What does Apocrypha mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha
They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. Our Lord and his apostles confirmed by their authority the ordinary Jewish canon, which was the same in all respects as we now have it.
These books were written not in Hebrew but in Greek, and during the "period of silence," from the time of Malachi, after which oracles and direct revelations from God ceased till the Christian era.
The contents of the books themselves show that they were no part of Scripture. The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q.v.), the Books of Esdras, the Book of Wisdom, the Book of Baruch, the Book of Esther, Ecclesiasticus, Tobit, Judith, etc. The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha
Signifies properly hidden, concealed; and as applied to books, it means those which assume a claim to a sacred character, but are really uninspired, and have not been publicly admitted into the canon. These are of two classes: namely,
1. Those which were in existence in the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the Jews into the canon of the Old Testament, because they had no Hebrew original and were regarded as not divinely inspired. The most important of these are collected in the Apocrypha often bound up with the English Bible; but in the Septuagint and Vulgate they stand as canonical.
These apocryphal writings are ten in number: namely, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Judith, two books of the Maccabees, Song of the Three Children, Susannah, and Bell and the Dragon. Their style proves that they were a part of the Jewish- Greek literature of Alexandria, within three hundred years before Christ; and as the Septuagint Greek version of the Hebrew Bible came from the same quarter, it was often accompanied by these uninspired Greek writings, and they thus gained a general circulation. Josephus and Philo, of the first century, exclude them from the canon. The Talmud contains no trace of them; and from the various lists of the Old Testament Scriptures in the early centuries, it is clear that then as now they formed no part of the Hebrew canon. None of them are quoted or endorsed by Christ or the apostles; they were not acknowledged by the Christian fathers; and their own contents condemn them, abounding with errors and absurdities. Some of them, however, are of value for the historical information they furnish, for their moral and prudential maxims, and for the illustrations they afford of ancient life.
2. Those which were written after the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the churches into the canon of the New Testament, as not being divinely inspired. These are mostly of a legendary character. They have all been collected by Fabricius in his Codex Apoc. New Testament.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Apocrypha
"Apocrypha" comes from the Greek word apokrypha [1], which means "things that are hidden, secret." "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not.
The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. Most of the books were composed in Hebrew prior to the Christian era, but they apparently never were accepted by the Jews as part of the Hebrew canon. At an early date they were translated into Greek and in this form came to be used by Christians as early as the end of the first century a.d. They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate. The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. Over time, however, the Apocrypha has fallen into disuse among Protestants.
The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1Maccabees, and 2Maccabees. The Greek Orthodox Church adds 1Esdras, Psalm 151 , the Prayer of Manasseh, and 3Maccabees, with 4Maccabees in an appendix. The Russian Orthodox Church adds 1Esdras, 2Esdras, Psalm 151 , and 3Maccabees. The Roman Catholic canon places the Prayer of Manasseh, 1Esdras, and 2Esdras in an appendix without implying canonicity.
Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. First Esdras, for example, is primarily a retelling of the material found in 2 Chronicles 35:1-36:23 , Ezra, and Nehemiah 7:6-8:12 ; Psalm 151 purports to be an additional psalm of David. More interesting are the Additions to Esther. Inserted at strategic points, these clearly secondary additions, which include among other things prayers by Mordecai and Esther, serve to give a distinctively religious slant to the Book of Esther, otherwise noted for its failure to mention God or even prayer. The Additions to Daniel have a less unified purpose. Susanna (chapter 13 of the Greek Daniel) is a delightful little story affirming God's vindication of those who hope in him, and Bel and the Dragon (chapter 14 of the Greek Daniel) exposes the folly of idolatry. The Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, placed after Daniel 3:23 , is a prayer of trust in God offered up by Azariah (i.e., Abednego — Daniel 1:7 ) and his companions (Shadrach and Meshach) in the fiery furnace. It is noteworthy for its expression of confidence that God will accept the sacrifice of a contrite heart and a humble spirit. Another noteworthy (and secondary) prayer is the Prayer of Manasseh, apparently composed to give content to the prayer of repentance offered by Manasseh that is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 33:12-13 . It includes a powerful expression of contrition for sin and trust in the grace of God. Two books are associated with Jeremiah: the Letter of Jeremiah is an attack on idolatry, and Baruch, attributed to Jeremiah's secretary (cf. Jeremiah 36:4-8 ), extols the virtues of Wisdom, which is identified with the Law.
Two other Wisdom books are contained in the Apocrypha. The Wisdom of Solomon, ostensibly related to Solomon, deliberates on the future reward of the righteous and punishment of the ungodly, sings the praises of Wisdom, and, through a retelling of the exodus story, celebrates God's exaltation of Israel through the very things by which her enemies were punished. Affirmations, among other things, of the preexistence and immortality of the soul indicate a considerable degree of Greek influence upon the author. Ecclesiasticus contains the teachings, in a form resembling that of the Book of Proverbs, of a second century b.c. Jewish teacher named Jesus ben Sira. The author praises and personifies (cf. Proverbs 8:22-31 ) Wisdom, whom he identifies with the Law, and provides practical precepts for everyday living. The book contains numerous parallels to the ethical sections of the New Testament, especially the Book of James.
Two of the most popular books in the Apocrypha tell the stories, undoubtedly legendary, of two otherwise unknown Jews. Set in the time of Nebuchadnezzar, Judith is a vivid and dramatic narrative of a beautiful Jewish widow, who, through a combination of extraordinary courage and trust in God, delivers her people in a time of crisis. Tobit, purportedly from the time of the Assyrian exile, combines the themes of quest, romance, and overcoming the demonic in a story of God's healing of his faithful servant Tobit and deliverance of the unfortunate widow Sarah. It testifies to a developing demonology and angelology within Judaism, and emphasizes the importance of charitable deeds, containing some striking parallels to the ethical teaching in the New Testament, including a negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. Matthew 7:12 ).
Four books are associated, in name at least, with the Maccabees, those Jewish heroes who, led by Judas Maccabeus, waged the Maccabean Revolt in the second century b.c. against the Greek tyrant Antiochus IV, who attempted to ban the practice of Judaism. First Maccabees, the longest and most detailed account, is an especially important historical source for the revolt. Apart from his obvious support of the revolt and opposition to the hellenization of Judaism that preceded it, the author's primary religious perspective seems to be that Godor, rather, heavenhelps those who take initiative and trust in him. Second Maccabees is more openly theological and affirms such ideas as the glories of martyrdom, the sufferings of the martyr as being expiatory for the sins of the nation, the resurrection of the body, prayer for the dead, and the intercession of the saints. Both books are of first importance for understanding the historical setting for Hanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication of the temple, which originates from the Maccabean Revolt.
Fourth Maccabees, an imaginative elaboration on the martyrdoms in 2Maccabees, is a distinctive melding of Greek and Jewish ideas. Affirming the immortality of the righteous and the eternal punishment of the wicked, the author seeks to demonstrate that inspired reason, guided by the Law, is supreme ruler over the passions. Third Maccabees tells not of the Maccabees, but of the plight of Egyptian Jews near the end of the third century b.c.; its focus is on God's faithfulness to his people.
Second Esdras, purportedly composed by Ezra, was written in response to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in a.d. 70. Second Esdras centers around the theme of God's justice in the light of the devastating defeat of his people Israel by a godless nation. It includes significant discussions on the nature of sin and its connection with Adam (cf. Romans 5 ), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. Both in its overall orientation and in many of its details, 2Esdras contains a number of striking parallels to the Book of Revelation, with which it is contemporary.
The Jews wrote numerous other works that are not included in any Christian canon. Many of them were attributed to major Old Testament figures; they are called the Pseudepigrapha. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations. The Pseudepigrapha attest to the rich theological diversity within Judaism during the intertestamental period.
The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. Nonetheless, some of these books were widely used by Christians throughout the Middle Ages and have left their mark on the church.
Numerous apocryphal gospels were produced by early Christians. Many of them, such as the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Mary, and the Dialogue of the Savior, were composed by heretical groups like the Gnostics and purport to give "secret, " unorthodox teachings of Jesus. Others fill in gaps in the New Testament Gospels, usually with a heightened sense of the miraculous. The Protevangelium of James, for example, tells the story of Mary's birth, childhood, and eventual marriage to Joseph (a widower with children), culminating in a detailed account of the birth of Jesus (in a cave) and a strong affirmation of Mary's virginity. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas narrates Jesus' childhood from age five to age twelve, with the child Jesus performing numerous miracles, sometimes to the point of absurdity (e.g., bringing clay sparrows to life). The Gospel of Nicodemus (also called the Acts of Pilate), provides a detailed account of Jesus' trial and descent into hell. The Gospel of Peter presents, after an otherwise straightforward account of the crucifixion, a vivid narration of the resurrection of Jesus: two angels come down from heaven, enter the tomb, and exit with Jesus, followed by a talking Cross.
The apocryphal Acts (Acts of Andrew, Acts of John, Acts of Paul, Acts of Peter, and Acts of Thomas) purport to trace the journeys of the apostles, with Thomas going all the way to India. Three features in these books stand out. First, they are filled with supernatural deeds: miracles abound, especially the raising of the dead, and even a talking lion gets baptized. Second, they promote a celibate lifestyle, even among husbands and wives. Third, they glorify martyrdom, especially among the apostles: Andrew is crucified, Paul is beheaded, Peter is crucified upside down, and Thomas is executed with spears; only John is spared a martyr's death.
There are also apocryphal letters (e.g.,3Corinthians, Letter to the Laodiceans [cf. Colossians 4:16 , and Pseudo-Titus ), which tend to reflect heretical notions, and apocryphal apocalypses (e.g., Apocalypse of Peter and Apocalypse of Paul). The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their tongues over a blazing fire. In addition, the Apocalypse of Paul purports to give a detailed narration of Paul's rapture to the third heaven (cf. 2Col 12:2).
Apart from the issue of canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. The stories, themes, and language of these books (especially Judith, Tobit, Susanna, the Maccabees, Ecclesiasticus, and the Wisdom of Solomon) have been utilized by literary figures such as Shakespeare, Milton, and Longfellow, composers such as Charles Wesley, Handel, and Rubinstein, and artists such as Michaelangelo, Rembrandt, and van Dyck. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante.
Joseph L. Trafton
See also Bible, Canon of the
Bibliography . J. H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ; J. K. Elliott, ed., The Apocryphal New Testament ; E. Hennecke and W. Schneemelcher, eds., New Testament Apocrypha ; B. M. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha ; G. W. E. Nickelsburg, Jewish Literature Between the Bible and the Mishnah ; E. Schrer, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ ; H. F. D. Sparks, ed., The Apocryphal Old Testament ; M. E. Stone, ed., Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period .
Webster's Dictionary - Apocrypha
(1):
(n. pl.) Specif.: Certain writings which are received by some Christians as an authentic part of the Holy Scriptures, but are rejected by others.
(2):
(n. pl.) Something, as a writing, that is of doubtful authorship or authority; - formerly used also adjectively.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Apocrypha
Hidden
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Language of ot And Apocrypha
LANGUAGE OF OT AND APOCRYPHA . See Text Versions and Languages of OT.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Apocrypha
(Greek: apokryphos, hidden)
Originally writings that claimed a sacred origin and were supposed to have been hidden for generations; later, a well-defined class of literature with scriptural or quasi-scriptural pretensions, but lacking genuineness and canonicity, which were composed during the two centuries before Christ and the early centuries of our era. Protestants apply the term improperly to denote also Old Testament books, not contained in the Jewish canon, but received by Catholics under the name of deuterocanonical.
The following is a list of the Apocrypha:
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin
Jewish Apocalypses
Book of Henoch
Assumption of Moses
Fourth Book of Esdras
Apocalypse of Baruch
Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis
Third Book of Esdras
Third Book of Machabees
History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers
Psalms of Solomon
Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions
Sibylline Oracles
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin
Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin
Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels
Gospel according to the Hebrews
Gospel according to the Egyptians
Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Bartholomew
Gospel of Matthias
Gospel of Nicodemus
Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
Gospel of Andrew
Gospel of Barnabas
Gospel of Thaddeus
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Eve
Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ
Report of Pilate to the Emperor
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea
Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles
Acts of Peter
Acts of John
Acts of Andrew
Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew
Acts of Thomas
Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles
Acts of Peter and Paul
Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul and Thecla
Acts of Philip
Acts of Matthew
Acts of Simon and Jude
Acts of Barnabas
Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works
Testamentum Domini
Nostri Jesu
Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter
Pseudo-Epistles of Paul
Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans
Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses
Apocalypse of Peter
Apocalypse of Paul
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Apocrypha
APOCRYPHA . The term ‘Apocrypha’ is applied to a body of literature that has come down to us in close connexion with the canonical books of the Bible, and yet is not of them. This term (Gr. apokryphos , ‘hidden’) seems to have been used to specify certain documents or writings that were purposely hidden from general public contact, either because of their supposed sacredness, or to retain within the precincts of a certain sect their secret wisdom and knowledge. The name was given either by those who hid the books or by those from whom they were hidden.
All such books bore, as their alleged authors, the names of notable men in Hebrew history. These names were not sufficient of themselves to carry the books over into the canonical collection of the Bible. The term applied to them as ‘apocryphal,’ that is, withheld from public gaze and use, was at first rather complimentary to their character. But their rejection by the Jewish Palestinian body of worshippers, as well as by the larger proportion of the early Church, gradually stamped the name ‘apocryphal’ as a term of reproach, indicating inferiority in content and a spurious authorship. Henceforth such books lost their early sacredness, and became embodied in a collection that remained entirely outside the Hebrew Bible, though in general found in the Septuagint and the Vulgate.
The word ‘Apocrypha,’ as used by Protestant Christians, signifies the books found in the Latin Vulgate as over and above those of the Hebrew OT. Jerome incorporated in his revision and translation, in the main as he found them in the Old Latin Version, certain books not found in the Hebrew canonical writings. These books had been carried over into the Old Latin from the Septuagint.
The real external differences, then, between the Protestant and Rom. Cath. Bibles to-day are to be traced to the different ideas of the Canon on the part of the Jews of Palestine, where the Hebrew Bible was on its native soil, and on the part of the Jews of Alexandria who translated that same Hebrew Bible into Greek. With this translation, and other books later called the Apocrypha, they constructed a Greek Bible now called the Septuagint (the Seventy).
In the transfer of the works from the Septuagint to the Old Latin and to the Vulgate, there is some confusion both as to their names and their order.
These so-called Apocryphal books may be roughly classified as follows:
1. Historical : First and Second Maccabees, and First Esdras [1].
2. Legendary : Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith.
3. Prophetical : Baruch (ch. 6 being the ‘Epistle of Jeremy’), Prayer of Manasses.
4. Apocalyptical : Second Esdras [2].
5. Didactic : Sirach, Wisdom of Solomon.
In some classifications Third and Fourth Maccabees are included.
Most of these books are found in their original form in Greek, with the exceptions noted below, and not in the Hebrew; therefore the Jewish religious leaders did not regard them as inspired. Furthermore, some of their writers ( 1Ma 4:46 ; 1Ma 9:27 , 2Ma 2:23 ) disclaim inspiration as the Jews understood it. The NT writers do not quote these books, nor do they definitely refer to them. Their existence in the Greek Bible of the times of Christ does not seem to have given them any prestige for the Jewish authorities of that day. The Church Fathers made some use of them, by quotation and allusion, but were not so emphatic in their favour as to secure their incorporation in the regular canonical books of the Bible.
Jerome, in his revision of the Old Latin Bible, found the Apocryphal books therein, as carried over from the Septuagint; but in his translation of the OT he was careful not to include in the OT proper any hooks not found in the Hebrew Canon. In fact, he regarded his time as too valuable to be spent in revising or translating these uninspired books.
It was not until the Council of Trent, April 15, 1546, that the Roman Catholic Church publicly set its seal of authority on eleven of the fourteen or sixteen (including 3 and 4 Mac.) Apocryphal books. This Council names as canonical the following hooks and parts of books: First and Second Maccabees, Additions to Esther, History of Susanna, Song of the Three Holy Children, Bel and the Dragon, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Sirach, and Wisdom of Solomon; omitting from the above list the Prayer of Manasses, First and Second Esdras [3].
The Council of Trent settled the Canon of Scripture for the Roman Catholic Church, and decreed an anathema against any one who did not agree with its statement. Even before the meeting of that famous Council, Coverdale, in 1535, had introduced the Apocrypha into the English Bible edited by himself. It was published in the first edition of the AV [4] in 1611, but began to be left out as early as 1629. It was inserted between the OT and NT. As a result of a controversy in 1826, it was excluded from all the Bibles published by the British and Foreign Bible Society.
In our discussion of the character and contents of these books, we must keep in mind the fact that the word ‘Apocrypha’ is used in the Protestant sense as inclusive of the fourteen books given in the RV [5] of 1895, eleven of which are regarded as canonical by the Roman Catholic Church.
The general character and the contents of these books are as follows:
1. First Maccabees . This is a historical work of rare value on the Jewish war of independence against the encroachments and invasions of Antiochus Epiphanes (b.c. 168 164). Its author is unknown, though thought to have been a Jew of Palestine, who wrote between b.c. 105 and 64. The book is known in a Greek original, though it was translated, according to Jerome, from a Hebrew original that was current in his day (end of 4th cent.).
2. Second Maccabees is an abridgment of a five-volume work by Jason of Cyrene ( 2Ma 2:23 ). It is prefaced by two letters said to have been sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt. This book deals with the history of the Jews from the reign of Seleucus IV. (b.c. 175) to the death of Nicanor (b.c. 161). The multiplication of the marvellous and miraculous in the narrative discounts the value of the material as a source of historical data. The book was written somewhere between b.c. 125 and the fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70. It is extant in Greek.
3. First Esdras (Third in the Vulgate) is the canonical book of Ezra in Greek, which in reconstructed form tells the story of the decline and fall of the kingdom of Judah from the time of Josiah. It recites the overthrow of Jerusalem, the Babylonian exile, the return under Zerubbabel, and Ezra’s part in the reorganization of the Jewish State. Josephus refers to the legend regarding the three courtiers contained in this book. Its author is unknown. The Council of Trent placed it in an appendix to the NT as Third Esdras, and not among their regular canonical books.
