What does Arabia mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
עֲרַב֙ steppe-dwellers. 2
ἀραβίαν a well known peninsula of Asia lying towards Africa 1
ἀραβίᾳ a well known peninsula of Asia lying towards Africa 1
הָעֶ֖רֶב steppe-dwellers. 1
בַּעְרָ֑ב steppe-dwellers. 1
בַּעְרַב֙ steppe-dwellers. 1
עֲרָ֑ב steppe-dwellers. 1

Definitions Related to Arabia

H6152


   1 steppe-dwellers.
      1a the people inhabiting the country east and south of Canaan, the nomadic desert Bedouins.
      1b Arabians, Arabs.
      

G688


   1 a well known peninsula of Asia lying towards Africa, and bounded by Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, the Gulf of Arabia, the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
   Additional Information: Arabia = “desert or barren”.
   

Frequency of Arabia (original languages)

Frequency of Arabia (English)

Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Arabia
Is a country of Western Asia, lying south and east of Judea. It extends 1,500 miles from north to south, and 1,200 from east to west. On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red sea, Egypt, and Palestine. Arabia is distinguished by geographers into three parts-Deserta, Petraea, and Felix.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Arabia Petraea
Lies south of the Holy Land, and had Petra for its capital. See SELA . This region contained the southern Edomites, the Amalekites, the Hivites, etc., people at present known under the general name of Arabs. In this country was Kadesh-barnea, Gerar, Beersheba, Paran, Arad, Hasmona, Oboth, Dedan, etc., also the peninsula of Mount Sinai and the land of Midian. This portion of Arabia, though smaller than the others, is rich in historical associations. The patriarch Job was familiar with its scenery. At Horeb, Moses saw the burning bush, and Elijah heard the "still small voice." In this "great and terrible wilderness," from Mount Sinai to the promised land, the Hebrews spent their forty years of wanderings.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Arabia Deserta
The desert, a vast steppe, or elevated expanse of sand, with occasional hills and a sparse vegetation. It has the mountains of Gilead on the west, and the river Euphrates on the east, and extends far to the south. It comprehends the country of the Itureans, the Ishmaelites, the people of Kedar, and others, who led a wandering life, having no cities, houses, or fixed habitations, but wholly dwelling in tents; in modern Arabic, such are called Bedawin. When Paul says he "went into Arabia and returned again to Damascus," he meant doubtless the northern part of Arabia Deserta, which lay adjacent to the territories of Damascus, Galatians 1:17 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Arabia Felix
The happy, lies still farther south and east, being bounded east by the Persian Gulf, south by the ocean between Africa and India, and west by the Red Sea. As this region did not immediately adjoin the Holy Land, it is not so frequently mentioned as the former ones. The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. This country abounded with riches, and particularly with spices, and is now called Hedjaz, Yemen, etc. It is much celebrated in modern times by reason of the cities of Mecca and Medina being situated in it.
There are, according to native historians, two races of Arabs: those who derive their descent from the primitive inhabitants of the land, Joktan, etc., and those who claim Ishmael as their ancestor. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Genesis 10:25,26 . Ishmael, Genesis 25:13-15 , and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:2 , together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The changes of forty centuries render it impossible to distinguish either of these parent sources in the numerous Arab tribes descended from them. These tribes have traditions and peculiarities of their own, and incessant feuds; yet as a whole they are but one people, distinct from all others. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts. The latter are migratory, dwelling in tents and removing according to the convenience of water and pasturage, and are often robbers. Each tribe is divided up into little communities, of which a sheik or patriarch is the head. Such are the Bedaween.
In ancient times the Arabs were idolaters and star-worshippers. They are now nominally Mohammedans, but then religion sits but lightly on them. Isolated from other nations, and with slight exceptions free from all foreign control the preserve their ancient manners with singular fidelity, and the study of these throws much light upon Bible narratives. Their language also is still spoken with great purity; and as it is near akin to the Hebrew, it furnishes invaluable aid in the study of the Old Testament.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Arabia
It was anciently divided into three parts:,
Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility. It embraced a large portion of the country now known by the name of Arabia. The Arabs call it Yemen. It lies between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.
Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great Wilderness" of the Arabs. From this name is derived that which is usually given to the nomadic tribes which wander over this region, the "Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin,"
Arabia Petraea, i.e., the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky mountains and stony plains. It comprehended all the north-west portion of the country, and is much better known to travellers than any other portion. This country is, however, divided by modern geographers into (1) Arabia Proper, or the Arabian Peninsula; (2) Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and (3) Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites (Genesis 14:6 , etc.), but in later times by the descendants of Esau, and known as the Land of Edom or Idumea, also as the Desert of Seir or Mount Seir. The whole land appears (Genesis 10 ) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs. The modern nation of Arabs is predominantly Ishmaelite. Their language is the most developed and the richest of all the Semitic languages, and is of great value to the student of Hebrew.
The Israelites wandered for forty years in Arabia. In the days of Solomon, and subsequently, commercial intercourse was to a considerable extent kept up with this country (1 Kings 10:15 ; 2 Chronicles 9:14 ; 17:11 ). Arabians were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ). Paul retired for a season into Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17 ). This country is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 21:11 ; 42:11 ; Jeremiah 25:24 , etc.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Arabia
(Arabia arid tract). The Arabah, originally restricted to one wady, came to be applied to all Arabia. (See ARABAH.) Bounded on the N. by Palestine and Syria, E. by the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf, S. by the Arabian Sea and strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, W. by the Red Sea and Egypt. 1700 miles long by 1400 broad. Designated Genesis 25:6 "the east country," the people "children of the East" (Genesis 29:1; Judges 6:3), chiefly meaning the tribes E. of Jordan and N. of the Arabian peninsula. "All the mingled people" is in Hebrew ha ereb (Exodus 12:38; Jeremiah 25:20; Ezekiel 30:5), possibly the Arabs. The three divisions are Arabia Deserta, Felix, and Petraea. The term Κedem , "the East," with the Hebrew probably referred to ARABIA DESERTA, or N. Arabia, bounded E. by the Euphrates, W. by the mountains of Gilead. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 2:6) describes its features, "a land of deserts and pits, a land of drought and of the shadow of death, that no man passed through, and where no man dwelt."
Tadmor or Palmyra "in the wilderness" was on its N.E. border (1 Kings 9:18). Moving sands, a few thorny shrubs, and an occasional palm and a spring of brackish water, constitute its general character. The sand wind, the simoom, visits it. Hither Paul resorted after conversion for that rest and reflection which are needed before great spiritual enterprises (Galatians 1:17). Moses' stay of 40 years in the same quarter served the same end of preparatory discipline. Its early inhabitants were the Rephaim, Emim, Zuzim, Zamzummim (Genesis 14:5); Ammon, Moab, Edom, the Hagarenes, the Nabathaeans, the people of Kedar, and many wandering tent-dwelling tribes, like the modern Bedouins, succeeded. The portion of it called the Hauran, or Syrian desert, abounds in ruins and inscriptions in Greek, Palmyrene, and an unknown tongue.
ARABIA FELIX or happy, S. Arabia, bounded on the E. by the Persian Gulf, S. by the Arabian Sea, W. by the Red Sea. Yemen, famed for its fertility ("the right hand", so the south, compare Matthew 12:42); and Hadramaut (Hazarmaveth, Genesis 10:26) were parts of it. Sheba answers to Yemen (Psalms 72:10), whose queen visited Solomon (1 Kings 10:1). The dominant family was that of Himyer, son of Sava; one of this family founded the modern kingdom of the Himyerites, now called el Hedjaz, the land of pilgrimage, on account of the pilgrimages to Mecca the birthplace, and Medina the burial place, of Mahomet. The central province of the Nejd is famed for the Arab horses and camels, "the ships of the desert."
Joktan, son of Eber (Genesis 10:25), was the original founder, Ishmael the subsequent head, of its population. The Hagarenes, originally the same as the Ishmaelites, subsequently are mentioned as distinct (1 Chronicles 5:10; 1 Chronicles 5:19; 1 Chronicles 5:22; Psalms 83:6). The people of Yemen have always lived in cities, and practiced commerce and agriculture. It was famed for gems and gold, spices, perfumes, and gums (1 Kings 10:10; Ezekiel 27:22). Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia.
ARABIA PETRAEA, called from its city Petra, the rock, or Selah (2 Kings 14:7), now Hadjar, i.e. rock. Between the gulfs of Suez and Akabah; Palestine and Egypt are its northern boundary. The desert of mount Sinai (Burr et tur Sinai), where Israel wandered, Kadesh Barnea, Pharan, Rephidim, Ezion Geber, Rithmah, Oboth, Arad, Heshbon, were in it. The wady Leja (perhaps the valley of Rephidim), near jebel Mousa, and the wady Feiran (Paran, Numbers 13:3), are most luxuriant. Hawarah (Marab, Exodus 15:23) is 33 miles S.E. of Ayoun Mousa (the fountain of Moses); 7 miles S. of this is wady Gurundel, perhaps the Elim of Exodus 15:27. Precipitous bore rocks, void of herbage, form the southern coast. Cush, son of Ham, originally peopled Arabia (the ruins of Marib, or Seba, and the inscriptions are Cushite; in Babylonia too there are Cushite traces); then Joktan, of Shem's race (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:30).
The posterity of Nahor, of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25), of Lot also, formed a part of the population, namely, in Arabia Deserta. Then Ishmael's, then Esau's descendants, for Esau identified himself with Ishmael by his marrying Ishmael's daughter (Genesis 28:9). The head of each tribe is the sheikh; the office is hereditary in his family, but elective as to the individual. The people are hospitable, eloquent, poetical, proud of ancestry, but predatory, superstitious, and revengeful. The wandering and wild Bedouins are purest in blood and preserve most the Arab characteristics foretold in Genesis 16:12; "He will be a wild" (Hebrew a wild donkey of a) "man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him" (marking their incessant feuds with one another or with their neighbors), "and he shall dwell tent in the presence of all his brethren."
The image of a wild donkey untamable, roaming at its will in the desert (compare Job 39:5-8), portrays the Bedouin's boundless love of freedom as he rides in the desert spear in hand, despising town life. His dwelling in the presence of his brethren implies that Ishmael would maintain an independent nationality before all Abraham's descendants. They have never been completely subjugated by any neighboring power. Compare Job 1:15; Jeremiah 49:8; Jeremiah 3:2; 2 Chronicles 21:16. From their dwelling in tents they are called Scenitoe. Their tents are of goats' hair cloth, black or brown (Song of Solomon 1:5), arranged in a ring, enclosing their cattle, each about 25 feet long and 7 high. The town populations by intermarriages and intercourse with foreigners have lost much of Arab traits. Mecca, in their belief, is where Ishmael was saved and Hagar died and was buried.
The Kaaba or Square was built by Seth, destroyed by the flood, and rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael. Sabeanism, or the worship of the hosts, the sun, moon, and stars, was the first lapse from original revelation (Job 31:26-27); but just before Mahomet they were divided between it, Judaism, Magianism, and corrupted Christianity. Mahometanism became the universal faith in A.D. 628. The Wahabees are one of the most powerful sects, named from Abd el Wahab, who in the beginning of last century undertook to reform abuses in Mahometanism. To the Arabs we owe our arithmetical figures. They took the lead of Europeans in astronomy, chemistry, algebra, and medicine. They spread their colonies from the Senegal to the indus, and from Madagascar to the Euphrates. The Joktanites of southern Arabia were seafaring; the Ishmaelites, more northward, the caravan merchants (Genesis 37:28).
The Arabic language is the most developed of the Semitic languages. in the 14th or 13th century B.C. the Semitic languages differed much less than in later times. Compare Genesis 31:47; Judges 7:9-15; Phurah, Gideon's servant, evidently understood the Midianites. But in the 8th century B.C. only educated Jews understood Aramaic (2 Kings 18:26). In its classical form Arabic is more modern than Heb., in its ancient form probably sister to Hebrew and Aramaic. The Himyeritic is a mixture with an African language, as appears from the inscriptions; the Ekhili is its modern phase. Monuments with Himyeritic inscriptions are found in Hadramaut and the Yemen. There was a Cushite or Ethiopian Sheba, as well as a Shemitic Sheba (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:28).
The Himyerites had a Cushite descent. The Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages. The Hebrew literature dates from the 15th century B.C, the Arabic only from the 5th century B.C. For this reason, and the greater simplicity of Hebrew modes of expression, it seems probable the Hebrew is the elder sister. A few Arabic forms are plainly older than the corresponding Hebrew The Book of Job in many of its difficult Hebrew roots receives much illustration from Arabic. The Arabic is more flexible and abounding in vowel sounds, as suits a people light hearted and impulsive; the Hebrew is weightier, and has more consonants, as suits a people graver and more earnest. The Arabic version of the Scriptures now extant was made after Mahomet's time. That in the London Polyglott was in part by R. Saadias Gaon (the Excellent).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Arabia, Arabs
ARABIA, ARABS . In the present article we have to do not with the part played by the Arabs in history, or with the geography of the Arabian peninsula, but only with the emergence of the Arab name and people in Bible times.
‘Arâb (for which we should have expected rather ‘ârâb ) is scarcely at first a proper name, but stands merely for ‘waste,’ ‘desolation.’ So in Isaiah 21:13 (which may really belong to Isaiah himself, but should perhaps be ascribed to a later hand): ‘Bivouac in the copse [1], in the waste, ye caravans of Dedan.’ In this passage the title massâ ba’ râb , which in any case is late and wanting in the ancient Gr. version, incorrectly takes ‘arâb as a proper name [1]5 here and in other passages]. More commonly the word used for ‘waste’ is the fem. form ‘arâbâh ( e.g. Isaiah 35:1 , Job 24:5 ; Job 39:6 etc.), which, preceded by the art. ( hâ-‘Arâbâh ), stands for the deep gorge which, commencing to the north of the Dead Sea and including the latter, stretches to the Red Sea ( Deuteronomy 2:8 etc.). Whether ‘arâbî in Isaiah 13:20 and Jeremiah 3:2 means simply an inhabitant of the desert, or should be taken as a proper name, is uncertain; but at bottom this distinction has no Importance, for the two notions of ‘Bedouin’ ( Badawî , which also = ‘inhabitant of the desert’) and ‘Arab’ were pretty much identical in the mind of civilized peoples. It may be noted that here the Massoretes appear to assume the appellative sense, since they point ‘arâbî , whereas for ‘Arab’ they use the form more akin to Aramaic than Hebrew, ‘arbî ( Nehemiah 2:19 ; Nehemiah 6:16 ). The plural ‘arbîm in Neh 21:16, 22:1 and 2 Chronicles 26:7 Qerç, from ‘arbî’îm (Kethibh of the last passage) may also be justified from the standpoint of Hebrew usage. The form in 2 Chronicles 17:11 can hardly be original; it is due to attraction from the following mebî’îm. ‘Arâb is certainly a gentilic name in we’çth kol malkç ‘Arâb of Jeremiah 25:24 [1]5 , are of course a pure dittography; for, although the Massoretes, for the sake of distinction, point in the second instance hâ-‘ereb , this has no value] and in Ezekiel 27:21 . In these passages ‘Arâb can hardly be taken as the name of a single clan quite distinct from Dedan and the rest. The prophetic authors do not speak with the exactness of a prose narrator, and in point of fact were perhaps not very well informed about the various branches of the Bedouins, of whose territory the Israelite peasant and townsman thought only with a shudder. It is possible, indeed, that the rise of the name ‘Arab’ among the Hebrews ( c [4] . b.c. 700) is connected with the circumstance that the ancient clans of Ishmael, Midian, Amalek, etc., had by that time disappeared or at least lost all significance. In the desert there goes on a constant, if for the most part a slow, interchange in the rise and fall of tribes and tribal names. A brave tribe may be weakened by famine or defeat; it may be compelled to migrate or to adopt a settled mode of life, and thus its name becomes lost among a peasant population; or it may become otherwise broken up and its fragments attached to other tribes, so that small clans by assimilating foreign elements become great tribes. So it was millenniums ago; so it is still.
The Assyrian sources name the Arabs as early as the 9th cent. b.c. (see the passages cited by Bezold in his Catalogue , vol. v. 1964). King Darius I., in his inscriptions, enumerates Arabâya among the countries subject to him. The name always follows Babylonia, Assyria (which as a province included Mesopotamia proper and also probably N. Syria), and precedes Egypt. We shall have to understand by this name the great desert region not only of Syria, but also of Mesopotamia as well as the peninsula of Sinai. About this same time at the latest the name of the Arabs became known also to the Greeks. Æschylus ( Persœ , 316) names an Arab as fighting in the battle of Salamis, and his contemporary, from whom Herodotus borrowed his description of the host of Xerxes, enumerated Arab archers as forming part of the latter (Herod. vii. 69). But while Æschylus ( Prom . 422) has quite fabulous notions about the dwelling-places of the Arabs, Herodotus is well acquainted with them. His account of the situation of the Arabian peninsula is approximately correct, but he has specially in view those Arabs who inhabit the region lying between Syria and Egypt, i.e. the desert lands with whose inhabitants the ancient Israelites had frequent relations, peaceful or warlike. Xenophon appears to use the term ‘Arabia’ in essentially the same sense as King Darius. He too gives this name to the desert to the east of the Euphrates, the desert which separates Babylonia from Mesopotamia proper ( Anab . VII. viii. 25), the same region which was still called ‘Arab by the later Syrians. This tract of country, so far as we can learn, has always been peopled by Arab tribes.
In the 5th cent. b.c. we find, in the above-cited passages from the Memoirs of Nehemiah, repeated mention of an Arabian Geshem or Gashmu, whose real name may have been Gushamô who gave Nehemiah no little trouble. About this time, perhaps, the Arab tribe of Nabatæans had already pressed their way from the south and driven the Edomites from their ancient seats. Towards the end of the 4th cent. they were firmly established at least in the ancient Edomite capital, Petra; and they gradually extended their dominion widely. The First Book of Maccabees clearly distinguishes the Nabatæans from other Arabs, whereas the Second Book simply calls them ‘Arabs’ ( 2Ma 5:8 ), as do also other Greek and Latin writers. The Nabatæan kingdom counted, indeed, for so much with Westerns that they could regard it as ‘the Arabs’ par excellence . The Apostle Paul ( Galatians 4:25 ), like profane writers, reckons the Sinaitic peninsula, which was part of the Nahatæan kingdom, as belonging to Arabia. Again, the part of Arabia to which he withdrew after his conversion ( Galatians 1:17 ) must have been a desert region not far from Damascus, which then also was under the sway of the king of the Nabatæans. By the ‘Arabians’ mentioned in Acts 2:11 , in connexion with the miracle of Pentecost, the author probably meant Jews from the same kingdom, which, it is true, had in his time (?) become the Roman province of Arabia (a.d. 105).
We do not know whether the name ‘Arab originated with the Arabs themselves or was first applied to them by outsiders. In any case, it first extended itself gradually over the northern regions and the great peninsula. Uncivilized and much divided peoples recognize their national unity only with difficulty, whereas this is more readily perceived by their neighbours. In the first case a man knows only his own tribe, and regards even the neighbouring tribe, which speaks the same language, as strange. But the wide wanderings of the Arab nomads, due to the nature of their country, brought them readily into contact with peoples of other language and other customs, and this could awaken in them the consciousness of their own nationality. Perhaps the recognition of Arab unity was favoured also by the trading journeys of the civilized Arabs of the south and of other parts of Arabia. But be that as it may, the ancient Arab epitaph of Namâra to the S.E. of Damascus, dating from the year a.d. 328, concerns Maralqais, ‘king of all Arabs.’ And from the oldest documents of classical Arabic that have come down to us it is a sure inference that at that time ( i.e. in the 6th cent. a.d.) ‘Arab had been for an inconceivably long period known as their national designation. But the close connexion between this common name and the meaning ‘desert’ still reveals itself in the circumstance that the plural form ‘Arâb (later more freq. ‘Urbân ) stands especially for the Bedouins as opposed to Arabs who live in towns, and that afterwards in common speech, as had been the case even in the Sabæan inscriptions, ‘Arab is often used simply for ‘Bedouin,’ ‘inhabitant of the desert.’
Th. Nöldeke.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Arabia
Country occupying the most southwesterly peninsula of the Asiatic continent, including the Sultanate of Nedjed, the Imamate of Yemen, the British Protectorate of Aden, the Principality of Asir, the Hadramaut, the Sultanate of Oman, the Sultanate of Koweyt, and the Emirate of Bahrein; approximate area, 1,250,000 square miles; population almost entirely Muslim. Though Christianity in Arabia dates from Apostolic times, the Arabs, being of a lax and sensual nature, were indifferent in the practise of their religion, fell easily into the heresies of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Monophysitism, and lost all traces of Christianity after the appearance of Islam. Missionary work has been conducted along the outskirts, but the interior of the country is almost impenetrable. The Catholic Church is represented by the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia, established as a prefecture Apostolic, 1875, erected into the Vicariate Apostolic of Aden, May 4, 1888, and the name changed to Arabia, June 28, 1889. It is entrusted to the Capuchins. See also:
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
patron saints index
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Asterius, a Bishop of Arabia
Asterius (1) , a bp. of Arabia (called bp. of Petra, Tomus ad Antioch. § 10). He accompanied the Eusebians to the council of Sardica, but separated himself from them along with bp. Arius or Macarius (who by some confusion is also called bp. of Petra), complaining of the violent treatment to which the deputies had been subjected, with the view of driving them into supporting the Eusebian faction (Theod. ii. 8). The Eusebians soon had their revenge, and the two bishops were banished to Upper Libya, where they endured much suffering (Athan. Hist. Arian. § 18; Apol. § 48). On the promulgation of the edict of Julian, recalling all the banished bishops, Asterius returned, and (A.D. 362) took part in the important council summoned by the newly restored Athanasius at Alexandria, for the purpose of promoting union between the orthodox and those who, without embracing the errors of Arius, had held communion with the Arian party. One of the chief subjects that came before this synod was the unhappy schism at Antioch between the Eustathians and the Meletians. [1] On the singular fact that the name of Asterius, together with that of Eusebius of Vercelli, is found among those to whom this letter is addressed, as well as among those by whom it was written, of which it is difficult to give a satisfactory explanation, cf. Tillemont, Mém. viii. p. 707; Baronius, Ann. sub. ann. 362, § 219.
[2]
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Paul in Arabia
NO sooner was Paul baptized by Ananias, than, instead of returning home to Jerusalem, he immediately set out for Arabia. He had come down to Damascus with horses and servants like a prince, but he set out alone for Arabia like Jacob with his staff. For, all that he took with him was his parchments, and some purchases he had made in the street called Straight. A few of those simple instruments that tentmakers use when they have to minister to their own necessities, was all that Paul encumbered himself with as he started from Ananias's door on his long and solitary journey to Arabia.
What it was that took Paul so immediately and so far away as Arabia, we can only guess. If it was simply a complete seclusion that he was in search of, he might surely have secured that seclusion much nearer home. But, somehow, Sinai seems to have drawn Paul to her awful solitudes with an irresistible attraction and strength. It may have been an old desire of his formed at Gamaliel's feet, some day to see the Mount of God with his own eyes. He may have said to himself that he must hide himself for once in that cleftrock before he sat down to his life-work in Moses' seat. I must see Rome, he said towards the end of his life. I must see Sinai, he also said at the beginning of his life. And thus it was that as soon as he was baptized in Ananias's house in Damascus, Paul immediately set out for Arabia.
Look at that weak bodily presence. But, at the same time, judge him not by his outward appearance. For he carries Augustine, and Luther, and Calvin, and Knox, in his fruitful loins. In that lonely stranger you are now looking at, and in his seed, shall all the families of the earth be blessed. Look at the eyes of his understanding as they begin to be enlightened. Look at him with his heart all on fire. See him as he unrolls his parchments at every roadside well, and drinks of the brook by the way. Thy word is more to me than my necessary food, and thy love is better than wine!
What a three years were those three years that Paul spent in Arabia! Never did any other lord receive his own again with such usury as when Paul went into Arabia with Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms in his knapsack, and returned to Damascus with the Romans and the Ephesians and the Colossians in his mouth and in his heart. What an incomparable book waits to be written about those three immortal years in Arabia! After those thirty preparation-years at Nazareth, there is no other opportunity left for any sanctified pen, like those three revelation-years in Arabia. Only, it will demand all that is within the most Paul-like writer, to fit him out for his splendid enterprise. It will demand, and it will repay, all his learning, and all his intellect, and all his imagination, and all his sinfulness, and all his salvation. Just to give us a single Sabbath out of Paul's hundred and fifty Sabbaths at Sinai-what a revelation to us that would be! It would be something like this, only a thousand times better. When first you fell in love: when first your captivated heart made you like the chariots of Ammi-nadib; the whole world was full of one name to you. There was no other name to you in all the world. Every bird sang that name. Every rock echoed with that name. You wrote that name everywhere. You read that name everywhere. You loved everybody and everything for the sake of that name. Now, it was something like that between Paul and Jesus Christ. Only, it was far better than that between Paul and Jesus Christ at the time, and it was far more lasting with them than it has been with you. Luther, who was almost as great a lover of Jesus Christ as Paul was, has this over and over again about Paul and Jesus Christ. "Jesus Christ is never out of Paul's mouth. Indeed, there is nobody and nothing now and always in Paul's mouth but Jesus Christ and His Cross." Now that is literally true. For, as often as Paul opens his Moses in Arabia, and finds the place he is seeking for, he cannot see the place when he has found it for Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ comes between Paul and everything. To Paul to read, and to meditate, and to pray, is Jesus Christ. So much so, that as soon as he finds the place at the very first verse of Genesis, he immediately goes off at the word, and exclaims, till the Arabs all around listen to his rapture,-the mystery! he exclaims, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ. And at this,-Let there be light! For God, he exclaims again, who commanded the light to shine out of darkness, hath shined in our hearts in the face of Jesus Christ. And, does Adam burst out into his bridegroom doxology,-This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh!-than Paul instantly adds, Amen! But I speak concerning Christ and His Church. And before he leaves the first Adam he gets such a revelation of the second Adam made in him that the Corinthians had many a glorious Sabbath morning on the two Adams, all the way from Arabia, long afterwards. And, again, no sooner does God speak in covenant to Abraham about his seed, than Paul immediately annotates that He saith not to seeds as of many, but as of One, which is Christ. But, on all that Moses ever wrote, there was nothing that Paul spent so much time and strength, as just on this concerning the father of the faithful,-that Abraham believed in the Lord, and it was counted to him for righteousness. Now, said Paul, reasoning to himself over that revelation, and then reasoning to us,-Now it was not written for Abraham's sake only, that it was imputed to him, but for our sakes also, to whom it shall be imputed, if we believe on Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead; who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification. And so on, till to have spent a single Sabbath-day with Paul at Sinai would have been almost as good as to have walked that evening hour to Emmaus. So did Paul discover the Son of God in Arabia: so did Paul have the Son of God revealed to him in Adam, and in Abraham, and in Moses, and in David, and in Isaiah, but, best of all, in Paul himself.
And, then, Paul's first fast-day in Arabia. Paul was never out of the Psalms on those days that he observed so solemnly at Sinai. Till his David was like John Bunyan's Luther, so old that it was ready to fall piece from piece if he did but turn it over. But he always turned it over at such sacramental seasons till he came again to that great self-examination Psalm, where he found it written concerning himself: These things hast thou done, and I kept silence. Thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one as thyself. But I will reprove thee, and set them in order before thee. And it was so. For, there they stood, set in order before him, and passed in order before him and before God. The souls of all the men and women and children he had haled to prison, and had compelled to blaspheme, and had slain with the sword. And, then, as he hid himself in the cleft rock-how the Name of the Lord would come up into his mind: and how, like Moses also, he would make haste and bow his head to the earth and say: Take me for one of Thy people. And, till God would again reveal His Son in Paul in a way, and to a degree, that it is not possible for Paul to tell to such impenitent and unprostrated readers of his as we are. And, then, far over and above those terrible sins of his youth, there was the absolutely unparalleled and absolutely indescribable agony that came upon Paul out of the remaining covetousness and consequent malice of his heart, and more and more so as his heart was more and more brought down under the ever-increasing and all-piercing spirituality of God's holy law. An agony that sometimes threatened to drive Paul beside himself altogether. And till, on the rocks of Sinai the shepherds would sometimes come on somewhat the same sweat of blood that the gardeners came on in the Garden of Gethsemane. For it was in Arabia, and it was under the Mount of God, that Paul's apostolic ink-horn was first filled with that ink of God with which he long afterwards wrote that so little understood writing of his, which we call the Seventh of the Romans. A little understood writing; and no wonder!
