, Carchemish, originally the center of a small city-state, became the important provincial capital of the Mitanni kingdom, later of the Hittite and Assyrian Empires. Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Pharaoh Necho as he began his successful drive to claim the former Assyrian Empire for Babylon ( 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:1 ). ...
The banks of the Tigris were dotted by some of the most important cities of antiquity: Nineveh, the capital of Assyria during the Assyrian Empire; Asshur, the original capital of Assyria; Opis (in the vicinity of Baghdad), the important commercial center of Neo-Babylonian and later times; Ctesihyphon, the capital of the Parthians and Sassanians; and Seleucia, capital of the Seleucid rulers of Mesopotamia
Tyre - 880 Assyria began to interfere with Western politics. At the next attack, under Sennacherib, Elulæus, the king, fled in despair to Cyprus, the Assyrians appointing a tributary king, Tubaal, in his stead (b. The Assyrians held the shore, and captured Sidon, but Tyre again escaped
Cherub (1) - Distinct from the Assyrian and Egyptian winged forms still existing (almost always a beast' form with human head) in having the fourfold composite animal aspect, with the characteristics of manhood as the basis and body of the whole. ) The griffins of northern fable and the winged beasts of Assyria and Egypt seem a relic of primeval tradition corrupted. " Colossal figures of compound living creatures are still found "guarding the portals of the Assyrian temples" (Layard)
Ahab - a sacred symbolic tree (asheerah ), the symbol of Ashtoreth (the idol to whom his wife's father was priest), the moon-goddess, female of Baal; else Venus, the Assyrian Ishtar (our "star". ...
The Assyrian Black Obelisk mentions "Ahab of Jezreel," his ordinary residence, and that he furnished the confederacy, including Benhadad, against, Assyria 10,000 footmen and 2000 chariots, and that they were defeated. In it Ahab doubtless allied himself to Benhadad against the Assyrians. When the Assyrians came in the interval that followed, Ahab was confederate with Benhadad
Isaiah, Book of - Assyria is used as God's rod to punish them, and is then destroyed. ...
The following seven divisions are distinctly marked:...
Isaiah 1 — Isaiah 12 : The sinful condition of the people as still in possession of the land; various pleadings and chastisements culminating in the Assyrian; the introduction of Immanuel; ends with a song. ...
Isaiah 28 — Isaiah 35 : Five woes on unfaithful Israel; ends with deliverance from the Assyrian and the confederacy of nations, and the joy of the kingdom. The Assyrians overrun the land, and the confederacy of nations is to be brought to nought. Various judgements from the Lord are detailed until the last judgement by means of the Assyrian, who is used as a rod by God, and then is punished for his pride in the last days. The deliverance wrought is figurative of the outward deliverance there will be from the Assyrian for Jerusalem and the house of David in the last days
Persia - , from the vicinity of the Sutlej (before the first contact of the Assyrians with Aryan tribes E. Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians
Philistia - " Hezekiah had Egypt for his ally in resisting Assyria, possibly also in subduing the Philistines. ...