4. Additions to Esther . The canonical Esther concludes with Esther 10:3 ; this chapter is filled out by the addition of seven verses, and the book concludes with six additional chapters (11 16). The regular text of the book is occasionally interpolated and amplified by some writer or writers, to give the story a fuller narrative and make the telling of it more effective. These additions sometimes contradict the Hebrew, and add nothing new of any value. This editorial work is thought to have been done by an Egyptian Jew somewhere in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor (b.c. 181 145).
5. The History of Susanna is an account of Daniel’s discovery of a malicious slander against the good woman Susanna. The story is prefixed to the book of Daniel. It is found in the Greek, and was prepared by an unknown author at an unknown date.
6. The Song of the Three Holy Children is found inserted between Daniel 3:23 and Daniel 3:24 . Its author and date are unknown.
7. The Story of Bel and the Dragon follows Daniel 12:1-13 . It is a proof by Daniel that the priests of Bel and their families ate the food set before the idol. Daniel slays the dragon, and is a second time thrown into the lions’ den. The origin of this story is unknown, though it is by some attributed to Habakkuk. The three preceding stories are found in the Septuagint of Daniel, and a MS of No. 6 has recently been found.
8. Tobit is a romantic story of the time of Israel’s captivity. Tobit is a pious son of Naphtali who becomes blind. He sends his son Tobias to Rages in Media to collect a debt. An angel leads him to Ecbatana, where he romantically marries a widow who was still a virgin though she had had seven husbands. Each of the seven had been slain on their wedding-day by Asmodæus, the evil spirit. On the inspiration of the angel, Tobias marries the widow, and, by burning the inner parts of a fish, puts the spirit to flight by the offensive smoke. The blindness of Tobit is healed by using the gall of the fish, the burning of whose entrails had saved the life of Tobias. The book is found in an Aramaic version, three Greek, and three Old Latin versions, and also in two Hebrew texts. Its date is uncertain, though it doubtless appeared before the 1st cent. b.c.
9. Judith is a thrilling tale of how Judith, a Jewish widow, secured the confidence of Holofernes, an Assyrian commander who was besieging Bethulia. Stealthily in the night time she approached him in his tent, already overcome with heavy drinking, took his own scimitar and cut off his head, and fled with it to the besieged city. This valorous act saved the distressed Israelites. The story bristles with absurdities in names, dates, and geographical material. It seems to have imitated in one respect Jael’s murder of Sisera ( Judges 4:17-22 ). It may have been written some time about b.c. 100, so long after the life of Nebuchadrezzar as to have made him king of Nineveh, instead of Babylon. The original text is Greek.
10. Baruch . This is a pseudepigraphical book attributed to Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah. Its purpose seems to have been (1) to quiet the souls of the Jews in exile by telling them that they would soon return to their native land; and (2) to admonish them to flee the idolatry that was everywhere prevalent in Babylonia. Bar 6:1-73 is called the ‘ Epistle of Jeremy ,’ and is nominally a letter of that prophet, warning the exiles against worshipping idols. This book is thought to have originated sometime about b.c. 320. Its original language is Greek, though there is reason for believing that Sir 1:1 to Sir 3:8 was first written in Hebrew.
11. Prayer of Manasses , king of Judah, when he was a captive of Ashurbanipal in the city of Babylon ( 2 Chronicles 33:12-13 ). It probably originated in some of the legends current regarding this notable king, and may have been intended for insertion in the narrative of 2 Chronicles 33:13 . Its original is Greek. It is not a part of the Vulgate adopted at the Council of Trent, but is in the appendix thereof.
12. Second Esdras [6] Fourth Esdras. If First Esdras is the reconstructed Ezra, and the canonical Ezra and Nehemiah are taken as one book, then this is Third Esdras (as in the Septuagint). If Ezra and Nehemiah are left out of account, this book is Second Esdras (as in the Apocrypha of RV [5] ). If, as in the Vulgate, Ezra is reckoned as First Esdras, and Nehemiah as Second Esdras, and the reconstructed Ezra as Third Esdras, then this book is Fourth Esdras]. This work is a peculiar combination of matter. It is not history at all, but rather a religious document imitative of the Hebrew prophets, and apocalyptic in character. Its Greek original, if it had one, has been lost, and the work is extant in Latin, Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic, and Armenian. It is attributed to at least two different dates, the 2nd and 3rd cents. a.d. The character of the matter shows that some Christian interpolated the original to give it a Christian colouring. This matter does not appear, however, in the Arabic and Ethiopic texts. It stands in the appendix to the NT of the Vulgate.
13 . Ecclesiasticus, or, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach . This is one of the most valuable of the Apocryphal books. It resembles the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job in its ethical characteristics. It was written by a Jew called Jesus, son of Sirach, probably early in the 3rd cent., though the Greek translation was issued about b.c. 132. The book was originally written in Hebrew, and in this language about one half of it has recently been discovered in Egypt and published. It is one of the works that give us a vivid idea of the Wisdom literature produced in the centuries preceding the Christian era.
14. Wisdom of Solomon lauds wisdom and a righteous life, but condemns idolatry and wickedness. The author employs, in the main, illustrations from the Pentateuch. He purports to be Solomon, and makes just such claims as one would imagine Solomon would have done if he had been the author. He is thought to have lived anywhere between b.c. 150 and b.c. 50, and to have been a Jew of Alexandria. The book possesses some valuable literary features, though in its present form it seems to be incomplete. Its original text was Greek.
If we should include Third and Fourth Maccabees in this list, as is done by some writers (but not by the Vulgate), we find these peculiarities:
15. Third Maccabees describes an attempt to massacre the Jews in the reign of Ptolemy Philopator (b.c. 222 205), and a notable deliverance from death. The work is extant in Greek (in LXX [8] ), but not in the Vulgate.
16. Fourth Maccabees is a discussion of the conquest of matter by the mind illustratively, by the use of the story of the martyrdom of the seven Maccabees, their mother and Eleazar. The work is found in the Alexandrian MS of the Septuagint, and in Syriac.
In addition to these Apocryphal books, but not included either in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, or the RV [5] , there is an ever-increasing list of works that scholars have chosen to call pseudepigrapha . These were written at various periods, but mainly just before, during, and just after the times of Christ. Many of them deal with the doctrinal discussions of their day, and present revelations to the author under strange and even weird conditions. These writers attached to their books as a rule the name of some famous personage, not by way of deception, but to court favour for the views set forth. It would carry us too far afield to take up these works one by one. Merely the titles of some of them can be mentioned. As a piece of lyrical work the Psalms of Solomon is the best example in this group. Of apocalyptical and prophetical works, there are the Book of Enoch , quoted in Jude, the Assumption of Moses , the Apocalypse of Baruch , the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs . Legendary works are the Book of Jubilees and the Ascension of Isaiah . One of the curious cases of mixed material is that of the Sibylline Oracles , See Apocalyptic Literature.
To these might be added scores of lesser lights that appeared in that period of theological and doctrinal unrest, many of which are now published, and others are being discovered in some out-of-the-way place almost yearly. Their value lies in the revelations that they give us of the methods adopted and the doctrines promulgated in the early centuries of the Christian era, by means of such works.
Ira Maurice Price.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Apocrypha
The word apocrypha means hidden. It is used in a general sense to describe a list of books written by Jews between 300,100 B.C. More specifically, it is used of the seven additional books accepted by the Catholic church as being inspired. The entire list of books of the apocrypha are: 1 Esdras 2Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1,2Maccabees.
The books accepted as inspired and included in the Catholic Bible are Tobit, Judith, 1,2Maccabees Wisdom of Solomon Sirach (also known as Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch
The Jews never recognized these books as being canonical (inspired). There is no record that Jesus or the apostles ever quoted from the apocryphal books. The Septuagint (LXX) includes the books, not as scripture, but as part of the translation of the Hebrew manuscripts as a whole.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Apocrypha
APOCRYPHA.—This term is here used for those Jewish writings included in the Gr., Lat., and English Bibles to which the title is commonly applied, i.e. the Biblical Apocrypha. For the literary history and characteristics of the Apocrypha see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. s.v. ‘Apocrypha.’ The relation of the Apocrypha to Christ and Christianity, which is the subject of this article, comes especially under four heads—the Messianic idea, the doctrine of Wisdom, the anticipation of Christian doctrines other than that of the Person or mission of Christ, the use of the Apocrypha in the Christian Church.
i. The Messianic Idea.—While this idea is luxuriantly developed in Apocalyptic literature, it is singularly neglected in most of the Apocrypha. The stream of prophecy which ran clear and strong in the OT became turbid and obscure in those degenerate successors of the prophets, the Apocalyptic visionaries. But it was in the line of the prophetic schools of teaching that the Messianic idea was cherished. Accordingly the treatment of the later stage of that teaching as erratic and unauthoritative, not fit for inclusion in the Canon, involved the result that the remaining more sober literature, which was recognized as nearer to the standard of Scripture, and in Egypt included in the later canon (at all events as in one collection of sacred books), was for the most part associated with those schools in which the Messianic hope was not cultivated. Therefore it is not just to say that this hope had faded away or suffered temporary obscurity during the period when the Apocrypha was written, the truth being that it was then more vigorous than ever in certain circles. But these circles were not those of our Old Testament Apocrypha. Thus the question is literary rather than historical. It concerns the editing of certain books, not the actual life and thought of Israel.
This will be evident if we compare the Book of Daniel with 1 Maccabees. These two books deal with the same period. Yet the former, although it does not know a personal Messiah, is the very fount and spring of the Messianic conception of the golden age in subsequent Apocalypses. On the other hand, 1 Maccabees ignores the Messianic hope, at all events in its usually accepted form.
Only two passages in this book can be pointed to as suggesting the Messianic idea, and they will not bear the strain that is sometimes put upon them. The first is 1 Maccabees 2:57 ‘David for being merciful inherited the throne of a kingdom for ever and ever.’ We have here that very elementary form of the Messianic idea, if we may so call it, the permanence of David’s throne. But it is evident that David as the founder of the royal line, not the Messiah, is here referred to, and that the permanence of the throne is for the succession of his descendants, not for any one person. Not only is this the most reasonable interpretation of the passage, but it rests on OT promises to that effect, where the family of David and not the personal Messiah is intended (e.g. 2 Samuel 7:13; 2 Samuel 7:16, cf. Psalms 132:12). Of this passage, however, as of the earlier Scriptures on which it rests, we may say that the idea contained in it is realized by the permanent reign of David’s great Son, and in a much larger and higher way than had been anticipated. The other passage is 1 Maccabees 4:45-46 ‘And there came into their mind a good counsel, that they should pull it [1] down, lest it should be a reproach to them, because the Gentiles had defiled it: and they pulled down the altar, and laid up the stones in the mountain of the house in a convenient place, until there should come a prophet to give an answer concerning them.’ This is not even a reference to ‘the prophet’ of whom we read in John 1:25. It is merely a case of waiting for some prophet to come and say when the temple was to be rebuilt, with no definite assurance that one specifically anticipated prophet was thus destined to arise.
Nevertheless, though we cannot point to any Messianic prophecy in 1 Mac., some of the Psalms attributed to this period indicate a prevalence of ideas that belong to the same circle of thought. Passionate patriotism fired by martyrdom and crowned with temporary success naturally painted great hopes for the nation. The reason why these were not connected with a coming Messiah may be twofold. (1) For a time it seemed likely that the Maccabees themselves were realizing those hopes, that this remarkable family of patriots was really restoring the glory of Israel. (2) Since these men were of the priestly line, the splendour of their achievements eclipsed for the time being the national dreams of the house of David.
The reaction of the later Hasidim, out of whom the Pharisaic party emerged, against the worldly methods of the Hasmonaean family and their identification of the mission of Israel with military prowess, released the more spiritual religious hopes, and so prepared for a revival of Messianic ideas. This new movement, which saw the true good of the nation to lie in her religion and looked for her help from God, did not altogether coincide with the hope of a personal Christ, for God Himself was the Supreme King whose coining was to be expected by His people.
The book of Judith is a romance issuing from the Pharisaic reactionary party; but it is devoid of all specific Messianic ideas. In this case the human saviour of Israel is a woman.
Of the three other popular tales, two, The History of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon, contain nothing bearing on the Messianic idea; but the latter part of Tobit may be accounted Messianic in the general sense as giving a picture of the Golden Age of the future. Jerusalem is to be scourged for her children’s works, but she is to give praise to the everlasting King that ‘afterwards his tabernacle may be builded’ in her ‘again with joy.’ Many nations are to come from far to the name of the Lord God with gifts in their hands. All generations shall praise her with great joy. The city is to be built and paved with precious stones. ‘And all her streets shall say Hallelujah; and they shall praise him, saying, Blessed be God, which hath exalted it for ever’ (To 13:9–18). In all this there is no mention of the son of David or any human king and deliverer. (In the Hebrew variation of the text of this chapter as rendered by Neubauer, we read of ‘the coming of the Redeemer and the building of Ariel,’ i.e. Jerusalem; but evidently this Redeemer is Jahweh). We must go outside our Apocrypha to the Psalms of Solomon for the Pharisaic revival of the Messiah of the line of David.
Apocalyptic literature lends itself more readily to Messianic ideas, and these find full expression in the Book of Enoch, where—in the ‘Similitudes’—the descriptions of the Messiah who appears in clouds as the Son of Man are assigned by Dr. Charles to the pre-Christian Jewish composition.
2 Esdras, also a Jewish Apocalyptic work, calls for closer examination, since it is contained in our Apocrypha, although its late date diminishes its value in the history of the development of thought. The Christian additions (chapters (a) 1, 2; (b) 15, 16) do not call for attention here; they could only come into the study of the development of Christian thought if they were in any way contributions to that subject; but the warnings of the supplanting of Israel by the Gentiles in (a), and the judgment of the nations in (b), cannot be regarded in that light. The original work (chapters 3–14) affords significant evidence of the melancholy condition into which Jewish Messianic hopes had sunk during the gloomy interval between the destruction of Jerusalem and the rise of Bar-Cochba, the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81–96) being its generally accepted date (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. i. p. 765). Unlike the other Apocryphal writings, since it does not illustrate the transition from the OT to the NT, it is serviceable only in the study of post-Christian Judaism. Its Christian interpolations do not materially hinder us from discovering the original text. The Messianic passages are in chapters 7, 12, and 13. The insertion of the name ‘Jesus’ in 7:28 (not found in the Oriental versions) by a Christian hand is not sufficient reason for discrediting the Jewish character of the composition. The picture of the Messiah is quite un-Christian. It is startling to read that he is to die (7:29); but (1) this is after reigning 400 years, and (2) without a subsequent resurrection. The first point indicates the visionary ideas of the Apocalyptic writer, not the known fact of our Lord’s brief life on earth, and the second is in conflict with the great prominence which the early Christians gave to our Lord’s resurrection. A Messiah who lived for 400 years and then died, and so ended his Messiahship, could not be Jesus Christ. Accordingly the Syriac reads ‘30’ instead of ‘400,’ evidently a Christian emendation. Undoubtedly this is a Jewish conception, and its mournful character, so unlike the triumphant tone of Enoch, is in keeping with the gloomy character of the book, and a reflection of the deep melancholy that took possession of the minds of earnest, patriotic Jews after the fearful scenes of the siege of Jerusalem and the overwhelming of their hopes in a deluge of blood. The reference to the death of the Messiah is not found in the Arabic or the Armenian versions; but it is easy to see how it came to be omitted, while there is no likelihood that it would be inserted later, either by a Jew, to whom the idea would be unwelcome, or by a Christian, since the resurrection is not also mentioned. A noteworthy fact is that the Messiah is addressed by God as ‘My son.’ The Ethiopic of 7:28, instead of ‘My son Jesus’ reads ‘My Messiah,’ and the Armenian, ‘the anointed of God.’ But the reference to sonship occurs elsewhere frequently, e.g. ‘My son Christ,’ or ‘My anointed son’ (7:29; see Song of Solomon 9:1-212 37, 52, 14:9, in most versions, but not in Arm.: see Dr. Sanday, art. ‘Son of God’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. iv. p. 571). Since, as Dr. Sanday remarks in the article just referred to, the strongly Messianic passage in Ps-Sol 17:23–51 has not the title ‘Son,’ but clearly borrows from Psalms 2 in v. 26, it is a likely inference that 2 Esdras is here based on that Psalm. Compare the words of the high priest in Matthew 26:63.