The Apostle came back from Arabia to Damascus, after three years' absence, absolutely ladened down with all manner of doctrines, and directions, and examples, for us and for our salvation, if we would only attend to them and receive them. Directions and examples of which this is one of the first. That solitude, the most complete and not short solitude, was the one thing that Paul determined to secure for himself immediately after his conversion and his baptism. And we have a still better Example of all that than even Paul. For, over and above His thirty uninvaded years, no sooner was that "Glorious Eremite" baptized, than He went away and took forty days to Himself before He began His public life. "One day"-sings concerning Him one of His servants who loved seclusion also, and put it to some purpose-
"One day forth walked alone, the Spirit leading,And His deep thoughts, the better to converseWith solitude; till far from track of man,Thought following thought, and step on step led on,He entered now the bordering desert-wild,And, with dark shades and rocks environ'd round,His holy meditations thus pursued."And thus it is that Holy Scripture is everywhere so full of apartness and aloneness and solitude: of lodges in the wilderness, and of shut doors in the city: of early mornings, and late nights, and lonely night-watches: of Sabbath-days and holidays, and all such asylums of spiritual retreat.
Down to Gehenna, and up to the throne,He travels the fastest who travels alone.But the Apostle's chief reason for telling us about Arabia at all is this, to prove to us, and to impress upon us, that it was not cities and colleges and books that made him what by that time he was made. It was God Himself who made Paul the Apostle he was made. I conferred not with flesh and blood, he protests. He had books, indeed, as we have seen: he always had. He had the best of books: he always had. But even Moses and David and Isaiah themselves are but flesh and blood compared with God. Even grace itself is but flesh and blood compared with Christ, says Thomas Shepard. And Paul is careful and exact, above everything, to make it clear to us, that not only was it God Himself who immediately and conclusively revealed His Son in Paul; but, also, that it was His Son that God so revealed. It was not Jesus Christ, so much, distinguishes Paul, that God revealed in him. Jesus Christ had revealed Himself to Paul already at the gate of Damascus, but God's revelation of His Son in Arabia was a revelation of far more than of Jesus Christ whom Paul was persecuting. For, this in Arabia is God's Eternal and Co-Equal Son. And that, not merely as made flesh, and made sin: not merely as crucified, and risen, and exalted, and glorified; but as He had been before all that, and during all that, and after all that. It was God's Essential and Eternal Son: it was God's very deepest, completest, and most crowning revelation possible of His only-begotten Son; that God, in such grace and truth, made in Paul in Arabia.
In me, says Paul. In my deepest mind and in my deepest heart: in my very innermost soul and strength. And thus it was that Paul under-went two grand revelations, over and above a multitude of lesser revelations which arose out of those two epoch-making revelations, and which both perfected and applied them. The one, that grand and epoch-making revelation made on the way to Damascus, and made immediately by Jesus Christ, whom Paul was at that moment persecuting. A revelation divinely suited to all the circumstances. A revelation outward, arresting, overpowering: taking possession of all the persecutor's bodily senses, and thus surrounding and seizing all the passes into his soul. The other, made within and upon Paul's pure and naked soul, and apart altogether from the employment of his senses upon his soul. A revelation impossible adequately to describe. A revelation made by God of His Son, most inward, most profound, most penetrating, most soul-possessing: most-enlarging to the soul, most uplifting, and most upholding: most assuring, most satisfying, most sanctifying: intellectual, spiritual, experimental, evangelical: all-renewing and all-transforming: full of truth, full of love, full of assurance, full of holiness, full of the peace of God, which passeth all understanding. Jesus of Nazareth appeared to Saul the persecutor, as He had already appeared to Mary Magdalene, and to the ten disciples, and to Thomas. But God the Father revealed His Son in Paul the Apostle, as He had never revealed Him before, and as He has never revealed Him since in mortal man. That is to say, with a fulness, and with a finalness, that has made all God's subsequent revelations of His Son, at their best, to be but superficial and partial, occasional and intermittent. Not that it need be so. Not that it ought to be so. For if we but gave ourselves up to God and to His Son, as Paul gave himself up, we also, no doubt, would soon reap our reward. But, as it is, Paul's apprehension of God's Son, paul's comprehension of God's Son, and Paul's service of God's Son, have remained to this day, by far the first, by far the best, by far the most complete, by far the most final, and by far the most fruitful, revelation of His Son, that Almighty God has ever made in any of the sons of men.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Arabia
Evening; desert; ravens
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Arabia
Arabia (Ἀραβία, from עֲרָב), which now denotes the great peninsula lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, was in ancient times a singularly elusive term. Originally it meant simply ‘desert’ or ‘desolation,’ and when it became an ethnographic proper name it was long in acquiring a fixed and generally understood meaning. ‘Arabia’ shifted like the nomads, drifted like the desert sand. It did not denote a country whose boundaries could be defined by treaty, shown by landmarks, and act down in a map. Too vast and vague for delimitation, it impressed the imagination like the steppe, the prairie, or the veldt, while it had a character and history of its own. To the settled races of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine, it meant any part of that hinterland, skirting the confines of civilization, which was the camping-ground of wandering tribes for ever hovering around peaceful towns and spreading terror among their inhabitants. It was the dim border region, not so wholly unproductive as to be incapable of supporting life, interposed between cultivation and the sheer wilderness. So uncertain was the application of the term, that there was no part of the semi-desert fringe extending from the lower Tigris to the lower Nile which was not at one time or another called Arabia. To the prophets of Israel the word had one meaning, on Persian inscriptions another, and to Greek writers (Herod. ii. and iii.; Xenophon, I. v. 1, VII. viii. 25) still another. Every one used it to denote that particular hinterland whose tribes and peoples were more or less known to him; that was his Arabia.
But by the 3rd cent. b.c. the Arab tribe of the Nabataeans had become a powerful nation, with Petra as their capital, and from that time onward Arabia began to be identified, especially in the Western mind, with the Natataean kingdom. While 1 Mac. still distinguishes the Nabataeans from other Arabs (1 Maccabees 5:25; 1 Maccabees 9:35), 2 Mac. speaks of Aretas, the hereditary king of the Nabataeans, as ‘king of the Arabs’ (2 Maccabees 5:8). In the time of Josephus this people ‘inhabited all the country from the Euphrates to the Red Sea’ (Ant. I. xii. 4). Soon after taking possession of Judaea , the Romans sent an expedition, under Marcus Scaurus, against the Nabataeans (59 b.c.); and, though their subjugation was not accomplished at that time, it must have taken place not much later. From the days of Augustus the kings of the Arabians were as much subject to the Empire as Herod, king of the Jews, and they had the whole region between Herod’s dominions and the desert assigned to them. To the north ‘their territory reached as far as Damascus, which was under their protection, and even beyond Damascus, and enclosed as with a girdle the whole of Palestinian Syria’ (Mommsen, Provinces2, Lond. 1909, ii. 148f.). The Arabians who were present at the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:11) were most likely Nabataeans, possibly from Petra.
The Nabataean kings made use of Greek official designations, and St. Paul relates how ‘the governor’ (ὁ ἐθνάρχης) of Damascus ‘under Aretas the king’ was foiled in the attempt, probably made at the instigation of the Jews, to put him under arrest soon after his conversion (2 Corinthians 11:32 f.). This episode, which has an important bearing on the chronology of St. Paul’s life, raises a difficult historical problem. Damascene coins of Tiberius indicate that the city was under direct Roman government till a.d. 34; and, as the legate of Syria was engaged in hostilities with Aretas till the close of the reign of Tiberius, it is very unlikely that this emperor yielded up Damascus to the Nabataean king. But the accession of Caligula brought a great change, and the suggestion is naturally made that he bought over Aretas by ceding Damascus to him. The fact that no Damascene coins bearing the Emperor’s image occur in the reigns of Caligula and Claudius is in harmony with this theory (Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng. tr. of GJV).] i. ii. 357f.). The view of Mommsen (Provinces2, ii. 149), following Marquardt (Röm. Staatsverwaltung, Leipzig, 1885, i. 405), is different. Talking of the voluntary submission of the city of Damascus to the king of the Nabataeans, he says that
‘probably this dependence of the city on the Nabataean kings subsisted so long as there were such kings [1]. From the fact that the city struck coins with the heads of the Roman emperors, there follows doubtless its dependence on Rome and therewith its self-administration, but not its non-dependence on the Roman vassal-prince; such protectorates assumed shapes so various that these arrangements might well be compatible with each other.’
See, further, Aretas,
In the Galatian Epistle (Galatians 1:17) St. Paul states that after his escape from. Damascus he ‘went away into Arabia,’ evidently for solitary communion with God; but he does not further define the place of his retreat, and Acts makes no allusion to this episode. When he quitted the city under cover of darkness, he had not a long way to flee to a place of safety, for the desert lies in close proximity to the Damascene oasis. Possibly he went no further than the fastnesses of Ḥauran. Lightfoot (Gal. 87f.), Stanley (Sinai and Palestine, Lond. 1877, p. 50), and others conjecture that he sought the solitude of Mt. Sinai, with which he seems to show some acquaintance in the same Epistle (Galatians 4:25). But he could scarcely have avoided specific reference to so memorable a journey, which would have brought him into a kind of spiritual contact with Moses and Elijah. Besides, the peninsula of Sinai was about 400 miles from Damascus; and, as military operations were being actively carried on by the legate of Syria against Aretas in a.d. 37-the probable year of St. Paul’s conversion-it would scarcely have been possible for a stranger to pass through the centre of the perturbed country without an escort of soldiers.
In a.d. 106 the governor of Syria, Aulus Cornelius Palma, broke up the dominion of the Nabataean kings, and constituted the Roman province of Arabia, while Damascus was added to Syria. For the whole region the change was epoch-making,
‘The tendency to acquire these domains for civilisation and specially for Hellenism was only heightened by the fact that the Roman government took upon itself the work. The Hellenism of the East … was a church militant, a thoroughly conquering power pushing its way in a political, religious, economic, and literary point of view’ (Mommsen, op. cit. ii. 152).
Under the strong new régime the desert tribes were for the first and only time brought under control, with the result that no small part of ‘the desert’ was changed into ‘the sown.’ ‘Rome won the nomads to her service and fastened them down in defence of the border they had otherwise fretted and broken.… Behind this Roman bulwark there grew up a curious, a unique civilisation talking Greek, imitating Rome, but at heart Semitic (G. A. Smith, EGHL, London, 1894, p. 627).
Literature.-E. Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng. tr. of GJV).] i. ii. 345ff.; J. Euting, Nabatäische Inschriften aus Arabien, Berlin, 1885; H. Vincent, Les Arabes en Syrie, Paris, 1907; G. A. Cooke, North-Semitic Inscriptions, London, 1903; and the article ‘Arabs (Ancient),’ by Th. Nöldeke, in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . i. 659.
James Strahan.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Arabia
(uh ray' bi uh) names an Asian peninsula lying between the Red Sea on the west and the Persian Gulf on the east incorporating over 1,200,000 square miles of territory, Old Testament—1 Kings 10:15 ; 2 Chronicles 9:14 ; 2 Chronicles 17:11 ; 2 Chronicles 21:16 ; 2 Chronicles 22:1 ; 2 Chronicles 26:7 ; Nehemiah 2:19 ; Nehemiah 4:7 ; Nehemiah 6:1 ; Isaiah 13:20 ; Isaiah 21:13 ; Jeremiah 3:2 , Jeremiah 25:24 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ; New Testament—Acts 2:11 ; Galatians 1:17 ; Galatians 4:25 .
Old Testament The Arabian peninsula, together with the adjoining lands which were home to the biblical Arabs, includes all of present-day Saudi Arabia, the two Yemens (San'a' and Aden), Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait, as well as parts of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and the Sinai Peninsula. The vast Arabian peninsula was divided into two distinct economic and social regions. Most biblical references to Arab peoples or territory are to the northern and western parts of this whole, but sometimes includes both the northern and southern portions.
In the northern portion of Arabia the mountains of the Anti-Lebanon, the Transjordanian Highlands, and the mountains of Edom flank the desert on the west. The mountains continue all the way down the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula bordering the Red Sea and are actually much higher and more rugged in the south. The central and northern portions of the peninsula, and extending north into Syria and Iraq, are vast expanses of sandy and rocky desert, including some of the driest climate in the world.
The name Arab comes from a Semitic root which in Hebrew is arab , probably meaning “nomad” or bedouin. This refers to the people of the northwestern parts of the Arabian territory, whom the Old Testament writers knew as nomadic herders of sheep and goats, and later, of camels. Sometimes arab simply refers to the economic status of nomads without geographical or ethical reference. Proper understanding of Scripture includes determining the specific meaning of Arab in each context.
The Arabs are also called in the Bible “the sons (or children) of the east.” Furthermore, many of the names of the Old Testament refer to people or tribes who were ethnically and linguistically Arab. These include the Midianites, the Ishmaelites, the people of Kedar, the Amalekites, the Dedanites, the Temanites, and others. The Israelites recognized their blood relationship with the Arabs. Most of these groups are linked with Abraham through his son Ishmael or through his second wife Keturah (Genesis 25:1 ).
The inhabitants of southern Arabia, in the mountains fringing the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, were town-dwellers with a sophisticated system of irrigation. They possessed considerable wealth from incenses and spices which they grew, from gold, silver, and precious stones, which they mined in their own territory, and from these and other products which they transported and traded to the Mediterranean world and Mesopotamia from as far away as East Africa, India, and China.
New Testament The New Testament references to Arabia are fewer and less complex. The territory of the Nabatean Arabs is probably intended in each instance. The Nabateans controlled what is today southern Jordan and the Negeb of Israel; for a time they controlled as far north as Damascus. Arabs heard the gospel at Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ). Paul went to Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17 ).
Joseph Coleson
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Arabia
A very large country is embraced by this name, lying south, south-east, and east of Palestine. It was of old, as it is now by the natives, divided into three districts.
1. Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert.
2. Western Arabia, the same as the ancient Arabia Petraea, embraces Sinai and the desert of Petra, extending from Egypt and the Red Sea to about Petra.
3. Northern Arabia, which joins Western Arabia and extends northward to the Euphrates.
1 Kings 10:15 ; 2 Chronicles 9:14 ; Isaiah 21:13 ; Jeremiah 25:24 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ; Galatians 1:17 ; Galatians 4:25 . See ARABIANS.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Arabia
A vast country of Asia, extending one thousand five hundred miles from north to south, and one thousand two hundred from east to west; containing a surface equal to four times that of France. The near approach of the Euphrates to the Mediterranean constitutes it a peninsula, the largest in the world. It is called Jezirat-el-Arab by the Arabs; and by the Persians and Turks, Arebistan. This is one of the most interesting countries on the face of the earth. It has, in agreement with prophecy, never been subdued; and its inhabitants, at once pastoral, commercial, and warlike, are the same wild, wandering people as the immediate descendants of their great ancestor Ishmael are represented to have been.
Arabia, or at least the eastern and northern parts of it, were first peopled by some of the numerous families of Cush, who appear to have extended themselves, or to have given their name as the land of Cush, or Asiatic Ethiopia, to all the country from the Indus on the east, to the borders of Egypt on the west, and from Armenia on the north to Arabia Deserta on the south. By these Cushites, whose first plantations were on both sides of the Euphrates and Gulf of Persia, and who were the first that traversed the desert of Arabia, the earliest commercial communications were established between the east and the west. But of their Arabian territory, and of the occupation dependent on it, they were deprived by the sons of Abraham, Ishmael, and Midian; by whom they were obliterated in this country as a distinct race, either by superiority of numbers after mingling with them, or by obliging them to recede altogether to their more eastern possessions, or over the Gulf of Arabia into Africa. From this time, that is, about five hundred and fifty years after the flood, we read only of Ishmaelites and Midianites as the shepherds and carriers of the deserts; who also appear to have been intermingled, and to have shared both the territory and the traffic, as the traders who bought Joseph are called by both names, and the same are probably referred to by Jeremiah , 25, as "the mingled people that dwell in the desert." But Ishmael maintained the superiority, and succeeded in giving his name to the whole people.
Arabia, it is well known, is divided by geographers into three separate regions, called Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix.
The first, or Arabia Petraea, is the northwestern division, and is bounded on the north by Palestine and the Dead Sea, on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by the Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. The greater part of this division was more exclusively the possession of the Midianites, or land of Midian; where Moses, having fled from Egypt, married the daughter of Jethro, and spent forty years keeping the flocks of his father-in-law: no humiliating occupation in those days, and particularly in Midian, which was a land of shepherds; the whole people having no other way of life than that of rearing and tending their flocks, or in carrying the goods they received from the east and south into Phenicia and Egypt. The word flock, used here, must not convey the idea naturally entertained in our own country of sheep only, but, together with these or goats, horned cattle and camels, the most indispensable of animals to the Midianite. It was a mixed flock of this kind which was the sole care of Moses, during a third part of his long life; in which he must have had abundance of leisure, by night and by day, to reflect on the unhappy condition of his own people, still enduring all the rigours of slavery in Egypt. It was a similar flock also which the daughters of Jethro were watering when first encountered by Moses; a trifling event in itself, but important in the history of the future leader of the Jews; and showing, at the same time, the simple life of the people among whom he was newly come, as well as the scanty supply of water in their country, and the strifes frequently occasioned in obtaining a share of it. Through a considerable part of this region, the Israelites wandered after they had escaped from Egypt; and in it were situated the mountains Horeb and Sinai. Beside the tribes of Midian, which gradually became blended with those of Ishmael, this was the country of the Edomites, the Amalekites, and the Nabathaei, the only tribe of pure Ishmaelites within its precincts. But all those families have long since been confounded under the general name of Arabs. The greater part of this district consists of naked rocks and sandy and flinty plains; but it contained also some fertile spots, particularly in the peninsula of Mount Sinai, and through the long range of Mount Seir.
The second region, or Arabia Deserta, is bounded on the north and north- east by the Euphrates, on the east by a ridge of mountains which separates it from Chaldea, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea. This was more particularly the country first of the Cushites, and afterward of the Ishmaelites; as it is still of their descendants, the modern Bedouins, who maintain the same predatory and wandering habits. It consists almost entirely of one vast and lonesome wilderness, a boundless level of sand, whose dry and burning surface denies existence to all but the Arab and his camel. Yet, widely scattered over this dreary waste, some spots of comparative fertility are to be found, where, spread around a feeble spring of brackish water, a stunted verdure, or a few palm trees, fix the principal settlement of a tribe, and afford stages of refreshment in these otherwise impassable deserts. Here, with a few dates, the milk of his faithful camel, and perhaps a little corn, brought by painful journeys from distant regions, or plundered from a passing caravan, the Arab supports a hard existence, until the failure of his resources impels him to seek another
oasis, or the scanty herbage furnished on a patch of soil by transient rains; or else, which is frequently the case, to resort, by more distant migration, to the banks of the Euphrates; or, by hostile inroads on the neighbouring countries, to supply those wants which the recesses of the desert have denied. The numbers leading this wandering and precarious mode of life are incredible. From these deserts Zerah drew his army of a million of men; and the same deserts, fifteen hundred years after, poured forth the countless swarms, which, under Mohammed and his successors, devastated half of the then known world.
The third region, or Arabia Felix, so denominated from the happier condition of its soil and climate, occupies the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the north by the two other divisions of the country; on the south and south-east by the Indian Ocean; on the east by part of the same ocean and the Persian Gulf; and on the west by the Red Sea. This division is subdivided into the kingdoms or provinces of Yemen, at the southern extremity of the peninsula; Hejaz, on the north of the former, and toward the Red Sea; Nejed, in the central region; and Hadramant and Oman, on the shores of the Indian Ocean. The four latter subdivisions partake of much of the character of the other greater divisions of the country, though of a more varied surface, and with a larger portion capable of cultivation. But Yemen seems to belong to another country and climate. It is very mountainous, is well watered with rains and springs, and is blessed with an abundant produce in corn and fruits, and especially in coffee, of which vast quantities are exported. In this division were the ancient citrus of Nysa, Musa or Moosa, and Aden. This is also supposed to have been the country of the queen of Sheba. In Hejaz are the celebrated cities of Mecca and Medina.
Arabia Felix is inhabited by a people who claim Joktan for their father, and so trace their descent direct from Shem, instead of Abraham and Ham. They are indeed a totally different people from those inhabiting the other quarters, and pride themselves on being the only pure and unmixed Arabs. Instead of being shepherds and robbers, they are fixed in towns and cities; and live by agriculture and commerce, chiefly maritime. Here were the people who were found by the Greeks of Egypt enjoying an entire monopoly of the trade with the east, and possessing, a high degree, of wealth, and consequent refinement. It was here, in the ports of Sabaea, that the spices, muslins, and precious stones of India, were for many ages obtained by the Greek traders of Egypt, before they had acquired skill or courage sufficient to pass the straits of the Red Sea; which were long considered by the nations of Europe to be the produce of Arabia itself. These articles, before the invention of shipping, or the establishment of a maritime intercourse, were conveyed across the deserts by the Cushite, Ishmaelite, and Midianite carriers. It was the produce partly of India, and partly of Arabia, which the travelling merchants, to whom Joseph was sold, were carrying into Egypt. The balm and myrrh were probably Arabian, as they are still the produce of the same country; but the spicery was undoubtedly brought farther from the east. These circumstances are adverted to, to show how extensive was the communication, in which the Arabians formed the principal link: and that in the earliest ages of which we have any account, in those of Joseph, of Moses, of Isaiah, and of Ezekiel, "the mingled people" inhabiting the vast Arabian deserts, the Cushites, Ishmaelites, and Midianites, were the chief agents in that commercial intercourse which has, from the most remote period of antiquity, subsisted between the extreme east and west. And although the current of trade is now turned, caravans of merchants, the descendants of these people, may still be found traversing the same deserts, conveying the same articles, and in the same manner as described by Moses!
The singular and important fact that Arabia has never been conquered, has already been cursorily adverted to. But Mr. Gibbon, unwilling to pass by an opportunity of cavilling at revelation, says, "The perpetual independence of the Arabs has been the theme of praise among strangers and natives; and the arts of controversy transform this singular event into a prophecy and a miracle in favour of the posterity of Ishmael. Some exceptions, that can neither be dissembled nor eluded, render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. The kingdom of Yemen has been successively subdued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sultans of Egypt, and the Turks; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed under a Scythian tyrant; and the Roman province of Arabia embraced the peculiar wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons must have pitched their tents in the face of their brethren." But this learned writer has, with a peculiar infelicity, annulled his own argument; and we have only to follow on the above passage, to obtain a complete refutation of the unworthy position with which it begins: "Yet these exceptions," says Mr. Gibbon, "are temporary or local; the body of the nation has escaped the yoke of the most powerful monarchies: the arms of Sesostris and Cyrus, of Pompey, and Trajan, could never achieve the conquest of Arabia; the present sovereign of the Turks may exercise a shadow of jurisdiction, but his pride is reduced to solicit the friendship of a people whom it is dangerous to provoke, and fruitless to attack. The obvious causes of their freedom are inscribed on the character and country of the Arabs. Many ages before Mohammed, their intrepid valour had been severely felt by their neighbours; in offensive and defensive war. The patient and active virtues of a soldier are insensibly nursed in the habits and discipline of a pastoral life. The care of the sheep and camels is abandoned to the women of the tribe; but the martial youth, under the banner of the emir, is ever on horseback and in the field, to practise the exercise of the bow, the javelin, and the scimitar. The long memory of their independence is the firmest pledge of its perpetuity; and succeeding generations are animated to prove their descent, and to maintain their inheritance. Their domestic feuds are suspended on the approach of a common enemy; and in their last hostilities against the Turks, the caravan of Mecca was attacked and pillaged by four score thousand of the confederates. When they advance to battle, the hope of victory is in the front, in the rear the assurance of a retreat. Their horses and camels, who in eight or ten days can perform a march of four or five hundred miles, disappear before the conqueror; the secret waters of the desert elude his search; and his victorious troops are consumed with thirst, hunger, and fatigue, in the pursuit of an invisible foe, who scorns his efforts, and safely reposes in the heart of the burning solitude. The arms and deserts of the Bedouins are not only the safeguards of their own freedom, but the barriers also of the happy Arabia, whose inhabitants, remote from war, are enervated by the luxury of the soil and climate. The legions of Augustus melted away in disease and lassitude; and it is only by a naval power that the reduction of Yemen has been successfully attempted. When Mohammed erected his holy standard, that kingdom was a province of the Persian empire; yet seven princes of the Homerites still reigned in the mountains; and the vicegerent of Chosroes was tempted to forget his distant country and his unfortunate master."
Yemen was the only Arabian province which had the appearance of submitting to a foreign yoke; but even here, as Mr. Gibbon himself acknowledges, seven of the native princes remained unsubdued: and even admitting its subjugation to have been complete, the perpetual independence of the Ishmaelites remains unimpeached. For this is not their country. Petra, the capital of the Stony Arabia, and the principal settlement of the Nabathaei, it is true, was long in the hands of the Persians and Romans; but this never made them masters of the country. Hovering troops of Arabs confined the intruders within their walls, and cut off their supplies; and the possession of this fortress gave as little reason to the Romans to exult as the conquerors of Arabia Petraea, as that of Gibraltar does to us to boast of the conquest of Spain.
The Arabian tribes were confounded by the Greeks and Romans under the indiscriminate appellation of Saracens; a name whose etymology has been variously, but never satisfactorily, explained. This was their general name when Mohammed appeared in the beginning of the seventh century. Their religion at this time was Sabianism, or the worship of the sun, moon, &c; variously transformed by the different tribes, and intermingled with some Jewish and Christian maxims and traditions. The tribes themselves were generally at variance, from some hereditary and implacable animosities; and their only warfare consisted in desultory skirmishes arising out of these feuds, and in their predatory excursions, where superiority of numbers rendered courage of less value than activity and vigilance. Yet of such materials Mohammed constructed a mighty empire; converted the relapsed Ishmaelites into good Musselmen; united the jarring tribes under one banner; supplied what was wanting in personal courage by the ardour of religious zeal; and out of a banditti, little known and little feared beyond their own deserts, raised an armed multitude, which proved the scourge of the world.
Mohammed was born in the year 569, of the noble tribe of the Koreish, and descended, according to eastern historians, in a direct line from Ishmael.
His person is represented as beautiful, his manners engaging, and his eloquence powerful; but he was illiterate, like the rest of his countrymen, and indebted to a Jewish or Christian scribe for penning his Koran. Whatever the views of Mohammed might have been in the earlier part of his life, it was not till the fortieth year of his age that he avowed his mission as the Apostle of God: when so little credit did he gain for his pretensions, that in the first three years he could only number fourteen converts; and even at the end of ten years his labours and his friends were alike confined within the walls of Mecca, when the designs of his enemies compelled him to fly to Medina, where he was favourably received by a party of the most considerable inhabitants, who had recently imbibed his doctrines at Mecca. This flight, or Hegira, was made the Mohammedan aera, from which time is computed, and corresponds with the 16th of July, 622, of the Christian aera. Mohammed now found himself sufficiently powerful to throw aside all reserve; declared that he was commanded to compel unbelievers by the sword to receive the faith of one God, and his prophet Mohammed; and confirming his credulous followers by the threats of eternal pain on the one hand, and the allurements of a sensual paradise on the other, he had, before his death, which happened in the year 632, gained over the whole of Arabia to his imposture. His death threw a temporary gloom over his cause, and the disunion of his followers threatened its extinction. Any other empire placed in the same circumstances would have crumbled to pieces; but the Arabs felt their power; they revered their founder as the chosen prophet of God; and their ardent temperament, animated by a religious enthusiasm, gave an earnest of future success, and encouraged the zeal or the ambition of their leaders. The succession, after some bloodshed, was settled, and unnumbered hordes of barbarians were ready to carry into execution the sanguinary dictates of their prophet; and, with "the Koran, tribute, or death," as their motto to invade the countries of the infidels. During the whole of the succeeding century, their rapid career was unchecked; the disciplined armies of the Greeks and Romans were unable to stand against them; the Christian churches of Asia and Africa were annihilated; and from India to the Atlantic, through Persia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Egypt, with the whole of northern Africa, Spain, and part of France, the impostor was acknowledged. Constantinople was besieged; Rome itself was plundered; and nothing less than the subjection of the whole Christian world was meditated on the one hand, and tremblingly expected on the other.