The Assyrians fortified it so strongly that it stood a 29 years' siege under Psammetichus ( Samaria - It was besieged by Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, in the ninth year of the reign of Hoshea, king of Israel, 2 Kings 17:6 , &c, which was the fourth of Hezekiah, king of Judah
Blasphemy - Hath any of the gods of the nations delivered his land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? Where are the gods of Hamath and of Arpad? Where are the gods of Sepharvaim, Hena, and Iva? Have they delivered Samaria out of my hand? Who are they, among all the gods of the countries, that have delivered their country out of mine hand, that Jehovah should deliver Jerusalem out of mine hand?" 2 Kings 18:30 ; 2 Kings 18:33-35
Poetry of the Hebrews - Lebanon is often put metaphorically for the whole state or people of Israel, for the temple, for the king of Assyria; Carmel, for the blessings of peace and prosperity. " That noted sublime passage in the book of Isaiah, which describes the fall of the king of Assyria, is full of personified objects; the fir trees and cedars of Lebanon breaking forth into exultation on the fall of the tyrant; hell from beneath stirring up all the dead to meet him at his coming; and the dead kings introduced as speaking and joining in the triumph
Kings, the Books of - The second period, from the division into two kingdoms to the Assyrian captivity of the ten northern tribes, 975-722 B. Assyrian and Chaldee forms occur, found in Jeremiah, but not found in the earlier historical books (Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel): eekoh for 'eekow (2 Kings 6:13); 'akilah , "meat" (1 Kings 19:8); 'almugim ((1 Kings 10:11, 12); 'omnowt , "pillars" (2 Kings 18:16); ura'owt , "stalls" (1 Kings 4:26); barbuwrim , "fowls" (1 Kings 4:23); gahar , "stretch" ((1 Kings 18:42); 'apheer for 'eepheer ((1 Kings 20:38, 41); gub , "husbandman" (2 Kings 25:12); galom , "wrap" (2 Kings 2:8); dobrot , "floats" (1 Kings 5:9);Ζif (1 Kings 6:1; 1 Kings 6:37); chapha' , "act secretly" (2 Kings 17:9); yatsiah , "chamber" (1 Kings 6:5-6; 1 Kings 6:10) ma'abeh , "clay" (1 Kings 7:46); nada' , "drive" (Jeremiah 11:3-50); neshiy , "debt" (2 Kings 4:7); sar , "heavy" (1 Kings 20:43; 1 Kings 21:4-5); pharbar , "suburbs" (2 Kings 23:11); qab , "measure" (2 Kings 6:25); qabal , "before" (2 Kings 15:10); tabanowt , "camp" (2 Kings 6:8); kothereth "chaptier", mezammerot "snuffers", both in Kings, Chronicles, and Jeremiah; mekonah , "base", in Ezra also. The Egyptian king Psinaches' patronage of Hadad the Edomite (2 Kings 8:24): Solomon's alliance with his successor Psusennes who reigned 35 years; Shishak's (Sesonchis I) accession toward the close of Solomon's reign (1 Kings 11:40); his conquest of Judea under Rehoboam, represented on a monument still at Karnak which mentions "the king of Judah," the time of the Ethiopian dynasty of So (Sabak) and Tirhakah, of the 25th dynasty; the rise and speedy fall of Syrian power, Assyria overshadowing it; the account of Mesha harmonizing with the (See DIBON stone; Assyria's struggles with Egypt and Babylon's' sudden supremacy under Nebuchadnezzar over both Assyria and Egypt: all these notices in Kings accord with independent pagan history and inscriptions
Temple of Jerusalem - King Ahaz plundered his own Temple for tribute to Assyria during the Syro-Ephraimitic war of 735 B. Good King Hezekiah raised a hugh tribute for Sennacherib, king of Assyria, in his 701 B
Ezekiel, Theology of - Oholah first turned away from Yahweh, her true husband, and "lusted after" Assyria and Egypt. In response to her adultery, Yahweh turned her over to the viciousness of the Assyrians (23:5-10); in other words, God allowed Assyria to destroy Samaria. She committed adultery with the Assyrians, the Egyptians, and the Babylonians out of a lust for their glory and strength
Sibylline Oracles - ]'>[3] They chose this pagan form in order not only to convey threats of doom against persecuting powers like Assyria and Rome, but also to win a hearing among outside circles for their own monotheism and moralism. ]'>[27] far away...
From thy fair shrine shalt flee, for ‘tis thy fate...
To leave thy sacred soil all desolate;...
Borne to Assyria, thou shalt there behold...
Thy wives and children into slavery sold,...