In chs. 12 and 13 the writer names Daniel, and manifestly bases his elaboration of the Messianic picture on the Book of Daniel. The Messiah appears as a lion rising up out of a wood and roaring. A certain pre-existence is implied in the assertion that the Most High had kept him (2 Esdras 12:32); the Latin has only ‘for the end,’ but the Syriac reads ‘for the end of days, who shall spring up out of the seed of David.’ He will come to upbraid and destroy the guilty people, but he will have mercy on a remnant and deliver them. Similar ideas are repeated in ch. 13, but in a different form. A man comes from the midst of the sea. This is unlike Daniel (Daniel 7:3; Daniel 7:13), where the four beasts come up from the sea, but the ‘one like unto a son of man’ from the clouds. The Most High has kept him for a great season (Daniel 7:26), another reference to pre-existence. Similarly later on we read, ‘Like as one can neither seek out nor know what is in the depths of the sea, even so can no man upon earth see my Son, or those that be with him, but in the time of his day’ (2 Esdras 13:52). He exists, but hidden till the time when God will reveal him. When he comes and is revealed, ‘it will be as a man ascending.’ ‘When all the nations hear his voice’ they will draw together to fight against him. But he will stand on the top of Mount Zion, and there he will taunt the nations to their face and destroy them without any effort on his part, the instrument of destruction being the Law, which is compared to fire. Then in addition to the saved remnant of the Jews already referred to, the lost ten tribes will be brought back from their exile beyond the Euphrates, whither they had gone by a miraculous passage through the river, and whence they will return by a similar miraculous staying of ‘the springs of the river’ again. Thus we have the idea of a restoration of all Israel under the Messiah, but with no further extension of the happy future so as to include other nations, as in the Christian Apocalyptic conceptions; on the contrary, those nations will be humiliated and chagrined at the spectacle of the glorification of the former victims of their oppression. On the whole we must conclude with Paul Volz (Jüdische Eschatologic, p. 202) that 2 Ezra adopts the traditional hope of the Messiah, but does not see in it the chief ground of assurance for the future. He is hailed as God’s son, but he appears to have only a temporary existence. He does not bring deliverance from sin; nor is he to come for judgment. His death is the end of his mission.
ii. The Doctrine of Wisdom.—Unlike the Prophetic and Apocalyptic literature which confessedly anticipated a great future, and so furnished a hope which Christianity subsequently claimed to fulfil, the Hebrew Wisdom writings profess to give absolute truth, and betray no consciousness of further developments. Nevertheless the Church was quick to seize on them as teaching the essential Divinity of Christ. The historical method of more recent times sees in them the germs of ideas on this subject which were subsequently developed by Christian theologians of the Alexandrian school. For the doctrine of Wisdom in the OT see DB [2] , art. ‘Wisdom.’ That doctrine in the Apocrypha is in direct succession from the Hokhmah teaching of Proverbs.
1. Sirach.—In the Palestinian school represented by Sirach it is difficult to see much, if any, advance on Proverbs. The idea of Wisdom itself is essentially the same, and the gnomic form of writing continues an identity of method.
(a) Literary Form.—There is no attempt at metaphysical analysis or philosophical argumentation. This Jewish philosophy is not elucidated by reasoning, or based on logical grounds. It is regarded as intuitive in origin and the treatment of it is didactic. Thus we have nothing like a philosophical or ethical treatise. Much of the writing is directly hortatory, and where the third person is used we have descriptions and reflections, accounts of the nature and function of wisdom, and illustrations of its operations in life and history.
(b) Unity of Wisdom.—In Sirach, as in Pr., Wisdom is described from two points of view: as found in God and His administration of the world, and as attainable by man in his own character and life. But it is not that God’s wisdom is merely the model or the source of our wisdom. Wisdom throughout, though seen in such different relations, is taken as essentially one entity. It is wisdom, absolute wisdom, that God uses in the administration of the universe, and that man also is exhorted to pursue. This realism in dealing with an abstract notion is the first step towards personification.
(c) Personification.—As in Proverbs, wisdom is here personified. Wisdom is supposed to act. e.g. ‘How exceeding harsh is she to the unlearned’ (Sirach 6:20). In a fine passage she celebrates her own praises, glorying in the midst of her people, saying—
‘I came forth from the mouth of the Most High,
And covered the earth as a mist.
I dwelt in high places,
And my throne is in the pillar of the cloud’ (Sirach 24:3-4);
and, further, after a rich description of the scenes of nature that she influences—
‘In three things I was beautified,
And stood up beautiful before the Lord and men,’ etc. (Sirach 25:1).
But there is nothing in this personification beyond a free use of the Oriental imagination. No doubt to this vivid imagination such writing presents wisdom as in some way a concrete entity, and more, as a gracious, queenly presence. But all along there are expressions which admit the imaginary character of the whole picture. For instance, the opening passage, describing how Wisdom stood up in the congregation of the Most High to celebrate her own praises, would lose all its force of appeal if it were taken in prosaic literalness. It is just because this is no actual person posing for admiration, but a truth set forth before us, that the whole picture appears to be sublime, and serves its purpose in leading to a high appreciation of wisdom. Then wisdom is identified with understanding: ‘Whoso is wise, cleave thou unto him’ (Sirach 6:34) … ‘If thou seest a man of understanding, get thee betimes unto him’ (Sirach 6:36). Thus cultivation of friendship with a man of wisdom or understanding is part of the pursuit of wisdom itself. Even Philo’s much more explicit personification of the Logos does not mean that he held the Logos to be an actual person in our sense of the term. Here all we can say of the subject is that the allegorizing is very vivid, so vivid as to be on the verge of the mythopœic, but still in the original intention of the writer not meant to be more than the glorification of a great quality found primarily in God, impressed on nature, and commended to mankind as a highly desirable attainment.
The difficulty of the question lies in the fact that the Oriental mind would not clearly face this question of personality. The imagination would so vividly realize the allegorical picture that the idea would seem to assume form and body, condensing to an apparently concrete and even personal presence, so that it would be regarded for the time being as a person, and yet in the course of the meditation this would melt again into an abstraction, and in the less imaginative passages be regarded in its original character purely as a mode of thought or action. To apply to the product of such a process the logic of the West, or to attempt to bring it into harmony, say, with Locke’s theory of ideas, is unreasonable. The atmosphere does not allow of so hard a definition of personality as that which may be either affirmed or denied.
(d) Source.—Wisdom originates in God. She came forth from the mouth of the Most High’ (Sirach 24:3). ‘Wisdom was created together with the faithful in the womb’ (Sirach 1:14). She exclaims, ‘He created me from the beginning, before the world’ (Sirach 24:9). As with Proverbs 8:22, the Arian controversy has given a factitions importance to this sentence. Wisdom is identified with Christ; and thus the Arian doctrine that Christ is a creature, that He was created, not begotten by God and not eternal, appears to have clear support. It is probable that Sirach is dependent on Proverbs, and the rendering of LXX Septuagint (ἔκτισε) is doubtful.* [3] But the much debated point is of little real importance; indeed, it is of no value till we grant that Wisdom in Proverbs and Sirach is (1) personal, and (2) identical with Christ. The denial of (1) in the previous paragraph carries with it the exclusion of (2). Nevertheless, apart from the Arian conception, we still have the idea of the creation of wisdom to account for. This, however, is but a consequence of the allegorical personification in conjunction with the thought that wisdom proceeds from God. That has a twofold signification, corresponding to the two aspects of wisdom. First, God is the source of His own wisdom. He has not to learn; all His plans and purposes spring from His own mind. Secondly, mankind learns wisdom from God; it is His gift to His children. Wisdom is with all flesh according to God’s ‘gift’ (Sirach 1:10).
(e) Characteristics.—There is an intellectual element in wisdom, which is the highest exercise of the mind. The opposite of wisdom is folly, a stupid and brutish thing. The Divine side of wisdom most clearly exhibits this character. Wisdom created by God is with God, and therefore is seen in His presence and works. Nevertheless, Sirach makes very little reference to the manifestation of wisdom in Nature or Providence. The whole stress is on this Divine gift as an object of aspiration for mankind. Wisdom is seen as the best of all human possessions. The sublimity of wisdom is set forth in order to fire the enthusiasm of men to have their lives enriched with the Divine grace. This is just the same as in Proverbs. So also are two further characteristics of Hebrew wisdom. First, it is moral. It is concerned with the practical reason, not the speculative. Its realm is ethics, not metaphysics. It is not a philosophy for solving the riddle of the universe; it is a guide to conduct. The ethics is not discussed theoretically; there is no theory of ethics. The aim of the book is practical, and the treatment of wisdom is didactic and hortatory. Sirach even discourages speculation, in directing the attention solely to conduct—
‘Seek not things that are too hard for thee,
And search not out things that are above thy strength.
The things that have been commanded thee, think thereupon;
For thou hast no need of the things that are secret’ (Sirach 3:21-22).
Second, it is religious. Wisdom here, as in Proverbs, is identified with the fear of the Lord. The way to attain wisdom is to keep the Law—
‘If thou desire wisdom, keep the commandments,
And the Lord shall give her unto thee freely’ (Sirach 1:26).
Like Proverbs, Sirach contains a quantity of shrewd worldly wisdom, and it is eminently prudential in aim; but it is the better self that is considered, and the higher interests, rather than wealth and pleasure, that are studied. In this way the whole book is concerned with the exposition of the nature and merits of wisdom.
2. Baruch.—The eloquent celebration of the praises of wisdom in this book, which probably dates from the 1st cent. a.d. (see DB [2] , art. ‘Baruch’), is on similar lines to Sirach. Wisdom is like choice treasure, to be sought out from far. But since she is above the clouds or beyond the sea, no man can be expected to reach so far. There is only One who can do this. ‘He that knoweth all things knoweth her’ (Baruch 3:32). Here the idea is different from that of Sirach. Wisdom is not created by God, but is found by Him, as though an independent pre-existence—‘He found her out with His understanding’ (ib.). But the personification is thinner and more pallid than in Sirach. There is no real dualism. The language is little more than a metaphorical expression of the idea that God has the wisdom which is above human reach. Still it goes on into a sort of myth, for Wisdom thus discovered by God hidden in some remote region afterwards appears on earth and becomes conversant with men (Baruch 3:37). Here we have a curious parallel to the Johannine conception of the Word originally with God and then becoming incarnate and dwelling with men. But Baruch has no conception of incarnation, and the idea has no place in the Hebrew personification of wisdom.
3. Wisdom.
(a) The nature of Wisdom.—Although, as an Alexandrian work in touch with Greek philosophy, the Bk. of Wisdom carries the doctrine of Hokhmah a stage forward in the direction of Philo, it is essentially Jewish, and its idea of wisdom is fundamentally the same as that of Proverbs and Sirach, but with additions, some of which may be attributed to Hellenic influences. The essential Hebrew elements, however, remain. While a movement of intellect, wisdom is practical, moral, and religious. We are no more in the regions of metaphysics or even abstract ethical speculation than in the Palestinian literature. Thus we read—
‘For her true beginning is desire of discipline;
And the care for discipline is love of her’ (Wisdom of Solomon 6:17).
(b) Personification.—The personification of Wisdom, though still very shadowy, is a little more accentuated than in Sirach. Wisdom is described as ‘a spirit’ (Wisdom of Solomon 1:6), and as such seems to be identified with ‘the spirit of God’ (Wisdom of Solomon 1:7). In answer to Solomon’s prayer God gave him ‘a spirit of wisdom’ (Wisdom of Solomon 7:7). ‘She is a breath of the power of God’ (Wisdom of Solomon 7:25). She sits as God’s ‘assessor’ (Drummond) by His side on His throne (Wisdom of Solomon 9:4). When, however, various functions, such as Creation and Providence, seem to be ascribed to her, this cannot be as to a personal agent, because they are also ascribed to God (e.g. Wisdom of Solomon 9:1-2). It must be, therefore, that God is thought of as doing these things by means of His wisdom.
(c) Attributes.—A string of 21 attributes, in thoroughly Greek style, is ascribed to the spirit of Wisdom (Wisdom of Solomon 7:22 ff.). Among other things, she is said to be ‘only begotten’ (μονογενές, the very word used of Christ in John 1:14; John 1:18; John 3:16; John 3:18 and 1 John 4:9, though Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 of Wisdom renders it here ‘alone in kind,’ having ‘sole born’ in the margin). Further, wisdom is described as ‘a clear effluence of the glory of the Almighty’ and an ‘effulgence (ἀπαύγασμα, whence Hebrews 1:3) from everlasting light’ (Wisdom of Solomon 7:25-26). She is free from all defilement, beneficent, beautiful.
(d) Functions.—Divine functions are ascribed to Wisdom, since it is by His wisdom that God performs them. (1) Creation. She is ‘the artificer of all things’ (Wisdom of Solomon 7:22), ‘an artificer of the things that are’ (Wisdom of Solomon 8:6). (2) Providence. The function of wisdom in providence is much dwelt on. Wisdom is regarded as a sort of guardian angel watching over men and directing the course of history. Patriarchal history from Adam downward is described as thus under the charge of wisdom. (3) Revelation. The picture of Wisdom as the effulgence from everlasting light points to this. She is also described as ‘an unspotted mirror of the working of God, and an image (εἰκών, cf. 2 Corinthians 4:4, Colossians 1:15) of His goodness’ (Wisdom of Solomon 7:26); in attaining to wisdom we come to know the ways of God.
(e) Wisdom as a human acquisition.—While wisdom is described in its relation to God as coextensive with the infinite range of the Divine activities, it is also represented from another point of view as a treasure which mankind is invited to seek. The difficulty of acquiring wisdom suggested in Baruch is not found here. On the contrary, we read that—
‘Easily is she beheld of them that love her,
And found of them that seek her’ (Wisdom of Solomon 6:12).
Moreover, there is no limitation of Jewish exclusiveness in the privilege of enjoying this greatest of God’s gifts, ‘for wisdom is a spirit that loveth man’ (Wisdom of Solomon 1:6). When a little later we read that ‘the spirit of the Lord hath filled the world’ (τὴν οἰκουμένην, ‘the inhabited earth,’ (Revised Version margin)), the breadth of Hel
Holman Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha, New Testament
is a collective term referring to a large body of religious writings dating back to the early Christian centuries that are similar in form to the New Testament (Gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses) but were never included as a part of the canon of Scripture.
New Testament Jesus used the term apokryphos in his parable of the lamp (Mark 4:22 : “For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested;” paralleled in Luke 8:17 : “For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest;”) to speak of the manifestation of that which has been hidden. In Colossians 2:3 Paul described Christ as being the one “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.”
Meaning of the Term “Apocrypha” When the term apokryphos occurs in the New Testament, it simply means “hidden things.” This original sense does not include the later meanings associated with it. In the formation of the Christian canon of Scripture, “apocrypha” came to mean works that were not divinely inspired and authoritative. The term was also used by certain groups (for example, Gnostics) to describe their writings as secretive. They believed their writings were written much earlier but kept hidden until the latter days. Such writings were even then only available to the properly initiated. Since the church recognized works that were read openly in services of public worship, the term “apocrypha” came to mean “false” and began to be used to describe heretical material. In contrast to portions of the Old Testament Apocrypha which have been accepted by some branches of the Christian Church, none of the New Testament Apocrypha (with the possible exception of the Apocalypse of Peter and the Acts of Paul ) has ever been accepted as Scripture. Though some scholars allow the term to describe writings that are neither a part of the New Testament nor strictly apocryphal (e.g., apostolic fathers), it seems best to restrict the term to material that was not received into the canon of Scripture, yet, by form and content, claimed for itself a status and authority equal to Scripture.
Purpose of the Apocrypha Three general reasons explain the existence of the New Testament Apocrypha. First, some groups accepted apocryphal writings because they built on the universal desire to preserve the memories of the lives and deaths of important New Testament figures. Regardless of whether the transmitted traditions were true or false, the desire of later generations to know more detail made the apocryphal writings attractive. The second purpose is closely related to the first. Apocryphal works were intended to supplement the information given in the New Testament about Jesus or the apostles. This may be the motivation behind the Third Epistle to the Corinthians (to provide some of the missing correspondence between Paul and the Corinthian church) and the Epistle to the Laodiceans (to supply the letter referred to in Colossians 4:16 ). For the same reason, the apocryphal acts made certain to record the events surrounding the death of the apostles, a matter on which the New Testament is usually silent. Third, heretical groups produced apocryphal writings in an attempt to gain authority for their own particular views. After the death of the apostles and with an increase in persecution and false teaching, the written accounts of the teachings of the apostles (the New Testament) became the standard. If a group wanted to spread its new teaching, it had to make an appeal to apostolic authority. They did this many times by claiming some secret tradition from an apostle or from the Lord through an apostle.
Classification of the New Testament Apocrypha These writings parallel, in a superficial way, the literary forms found in the New Testament: gospels, acts, epistles or letters, and apocalypses. Although this formal similarity exists, the title of an apocryphal work does not necessarily provide a trustworthy description of its character and contents.
1. The apocryphal gospels. This large group of writings can be further classified into infancy gospels, passion gospels, Jewish-Christian gospels, and gospels originating from heretical groups.
Infancy Gospels is the name given to apocryphal works that in some way deal with the birth or childhood of Jesus or both. Though Matthew and Luke stressed the same basic story line, they emphasized different aspects of the events surrounding the birth of Jesus, primarily because of their audience and their own particular purpose in writing. The writers of these apocryphal infancy gospels attempted to correct what they viewed as deficiencies in the canonical accounts and to fill in the gaps they believed existed. Most of the material is concerned with the silent years of Jesus' childhood. The two earliest infancy gospels, from which most of the later literature developed, are the Protoevangelium of James and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas . The Protoevangelium of James seems to have been written to glorify Mary. It includes the miraculous birth of Mary, her presentation in the Temple, her espousal to Joseph (an old man with children), and the miraculous birth of Jesus. This second-century work was extremely popular and undoubtedly had an influence on later views of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas depicts Jesus in a crude manner as a wonder boy, using his miraculous powers as a matter of personal convenience. This work attempts to fill in the silent years of Jesus' childhood, but does so in a rather repulsive and exaggerated manner. Take the following example (2:1-5): “When this boy Jesus was five years old he was playing at the ford of a brook, and he gathered together into pools the water that flowed by, and made it at once clean, and commanded it by his word alone. He made soft clay and fashioned from it twelve sparrows. And it was the Sabbath when he did this. And there were also many other children playing with him. Now when a certain Jew saw what Jesus was doing in his play on the sabbath, he at once went and told his father Joseph And when Joseph came to the place and saw it, he cried out to him saying: “Why do you do on the sabbath what ought not to be done?' But Jesus clapped his hands and cried to the sparrows: “Off with you!' And the sparrows took flight and went away chirping. The Jews were amazed when they saw this, and went away and told their elders what they had seen Jesus do.” As legend continued to expand, many later infancy gospels developed including the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy, the Armenian Gospel of the Infancy , the Gospel of Pseudo- Matthew , the Latin Infancy Gospel , the Life of John According to Serapion , the Gospel of the Birth of Mary , the Assumption of the Virgin , and the History of Joseph the Carpenter .