All this was wonderful; but the avenging justice of an incensed Deity, and the sure word of prophecy, relieve our astonishment. It was to punish an apostate race, that the Saracen locusts were let loose upon the earth; and the countries which they were permitted to ravage were those in which the pure light of revelation had been most abused. The eastern church was sunk in gross idolatry; vice, and wickedness prevailed in their worst forms; and those who still called themselves Christians trusted more to images, relics, altars, austerities, and pilgrimages, than to a crucified Saviour.
About a hundred and eighty years from the foundation of Bagdad, during which period the power of the Saracens had gradually declined, a dreadful reaction took place in the conquered countries. The Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and, assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy in the year 936. A succession of nominal caliphs continued to the year 1258: but the provinces were lost; their power was confined to the walls of their capital; and they were in real subjection to the Turks and the Persians until the above year, when Mostacem, the last of the Abbassides, was dethroned and murdered by Holagou, or Hulaku, the Tartar, the grandson of Zingis. This event, although it terminated the foreign dominion of the Arabians, left their native independence untouched. They were no longer, indeed, the masters of the finest parts of the three great divisions of the ancient world: their work was finished; and returning to the state in which Mohammed found them three centuries before, with the exception of the change in their religion, they remained, and still remain, the unconquered rovers of the desert.
It is not the least singular circumstance in the history of this extraordinary people, that those who, in the enthusiasm of their first successes, were the sworn foes of literature, should become for several ages its exclusive patrons. Almansor, the founder of Bagdad, has the merit of first exciting this spirit, which was encouraged in a still greater degree by his grandson Almamon. This caliph employed his agents in Armenia, Syria, Egypt, and at Constantinople, in collecting the most celebrated works on Grecian science, and had them translated into the Arabic language. Philosophy, astronomy, geometry, and medicine, were thus introduced and taught; public schools were established; and learning, which had altogether fled from Europe, found an asylum on the banks of the Tigris. Nor was this spirit confined to the capital: native works began to appear; and by the hands of copyists were multiplied out of number, for the information of the studious, or the pride of the wealthy. The rage for literature extended to Egypt and to Spain. In the former country, the Fatimites collected a library of a hundred thousand manuscripts, beautifully transcribed, and very elegantly bound; and in the latter, the Ommiades formed another of six hundred thousand volumes; forty-four of which were employed in the catalogue. Their capital, Cordova, with the towns of Malaga, Almeria, and Murcia, produced three hundred writers; and seventy public libraries were established in the cities of Andalusia. What a change since the days of Omar, when the splendid library of the Ptolemies was wantonly destroyed by the same people! A retribution, though a slight one, was thus made for their former devastations; and many Grecian works, lost in the original, have been recovered in their Arabic dress. Neither was this learning confined to mere parade, though much of it must undoubtedly have been so. Their proficiency in astronomy and geometry is attested by their astronomical tables, and by the accuracy with which, in the plain of Chaldea, a degree of the great circle of the earth was measured. But it was in medicine that, in this dark age, the Arabians shone most: the works of Hippocrates and Galen had been translated and commented on; their physicians were sought after by the princes of Asia and Europe; and the names of Rhazis, Albucasis, and Avicenna are still revered by the members of the healing art. So little, indeed, did the physicians of Europe in that age know of the history of their own science, that they were astonished, on the revival of learning, to find in the ancient Greek authors those systems for which they thought themselves indebted to the Arabians!
The last remnant of Arabian science was found in Spain; from whence it was expelled in the beginning of the seventeenth century, by the intemperate bigots of that country, who have never had any thing of their own with which to supply its place. The Arabians are the only people who have preserved their descent, their independence, their language, and their manners and customs, from the earliest ages to the present times; and it is among them that we are to look for examples of patriarchal life and manners. A very lively sketch of this mode of life is given by Sir R. K. Porter, in the person and tribe of an Arab sheik, whom he encountered in the neighbourhood of the Euphrates. "I had met this warrior," says Sir R. K. P., "at the house of the British resident at Bagdad; and came, according to his repeated wish, to see him in a place more consonant with his habits, the tented field; and, as he expressed it, ‘at the head of his children.' As soon as we arrived in sight of his camp, we were met by crowds of its inhabitants, who, with a wild and hurrying delight, led us toward the tent of their chief. The venerable old man came forth to the door, attended by his subjects of all sizes and descriptions, and greeted us with a countenance beaming kindness, while his words, which our interpreter explained, were demonstrative of patriarchal welcome. One of my Hindoo troopers spoke Arabic, hence the substance of our succeeding discourse was not lost on each other. Having entered, I sat down by my host; and the whole of the persons present, to far beyond the boundaries of the tent, (the sides of which were open,) seated themselves also, without any regard to those more civilized ceremonies of subjection, the crouching of slaves, or the standing of vassalage. These persons, in rows beyond rows, appeared just as he had described, the offspring of his house, the descendants of his fathers, from age to age; and like brethren, whether holding the highest or the lowest rank, they seemed to gather round their common parent. But perhaps their sense of perfect equality in the mind of their chief could not be more forcibly shown, than in the share they took in the objects which appeared to interest his feelings; and as I looked from the elders or leaders of the people, seated immediately around him, to the circles beyond circles of brilliant faces, bending eagerly toward him and his guest, (all, from the most respectably clad to those with hardly a garment covering their active limbs, earnest to evince some attention to the stranger he bade welcome,) I thought I had never before seen so complete an assemblage of fine and animated countenances, both old and young: nor could I suppose a better specimen of the still existing state of the true Arab; nor a more lively picture of the scene which must have presented itself, ages ago, in the fields of Haran, when Terah sat in his tent door, surrounded by his sons, and his sons' sons, and the people born in his house. The venerable Arabian sheik was also seated on the ground with a piece of carpet spread under him; and, like his ancient Chaldean ancestor, turned to the one side and the other, graciously answering or questioning the groups around him, with an interest in them all which clearly showed the abiding simplicity of his government, and their obedience. On the smallest computation, such must have been the manners of these people for more than three thousand years; thus, in all things, verifying the prediction given of Ishmael at his birth, that he, in his posterity, should ‘be a wild man,' and always continue to be so, though ‘he shall dwell for ever in the presence of his brethren.' And that an acute and active people, surrounded for ages by polished and luxurious nations, should from their earliest to their latest times, be still found a wild people, dwelling in the presence of all their brethren, (as we may call these nations,) unsubdued and unchangeable, is, indeed, a standing miracle: one of those mysterious facts which establish the truth of prophecy." But although the manners of the Arabians have remained unaltered through so many ages, and will probably so continue, their religion, as we have seen, has sustained an important change; and must again, in the fulness of time, give place to a faith more worthy of the people.
St. Paul first preached the Gospel in Arabia, Galatians 1:17 . Christian churches were subsequently founded, and many of their tribes embraced Christianity prior to the fifth century; most of which appear to have been tinctured with the Nestorian heresy. At this time, however, it does not appear that the Arabians had any version of the Scriptures in their own language, to which some writers attribute the ease with which they were drawn into the Mohammedan delusion; while the "Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, Abyssinians, Copts, and others," who enjoyed that privilege, were able to resist it.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Arabia
Arabia (a-râ'biah), arid, sterile. A peninsula in the southwestern part of Asia, between the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Persian Gulf. Its extreme length from north to south is about 1300 miles, its greatest breadth about 1500 miles, though from the northern point of the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf is only about 900 miles. It has the sea on all sides except the north. Its area is estimated at 1,030,000 square miles; and of the three ancient divisions of the country, that known as Arabia Felix was by far the largest and most important. Its main features are a coast range of low mountains or table land, seldom rising over 2000 feet, broken on the eastern coast by sandy plains; this plateau is backed up by a second loftier range of mountains in the east and south. The Sinaitic peninsula is a small triangular region in the northwestern part, or corner, of Arabia. See Sinai. The ancients divided it into Petræa, Deserta, and Felix; or the stony, the desert, and the happy or fertile. The principal animals are the horse, famed for its form, beauty, and endurance; camels, sheep, asses, dogs, the gazelle, tiger, lynx, and monkey; quails, peacocks, parrots, ostriches; vipers, scorpions, and locusts. Of fruits and grains, dates, wheat, millet, rice, beans, and pulse are common. It is also rich in minerals, especially in lead. Arabia in early Israelitish history meant a small tract of country south and east of Palestine, probably the same as that called Kedem, or "the east." Genesis 10:30; Genesis 25:6; Genesis 29:1. Arabia in New Testament times appears to have been scarcely more extensive. Galatians 1:17; Galatians 4:25. The chief inhabitants were known as Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites. The allusions in the Scripture to the country and its people are very numerous. Job is supposed to have dwelt in Arabia. The forty years of wandering by the Israelites under Moses was in this land. See Sinai. Solomon received gold from it, 1 Kings 10:15; 2 Chronicles 9:14; Jehoshaphat flocks, 2 Chronicles 17:11; some of its people were at Jerusalem at the Pentecost, Acts 2:11; Paul visited it, Galatians 1:17; the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah frequently refer to it. Isaiah 21:11-13; Isaiah 42:11; Isaiah 60:7; Jeremiah 25:24; Jeremiah 49:28-29. The Minnaean country to which Moses fled, according to recent discoveries, was among the most cultured of ancient times, having alphabetic writing and literary works earlier than the Phœnicians. It has been said, that if any people in the world afford in their history an instance of high antiquity and great simplicity of manners, the Arabs surely do. Of all peoples, the Arabs have spread farthest over the globe, and in all their wanderings have preserved their language, manners, and peculiar customs more perfectly than any other nation.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Arabia
Only rarely does the Bible mention Arabia by name. It usually refers to the peoples of the region by the family or tribal groups to which they belonged. Often it refers to Arabia simply as the east’ (Genesis 10:30; Genesis 25:6; Judges 6:3; Isaiah 2:6; Ezekiel 25:4).
Many of the people descended from Noah (Genesis 10), Abraham (through his concubine Keturah; Genesis 25:1-6), and Esau (Genesis 36) settled as tribal groups in Arabia. They were wandering shepherds rather than farmers, since most of the land was not suitable for cultivation and some of it was desert. Among the better known tribal groups were Joktam and Sheba in the south (Genesis 10:25-29; 1 Kings 10:1-13; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15; Isaiah 60:6) and Dedan and Kedar in the north (Isaiah 21:13-17; Isaiah 42:11; Jeremiah 25:23-24; Jeremiah 49:28; Ezekiel 25:13; Ezekiel 27:21).
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Sentence search

Arabia - Arabia Proper, being the same as the ancient Arabia Felix, embraces the peninsula which extends southward to the Arabian Sea and northward to the desert. Western Arabia, the same as the ancient Arabia Petraea, embraces Sinai and the desert of Petra, extending from Egypt and the Red Sea to about Petra. Northern Arabia, which joins Western Arabia and extends northward to the Euphrates. See ArabiaNS
Arabian - ) Of or pertaining to Arabia or its inhabitants. ) A native of Arabia; an Arab
Arabian - Pertaining to Arabia. A native of Arabia an Arab
Arabia - It was anciently divided into three parts:, ...
Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia), so called from its fertility. It embraced a large portion of the country now known by the name of Arabia. ...
Arabia Deserta, the el-Badieh or "Great Wilderness" of the Arabs. From this name is derived that which is usually given to the nomadic tribes which wander over this region, the "Bedaween," or, more generally, "Bedouin," ...
Arabia Petraea, i. , the Rocky Arabia, so called from its rocky mountains and stony plains. This country is, however, divided by modern geographers into (1) Arabia Proper, or the Arabian Peninsula; (2) Northern Arabia, or the Arabian Desert; and (3) Western Arabia, which includes the peninsula of Sinai and the Desert of Petra, originally inhabited by the Horites (Genesis 14:6 , etc. The whole land appears (Genesis 10 ) to have been inhabited by a variety of tribes of different lineage, Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites; but at length becoming amalgamated, they came to be known by the general designation of Arabs. ...
The Israelites wandered for forty years in Arabia. Arabians were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ). Paul retired for a season into Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17 )
Ara'Bia - (desert, barren ), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--
The East Country , ( Genesis 25:6 ) or perhaps the East, ((Genesis 10:30 ; Numbers 23:7 ; Isaiah 2:6 ) and Land of the Sons of the East , ( Genesis 29:1 ) Gentile name, Sons of the East , ( Judges 6:3 ; 7:12 ; 1 Kings 4:30 ; Job 1:3 ; Isaiah 11:14 ; Jeremiah 49:28 ; Ezekiel 25:4 ) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation. ...
'Arab and 'Arab , whence Arabia. ( 2 Chronicles 9:14 ; Isaiah 21:13 ; Jeremiah 26:24 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ) (Arabia is a triangular peninsula, included between the Mediterranean and Red seas, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. --Arabia may be divided into Arabia Proper , containing the whole peninsula as far as the limits of the northern deserts; Northern Arabia (Arabia Deserta), constituting the great desert of Arabia; and Western Arabia , the desert of Petra and the peninsula of Sinai, or the country that has been called Arabia Petraea , I. Arabia Proper , or the Arabian penninsula consists of high tableland, declining towards the north. Northern Arabia , or the Arabian Desert, is a high, undulating, parched plain, of which the Euphrates forms the natural boundary from the Persian Gulf to the frontier of Syria, whence it is bounded by the latter country and the desert of Petra on the northwest and west, the peninsula of Arabia forming its southern limit. They conducted a considerable trade of merchandise of Arabia and India from the shore of the Persian Gulf. Western Arabia includes the peninsula of Sinai [1] and the desert of Petra; corresponding generally with the limits of Arabia Petraea. -- (Arabia, which once ruled from India to the Atlantic, now has eight or nine millions of inhabitants, about one-fifth of whom are Bedouin or wandering tribes, and the other four-fifths settled Arabs. The principal Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of ancient Arabia, was that of the Yemen. They appear to have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf. ...
In northern and western Arabia are other peoples, which, from their geographical position and mode of life are sometimes classed with the Arabs, of these are AMALEK , the descendants of ESAU , etc. In pasture lands Arabia is peculiarly fortunate. Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the second century, and about a century later it had made great progress. Judaism was propagated in Arabia, principally by Karaites, at the captivity. -- Arabic the language of Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic languages, and the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore, of great importance to the study of Hebrew. -- Arabia is now under the government of the Ottoman empire
Himyaritic - ) Pertaining to Himyar, an ancient king of Yemen, in Arabia, or to his successors or people; as, the Himjaritic characters, language, etc. to certain ancient inscriptions showing the primitive type of the oldest form of the Arabic, still spoken in Southern Arabia
Dik'Lah - ( Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ) a son of Joktan, whose settlements, in common with those of the other sons of Joktan, must be looked for in Arabia. It is thought that Diklah is a part of Arabia containing many palm trees
Arabical - ) Relating to Arabia; Arabic
Araby - ) The country of Arabia
Trachonitis - This province had Arabia Deserta to the east, Batanea to the west, Iturea to the south, and the country of Damascus to the north. It belonged rather to Arabia than Palestine; was a rocky province, and served as a shelter for thieves and depredators
Kedar - Kedar was the name of a nomadic tribal group of northern Arabia. The people of Kedar lived in tents, kept flocks of sheep and goats, and dealt shrewdly in various trading activities (Psalms 120:5; Isaiah 60:7; Jeremiah 49:28-29; Ezekiel 27:21; see Arabia)
Hagarenes - They dwelt chiefly in Arabia
Jerah - The moon was the chief god in South Arabia. Since the surrounding names in the list represent Arabian tribes, this probably indicates the relationshipof Semitic tribes in Arabia to the Hebrews
Buz - The name of BAZU has been found in the Assyrian inscriptions, which is thought to refer to the settlement of Buz in Northern Arabia. Name of a place supposed to be in Arabia
Nabat - See Arabia, Aretas, Edom, Nebaioth
Diklah - Arab tradition confirms Genesis 10:26-29 in making Joktan (Kahtan) the great progenitor of all the pure tribes of central and southern Arabia. coast of Arabia; Diklah equates to Dakalah, an important city in the Yemen; it means a fruit-abounding palm tree
Arab - ) One of a swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria, Northern Africa, etc
Arabic - ) The language of the Arabians. ) Of or pertaining to Arabia or the Arabians
Meccawee - ) Of or pertaining to Mecca, in Arabia
Hazerim - An ancient abode of the Avim, apparently in the northwestern part of Arabia Petraea, Deuteronomy 2:23
Dabb - ) A large, spine-tailed lizard (Uromastix spinipes), found in Egypt, Arabia, and Palestine; - called also dhobb, and dhabb
Dedanim - People mentioned in the 'burden upon Arabia
Sabth And Sabtecha - It cannot be decided whether they settled in Africa, Arabia, or southeastern Asia
Abimael - The name is preserved in Μali in Arabia Aromatifera (Theophrastus)
Diklah - Son of Joktan of the family of Shem,whose descendants settled in Arabia
Abimael - Father of Mael, one of the sons or descendants of Joktan, in Northern Arabia (Genesis 10:28 ; 1 Chronicles 1:22 )
Medan - He is supposed to have settled in Arabia, near Midian his brother
Dhow - ) A coasting vessel of Arabia, East Africa, and the Indian Ocean
Jaal Goat - A species of wild goat (Capra Nubiana) found in the mountains of Abyssinia, Upper Egypt, and Arabia; - called also beden, and jaela
Diklah - A tribe descended from Joktan, Genesis 10:27 , and dwelling in Southern Arabia, or perhaps near the head of the Persian gulf
Joktan - His descendants are traced to southern Arabia
Mingled People - The underlying Hebrew consists of the same three consonants as the term for Arabia. Modern translations follow the alternate vocalization and read Arabia or Arabs at Ezekiel 30:5
Kedar - A son of Ishmael, Genesis 25:13 , the father of the Kedarenians or Cedrei, mentioned by Pliny, who dwelt in the neighborhood of the Nabatheans, in Arabia Deserta. They were a numerous and powerful tribe, not of the best reputation, Psalm 120:5 , and their name is sometimes put for the whole of Arabia Desert and its wandering inhabitants, Isaiah 21:16,17 42:11
Sheleph - A son of Joktan ( Genesis 10:26 ) and therefore a tribe in Southern Arabia
Massa - of Arabia, may have sprung from Massa
Naamathite - The designation of Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11 ; 11:1 ), so called from some place in Arabia, called Naamah probably
Lizard - ( Leviticus 11:30 ) Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia. The lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard (Ptyodactylus gecko ) which is common in Egypt and in parts of Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Palestine
Joktan - Arabia, "from Mesha unto Sephar a mount of the East" (Zafari, a seaport E. The Arab Kahtan whose sons peopled Yemen or Arabia Felix. Arab tradition makes Joktan or Kahtan progenitor of the purest tribes of central and southern Arabia
Oryx - beatrix) of Arabia
Sephar - It is perhaps the same as Mount Sabber in Southwestern Arabia
Joktheel - The name given by Amaziah to the capital of Arabia Petraea, 2 Kings 14:7
u'Zal - (separate ), the sixth son of Joktan, ( Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ) whose settlements are clearly traced in the ancient name of San'a , the capital city of the Yemen (a district of Arabia), which was originally Awzal . It is one of the most imposing cities of Arabia -ED
Ophir - He is judged to have settled in Arabia. Possibly southern Arabia is alluded to; but India and Africa have also been suggested
Manna - ) A name given to lichens of the genus Lecanora, sometimes blown into heaps in the deserts of Arabia and Africa, and gathered and used as food. ) The food supplied to the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness of Arabia; hence, divinely supplied food
Sephar - Probably Dhafar (pronounced Zafar) or Dhafari (pronounced Zafari ) in Hadramaut, part of Southern Arabia
Ish'Bak - (left behind ), a son of Abraham and Keturah, ( Genesis 25:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) and the progenitor of a tribe of northern Arabia
je'Rah - (the moon ), the fourth in order of the sons of Joktan, ( Genesis 10:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:20 ) and the progenitor of a tribe of southern Arabia
Samiel - It is identical with the simoom of Arabia and the kamsin of Syria
Ophir - It is safe to conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon's ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia
Arabia - Though Christianity in Arabia dates from Apostolic times, the Arabs, being of a lax and sensual nature, were indifferent in the practise of their religion, fell easily into the heresies of Arianism, Nestorianism, and Monophysitism, and lost all traces of Christianity after the appearance of Islam. The Catholic Church is represented by the Vicariate Apostolic of Arabia, established as a prefecture Apostolic, 1875, erected into the Vicariate Apostolic of Aden, May 4, 1888, and the name changed to Arabia, June 28, 1889
Chamois - Not the well-known mountain goat of southern Europe, but probably a variety of wild sheep, resembling a goat, and still found in Arabia Petraea, Deuteronomy 14:5
Sabeans - These men were probably the Sabeans of Arabia Felix, or of Asia. The Sabeans of Arabia were descended from Saba; but as there are several of this name, who were all heads of peoples, or of tribes, we must distinguish several kinds of Sabeans. Those Sabeans who seized the flocks of Job 1:15 , were, probably, a people of Arabia Deserta, about Bozra; or, perhaps, a flying troop of Sabeans which infested that country. Genesis 10:7 , are probably of Arabia Felix: they were famous for spices; the poets gave them the epithet of soft and effeminate, and say they were governed by women:...
Medis, levibusque Sabaeis ...
Imperat hic sexus. ]'>[1] Several are of opinion, that from them came the queen of Sheba, 1 Kings 10:1-2 ; and that of these Sabeans the psalmist speaks, Psalms 72:10 , "The kings of Arabia and Sheba shall give gifts;" and Jeremiah 6:20 : "What are the perfumes of Sheba to me?" and Isaiah 60:6 : "All who come from Sheba shall offer gold and perfumes. Genesis 10:7 , probably dwelt in Arabia Felix
Simoon - ) A hot, dry, suffocating, dust-laden wind, that blows occasionally in Arabia, Syria, and neighboring countries, generated by the extreme heat of the parched deserts or sandy plains
Gesh'Uri - (3:14; Joshua 12:5 ; 13:11 ) ...
An ancient tribe which dwelt in the desert between Arabia and Philistia
Ashu'Rim - ( Genesis 26:3 ) Knobel considers them the same with the Asshur of (Ezekiel 27:28 ) and connected with southern Arabia
Bedouin - ) One of the nomadic Arabs who live in tents, and are scattered over Arabia, Syria, and northern Africa, esp
Moab - ...
(2) A rich and populous land (4Kings 3), home of the Moabites, 50 miles long, and 30 miles broad, commanding the routes from Arabia to Damascus
Ariel Gazelle - ...
(2):...
A variety of the gazelle (Antilope, / Gazella, dorcas), found in Arabia and adjacent countries
Mas'sa - ( Genesis 26:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) His descendants were not improbably the Masani , placed by Ptolemy in the east of Arabia, near the borders of Babylonia
Sheleph - His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, where the tribe of Shelif or Shulaf has been found
o'Phir - The two countries which have divided the opinions of the learned have been Arabia and India, while some have placed it in Africa. The author of the tenth chapter of Genesis certainly regarded Ophir as the name of some city, region or tribe in Arabia. There is no mention, either in the Bible or elsewhere, of any other Ophir; and the idea of there having been two Ophirs evidently arose from a perception of the obvious meaning of the tenth chapter of Genesis on the one hand, coupled with the erroneous opinion, on the other that the Ophir of the book of Kings could not have been in Arabia. (Hence we conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon's ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet, there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia and, moreover, Ophir may not have been the original place of production of some of them, but the great market for traffic in them
Arabia Deserta - When Paul says he "went into Arabia and returned again to Damascus," he meant doubtless the northern part of Arabia Deserta, which lay adjacent to the territories of Damascus, Galatians 1:17
Aretas - The father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. At this time Paul returned to Damascus from Arabia
Uzal - His descendants are traced to Sana (the ancient name of which was Awzal), the capital of the Yemen in Southern Arabia
Sephar - The site is apparently in southern Arabia, perhaps the coastal town of Tsaphar in Oman or Itsphar south of Hadramaut
Joktan - Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia
Naamathite - Na'ameh is perhaps Djebel-el-Na'ameh in northwest Arabia
Arethas And Companions, Saint - Martyrs (523), inhabitants of the Christian city of Nedshran (Negran), Arabia, killed by the Dhu Nowas (Dunawan), King of the Hymerites
Nebaioth - A son if Ishmael, Genesis 25:13 , whose posterity, occupied the pasture grounds of Arabia Deserta, Isaiah 60:7 , and ultimately possessed themselves of Edom
Wahabee - His doctrines prevail particularly among the Bedouins, and the sect, though checked in its influence, extends to most parts of Arabia, and also into India
Mibsam - Progenitor probably of a tribe dwelling in the part of Arabia yielding balsam and perfumes
Diklah - He was apparently the original ancestor of a tribe in Arabia which settled in an oasis where dates were grown, but nothing more is known of him
Buz - A land in eastern Arabia (Jeremiah 25:23 ) which Jeremiah condemned
Hazar-Maveth - Court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Genesis 10:26 ; 1 Chronicles 1:20 )
Uphaz - Some, however, regard it as the name of an Indian colony in Yemen, southern Arabia; others as a place on or near the river Hyphasis (now the Ghana), the south-eastern limit of the Punjaub
Mattock - (Isaiah 7:25 ) The tool used in Arabia for loosening the ground, described by Neibuhr, answers generally to our mattock or grubbing-axe, i
Ophir - Placed between Sheba and Havilah, Ophir must be in Arabia. ...
The gold of western Asia was anciently obtained principally from Arabia. Strobe, 16:777, 778, 784, Diodorus Siculus, 2:50; 3:44, describe Arabia as rich in gold. " The wares and animals, from India or Africa, if such was their source (as the Sanskrit, Tamil, and Malay origin of the words ivory, peacocks, and apes respectively implies), came through Arabia. The Ishmaelites abounded in gold: Numbers 31:22; Judges 8:24-26; Psalms 72:15 "gold of Sheba (Arabia). Minores, 1:60), living in Egypt, and guardian to a Ptolemy in his minority and so familiar with the commerce between Egypt and Arabia, attests that gold was found in Arabia
Shittah And Shittim - It does not grow in cultivated places, nor in any other places of the Roman Empire, but only in the deserts of Arabia. " It is thought he means the black acacia, the Acacia Seyal, which is found in the deserts of Arabia, and the wood of which is very common about Mount Sinai and the mountains which border on the Red Sea, and is so hard and solid as to be almost incorruptible
Havilah - ” Biblical name for the sand-dominated region to the south covering what we call Arabia without necessarily designating a particular geographical or political area. Some Bible students think the name is preserved in modern Haulan in southwest Arabia. Thus Havilah refers to an area or areas in Arabia, but the precise location is not known
Dedan - Arabia, and associated with Assyria (Ezekiel 27:23), i. Arabia, from the Red Sea to the straits of Bab el Mandeb. Ezekiel thus recounts the two channels of merchandise, Raamah on the Persian gulf, and Sheba on the Red Sea in Arabia
Goshen - ]'>[1] reads ‘Gesem of Arabia’ in Genesis 45:10 ; Genesis 46:34 , elsewhere ‘Gesem. ’ Now Arabia is defined by Ptolemy, the geographer, as an Egyptian nome on the East border of the Delta of the Nile, and this seems to be the locality most probably contemplated by the narrator. There seems to be no Egyptian origin for the name, unless it represented Kesem , the Egyptian equivalent of Phacussa (the chief town of the nome of Arabia according to Ptolemy)
Sheba - His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. Some judge his descendants to have settled 'far north'; others place them 'somewhere in Arabia
Sheba - His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. Some judge his descendants to have settled 'far north'; others place them 'somewhere in Arabia
Buz - ...
...