And greedy hands despoiling all thy gold
Solomon - At first sight it seems unlikely Israel could be so great under David and Solomon for half a century in the face of two mighty empires, Egypt and Assyria. , Assyria was under a cloud, and Egypt from 1200 B
Idolatry - ( c ) The political relations with the great world-powers, Egypt and Assyria, would also tend to influence religious thought
Honor - ” God will punish the king of Assyria by destroying most of the trees in his forests, “and shall consume the glory of his forest, … and the rest of the trees of his forest shall be few, that a child may write them” ( Babylon - Such was the "Chaldees' excellency," that it departed not on the first conquest, nor on the final extinction of its capital, but one metropolis of Assyria arose after another in the land of Chaldea, when Babylon had ceased to be "the glory of kingdoms. Notwithstanding that Cyrus resided chiefly at Babylon, and sought to reform the government, and remodel the manners of the Babylonians, the succeeding kings of Persia preferred, as the seat of empire, Susa, Persepolis, or Ecbatana, situated in their own country: and in like manner the successors of Alexander did not attempt to complete his purpose of restoring Babylon to its preeminence and glory; but, after the subdivision of his mighty empire, the very kings of Assyria. The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror
Nestorius And Nestorianism - So protracted has it been that even to the present day Nestorian churches, as they are called, exist in Assyria and India, and their members are not in communion with those of the other Christian churches in the East. At present only a few down-trodden communities in Assyria (to the assistance of which the Anglican church has lately sent a mission), and the so-called Christians of St. by Portuguese Romanists, with the aid of the Inquisition; and the object of the Anglican mission to the struggling churches of Assyria—a purely educational one—has been very seriously hindered by the political protection promised, and often afforded, by Roman Catholic powers on the one hand, and by adherents of the Orthodox Russian church on the other
Tradition - Such situations arose when the nation divided following the reign of Solomon, when the Northern Kingdom fell before Assyria, and when Jerusalem fell under the onslaught of Babylon
Tarsus - Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, captured Tarsus about the middle of the 9th cent
Sol'Omon - The absence of any reference to Babylon and Assyria, and the fact that the Euphrates was recognized as the boundary of Solomon's kingdom, (2 Chronicles 9:26 ) suggests the inference that the Mesopotamian monarchies were at this time comparatively feeble
Genesis - Comparison with other creation and flood stories, especially those coming from Sumeria, Babylon, and Assyria, have shown striking similarities to the biblical narrative
Babylon - by the Assyrian King Sennacherib, who destroyed much of it. Later, Babylonian kings aligned themselves with the Medes to conquer Assyria in 612 B. Located about five-eights of a mile south of the royal palaces, its paved floor had inscriptions stating that it had been laid by the Assyrian Kings Ashurbanipal and Esarhaddon
King - Shepherds - Diodorus relates from Ctesias, that Simma was overseer of the royal flocks under Ninus, king of Assyria
Abram - He was made prisoner in the irruption of an eastern monarch, of whom something, it is said, is yet to be dimly traced In the deciphered Assyrian inscriptions (see Assyria and Lot)
Jeremiah - )...
Meanwhile to the north, Babylon was growing in power, and with its conquest of Assyria in 612 BC, it established itself as the leading nation in the region
Hosea, Theology of - Instead of moving back to God they went to their idols and formed alliances with Egypt and Assyria (7:11; 11:5)
Moab - of Arnon, and which had been vacated by Reuben's removal to Assyria (1 Chronicles 5:25-26)
Benjamin - So Benjamin alone survived with Judah, after the deportation of the ten tribes to Assyria, arid accompanied Judah to and front the Babylonian captivity, and lasted until Shiloh came and until Jerusalem was destroyed
Jacob - Texts from Ugarit and Assyria have persons named Jacob, but these are not Israelites
Government - The elders continued to function as local leaders, but the royal officials were replaced by new imperial and military officials of the conquering power—first Assyria, then successively, Babylon, Persia, and Hellenistic and Roman states
Phoenicia, phNicians - ...