Passion Gospels, another class of apocryphal gospel, are concerned with supplementing the canonical accounts by describing events surrounding the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. The two most important works in this category are the Gospel of Peter and the Gospel of Nicodemus (sometimes called the Acts of Pilate ). The Gospel of Peter is a second-century work which downplays Jesus' humanity, heightens the miraculous, and reduces Pilate's guilt, among other things. The Gospel of Nicodemus (Acts of Pilate) is another example of an apocryphal passion gospel. The trial and death of Jesus is expanded as Nicodemus, the chief narrator, tells of one witness after another coming forward to testify on Jesus' behalf. Pilate gives in to popular demand and hands Jesus over to be crucified. The Gospel of Nicodemus also includes a vivid account of Jesus' “Descent into Hell,” much like that of a Greek hero invading the underworld to defy its authorities or rescue its prisoners. Another apocryphal work that might be classified as a passion gospel is the Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle .
Jewish-Christian Gospels are works that originated among Jewish-Christian groups. They include the Gospel of the Ebionites , the Gospel of Hebrews, and the Gospel of the Nazarenes . Although some scholars equate the Gospel of Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes , the evidence is inconclusive. The Gospel of the Hebrews , perhaps the most prominent, appears to have been in some ways a paraphrase of the canonical Gospel of Matthew and places a special emphasis on James, the brother of the Lord.
Heretical Gospels cover a wide variety of apocryphal gospels, most of which are considered Gnostic gospels. Gnosticism developed in the second century as a widespread and diverse religious movement with roots in Greek philosophy and folk religion. The Gospel of Truth contains no references to the words or actions of Jesus. Some heretical gospels are attributed to all or one of the twelve apostles. These include the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles and the gospels of Philip, Thomas, Matthias, Judas, and Bartholomew. Written before A.D. 400, the Gospel of Thomas (of no relation to the Infancy Gospel of Thomas ) is a collection of 114 secret sayings “which Jesus the living one spoke and Didymus Judas Thomas wrote down.” This document is one of almost fifty discovered in 1945 near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt as a part of what many scholars believe was the library of a Gnostic community. The heretical emphases of the Gospel of Thomas are countered in advance by the canonical Epistle of 1John, which emphasizes the gospel of Jesus Christ as the message of life, available for every person to experience. Other gospels in this class include those under the names of Holy Women (for example, the Questions of Mary and the Gospel According to Mary ), and those attributed to a chief heretic such as Cerinthus, Basilides, and Marcion.
2. The apocryphal acts. A large number of legendary accounts of the journeys and heroics of New Testament apostles sought to parallel and supplement the Book of Acts. The five major apocryphal acts are second and third-century stories named after a “Leucius Charinus” and therefore known as the Leucian Acts . Even though they show a high regard for the apostles and include some historical fact, much of what they offer is the product of a wild imagination, closely akin to a romantic novel (with talking animals and obedient bugs).
The Acts of John is the earliest of the group (A.D. 150-160). It contains miracles and sermons by John of Asia Minor and has a distinct Gnostic orientation. It tells the story of John's journey from Jerusalem to Rome and his imprisonment on the isle of Patmos. After many other travels, John finally dies in Ephesus.
The Acts of Andrew , written shortly before A.D. 300, is, like the Acts of John , distinctly Gnostic.
The Acts of Paul was written before A.D. 200 by an Asian presbyter “out of love for Paul.” He was later defrocked for publishing the writing. It is divided into three sections: (1) the Acts of Paul and Thecla, a girl from Iconian who assisted Paul on his missionary travels, (2) correspondence with the Corinthian church, and (3) the martyrdom of Paul.
The Acts of Peter is a late second-century writing that tells of Peter defending the Church from a heretic named Simon Magus by public preaching. Peter, who is forced to flee, later returns to be crucified upside down. Like the other acts, it is ascetic, that is, it promotes a life-style of self-denial and withdrawal from society as a means of combating vice and developing virtue.
The Acts of Thomas is a third-century work, thought by most scholars to have originated in Syriac Christianity. It tells how Judas Thomas, “Twin of the Messiah,” was given India when the apostles divided the world by casting lots. Thomas, though he went as a slave, was responsible for the conversion of many well-known Indians. The ascetic element is again present in Thomas' emphasis on virginity. In the end he was imprisoned and martyred.
Other later apocryphal acts include: the Apostolic History of Abdias , the Fragmentary Story of Andrew , the Ascents of James , the Martyrdom of Matthew ; the Preaching of Peter, Slavonic Acts of Peter , the Passion of Paul , Passion of Peter, Passion of Peter and Paul ; the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, Andrew and Paul , Paul and Thecla, Barnabas, James the Great, Peter and Andrew, Peter and Paul , Philip , and Thaddaeus .
3. The apocryphal epistles. We know of a small group of apocryphal epistles or letters many of which are ascribed to the Apostle Paul. The Epistle of the Apostles is a second-century collection of visions communicating post-resurrection teachings of Christ. The Third Epistle to the Corinthians was purported to be Paul's reply to a letter from Corinth. Though it circulated independently, it is also a part of the Acts of Paul . The Latin Epistle to the Laodiceans is a gathering of Pauline phrases probably motivated by Colossians 4:16 where Paul makes mention of an “epistle from Laodicea.”
Other important apocryphal epistles include the Correspondence of Christ and Abgar , the Epistle to the Alexandrians , the Epistle of Titus , of Peter to James , of Peter to Philip , and of Mary to Ignatius .
4. The apocryphal apocalypses. The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic book in the New Testament, though there are apocalyptic elements in other books (such as Mark 13:1 and parallels; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 ). The term “apocalypse” or “apocalyptic” means “to uncover” and is used to describe a category of writings that seek to unveil the plan of God for the world using symbol and visions. See Apocalyptic . While the New Testament apocalyptic material emphasizes the return of Christ, the later apocryphal apocalypses focus more on heaven and hell. The most popular of these, the Apocalypse of Peter , seems to have enjoyed a degree of canonical status for a time. It presents visions of the resurrected Lord and images of the terror suffered by those in hell. The Apocalypse of Paul is probably motivated by Paul's reference in 2 Corinthians 12:2 of a man in Christ being caught up to the third heaven. The author is thoroughly convinced this was Paul's personal experience and proceeds to give all the details. Other apocalypses include the Apocalypse of James, of Stephen, of Thomas, of the Virgin Mary , and several works discovered at Nag Hammadi.
5. Other apocryphal works. These include the Agrapha (a collection of sayings attributed to Jesus), the Preachings of Peter , the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions , the Apocryphon of John , the Apocryphon of James , and certain Gnostic writings such as the Pistis Sophia , the Wisdom of Jesus , and the Books of Jeu .
Relevance of the New Testament Apocrypha The New Testament Apocrypha is significant for those who study church history. Even though these writings were not included in the canon, they are not worthless. They give a sample of the ideas, convictions, and imaginations of a portion of Christian history. The New Testament Apocrypha also serves as a point of comparison with the writings contained in the canon of the New Testament. By way of contrast the apocryphal writings demonstrate how the New Testament places a priority on historical fact rather than human fantasy. While the New Testament Apocrypha is often interesting and informative, it is usually unreliable historically and always unauthoritative for matters of faith and practice.
J. Scott Duvall
Holman Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha
Jews did not stop writing for centuries between the Old Testament and the New. The Intertestamental Period was a time of much literary production. We designate these writings as Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. See Pseudepigrapha . They did not attain canonical status, but some of them were cited by early Christians almost on a level with the Old Testament writings, and a few were copied in biblical manuscripts. Some New Testament authors were familiar with various non-canonical works, and the Epistle of Jude made specific reference to at least one of these books. They were ultimately preserved by the Christians rather than by the Jews.
Meaning “things that are hidden,” apocrypha is applied to a collection of fifteen books written between about 200 B.C. and A.D. 100. These are not a part of the Old Testament but are valued by some for private study. The word “apocrypha” is not found in the Bible. Although never part of the Hebrew Scriptures, all fifteen apocryphal books except 2Esdras appear in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint. They were made a part of the official Latin Bible, the Vulgate. All except 1,2Esdras and the Prayer of Mannasseh are considered canonical (in the Bible) and authoritative by the Roman Catholic Church. From the time of the Reformation, the apocryphal books have been omitted from the canon of the Protestant churches. The Apocrypha represent various types of literature: historical, historical romance, wisdom, devotional, and apocalyptic.
First Esdras is a historical book from the early first century A.D. Paralleling material in the last chapters of 2Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah, it covers the period from Josiah to the reading of the law by Ezra. In a number of places, it differs from the Old Testament account. It is believed that this writing drew from some of the same sources used by the writers of the canonical Old Testament books. The Three Guardsmen Story, 1 Esdras 3:1-5:3 , is the one significant passage in 1Esdras that does not occur in the Old Testament. It tells how Zerubbabel was allowed to lead the exiles back to Palestine.
1Maccabees
The most important historical writing in the Apocrypha is 1Maccabees. It is the primary source for writing the history of the period it covers, 180 to 134 B.C. The emphasis is that God worked through Mattathias and his sons to bring deliverance. He did not intervene in divine, supernatural ways. He worked through people to accomplish His purposes. The writer was a staunch patriot. For him nationalism and religious zeal were one and the same. After introductory verses dealing with Alexander the Great, the book gives the causes for the revolt against the Seleucids. Much detail is given about the careers of Judas and Jonathan. Less attention is given to Simon, although emphasis is placed upon his being acclaimed leader and high priest forever. Brief reference to John Hyrcanus at the close suggests that the book was written either late in his life or after his death, probably shortly after 100 B.C.
Second Maccabees also gives the history of the early part of the revolt against the Seleucids, covering the period from 180 to 161 B.C. It is based upon five volumes written by Jason of Cyrene, about which volumes nothing is known. Second Maccabees, written shortly after 100 B.C., is not considered as accurate historically as 1Maccabees. In places the two books disagree. This book begins with two letters written to Jews in Egypt urging them to celebrate the cleansing of the Temple by Judas. In the remainder of the writing, the author insisted that the Jews' trouble came as the result of their sinfulness. He emphasized God's miraculous intervention to protect the Temple and His people. Great honor was bestowed upon those who were martyred for their faith. The book includes the story of seven brothers and their mother who were put to death. The book clearly teaches a resurrection of the body, at least for the righteous.
Tobit is a historical romance written about 200 B.C. It is more concerned to teach lessons than to record history. The story is of a family carried into exile in Assyria when Israel was destroyed. The couple, Tobit and Anna, had a son named Tobias. Tobit had left a large sum of money with a man in Media. When he became blind, he sent his son to collect the money. A man was found to accompany the son Tobias. In reality he was the angel Raphael. Parallel to this is the account of a relative named Sarah. She had married seven husbands, but a demon had slain each of them on the wedding night. Raphael told Tobias that he was eligible to marry Sarah. They had caught a fish and had preserved the heart, liver, and gall. When burned, the heart and liver would drive away a demon. The gall would cure blindness. Thus Tobias was able to marry Sarah without harm. Raphael collected the money that was left in Media, and the blindness of Tobit was cured by means of the fish's gall. The book stresses Temple attendance, paying of tithes, giving alms, marrying only within the people of Israel, and the importance of prayer. Obedience to the law is central along with separation of Jews from Gentiles. It introduces the concept of a guardian angel.
Judith
The book of Judith, from 250 to 150 B.C. shows the importance of obedience to the law. In this book Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Assyrians, reigned at the time the Jews returned from Exile. This shows it is not historically accurate, for Cyrus of Persia was king when the Jews returned from Exile (538 B.C.). The story may be based upon some event where a woman played an heroic role in the life of her people. In the story Nebuchadnezzar sent one of his generals, Holofernes, to subjugate the nations in the western part of his empire. The Jews resisted. Holofernes laid siege to the city of Bethulia (unknown except for this reference). Because of a shortage of water, the city decided to surrender in five days if God did not intervene. Judith had been a widow for three years and had been careful to obey all the law. She stated that God was going to act through her to save His people. She went with her maid to the camp of Holofernes, claiming that God was going to destroy the people because of their sin. She promised to show the general how he could capture the city without loss of a life. At a banquet a few days later, when Holofernes had drunk himself into a coma, she cut off his head and took it back to the city. The result was a great victory for the Jews over their enemies. This book places emphasis upon prayer and fasting. Idolatry is denounced, and the God of Israel is glorified. The book shows a strong hatred of pagans. Its moral content is low, for it teaches that the end justifies the means.
Additions to the Book of Esther
The Apocrypha contains additions to the book of Esther. The Hebrew text of Esther contains 163 verses, but the Greek contains 270. These additions are in six different places in the Greek text. However, in the Latin Vulgate they are all placed at the end. These sections contain such matters as the dream of Mordecai, the interpretation of that dream, the texts of the letters referred to in the canonical book, (Esther 1:22 ; Esther 3:13 ; Esther 8:5 ,Esther 8:5,8:10 ; Esther 9:20 ,Esther 9:20,9:25-30 ) and the prayers of Esther and Mordecai. The additions give a more obviously religious basis for the book. In the Old Testament book of Esther, God is never named. This omission is remedied by the additions which were probably made between 125,75 B.C.
The Song of the Three Young Men is one of three additions to the book of Daniel. It follows Daniel 3:23 in the Greek text. It satisfies curiosity about what went on in the furnace into which the three men were thrown. The final section is a hymn of praise to God. It emphasizes that God acts to deliver His people in response to prayer. This writing, along with the other two additions to Daniel, probably comes from near 100 B.C.
Susanna
The story of Susanna is added at the close of the Book of Daniel in the Septuagint. It tells of two judges who were overpowered by the beauty of Susanna and sought to become intimate with her. When she refused, they claimed they had seen her being intimate with a young man. Authorities believed their charges and condemned the young lady to death. Daniel then stated that the judges were lying, and he would prove it. He asked them, separately, under what tree they saw Susanna and the young man. When they identified different kinds of trees, their perjury became apparent. They were condemned to death, and Susanna was vindicated.
Bel and the Dragon
The third addition to Daniel is Bel and the Dragon, placed before Susanna in the Septuagint. Bel was an idol worshiped in Babylon. Large quantities of food were placed in Bel's temple each night and consumed before the next morning. King Cyrus asked Daniel why he did not worship Bel, and Daniel replied that Bel was only a man-made image. He would prove to the king that Bel was not alive. Daniel had ashes sprinkled on the floor of the temple and food placed on Bel's altar before sealing the temple door. The next morning the seals on the doors were intact, but when the doors were opened the food was gone. However, the ashes sprinkled on the floor revealed footprints of the priests and their families. They had a secret entrance and came at night and ate the food brought to the idol. The second part of the story of Bel and the Dragon concerned a dragon worshiped in Babylon. Daniel killed the dragon by feeding it cakes of pitch, fat, and hair. The people were outraged, and Daniel was thrown into the lions' den for seven days. However, the lions did not harm him. These stories ridicule paganism and the worship of idols.
Wisdom of Solomon
The next four apocryphal books are examples of Wisdom literature. The Wisdom of Solomon which was not written by Solomon, was probably written about 100 B.C. in Egypt. The first section of the book gave comfort to oppressed Jews and condemned those who had turned from their faith in God. It shows the advantages of wisdom over wickedness. The second section is a hymn of praise to wisdom. Wisdom is identified as a person present with God, although it is not given as much prominence as in some other writings. The final section shows wisdom as helpful to Israel throughout its history. This writing presents the Greek concept of immortality rather than the biblical teaching of resurrection.
Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach
The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach is also known as Ecclesiasticus. It emphasizes the importance of the law and obedience to it. Written in Hebrew about 180 B.C., it was translated into Greek by the author's grandson shortly after 132 B.C. The book has two main divisions, 1–23,24–51, each beginning with a description of wisdom. The writer was a devout Jew, highly educated, with the opportunity to travel outside Palestine. Thus he included in his writing not only traditional Jewish wisdom but material that he found of value from the Greek world. He pictured the ideal scribe as one who had time to devote himself to the study of the law. Sirach 44-50 are a praise of the great fathers of Israel, somewhat similar to Hebrews 11:1 . Wisdom is highly exalted. She is a person made by God. She goes into the earth to seek a dwelling place. After she is rejected by other people, she is established in Zion. Wisdom is identified with the law.
Baruch
The Book of Baruch is also in the wisdom category. It is a combination of two or three different writings. The first section is in prose and claims to give a history of the period of Jeremiah and Baruch. However, it differs from the Old Testament account. The second section is poetry and a praise of wisdom. The final section is also poetic and gives a word of hope for the people. As in Sirach, wisdom and law are equated. It was written shortly before 100 B.C.
Letter of Jeremiah
The Letter of Jeremiah is often added to Baruch as chapter 6. As the basis for his work, the author evidently used Jeremiah 29:1-23 , in which Jeremiah did write a letter to the exiles. However, this letter comes from before 100 B.C. It is a strongly worded condemnation of idolatry.
Prayer of Manasseh
The Prayer of Manasseh is a devotional writing. It claims to be the prayer of the repentant king whom the Old Testament pictured as very wicked (2 Kings 21:10-17 ). Second Kings makes no suggestion that Manasseh repented. However, 2Chronicles 33:11-13,2 Chronicles 33:18-19 states that he did repent and that God accepted him. This writing from before 100 B.C. is what such a prayer of repentance might have been.
2Esdras
The final book of the Apocrypha Isaiah 2 Esdras, written too late to be included in the Septuagint. 2 Esdras 1-2 and 2 Esdras 15-16 are Christian writings. 2 Esdras 3-14 , the significant part of the work, are from about 20 B.C. This writing is an apocalypse, a type of writing popular among the Jews in the Intertestamental Period and which became popular among Christians. See 2 Esdras 3-14 . Daniel in the Old Testament and Revelation in the New Testament represent this type of writing. Apocalyptic calls attention to the difficult circumstances of God's people and centers upon the end of the age and the new age which God will inaugurate. Second Esdras contains seven sections or visions. In the first three, Ezra seeks answers from an angel about human sin and the situation of Israel. The answer he receives is that the situation will change only in the new age that God is about to inaugurate. The third section pictures the Messiah. He will remain four hundred years and then die. The next three visions stress God's coming intervention and salvation of His people through the pre-existent Messiah. The final section states that the end will be soon and reports that Ezra was inspired to write ninety-four books. Twenty-four are a rewrite of the canonical Old Testament while the other seventy are to be given to the wise. The last two chapters of 2Esdras contain material common to the New Testament. See 2 Esdras 3-14 .