A district in Arabia Petrea (Jeremiah 25:23 )
Dedanim - They are mentioned in Isaiah 21:13 as sending out "travelling companies" which lodged "in the forest of Arabia
Hazarmaveth - The name is supposed to have been preserved by the settlement of the tribe in Hadramaut, in the far south of Arabia, about 16 10' N, 50 E
Sabian - ) Of or pertaining to Saba in Arabia, celebrated for producing aromatic plants
Juniper - The Hebrew word, however, signifies the plant Genista, or Spanish broom, which is common in the desert regions of Arabia, and has yellowish blossoms and a bitter root
Tema - An Ishmaelite tribe and district, in the north of Arabia Deserta towards Damascus, Genesis 25:15
Bdellium - , of Arabia Felix
Zophar - render here "king of the Mineans" = Ma'in, Maonites, Judges 10:12 , in Southern Arabia)
Hazo - The name of Ha-zu-u (Hazu) has been found in the Assyrian inscriptions, which are thought to point out the settlement of Hazo to be on the borders of northern Arabia
Topaz - It was one of the twelve gems in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 , and was a highly prized product of Cush, or Southern Arabia, Job 28:19 ; Ezekiel 28:13
Uz - From an inscription of Esarhaddon it appears there were in central Arabia, beyond the jebel Shomer, about the modern countries of upper and lower Kaseem, two regions, Bazu and Khazu, answering to Buz and Huz. Uz therefore was in the middle of northern Arabia, not far from the famous district of the Nejd. Ptolemy mentions the Aesitae (related to "Uz") as in the northern part of Arabia Deserta, near Babylon and the Euphrates
Arabia - Arabia (a-râ'biah), arid, sterile. Its area is estimated at 1,030,000 square miles; and of the three ancient divisions of the country, that known as Arabia Felix was by far the largest and most important. The Sinaitic peninsula is a small triangular region in the northwestern part, or corner, of Arabia. Arabia in early Israelitish history meant a small tract of country south and east of Palestine, probably the same as that called Kedem, or "the east. Arabia in New Testament times appears to have been scarcely more extensive. The chief inhabitants were known as Ishmaelites, Arabians, Idumeans, Horites, and Edomites. Job is supposed to have dwelt in Arabia
Bdellium - 7), variously taken to be a gum, a precious stone, or pearls, or perhaps a kind of amber found in Arabia
Dumah - A tribe and country of the Ishmaelites in Arabia, Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ; Isaiah 21:11 . This is doubtless the same which is still called by the Arabs "Duma the stony" and "the Syrian Duma," situated on the confines of the Arabian and Syrian desert, with a fortress
Havilah - portion of Yemen or Arabia Felix. This Havilah is not as the former Havilah in the heart of Yemen, but on the border of Arabia Petrea toward Yemen, between the Nabateans and the Hagarites; the country of the Chauloteans
Balm, or More Properly, Balsam - The true balsam-tree is an evergreen, a native of Southern Arabia and Abyssinia, and is about fourteen feet high. At the present day, this is collected chiefly in Arabia, between Mecca and Medina, and is therefore sometimes called the balm of Mecca
Havilah - The other Havilah seems to have in Arabia. From the statement in 1 Samuel 15:7 , that "Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah unto Shurm that is over against Egypt," it would seen to have been somewhere in the north-western part of Arabia; since, from the circumstances of this campaign, we cannot well suppose that it extended over a great tract of country
Beans - They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia and Syria
Mufflers - 6) to Jewesses from Arabia
Raamah - His locality must therefore be southern Arabia
Badgers - The true badger is rare, if known, in Arabia
ge'Shem - and Gash'mu ( rain ), an Arabian, mentioned in ( Nehemiah 2:19 ) and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B. ) We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably the chief of a tribe
Coffee - ) The "beans" or "berries" (pyrenes) obtained from the drupes of a small evergreen tree of the genus Coffea, growing in Abyssinia, Arabia, Persia, and other warm regions of Asia and Africa, and also in tropical America
Wise Men - The "wise men" of Matthew 2:7 , who came from the East to Jerusalem, were magi from Persia or Arabia
Hagarenes, Hagarites - People in Arabia on whom the two and a half tribes made war
Sheleph - Ptolemy (6:7) mentions the Salapeni among the ancient inhabitants of Arabia Felix
Semites - In historic times all western Asia, with the exception of Asia Minor, was Semitic, and philologically the race is divided into four chief groups: Babylonian-Assyrian, Chanaanite, Aramaic, and Arabian. Their languages are closely related to one another, being dialects of a single linguistic group, the purest form being found in Arabia; and from this and other circumstances it has been concluded that Arabia is the original home of the Semitic race
Kenizzite - They are not mentioned among the original inhabitants of Canaan (Exodus 3:8 ; Joshua 3:10 ), and probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria
na'Amathite, - (But as Uz was in Arabia, probably the Naamah where he lived was on the Arabian borders of Syria
Raama(h) - (ray' uh maw) Son of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ) and ancestor of Sheba and Dedan Arab tribes occupying southwest and west-central Arabia (1 Chronicles 1:9 )
Caravan - Palestine lay along the main travel route between Egypt, Arabia, and Mesopotamia and had many caravans passing through it
Cush - The country peopled by Cush or the Ethiopians, Genesis 10:6, lying to the south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and possibly extending its rule into southern Arabia
Dumah - Son of Ishmael and founder of a tribe in Arabia
Galbanum - It is the gum of a plant growing in Abyssinia, Arabia, and Syria, called by Pliny stagonitis, but supposed to be the same as the Bubon Galbanum of Linnaeus
Barthol'Omew - He is said to have preached the gospel in India, that is, probably, Arabia Felix, and according to some in Armenia
Camphire - There can be no doubt that "camphire" is the Lawsonia alba of botanists, the henna of Arabian naturalists. The henna plant grows in Egypt, Syria, Arabia and northern India
Gold - Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir, Uphaz, and Parvaim (used for "gold" in Job 22:24), were the gold producing countries. It is no longer found in Arabia
Sabean - This is usually equated with the city in southern Arabia, modern Marib in Yemen. Some scholars think this is too far south and seek biblical Sheba in northern Arabia near Medina on the wadi esh-Shaba. Sheba in southern Arabia gained riches through trade with nearby Africa and with India, whose goods they transported and sold to the empires to the north
East - of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia. So Qedem with the article (Genesis 10:30) expresses the definite country S, Arabia; "Sephara mount of the E. Arabia and Mesopotamia. " are the wandering Bedouin tribes of Arabia Deserta; "they shall set their palaces in thee" (Ammon); irony; where thy palaces once stood, they shall set up very different "palaces," namely, nomadic encampments and mud-surrounded folds (Jeremiah 49:28-29)
Gold - Arabia had formerly its golden mines. "The gold of Sheba," Psalms 72:15 , is, in the Septuagint and Arabic versions, "the gold of Arabia. " Sheba was the ancient name of Arabia Felix. The gold of Ophir, so often mentioned, must be that which was procured in Arabia, on the coast of the Red Sea
Ash - There is a tree called by the Arabs Aran , found still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of the mountain ash
Peleg - But more probably the reference is to the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber, the one spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward into Arabia
Hazarmaveth - of Arabia, abounding in myrrh and frankincense, but deadly in climate, whence it derives its name
Parvaim - From Sanskrit paru "hill," the two hills in Arabia mentioned by Ptolemy (vi
Jabal - He is supposed to have been the first to adopt the nomadic mode of life, still practiced in Arabia and Tartary, and to have invented portable tents, perhaps of skins, Genesis 4:20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle
Parvaim - Arabia
Bildad - Shuah and his brethren were located in Arabia Petraea; and thus Bildad the Shuhite was a neighbor and friend of Job, and came to condole with him in his affliction, Job 2:11 ; 8:1-22 ; 18:1-21 ; 25:1-6
du'Mah -
A son of Ishmael, most probably the founder of the Ishmaelite tribe of Arabia, and thence the name of the principal place of district inhabited by that tribe
Roe, Roebuck - The Hebrew words thus translated denote some species of antelope, probably the Gazella arabica of Syria and Arabia
Tema - Founder of an Arab tribe in the northern Arabia Deserta, on the border of the Syrian desert (Job 6:19); "the troops of Tema" are the caravans on the direct road anxiously "looking for" the return of their companions gone to look for water; the failure of it in the wady and the disappointment depict Job's disappointment at not finding comfort from his friends whose professions promised so much (Isaiah 21:14; Jeremiah 25:23). of Arabia
Midian - Arabia. coast of Arabia may be a late trace of them
Arabia Felix - The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Genesis 10:25,26 . Ishmael, Genesis 25:13-15 , and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:2 , together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts
Ophir - A region most probably in Arabia (as it is mentioned between Sheba and Havilah in Genesis 10:29 ), famous for the excellence of its gold, which was brought to Solomon by his Red Sea navy ( 1 Kings 9:28 ). It has been disputed whether South or East Arabia was the true Ophir; the only datum is the length of the voyage thither from Ezion-geber eighteen months, as the double voyage took three years ( 1 Kings 10:22 ). Arabia , in the territory of the Gulfs of Oman and of Persia. ...
On the whole, the view that Ophir was in Arabia (known to the Phœnicians as auriferous, Ezekiel 27:22 ) is the simplest and most in accordance with the scanty data
Chamites - The Chusites inhabited Arabia, Africa, and the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris; Mesram occupied Egypt; Phuth, probably the region west of Egypt, particularly Libya; and Chanaan, the country later occupied by Israel
Bdellium - It was probably an aromatic gum like balsam which exuded from a particular tree (Borassus flabelliformis) still found in Arabia, Media, and India
Letushim - Arabia ( Genesis 25:3 ), the others being Leummim and Asshurim (wh
Spikenard - The ointment was made from an aromatic herb of the valerian family, imported from an early age from Arabia, India, and the Far East
Trachonitis - In the time of Christ, was, as its name imports, a rugged province, lying on the northeast border of Palestine, south of Damascus, between the mountains of Arabia Deserta on the east, and Iturea, Auranitis, and Batania on the west and south, Luke 3:1
Hazarma'Veth - (court of death ), the third in order of the sons of Joktan ( Genesis 10:26 ) The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and Hadrumawl , the appellation of a province and an ancient people of southern Arabia
pe'Leg - " The reference is to a division of the family of Eber himself, the younger branch of which (the Joktanids) migrated into southern Arabia, while the elder remained in Mesopotamia
Dumah - Silence, (Compare Psalm 94:17 ), the fourth son of Ishmael; also the tribe descended from him; and hence also the region in Arabia which they inhabited (Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 )
Myrrh - It is imported from Egypt, but chiefly from the southern or eastern parts of Arabia from what species of tree or plant it is procured, is unknown
Shu'Hite - This ethnic appellative "Shuhite" is frequent in the book of Job, but only as the apithet of one person, Bildad The local indications of this book point to a region on the western side of Chaldea, bordering on Arabia; and exactly in this locality, above Hit and on both sides of the Euphrates, are found, in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Tsahi , a powerful people
Myrrh - It exudes from the bark of a shrub of Abyssinia and Arabia, the Balsamodendron Myrrha
Jareb - Other, less probable, emendations are ‘king of Arabia,’ ‘king of Jathrib or of Aribi’ (both in N. Arabia)
Frankincense, - The Hebrews imported their frankincense from Arabia, ( Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ) and more particularly from Saba; but it is remarkable that at present the Arabian libanum or olibanum is a very inferior kind, and that the finest frankincense imported into Turkey comes through Arabia from the islands of the Indian Archipelago
Bildad - sprung from Shuah, Abraham's son by Keturah, who was sent eastward by Abraham and founded an Arab tribe (Genesis 25:2) Syccea, in Arabia Deserta, E
Uz - Unspecified territory, most likely in Hauran south of Damascus (Jeremiah 25:20 ) or else between Edom and northern Arabia (Job 1:1 ; Lamentations 4:21 )
Lemuel - Exactly where his kingdom of Massa was is not known, although certain linguistic features in the text have led scholars to place it in north Arabia, possibly near Edom
Bdellium - India, Afghanistan, Belucbistan, and at one time perhaps in Arabia
Chamois - The animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus), which is still found in Sinai and in the broken ridges of Stony Arabia
Sabtah - In the Hadramaut (the Atramitae), a province of southern Arabia, Pliny (vi
al-Modad - Joktan is the eponym of the tribes and peoples of eastern and southern Arabia
ja'Van - ...
A town in the souther part of Arabia (Yemen ), whither the Phoenicians traded
Kedar - From him descended the leading tribes of Arabia and of the land east of Palestine
Arabia - (Arabia arid tract). The Arabah, originally restricted to one wady, came to be applied to all Arabia. by the Arabian Sea and strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, W. of the Arabian peninsula. The three divisions are Arabia Deserta, Felix, and Petraea. The term Κedem , "the East," with the Hebrew probably referred to Arabia DESERTA, or N. Arabia, bounded E. ...
ARABIA FELIX or happy, S. Arabia, bounded on the E. by the Arabian Sea, W. Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia. ...
ARABIA PETRAEA, called from its city Petra, the rock, or Selah (2 Kings 14:7), now Hadjar, i. Cush, son of Ham, originally peopled Arabia (the ruins of Marib, or Seba, and the inscriptions are Cushite; in Babylonia too there are Cushite traces); then Joktan, of Shem's race (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:30). ...
The posterity of Nahor, of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25), of Lot also, formed a part of the population, namely, in Arabia Deserta. The Joktanites of southern Arabia were seafaring; the Ishmaelites, more northward, the caravan merchants (Genesis 37:28)
Arabia - ...
Old Testament The Arabian peninsula, together with the adjoining lands which were home to the biblical Arabs, includes all of present-day Saudi Arabia, the two Yemens (San'a' and Aden), Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait, as well as parts of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and the Sinai Peninsula. The vast Arabian peninsula was divided into two distinct economic and social regions. ...
In the northern portion of Arabia the mountains of the Anti-Lebanon, the Transjordanian Highlands, and the mountains of Edom flank the desert on the west. The mountains continue all the way down the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula bordering the Red Sea and are actually much higher and more rugged in the south. This refers to the people of the northwestern parts of the Arabian territory, whom the Old Testament writers knew as nomadic herders of sheep and goats, and later, of camels. ...
The inhabitants of southern Arabia, in the mountains fringing the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, were town-dwellers with a sophisticated system of irrigation. ...
New Testament The New Testament references to Arabia are fewer and less complex. Paul went to Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17 )
Nebaioth - , "Nebaioth," Genesis 25:13, the first-born, 1 Chronicles 1:29, son of Ishmael, whose descendants are supposed to have settled in Arabia, and to have been the Nabatheans of Greek and Roman history
Arabia - On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red sea, Egypt, and Palestine. Arabia is distinguished by geographers into three parts-Deserta, Petraea, and Felix
Bildad - He is called "the Shuhite," probably as belonging to Shuah, a district in Arabia, in which Shuah, the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah, settled (Genesis 25:2 )
Ishmaelite - The Ishmaelites were regarded as an ethnic group, generally referring to the nomadic tribes of northern Arabia
Javan - ...
...
A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Syrians obtained iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezekiel 27:19 )
Wilderness - In Scripture, it is applied frequently to the deserts of Arabia
Javan - " Others from the mention of "Sabeans" (Joel 3:8) think Javan in Arabia is meant. In Ezekiel 27:19 Javan is a Greek settlement in Arabia. " the capital of Arabia Felix or Yemen, Sanaa
Amalekite - A tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia
Ophir - One of the sons of Joktan, who settled in southern Arabia, Genesis 10:26-29 . Others still suppose it to have been Southern Arabia
Cush - The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Genesis 10:6-8 . The Hebrews also, in the opinion of many, used Cush and Cushan, Habakkuk 3:7 , to designate the southern parts of Arabia, and the coast of the Red sea
Ishmaelites - Having wandered for some time in the wilderness of Beersheba, they proceeded farther to the wilderness of Paran, which bordered on Arabia; and here Ishmael arrived at maturity, and became an expert archer, or a hunter and warrior. In process of time his mother procured for him a wife out of Egypt, by whom he had twelve sons, who eventually established themselves as the heads of so many distinct Arabian tribes. Accordingly, the descendants of Ishmael are mentioned in history under the general name of Arabians and Ishmaelites. " From this brief statement, we may conjecture how far their territory extended; for Havilah, according to the generality of writers, was situated near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, and Shur, on the isthmus which separates Arabia from Egypt, now called the isthmus of Suez. From thence we may well imagine, that they spread themselves on both sides so far as to have taken possession of the greatest part of Arabia; and, indeed, Josephus does not scruple to style their progenitor the founder of the Arabian nation. See Arabia
Sabta, Sabtah - In the genealogical list of Genesis 10:7 a son of Cush, named between Havilah and other Arabian districts. It was probably a region on or near the east coast of Arabia, but in spite of several conjectures it has not been identified with any historical tribe or country
Jobab - He was thus the original ancestor of a Semite tribe, probably in southern Arabia
se'Phar - " ( Genesis 10:30 ) The Joktanites occupied the southwestern portion of the peninsula of Arabia. The undoubted identifications of Arabian places and tribes with their Joktanite originals are included within these limits, and point to Sephar, on the shore of the Indian Ocean, as the eastern boundary
Jakeh - Thus Agur and Lemuel are brothers (Proverbs 31:1), sons of the queen of Masse in Arabia, the region which he conjectures the Simeonites conquered in Hezekiah's time
Dung - ...
...
Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt (Ezekiel 4:12-15 ), where cows' and camels' dung is used to the present day for this purpose
Raamah - The locality of this Arabian tribe is not yet ascertained. Arabia, N
Kedar - It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally (Isaiah 21:16 ; 42:11 ; 60:7 ; Jeremiah 2:10 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia
Village - Arab villages, as found in Arabia, are often mere collections of stone huts, "long, low rude hovels, roofed only with the stalks of palm leaves," or covered for a time with tent-cloths, which are removed when the tribe change their quarters
Bush - Sacred bushes and trees are common in Palestine and Arabia
Calamus - It is the calamus odoratus, a reed growing in India and Arabia, and which is said to have been found in the valley of Lebanon
Javan - A town in the southern part of Arabia (Yemen), whither the Phœnicians traded
uz - It is supposed to have been in the south-east of Palestine towards Arabia Deserta, which would lie open to attacks from the Sabeans and the Chaldeans
Frankincense - The Hebrews imported their frankincense from Arabia
Reformed Church in America - Foreign missionary work is carried on in Arabia, India, China, and Japan
Uz - It appears to have been a region in Arabia Deserta, between Palestine, Idumaea, and the Euphrates, and most probably not far from the borders of Idumaea
Red Sea - The northwest arm of the Indian Ocean, about 1400 miles long and 200 miles wide, lying between Arabia on the east, and Africa on the west, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal, and with the Indian Ocean by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb
Sea, Red - The northwest arm of the Indian Ocean, about 1400 miles long and 200 miles wide, lying between Arabia on the east, and Africa on the west, connected with the Mediterranean Sea by the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal, and with the Indian Ocean by the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb
Sand - Sands, in the plural, tracts of land consisting of sand, like the deserts of Arabia and Africa as the Lybian sands
Paul in Arabia - NO sooner was Paul baptized by Ananias, than, instead of returning home to Jerusalem, he immediately set out for Arabia. He had come down to Damascus with horses and servants like a prince, but he set out alone for Arabia like Jacob with his staff. A few of those simple instruments that tentmakers use when they have to minister to their own necessities, was all that Paul encumbered himself with as he started from Ananias's door on his long and solitary journey to Arabia. ...
What it was that took Paul so immediately and so far away as Arabia, we can only guess. And thus it was that as soon as he was baptized in Ananias's house in Damascus, Paul immediately set out for Arabia. Thy word is more to me than my necessary food, and thy love is better than wine!...
What a three years were those three years that Paul spent in Arabia! Never did any other lord receive his own again with such usury as when Paul went into Arabia with Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms in his knapsack, and returned to Damascus with the Romans and the Ephesians and the Colossians in his mouth and in his heart. What an incomparable book waits to be written about those three immortal years in Arabia! After those thirty preparation-years at Nazareth, there is no other opportunity left for any sanctified pen, like those three revelation-years in Arabia. For, as often as Paul opens his Moses in Arabia, and finds the place he is seeking for, he cannot see the place when he has found it for Jesus Christ. And before he leaves the first Adam he gets such a revelation of the second Adam made in him that the Corinthians had many a glorious Sabbath morning on the two Adams, all the way from Arabia, long afterwards. So did Paul discover the Son of God in Arabia: so did Paul have the Son of God revealed to him in Adam, and in Abraham, and in Moses, and in David, and in Isaiah, but, best of all, in Paul himself. ...
And, then, Paul's first fast-day in Arabia. For it was in Arabia, and it was under the Mount of God, that Paul's apostolic ink-horn was first filled with that ink of God with which he long afterwards wrote that so little understood writing of his, which we call the Seventh of the Romans. A little understood writing; and no wonder!...
The Apostle came back from Arabia to Damascus, after three years' absence, absolutely ladened down with all manner of doctrines, and directions, and examples, for us and for our salvation, if we would only attend to them and receive them. But the Apostle's chief reason for telling us about Arabia at all is this, to prove to us, and to impress upon us, that it was not cities and colleges and books that made him what by that time he was made. Jesus Christ had revealed Himself to Paul already at the gate of Damascus, but God's revelation of His Son in Arabia was a revelation of far more than of Jesus Christ whom Paul was persecuting. For, this in Arabia is God's Eternal and Co-Equal Son. It was God's Essential and Eternal Son: it was God's very deepest, completest, and most crowning revelation possible of His only-begotten Son; that God, in such grace and truth, made in Paul in Arabia
Mohammed - (Arabic: the praised one) ...
The prophet of Islam and founder of Mohammedanism, born Mecca, Arabia, April 20, 571; died there, 633. He ruthlessly attacked and conquered Arabian, Jewish, and Christian tribes and finally united all the tribes of Arabia under one emblem and one religion
Antidikomarianitae - The name given to those in Arabia in the latter part of the 4th cent. The controversy arose out of the then prevailing reverence for virginity, which in its extreme form had led certain women, originally from Thrace, but dwelling in Arabia, to celebrate an idolatrous festival in honour of the Virgin, by taking certain cakes (κολλύριδες ) about in chariots, and then solemnly offering them to her and consuming them, in imitation of the Lord's Supper, or (more probably) of the pagan worship of Ceres
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8). The Joktanites (Semitics) were the early colonists of southern Arabia. ...
"The queen of Sheba" (1 Kings 10:1-2; 1 Kings 10:10) ruled in Arabia, not Ethiopia, as the Abyssinian church allege; Sheba being in the extreme Sheba of Arabia, "she came (a distance of nearly a thousand miles) from the uttermost parts of the earth," as then known, to hear the wisdom of Solomon (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31)
Ophir - Much may be said, however, in favour of the opinion that it was somewhere in Arabia
Timna - Timna is associated with either Timna in southern Arabia or, following Genesis 36:16 , Teman in southern Edom
Dumah - On the borders of Arabia and the Syrian desert
Uzal - The capital of the Yemen (Arabia Felix) was originally Awzal (now San'a), anciently the most flourishing of Arab communities, its rivals being Sheba and Sephar
Pistachio - The tree grows in Arabia, Persia, Syria, and Sicily
Collyridians - 79) assails certain women who had brought from Thrace into Arabia the practice of performing on certain days rites in honour of the Blessed Virgin the chief being the offering of a cake (κολλυρίς) and the partaking of it by the worshippers
Cinnamon - This spice is now brought from the east Indies; but as there was no traffic with India in the days of Moses, it was then brought, probably, from Arabia, or some neighbouring country
East - , Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite signification
Dedan - The original ancestor of an Arabian tribe listed in the table of nations as a son of Cush (Genesis 10:27 ). Three otherwise unknown Arabian tribes descended from Dedan, according to Genesis 25:3 . The Arabian tribe centered at al-Alula, 70 miles southwest of Tema and 400 miles from Jerusalem. Jeremiah pronounced judgment against the Arabian tribes (Jeremiah 25:23 ), perhaps looking to Nebuchadnezzar's raid in Arabia in 599-598 B. Nabonidus, king of Babylon (556-539), left control of his kingdom to his son Belshazzar and worked in Arabia for a period, controlling Dedan among other cities
Mid'Ian - (strife ), a son of Abraham and Keturah, ( Genesis 25:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) progenitor of the Midianites, or Arabians dwelling principally in the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. (Numbers 31:22 ; Judges 8:21,24-26 ) We have here a wealthy Arab nation, living by plunder, delighting in finery; and, where forays were impossible, carrying ont he traffic southward into Arabia, the land of gold --if not naturally, by trade-- and across to Chaldea, or into the rich plains of Egypt
Uz - ]'>[5] of Job 42:19 Uz is affirmed, on the authority of ‘the Syriac book,’ to lie on the borders of ldumæa and Arabia. Arabia. Arabian people who had settlements in the north. Arabia, about 250 miles S. Arabia, at a considerable distance to the N. of Palestine, and that the Book of Job appears to represent its hero as living in the neighbourhood of the Arabian or Syro-Arabian desert
Aretas - The king of Arabia Petræa at the time the governor of Damascus attempted to apprehend Paul
Damian, Saint - Martyrs, born Arabia; died Ægea (now Ayass), Cilicia, c303They were twin brothers, physicians, and practised at Ægea; they accepted no money from the poor, and, being Christians, their good example brought many to the Faith
Eliphaz - First of Job's three friends, the "Temanite," sprung from the former Eliphaz Teman answers to Edom (Jeremiah 49:20), part of Arabia Petraea
Havilah - Arabia
Aretas - The common appellation (like Pharaoh for Egyptian kings) of the Arabian kings of the northern part of Arabia
Jerah - Probably, in analogy with other names in this connexion, Jerah is to be taken as the designation of an Arabian tribe. In fact, Bochart pointed out that ‘sons of the moon’ is a patronymic still found in Arabia
Hazor - A region in Arabia, laid waste by Nebuchadnezzar, Jeremiah 49:28 - 33
Zerah - It is not agreed by interpreters whether he came from Southern Arabia or from Egypt and Ethiopia
Kenites - A people who dwelt west of the Dead sea, and extended themselves far into Arabia Petraea
Myrrh - ) This was the gum or viscid white liquid which flows from a tree resembling the acacia, found in Africa and Arabia, the Balsamodendron myrrha of botanists. This plant was indigenous to Syria and Arabia
Arabia Petraea - This portion of Arabia, though smaller than the others, is rich in historical associations
Tema - Arabia
Ham - The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia
Nabateans - Paul spent time in Arabia following his conversion, probably preaching the gospel (Galatians 1:17 )
Alexander Balas - But Alexander Balas cared more for sensual pleasures than for kingly duties: his father-in-law Ptolemy turned against him, and Alexander, fleeing to Arabia, was assassinated there ( 1Ma 11:17 )
Cassia - The former is a native of Egypt and both Indies the latter is a native of Persia, Syria and Arabia
Sheba - He is supposed to have settled in Arabia Deserta
Millet - "Durra," says Niebuhr, "is a kind of millet, made into bread with camel's milk, oil, butter, etc, and is almost the only food eaten by the common people of Arabia Felix
Desert - Other deserts particularly mentioned, are "that great and terrible wilderness" in Arabia Petraea, south of Canaan, Numbers 21:20 ; also the region between Canaan and the Euphrates, Exodus 23:31 Deuteronomy 11:24
Neba'Ioth, Neba'Joth - Probably the Nebaioth of Arabia Petrea were, as M
Perfumes - The Hebrews manufactured their perfumes chiefly from spices imported from Arabia though to a certain extent also from aromatic plants growing in their own country
Cush (2) - Also part of Arabia (Genesis 10:7; Isaiah 43:3, especially 2 Chronicles 21:16), Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:8-10), and still further E. or Asiatic side of the Arabia, gulf, as well as on the W. ...