Shortly before the time of Ahab, the Assyrian king Ashur-nasir-pal (b. In the interval of Assyrian weakness which followed, Phœnicia became once more independent, and when the powerful Tiglath-pileser iii. ]'>[8] and Assyr Magi - King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte; Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria). ’ This tractate relates that the prophecy of Balaam about the star was recorded in a letter written by Balak to the king of Assyria, and preserved in the Assyrian archives
Palestine - The Assyrian king Ivalush's inscription distinguishes "Palaztu on the western sea" from Tyre, Samaria, etc. The rival empires, Egypt and Babylon-Assyria, could march against one another only along the maritime western plain of Palestine and the Lebanon plain leading toward and from the Euphrates. In contrast to Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, Palestine does not contain an edifice older than the Roman occupation
Daniel, the Book of - So the ten tribes' kingdom, Israel, fell by Assyria (722 B
Ishmael - Assyria, in fact traversing the whole Arabian desert from the Euphrates to the Red Sea
Micah, Theology of - He will be their peace, protecting them from all their enemies, including Assyria, the very symbol of oppression (vv
Religion - To serve his historical purposes, God calls Assyria "the rod of my anger , the club of my wrath" (Isaiah 10:5 ), Nebuchadnezzar "my servant" (Jeremiah 25:9 ), and Cyrus "my shepherd" to "accomplish all that I plan" (Isaiah 44:28 )
Joel, Book of - Assyria, Babylonia, and Aram are neither named nor alluded to
Idolatry - God, therefore, incensed at the sins and idolatry of the ten tribes, abandoned those tribes to the kings of Assyria and Chaldea, who transplanted them beyond the Euphrates, from whence they never returned
Jews - After various changes, sometimes for the better, and sometimes for the worse, the kingdom of Israel was ruined, two hundred and fifty-four years after its erection, by So, king of Egypt, and Halmanaser, king of Assyria, who invaded it, and destroyed most of the people. Judah was invaded by Sennacherib; but Hezekiah's piety, and Isaiah's prayer, were the means of their preservation: but under Manasseh, the Jews abandoned themselves to horrid impiety: for which they were punished by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who invaded and reduced the kingdom, and carried Manasseh prisoner to Babylon
Transportation And Travel - They are described in Old Assyrian texts (about 2100 B. In another case Isaiah denounced the leaders of Judah for sending camel loads of gifts to Egypt to buy their aid against Assyria ( Isaiah 30:6 ). A three-man Judean battle chariot is depicted in the Assyrian relief (about 701 B. ...
The broader roads and heavy wheeled vehicles of Palestine were also used, in the period of the Assyrian conquest, to transport the people into Exile. Isaiah's vision of the return (Isaiah 66:20 ) must have struck a poignant note for the exiles who had seen their ancestors depicted in the Assyrian relief
Ezekiel - Assyria had become the undisputed world power in the Ancient Near East during the reign of Tiglath-pileser III (745-727 B. However, in 724Israel tried to throw off Assyria's yoke. After a three-year siege of Samaria by the Assyrians, Israel capitulated and ceased to exist as a nation. With the death of the last of Assyria's able rulers, Ashurbanipal, in 627, the once great empire began to disintegrate. Babylonia under Nabopolassar took advantage of Assyria's weakness and asserted her independence in 626. In 612, Nineveh surrendered to the Babylonians, marking the demise of the once great Assyrian power, although pockets of resistance held out for several years
Egypt - ...
Assyria invaded Egypt in 671 B. Under loose Assyrian sponsorship, the Twenty-sixth Dynasty controlled all of Egypt from Sais in the western Delta. With Assyria's decline, Neco II (610-595 B
Rufus - —Like his older contemporary Isaiah (Isaiah 9, 11), Micah looks forward to the end of the Assyrian invasion as the time when the Messianic hope shall be fulfilled. Then Assyria shall no longer insult Jehovah’s land with impunity’ (W
Chronology - "...
The Hebrew text was preserved with much more scrupulous care than the Septuagint on the other hand, the civilization and history of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria reach further back than accords with the Hebrew, and so favor the Septuagint. The Median, Hebrew, Babylonian, and Assyrian chronicles, according to J
Galilee (2) - It was also on the high-road of the Assyrian invasion, and was won for Assyria by Tiglath-pileser iii
Abraham - of Assyria, E. Babylon was originally the predominant power; but a recently deciphered Assyrian record states that an Elamitie king, Kudur Nakhunta, conquered Babylon 2296 B
Apocrypha - The story is of a family carried into exile in Assyria when Israel was destroyed. In this book Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Assyrians, reigned at the time the Jews returned from Exile
Rufus - —Like his older contemporary Isaiah (Isaiah 9, 11), Micah looks forward to the end of the Assyrian invasion as the time when the Messianic hope shall be fulfilled. Then Assyria shall no longer insult Jehovah’s land with impunity’ (W
Egypt - had carried on an active correspondence with the distant kings of Babylonia, Assyria, and Mitanni in Mesopotamia; but after a few years Akhenaton must have lost all influence with them. The kings of this dynasty, uniting the forces of Egypt and Ethiopia, endeavoured to extend their influence over Syria in opposition to the Assyrians. Tahrak (Tirhakah) was particularly active in this endeavour, but as soon as Esarhaddon was free to invade Egypt the Assyrian king had no difficulty in taking Memphis, capturing most of the royal family, and driving Tahrak southward ( c
Meanwhile the family of Neko at Sais was securing its position in the Delta, taking advantage of the protection afforded by the Assyrians and the weakening of the Ethiopian power. 664), Psammetichus soon ruled both Upper and Lower Egypt, while in the absence of fresh expeditions all trace of the brief Assyrian domination disappeared. marks a great revival; Egypt quickly regained its prosperity after the terrible ravages of civil wars and Ethiopian and Assyrian invasions. His son Neko, profiting by the long weakness of Assyria, swept through Syria as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and put the land to tribute, until the Babylonian army commanded by Nebuchadrezzar hurled him back (b
Covenant - and those from the Assyrian Empire about 850-650 B. We have several Hittite examples but few Assyrian ones for study. ...