Clayton Harrop
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha
The name given to those Books which were attached to the MSS copies of the LXX, but which do not form a part of the canon of scripture. The term itself signifies, 'hidden,' 'secret,' 'occult;' and, as to any pretence of being a part of scripture, they must be described as 'spurious.' There are such writings connected with both the Old and the New Testament, but generally speaking the term 'Apocrypha' refers to the O.T. (for those connected with the N. Test.see APOSTOLIC FATHERS.The O.T. books are:
1 I. Esdras.
2 II. Esdras.
3 Tobit.
4 Judith.
5 Chapters of Esther, not found in the Hebrew nor Chaldee.
6 Wisdom of Solomon.
7 Jesus, son of Sirach; or Ecclesiasticus; quoted Ecclus.
8 Baruch, including the Epistle of Jeremiah.
9 Song of the Three Holy Children
10 The History of Susanna.
11 Bel and the Dragon.
12 Prayer of Manasseh.
13 I. Maccabees.
14 II. Maccabees.
The Council of Trent in A.D. 1546, professing to be guided by the Holy Spirit, declared the Apocrypha to be a part of the Holy Scripture. The above fourteen books formed part of the English Authorised Version of 1611, but are now seldom attached to the canonical books. Besides the above there are a few others, as the III., IV., and V. Maccabees, book of Enoch, etc., not regarded by any one as a part of scripture. It may be noticed
1. That the canonical books of the O.T. were written in Hebrew (except parts of Ezra and Daniel which were in Chaldee); whereas the Apocrypha has reached us only in Greek or Latin, though Jerome says some of it had been seen in Hebrew.
2. Though the Apocrypha is supposed to have been written not later than B.C. 30, the Lord never in any way alludes to any part of it; nor do any of the writers of the N.T., though both the Lord and the apostles constantly quote the canonical books.
3. The Jews did not receive the Apocrypha as any part of scripture, and to 'them were committed the oracles of God.'
4. As some of the spurious books were added to the LXX Version (the O.T. in the Greek) and to the Latin translation of the LXX, some of the early Christian writers were in doubt as to whether they should be received or not, and this uncertainty existed more or less until the before mentioned Council of Trent decided that the greater part of the Apocrypha was to be regarded as canonical. Happily at that time the Reformation had opened the eyes of many Christians to the extreme corruption of the church of Rome, and in rejecting the claims of that church they were also freed from its judgement as to the Apocryphal books.
5. The internal evidences of the human authorship of the Apocrypha ought to convince any Christian that it can form no part of holy scripture.
Expressions of the writers themselves show that they had no thought of their books being taken for scripture. There are also contradictions in them such as are common to human productions. Evil doctrines also are found therein: let one suffice: "Alms doth deliver from death, and shall purge away all sin." Tobit 12:9 . The value of holy scripture as the fountain of truth is such that anything that might in any way contaminate that spring should be refused with decision and scorn. Some parts of the Apocryphal books may be true as history, but in every other respect they should be refused as spurious. Nor can it be granted that we need the judgement of the church, could a universal judgement be arrived at, as to what is to be regarded as the canon of scripture. The Bible carries its own credentials to the hearts and consciences of the saints who are willing to let its power be felt.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Apocrypha
books not admitted into the sacred canon, being either spurious, or at least not acknowledged to be divine. The word Apocrypha is of Greek origin, and is either derived from the words απο της κρυπτης , because the books in question were removed from the crypt, chest, ark, or other receptacle in which the sacred books were deposited whose authority was never doubted, or more probably from the verb αποκρυπτω , to hide or conceal, because they were concealed from the generality of readers, their authority not being recognised by the church, and because they are books which are destitute of proper testimonials, their original being obscure, their authors unknown, and their character either heretical or suspected. The advocates of the church of Rome, indeed, affirm that some of these books are divinely inspired; but it is easy to account for this: the apocryphal writings serve to countenance some of the corrupt practices of that church. The Protestant churches not only account those books to be apocryphal and merely human compositions which are esteemed such by the church of Rome, as the Prayer of Manasseh, the third and fourth books of Esdras, the addition at the end of Job, and the hundred and fifty-first Psalm; but also the books of Tobit, Judith, the additions to the book of Esther, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch the Prophet, with the Epistle of Jeremiah, the Song of the Three Children, the Story of Susanna, the Story of Bel and the Dragon, and the first and second books of Maccabees. The books here enumerated are unanimously rejected by Protestants for the following reasons:—
1. They possess no authority whatever, either external or internal, to procure their admission into the sacred canon. None of them are extant in Hebrew; all of them are in the Greek language, except the fourth book of Esdras, which is only extant in Latin. They were written for the most part by Alexandrian Jews, subsequently to the cessation of the prophetic spirit, though before the promulgation of the Gospel. Not one of the writers in direct terms advances a claim to inspiration; nor were they ever received into the sacred canon by the Jewish church, and therefore they were not sanctioned by our Saviour. No part of the apocrypha is quoted, or even alluded to, by him or by any of his Apostles; and both Philo and Josephus, who flourished in the first century of the Christian aera, are totally silent concerning them.
2. The apocryphal books were not admitted into the canon of Scripture during the first four centuries of the Christian church. They are not mentioned in the catalogue of inspired writings made by Melito, bishop of Sardis, who flourished in the second century, nor in those of Origen in the third century, of Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Gregory Nazianzen, Amphilochius, Jerom, Rufinus, and others of the fourth century; nor in the catalogue of canonical books recognised by the council of Laodicea, held in the same century, whose canons were received by the catholic church; so that as Bishop Burnet well observes, we have the concurring sense of the whole church of God in this matter. To this decisive evidence against the canonical authority of the apocryphal books, we may add that they were never read in the Christian church until the fourth century; when, as Jerom informs us, they were read "for example of life, and instruction of manners; but were not applied to establish any doctrine." And contemporary writers state, that although they were not approved as canonical or inspired writings, yet some of them, particularly Judith, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus, were allowed to be perused by catechumens. As a proof that they were not regarded as canonical in the fifth century, Augustine relates, that when the book of Wisdom and other writings of the same class were publicly read in the church, they were given to the readers or inferior ecclesiastical officers, who read them in a lower place than those which were universally acknowledged to be canonical, which were read by the bishops, and presbyters in a more eminent and conspicuous manner. To conclude: notwithstanding the veneration in which these books were held by the western church, it is evident that the same authority was never ascribed to them as to the Old and New Testament until the last council of Trent, at its fourth session, presumed to place them all (except the Prayer of Manasseh and the third and fourth books of Esdras) in the same rank with the inspired writings of Moses and the Prophets.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha
See CANON.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Apocrypha
This is the name given to certain books generally boundwith the Old and New Testament Scriptures which the Sixth Articleof Religion describes as "The other books (as Hierome saith) theChurch doth read for example of life and instruction of manners;but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine." They arecalled Apocryphal for the reason that while they are usually boundup with the Bible, yet they are not regarded as canonical. Apocryphais a Greek word meaning hidden, secret or unknown. Several of theLessons are taken from the Apocryphal Books, and the Benedicite,which is sung as an alternate to the Te Deum, is taken from one ofthem, namely, "The Song of the Three Children."

Sentence search

Maccabees, Book of - See Apocrypha
Manasseh, Prayer of - See Apocrypha
Apocryphas - ) of Apocrypha...
Sirach - See Apocrypha, 13
Ecclesiasticus - ECCLESIASTICUS See Apocrypha, § 13
Susanna - See Apocrypha, § 5
Gospel of Thomas - See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Gnosticism
Tobit, Book of - See Apocrypha, § 8
Ecclesiasticus - ) A book of the Apocrypha
Tobit - ) A book of the Apocrypha
Prayer of Manasses - See Apocrypha, § 11
Three Children - See Apocrypha, 6
Maccabees, Books of - See Apocrypha, §§ 1, 2
Song of the Three Holy Children - See Apocrypha, § 6
Wisdom, Book of - and Apocrypha, § 14
Apocryphalist - ) One who believes in, or defends, the Apocrypha
Esdras - See Apocrypha, and Apoc
Bel - Children, Song of the Three - See Apocrypha, p
Twelve Apostles, Gospel of - [Note: Apocrypha, Apocryphal
Language of ot And Apocrypha - LANGUAGE OF OT AND Apocrypha
Judith - Heroine of Judith in the Apocrypha. See Apocrypha
Judith - Heroine of Judith in the Apocrypha. See Apocrypha
Apocryphal - ) Pertaining to the Apocrypha
Deuterocanonical - ) Pertaining to a second canon, or ecclesiastical writing of inferior authority; - said of the Apocrypha, certain Epistles, etc
Joakim - Sele-u'Cus, - Only one--the fourth --is mentioned in the Apocrypha
Albeit - ’ It occurs in Ezekiel 13:7 , Philippians 1:19 , and in the Apocrypha
Edna - See Apocrypha, § 8
Cat - Joda - (joh' duh) Greek transliteration of either Jehuda (thus, KJV Juda) or Joyada, a name known in Apocrypha (2 Esdras 22:10-11 )
Maccabees, Maccabean War - See Apocrypha ; Intertestamental History
Apocrypha - ...
The following is a list of the Apocrypha: ...
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Jewish Apocalypses ...
Book of Henoch
Assumption of Moses
Fourth Book of Esdras
Apocalypse of Baruch
Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis
Third Book of Esdras
Third Book of Machabees
History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ...
Psalms of Solomon
Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy ...
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions ...
Sibylline Oracles
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin ...
Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin ...
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin
Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels ...
Gospel according to the Hebrews
Gospel according to the Egyptians
Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Bartholomew
Gospel of Matthias
Gospel of Nicodemus
Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
Gospel of Andrew
Gospel of Barnabas
Gospel of Thaddeus
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Eve
Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ ...
Report of Pilate to the Emperor
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea
Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter
Acts of John
Acts of Andrew
Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew
Acts of Thomas
Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter and Paul
Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul and Thecla
Acts of Philip
Acts of Matthew
Acts of Simon and Jude
Acts of Barnabas
Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works ...
Testamentum Domini
Nostri Jesu
Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles ...
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter
Pseudo-Epistles of Paul
Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans
Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses ...
Apocalypse of Peter
Apocalypse of Paul
Manasses - For ‘Prayer of Manasses’ see Apocrypha, § 11
Septuagint - It also contains several Apocryphal books. See Apocrypha ; Bible, Texts and Versions
ju'Dith, the Book of, - one of the books of the Apocrypha, belongs to the earliest specimens of historical fiction
Turpentine Tree - in the Apocrypha
Anti'Ochus - They are referred to in the Apocrypha especially in the books of the Maccabees
Ecclesias'Ticus, - one of the books of the Apocrypha
Lewd - Apoc'Rypha -
Old Testament Apocrypha . The primary meaning of Apocrypha , "hidden, secret," seems, toward the close of the second century to have been associated with the signification "spurious," and ultimately to have settled down into the latter. ...
New Testament Apocrypha -- (A collection of legendary and spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles
Apocrypha - ' There are such writings connected with both the Old and the New Testament, but generally speaking the term 'Apocrypha' refers to the O. 1546, professing to be guided by the Holy Spirit, declared the Apocrypha to be a part of the Holy Scripture. were written in Hebrew (except parts of Ezra and Daniel which were in Chaldee); whereas the Apocrypha has reached us only in Greek or Latin, though Jerome says some of it had been seen in Hebrew. Though the Apocrypha is supposed to have been written not later than B. The Jews did not receive the Apocrypha as any part of scripture, and to 'them were committed the oracles of God. in the Greek) and to the Latin translation of the LXX, some of the early Christian writers were in doubt as to whether they should be received or not, and this uncertainty existed more or less until the before mentioned Council of Trent decided that the greater part of the Apocrypha was to be regarded as canonical. Happily at that time the Reformation had opened the eyes of many Christians to the extreme corruption of the church of Rome, and in rejecting the claims of that church they were also freed from its judgement as to the Apocryphal books. The internal evidences of the human authorship of the Apocrypha ought to convince any Christian that it can form no part of holy scripture. Some parts of the Apocryphal books may be true as history, but in every other respect they should be refused as spurious
Judith - Apocrypha, § 9
Apocrypha - The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q. The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard
Apocrypha - The word Apocrypha means hidden. The entire list of books of the Apocrypha are: 1 Esdras 2Esdras, Tobit, Judith, the Rest of Esther, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, (also titled Ecclesiasticus), Baruch, The Letter of Jeremiah, Song of the Three Young Men, Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Additions to Daniel, The Prayer of Manasseh, and 1,2Maccabees. There is no record that Jesus or the apostles ever quoted from the Apocryphal books
Apothecary - Achmetha - It is several times mentioned in the Apocrypha ( 2Ma 9:3 Tob 3:7 ; Tob 6:7 ; Tob 14:13 f
Apocrypha - "Apocrypha" comes from the Greek word apokrypha [1], which means "things that are hidden, secret. " "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. ...
The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. The Protestant Reformers, while affirming the unique authority of the Hebrew canon, allowed that the books of the Apocrypha were useful for reading. Over time, however, the Apocrypha has fallen into disuse among Protestants. ...
The Roman Catholic Apocrypha consists of Tobit, Judith, the Additions to Esther, the Additions to Daniel (the Prayer of Azariah and the Three Young Men, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon), the Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus (also called Sirach), Baruch (also called 1Baruch), the Letter of Jeremiah, 1Maccabees, and 2Maccabees. ...
Two other Wisdom books are contained in the Apocrypha. ...
Two of the most popular books in the Apocrypha tell the stories, undoubtedly legendary, of two otherwise unknown Jews. ...
The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are Apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. ...
Numerous Apocryphal gospels were produced by early Christians. ...
The Apocryphal Acts (Acts of Andrew, Acts of John, Acts of Paul, Acts of Peter, and Acts of Thomas) purport to trace the journeys of the apostles, with Thomas going all the way to India. ...
There are also Apocryphal letters (e. Colossians 4:16 , and Pseudo-Titus ), which tend to reflect heretical notions, and Apocryphal apocalypses (e. ...
Apart from the issue of canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. , The Apocryphal New Testament ; E. , New Testament Apocrypha ; B. Metzger, An Introduction to the Apocrypha ; G. , The Apocryphal Old Testament ; M
Maccabees - ) Books of the Apocrypha: interesting as giving a Jewish history of many events which occurred after the sacred Canon closed with Malachi; especially the heroic and successful struggle of the Maccabees for Judah's independence against the Old Testament antichrist and persecutor, Antiochus Epiphanes, of whom Daniel 8; Daniel 11 foretells
Ash'Kelon, as'Kelon - Apocrypha As'calon ( migration ), one of the five cities of the Philistines, ( Joshua 113:3 ; 1 Samuel 6:17 ) a seaport on the Mediterranean, 10 miles north of Gaza
Jairus - This Greek form of the name is used in the Apocrypha (Ad
Highest - In the intertestamental period, the Highest or Most High became the most common designation for the Jewish God, occurring about 120 times in the Apocrypha
Thomas - The Apocryphal book, The Acts of Thomas , uses the literal meaning of his name (“twin”) in making him the twin of Jesus Himself! His personality was complex, revealing a pessimism mixed with loyalty and faith (John 11:16 ). See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Didymus ; Disciples
Ash'er, - Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser ( blessed ), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
Ash'er, - Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser ( blessed ), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
Enoch - See Genesis ; Resurrection ; Apocalyptic ; Apocrypha ; Pseudepigrapha
Maccabees - ) The name of two ancient historical books, which give accounts of Jewish affairs in or about the time of the Maccabean princes, and which are received as canonical books in the Roman Catholic Church, but are included in the Apocrypha by Protestants
ek'Ron - In the Apocrypha it appears as ACCARON
Talmud - As may be supposed, it consists in a multitude of unfounded histories: in many it is to be feared act unlike the Apocrypha
Jeremy - Apocrypha, § 10
Maccabees, Books of the - ...
The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read in the Greek Church
Dan'Iel, Apocryphal Additions to - The most important are contained in the Apocrypha of the English Bible under the titles of The Son of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susannah, and The History of
Malice - Rages - It is frequently mentioned in the Apocrypha
Canon of the Old Testament - ...
Josephus denies the Apocrypha the same authority: "from the time of Artaxerxes to our own everything has been recorded; but these accounts are not worthy of the same credit, owing to the absence of the regular succession of prophets. " The Apocrypha was never in the Hebrew canon. The New Testament writers have not one authoritative quotation from the Apocrypha. Origen excludes expressly 1 Maccabees from the canon though written in Hebrew Jerome gives our canon exactly, which is also the Hebrew one, and designates all others Apocryphal. "Whatever is not included in the enumeration here made is to be placed among the Apocrypha" He puts Daniel in the hagiographa. But by admitting into the Septuagint Greek version of Old Testament the Apocrypha they insensibly influenced those Christian fathers who depended on that version for their knowledge of Old Testament, so that the latter lost sight of the gulf that separates the Hebrew canon from the Apocrypha. Their testimony condemns the decree of Rome's council of Trent that the Apocryphal books deserve "equal veneration" as Scripture, and that all are "accursed" who do" not receive the entire books with all their parts as sacred and canonical. " (See Apocrypha
Apocrypha, New Testament - ”...
Meaning of the Term “Apocrypha” When the term apokryphos occurs in the New Testament, it simply means “hidden things. In the formation of the Christian canon of Scripture, “apocrypha” came to mean works that were not divinely inspired and authoritative. Since the church recognized works that were read openly in services of public worship, the term “apocrypha” came to mean “false” and began to be used to describe heretical material. In contrast to portions of the Old Testament Apocrypha which have been accepted by some branches of the Christian Church, none of the New Testament Apocrypha (with the possible exception of the Apocalypse of Peter and the Acts of Paul ) has ever been accepted as Scripture. Though some scholars allow the term to describe writings that are neither a part of the New Testament nor strictly Apocryphal (e. ...