(2) A later one of Cushites through Arabia, Babylonia, Susiana, eastward to W
Incense - It has been said to grow only in the country of the Sabeans, a people in Arabia Felix; and Theophrastus and Pliny affirm that it is found in Arabia. Dioscorides, however, mentions an Indian as well as an Arabian frankincense. At the present day it is brought from the East Indies, but not of so good a quality as that from Arabia
Palm Tree - The date palm ( Phœnix dactylifera ) is a tree essential to existence in the deserts of Arabia, and was therefore held sacred among the Semites from the earliest historic times. It flourishes in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the oases of Arabia ( Exodus 15:27 , Numbers 33:9 ), but its cultivation has for long been much neglected in Palestine. Not only are dates a staple diet in Arabia and an important article of export, but the plaited leaves furnish mats and baskets, the bark is made into ropes, and the seeds are ground up for cattle
Trachonitis - 106 transformed Trachonitis into a new province, which he called ‘Arabia,’ making Bosra its capital
Kedar - side of Arabia
Bdellium - " A gum exuding from a tree (the Borassus flabelliformis) in Arabia, India, and Babylonia, white and transparent, according to some; but this is hardly precious enough to be ranked with the gold and precious stones of Havilah
Frankincense - Arabia ( Isaiah 60:6 , Jeremiah 6:20 ); it was a constituent of incense ( Exodus 30:34 ); it is often associated with myrrh ( Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:6 , Matthew 2:11 ); it was offered with the shewbread ( Leviticus 24:7 )
Corban - Among Mohammedans, a ceremony performed at the foot of mount Arrarat in Arabia, near Mecca
Jobab - A son of Joktan in the genealogies ( Genesis 10:29 , 1 Chronicles 1:23 ), and therefore probably an Arabian geographical name. Arabia
Peleg - Arabia the elder Peleg remaining in Mesopotamia
Kedar - Son of Ishmael, and founder of an important tribe inhabiting the north-west of Arabia, though the name is probably also employed for Arabs generally
Sheba - She is called "queen of the south," and was, according to some, a queen of Arabia; and, according to others, a queen of Ethiopia
Bezer - When Scripture mentions Bezer, it adds, "in the wilderness," because it lay in Arabia Deserta, and the eastern part of Edom, encompassed with deserts
Frankincense (2) - The name is derived from לִבִן ‘to be white,’ akin to which is ân, the name by which frankincense is known in Arabia. It seems clear that no such tree existed in Palestine, but that the frankincense used there was imported through Arabia (cf
Kenites - people who dwelt westward of the Dead Sea, and extended themselves pretty far into Arabia Petraea: for Jethro, the priest of Midian, and father-in-law to Moses, was a Kenite, Judges 1:16 ; 1 Chronicles 2:55 ; 1 Samuel 15:6 . After Saul the Kenites are not mentioned; but they subsisted, being mingled among the Edomites and other nations of Arabia Petraea
Ishmael - ...
The Ishmaelites, his posterity, were said, in the days of Moses, to dwell "from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt," that is, in the northwestern part of Arabia. Subsequently they, with the descendants of Joktan, the fourth from Shem, Genesis 10:26-29 , and Jokshan, the son of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:3 , and perhaps also of some of the brethren of Joktan and Jokshan, occupied the whole peninsula of Arabia
Honey - Forskal says the caravans of Mecca bring honey from Arabia to Cairo, and that he has often seen honey flowing in the woods in Arabia
East - , the lands lying east of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, etc
Geshem - ” Arabian ruler of Kedar who joined Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing Nehemiah's efforts to rebuild the wall of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 2:19 ; Nehemiah 6:1-19 ). He was in name a vassal of Persia but apparently wielded great personal power with tribes in the Syrian desert, southern Palestine, the delta of Egypt, and northern Arabia
Cleopatra - When Balas was driven into Arabia, she became (b
Sand - ) Tracts of land consisting of sand, like the deserts of Arabia and Africa; also, extensive tracts of sand exposed by the ebb of the tide
Javan - In Ezekiel 27:13 the Javan that traded with Tyre doubtless also refers to Greece; but in Ezekiel 27:19 it is supposed to point to southern Arabia, the verse being better translated "Vedan and Javan of Uzal traded in thy markets," etc
Ham - Cush seems to have been the father of the peoples dwelling in Babylonia, southern Arabia, and Ethiopia; Nimrod was his son
Horse - This most valuable animal was first domesticated in the East, and was probably brought by those who emigrated westward from Asia into Arabia and Egypt
East - By the east, they frequently describe, not only Arabia Deserta, and the lands of Moab and Ammon, which lay to the east of Palestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Chaldea, though they are situated rather to the north than to the east of Judea
Dedan - The descendants of the Cushite Dedan are supposed to have settled in southern Arabia, near the Persian gulf, in which there is an island called by the Arabs Dedan lived in the neighborhood of Idumaea, Jeremiah 49:8
Quails - Hasselquist states that it is plentiful near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, and in the deserts of Arabia; and Diodorus affirms that it is caught in immense numbers about Rhinocolura, at the southwest corner of Palestine
North - This is as true in Syria and Arabia now as it was three thousand years ago
Whirlwinds - Were very frequent in the deserts of Arabia, Job 37:9 38:1 Nahum 1:3 , and travelers in the East have encountered many
Medan - To connect it with the name of an Arabian god Madân , or with the similar name of a wady in N. Arabia, is very hazardous, both because the associations are remote, and because the word-form is common in Semitic, and is liable to occur in various relations
Queen - , Southern Arabia, Sheba (Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 ) and the "queen of the Ethiopians" (Acts 8:27 ), Candace
Candace - ); named Judich in Ethiopian tradition, which represents him as having propagated the gospel in Arabia Felix and Ethiopia, and brought Candace herself to the faith
Gerasa - See Arabia
Shushan - It was located on the caravan routes between Arabia and points north and west, and therefore it became a very rich city
Calamus - It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India
Syene - Ezekiel 29:10 , describing the desolation to be brought upon Egypt, says, "Therefore thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will make the land of Egypt utterly desolate, from the tower of Syene even to the border of Cush," or Arabia or, as some read it, "from Migdol to Syene," implying, according to either version of the passage, the whole length of the country from north to south
Gold - (1 Kings 6:22 ) 10 passim ; ( Esther 1:6 ; Song of Solomon 3:9,10 ; Jeremiah 10:9 ) The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir
Arabia - ...
Arabia, or at least the eastern and northern parts of it, were first peopled by some of the numerous families of Cush, who appear to have extended themselves, or to have given their name as the land of Cush, or Asiatic Ethiopia, to all the country from the Indus on the east, to the borders of Egypt on the west, and from Armenia on the north to Arabia Deserta on the south. By these Cushites, whose first plantations were on both sides of the Euphrates and Gulf of Persia, and who were the first that traversed the desert of Arabia, the earliest commercial communications were established between the east and the west. But of their Arabian territory, and of the occupation dependent on it, they were deprived by the sons of Abraham, Ishmael, and Midian; by whom they were obliterated in this country as a distinct race, either by superiority of numbers after mingling with them, or by obliging them to recede altogether to their more eastern possessions, or over the Gulf of Arabia into Africa. ...
Arabia, it is well known, is divided by geographers into three separate regions, called Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. ...
The first, or Arabia Petraea, is the northwestern division, and is bounded on the north by Palestine and the Dead Sea, on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by the Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. ...
The second region, or Arabia Deserta, is bounded on the north and north- east by the Euphrates, on the east by a ridge of mountains which separates it from Chaldea, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea. ...
The third region, or Arabia Felix, so denominated from the happier condition of its soil and climate, occupies the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. ...
Arabia Felix is inhabited by a people who claim Joktan for their father, and so trace their descent direct from Shem, instead of Abraham and Ham. It was here, in the ports of Sabaea, that the spices, muslins, and precious stones of India, were for many ages obtained by the Greek traders of Egypt, before they had acquired skill or courage sufficient to pass the straits of the Red Sea; which were long considered by the nations of Europe to be the produce of Arabia itself. It was the produce partly of India, and partly of Arabia, which the travelling merchants, to whom Joseph was sold, were carrying into Egypt. The balm and myrrh were probably Arabian, as they are still the produce of the same country; but the spicery was undoubtedly brought farther from the east. These circumstances are adverted to, to show how extensive was the communication, in which the Arabians formed the principal link: and that in the earliest ages of which we have any account, in those of Joseph, of Moses, of Isaiah, and of Ezekiel, "the mingled people" inhabiting the vast Arabian deserts, the Cushites, Ishmaelites, and Midianites, were the chief agents in that commercial intercourse which has, from the most remote period of antiquity, subsisted between the extreme east and west. And although the current of trade is now turned, caravans of merchants, the descendants of these people, may still be found traversing the same deserts, conveying the same articles, and in the same manner as described by Moses!...
The singular and important fact that Arabia has never been conquered, has already been cursorily adverted to. The kingdom of Yemen has been successively subdued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sultans of Egypt, and the Turks; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed under a Scythian tyrant; and the Roman province of Arabia embraced the peculiar wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons must have pitched their tents in the face of their brethren. Gibbon, "are temporary or local; the body of the nation has escaped the yoke of the most powerful monarchies: the arms of Sesostris and Cyrus, of Pompey, and Trajan, could never achieve the conquest of Arabia; the present sovereign of the Turks may exercise a shadow of jurisdiction, but his pride is reduced to solicit the friendship of a people whom it is dangerous to provoke, and fruitless to attack. The arms and deserts of the Bedouins are not only the safeguards of their own freedom, but the barriers also of the happy Arabia, whose inhabitants, remote from war, are enervated by the luxury of the soil and climate. "...
Yemen was the only Arabian province which had the appearance of submitting to a foreign yoke; but even here, as Mr. Petra, the capital of the Stony Arabia, and the principal settlement of the Nabathaei, it is true, was long in the hands of the Persians and Romans; but this never made them masters of the country. Hovering troops of Arabs confined the intruders within their walls, and cut off their supplies; and the possession of this fortress gave as little reason to the Romans to exult as the conquerors of Arabia Petraea, as that of Gibraltar does to us to boast of the conquest of Spain. ...
The Arabian tribes were confounded by the Greeks and Romans under the indiscriminate appellation of Saracens; a name whose etymology has been variously, but never satisfactorily, explained. Mohammed now found himself sufficiently powerful to throw aside all reserve; declared that he was commanded to compel unbelievers by the sword to receive the faith of one God, and his prophet Mohammed; and confirming his credulous followers by the threats of eternal pain on the one hand, and the allurements of a sensual paradise on the other, he had, before his death, which happened in the year 632, gained over the whole of Arabia to his imposture. During the whole of the succeeding century, their rapid career was unchecked; the disciplined armies of the Greeks and Romans were unable to stand against them; the Christian churches of Asia and Africa were annihilated; and from India to the Atlantic, through Persia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Egypt, with the whole of northern Africa, Spain, and part of France, the impostor was acknowledged. The Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and, assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy in the year 936. This event, although it terminated the foreign dominion of the Arabians, left their native independence untouched. But it was in medicine that, in this dark age, the Arabians shone most: the works of Hippocrates and Galen had been translated and commented on; their physicians were sought after by the princes of Asia and Europe; and the names of Rhazis, Albucasis, and Avicenna are still revered by the members of the healing art. So little, indeed, did the physicians of Europe in that age know of the history of their own science, that they were astonished, on the revival of learning, to find in the ancient Greek authors those systems for which they thought themselves indebted to the Arabians!...
The last remnant of Arabian science was found in Spain; from whence it was expelled in the beginning of the seventeenth century, by the intemperate bigots of that country, who have never had any thing of their own with which to supply its place. The Arabians are the only people who have preserved their descent, their independence, their language, and their manners and customs, from the earliest ages to the present times; and it is among them that we are to look for examples of patriarchal life and manners. The venerable Arabian sheik was also seated on the ground with a piece of carpet spread under him; and, like his ancient Chaldean ancestor, turned to the one side and the other, graciously answering or questioning the groups around him, with an interest in them all which clearly showed the abiding simplicity of his government, and their obedience. " But although the manners of the Arabians have remained unaltered through so many ages, and will probably so continue, their religion, as we have seen, has sustained an important change; and must again, in the fulness of time, give place to a faith more worthy of the people. Paul first preached the Gospel in Arabia, Galatians 1:17 . At this time, however, it does not appear that the Arabians had any version of the Scriptures in their own language, to which some writers attribute the ease with which they were drawn into the Mohammedan delusion; while the "Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, Abyssinians, Copts, and others," who enjoyed that privilege, were able to resist it
Arabia - Arabia (Ἀραβία, from עֲרָב), which now denotes the great peninsula lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, was in ancient times a singularly elusive term. ‘Arabia’ shifted like the nomads, drifted like the desert sand. So uncertain was the application of the term, that there was no part of the semi-desert fringe extending from the lower Tigris to the lower Nile which was not at one time or another called Arabia. Every one used it to denote that particular hinterland whose tribes and peoples were more or less known to him; that was his Arabia. the Arab tribe of the Nabataeans had become a powerful nation, with Petra as their capital, and from that time onward Arabia began to be identified, especially in the Western mind, with the Natataean kingdom. From the days of Augustus the kings of the Arabians were as much subject to the Empire as Herod, king of the Jews, and they had the whole region between Herod’s dominions and the desert assigned to them. The Arabians who were present at the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:11) were most likely Nabataeans, possibly from Petra. Damascus he ‘went away into Arabia,’ evidently for solitary communion with God; but he does not further define the place of his retreat, and Acts makes no allusion to this episode. 106 the governor of Syria, Aulus Cornelius Palma, broke up the dominion of the Nabataean kings, and constituted the Roman province of Arabia, while Damascus was added to Syria
Famine - In the whole of Syria and Arabia, the fruits of the earth must ever be dependent on rain; the watersheds having few large springs, and the small rivers not being sufficient for the irrigation of even the level lands. In Arabia famines are of frequent occurrence
Hagar - ...
If the words ‘Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia’ are retained, they allude to the historical connexion of the Hagarenes (Psalms 83:6) or Hagarites (1 Chronicles 5:10), the Ἀγραῖοι of Eratosthenes (ap. 2)-of whom Hagar was no doubt a personification-with Arabia. (In Baruch 3:23 the Arabians are called the ‘sons of Hagar. Paul, becoming acquainted with this usage during his sojourn in Arabia, recalls it here (A. He had lived long under the shadow of Sinai in Arabia, the land of bondmen, before he became a free citizen of the ideal commonwealth-Hierusalem quœ sursum est-the mother of all Christians
Hadoram - They lived in southern Arabia
Aretas - The name of several kings of northwestern Arabia
Spikenard - It was imported from an early age from Arabia India and the Far East
Sardonyx - The best kind was obtained from India or Arabia
India - If India proper is not named, there is little doubt that from ancient times Israel had relations with the country, by means of the caravan trade through Arabia
Edom - The country extended from the Dead Sea southward to the Gulf of Akabah, and from the valley of the Arabah eastward to the desert of Arabia, being about 125 miles long and 30 miles wide
Sheba - A wealthy region in Arabia bordering on the Bed Sea
Bracelet - ...
The woman of Syria and Arabia at this day wear rings round their legs, to which are fastened many other lesser rings, with make a tinkling noise, like little bells, when they walk
East - Besides the ordinary meanings of the word east, Joshua 4:19 ; Psalm 103:12 , the Jews often used it to designate a large region lying northeast and southeast of Palestine, including Syria and Arabia near at hand, and Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, etc. , with the whole region from the Caspian sea to the Arabian gulf, Genesis 29:1 ; Numbers 23:7 ; Judges 6:3 ; 7:12 ; 8:10
Unicorn - ]'>[2] ri’m , the graceful Antilope leucoryx of Arabia, is a very different animal
Sela - "The caravans from all ages, from the interior of Arabia and from the Gulf of Persia, from Hadramaut on the ocean, and even from Sabea or Yemen, appear to have pointed to Petra as a common centre; and from Petra the tide seems again to have branched out in every direction, to Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, through Arsinoe, Gaza, Tyre, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and by other routes, terminating at the Mediterranean
Marble - " The marble of Solomon's architectural works may have been limestone from near Jerusalem, or from Lebanon, or possibly white marble from Arabia
Frankincense - , "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ), yet also growing in Palestine (Song of Solomon 4:14 )
Sar'Gon - 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest
Seba, Sabeans - They settled southwest Arabia (modern Yemen) and became prosperous traders
Job - He lived in the land of Uz and belonged to the Aramean race, which had settled in the lower part of Mesopotamia (probably to the south or south-east of Palestine, in Idumean Arabia), adjacent to the Sabeans and Chaldeans
Myrrh - מור , Exodus 30:23 ; Esther 2:19 ; Psalms 45:8 ; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Solomon 1:13 ; Song of Solomon 3:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:6 ; Song of Solomon 4:14 ; Song of Solomon 5:1 ; Song of Solomon 5:5 ; Song of Solomon 5:13 ; σμυρνα , Sir_24:15 ; Matthew 2:11 ; Mark 15:23 ; John 19:39 ; a precious kind of gum issuing by incision, and sometimes spontaneously, from the trunk and larger branches of a tree growing in Egypt, Arabia, and Abyssinia
Dedan - A people of northern Arabia, descended from Dedan, a descendant of Abraham and Keturah
ke'Dar - The "glory of Kedar" is recorded by the prophet Isaiah, (Isaiah 21:13-17 ) in the burden upon Arabia; and its importance may also be inferred from the "princes of Kedar" mentioned by Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 27:21 ) as well as the pastoral character of the tribe. (Isaiah 42:11 ) The tribe seems to have been one of the most conspicuous of all the Ishmaelite tribes, and hence the rabbins call the Arabians universally by this name
Philis'Tia - It was, moreover, a commercial country: from its position it must have been at all times the great thoroughfare between Phoenicia and Syria in the north and Egypt and Arabia in the south
Sheba - A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans of classical geography, who carried on the trade in spices with the other peoples of the ancient world
Frankincense - It was imported from Arabia (Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20). Arabian frankincense now is inferior to that of the Indian archipelago; the latter frankincense is yielded by the Βoswellia serrata or thurifera , growing 40 ft. Arabia may have anciently, as now, imported the best kind
Ophir - Three regions have been suggested: India, Arabia, and Africa. The available evidence with regard to trade practices indicates that Egyptian, Phoenician, and Greek fleets obtained eastern goods indirectly through ports in South Arabia and East Africa. ...
Other scholars have suggested that Ophir was located on the Arabian Peninsula. The strongest argument for an Arabian location is the occurrence of the name Ophir among the names of Arabian tribes, descendants of Joktan, in the Table of Nations in Genesis 10:1
Petrus, First Bishop of Parembolae - Anatolius, then prefect of the East, gladly welcomed him, stationed him in Arabia, and put him in command over all the tributary Saracen tribes in those parts. After reaching Arabia the boy was warned in a dream to apply to Euthymius for cure. The new disciple devoted himself to a religious life; and the number of Arabian converts having become so large as to require a bishop of their own, he was recommended by Euthymius to Juvenal, bp
Palm Palm Tree - Its fruit furnishes a considerable part of subsistence to the inhabitants of Egypt, Persia, and Arabia
Iraq - Country of southwestern Asia in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, between Persia and northern Arabia, comprising the former Turkish vilayets of Baghdad, Basra, and Mosul
Ammonites - Their territory extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok, and from the Jordan a considerable distance into Arabia
Stones, Precious - (Ezekiel 27:16 ) The merchants of Sheba and Raamah in south Arabia, and doubtless India and Ceylon supplied the markets of Tyre with various precious stones
Havilah - ...
...
A district in Arabia-Felix. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts
Myrrh - The Balsamodendron myrrha, of the natural order Terebinthaceæ, is the tree found in Arabia and Africa, from which myrrh is chiefly procured
Gebal - It is the northern part of Arabia near Petra in the mountainous country south of the Dead Sea
Myrrh - ]'>[1] , murr ), the dried gum of a species of balsam ( Balsamodendron myrrha ) growing in Arabia and India
Ut - (Job 1:1 ) As far as we can gather, "the land of Uz" lay either east or southeast of Palestine, (Job 1:3 ) adjacent to the Sabaeans and the Chaldaeans, (Job 1:15,17 ) consequently north of the southern Arabians and west of the Euphrates; and, lastly, adjacent to the Edomites of Mount Seir, who at one period occupied Uz, probably as conquerors, (Lamentations 4:21 ) and whose troglodyte habits are described in (Job 30:6,7 ) From the above data we infer that the land of Uz corresponds to the Arabia Deserta of classical geography, at all events to so much of it as lies north of the 30th parallel of latitude
Belshazzar - Nabonidus travelled to Arabia and left Belshazzar in control according to a Babylonian inscription
Herod Antipas - He had married a daughter of Aretas king of Arabia, but subsequently induced Herodias the wife of Philip, his own half-brother, to leave her husband and live with him
Sardine - The Hebrew got their high priest's sardines in Arabia, and from Egypt (Exodus 12:35)
Candace - It is said that he also preached the gospel in Arabia Felix and in Ceylon, where he suffered martyrdom
Baking Bread - Rauwolff observes that travellers frequently bake bread in the deserts of Arabia, on the ground heated for that purpose by fire, covering their cakes of bread with ashes and coals, and turning them several times till they are enough
Nod - But, be it on the higher or lower Euphrates, ( see EDEN, ) the land of Nod which stood before it with respect to the place where Moses wrote, may still preserve the curse of barrenness passed on it for Cain's sake, namely, in the deserts of Syria or Arabia
Goshen - It was probably the tract lying east of the Pelusian arm of the Nile, towards Arabia
Ebal - Name of a son of Joktan ( 1 Chronicles 1:22 , in Genesis 10:28 Obal ), probably representing a place or tribe in Arabia
Rechabites - They refused to partake of it; and their fidelity to their father's injunction was a severe reproof to the Jews; and the divine promise concerning the perpetuity of the family, Jeremiah 35:19 , was undoubtedly fulfilled, though it may now be impossible to distinguish temm, as some profess to do, among the tribes of Central Arabia
Hyaena - " The only other instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim, (1 Samuel 13:18 ) "the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila; (Nehemiah 11:34 ) The striped hyaena (Hyaena striata ) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia, and is more common in Palestine than any other carnivorous animals except perhaps the jackal
Uzal - Iron is found in several districts of Central Arabia (Doughty, Arabia Deserta ). The splendid palace of Ghumdan, and the adjoining temple dedicated to Zahrah, the Arabian Venus, were destroyed by Othman, the third Caliph
Ham - Arabia. Arabia were at a very early date overcome by the Joktanites, and the Babylonians yielded to the Medes
Balm - Basam also denotes the true balsam-plant, a native of South Arabia (Cant
Silver - Silver was brought to Solomon from Arabia, ( 2 Chronicles 9:14 ) and from Tarshish, (2 Chronicles 9:21 ) which supplied the markets of Tyre
Hagarenes - Arabia, on the Persian gulf
Sheba - In south-western Arabia was the land known in Bible times as Sheba
Rechabites - Wolff (1839) found in Arabia, near Mecca, a tribe claiming to be descendants of Jehonadab; and recently a Bedouin tribe has been found near the Dead Sea who also profess to be descendants of the same Kenite chief
Elath - Amalek, according to Arab historians, passed from the Persian gulf through the Arabian peninsula to Arabia Petraea
Millet - It has been supposed that the dochan means what is now called in the east durra; which, according to Niebuhr, is a sort of millet, and when made into bad bread with camel's milk, oil, butter, or grease, is almost the only food which is eaten by the common people in Arabia Felix
Damascus - 37 Aretas, the king of Arabia, became master of Damascus, having driven back Herod Antipas. Paul visited Damascus again on his return from Arabia (Galatians 1:16,17 )
Frankincense - Arabia
Mesha - " The western port of Arabia; Muss (Bothart), Mesene ("a fluviatile island") at the mouth of the Tigris and Euphrates, near Bassora (Gesenius) (Genesis 10:30); Beishe in the N
Coney - , "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land
Chuza - 1898) with the father of one Hayyân whose family erected a rock-cut tomb at el-Hegr in Arabia, with the inscription: לחין בד בוזא אחדה ‘To Hayyân, son of Kûzâ, his posterity (erected this tomb)
Mount Amalek - ) It was situated in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the 'Red Sea, or more properly speaking, between Havilah and Shur
Ham - To the Cushites, or children of his eldest son, Cush, were allotted the hot southern regions of Asia, along the coasts of the Persian Gulf, Susiana or Chusistan, Arabia, &c; to the sons of Canaan, Palestine and Syria; to the sons of Misraim, Egypt and Libya, in Africa
Rose - The rose, so much and so often sung by the poets of Persia, Arabia, Greece, and Rome, is, indeed, the pride of the garden for elegance of form, for glow of colour, and fragrance of smell
Paint - Antimony is still used for the purpose in Arabia and in Persia, but in Egypt the kohl is a root produced by burning either a kind of frankincense or the shells of almonds
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - Except the priests of Palestine Arabia, Phoenicia, and Achaia, the world consents to his condemnation
Cush - From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India
Arabia, Arabs - Arabia, ARABS . In the present article we have to do not with the part played by the Arabs in history, or with the geography of the Arabian peninsula, but only with the emergence of the Arab name and people in Bible times. His account of the situation of the Arabian peninsula is approximately correct, but he has specially in view those Arabs who inhabit the region lying between Syria and Egypt, i. Xenophon appears to use the term ‘Arabia’ in essentially the same sense as King Darius. we find, in the above-cited passages from the Memoirs of Nehemiah, repeated mention of an Arabian Geshem or Gashmu, whose real name may have been Gushamô who gave Nehemiah no little trouble. The Apostle Paul ( Galatians 4:25 ), like profane writers, reckons the Sinaitic peninsula, which was part of the Nahatæan kingdom, as belonging to Arabia. Again, the part of Arabia to which he withdrew after his conversion ( Galatians 1:17 ) must have been a desert region not far from Damascus, which then also was under the sway of the king of the Nabatæans. By the ‘Arabians’ mentioned in Acts 2:11 , in connexion with the miracle of Pentecost, the author probably meant Jews from the same kingdom, which, it is true, had in his time (?) become the Roman province of Arabia (a. Perhaps the recognition of Arab unity was favoured also by the trading journeys of the civilized Arabs of the south and of other parts of Arabia
Gold - It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:1 ; Job 28:16 ), but not in Palestine
Gourd - " It abounds in the desert parts of Syria, Egypt, and Arabia
Spice, Spices - The balm of Gilead tree grows in some parts of Arabia and Africa, and is seldom more than fifteen feet high, with straggling branches and scanty foliage
Serpent - More than forty species are found in Syria and Arabia
Elihu - Son of Barachel ("God blesses"); the names indicating the piety of the family and their separation from idolatry) the Buzite (Buz being a region of Arabia Deserta, Jeremiah 25:23, called from Buz son of Nahor, Abraham's brother), of the kindred of Ram (probably Aram, nephew of Buz): Job 32:2
Hemerobaptists - These ambiguous Christians dwell in Persia and Arabia, and principally at Bassora; and their religion consists in bodily washings, performed frequently and with great solemnity, and attended with certain ceremonies which the priests mingle with this superstitious service
Semite - One unproven theory is that they migrated from northern Arabia in waves of nomadic movements into the Fertile Crescent
Judaea - It lay between Samaria on the north and the desert of Arabia Petræa on the south; but its exact boundaries cannot be stated more definitely
Arabians - We read of Solomon receiving gifts or tribute from the kings of Arabia. ...