The Assyrian treaties often do not have the historical prologue or the blessings. ...
Hosea denounced the northern kingdom's covenant or vassal treaty with Assyria (Hosea 12:1 ; compare Hosea 7:8-14 ; Hosea 8:9 ; Hosea 10:4 ; 2 Kings 17:3-4 )
War - In the later times of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, we observe their kings bearing the shock of the greatest powers of Asia, of the kings of Assyria and Chaldea, Shalmaneser, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Nebuchadnezzar, who made the whole east tremble
Moab - ...
It is not easy to ascertain what were the circumstances of the Moabites from this time; but Isaiah, at the beginning of the reign of King Hezekiah, threatens them with a calamity, which was to happen three years after his prediction, and which probably referred to the war that Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, made with the ten tribes and the other people beyond Jordan
Music, Instruments, Dancing - Heptatonic and diatonic musical scales reflective of ancient Mesopotamian practice have been discerned through the research of Assyrian culture which has, over the last few decades, brought to light much pertinent information on the subject. Egypt and Assyria, neighboring countries to Israel, had known the tradition of professional musicians much earlier. An Assyrian inscription, praising the victory of the Assyrian king Sennacherib over King Hezekiah of Judah, lists male and female musicians as part of the tribute carried off to Nineveh
Temple - The discoveries in Assyria by Botta and Layard have within the last twenty years given an entirely new direction to the researches of the restorers. Unfortunately, however, no Assyrian temple has yet been exhumed of a nature to throw much light on this subject, and we are still forced to have recourse to the later buildings at Persepolis, or to general deductions from the style of the nearly contemporary secular buildings at Nineveh and elsewhere, for such illustrations as are available
Economic Life - ...
Further changes took place after the conquest of the nation by Assyria and Babylon
Zechariah, Theology of - Specific sins of idolatry (13:2), pride (of Assyria, 10:11), and lack of compassion (7:9-11) are listed
Leadership - God sent prophets to sound a warning before the northern kingdom fell to Assyria (Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah) and before Babylon took Judah (Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah, Ezekiel)
Gentiles - Even in Isaiah 19:23-25, while Egypt and Assyria are admitted into covenant with God, Israel is still distinguished as His inheritance, His peculiar possession
Messiah - Among the ancient Semites, especially the Babylonians and Assyrians, the earthly ruler or king was considered to be the supreme God’s representative or viceroy.
‘They have appointed kings, but not from me (i. be converted) to Jahweh, and Jerusalem would be preserved from the onslaughts of the Assyrian foe. ...
Probably
Micah 5:1-8, like Jeremiah 23:5-8, may be assigned to the earlier years of the reign of Josiah, when the religious and political outlook of Judah appeared more hopeful, and the overthrow of Assyria seemed as probable as it did to Isaiah after b
Egypt - Neku or Necho, the son of Psammetichus, continued the war in the east, and marched along the coast of Palestine to attack the king of Assyria. " Pharaoh-necho was met on his expedition against the Assyrians by Josiah, who was slain
David - But he had left it an imperial power, with dominions like those of Egypt or Assyria
Idol - The Phoenician Adon or Adonis, the Ammonite Moloch or Milcom, the Moabite Chemosh, the Assyrian and Babylonian Bel, and the Syrian Hadad, the Egyptian Ra, are essentially the same sun god. This horrid consecrated pollution prevailed in Phoenicia, Syria, Phrygia, Assyria, and Babylonia, and still in Hindu idolatry
Judea - The territories of both were gradually curtailed and laid waste by the revolt of tributary princes, and the incursions of powerful neighbours; and both were at length completely overthrown; that of Israel, by the king of Assyria, about B
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - ...
