What does Antiochus mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antiochus
There were several kings bearing this name who ruled over Syria,and though they are not mentioned by name in scripture, some of their actionsare specified. These are so clear and definite that sceptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been writtenafter the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided amonghis four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture 'Kings of the South;' and another series, called 'Kings of the North,' who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or ANTIOCHUS. Both the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae began eras of their own, and some of the kings of each era had to do with Palestine and the Jews. The following is a list of the kings, with the dates when they began to reign, noticing the principal events that were prophesied of them in Daniel 11 .
B.C.
320 Ptolemy I, Soter. He takes Jerusalem. Era of the Ptolemies begins.
312 SELEUCUS I, Nicator. He re-takes Palestine. Era of the Seleucidae begins.
283 Ptolemy II, Philadelphus. The O.T. translated into Greek.
280 ANTIOCHUSI, Soter.
261 ANTIOCHUS II, Theos. He was at war with Ptolemy, but peace was restored on
condition that Antiochus should put away his wife Laodice and marry Berenice the
daughter of Ptolemy. This was done, but on the death of Philadelphus he restored
Laodice; but she, fearing another divorce, poisoned her husband, and then caused the
death of Berenice and her son. See Daniel 11:6 .
247 Ptolemy III, Euergetes. He revenged his sister's death, being 'a branch of her roots;'
and carried off 40,000 talents of silver, etc. 'Shall enter into the fortress of the king of
the north,' and carry away their precious vessels of silver and gold. Daniel 11:7-9 .
246 SELEUCUS II, Callinicus.
226 SELEUCUS III, Ceraunus.
223 ANTIOCHUS III, the Great.
222 Ptolemy IV, Philopater. War between Ptolemy and Antiochus. Ptolemy recovers
Palestine. Daniel 11:10-12 .
205 Ptolemy V , Epiphanes (5 years old). Antiochus seized the opportunity of the minority of
the king to regain the country. Daniel 11:16 . He also joined with Philip of Macedonia to
capture other portions of the dominions of Ptolemy. But Rome was now growing in
power, and on being appealed to by Egypt for protection, Antiochus was told he must
let Egypt alone. In the meantime an army from Egypt had re-taken Palestine; but
Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there. Wishing to extend his
dominions in the west he proposed that Ptolemy should marry his daughter Cleopatra,
that she might serve her father's ends; but she was faithful to her husband. Daniel thus
speaks of it: "He shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her, but she shall not
stand on his side, neither be for him." Daniel 11:17 . Antiochus took many maritime
towns, but after many encounters he was compelled by Rome to quit all Asia on that
side of Mount Taurus, give up his elephants and ships of war and pay a heavy fine.
Antiochus had great difficulty in raising the money, and on attempting to rob a temple
at Elymais he was killed. Daniel 11:18,19 .
187 SELEUCUS IV, Philopator, succeeded. His principal work was the raising of money to
pay the war-tax to Rome. He ordered Heliodorus to plunder the temple; but
Heliodorus poisoned him. He was thus 'a raiser of taxes,' and was 'destroyed neither
in anger, nor in battle.' Daniel 11:20 . Heliodorus seized the crown but was destroyed
by Antiochus IV.
181 Ptolemy VI, Philometor. He was a minor, under his mother and tutors.
175 ANTIOCHUS IV, Epiphanes. He was not the rightful heir. He 'obtained the kingdom
by flatteries.' He called himself Epiphanes, which is 'illustrious;' but he was such 'a vile
person' that people called him Epimanes, 'madman.' Daniel 11:21-24 . He invaded
Egypt and was at first successful: cf. Daniel 11:25,26 . The two kings entered into
negotiations, though neither of them was sincere in what they agreed to: their hearts
were to do mischief, and they 'tell lies at one table.' Daniel 11:27 . Then Antiochus
returned to his land with great riches: his heart was 'against the holy covenant,' and he
entered Jerusalem and even into the sanctuary and took away the golden altar, the
candlestick, the table of showbread, the censers of gold, and the other holy vessels
and departed. 'At the appointed time he shall return and come toward the South,'
Daniel 11:29 ; but he was stopped by Rome; 'ships of Chittim,' ships from Macedonia,
came against him; and in great anger he returned and vented his wrath on Jerusalem.