During the captivity some Arabians became settlers in Palestine and were enemies to Nehemiah. Among the nations that had relations with Israel, and against whom judgement is pronounced are the Arabians. 'Arabians' were present on the day of Pentecost, but whether they were Jews or proselytes is not stated
Cush - Some were probably located in Arabia, and Nimrod is clearly associated with the East; so that though as a district Cush may usually refer to Africa, the Cushites must have had a much wider range
Heath - Hasselquist mentions several kinds seen by him in Egypt, Arabia, and Syria
Honey - In some parts of northern Arabia the hills are so well stocked with bees that no sooner are hives placed than they are occupied
Midianite - An Arabian tribe descended from Midian. They inhabited principally the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. They were virtually the rulers of Arabia, being the dominant tribe. Like all Arabians, they were a nomad people
Nebaioth - Forefather of the Nabateans of Arabia Petraea mentioned at the close of the fourth century B. 105, their Nabathaean kingdom being incorporated with Rome as the province" Arabia. But the Arab writers use Nabat for Babylonians not Arabians
Goshen - The Septuagint call Goshen "Gesen of Arabia;" and Pliny "the Arabic nome" from its bordering on Arabia
Hagar - When Hagar conceived, she despised her mistress, who dealt hardly with her, Abram giving her up to his wife's discretion; so that she fled toward Egypt from the face of her mistress, but was stopped in her flight by the angel of the Lord, who foretold that she should bear a son called Ishmael, because the Lord heard her affliction, and that his race should be numerous, warlike, and unconquered; a prediction, as seen under the article Arabia, remarkably fulfilled to the present day. The Mussulmans and Arabians, who are descended from Ishmael, the son of Hagar, speak mightily in her commendation. They call her in eminency, Mother Hagar, and maintain that she was Abraham's lawful wife; the mother of Ishmael, his eldest son; who, as such, possessed Arabia, which very much exceeds, say they, both in extent and riches, the land of Canaan, which was given to his younger son Isaac
Locust, - " The most destructive of the locust tribe that occur in the Bible lands are the (Edipoda migratoria and the Acridium peregrinum ; and as both these species occur in Syria and Arabia, etc. 424): "With the burning south winds (of Syria) there come from the interior of Arabia and from the most southern parts of Persia clouds of locusts ( Acridium peregrinum ), whose ravages to these countries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of the heaviest hail in Europe
Phenicia - " "The trade routes from all Asia converged on the Phoenician coast; the centres of commerce on the Euphrates and Tigris forwarding their goods by way of Tyre to the Nile, to Arabia, and to the west; and, on the other hand, the productions of the vast regions bordering the Mediterranean passing through the Canaanite capital to the eastern world. The recent discovery, however, of inscriptions in Southern Arabia (Yemen and Hadramaut), known as Hemyaritic, in connection with various philogical considerations, has led some to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet was derived from the Mineans (admitting the antiquity of the kingdom of Ma'in, Judges 10:12 ; 2 Chronicles 26:7 ). Sayce thinks "it is more than possible that the Egyptians themselves were emigrants from Southern Arabia
Mesha -
A plain in that part of the boundaries of Arabia inhabited by the descendants of Joktan (Genesis 10:30 )
Badger - A great objection to the badger is, it is not found in Bible lands, Syria, Arabia, or Egypt, and certainly not in sufficient quantities for the Israelites' purpose
Asterius, a Bishop of Arabia - of Arabia (called bp
Keturah - Abraham settled the sons of Keturah in the east country of Arabia, near the residence of Ishmael
Syria - In the New Testament, Syria may be considered as bounded west and north-west by the Mediterranean and by Mount Taurus, which separates it from Cilicia and Cataonia in Asia Minor, east by the Euphrates, and south by Arabia Deserta and Palestine, or rather Judea, for the name Syria included also the northern part of Palestine
Desert - The same Hebrew word is used also to denote the wilderness of Arabia, which in winter and early spring supplies good pasturage to the flocks of the nomad tribes than roam over it (1 Kings 9:18 ). It is especially applied to the desert of the peninsula of Arabia (Numbers 21:20 ; 23:28 ), the most terrible of all the deserts with which the Israelites were acquainted
Canaan (2) - The boundaries of Canaan were Mount Lebanon on the north, the wilderness of Arabia on the south, and the Arabian desert on the east. The modern name of Palestine, or the land of the Philistines, was originally applied to the region lying along the coast of the Mediterranean, southwest of the Land of Promise, but in its present usage denotes the whole country bounded by the Jordan on the east the Mediterranean on the west, Arabia on the south, and Lebanon on the north
Amalekites - A powerful people, who dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, perhaps in moving troops
Queen of Heaven - In Arabia, cakes were offered to the goddess of the evening-star and to the sun-god; and the Israelites offered bread and cakes to Jahweh (see ‘Meal-offering’ and ‘Shewbread’ in art
Mohammedanism - The religion founded by Mohammed after he had effected the conquest of Arabia and united its warring tribes into one nation and one religion in 632. It is made up of beliefs and practises taken from Arabian heathenism, Judaism, Christianity, Sabian Gnostics and Zoroaster
Myrrh - It grew in Arabia around Saba; the gum resin exudes in drops which harden on the bark, and the flow is increased by incision into the tree
Desert - An uninhabited tract of land a region in its natural state a wilderness a solitude particularly, a vast sandy plain, as the deserts of Arabia and Africa
Javan, - In Ezekiel 27:19 Javan appears a second time among the nations that traded with Tyre; clearly the Ionians are not intended, and, unless the text is corrupt (as is very probable), the reference may be to an Arab tribe, or perhaps to a Greek colony in Arabia
Manna - A substance miraculously furnished as food for the Israelites in their journey through the wilderness of Arabia
me'Sha -
The name of one of the geographical limits of the Joktanites when they first settled in Arabia
e'Den - With regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again, making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus ( Gihon )
Libya - These, its earlier inhabitants, appear in the times of the Old Testament, to have consisted of wandering tribes, who were sometimes in alliance with Egypt, and at others with the Ethiopians of Arabia; as their are said to have assisted both Shishak and Zerah in their expeditions into Judea, 2 Chronicles 12, 14, 16
ad'Der - The habit of lurking int he sand and biting at the horse's heels here alluded to suits the character of a well-known species of venomous snake, and helps to identify it with the celebrated horned viper, the asp of Cleopatra (Cerastes ), which is found abundantly in the dry sandy deserts of Egypt, Syria and Arabia
e'Den - With regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again, making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus ( Gihon )
Midian - of Arabia, and southwards the E. The "gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead" (Numbers 31:22) taken by Moses, along with the vast number of cattle and flocks, accord with the picture of their wealth in Judges (Judges 6:4-5; Judges 8:21-26), partly pastoral, partly gold, and the metals obtained either by plunder or by traffic with Arabia
Eden - Arabia; and Cush (or Ethiopia), near the E. ) Armenia's highlands are the traditional cradle of the race; thence probably, from Eden as their source, flowed the two eastern rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, and the two western ones through the regions answering to Arabia and Egypt
Midian, Mtdianites - They lived in ancient times in northern Arabia, but vanished at an early date from history. 7) mentions a place, Modiana , on the coast of Arabia, which is probably the same as Madyan on the Haj road to Mecca
Manna - מן , Exodus 16:15 ; Exodus 16:33 ; Exodus 16:35 ; Numbers 11:6-7 ; Numbers 11:9 ; Joshua 5:12 ; Nehemiah 9:20 ; Psalms 78:24 ; μαννα , John 6:31 ; John 6:49 ; John 6:58 ; Hebrews 9:4 ; Revelation 2:17 ; the food which God gave the children of Israel during their continuance in the deserts of Arabia, from the eighth encampment in the wilderness of Sin. It has been remarked that at this day, what is called manna is found in several places; in Arabia, on Mount Libanus, Calabria, and elsewhere. The most famous is that of Arabia, which is a kind of condensed honey, which exudes from the leaves of trees, from whence it is collected when it has become concreted
Isaiah - He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel
Isaias - He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel
Theatines - The Theatines founded the first papal missions in foreign lands, as in Golconda, Peru, Mingrelia, Georgia, Islands of Sunda, Borneo, and Sumatra, Arabia, Armenia, Ava, Persia, and many other places
Order of Clerks Regular - The Theatines founded the first papal missions in foreign lands, as in Golconda, Peru, Mingrelia, Georgia, Islands of Sunda, Borneo, and Sumatra, Arabia, Armenia, Ava, Persia, and many other places
Commerce - For these he paid in gold brought by his fleets, in concert with the Phoenicians, from India, East Africa, and Arabia (1 Kings 10:22-29)
se'ir - 8; its eastern border ran along the base of the mountain range where the plateau of Arabia begins
Forest - The forest in Arabia, Isaiah 21:13 ; its situation is unknown
Abaddon - Mede remarks, that the title Abaddon alludes to Obodas, the common name of the ancient monarchs of that part of Arabia from which Mohammed came; and considers the passage as descriptive of the inundation of the Saracens. All the circumstances here recited correspond to the character of the Arabians, and the history of the period that extended from A
Incense - A dry, aromatic gum, exuding from a tree which grows in Arabia and India
Ass - These animals were anciently found in Palestine, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Mesopatamia, Phrygia, and Lycaonia; but they rarely occur in those regions at the present time, and seem to be almost entirely confined to Tartary, some parts of Persia, and India, and Africa
Eden - It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia
Hazor - " ...
...
A district in Arabia (Jeremiah 49:28-33 ), supposed by some to be Jetor, i
Midian, Midianites - Later historians locate the land of Midian in northwestern Arabia east of the Gulf of Aqabah
Idumaea - the geographer Ptolemy restricts Idumæa to the cis-Jordanic area, and includes the original trans-Jordanic Edom in Arabia
Earthquake - and in the mountains of Arabia Petrea on the S
Millstone - Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta, 1888, ii
Joktan, - Though the names of the majority of his sons have not been satisfactorily identified, it is clear that he is represented as the ancestor of the older Arabian tribes. The list of his sons is probably not to be taken as a scientific or geographical classification of the tribes or districts of Arabia, but rather as an attempt on the part of the writer to incorporate in the tables such names of Arabian races as were familiar to him and to his readers. Its identification by the native Arab genealogists with Kahtân , the name of an Arabian tribe or district, is without foundation; there appears to have been no real connexion between the names, their slight similarity in sound having probably suggested their identification
Badger - Most modern interpreters have taken it to be the badger, and among these our English translators; but, in the first place, the badger is not an inhabitant of Arabia; and there is nothing in its skin peculiarly proper either for covering a tabernacle or making shoes
Gilead or Galeed - Genesis 31:45-48 , the mound of witness, lay east of the Jordan, in the mountainous tract which runs from mount Hermon southward, between the Jordan and Arabia Deserta
Gardens - It is still customary in Egypt, Arabia, and Hindostan, to plant a large level tract with melons, cucumbers, etc
Wild - A desert an uninhabited and uncultivated tract or region a forest or sandy desert as the wilds of America the wilds of Africa the sandy wilds of Arabia
Damascus - After a period in Arabia, he returned to Damascus (Galatians 1:17)
Hagar - She is mentioned in Genesis 25:12 in a sketch of the family of Ishmael (so in Bar 3:23 the Arabians are said to be her sons); and she has been assumed with much improbability to have been the ancestress of the Hagrites or Hagarenes of 1 Chronicles 5:10 and Psalms 83:6 (see Hagrites). ]'>[4] ; in which case the meaning is that Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, the land of bondmen and the country of Hagar’s descendants. ‘This Hagar of the allegory is or represents Sinai, because Sinai is in Arabia, where Hagar and her descendants dwelt
Camel - The camel is very common in Arabia, Judea, and the neighbouring countries; and is often mentioned in Scripture, and reckoned among the most valuable property, 1 Chronicles 5:21 ; Job 1:3 , &c. She has furnished him with a strong jaw, that he may grind the hardest aliments; but, lest he should consume too much, has straitened his stomach, and obliged him to chew the cud; has lined his foot with a lump of flesh, which sliding in the mud, and being no way adapted to climbing, fits him only for a dry, level, and sandy soil, like that of Arabia
Aretas - form of a name borne by several rulers of the Nabataean Arabs, whose capital was Petra in Arabia. The first known to history, ‘Aretas, prince of the Arabians,’ is said to have had the fugitive high-priest Jason shut up at his court (2 Maccabees 5:8; the Gr. article Arabia. ...
Literature-In addition to the authorities cited in the body of the article , see Literature appended to article Arabia, and P
Shem - " His descendants dwelt chiefly in western Asia, Shem of the Asiatic Japhethites, in an uninterrupted line from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan and the Indian Ocean, Lydia, Palestine, Syria (Aram), Chaldaea (Arphaxad), Assyria (Asshur), Persia (Elam), northern and central Arabia (Joktan). Ethnologists, from the facts of language, divide the Semitic into five main branches, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, the Phoenician, the Assyrian or Assyro Babylonian, and the Arabian. Africa, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, southern and south eastern Arabia and Babylonia; the Semitic are located in one region, namely, the central one intermediate between the Japhetic on the N. The intermediate position of the Shemites brought them in contact with the Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and on the other hand with the Hamitic in Palestine, in the Yemen (Arabia Felix), in Babylonia and Elymais
Arabia - Only rarely does the Bible mention Arabia by name. Often it refers to Arabia simply as the east’ (Genesis 10:30; Genesis 25:6; Judges 6:3; Isaiah 2:6; Ezekiel 25:4). ...
Many of the people descended from Noah (Genesis 10), Abraham (through his concubine Keturah; Genesis 25:1-6), and Esau (Genesis 36) settled as tribal groups in Arabia
Aretas - A common name of many Arabian kings. Moreover, Aretas, king of Arabia Nabataea dud its capital Petra, made war on Antipas for divorcing Aretas' daughter, and defeated him
Camel - Their habitat is Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor, S
Testament, New - ...
the Jewish economy, and the Christian: mount Sinai, in Arabia, where the law was promulgated; and mount Zion in Jerusalem, where the Gospel was first published
Winds - The east wind crosses the sandy wastes of Arabia Deserts before reaching Palestine and was hence termed "the wind of the wilderness. The south wind, which traverses the Arabian peninsula before reaching Palestine, must necessarily be extremely hot
Ivory - coasts of Arabia, which maintained from ancient times commercial intercourse with both India and Ethiopia
Cush - 7 are mostly Arabian. An attempt has been made to solve these and other difficulties by the assumption of a second Cush in Arabia (cf. These were, however, possibly Arabian Cushites
Pisgah - , Her and Seir of Arabia; to the W
Hittites - But there are some remarkable notices of Hittites, Judges 1:26; 1 Kings 10:29; 2 Kings 7:6; 2 Chronicles 1:17, which point to a people, a branch of the great family, or the descendants of those expelled from Palestine, who were settled independently beyond Lebanon, and it may be on the southeastern frontier towards Arabia
Demetrius - 217), he sent Origen to the Roman governor of Arabia, at the governor's earnest invitation ( ib
Dan - but some identify it with Dedar, others with Aden, in Arabia
Ostrich, - a large bird, native of African and Arabia, nearly ten feet high, having s long neck and short wings
Ointment (2) - —Nard oil, from a plant found especially in Arabia (nardus), and highly prized at Rome
Transjordan - ...
The vast Arabian Desert stretches southeastward from the geological fault line described above. ...
An important trade route passed through the Transjordan during biblical times, connecting Damascus and Bostra of Syria with the Gulf of Aqabah and western Arabia. 90, forming the administrative province of Arabia. 106 and renamed the province Arabia Petraea
Sheba - Arabia, the modern Yemen. 707, Sargon declares that he ‘received the tribute of Pir’u, king of the land of Musuru (Egypt), Samsç, queen of the land of Aribu (Arabia), It’amara, king of the land of the Saba’aa (Sabæans), gold, products of the mountains, horses, camels. It is incomparably superior to the rest of Arabia, both in climate and in soil. ’ Here are grown the hest vines that Arabia produces. of Sana, lies between the rich valleys of the west and the ‘wadys of Hadramant, which were the sources of Arabian gum. ’ Inscriptions relating to the Sabæan kingdom have been found in various parts of the Arabian peninsula
Leprosy - Bad nutrition and insanitary conditions are favorable to its generation and propagation, and it is endemic in certain localities, as parts of Africa, Arabia, China, Japan, India, Italy, Spain, etc
Merchant - ) Tyre's trading partners included twenty-two nations or peoples encompassing Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia
Horse - Although the breeding of horses has become so intimately associated with our ideas of the Arabs, it would seem that during the whole OT period horses were unknown, or at least scarce, in Arabia
Avenger of Blood - Among the Semites the custom was in full force from the earliest times, and it is still the only spring of order in Arabia
Fuller - " Carbonate of potash is obtained impure from burning plants, especially the kali (from whence, with the Arabic al , the article, comes the word "alkali ") of Egypt and Arabia
Arabah - Control of the Arabah along with control of the Red Sea port on its southern end meant control of valuable trade routes and sea routes connecting to southern Arabia and eastern Africa
Gentile - The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10
Mount Paran - )...
This mount formed a part of the desert of Arabia Petrsea, and lay south of the land of promise
Quail - I have met with it in the wilderness of Palestine, near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between Jordan and Jericho, and in the deserts of Arabia Petrea
Midianites - Descendants of Midian, a nomade race in Arabia, numerous, and rich in flocks, herds, and camels, Isaiah 60:6 . The original and appropriate district of the Midianites seems to have been on the east side of the Elantic branch of the Red Sea, where the Arabian geographers place the city Midian, Acts 7:29
Incense - ...
The art of preparing incense was well known in Egypt and Arabia, and the Israelites had apparently learnt such skills from these people
Red Sea - The Egyptians called it the Sea of Punt (Arabia). Arabia; on the N. Sesostris (Rameses II) was the "first who, passing the Arabian gulf in a fleet of long war vessels, reduced the inhabitants bordering the Red Sea" (Herodotus). Pharaoh Necho built ships in the Arabian gulf, manned by Phoenicians (Herodotus ii. On the Arabian coast Mu'eyleh, Yembo (the port of El Medeeneh), Juddah (the port of Mecca), and Mocha
Hair (2) - The beard is taken in Arabia for human honour, and to pluck it is the highest indignity. Of an honest man they say, “His is a good beard”; of a vile, covetous heart, “He has no beard” ’ (Arabia Deserta, i
Jehoshaphat - The Philistines and Arabians were tributaries to him. After this, in the year 3108, the Moabites, Ammonites, and other nations of Arabia Petraea, declared war against Jehoshaphat, 2 Chronicles 20:1-3 , &c. " Abenezra is of opinion, that this valley is the place where King Jehoshaphat obtained a signal victory over the Moabites, Ammonites, and Meonians of Arabia Petraea, 2 Chronicles 20:1 , &c, toward the Dead Sea, beyond the wilderness of Tekoah, which after that event was called the valley of blessing, 2 Chronicles 20:26
Mesha - A better case can be made out for identifying it with Mash or Mashu, a general term in the Assyrian inscriptions for the Syro-Arabian desert; though the passage suggests that a single place, or tribe, rather than so vast a region, is referred to. Traces of this latter tribe have been sought in place names in central Arabia, but no identification yet suggested can be regarded as certain
Silver - ) Silver was brought to Solomon in lavish abundance from Arabia and Tarshish (in plates like the Cingalese sacred writing tablets)
Banner - The meaning of the root is illustrated by the very ingenious and sensible author of "Observations on Divers Passages of Scripture," who shows, from Pitts and Pococke, that, "as in Arabia and the neighbouring countries, on account of the intense heat of the sun by day, people generally choose to travel in the night; so, to prevent confusion in their large caravans, particularly in the annual one to Mecca, each company, of which the caravan consists, has its distinct portable beacon, which is carried on the top of a pole, and consists of several lights, which are somewhat like iron stoves, into which they put short dry wood, with which some of the camels are loaded
Midian - This country extended from the east of the land of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea, southward, along the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, stretching some way into Arabia. The Midianites appear not to have survived this second discomfiture as a nation; but their remains became gradually incorporated with the Moabites and Arabians
Birthright - Job, in Arabia, acted in the same capacity, Job 1:5 ; and it is highly probable that, among the ancient Heathen nations in general, the first-born were entitled not only to the civil authority, but also to the priesthood
Jeph'Thah - (2 Samuel 10:6 ) (This land was east of Jordan and southeast of Gilead, and bordered on the desert of Arabia
Ishmael - He had twelve sons, who became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Genesis 37:25,27,28 ; 39:1 ), "their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them
Order of Friars Minor Capuchins - Missions were established in Abyssinia, India, Asia Minor, Arabia, Central and South America, and English- speaking countries
Red Sea - The body of water, over 1000 miles in length, which divides Africa from Arabia
Capuchin Friars Minor - Missions were established in Abyssinia, India, Asia Minor, Arabia, Central and South America, and English- speaking countries
Divination - At a later period multitudes of magicians poured from Chaldea and Arabia into the land of Israel, and pursued their occupations (Isaiah 8:19 ; 2 Kings 21:6 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 )
Cedar - Cedar was also used in purification, probably the oxycedrus abounding in Egypt, Arabia, and the wady Mousa; indeed, the greater cedar not being found there, the tree meant in the laws of purification must have been a distinct one (Leviticus 14:4; Numbers 19:6)
Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra - of Bostra, in Arabia, known in his day as one of the most learned teachers of the church
Marcionites - Or MARCIONISTS, Marconistae, a very ancient and popular sect of heretics, who, in the time of Epiphanius, were spread over Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and other countries: they were thus denominated from their author Marcion
Aloes - 21) describes an aromatic wood which was imported from India and Arabia, and was not only used for medicinal purposes, but also burned instead of frankincense. ...
(3) There was an active trade in spices carried on in ancient times, not only through Phœnicia but also through the Syrian and Arabian deserts, so that there is no great difficulty in supposing that ‘aloes’ were brought from India
Caves - "Beyond Damascus," says Strabo, "are two mountains, called Trachones, from which the country has the name of Trachonitis; and from hence, toward Arabia and Iturea, are certain rugged mountains, in which there are deep caverns; one of which will hold four thousand men
Red Sea - ...
The Red Sea, situated on the east of Egypt and the west of South Arabia, is somewhat in the form of the letter Y
Witch And Wizard - Those familiar with the Syria and Arabia of our days inform us that old and young of all sects universally believe in the potency of "the evil eye," of incantations, charms, amulets, serpent-charming, and exorcism; and that these superstitions exert a prodigious influence on oriental life
Serpents - Venomous serpents were abundant in Egypt and Arabia, and seven different kinds are mentioned in the Hebrew scriptures, some of which are identified with existing species. Herodotus indeed speaks of winged serpents as appearing every spring on the Arabian border of Egypt; but he did not see them, nor are there any to be met with in modern times
Anitipas - He married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia, whom he divorced about A. Aretas, king of Arabia, to revenge the affront which Herod had offered to his daughter, declared war against him, and vanquished him in a very obstinate contest
Mahometanism - Mohammed, its distinguished founder, was born in Arabia, toward the conclusion of the sixth century. ...
This effect was facilitated by the ignorance which prevailed in Arabia. ...
But Mohammed did not limit his views to the sovereignty of Arabia: he was elevated by the hope of universal empire; and he moulded his system, so as to promote what he was eager to attain. Of the advantages which, after Arabia had acknowledged his sway, and hailed him as the prophet of the Lord, he might confidently anticipate, Mohammed was abundantly sensible; but while he was preparing to bring into action the mighty machine which he had erected, his earthly career was terminated, and he left to others to execute the schemes which he had fondly devised. ...
The energy of the system remained after the author of it was removed from the world; and his successors lost no time in extending their dominions far beyond the bounds of Arabia. It does not contain one single doctrine which may not fairly be derived either from the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, from the spurious and apocryphal Gospels, then current in the east, from the Talmudical legends, or from the traditions, customs, and opinions of the Arabians. With respect to the great doctrine of a future life, and the condition of the soul after its departure from the body, it must indeed be acknowledged that the prophet of Arabia has presented us with a nearer prospect of the invisible world, and disclosed to us a thousand particulars concerning it, which the Holy Scriptures had wrapped in the most profound and mysterious silence. ...
The same observation which has been applied with respect to the sources whence the doctrines were drawn, may, with some few limitations, be likewise extended to the precepts which the Arabian legislator has enjoined. Instead of improving on the Christian precepts by a superior degree of refinement; instead of exhibiting a purer and more perfect system of morals than that of the Gospel; the prophet of Arabia has miserably debased and weakened even what he has borrowed from that system. The Sonnites are subdivided into four chief sects, of which the first is that of the Hanefites, who generally prevail among the Turks and Tartars; the second, that of the Malecites, whose doctrine is chiefly followed in Barbary, and other parts of Africa; the third, that of the Shafeites, who are chiefly confined to Arabia and Persia; and the fourth orthodox sect is that of the Hanbalites, who are not very numerous, and seldom to be met with out of the limits of Arabia
Paul's Visit to Jerusalem to See Peter - And-then imagine yourself apprehended of Christ Jesus, driven of the Spirit into the wilderness of Arabia, and coming back with all your bones burning within you to preach Jesus Christ and Him crucified. And never before nor since had Peter such a hungry hearer as just his present visitor and interrogator from Arabia and Damascus. 'Whether we were in the body, or out of the body, as she told me about Nazareth, and as I told her about Damascus and Arabia, I cannot tell: God knoweth. Damascus, Arabia, Jerusalem,-this, in our day also, is the God-guided progress, in which the true successors of the Apostle Paul are still travelling, in their spiritual experience, and in their evangelical scholarship
Hebrew Language - ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Milk - Butter and cheese were known among the ancients (1 Samuel 17:18 ) as well as curdled, sour milk which still forms, after bread, the chief food of the poorer classes in Arabia and Syria
Euphrates - The great Syrian desert of Arabia separated the southern part of the river from Palestine
Lamp - As this custom no doubt prevailed in Egypt and the adjacent regions of Arabia and Palestine in former times, it imparts a beauty and force to some passages of Scripture which have been little observed
Fig - In this way dates are still prepared in Arabia
Solomon - He established a lucrative commerce with Tyre, Egypt, Arabia, India, and Babylon, by the fruits of which he himself first and chiefly, and indirectly the whole land, were greatly enriched
Threshing - This machine is not, as in Arabia, a stone cylinder, nor a plank with sharp stones, as in Syria, but a sort of sledge, consisting of three rollers fitted with irons, which turn upon axles
e'Gypt - It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine, Arabia and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert
Titus, Bishop of Bostra - of Bostra in Arabia Auranitis, c
House - The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria, Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings
Edom - a province of Arabia, which derives its name from Edom, or Esau, who there settled in the mountains of Seir, in the land of the Horites, south-east of the Dead Sea. His descendants afterward extended themselves throughout Arabia Petrea, and south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean. It appears that, beside the advantages of being under a tolerably good government, these districts enjoyed a considerable share of the commerce of Arabia and India, which increased their industry and population. Bordering with Arabia on the east, and Egypt on the southwest, and forming from north to south the most direct and most commodious channel of communication between Jerusalem and her dependencies on the Red Sea, as well as between Syria and India, through the continuous valleys of El Ghor, and El Araba, which terminated on the one extremity at the borders of Judea, and on the other at Elath and Ezion Geber on the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, Idumea may be said to have formed the emporium of the commerce of the east. Of its eastern boundary, and of the adjoining part of Arabia Petrea, strictly so called, Burckhardt writes: "It might, with truth, be called Petrea, not only on account of its rocky mountains, but also of the elevated plain already described, which is so much covered with stones, especially flints, that it may with great propriety be called a stony desert, although susceptible of culture; in many places it is overgrown with wild herbs, and must once have been thickly inhabited; for the traces of many towns and villages are met with on both sides of the Hadj road between Maan and Akaba, as well as between Maan and the plains of the Hauran, in which direction are also many springs. Burckhardt, "on a higher level than that of Arabia, we had before us an immense expanse of dreary country, entirely covered with black flints, with here and there some hilly chain rising from the plain
Judea - The whole of this extent between Coelo- Syria on the north, and Arabia Petraea on the south, the Mediterranean on the west, and Arabia Deserta on the east, may be considered as situated between 31 10' and 33 15' of north latitude, about a hundred and forty miles in length, and nearly a hundred in breadth. It is described in numerous passages of the sacred writings, as all comprised in the Holy Land, from Hamath on the north, to the river of Egypt on the south; and from the Great or Mediterranean Sea on the west, to the deserts of Arabia on the east; a tract of country at least four hundred and sixty miles in length, and more than a hundred in breadth, Joshua 15:2 , &c; Joshua 19:24 , &c; 1 Chronicles 13:5 ; 2 Chronicles 7:8 ; Ezekiel 47:16 ; Ezekiel 47:20 ; Amos 6:14 . Judea Proper, situated in 31 40' north latitude, was bounded on the north by Samaria, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the east by the river Jordan, on the south by Arabia Petraea; and comprised the ancient settlements of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, and Simeon, with Philistia and Idumea. Philip, a strong place on the road to Hebron, ten miles south of Jerusalem; Ziph, a small town between Hebron and the Dead Sea; Zoar, at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, near the situation of Sodom; Hebron, formerly Kirjath-arba, a very ancient town in a hilly country, twenty-five miles south of the capital; Arad, about twenty- four miles southward from Hebron, and near the Ascensus Avrabim, or Scorpion Mountains, on the border of Arabia Petraea; and Thamar, on the southern limit of the province, near the south extremity of the Dead Sea. Auranitis, or Ituraea, a mountainous and barren tract north of Batantaea, and bounded on the west by a branch of Mount Hermon, contained Bostra, or Bozra, about fifty miles east from the sea of Tiberias, bordering on Arabia Petraea, afterward enlarged by Trajan, and named Trajana Bostra; and Trachonitis, in 33 15' north latitude, between Hermon and Antilibanus, eastward from the sources of Jordan, and containing Baal-gad, Mispah, Paneas, or Caesarea Philippi, and AEnos, nearly twenty-five miles east of Panaeas, and as far south south-west of Damascus. One of them, namely, Scythopolis, already described in the account of Samaria, was situated to the west of Jordan; but the other nine were all to the east of that river, namely, Gadara, or Kedar, a strong place on a hill, the capital of Peraea in the time of Josephus, about sixty stadia east from the sea of Tiberias, and much frequented for its hot baths: Hippos, sometimes called Susitha, thirty stadia northwest of Gadara; Dium, or Dion, of which the situation is unknown, but conjectured by D'Anville to have been about seven leagues eastward from Pella, a considerable town supplied with copious fountains, on the river Jabbok, fourteen miles south-east of Gadara, and celebrated as the place to which the Christians retired, by divine admonition, before the destruction of Jerusalem; Canatha, south-east of Caesarea, and between the Jordan and Mount Hermon; Garasa, afterward Jaras, three leagues north- east from the upper extremity of the sea of Tiberias, and much noted during the crusades; Rabbath-Ammon, the capital of the Ammonites, south-east of Ramoth, and near the source of the Jabbok, on the confines of Arabia, afterward called Philadelphia by Ptolemy Philadelphus, from whom it had received considerable improvements, of which the ruins are still visible; Abila, four leagues east from Gadara, in a fertile tract between the river Hieromax and Mount Gilead; and Capitolais, a town in Batanaea, five or six leagues east north-east of Gadara
Dan (2) - Arabia from whence the Phoenicians obtained wrought iron, cassia, and calamus (Ezekiel 27:19)
Ethnarch - of Arabia), and, indeed, as has been said, the ethnarch was always lower than a king
Kedar - The posterity of Kedar dwelt in the deserts called Arabia-deserta, (Isaiah 42:11) and their employment was chiefly that of keeping cattle
Sin - A desert of Arabia Petraea, near Egypt, and on the western arm of the Red Sea, Exodus 16:1 17:1 Numbers 33:12
Euphrates - A famous river of Asia, which has its source in the mountains of America, runs along the frontiers of Cappadocia, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Chaldea, and Mesopotamia, and falls into the Persian Gulf
Tadmor or Tamar - A palm-tree, 1 Kings 9:18 , a city founded by Solomon in the desert of Syria, on the borders of Arabia Dessert, towards the Euphrates, 2 Chronicles 8:4 . It was remote from human habitations, on an oasis in the midst of a dreary wilderness; and it is probable that Solomon built it to facilitate his commerce with the East, as it afforded a supply of water, a thing of the utmost importance in an Arabian desert
Edom - They settled down and engaged in commerce, and formed the kingdom called by Roman writers Arabia Petraea
Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch - It was long and bitter; at last a compromise was accepted by the council, that Antioch should retain the two Phoenicias and Arabia and that the three Palestines should form the patriarchate of Jerusalem ( ib
Cosmetics - They imported many of the raw ingredients, especially from India and Arabia. ) mentioned Arabia's aromatics. They were often quite expensive and imported from Arabia (frankincense, myrrh), India (aloes, spikenard, and Ceylon (cinnamon)
Ishmael - " Many conquerors have marched into the Arabian wilderness, but they have never been able to catch this wild donkey and to tame him" (Baumgarten). Assyria, in fact traversing the whole Arabian desert from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. The people of Arabia are called "children of the East," Bene Kedem (Judges 6:3; Job 1:3), in modern times Saracens, i. Arabia, where Joktanite and other blood exists, these characteristics are less seen. ...