( a ) From patriarchat times up to Israel’s contact with Assyria , most of their occult arts were the outcome of the beliefs common to Semitic peoples. ...
( b ) Under the influence of the Assyrian advance southward , the small States of Palestine were driven into closer relations with one another, owing to the necessity of united opposition to the common foe. Professional astrologers were prominent among the Assyrians and Babylonians, among whom a standard astrological work was constructed as early as the 16th cent
Sin - Ahaz even spurned God's free offer of deliverance from invasion; he thought he had arranged his own deliverance through an alliance with Assyria and its gods
Palestine - ...
The Northern Kingdom fell before Assyria, and was never heard of again. Tangible remains of the Assyrian domination were found at Gezer, in the shape of a couple of contract-tablets written there in the Assyrian language and formulæ about b. 650; and the modern sect of Samaritans is a living testimony to the story of the re-settling of the Northern Kingdom under Assyrian auspices (2 Kings 17:24-41 )
Jeremiah - )...
Jeremiah, like Isaiah (Isaiah 30:1-7), foresaw that the tendency of many to desire an alliance with Egypt, upon the dissolution of the Assyrian empire whose vassal Manasseh was, would end in sorrow (Jeremiah 2:18): "what hast thou to do in the way of (with going down to) Egypt? to drink the waters of Sihor (to seek hosts as allies from the Nile land)?" Josiah so far molded his policy according to Jeremiah's counsel; but he forgot that it was equally against God's will for His people to lean upon Assyrian or Babylonian "confidences" as upon Egyptian (Jeremiah 36 - 37); so taking the field as ally of Assyria and Babylon against the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho he fell (2 Kings 23:29)
Jerusalem - At the same time it lay out of the great highway between Egypt and Syria and Assyria, so often traversed by armies of these mutually hostile world powers, the low sea coast plain from Pelusium to Tyre; hence it generally enjoyed immunity from wars
Egypt - It formed, during this period, and before the rapid extension of the Roman empire toward the termination of these years, one of the only two ancient kingdoms which had survived the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian empires: the other was the Syrian, where the Seleucidae, another family of one of the successors of Alexander, reigned; who, having subdued Macedonia and Thrace, annexed them to the kingdom of Syria, and there remained out of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided these two only; distinguished, in the prophetic writings of Daniel, by the titles of the kings or kingdoms of the north and the south. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land," &c, Isaiah 19:22-25
Nestorian Church - The body is also called "east Syrian" (the term Syrian implying use of the Syriac language rather than residence in "Syria"), and sometimes also "Chaldean" or "Assyrian. " He is known to have preached in Assyria and Adiabene before the close of the 1st cent. Isaaci vita ; Duval, Histoire d’Edesse ; Goussen, Martyrius-Sahdona ; Hoffmann, Aussuge aus Syrische Martyrer ; Bethune Baker, Nestorius and his Teaching ; Wigram, Doctrinal Position of Assyrian Church ; Introd. of Assyrian Church ; Rawlinson, Seventh Oriental Empire ; Christiansen, L’Empire des Sassanides
Money - On the other hand, where gold is concerned, as in the case of the 30 talents which Sennacherib ‘appointed unto Hezekiah’ ( 2 Kings 18:14 ), we may with some confidence assume the gold standard common to Palestine and Assyria
Biblical Theology - The northern kingdom falls into apostasy and finally judgment at the hand of Assyria (722 b
Terah - We have given the hand to Egypt, and to Assyria that we may have bread
Jeremiah - The Assyrian capital was saved for the time by the irruption of the Scythian nomads (Ezekiel’s Gog and Magog), who were swarming southwards from the Oxus plains and over the Caucasus passes. At the same date, or even earlier, the Assyrian over-lordship had been renounced; for we find Josiah exercising independent sovereignty. It was not as the vassal of Nineveh, but in the assertion of his hereditary rights and as guardian of the old territory of Israel, that he challenged Pharaoh-necho, who was attempting to seize the lost western provinces of Assyria, to the fatal encounter of Megiddo in the year 608 ( 2 Kings 22:2 ; 2 Kings 23:15-20 , 2 Chronicles 35:20 ). Not merely the later idolatries imported from the East under the Assyrian supremacy, but also the indigenous rites of Molech and the Baalim were abolished. The Chaldæan empire was a revival of the Assyrian, less brutal and destructive, more advanced in civilization, but just as sensual and sordid, and exploiting the subject races as thoroughly as its predecessor
Offering - Hosea proclaimed to Israel that its pagan bull-god would “be carried unto Assyria for a present [2]” ( Canaan - ...