Purpose of the Apocrypha Three general reasons explain the existence of the New Testament Apocrypha. First, some groups accepted Apocryphal writings because they built on the universal desire to preserve the memories of the lives and deaths of important New Testament figures. Regardless of whether the transmitted traditions were true or false, the desire of later generations to know more detail made the Apocryphal writings attractive. Apocryphal works were intended to supplement the information given in the New Testament about Jesus or the apostles. For the same reason, the Apocryphal acts made certain to record the events surrounding the death of the apostles, a matter on which the New Testament is usually silent. Third, heretical groups produced Apocryphal writings in an attempt to gain authority for their own particular views. ...
Classification of the New Testament Apocrypha These writings parallel, in a superficial way, the literary forms found in the New Testament: gospels, acts, epistles or letters, and apocalypses. Although this formal similarity exists, the title of an Apocryphal work does not necessarily provide a trustworthy description of its character and contents. The Apocryphal gospels. ...
Infancy Gospels is the name given to Apocryphal works that in some way deal with the birth or childhood of Jesus or both. The writers of these Apocryphal infancy gospels attempted to correct what they viewed as deficiencies in the canonical accounts and to fill in the gaps they believed existed. ...
Passion Gospels, another class of Apocryphal gospel, are concerned with supplementing the canonical accounts by describing events surrounding the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. The Gospel of Nicodemus (Acts of Pilate) is another example of an Apocryphal passion gospel. Another Apocryphal work that might be classified as a passion gospel is the Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle . ...
Heretical Gospels cover a wide variety of Apocryphal gospels, most of which are considered Gnostic gospels. The Apocryphal acts. The five major Apocryphal acts are second and third-century stories named after a “Leucius Charinus” and therefore known as the Leucian Acts . ...
Other later Apocryphal acts include: the Apostolic History of Abdias , the Fragmentary Story of Andrew , the Ascents of James , the Martyrdom of Matthew ; the Preaching of Peter, Slavonic Acts of Peter , the Passion of Paul , Passion of Peter, Passion of Peter and Paul ; the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, Andrew and Paul , Paul and Thecla, Barnabas, James the Great, Peter and Andrew, Peter and Paul , Philip , and Thaddaeus . The Apocryphal epistles. We know of a small group of Apocryphal epistles or letters many of which are ascribed to the Apostle Paul. ”...
Other important Apocryphal epistles include the Correspondence of Christ and Abgar , the Epistle to the Alexandrians , the Epistle of Titus , of Peter to James , of Peter to Philip , and of Mary to Ignatius . The Apocryphal apocalypses. While the New Testament apocalyptic material emphasizes the return of Christ, the later Apocryphal apocalypses focus more on heaven and hell. Other Apocryphal works. ...
Relevance of the New Testament Apocrypha The New Testament Apocrypha is significant for those who study church history. The New Testament Apocrypha also serves as a point of comparison with the writings contained in the canon of the New Testament. By way of contrast the Apocryphal writings demonstrate how the New Testament places a priority on historical fact rather than human fantasy. While the New Testament Apocrypha is often interesting and informative, it is usually unreliable historically and always unauthoritative for matters of faith and practice
Judaea - "Judah"); in the Apocrypha the word "province" is dropped, and throughout it and in the New Testament the expressions are the "land of Judæa" and "Judæa
Bible - ...
When I said the Bible includes the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, and no other, I consider what is called Apocrypha as not included. The very name Apocrypha, (so called by those who first placed those writings in our Bibles) which means hidden, or doubtful, implies as much, for them is nothing which, can be called doubtful in the word of God. ...
Some pious minds, indeed, have gone farther, and have ceased to call those writings Apocryphal, or doubtful, but have decidedly determined against them, and from their own testimony shewn that they are unscriptural and contrary to God's word. ...
The Book of Ecclesiastics, take it altogether, is by far the best of the whole Apocryphal writings. He speaks decidedly concerning the Apocrypha, and felt indignant that it should ever have had a place in our Bibles. To put the Apocrypha, therefore, between them, is to separate Malachi and Matthew; Law and Gospel
Alexandrian Manuscript - It contains the whole bible in Greek, including the Old and New Testament, with the Apocrypha, and some smaller pieces, but not quite complete
Synagogue, the Great - The absence of any historical mention of such a body, not only in the Old Testament and the Apocrypha, but in Josephus, Philo, etc
Innocents, Slaughter of the - See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Herod ; Josephus; Magi
Ambassador, Ambassage - As diplomatic agents of sovereigns or other persons in high authority, ambassadors are frequently mentioned in OT and Apocrypha from the days of Moses (see below) to those of the Maccabees ( 1Ma 9:70 ; 1Ma 11:9 ; 1Ma 14:21 ; 1Ma 15:17 )
Greeks, Grecians - Baruch - Apocrypha, though its professed author is Baruch, the friend and secretary of Jeremiah
Victorinus - In consequence, perhaps, of his Millennarian tendencies, or of his relations to Origen, his works were classed as "apocrypha" in the Decretum de Libris Recipiendis , which Baronius (ad ann
Abbreviations - Apocrypha, Apocryphal. Books of the Bible...
Apocrypha...
1 Es, 2 Es 1 and 2 Esdras
Altar - , but only in the Apocrypha, bomos is used for the Divine altar
Canon of Scripture - They decided to include the books now known as the Apocrypha (q. The books were written in the Jews' language — the Hebrew — with which the Apocrypha never had a place. With the Greek MSS Apocryphal books are found, parts of which were read in the churches in early days
to'Pheth, - ( 2 Kings 23:10 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; Jeremiah 7:31,32 ; 19:6,11,12,13,14 ) The New does not refer to it, nor the Apocrypha
Ananias - This name occurs several times in the Apocrypha: in Esther 9:21 Esther 9:21 ; Esther 9:29 Esther 9:29 ; 1Es 9:43 ; 1Es 9:48 (representing ‘Hanani’ and ‘Hananiah’ of Ezra 10:20 ; Ezra 10:28 , ‘Anaiah’ and ‘Hanan’ of Nehemiah 8:4 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ) and in Tob 5:12 f
Secret, Secretly - ...
A — 2: ἀπόκρυφος (Strong's #614 — Adjective — apokruphos — ap-ok'-roo-fos ) (whence "Apocrypha"), "hidden," is translated "kept secret" in Mark 4:22 , AV (RV, "made secret"); "secret" in Luke 8:17 , RV (AV, "hid")
Baruch - For the Apocryphal writings attached to his name, see Apocrypha and Apocalyptic Literature
ez'ra - (help ), called ESDRAS in the Apocrypha, the famous scribe and priest
Jehovah - , the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament
Apocrypha - We designate these writings as Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. ...
Meaning “things that are hidden,” Apocrypha is applied to a collection of fifteen books written between about 200 B. The word “apocrypha” is not found in the Bible. Although never part of the Hebrew Scriptures, all fifteen Apocryphal books except 2Esdras appear in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint. From the time of the Reformation, the Apocryphal books have been omitted from the canon of the Protestant churches. The Apocrypha represent various types of literature: historical, historical romance, wisdom, devotional, and apocalyptic. ...
1Maccabees...
The most important historical writing in the Apocrypha is 1Maccabees. ...
Additions to the Book of Esther...
The Apocrypha contains additions to the book of Esther. ...
Wisdom of Solomon...
The next four Apocryphal books are examples of Wisdom literature. ...
2Esdras...
The final book of the Apocrypha Isaiah 2 Esdras, written too late to be included in the Septuagint
Apocrypha - The most important of these are collected in the Apocrypha often bound up with the English Bible; but in the Septuagint and Vulgate they stand as canonical. ...
These Apocryphal writings are ten in number: namely, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Judith, two books of the Maccabees, Song of the Three Children, Susannah, and Bell and the Dragon
Pseudepigrapha - Some ancient Christians and the Roman church have used the term “Apocrypha,” since for them what Protestants call Apocrypha is part of their canon. See Apocrypha . See Apocalyptic ; Apocrypha ; Bible, Texts and Versions
Apocrypha - Apocrypha . The term ‘Apocrypha’ is applied to a body of literature that has come down to us in close connexion with the canonical books of the Bible, and yet is not of them. The term applied to them as ‘apocryphal,’ that is, withheld from public gaze and use, was at first rather complimentary to their character. But their rejection by the Jewish Palestinian body of worshippers, as well as by the larger proportion of the early Church, gradually stamped the name ‘apocryphal’ as a term of reproach, indicating inferiority in content and a spurious authorship. ...
The word ‘Apocrypha,’ as used by Protestant Christians, signifies the books found in the Latin Vulgate as over and above those of the Hebrew OT. With this translation, and other books later called the Apocrypha, they constructed a Greek Bible now called the Septuagint (the Seventy). ...
These so-called Apocryphal books may be roughly classified as follows: ...
1. ...
Jerome, in his revision of the Old Latin Bible, found the Apocryphal books therein, as carried over from the Septuagint; but in his translation of the OT he was careful not to include in the OT proper any hooks not found in the Hebrew Canon. ) Apocryphal books. Even before the meeting of that famous Council, Coverdale, in 1535, had introduced the Apocrypha into the English Bible edited by himself. ...
In our discussion of the character and contents of these books, we must keep in mind the fact that the word ‘Apocrypha’ is used in the Protestant sense as inclusive of the fourteen books given in the RV
In addition to these Apocryphal books, but not included either in the Septuagint, the Vulgate, or the RV Glass, Looking-Glass, Mirror - ...
In the Apocrypha there is a reference, Sir 12:11 , to the rust that gathered on these metal mirrors, and in Wis 7:26 the Divine wisdom is described as ‘the unspotted mirror of the power of God,’ the only occurrence in AV Apocrypha - The word Apocrypha is of Greek origin, and is either derived from the words απο της κρυπτης , because the books in question were removed from the crypt, chest, ark, or other receptacle in which the sacred books were deposited whose authority was never doubted, or more probably from the verb αποκρυπτω , to hide or conceal, because they were concealed from the generality of readers, their authority not being recognised by the church, and because they are books which are destitute of proper testimonials, their original being obscure, their authors unknown, and their character either heretical or suspected. The advocates of the church of Rome, indeed, affirm that some of these books are divinely inspired; but it is easy to account for this: the Apocryphal writings serve to countenance some of the corrupt practices of that church. The Protestant churches not only account those books to be Apocryphal and merely human compositions which are esteemed such by the church of Rome, as the Prayer of Manasseh, the third and fourth books of Esdras, the addition at the end of Job, and the hundred and fifty-first Psalm; but also the books of Tobit, Judith, the additions to the book of Esther, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch the Prophet, with the Epistle of Jeremiah, the Song of the Three Children, the Story of Susanna, the Story of Bel and the Dragon, and the first and second books of Maccabees. No part of the Apocrypha is quoted, or even alluded to, by him or by any of his Apostles; and both Philo and Josephus, who flourished in the first century of the Christian aera, are totally silent concerning them. The Apocryphal books were not admitted into the canon of Scripture during the first four centuries of the Christian church. To this decisive evidence against the canonical authority of the Apocryphal books, we may add that they were never read in the Christian church until the fourth century; when, as Jerom informs us, they were read "for example of life, and instruction of manners; but were not applied to establish any doctrine
Apocrypha - APOCRYPHA. the Biblical Apocrypha. For the literary history and characteristics of the Apocrypha see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. ‘Apocrypha. ’ The relation of the Apocrypha to Christ and Christianity, which is the subject of this article, comes especially under four heads—the Messianic idea, the doctrine of Wisdom, the anticipation of Christian doctrines other than that of the Person or mission of Christ, the use of the Apocrypha in the Christian Church. —While this idea is luxuriantly developed in Apocalyptic literature, it is singularly neglected in most of the Apocrypha. Therefore it is not just to say that this hope had faded away or suffered temporary obscurity during the period when the Apocrypha was written, the truth being that it was then more vigorous than ever in certain circles. But these circles were not those of our Old Testament Apocrypha. We must go outside our Apocrypha to the Psalms of Solomon for the Pharisaic revival of the Messiah of the line of David. ...
2 Esdras, also a Jewish Apocalyptic work, calls for closer examination, since it is contained in our Apocrypha, although its late date diminishes its value in the history of the development of thought. Unlike the other Apocryphal writings, since it does not illustrate the transition from the OT to the NT, it is serviceable only in the study of post-Christian Judaism. ’ That doctrine in the Apocrypha is in direct succession from the Hokhmah teaching of Proverbs
Esdras, the Second Book of - , which it follows in the English Apocrypha, It belongs to the apocalyptic order, and is closely related in time and thought to the Apocalypse of Baruch (q. -As it stands in our Apocrypha, 2 Es. It was through this version that the book found its way into the appendix of the Vulgate, and thence into our Apocrypha. This long passage has now been restored to its place in our Apocrypha, between verses 35 and 36 of the seventh chapter. of the Apocrypha, the fourth chs. Charles’s The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, 1913
Angel - The Apocrypha . The angelology of the Apocrypha is, however, far more closely allied to that of Ezk. , and Daniel than the angelology of these to that of the rest of the OT; this will be clearly seen by enumerating briefly the main characteristics of angels as portrayed in the Apocrypha. Further, the idea of guardian-angels is characteristic of the Apocrypha; that individuals have their guardian-angels is clearly implied in To Tob 5:21 , that armies have such is taught in 2Ma 11:6 ; 2Ma 15:23 , while in 2Ma 3:25 ff. ...
It will thus be seen that the activities of angels are, according to the Apocrypha, of a very varied character. The angelology of the Apocrypha is expanded to an almost unlimited extent in later Jewish writings, more especially in the Book of Enoch , in the Targums , and in the Talmud ; but with these we are not concerned here
Zerubbabel - ZERUBBABEL (meaning uncertain, perhaps ‘offspring of Babel’; the form Zorobabel is used in the Apocrypha)
Septuagint, the - The Oxford Presshas a full Concordance, including the Apocrypha...
The Hebrew Old Testament was also anciently translated into Greekby Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, but of these only fragments remain in Origen's Hexapla, except Theodotion's Daniel, which is usually preferred to the translation of that prophet by the LXX
Hesychius (3), Egyptian bp - If we interpret his words strictly, Hesychius, as well as Lucian, added so much to the text as to lay them open to the charge of falsifying the Gospels and rendering their work "apocryphal" (Hieron. 1), are equally condemnatory: "Evangelia quae falsavit Isicius [1]—Apocrypha" (Labbe, Conc
Bible, Canon of the - Extant Greek Old Testament manuscripts, whose text is quoted often in the New Testament, contain Apocryphal books. But the Hebrew Old Testament canon recognized by Palestinian Jews (Tanak) did not include the fourteen books of the Apocrypha. Since the Hebrew Bible was preferred by the Reformers during the Protestant Reformation in their struggle against the Catholic Church, whose Bible contained the Apocrypha, translators of Protestant Bibles excluded the Apocrypha. Apocryphal books were appropriately interspersed into these categories. Historically, Jewish scholars have considered the canon closed since the time of Malachi, and have not included the Apocrypha, which was written in subsequent times. ...
Eusebius distinguishes four groups of books: (1) accepted (most of our twenty-seven), (2) disputed (James, Jude, 2Peter, 2,3John), (3) rejected (various Apocryphal New Testament books), and (4) heretical (primarily pseudepigraphical books). ...
John McRay...
See also Apocrypha ; Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ...
Bibliography
Vale, Valley - ...
In the Apocrypha, ‘valley’ is the translation of phara [3] gx and aulôn , the former appearing in the NT ( Luke 3:5 )
Flute-Players - The latter use, which is referred to several times in the OT and the Apocrypha (1 Kings 1:40, Isaiah 5:12; Isaiah 30:29, Sirach 40:21, 1 Maccabees 3:45), is attested for the later Jews by the mention in the Mishna of ‘flutes for a bride’ (Baba Mezia vi
Hair - Of course greater pains were taken by females in thus adorning themselves; so that we read in many passages of both scripture and the Apocrypha of tiling the head and braiding the hair
Absalom - Commodianus - His Instructions are included "inter Apocrypha" in a synodal decree of Gelasius ( Concil
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews
Zidon - "Sidon," the Greek form, is found in Genesis 10:15; Genesis 10:19, in the Apocrypha generally, and in the New Testament
Visitation - In the Apocrypha the word is used in the sense of inspection or examination, though in Wisdom of Solomon 14:11 there is an implication of Divine wrath, derived, however, mainly from the context
Glory - Versions of the Scripture, English - Coverdale placed the Apocrypha at the end of the O. ...
It appended the Preface to the Apocrypha that had appeared in Matthew's Bible, but, curiously enough, in order to avoid giving offence to the Romish party by the name of Apocrypha, they sought for some other word, and adopted the inaccurate statement that the "Books were called Hagiographa ,' because "they were read in secret and apart"! This term, which signifies 'holy writings,' is applied to some of the canonical books, of the O. It was also divided into verses, and was the first English Bible that entirely omitted the Apocrypha
Wisdom, the, of Solomon, - a, book of the Apocrypha, may be divided into two parts, the first, chs
Admonition - This word is common in classical Greek, and is also found in the Apocrypha
Mac'Cabees, Books of - As forming part of the Vulgate they were received as canonical by the Council of Trent, and retained among the Apocrypha by the reformed churches
Versions - Wycliffe next brought out the complete English New Testament Nicholas de Hereford proceeded with the Old Testament and Apocrypha as far as the middle of Baruch, then was interrupted by Arundel. He includes Baruch in the canonical books, and is undecided as to the authority of the Apocrypha. He and Tyndale just before the latter's imprisonment had determined to edit the complete Bible and Apocrypha, based on the original not on the Vulgate, etc. Words not in the original are printed in different type; an asterisk marks diversity in the Chaldee and Hebrew; marginal references are given, but no notes; shrinking from so depreciatory an epithet as the Apocrypha, the editors substitute "Hagiographa," giving Matthew's preface to these disputed books otherwise unaltered; from whence arises the amusing blunder that they were called "Hagiographa," because "they were read in secret and apart" (which was the derivation, rightly given in Matthew's preface, for Apocrypha). It is the first Bible that omits the Apocrypha
Bible - (See Apocrypha
Directory - The substance of it is as follows:...