The term" Ishmaelites" was applied in course of time to the Midianites, sprung from Abraham and Keturah, and not from Ishmael, because the Ishmaelites being the more powerful tribe gave their name as a general one to neighbouring associated tribes (Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:28; Genesis 37:36; Psalms 83:6), the nomad tribes of Arabia (Judges 8:24). of Arabia was fetish and cosmic worship, but in the N
Usury, Interest, Increase - In similar circumstances loans without interest were made from the Babylonian temple funds and by private individuals, as is still done by the Arabs to-day (Doughty, Arabia Deserta , i
Bartholomew - Arabia Felix, as many think) is assigned to him as his subsequent sphere of missionary labors (Eusebius, H
Iron (2) - Merchants of Dan and Javan (perhaps rather Vedan, now Aden, a Greek settlement in Arabia) supplied Tyre with polished or "bright iron
Dan - ...
...
...
This name occurs in Ezekiel 27:19 , Authorize Version; but the words there, "Dan also," should be simply, as in the Revised Version, "Vedan," an Arabian city, from which various kinds of merchandise were brought to Tyre. Some suppose it to have been the city of Aden in Arabia
Grove - ...
Tree worship, perhaps a distortion of the tradition of the tree of life and the tree of knowledge (Genesis 3), may be traced in Egypt, Arabia, Syria, Assyria, Persia, India, Thibet, Siam, China, Japan, Ceylon, the Philippine isles
Jude - Some have said that he preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country
Eye - "The females of Arabia," Niebuhr says, "color their nails blood-red, and their hands and feet yellow, with the herb Al-henna. All this the Arabian women esteem as beauty
Metals - The Hebrews obtained their principal supply from the south of Arabia and the commerce of the Persian Gulf
Job, Book of - Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [1] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way
Sargon - In the inscriptions Sargina ; founded Κhorsabad (named Sarghun by Arabian geographers). , Syria, Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt, W
Manna - A more recent theory is that manna was an edible lichen like that found in Arabia, etc
Mount Sinai - (mownt ssi' nay i) Mountain in the south central part of a peninsula in the northwestern end of Arabia
Mesopotamia - At the same time, the land lay open to Syria and Arabia, whose tribes were constantly breaking across its borders
Ear-Rings - These rings are of gold, and have commonly two pearls and one ruby between them, placed in the ring; I never saw a girl, or young woman in Arabia, or in all Persia, who did not wear a ring after this manner in her nostril
Horse - In the reign of Saul, it would appear, that horse breeding had not yet been introduced into Arabia; for, in a war with some of the Arabian nations, the Israelites got plunder in camels, sheep, and asses, but no horses
Coney - He is in Judea, Palestine, and Arabia, and consequently must have been familiar to Solomon
Palm-Tree - A considerable part of the inhabitants of Egypt, of Arabia, and Persia, subsist almost entirely on its fruit
Babylonia - The province of which Babylon was the capital; now the Babylonian or Arabian Irak, which constitutes the pashalic of Bagdad. This gulf was indeed its only definite and natural boundary; for towards the north, towards the east or Persia, and towards the west or desert Arabia, its limits were quite indefinite
Canaan - ...
Canaan was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, north by mount Lebanon and Syria, east by Arabia Deserta; and south by Edom and the desert of Zin and Paran. These included the bordering nations on the east, far into Arabia Deserta; thence north to Tipsah on the Euphrates, with all Syria between Lebanon and the Euphrates. Still farther east is the high and desolate plateau of Arabia Deserta
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - 360), near whose ruins in Annesley Bay the Arabian traders still unlade their ships (cf. 519 he crossed the straits, utterly defeated the Arabian forces, and driving the Jew to refuge in the hills, left a viceroy to bear Christian rule over the Homeritae and returned to Ethiopia (ib. Choosing a season when the Arabian Gulf would be an impassable barrier to the intervention of Elesbaan, he gathered a force which presently numbered 120,000 men and, having put to death all Christians whom he could find and turned their church into a synagogue, pressed on to Negran, the head-quarters of the Ethiopian vice-royalty, then held by Arethas the phylarch. , king of the Arabians of Hira, a friend valuable alike for reasons of commerce and in regard to the war with Persia. Their own end must have seemed very near; but the courage of a soldier who stood forth as spokesman of the many Christians in Mundhir's army decided the hesitation of the king, and the ambassadors went away unhurt (but apparently unanswered) to Naaman, a port in the Arabian Gulf. Wright, Early Christianity in Arabia , p. coast of Arabia. down the Gulf of Arabia towards the straits; which Dhu Nowas had barred by a huge chain, stretched across the space of two furlongs from side to side. Discouraged by this disaster, the main body of the Arabians offered a feeble resistance; and Dhu Nowas saw that his downfall was very near. According to the Arabian historians, he threw himself from the cliff and died in the waves; according to the Acta S. A part of Elesbaan's army, however, refused to leave the luxury of Arabia Felix, and not long after set up as rival to Esimiphaeus one Abrahah or Abraham, the Christian slave of a Roman merchant, who was strong enough to shut up the viceroy in a fort and seize the throne of Yemen
Trajan - In the preceding year it had been necessary, in the interests of trade, to annex the territory of the turbulent Nabataean tribes of Arabia Petraea, and thus the Roman province Arabia was formed
Water - " In Arabia, equal attention is paid, by the wealthy and benevolent, to the refreshment of the traveller. On one of the mountains of Arabia, Niebuhr found three little reservoirs, which are always kept full of fine water for the use of passengers
Language - The Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resemblance, comprises, in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a spoken language, and is spread over a vast extent of country; but so far as we are acquainted with its former state, it appears more anciently to have been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia. Arabic is now the vernacular language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary
Edom - is a limestone ridge, descending with an easy incline to the Arabian desert. Arabia; they founded the kingdom of Arabia Petraea in ancient Edom, and their monarchs took the name Aretas. Rome subdued this kingdom of Arabia A
Tar'Shish - " ( 1 Kings 10:22 ) The gold might possibly have been obtained form Africa, or from Ophir in Arabia, and the ivory and the apes might likewise have been imported from Africa; but the peacocks point conclusively, not to Africa, but to India
Arabah - (Joshua 18:18) ("the plain", is akin to "Arabia"
Esarhaddon - Esarhaddon is famed for his expedition into Arabia. an undertaking with few parallels in history; for few conquerors have ventured to pass the barrier of Arabian deserts
Illyricum - Judaea , Syria and Arabia
Rechab - RECHABITES, the dwellers in cities, are distinguished from the nomadic wanderers (Genesis 4:20-22); and the distinction still exists in Persia and Arabia, where the two classes are found side by side
Queen (2) - that Sheba was in South Arabia; her land was accordingly more than a thousand miles from Jerusalem, a fact which justifies our Lord’s words, ἐκ τῶν περάτων τῆς γῆς (cf
Serpent - Günther, Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien; Doughty, Arabia Deserta
Manna - We are told indeed by historians, that in Arabia and in Calabria, and in other places, there is a dew on the ground still to be seen like manna
Ambassage - The former corresponds with the struggle between Antipas and his father-in-law, Hareth, king of Arabia; the latter is illustrated by Herod, by Archelaus, and by Antipas, each of whom went to Rome to obtain an enhancement of power
Damascus - This plain is about fifty miles in circumference; it is open to the desert of Arabiaon the south and east, and is bounded on the other sides by the mountains. In the days of Paul it appears to have been held, for a time at least, by Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea, the father-in-law of Herod Antipas
Manna - Besides this substance and the manna of commerce, which is used as a laxative medicine, and is produced by the ash-trees of southern Europe, several other vegetable products in Arabia, Persia, etc
Serpent - Günther, Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien; Doughty, Arabia Deserta
Abraham - He himself also married Keturah, and had six sons, each one the founder of a distinct people in Arabia
Milk - The skin is shaken for a little, when the process of fermentation speedily commences, and the milk is served ‘with that now gathered sourness which they think the more refreshing’ (Doughty, Arabia Deserta , i
Shishak - He was not strong enough to attack Assyria; so he contented himself with subjugating Palestine and the parts of Arabia bordering on Egypt, so as to make them an effectual barrier against Assyria's advance
Herod - Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the Great, first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia Petræa," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half brother, Herod Philip
Tadmor - a city built by Solomon, 1 Kings 9:18 , afterward called Palmyra; situated in a wilderness of Syria, upon the borders of Arabia Deserta, inclining toward the Euphrates
Sinai - a famous mountain of Arabia Petraea, on which God gave the law to Moses, Exodus 19:1 ; Exodus 24:16 ; Exodus 31:18 ; Exodus 34:2 ; Exodus 34:4 , &c; Leviticus 25:1 ; Leviticus 26:46
Dispersion - Jews were in all this region, as well as in Greece and Rome, in the most important centres about the Mediterranean, and had also penetrated to Arabia ( Acts 2:11 )
Ostrich - " So Xenophon, the biographer of Cyrus, says of the ostriches of Arabia, that none could overtake them, the baffled horsemen soon returning from the chase; and the writer of a voyage to Senegal says, "The ostrich sets off at a hard gallop; but after being excited a little, she expands her wings as if to catch the wind, and abandons herself to a speed so great, that she seems not to touch the ground
Waste - The plains of Arabia are mostly a wide waste
Solomon - Extensive traffic was carried on by land with Tyre and Egypt and Arabia, and by sea with Spain and India and the coasts of Africa, by which Solomon accumulated vast stores of wealth and of the produce of all nations (1 Kings 9:26-28 ; 10:11,12 ; 2 Chronicles 8:17,18 ; 9:21 ). " Among others thus attracted to Jerusalem was "the queen of the south" (Matthew 12:42 ), the queen of Sheba, a country in Arabia Felix. "Deep, indeed, must have been her yearning, and great his fame, which induced a secluded Arabian queen to break through the immemorial custom of her dreamy land, and to put forth the energy required for braving the burdens and perils of so long a journey across a wilderness
Commerce - The inhabitants of Arabia Felix carried on a commerce with India. Sometimes they received them from the Arabians, who either brought them by land through Arabia, or up the Red Sea to Eziongeber. The Egyptians at first received their goods from the Phenicians, Arabians, Africans, and Abyssinians; in all of which countries there are still the remains of large trading towns; but in a subsequent age, they imported goods from India in their own vessels; and eventually carried on an export trade with various ports on the Mediterranean
Heir - Africa, Arabia, among the Druses and tribes of the Caucasus (Genesis 38:8-9; Deuteronomy 25:5-10; Matthew 22:23-25)
Nestorians - Barsumas also erected a school at Nisibis, from which proceeded those Nestorian doctors who in the fifth and sixth centuries spread abroad their tenets through Egypt, Syria, Arabia, India, Tartary, and China. Their spiritual dominion is very extensive, takes in a great part of Asia, and comprehends also within its circuit the Arabian Nestorians, and also the Christians of St
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - banished Flavian to Petra in Arabia, where he died in 518
Salt - Numerous instances occur of travellers in Arabia, after being plundered and stripped by the wandering tribes of the desert, claiming the protection of some civilized Arab, who, after receiving them into his tent, and giving them salt, instantly relieves their distress, and never forsakes them till he has placed them in safety
Koran - The Koran is divided into one hundred and fourteen larger portions of very unequal length, which we call chapters, but the Arabians Sowar, in the singular Sura; a word rarely used on any other occasion, and properly signifying a row, or in building, or a rank of soldiers in an army, and is the same in use and import with the Sura, or Tora, of the Jews; who also call the fifty three sections of the Pentateuch Sedarim, a word of the same signification. ...
The general design of the Koran was to unite the professors of the three different religions, than followed in the populous country of Arabia, (who, for the most part, wandered without guides, the far greater number being idolaters, and the rest Jews and Christians, mostly of erroneous opinion, ) in the knowledge and worship of one God, under the sanction of certain laws and ceremonies, partly of ancient, and partly of novel institution, enforced by the consideration of rewards and punishments both temporal and eternal; and to bring them all to the obedience of Mahomet, as the prophet and ambassador of God; who, after the repeated admonitions, promises, and threats of former ages, was sent at last to establish and propagate God's religion on earth; and to be acknowledged chief pontiff in spiritual matters, as well as supreme prince in temporal. being driven into the deserts of Arabia and Egypt, furnished the impostor with passages, and crude ill-conceived doctrines, out of the Scriptures; and that it was hence that the Alcoran became so full of the wild and erroneous opinions of those heretics. The Jews also, who were very numerous in Arabia, furnished materials, for the Alcoran; nor is it without some reason that they boast twelve of their chief doctors to have been the authors of this work. In the language of Arabia, a language extremely loved and diligently cultivated by the people to whom it was vernacular, Mahomet found advantages which were never enjoyed by any former or succeeding impostor. It requires not the eye of a philosopher to discover in every soil and country a principle of national pride: and if we look back for many ages on the history of the Arabians, we shall easily perceive that pride among them invariably to have consisted in the knowledge and improvement of their native language. But the prophet of Arabia had in this respect advantages peculiar to himself. Its materials are wholly borrowed from the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, from the Talmudical legends and apocryphal gospels than current in the east, and from the traditions and fables which abounded in Arabia
Paul - "...
Saul directly, on his conversion "preached Christ in the synagogues that He is the Son of God," to the astonishment of his hearers (Acts 9:20-21); then followed his retirement to Arabia for a considerable part of the whole "three years" between his conversion and his visit to Jerusalem. From Arabia he returned to Damascus, where with his increased spiritual "strength" he confounded the Jews. His "increase in strength" (Acts 9:22) was obtained in communion with the Lord in Arabia near the scene of giving the law, a fit scene for the revelation of gospel grace which supersedes it (Galatians 4:25). In Arabia he had that retirement after the first fervor of conversion which great characters need, preparatory to their life work for God, as Moses in Midian (Acts 7:20; Acts 7:22). His familiarity with Mount Sinai in Arabia, the scene of the giving of the law, appears in 1618486223_3; Hebrews 12:18; here he was completely severed from his former legalism
Paul - ...
Immediately after his conversion he retired into the solitudes of Arabia (Galatians 1:17 ), perhaps of "Sinai in Arabia," for the purpose, probably, of devout study and meditation on the marvellous revelation that had been made to him. "A veil of thick darkness hangs over this visit to Arabia. Paul, 'I went away into Arabia
Sepulchre - Doughty describes sepulchres of this type as existing in Arabia (Travels in Arabia Deserta, 1888, i. Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia, i
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - Wherever, in Syria or Arabia, Greek or Roman civilization has left some representation of the human body, the traveller finds that the face at least has been disfigured by the nomads. … In another of these monuments I saw the sand floor full of rotten clouts, shivering in every wind, and taking them up, I found them to be those dry bones’ grave-clothes’ (Arabia Deserta, i
Sinai - A mountain, or mountain range, in Arabia Petraea, in the peninsula formed by the two arms of the Red Sea, and rendered memorable as the spot where the law was given to Israel through Moses, Exodus 19:1 -Nu 19:1-10:33 . Beer of Leipzig, who regards them as the only known remains of the language and characters once peculiar to the Nabathaeans of Arabia Petraea
Paul - ...
Paul's convention...
Sojourn in Arabia...
37-40...
First journey to Jerusalem after his conversion, Galatians 1:18; sojourn at Tarsus, ana afterward at Antioch, Acts 11:26...
Second journey to Jerusalem, in company with Barnabas, to relieve the famine...
Paul's first great missionary journey, with Barnabas and Mark; Cyprus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe; return to Antioch in Syria
Serpent - The Cerastes , or the Naia haje , or any other venomous species frequenting Arabia, may denote the "serpent of the burning bite" which destroyed the children of Israel
Fruit - Examples include myrrh (aromatic gum of the tree/bush of Arabia, Ethiopia, and Somalia), cinnamon (of the cinnamon tree), and olive oil for the sacred oil for the tabernacle (Exodus 30:22-33 ); the fragrant spices of gum resin (the aromatic myrrh gum), onycha (made from mollusk shells), galbanum (resin from plant roots), and frankincense (resin from a small tree/bush from Ubar, Oman) for the sacred fragrant tabernacle incense (Exodus 30:34-38 ); frankincense and myrrh given by the magi in their worship of Jesus (Matthew 2:11 ); the nard (perfume made from a Middle East plant) Mary poured out in worship on the feet of Jesus (John 12:3 ); the seventy-five-pound mixture of myrrh and aloes (aromatic resin of a Near Eastern tree) Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus used in wrapping up the body of Jesus (John 19:39-40 ) and the spices and perfumes the women took to the tomb to anoint the body of Jesus (Mark 16:1 ; Luke 23:56-24:1 )
Amalekites - Arab writers represent them as sprung from Ham, and originally at the Persian gulf, and then pressed westward by Assyria, and spreading over Arabia before its occupation by Joktan's descendants
New Testament - ) 1618486223_39 ; (Galatians 1:18 )...
37 Caius (Caligula) emperor of Rome; reigns 4 years...
Herod Agrippa succeeds Herod Antipas...
Caiaphas deposed, and Jonathan made high priest...
38 Paul, at Damascus and in Arabia
Answer - Thus in Titus 2:9 slaves are enjoined not to ‘answer again’ (Authorized Version ; Revised Version ‘gainsay,’ ἀντιλέγω); in Galatians 4:25 ‘this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and answereth to (i
Inn - In the deserts of Persia and Arabia, these buildings are invaluable; in those pathless plains, for many miles together, not a tree, a bush, nor even a blade of grass, is to be seen; all is one undulating mass of sand, like waves on the trackless ocean
Asa - About this time, Zerah, king of Ethiopia, or rather of Cush, which is part of Arabia, marched against Asa with a million of foot, and three hundred chariots of war, and advanced as far as Mareshah
Aloe - " It may not be amiss to observe that the Persian translator renders ahalim, sandal wood; and the same was the opinion of a certain Jew in Arabia who was consulted by Neibuhr
Plants in the Bible - Stacte , one of the spices referred to in Exodus 30:34 to be used in the incense, may be the resin of the balm-of-Gilead ( Commiphora gileadensis ) from southern Arabia. ...
Frankincense and Myrrh are resins produced by certain trees that grow in dry country in southern Arabia and northern Africa. The balm of Gilead or opohybalsam is yielded by Commiphora gileadensis , a non-spiny shrub of dry country in Southern Arabia and said to have been cultivated by Solomon at En-Gedi near the Dead Sea (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1 , “spice”)
Nimrod - ...
Though Arabic is Semitic, the Mahras' language in southern Arabia is non-Semitic, and is the modern representative of the ancient Himyaric whose empire dates as far back as 1750 B
Greetings - The Moslems claim this as ‘the salutation of Islâm, and not for the mouths of the heathen, with whom is no peace nor fellowship, neither in this world nor in the next’ (Doughty, Arabia Deserta, i
Damascus, Damascenes - This point is discussed under Arabia, Aretas, Ethnarch
Amalekites - a people whose country adjoined the southern border of the land of Canaan, in the north-western part of Arabia Petraea. The Arabians have a tradition that this Amalek was a son of Ham; and when we consider that so early as the march from Egypt the Amalekites were a people powerful enough to attack the Israelites, it is far more probable that they should derive their ancestry from Ham, than from the then recent stock of the grandson of Esau. This will agree with the Arabian tradition as to their descent
Ostrich - ...
Ostriches are inhabitants of the deserts of Arabia, where they live chiefly upon vegetables; lead a social and inoffensive life, the male assorting with the female with connubial fidelity
Babylon - Her location gave her to a great extent the control of the traffic, by the Euphrates and by caravans, between Central Asia and Arabia and Egypt
Myrrh - —A gum-resin, the exudation of a shrub (Balsamodendron myrrha) and some other allied species of shrubs growing in the dry regions of Arabia, in Somaliland, and in certain districts bordering on the Red Sea
Genealogy - ) gives further examples from Rome (genealogies traced to Numa), Scotland, India, Arabia, and Africa; the Berbers (‘barbarians’) of N. Arabian tribes, nearer akin, are traced to Ishmael and Hagar; six others, a step farther removed, to Keturah, his second wife, or concubine ( Genesis 25:1 ). Smith ( Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia , p. The Arabian genealogies all date from the reign of Caliph Omar, when circumstances made purity of descent of great importance
Name - Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, 1903, p. ]'>[26] Among the South Arabians, as among the Minaeans and Sabaeans, a great many of the personal names are compounds of ilu, the generic name for ‘God. ]'>[27] A Minaean inscription of the Ptolemaic period gives us the name וידאל (Zaid-El); in 1 Maccabees 11:17 we have the name Ζαβδιήλ as that of an Arabian chief, while Nabataean inscriptions of the age of Jesus have many such names. ] ‘In pre-Islamitic inscriptions of Arabia,’ we have such names as ‘Ili-kariba, “My God hath blessed” ’; which ‘served as spells for the protection of the child’ who bore them
Spices - They were brought into Palestine from India, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
Bread - ( b ) In Syria and Arabia today a convex iron plate is much used, especially among the Bedouin
Ashtoreth - Arabia is evidenced by the probably equivalent male god ‘Athtar
Proverbs - The eloquence of Arabia was mostly exhibited in detached and unconnected sentences, which, like so many loose gems, attracted attention by the fulness of the periods, the elegance of the phraseology, and the acuteness of proverbial sayings
Ostrich - Shaw, in his travels into Arabia, had opportunity of making many curious observations concerning the ostrich, and he hath very largely described the properties of the ostrich in the Supplement to his book of Travels, folio edition, page 66, etc
Sycamore - The trees are very common in Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt; grow large, and to a great height; and though their grain is coarse, are much used in building
Sela - This place is very interesting for its antiquities and the remains of an ancient city, which I conjecture to be Petra, the capital of Arabia Petraea, a place which, as far as I know, no European traveller has ever visited
Eden - By others, the garden has been placed on the eastern side of mount Libanus; and by others again, in Arabia Felix, where traces of the word Eden are found
Palm Tree - These fruits, which are half sugar, are a chief article of food in Arabia and North Africa
Trade And Commerce - Berenice with its warehouses was a centre for Arabia, India, and Ethiopia, and the trade-routes were guarded by Roman garrisons, which had also dug wells. Thirty days were required to go from Berenice to Ocelis in Arabia at the south end of the Red Sea, or to Cane on the south coast of Arabia. From South Arabia, especially through Adane (Aden), came incense (cf. Another trade-route which passed through Syria was that by the head of the Arabian Gulf to Petra through Bostra to Damascus or, for southern Syria, to the port of Gaza
Trade And Commerce - ]'>[1] ‘ yarn ’) was imported from Egypt; the ivory, to which reference is frequently made during the period of the kingdom, from Ethiopia, through Egypt or Arabia; and the gems from one or other of these countries. Of an expedient for commerce like the Arabian months of sacred truce the OT contains no hint. A system of roads leading from Arabia, Egypt, and Mesopotamia appears to have converged at Sela or Petra, whence two branches spread northwards, to Gaza and to the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, continuing northwards on the left bank of the Jordan. Before the construction of railways in Palestine, transport was ordinarily on the backs of men or animals, and of the latter camels are mentioned in connexion with goods brought from Arabia ( 1 Kings 10:2 , Isaiah 60:6 etc
Maccabees - With the assistance of Aretas, king of Arabia, he organized an army and besieged Aristobulus in the Temple Mount. Scaurus favoured Aristobulus, and ordered Aretas to return to Arabia. 30), on the charge of conspiracy with the king of Arabia (Jos
Hospitality - The pleasing picture of the magnanimous sheik, bidding strangers welcome to his tent and to the best he owns ( Genesis 18:1-33 ), is often repeated to this hour in the Arabian wilderness. ‘Whoever,’ says the Prophet, ‘believes in God and the day of resurrection must respect his guest; and the time of being kind to him is one day and one night; and the period of entertaining him is three days; and if after that he does it longer, he benefits him more: but it is not right for the guest to stay in the house of his host so long as to incommode him’ (Lane, Arabian Society in the Middle Ages , 143). ‘It is a principle alike in old and new Arabia that the guest is inviolable’ (W. ...