The vast resources of the country, and the power of the Jewish monarch, may be estimated not only by the consideration in which he was held by the contemporary sovereigns of Egypt, Tyre, and Assyria, but by the strength of the several kingdoms into which the dominions of David were subsequently divided. The kingdom of Israel fell before the Assyrian conqueror, in the year B
Abram - Thus the migrations of the three primitive families proceeded from the central regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria; and in succession they established numerous communities,—the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Lybians southward;—the Persians, Indians, and Chinese eastward;—the Scythians, Celts, and Tartars northward;—and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins westward, even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South America, and the Indians of North America
Trade And Commerce - Yellow silk from Cos (Coae uestes) and from Assyria (bombycinae uestes) made from the cocoon of the wild silk-worm (bombyx) was the first kind known to the Romans, and references to these products abound from the beginning of the Augustan Age to the seventh decade of the 1st cent
Egypt - The struggle with Assyria and Babylonia for the intermediate countries lasted until Pharaoh Necho's defeat at Carchemish ended Egypt's supremacy. Except Zerah and Shishak (of Assyrian or Babylonian extraction), the Egyptian kings were friendly to Israel in Palestine
Israel - The sources of Jewish political and religious history are the OT, the so-called Apocryphal writings, the works of Josephus, the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions, allusions in Greek and Roman historians, and the Mishna and Talmud. The sons of Shem were Elam, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Lud (a land of unknown situation, not Lydia), and Aram (the Aramæans). This is clearly the case with the Creation and Deluge narratives, parallels to which have been found in Babylonian and Assyrian literature
Jerusalem - Hezekiah still further prepared Jerusalem for the struggle which he foresaw from the advancing power of Assyria, and to him, as is generally believed, is due the engineering work now famous as the Siloam Tunnel , whereby water was conducted from the spring in the Kidron Valley outside the walls to the reservoir at the bottom of the Tyropœon inside them. By another gift from the apparently inexhaustible royal and sacred treasures, Hezekiah endeavoured to keep Sennacherib from an attack on the capital ( 2 Kings 18:13 ); but the attack, threatened by insulting words from the emissaries of Sennacherib, was finally averted by a mysterious calamity that befell the Assyrian army ( 2 Kings 19:35 )
Persecution - But neither Assyria nor Babylon, nor Persia, nor Macedon nor Rome conquered Judah, for a nation is conquered only when her soul is subjugated
Tatianus - Tatianus (1) the "Apologist," "born in the land of Assyria" ( Oratio , c. Among such, stationed in the Assyrian district, may have been the parents of Tatian; persons perhaps of birth and wealth (cf
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Since the area occupied by ancient Israel was relatively poor in “treasure,” much of this work was carried out in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, the ancient homeland of the Assyrians and Babylonians (the present site of the country of Iraq). About the middle of the nineteenth century, English archaeologists excavated portions of the city of Nineveh, capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire at the height of its power. The huge palace of the Assyrian king, Sennacherib (704-681 B. Included is a striking picture of the siege of the important biblical fortress-city of Lachish which was captured by the Assyrians in 701 B. Also among the discoveries was the Taylor Prism which contains a written Assyrian version of their invasion of the kingdom of Judah in 701 B. Archaeology has helped a great deal in this regard by recovering many ancient historical records, including documents from Assyria, Babylonian, and Egypt. Slightly later are the Middle Assyrian laws
Jerusalem - One hundred and sixty years from this period, the city was again taken, by Esar-haddon, king of Assyria; and Manasseh, the king, carried a prisoner to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33
Jews - Many, at their own desire, remained in those provinces where they had been placed by the kings of Assyria and Babylon
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - A Syriac liturgy ascribed to "Mâr Teodorus the Interpreter" is still used by the Christians of Assyria for a third of the year, from Advent to Palm Sunday