It forbids all salutations and civil ceremony in the churches;...
the reading the scriptures in the congregation is declared to be part of the pastoral office;...
all the canonical books of the old and New Testament (but not of the Apocrypha) are to be publicly read in the vulgar tongue: how large a portion is to be read at once, is left to the minister, who has likewise the liberty of expounding, when he judges it necessary
Scribe - Cesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha, their Origin, Teaching and Contents, London, 1914, p
Judas - Scriptures - The Apocrypha is no more implied in the term Scriptures than any other uninspired writings of fallible men
Time - ’ In the Apocrypha the word ‘hour’ is quite indefinite.
It remains to mention that in the Apocrypha we have traces of the Macedonian Calendar
Hebrew - The word “Hebrew” for the language is first attested in the prologue to Ecclesiasticus in the Apocrypha. See Apocrypha
Hermon, Mount - Enoch 6:6 (a book of the Apocrypha) mentions that Hermon is the place where wicked angels alighted in the days of Jared
Philip - Jews, Judaism - These survive as the Apocrypha, works found in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, but later denied a place in the Hebrew Bible by Jewish leaders. Other works similar to the Apocrypha written in the same period were never considered for inclusion in the canon. In that period various currents of thought in Judaism resulted in the development of the oral law, the writing of the Apocrypha, and the fragmentation into factions such as the Sadducees, Pharisees, and the Dead Sea Scroll sect. David Rightmire...
See also Apocrypha ; Dead Sea Scrolls ; Israel ; Pharisees ; Sadducees ...
Bibliography
Propitiation - As this could not be denied, Crellius comes to the aid of Socinus, and contends that the sense of this word was not to be taken from its common use in the Greek tongue, but from the Hellenistic use of it in the Greek of the New Testament, the LXX, and the Apocrypha. But this will not serve him; for both by the LXX, and in the Apocrypha, it is used in the same sense as in the Greek classic writers. To which may be added, out of the Apocrypha, "Now as the high priest was making ιλασμον , an atonement," 2Ma_3:33
Canon - )...
Apocryphal writings...
The third and second centuries BC produced many new Jewish writings. One group is known as the Apocrypha (literally, ‘hidden’, but meaning ‘disapproved’ or ‘outside’; i. In popular usage, ‘Apocrypha’ often refers to the two groups together
Elder (2) - Harlot - The Apocrypha, however, witnesses to the continuance of the common harlot
Apparition - Harlot - The Apocrypha, however, witnesses to the continuance of the common harlot
Egypt - ...
This brief statement is supplemented and expanded in the Apocryphal Gospels with a wealth of descriptive detail. Egypt - ...
This brief statement is supplemented and expanded in the Apocryphal Gospels with a wealth of descriptive detail. Chastisement - In the OT, Apocrypha, and NT this idea of correction, discipline, chastening, is added to that of the general cultivation of mind and morals: the education is ‘per molestias’ (Augustine, Enarr
Fathers - ), the Apocrypha and the Pseudepigrapha (2 Esdras 7:36, Ps-Sol 8:25, 9:19 etc
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] text of which was much shorter than that of the Massoretic Hebrew; Esther, where the Greek has large additions, which now appear separately in our Apocrypha, but which are an integral part of the LXX [1] includes the episodes of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, and the Song of the Three Children, which have now been relegated (in obedience to Jerome’s example) to the Apocrypha. The mention of the Apocrypha suggests the largest and most striking difference between the LXX [1] and the Hebrew OT, namely, in the books included in their respective canons; for the Apocrypha, as it stands to-day in our Bibles, consists (with the exception of 2 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh) of books which form an integral part of the LXX World - ...
The ethical aspect of the ‘world’ does not receive any fresh emphasis in the Apocrypha, though in the Book of Wisdom both the scientific interest in regard to the world and the impulses of natural religion are notably quickened ( Wis 7:17-22 ; Wis 9:9 ; Wis 11:17 ; Wis 11:22 ; Wis 13:1-9 , cf. ’ It is, noticeable that in the Apocrypha the word kosmos , which in the LXX Apostle - Baur, New Testament Apocrypha 2 (1965): 35-74; O. Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha 2 (1965): 25-34; R
Pharisees - 14), and asserts that in Rabbinical literature the root p-r-sh is constantly found used in the sense of ‘explain,’ ‘expound,’ or ‘interpret,’ in reference to Scripture which is explained in the interests of the Oral Law (Cesterley, Books of the Apocrypha, p. Cesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha, their Origin, Teaching, and Contents, London, 1914; W
Feasts - ...
Besides these there were certain petty feasts, alluded to in Josephus and the Apocrypha, but they seem never to have been generally observed or to have attained any religious importance
Jairus - A, by a curious slip, has ἰατρός), as also in the Apocrypha (Est 11:2), where the Authorized and Revised Versions has ‘Jairus’ as the name of the same person
Sisters - Apocr
These Apocryphal additions can, however, have but little claim on our sympathy, and one Church Father at least betrays his sense of the inadequacy of the sources of his information by appealing fro Scripture as his authority for the names Mary and Salome (Epiphanius, Haeres
Impostors - 744
Benedict Levita (Benedict the Deacon), author of a forged collection of documents (848-850)
Leotardus and Wilgardus, in the 11th century
the Anabaptist John of Leyden (John Bokelzoon), who flourished in 1533 and who was possibly insane
the Pseudo-Isidore (Isidore Mercator), author of a whole series of Apocrypha, including the False Decretals
Paulua Tigrinus, pretended Patriarch of Constantinople, who deceived Pope Clement VII
the Franciscan friar, James of Jülich, who performed all the functions of a bishop without having received consecration
several individuals contemporary with and imitative of Saint Joan of Arc
Sir John Oldcastle, the Wycliffite, possibly deluded
those connected with the veneration of the ashes of Richard Wyche (burned 1440)
Johann Bohm, the Hussite, possibly a mere tool
Jack Cade, whose rebellion, however, was of no religious significance any more than that of Wat Tyler
Lambert Simnel (1487)
Perkin Warbeck (1497)
Numerous other secular pretenders to royal thrones include ...
Alexis Comnenus
the false Baldwin
the impersonator of Frederick II
after the death of Sebastian of Portugal, a whole series of pretenders to the throne
The "false Demetrius," however, was never proved to be an impostor; the six impersonators of Louis XVII were unquestionably such
Wisdom And Wise Men - See Intertestamental History; Apocrypha ; Pseudepigrapha
Greek Language - The latter language constitutes the basis of the diction employed by the LXX, the writers of the Apocrypha, and of the New Testament
Bible - The Jewish Bible is the OT; the Protestant Christian Bible consists of the OT and the NT, but with the Apocrypha included in some editions; the Roman Catholic Bible contains the OT and NT, and also the Apocrypha, the latter authoritatively treated as Scripture since the Council of Trent. ...
The books now known as the Apocrypha were not in the Hebrew Bible, and were not used in the Palestinian synagogues. The Apocrypha consists of 14 books (1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, The Rest of Esther, The Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch with the Epistle of Jeremy, The Song of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susanna, Bel and the Dragon, The Prayer of Manasses, 1 and 2 Maccabees)
Death - In the Apocrypha. The value of the Apocrypha in connexion with the study of Scriptural teaching and usage here is not to be overlooked
Truth - Fatherhood of God - There its use is also rare: Apocrypha ( Wisdom of Solomon 2:16 ; 14:3 ; Tobit 13:4 ; Sirach 23:1,4 ; 51:10 ); Pseudepigrapha (Jub 1:24,28; 19:29; 3Macc 5:7; 6:4,8; T
Long-Suffering - Melchizedek - ‘God Most High’ (Hebrews 7:1) is a phrase of frequent occurrence in the Apocrypha (for the passages see E
Giant - In the Apocrypha
Ananias - We find it occurring frequently in the post-exilic writings and particularly in the Apocrypha
Canon of the Old Testament - Their Apocryphal Joshua does not prove that Ezra’s Canon was the Hexateuch. This limit is fixed by the testimony of Jesus ben-Sira, who writes the book in the Apocrypha called Ecclesiasticus. Other books, apocalyptic and Apocryphal, were competing for a place in the religious library. His use of the Greek Apocrypha for information only, suggests, however, that he did know of a Palestinian limit to the third group. The popularity of the Alexandrian OT, including Apocrypha, and the growing influence of NT books caused the Rabbinical teachers to remove all doubt as to the limits of their Scripture
Bible - The present order of the several books is almost the same (the Apocrypha excepted) as that made by the council of Trent. ...
The Apocryphal books of the Old Testament, according to the Romanists, are the book of Enoch (see Judges 1:14 , ) the third and fourth books of Esdras, the third and fourth books of Maccabees, the prayer of Manasseh, the Testament of the twelve Patriarchs, the Psalter of Solomon, and some other pieces of this nature. The Apocryphal books of the New Testament are the epistle of St. Paul to Senecca, and several other pieces of the like nature; as may be seen in the collection of the Apocryphal writings of the New Testament made by Fabricius. In 1532, Tindal and his associates finished the whole Bible, except the Apocrypha, and printed it abroad: but, while he was afterwards preparing a second edition, he was taken up and burnt for heresy in Flanders. On Tindal's death, his work was carried on by Coverdale, and John Rogers, superintendant of an English church in Germany, and the first Martyr, in the reign of queen Mary, who translated the Apocrypha, and revised Tindal's translation, comparing it with the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and German, and adding prefaces and notes from Luther's Bible. That part of the Bible was given to him who was most excellent in such a tongue (as the Apocrypha to Andrew Downs:) and then they met together, and one read the translation, the rest holding in their hands some Bible, either of the learned tongues, or French, or Spanish, or Italian, &c
Life - See also in Apocrypha, 2Ma 7:9 ; 2Ma 7:36 . In the Apocrypha
Infancy - An important problem, however, is presented by a comparison of these narratives with the conspicuous features of certain of the Apocryphal Gospels, particularly the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel according to Thomas, and the Arabic Gospel of the Childhood. It may be said that it is just at such a point as this that the Apocryphal writings come most noticeably into contact with our Canonical Gospels, as also it is in the ministry and teaching of Jesus that they depart most widely from them. A superabundance of fantastic elements in these Christian Apocrypha is at once revealed on the most superficial comparison: still there are elements in common, and here and there points of close contact. It is most improbable that our narratives were directly borrowed from any of these Apocryphal works and finally incorporated in the Canonical Gospels. It seems also unlikely that our Gospels were used specifically in the production of any of the Apocrypha, and that out of our Gospels the narratives in Matthew 1:2 and Luke 1:2 were simply taken for expansion into the extraordinary congeries of marvels of which these extra-canonical writings mostly consist. Why may not canonical and Apocryphal accounts have alike originated in a common early tradition, though they have flowed so far apart? It is well to remember that those who promulgated and those who received most of the Apocryphal Gospels sincerely believed themselves to be Christians. But one source of Apocryphal developments appears to have been the deep-seated fondness of Jews for haggâdôth (see Donehoo, The Apocryphal and Legendary Life of Christ, p
Jonah - On the other hand, those who deny the historicity of the book, and who hold, with whatever modifications, that the story is a fictitious symbolic narrative with a didactic purpose, like some others in the OT and in the Apocrypha, find many grave difficulties in our Lord’s use of the book—difficulties which perhaps do not admit of an absolutely certain solution. (3) Or did both our Lord and His hearers, the scribes and Pharisees, regard the story of Jonah as a parable or fictitious narrative, like others in the OT and in the Apocrypha, and did He thus refer to it? Although in view of Tobit 14:4; Tobit 14:8, 3 Maccabees 6:8, Josephus Ant
Sanhedrin - Fellowship - For example, in Jewish literature produced during the intertestamental period, called the Apocrypha, the Greek root koin - was used to express ideas such as friendship (Sirach 42:3 ) and table fellowship (Sirach 6:10 )
Nations - ...
The Apocrypha speaks of the ‘nations’ just as do the later writings of the OT
Sea of Glass - Charles, Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian, London, 1899, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913; H
Nations, the - ...
The intertestamental period, as indicated by the books of the Apocrypha, exhibits a continued distinction between the Jews and the "nations
bi'Ble - Then followed the Revised Old Testament in 1885, and the Apocrypha in 1894
Library - They included manuscripts of all of the Old Testament books except for Esther, works from the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, and sectarian compositions such as The Manual of Discipline, The War Scroll, and The Temple Scroll
Chronology of the Biblical Period - These events are recorded in the Apocrypha in 1 Maccabees 1-4
Apocalypse - ]'>[7] ] of English ‘Apocrypha,’ chs. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913. ; Charles’ Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, ii
Prayer - Prayer in the Apocrypha . Jehoiachin - The Apocrypha (Baruch 1:3, and the History of Susanna) relates dubious stories
Home (2) - (3), as a use of ἵδιος, illustrates a tendency to abbreviation and attenuation of phrasing in such connexions as this, ἵδιος, with the force of the possessive pronoun (= ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν), appears in NT as in the LXX Septuagint, the OT, Apocrypha, and in such writers as Philo and Josephus (Deissmann, Bible Studies, English translation, p
Proselytes - ...
However, there is no mention of baptism of proselytes in the Bible, the Apocrypha, Philo, Josephus, or the older targums
Almsgiving - But in dealing with the teachings of the Apocrypha, which probably reflect more closely the views He found prevailing, He discriminates
Canon of the New Testament - He acknowledged our books of the OT and some parts of the Apocrypha, such as 1 Mac. Jude was even rejected by most people because it contained quotations from Apocryphal writings. 397), which orders that ‘besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in the Church under the title of Divine Scriptures,’ and appends a list of the books thus authorized in which we have the OT, the Apocrypha, and just our NT books. Thus the Apocrypha is treated as equally canonical with the OT books; but the NT Canon is the same in Roman Catholic and Protestant Canons
Grace - Charm of speech is designated by charis in Sir 20:18 ; Sir 21:10 ; Sir 37:21 , in the Apocrypha
Sanhedrin (2) - 3; frequent in OT Apocrypha: once in NT, Acts 5:21* (cf. According to this, the γερουσἰα would have a wider meaning than συνέδριον, whereas in OT Apocrypha it is the regular word for συνέδριον
James, the General Epistle of - The Old Testament Apocrypha is a different case; the Jewish church had no doubt about it, they knew it to be not inspired
Baruch, Apocalypse of - ‘2 Esdras’ in the English Apocrypha, which it much resembles); and (2) its literary history in Syriac and the relation of the Syriac text to the underlying Greek. Charles in The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913, ii
Thecla - Apocrypha. Defective as we have seen it to be in structure, yet even here, as well as in interest of narrative, it compares advantageously with the clumsy dullness of the Clementine literature; its marvels, however startling, are less extravagant than those of the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts; and on the whole it is distinctly above the level of the class of writings (most, if not all, of later date) to which it is usually referred. Apocrypha, p. translations see Hone's Apocryphal N
Daniel, Book of - See Apocrypha
Antiochus - ...
The Maccabees (see 1 and 2 Maccabees in Apocrypha), "who knew their God, were strong" in their determination not to deny Him, and "did exploits. Eleazar when forced to eat swine's flesh spit it out, choosing to suffer death at fourscore and ten rather than deny the faith (compare the Apocryphal 2 Maccabees 6 and 2 Maccabees 7)
Wisdom - In OT and Apocrypha. ‘The eighth chapter of Proverbs, and those associated chapters of the Apocryphal Wisdom-books, are fundamental for the primitive Christology’ (Exp , 8th ser. This Wisdom literature strongly influenced both the Jewish and the Christian Church, but it is, perhaps, in its later developments, in the Book of Wisdom and Sirach, and, above all, in the other Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, that we can see the developments of thought that enriched and guided Judaism in the age 180 b
Name, Names - Foreign names abound in Josephus, the Apocrypha, and the NT
Boyhood - These sources are chiefly the OT, the OT Apocrypha, Josephus, the Talmud, and modern Eastern life. And it will be remembered (1) that the Jewish life of our period was the result of the previous life of the nation; (2) that Israel is a nation of great conservatism in matters of religion and the home, although receptive of new ideas; (3) that some of the Apocryphal books were late enough to be products of an age in which Pharisaism, Hellenism, and other Jewish views met each other, much as they did in the early part of the 1st cent. ...
It is curious that the Apocryphal Gospels have a legend about our Lord modelling birds out of moist clay (Syriac Boyhood of the Lord Jesus 1, pseudo-Matthew 27, Thomas 11, Arabio Gospel of the Infancy 36 etc. Cowper’s Apocryphal Gospel). 36), but there is no proof that all (rood Jews took a puritanical, Pharisaic view of the prohibitions of the Law; and even if the Judaea-Christian Apocryphal Gospels are absolutely wrong in describing this modelling as a specimen of our Lord’s play in childhood, they may be right in using it as an element in a picture of Palestinian infancy. But then He also referred to haggâdôth (Matthew 8:11) and to the OT Apocrypha (Luke 6:9, cf
Tiberius - These statements are now regarded as historically valueless, and may have been taken from some Apocryphal work, possibly the original Acts of Pilate, known to Justin (Apol. A supposed letter from Pilate to Tiberius or Claudius contained in the Apocryphal Acts of Peter and Paul (Acta Apostolorum Apocrypha, ed. de Tischendorf, Evangelia Apocrypha2, Leipzig, 1876; F
Angel - ...