To understand this we must remember (1) that in Arabia all recognition of mutual rights and duties rests upon kinship
Damascus - Both major international highways ran through Damascus the Via Maris from Mesopotamia in the east through Damascus and the Jezreel Valley to the Plain of Sharon and the Mediterranean coast, then south to Egypt; and the King's Highway from Damascus south through Ashtaroth, Rabbath-ammon, and Bozrah to Elath on the Red Sea and to Arabia
Ointment - In biblical times, Arabia was one of the principal traders in aromatic spices
Guest - ]'>[2] 2 [3] ; Van Lennep, Manners and Customs in Bible Lands; Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys; Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta (passim); Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of Ancient Egyptians
Desert, Wilderness - Paul we have a reference to his sojourn in Arabia (Galatians 1:17) after his conversion, and undoubtedly we are to understand that the Apostle had retired to the desert for meditation
Antiochus - Trypho, one of the generals of Alexander Balas, at first championed the cause of this boy after his father had been killed in Arabia
Army - Distributing the legions in the frontier provinces of the Empire-which had the Atlantic as its boundary on the west, the Rhine and the Danube on the north, the Euphrates on the east, and the deserts of Arabia and Africa on the south-he charged them to guard the borders which were exposed to the attacks of restless barbarians
Greek Church - The Greek church comprehends a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lybia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Siberia in Asia, Astrachan, Casan, and Georgia
Goel - The same custom exists in Arabia, and it appears to have been alluded to by Rebecca: when she learned that Esau was threatening to kill his brother Jacob, she endeavoured to send the latter out of the country, saying, "Why should I be bereft of you both in one day?" Genesis 27:15
Palm Tree - A considerable part of the inhabitants of Egypt, of Arabia, and Persia, subsist almost entirely upon its fruit
Solomon - " The queen of Sheba's (Arabian tradition calls her Βalkis ) visit illustrates the impression made by his fame, which led "all the earth to seek to hear his wisdom which God had put in his heart"; she "hearing of his fame concerning the name of Jehovah" (i. Northern Arabia was at this time ruled by queens not kings, but she probably came from southern Arabia or Arabia Felix
Tongues, Confusion of - Ethnologists divide the Shemites into five main branches, Aramaean, Hebrew, Phoenician, Assyrian or Babylonian, and Arabian; Moses recognizes four of these, Asshur or Assyria, Aram or Syria, Eber or the Hebrew, Joktan the pure Arabs. Arabia, and Babylonia. The Semitic races in the region intermediate between the Japhetic and Hamitic: Syria, Palestine, northern and central Arabia, Assyria, Elymais, from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Luristan
Nineveh - Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G
Incense - Arabia; the tree is Βoswellia thurifera , the native salai ; the gum is called oliban , Arabic looban , from whence the Hebrew lebonah comes)
Nazirite - There is evidence for this from Syria, Arabia, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and, in recent times, even among the Maoris
Roman Empire - , interfered in the contest between Aristobulus and Aretas king of Arabia Petraea, who supported Hyrcanus, whom Aristobulus had driven from the high priesthood. ; the African deserts, the Nile cataracts, and the Arabian deserts on the S
Ammonites - , benefiting from the active commerce which moved along the old trade route connecting Damascus and Bostra with the Gulf of Aqabah and western Arabia
Tree - Geddes render it the tamarisk, which is a lofty and beautiful tree, and grows abundantly in Egypt and Arabia. Of the trees that produced precious balsams there was one in particular that long flourished in Judea, having been supposed to have been an object of great attention to Solomon, which was afterward transplanted to Matarea, in Egypt, where it continued till about two hundred and fifty years ago, according to Maillet, who gives a description of it, drawn, it is supposed, from the Arabian authors, in which he says, "This shrub had two very differently coloured barks, the one red, the other perfectly green; that they tasted strongly like incense and turpentine, and when bruised between the fingers they smelt very nearly like cardamoms
Zabii - If the above derivation be right, the Zabians were originally Chaldeans, though afterward the same sect arose in Arabia
Messiah - He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, an Ethiopian general. In the same year, an Arabian professed to be the messiah, and pretended to work miracles. When search was made for him, his followers fled, and he was brought before the Arabian king
Flies - Trajan was obliged to raise the siege of a city in Arabia, before which he had sat down, being driven away by the swarms of these insects
Marriage - Smith ( Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia ) gives to this form the name sadika , from the sadac or ‘gift’ given to the wife, ( a ) The union may be confined to an occasional visit to the wife in her home ( mota marriage). Women could inherit in Arabia under this system ( op. Many of the instances quoted can be explained as due to special circumstances, but the admitted existence of such marriages in Arabia makes it probable that we should find traces of them among the Semites in general
Galatians Epistle to the - Paul’s conversion was followed by a visit to Arabia, a ‘return’ to Damascus, and then, ‘after three years,’ a visit to Jerusalem. The expression ὡς δὲ ἐπληροῦντο ἡμέραι ἱκαναί (Acts 9:23) suggests that the Apostle spent a considerable time at Damascus, but nothing is said concerning any visit to Arabia. Paul’s visit to Arabia, which the Apostle himself describes as a temporary absence in the course of a long stay in Damascus (ὑπέστρεψα [6])
Job - ...
Farther: no reasonable doubt can be entertained respecting the real existence of Job, when we consider that it is proved by the concurrent testimony of all eastern tradition: he is mentioned by the author of the book of Tobit, who lived during the Assyrian captivity; he is also repeatedly mentioned by Arabian writers as a real character. The slavish homage of prostration to princes and great men, which prevailed in Egypt, Persia, and the east in general, and which still subsists there, was unknown in Arabia at that time. A farther evidence of the remote antiquity of this book is the language of Job and his friends; who, being all Idumeans, or at least Arabians of the adjacent country, yet conversed in Hebrew. This carries us up to an age so early as that in which all the posterity of Abraham, Israelites, Idumeans, and Arabians, yet continued to speak one common language, and had not branched into different dialects. ...
The country in which the scene of this poem is laid, is stated, Job 1:1 , to be the land of Uz, which by some geographers has been placed in Sandy, and by others in Stony, Arabia
Mining And Metals - Of these localities Havilah and Sheba were Arabian. Among the sources of the metal, Arabia ( 2 Chronicles 9:14 ) and Tarshish ( 2 Chronicles 9:21 , Jeremiah 10:9 , Ezekiel 27:12 ) are named
Paul - Part of the next three years Paul spent in Arabia, after which he returned to Damascus
Unicorn - Mr, Browne, in his Travels, says, that the Arabians call the rhinoceros abukurn, "father of the one horn. There can be no doubt that rhinoceros is the proper term; for this animal is universally known in Arabia, by the name of reem, to the present day
Sabbath - The week was an established division of time in Mesopotamia and Arabia, Genesis 29:27 ; and traces of it have been found in many nations of antiquity, so remote from each other and of such diverse origin as to forbid the idea of their having received it from Sinai and the Hebrews
Job, Book of - of Palestine toward Arabia Deserta
Magi - The oldest opinion inclines to Arabia (Justin M. ), partly on account of references such as Psalms 72:10, Isaiah 60:5, partly on account of the character of the gifts, partly by reason of the close intercourse that subsisted between Arabia and Palestine (Edersheim, i. On the other hand, Arabia is to the south rather than the east of Judaea (cf
Locust - 346), ‘Locusts are here an article of food, nay, a dainty, and a good swarm of them is begged of Heaven in Arabia no less fervently than it would be deprecated in India or in Syria. , 79; Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia, 1883, pp
Locust - 346), ‘Locusts are here an article of food, nay, a dainty, and a good swarm of them is begged of Heaven in Arabia no less fervently than it would be deprecated in India or in Syria. , 79; Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia, 1883, pp
Palestine - Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus
Greek Church - Comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Libya, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine, which are all under the jurisdiction of the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem
Communion - Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, new ed
Paul - As the Jews sought his life at Damascus, he departed into Arabia, where doubtless he had deep exercise of heart and learnt more of the Lord
Dead Sea - "The descent of the beach," he says, "is so gently gradual, that I must have waded above a hundred yards to get completely out of my depth, and the impatience of the Arabians would not allow of time sufficient for this. " After noticing the very different shape and position of the Dead Sea, he adds: "Bitumen, warm springs, and phosphoric stones are found, it is true, in the mountains of Arabia; but then, the presence of hot springs, sulphur, and asphaltos is not sufficient to attest the anterior existence of a volcano
Messiah - He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, and AEthiopian general. In the year 571 was born Mahomet, in Arabia. In the same year an Arabian set up there for the Messiah, and pretended to work miracles. When search was made for him, his followers fled, and he was brought before the Arabian king. It was said, that great multitudes marched from unknown parts to the remote deserts of Arabia, and they were supposed to be the ten tribes of Israel, who had been dispersed for many ages; that a ship was arrived in the north part of Scotland with sails and cordage of silk: that the mariners spake nothing but Hebrew; that on the sails was this motto, The twelve tribes of Israel
Paul as a Student - An absolutely new world of things was opened up to the Apostolic Church when Paul came back from Arabia with the full revelation of the law and the gospel in his mind, and in his heart, and in his imagination. Howbeit when He, the Spirit of truth, is come, He will guide you into all truth,"-which He did when He led Paul into Arabia
Division of the Earth - 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [4] Babel, [5] Persia, and Hegiaz; [6] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [7] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [3] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [3] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. ) Of his sons, the first and most celebrated appears to have been Cush, who gave name to the land of Cush, both in Asia and Africa; the former still called Chusistan by the Arabian geographers, and Susiana by the Greeks, and Cusha Dwipa Within, by the Hindus; the other, called Cusha Dwipa Without. Of Cush's sons, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Sabtacha, and Raamah; and the sons of Raamah, Sheba, and Dedan, seem to have settled in Idumea and Arabia, from the similar names of places there; and of his descendants, Nimrod, the mighty hunter, first founded the kingdom of Babylon, and afterward of Assyria, invading the settlements of the Shemites, contrary to the divine decree
Isaiah, Book of - Moab, Damascus, "the land shadowing with wings which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia," Egypt, "the desert of the sea," Dumah, Arabia, "the valley of vision" (Jerusalem), Tyre, "the earth [1] made empty and waste, and turned upside down;" and finally the hosts on high and kings on the earth punished
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - Even here the bishops of Egypt, Cyprus, and Arabia recognized Paulinus, and demanded the banishment of Flavian, who was supported by the bishops of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria (Socr
Sea, the Salt - ...
Ancient testimony, the recent formation of the sea, its bituminous, saline, volcanic aspect, the traditional names (Usdum ), and the traditional site of Zoar (called by Josephus Zoar of Arabia), the hill of salt traditionally made Lot's wife, all favor the southern site for Sodom, etc
Persia - , the Arabian desert, Persian gulf, and Indian ocean on the S. Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians
Philistia - and Egypt and Arabia in the S. Ashdod and Gaza were the keys of Egypt, and the latter was the depot of Arabian produce (Pint
Serpent - This fact is attested by its Arabian name melecha, from the Hebrew verb malach, "to reign;" from its Greek name βασιλισκος , and its Latin name regulus: all of which, it is asserted, referred to the conspicuous place it occupied among the regal ornaments of the east. The Arabian authors quoted by Bochart inform us, that the sephiphon, is a most pernicious reptile, and very dangerous to man. It is a native of Egypt, and the deserts of Arabia; and receives its name from the Hebrew verb seraph, which signifies to burn, in allusion to the violent inflammation which its poison produces, or rather to its fiery colour, which the brazen serpent was intended to represent. AElian says, they come from the deserts of Libya and Arabia, to inhabit the streams of the Nile; and that they have the form of the hydrus
Egypt - Many scholars believe that it was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class population, perhaps belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the Egyptians of history entered it
King - (Acts 25:13); Aretas of Arabia (2 Corinthians 11:32); Agrippa I
Hebrews - They are also numerous in Arabia, in Egypt, and throughout Africa
Samson - In Arabia the vow to leave the locks unshorn was particularly connected with wars of revenge ( Deuteronomy 32:42 RVm Slave, Slavery - Deuteronomy 15:13 makes against it, but not necessarily, and the fact that in Arabia and Babylonia (CH § 176) the slave could own property awakens a presumption in favour of the same custom in Israel
Herod - In the war between Antony and Octavius, Herod raised an army for the purpose of joining the former; but he was obliged first to engage Malchus, king of Arabia, whom he defeated and obliged to sue for peace
Commerce - Eventually, the introduction of the camel and the establishment of caravansaries (inns where caravans can rest at night) as storage and rest centers, made it possible for merchants to take a more direct route across the deserts of northern Syria and Arabia
Mahometanism - ...
This was done, and about forty of them came; but Abu Leheb, one of his uncles, making the company break up before Mahomet had an opportunity of speaking, obliged him to give them a second invitation the next day; and when they were come, he made them the following speech: "I know no man in all Arabia who can offer his kindred a more excellent thing than I now do to you; I offer you happiness both in this life, and in that which is to come: God Almighty hath commanded me to call you unto him. ...
In the seventh year of the Hegira, Mahomet began to think of propagating his religion, beyond the bounds of Arabia, and sent messengers to the neighbouring princes, with letters to invite them to Mahometanism. The emperor Heraclius, as the Arabian historians assure us, received Mahomet's letter with great respect, laying it on his pillow, and dismissed the bearer honourably. ...
Thus was Mahometanism established, and idolatry rooted out, even in Mahomet's life-time, (for he died the next year, ) throughout all Arabia, except only Yamama, where Moseilama, who set up also as a prophet as Mahomet's competitor, had a great party, and was not reduced till the kalifat of Abu Beer: and the Arabs being then united in one faith, and under one prince, found themselves in a condition of making those conquests which extended the Mahometan faith over so great a part of the world
Herod - ) and Cypros, a noble Arabian. ...
Undertaking next for Antony an expedition to Arabia against Malchus, he thereby escaped taking share in the war between Antony his patron and Octavian. He married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia Petraea; but afterwards, meeting at Rome, he became enamoured of and took, his half-brother Herod Philip's wife, and his own niece, daughter of Aristobulus, Herodias
Nebuchadnezzar - deep, with sluices to irrigate the low land; also a quay on the Persian gulf, and the city Teredon on the Arabian border. of the various kingdoms wheresoever he turned his arms, Egypt, Nineveh, Arabia, Phoenicia, Tyre
Phoenicia, phNicians - Scholars now suppose that this refers really to the Persian Gulf, and that the Canaanites , of whom the Phœnicians were a part, came from North Arabia by way of the shore of the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates valley
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - Paul, stung with remorse for his cowardice, escaped into Arabia, taking refuge with Mondir, son and successor of Harith
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - These difficulties being settled, he set out on a long and toilsome journey, in fulfilment of a commission from the council of Antioch "to visit and reform the church of Arabia" (t. 394, under the presidency of Nectarius, to decide between the claims of Bagadius and Agapius to the see of Bostra in Arabia (Labbe, Concil
Canaan - The territory of Tyre and Sidon was its ancient border on the north-west; the range of the Libanus and Anti-libanus forms a natural boundary on the north and north-east; while in the south it is pressed upon by the Syrian and Arabian deserts. Maon, which belonged to the tribe of Judah, and was situated in or near the desert of Paran, is described by Abulfeda as the farthest city of Syria toward Arabia, being two days' journey beyond Zoar. " Since the country has fallen under the Turkish dominion, it has ceased to be cultivated in Palestine, but is still found in Arabia
Manichees - This heresy had its first rise about the year 277, and spread itself principally in Arabia, Egypt and Africa
Dwelling - In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings
Sea - It lies between Arabia on the east and northeast, and Abyssinia and Egypt on the west and southwest, and extends from the straits of Babelmandel to Suez, a distance of about 1,400 miles, with an average width of 150 miles, and a depth of 1,800 feet
Babel - Arabian) dialects. Arabia, and the cities on the lower Euphrates near its mouth. Then it fell under Semitic influence, Arabia for two and a half centuries, and then (about 1270 B. of 9 Arabian kings 245 - 1301...
VI. of 45 Arabian kings 526 - 775 Pul, a Chaldean 28 - 747...
VII
Egypt - , and it is remarkable that his widow imported many trees from Arabia Felix. Horses are omitted, which accords with the earlier date, for they were unknown (judging from the monuments) to the 12th or any earlier dynasty, and were probably introduced from Arabia by the Hyksos
Paul - 37-40, and that Saul, not thinking it necessary to procure authority to teach from the apostles that were before him, went after his conversion to Arabia, and returned from thence to us. We know nothing whatever of this visit to Arabia; but upon his departure from Damascus we are again on a historical ground, and have the double evidence of St
Chronology of the New Testament - Conversion near Damascus, Acts 9:3 ; Acts 22:5 ; Acts 26:12 ; retirement to Arabia, Galatians 1:17 ; preaching in Damascus, Acts 9:20-22 (?), Galatians 1:17
Targums - It is, however, interesting to note an exception in the case of Southern Arabia, where the custom still survives; and in Bokhara the Persian Jews read the Targum, with the Persian paraphrase of it, to the lesson from the Prophets for the last day of the Passover Feast, namely, Isaiah 10:32 to Isaiah 12:6
Corinth - his visit to Arabia (Galatians 1:17-28)
Rome And the Roman Empire - If the Mediterranean Sea is included, the Roman Empire was roughly the size of the continental United States, reaching from Britain to Arabia and from Germany to Morocco
Numbers, the Book of - Formerly, the forests in Arabia attracted rain, and so the Sinai desert afforded food more than now
Bible, Texts And Versions - From the third century on followed translations into the various dialects of the Egyptian languages, the languages of Armenia, Georgia, Ethiopia, Arabia, Nubia, and the areas of Europe
Galilee (2) - Over this bridge came the traffic from Arabia and Gilead
Assyria - Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks
Elijah - He therefore fled to Beersheba, in the south of Judah, and thence into Arabia Petrea
Ships And Boats - They were stationed at Ezion-geber , at the head of the Gulf of Akabah, and traded with Ophir, probably in the southeast of Arabia, in gold and precious stones ( 1 Kings 9:26-28 )
Assur - of the Euphrates was Arabia, higher up Syria, and the country of the Hittites
the Ethiopian Eunuch - Caravans of pilgrims come and go: merchants of Egypt and of Arabia and cohorts of Roman soldiers
Antioch - A navigable river and a fine seaport-Seleucia of Pieria-made it practically a maritime city, while caravan roads converging from Arabia and Mesopotamia brought to it the commerce of the East. No Greek region has so few memorial-stones to shown as Syria; the great Antioch, the third city of the empire, has-to say nothing of the land of hieroglyphics and obelisks-left behind fewer inscriptions than many a small African or Arabian village’ (Mommsen, op
War - Far was it from their intention merely to reduce the power of the Philistines, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Idumeans, the Arabians, the Syrians, and the several princes that were in possession of those countries. We find, even to this day, that the circular edifices of this sort, which are still erected in the solitudes of Arabia Felix, bear their ancient name of castles or towers
Christianity (History Sketch) - They reached to almost every country in Europe; to Arabia, China, Judea, and many other parts of Asia; and the obscure tribes, to whom no missionaries were despatched, gradually conformed to the religion of those more powerful states upon which they depended, or to which they looked with respect or veneration
Solomon - Arabia; hence no doubt the visit of the queen of Sheba ( 1 Kings 10:1 ); the ‘presents’ exchanged would be really of the nature of barter, as illustrated by the Tell el-Amarna tablets
Isaiah - The petty states of Palestine—Syria, Philistia, Moab, Edom, Ammon, Arabia, Tyre, Israel, and Judah—were ultimately conquered or made tributary to Assyria
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis - Some years after his elevation to the episcopate, he addressed a letter to the faithful in Arabia, in defence of the perpetual virginity of Mary, afterwards incorporated in his great work, Against all Heresies ( Haer
Economic Life - For instance, luxury items such as spices and perfumes from Arabia and ivory and rare animals commanded high prices
Paul the Apostle - He spent various lengths of time in Arabia, Damascus, and Jerusalem, eventually spending a lengthier stint far to the north in Syria and his native Cilicia (Galatians 1:15-21 )
Magi - Pliny and Ptolemy mention Arabi as synonymous with magi; and it was the opinion of many learned men in the first ages of Christianity, that the magi who presented offerings to the infant Saviour, Matthew 2:1 , came from southern Arabia; for it is certain that "gold, frankincense, and myrrh
Political Conditions - —The situation of Judaea, on the confines of Egypt and Arabia, was of such military importance that Rome could not wisely concede the repeated request of the people for the investiture of their high priest with all the functions of civil government
Canaan - Arabia, Babylonia, and Kissia
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - ; Doughty, Arabia Deserta, ii
Egypt - In ancient times it included the land watered by the Nile as far as the First Cataract, the deserts on either side being included in Arabia and Libya
Poetry of the Hebrews - Earthquakes were not unfrequent; and the tempests of hail, thunder, and lightning, in Judea and Arabia, accompanied with whirlwinds and darkness, far exceed any thing of that sort which happens in more temperate regions
Leprosy - Of these diseases, to take a few examples, we seem to be able to recognize psoriasis in the expression ‘a leper white as snow’; favus (a common disease among Eastern Jews to-day) and perhaps ‘ringworm’ in the description of the ‘plague of the head and the beard’ (Leviticus 13:29-30); and the disease vitiligo in the symptom termed ‘freckled spot’ (בֹּהַק, Leviticus 13:39), the exactly equivalent word بهق (bohak) being used for this condition in Palestine and Arabia to-day
Red Sea - After they set out from Rameses, in the land of Goshen, in the neighbourhood of Cairo, their first encampment was at Succoth, signifying "booths," or an "enclosure for cattle," after a stage of about thirty miles; their second, at Etham, or Adsjerud, on the edge of the wilderness, about sixty miles farther; "for the Lord led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: but God led the people about by the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea," or by a circuitous route to the land of promise, in order to train them and instruct them, in the solitudes of Arabia Petraea, Exodus 13:17-20 ; Deuteronomy 32:10
Antiochus - ANTIOCHUS THEOS, or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c. Demetrius Nicanor, king of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, one Diodotus, otherwise called Tryphon, came to Zabdiel, a king in Arabia, and desired him to entrust him with young Antiochus, whom he promised to place on the throne of Syria, which was then possessed by Demetrius Nicanor
Wisdom of Solomon - probably ancient, modern, and mediaeval history), the alterations of the turnings (of the sun) and the change of seasons, the circuits of years and the position of stars, the natures of living creatures and the dispositions of beasts, the forces of the winds and the reasonings of men, the diversities of plants and the virtues of roots’-a list which shows little sign of Greek influence, but is much more suggestive of the learning of Egypt, Phœnicia, and Arabia
Righteousness - Doughty, speaking of his hospitable host Maatuk, observes that ‘if the camels came home be milked a great bowlful for the stranger, saying, it was his sádaka, or meritorious human kindness, for God’s sake,’ Bethlehem - Justin relates other particulars which may have come to him—he was a native of Nablûs, not 40 miles from Bethlehem—by oral tradition or from apocryphal narratives: such as that the Magi came from Arabia, and that Herod slew all the children of Bethlehem
Dates - And since from Galatians 1:17 it is clear that Saul returned to Damascus as a Christian leader after a period of three years spent in Arabia, and the flight from Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32) cannot be identified with any later event than this visit, his conversion must have taken place not later than 36, and perhaps several years earlier
Physician - He was familiar with all the plants of Arabia and Asia Minor, and in a single book he describes these with such exactitude that they have been identified by modern botanists
Moses - His Egyptian rearing and life occupy 40 years, his exile in the Arabian desert 40, and his leadership of Israel from Egypt to Moab 40 (Acts 7:23; Acts 7:30; Acts 7:36). ...
An interval of solitude is needed especially by men of fervor and vehemence; so Paul in Arabia (Acts 24:27; Galatians 1:17)
Bible - documents in Ezra 4:7 to Ezra 6:18 and Ezra 7:12-26 , Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 and a few scattered words and phrases elsewhere) are in Aramaic, the language of Syria, which was widely known, being found in Babylonia, Egypt, and Arabia
Galatia - 175) holds that ‘he never uses any but the provincial name for districts under Roman rule, and never employs territorial names which are not also names of Roman provinces’ The Apostle’s employment of the terms Achaia, Macedonia, Dalmatia, Judaea , Arabia, Syria, and Cilicia is regarded as consistently Imperial
Gospels (2) - Paul’s own statement (Galatians 1:16-17), ‘I conferred not with flesh and blood … I went away into Arabia,’ suggests a retirement for solitary study, meditation, and prayer
Job - , we have to think of him as a Gentile living in patriarchal times either in the Hauran or on the confines of Idumæa and Arabia (see Uz), and his friends also must be regarded as Gentiles
Palestine - On the western verge of Asia, and severed from the main body of Asia by the desert between Palestine and the regions of Mesopotamia and Arabia, it looks on the other side to the Mediterranean and western world, which it was destined by Providence so powerfully to affect; oriental and reflective, yet free from the stagnant and retrogressive tendencies of Asia, it bore the precious spiritual treasure of which it was the repository to the energetic and progressive W. Persian forms appear on the eastern frontier, Arabian and Egyptian on the southern. Arabian and Indian tropical plants of about 100 different kinds are the remarkable anomaly in the torrid depression of the Jordan and Dead Sea
Abram - The Arabian and Jewish legends speak of his early idolatry, his conversion from it, and of his zeal in breaking the images in his father's house; but these are little to be depended upon. Thus the migrations of the three primitive families proceeded from the central regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria; and in succession they established numerous communities,—the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Lybians southward;—the Persians, Indians, and Chinese eastward;—the Scythians, Celts, and Tartars northward;—and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins westward, even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South America, and the Indians of North America. Abraham, with true Arabian hospitality, received and entertained them. Abraham afterward married Keturah; by whom he had six sons, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah; who became heads of different people, which dwelt in Arabia, and around it
Paul the Apostle - Immediately he confesses Christ in the synagogues at Damascus ( Acts 9:20 ), and then retires into Arabia (perhaps the Sinaitic peninsula, see Lightfoot’s Galatians 6:1-18 , p
Joseph - Africa, Ethiopia, Arabia, Syria, which shared in the drought (for the tropical rains on the Abyssinian mountains, on which the Nile's rise depends, have the same origin as the Palestine rains), and which partially depended on Egypt the granary of many countries (Acts 27:6; Acts 27:38), came to buy grain
Science (2) - Among the fine qualities of the Hebrew mind were: (1) a sanity and sobriety of thought which preserved their religion and literature from all those offensive and extravagant traits which mark the popular religions of Syria, Asia Minor, and Arabia; (2) an extraordinary gift for the observation of individual incidents and facts, as appears in the inimitable narratives of the historical books of the OT; the vivid portraiture, satire, and denunciation of the prophets; and the marvellous, if often trivial, minuteness of Rabbinic discussions; (3) unparalleled energy of feeling and sense of individuality; and (4) a strength of will that alone can account for the vitality of a people which has been exposed to a more bitter persecution and more relentless fate than any other race in history
Josephus - Similarly, from the statement of Josephus that the defeat of Herod Antipas in the war against his father-in-law Aretas of Arabia (an event which should probably be assigned to a
Jews - In 3899 he was succeeded by his son Janneus, who reduced the Philistines, the country of Moab, Ammon, Gilead, and part of Arabia
Moses - " For when, in the excess of his zeal to redress their grievances, he had slain an Egyptian, who injured one of them, in which he probably went beyond his commission, and afterward endeavoured to reconcile two of them that were at variance, they rejected his mediation; and "the man who had done wrong said, Who made thee a judge and a ruler over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" So Moses, finding it was known, and that Pharaoh sought to slay him, fled for his life to the land of Midian, in Arabia Petraea, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, or Reuel, prince and priest of Midian; and, as a shepherd, kept his flocks in the vicinity of Mount Horeb, or Sinai, for forty years, Exodus 2:11-21 ; Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 18:5 ; Numbers 10:29 ; Acts 7:23-30
Paul - Paul was baptized at Damascus, he went into Arabia; but we are not informed how long he remained there
Hippolytus Romanus - It has been disputed whether Hippolytus was a presbyter or a bishop; and if a bishop, of what see; whether he laboured in Italy or Arabia; whether he was orthodox or a schismatic; whether he was a martyr, and if so, by what death he died
Inspiration - When it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace, to reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Heathen: immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood, neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were Apostles before me; but I went into Arabia," Galatians 1:1 ; Galatians 1:12 ; Galatians 1:15-17
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - Epiphanius names as infected by it in his time, Rome and Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Syria, Cyprus, and even Persia
Nestorius And Nestorianism - In 435 it was thought that Nestorius was nearer the patriarch of Antioch than was convenient, so his exile to Petra in Arabia was decreed, though he was actually taken to Egypt instead
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - In Medina, the idea of a Mission far beyond the confines of Arabia had now taken hold of Mohammed’s mind, and he thus suggests by the reference to the limited Mission of Jesus his own superiority