The Apocrypha In the late postexilic period angelology became a prominent feature of Jewish religion. The angel Michael was deemed to be Judaism's patron, and the Apocryphal writings named three other archangels as leaders of the angelic hierarchy
Popery - We shall only add, that the church of Rome maintains, that unwritten traditions ought to be added to the Holy Scriptures, in order to supply their defect, and to be regarded as of equal authority; that the books of the Apocrypha are canonical Scripture; that the Vulgate edition of the Bible is to be deemed authentic; and that the Scriptures are to be received and interpreted according to that sense which the holy mother church, to whom it belongs to judge of the true sense, hath held, and doth hold, and according to the unanimous consent of the fathers
Gospels, Apocryphal - GOSPELS, ApocryphaL . The Gospels were supplemented by others, until there resulted a literature that stands related to the NT Canon much as the OT Apocrypha stand related to the OT Canon. As a whole, however, it never attained the importance of the OT Apocrypha. The Origin of the Apocryphal Gospels. Few Apocryphal Gospels reach us entire, and many are known to us only as names in the Church Fathers. The present article will consider only the more important and best known of these Apocryphal Gospels. From the fact that it uses other Apocryphal Gospels, it can hardly have been written prior to the 7th or 8th century. ...
The work is evidently based on various Apocryphal writings, including the Protevangelium, and could not well have come into existence before the rise of the worship of the Virgin in the latter part of the 4th century
Gospels (Apocryphal) - GOSPELS (APOCRYPHAL)...
i. —In the sense in which the term is popularly understood, ‘apocryphal’ is synonymous with ‘spurious’ or ‘false’; when, however, it is applied as a title to writings of the early Christian centuries, it bears the significance of ‘extra-canonical. ’ By Apocryphal Gospels are, accordingly, meant all writings claiming to be Gospels which are not included in the Canon of the NT, without any implication that their contents are necessarily false or of questionable origin. ‘Apocrypha’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible i. In the main it is certain that the details furnished by the Apocryphal writings regarding matters about which the canonical Gospels are silent, have little or no historical basis.
But although the Apocryphal Gospels abound in legendary accretions of this kind, the mistake should not be made of assuming that there is no authentic material in the additions to the narratives in the four Gospels. ...
Even in the earlier Apocryphal Gospels, which are of the Synoptic type, it is clear that theological prepossessions played a considerable part, as indeed they did to some extent in the canonical Gospels. —The fragmentary condition and the uncertain text of many of the Apocryphal Gospels render a confident judgment as to their relation to the canonical Gospels exceedingly difficult. The latter possibility is one not to be dismissed without careful consideration; but, on the whole, the evidence points in almost every case to the use of some or all of the four Gospels by the authors of the Apocryphal writings. ...
While a large degree of dependence on the canonical Gospels must in general be maintained in regard to the Apocryphal Gospels, this must not be pressed so far as to exclude the possibility of their embodying details drawn from reliable oral sources. In the first place, the authoritative position which the canonical Gospels early reached as authentic sources of the life and teaching of Jesus entitles them to be used as a touchstone of the probable authenticity of the additional matter contained in the Apocryphal Gospels. If it would be less than just to say that all the Apocryphal Gospels stand in the position of suspect witnesses, with a presumption of unreliability against them in respect of their peculiar matter, it is nevertheless true that their exclusion from the Canon, as well as the notoriously tainted origin of some of them, render it imperative that their claim to embody a genuine tradition must be carefully sifted, and allowed only after the clearest proof. —The question of greatest moment which arises in estimating the value of the Apocryphal Gospels naturally has reference to their worth as additional sources for the life and teaching of Jesus. A comparison of the Apocryphal Gospels with those in the Canon makes the pre-eminence of the latter incontestably clear, and shows that as sources of Christ’s life the former, for all practical purposes, may be neglected. The simple beauty and verisimilitude of the picture of Jesus in the four Gospels stand out in strong relief when viewed in the light of the artificial and legendary stories which characterize most of the Apocryphal Gospels. The proverbial simplicity of truth receives a striking commentary when (for example) the miracles of the Canonical Gospels are compared with those of the Apocryphal writings. The conclusion, based on the comparison of the Apocryphal with the Canonical Gospels, is amply warranted, that in rejecting the former and choosing the latter as authoritative Scriptures the Church showed a true feeling for what was original and authentic. ...
Though the Apocryphal Gospels afford us little additional knowledge about Christ, they are invaluable as enabling us to realize more clearly the conditions under which the four Gospels were received in the Church, until they were finally established as authoritative in the Gospel Canon. By the time of Irenaeus (circa (about) 180) the Gospel canon may be regarded as definitely fixed; and although Apocryphal Gospels continued to circulate, the authoritative position of the four Gospels was finally assured. ...
Perhaps the chief value of the Apocryphal Gospels is to be found in the light which they cast on the conditions of life and thought in early Christian times. Traces of this are clearly discernible in the Apocryphal Gospels, most plainly in the Gnostic Gospels. ...
The confusion and vagueness of the Christological views in the different Apocryphal Gospels also bear witness to the great variety of influences which were at work in the early Church, and enable us to realize with what trouble the conception of the Divine manhood of Jesus was eventually established. ) is reflected in several of the Apocryphal Gospels. ...
A subsidiary element in estimating the value of the Apocryphal Gospels is their antiquarian interest. , one of the main impulses which led to the production of Apocryphal Gospels was the desire to establish peculiar tenets held in certain Christian circles. How far the early Church as a whole was from any clear and uniform conception of Christ, is apparent from the Apocryphal Gospels. ...
The majority of the Apocryphal Gospels betray a heretical tendency, which varies broadly according as the Divine or the human nature of Christ is denied. Both these opposing views find expression in the Apocryphal Gospels. no Gospels were reckoned as authoritative except those now in the Canon, the Apocryphal Gospels continued to be read for purposes of edification, both in public and in private. ...
In the Western Church the Apocryphal Gospels were regarded with more suspicion. The combined influence of Jerome and Augustine, however, determined the ecclesiastical attitude to the Apocryphal Gospels, and the ban of the Church fell upon them under Damasus (382), Innocent I. In the long run this condemnation by ecclesiastical authority proved unavailing to check the popular appetite for the Apocryphal legends; and by various devices the writings, which had incurred the censure of the Church, were brought back again into public circulation. ...
Harnack truly remarks that ‘the history of Apocryphal literature is a proof that the prohibition of books is powerless against a pressing need. It was really Apocryphal, that is to say, it had what may be termed a subterranean existence; but, suppressed and persecuted though it was, it always forced its way back to the surface, and at last the public tradition of the Church was defenceless against it’ (Gesch. , embodied Apocryphal details. Apocryphal writings are used by pseudo-Chrysostom (circa (about) 600); and in the epic poem of the nun Hroswitha († 968), entitled Historia nativitatis laudabilisque conversationis intactœ Dei genitricis, the material is in part drawn from the later Gospels of the Childhood. onwards, the Apocryphal Gospels afforded an inexhaustible mine for poets and minstrels in Germany, France, and England; and numerous miracle-plays represented incidents drawn from the same source. This work, in which many of the Apocryphal legends find a place, had an immense influence, there being manuscript translations extant in English, German, French, Italian, and Spanish. From that time onwards, the stories of the Apocryphal Gospels have had an influence on popular Christianity in Catholic countries far exceeding that of the Biblical narrative. ...
Roman Catholic writers have denied their claim to be in any sense authoritative sources of Evangelic history, and have uttered warnings against their incautious use; an unfavourable judgment was passed upon them by the Papal Congregation of Rites as recently as 1884, in connexion with the proposal to celebrate in the following year the nineteen hundredth anniversary of the birth of Mary; but, all this notwithstanding, these Apocryphal stories, likened by Harnack to twining plants which, when cut down, spring up again from beneath and choke much that is healthy, have securely rooted themselves in the popular imagination, and have been the fruitful source of many superstitious beliefs. Even Tappehorn, a Roman Catholic writer, who, in his scholarly treatise on The Apocryphal Gospels of the Childhood, etc
Scripture - ...
They are said to be holy or sacred on account of the sacred doctrines which they teach; and they are termed canonical, because, when their number and authenticity were ascertained, their names were inserted in ecclesiastical canons, to distinguish them from other books, which, being of no authority, were kept out of sight, and therefore styled Apocryphal. ...
See Apocrypha
Children (Sons) of God - ...
The relevant passages in the Apocrypha, at least, leave the gulf unbridged between OT and NT ( Tob 13:4 , Wis 5:5 ; Wis 14:3 , Sir 23:1 ; Sir 23:4 ; Sir 36:12 ; Sir 51:10 , Ad
Widows - ...
The OT (Deuteronomy 14:29, Job 29:13, Isaiah 1:17, Jeremiah 22:3, Ezekiel 22:7, Zechariah 7:10, Malachi 3:5), the Apocrypha (Sirach 4:10, ‘Be as a father to orphans, and in place of a husband to their mother’), and Rabbinical literature (W
Bible, Texts And Versions - These are called the Apocrypha
Exorcism - In the OT Apocrypha there are such references to the art as that in Tobit 6:16-17; Tobit 8:2-3
Passion Week - , the NT Apocrypha
Ships And Boats - In OT and Apocrypha...
(1) Among the Israelites
Sadducees - Cesterley, The Books of the Apocrypha, their Origin, Teaching, and Contents, London, 1914, p
Advent (2) - ...
We look in vain in the books of the Apocrypha for any expansion of these ideas
Solomon - The books of OT and Apocrypha ascribed to Solomon are of value only as giving later conceptions of his career
Eschatology - A new period is to be seen in the OT Apocrypha and the pseudepigraphic apocalypses of Judaism
Apocalyptic Literature - As Second Esdras the book has become part of the Apocrypha of the OT, and has had considerable influence in the formation of Christian eschatology
Angels - The doctrine of the OT and of the Apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) that it is unnecessary to do more than refer incidentally to it here; and the angelology of the Gospels has been treated at length in Dict. In the Apocrypha we have Raphael in Tobit 12:15, Uriel in 2 Ezr 4:1; 5:20; 10:28, and Jeremiel in 2 Esdras 4:36 (the last book perhaps is to be dated c
Amen (2) - In the Apocrypha we have further instances of the responsive Amen in Tobit 8:8 and in Judith 13:20; Judith 15:10 (Authorized and Revised Versions in the latter book renders ‘So be it’)
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - Apocryphal book (not the book of Jubilees) from which he learned the names of Cain and Abel's sisters fuller details about the sacrifice of Isaac was enabled to clear Judah from the guilt of incest in his union with Tamar etc. Apocrypha which though not absolutely authoritative might in his opinion be read with pleasure
Trade And Commerce - The distinction between wholesale and retail dealers perhaps first occurs in the Apocrypha ( Sir 26:20 )
Time - In the Apocrypha, which may be regarded as the fair index of usage at the time, the Seleucid Era is frequently referred to
Bible - The Apocryphal books are never found in the Hebrew canon, and exist only in the Greek Septuagint. She has shown her will to add to Scripture itself adding the Apocrypha to the Old Testament just where her addition cannot prejudice the cause of truth fatally, for the Jews witness against her in this
Hypocrisy - Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - When we come to the Apocrypha, we find that an immense development has taken place; see, e
Joseph - Hypocrisy - Psalms of Solomon - ...
The inclusion of these Psalms originally in the Codex Alexandrinus, and perhaps, too, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the association of them in most of the eight Greek MSS_ in which they now survive with other Solomonic works, canonical and Apocryphal-the Psalms commonly standing between Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus-indicate the position which they occupied in the early history of the Church; but the paucity of references to them and quotations from them shows at the same time that they proved neither very attractive nor very influential: they probably owed their preservation to the fact that they bore the name of Solomon. Gray, ‘The Psalms of Solomon’ (brief introduction and notes to an English translation arranged in parallel lines in Charles’s Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament, 1913, ii
Humility - Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - -The term ‘Biblical Greek’ denotes the language of the Greek versions of the OT, and more especially the Septuagint , as also that of the NT, with which may be associated the Apocrypha and the works of the Apostolic Fathers
Conscience - There are anticipations of the NT use of it in the Apocrypha (Wisdom of Solomon 17:11, Sirach 14:2, 2 Maccabees 6:11), and suggestions for St
Barnabas, Epistle of - read among the Apocryphal books, and written by Barnabas of Cyprus, who was ordained along with Paul the Apostle of the Gentiles ( de Vir. Of his eight arguments five may be at once rejected: The first that the words of Augustine regarding the Apocrypha of Andrew and John si illorum essent recepta essent ab ecclesia show that our epistle would have been placed in the canon had it been deemed authentic; for Andrew and John were apostles Barnabas was not
Assumption of Moses - Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Oxford, 1913, ii
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - Leucius (1), the reputed author of large Apocryphal additions to the N. Church writers frequently reject the doctrine of heretical Apocrypha and yet accept stories told in such documents as true, provided there were no doctrinal reason for rejecting them. In the Gelasian decree on Apocryphal books we read: "Libri omnes, quos fecit Leucius discipulus diaboli, apocryphi," where we have various readings, Lucianus and Seleucius (Thiel, Epp. In the Latin version of the Apocryphal Descensus Christi ad inferos (Tischendorf, Evan. The writer clearly borrowed these names from the Apocryphal Acts; did he there find warrant for regarding them as the names of distinct persons, or was Photius right in reporting both names to have been given to the same person? It would seem that only the Acts of John and perhaps of Peter named Leucius as their author: the necessities of the fiction would require the Acts of Andrew to be attested by a different witness, possibly Charinus, and it is conceivable that Photius may have combined the names merely from his judging, no doubt rightly, that all the Acts had a common author. Besides those authorities which mention Leucius by name, others speak of Apocryphal Acts, and probably refer to the same literature. John's authority, and that they used Apocryphal Acts, and thence inferring that Leucius represented St. Besides the Acts Leucius has been credited with a quantity of other Apocryphal literature. >From the nature of the case an apostle's martyrdom must be related by one of the apostles' disciples, but such a one would not be regarded as a competent witness to the deeds of our Lord Himself, and accordingly Apocryphal gospels are commonly ascribed to an apostle, and not to one of the second generation of Christians. The only apparent evidence for a connexion of the name of Leucius with Apocryphal gospels is the mention of the name in the spurious letter of Jerome to Chromatius and Heliodorus, a witness unworthy of credit even if his testimony were more distinct. Probably the orthodox, finding in the Acts which bore the name of Leucius plain evidence that the writer was heretical in his doctrine of two principles, still accepted him as a real personage of the sub-apostolic age, and when they met with other Apocryphal stories, the doctrine of which they had to reject as heretical while willing to accept the facts related as mainly true, Leucius seemed a probable person to whom to ascribe the authorship
Hell - Charles’s separate editions of the various apocalypses, the great work edited by him, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913, and Between the Old and New Testaments, London, 1914; E
Gospels (Uncanonical) - de Tischendorf (Evangelia Apocrypha2, Leipzig, 1876). Hone’s worthless and unworthy Apocryphal NT, London, 1820, included the protevangelium Jacobi. Ellicott’s ‘Dissertation on the Apocryphal Gospels’ in Cambridge Essays, 1856, is apologetic. Wright’s Contributions to the Apocryphal Literature of the New Testament, London, 1865, Syriac versions of the protevangelium Jacobi (a fragment) and the Gospel of Thomas the Israelite were published and translated with notes. , 1703]'>[3]3 ‘such opponents of the Apocryphal Gospels were doubtless in the minority. ] includes a list of Apocrypha
By a gross blunder, arising perhaps from a misreading of Jerome’s prologue to the Gospels, the writer mistakes the textual recensions of the Gospels made by Lucian and Hesychius for Apocryphal Gospels
Hell - Charles’s separate editions of the various apocalypses, the great work edited by him, The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, Oxford, 1913, and Between the Old and New Testaments, London, 1914; E
Humility - Resurrection - In the Apocrypha . The development of this doctrine in the deutero-canonical and Apocryphal literature of the Jews presents a varied and inharmonious blend of colours
Son of God - Holtzmann, indeed, hesitates between such a decision and a suggestion of Brandt’s that it is a cento, put into the mouth of Jesus, of words borrowed partly from other Scripture and partly from the Apocrypha; but by Keim it has been reverentially interpreted, and scholarship has, on the whole, knelt before it as expressing the innermost mystery of the consciousness of Jesus
Job - Job is referred to in the OT in the book bearing his name, and in Ezekiel 14:12-20 , where he is mentioned as a conspicuous example of righteousness; in the Apocr Ascension of Isaiah - ...
(h) Apocryphal work. Charles, Ascension of Isaiah translated from the Ethiopic Version, which, together with the New Greek Fragment, the Latin Versions, and the Latin Translation of the Slavonic, is here published in full, London, 1900, also Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Oxford, 1913, ii
Text of the Gospels - The OT was given in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek; the Apocrypha and NT in Greek and Latin
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - He occasionally cites some portions of the Apocrypha (as Judith, Wisdom, and Maccabees) as Scripture
Possession - ’ This was used in the LXX_ and the Apocrypha, as in Tobit, to translate ùÑÅøÄéí and ùÒÀòÄéøÄéí
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - Investigations of another order have made us better acquainted than before with the vast amount of literature current in the circles of Judaism, only a small portion of which is contained in the Apocrypha of our English Bible. A similar expedient is carried out in the Twentieth Century NT, save that there quotations and reminiscences from the Apocryphal literature are also indicated
Vulgate - Of the deutero-canonical books, or Apocrypha, Judith and Tobit, with the additions to Daniel, were in Jerome’s very hasty version; the remainder, which he had refused to touch (as not recognized by the Massoretic canon), continued to circulate in the OL
Bible - Those books that are contained in the catalogue to which the name of canon has been appropriated, are called canonical, by way of contradistinction from others called deutero-canonical, Apocryphal, pseudo-apocryphal, &c, which either are not acknowledged as divine books, or are rejected as heretical and spurious ( See Apocrypha. Several Apocryphal writings were published under the name of Jesus Christ and his Apostles, which are mentioned by the writers of the first four centuries, most of which have perished, though some are still extant
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - The Stichometry doubtless preserves an ancient list, and there among the Apocryphal books appended to the N. Those that precede it are heretical Apocrypha; but those that follow, viz. This gives as an appendix a list of Apocryphal books; one being the Travels ( περίοδοι ) and Teachings ( διδαχαί ) of the Apostles