He sent an army there with orders to slay all the men and sell the women and
children for slaves. This was to a certain extent carried out. The walls were also
thrown down and the city pillaged and then set on fire. He then decreed that the Jews
should forsake their religion, and all should worship the heathen gods. To ensure this
at Jerusalem with the few that still clung to the place, an image of Jupiter Olympius was
erected in the temple and on an altar sacrifices were offered to this god. This was in
B.C. 168 on the 25th of the month Chisleu. Daniel relates "They shall pollute the
sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the
abomination that maketh desolate." Daniel 11:31 : cf. also Daniel 8:9-12 where the 'little
horn' refers to Antiochus Epiphanes.
Bleek, Delitzsch, and others consider that in Daniel 8:14 , the 2,300 'evening,
morning,' margin , refer to the daily sacrifice, which is spoken of in Daniel 8:11,12,13 ;
and that by 2,300 is meant 1,150 days : cf. also Daniel 8:26 . The dedication of the
temple was on the 25th of Chisleu, B.C. 165, and the desecration began some time in
the year 168.
Daniel 11:32 b, 33-35 refer to the change that soon took place under Judas
Maccabeus and his brothers, commencing B.C. 166, and in 165 the temple was
re-dedicated. In B.C. 164 ANTIOCHUS V. Eupator succeeded to the throne; and
in 162 DEMETRIUS SOTER; but they were not powerful against Judaea, and in B.C.
161 an alliance was made by Judaea with Rome. The historical notices in Daniel end
at Daniel 11:35 .
It will be seen by the above that the records of history agree perfectly with the prophecy, as faith would expect them to do. It is only unbelief that has any difficulty in God foretelling future events. Without doubt some of the acts of Antiochus Epiphanes are types of the deeds of the future king of the North — referred to in other prophecies as 'the Assyrian' — in respect to the Jews and Jerusalem.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Antiochus
The name of several Syrian kings from B.C. 280 to B.C. 65. The most notable of these were,
Antiochus the Great, who ascended the throne B.C. 223. He is regarded as the "king of the north" referred to in Daniel 11:13-19 . He was succeeded (B.C. 187) by his son, Seleucus Philopater, spoken of by (Daniel 11:20 ) as "a raiser of taxes", in the Revised Version, "one that shall cause an exactor to pass through the glory of the kingdom."
Antiochus IV., surnamed "Epiphanes" i.e., the Illustrious, succeeded his brother Seleucus (B.C. 175). His career and character are prophetically described by (Daniel 11:21-32 ). He was a "vile person." In a spirit of revenge he organized an expedition against Jerusalem, which he destroyed, putting vast multitudes of its inhabitants to death in the most cruel manner. From this time the Jews began the great war of independence under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success, defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them. Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person, threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B.C. 164).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Antiochus
1. Theus," King of the N." (Daniel 11:6.) Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, to end the war with him, give Berenice his daughter to Antiochus, who divorced Laodice to marry Berenice. But Ptolemy having died, Betentre aid "not retain the power of the arm," i.e., she was unable to be the mainstay of peace; for on Ptolemy's death Antiochus took back Laodice, who then poisoned him and caused Berenice and her son to be slain. "But out of a branch other roots stood up" in the place of Philadelphus (margin) Ptolemy Euergetes, Berenice's brother, who avenged her, overran Syria, and slew Laodice, "carrying captives into Egypt their gods, princes, and vessels of silver and gold." He restored to Egypt many of the idols carried away formerly by the Persian Cambyses, whence the idolatrous Egyptians surnamed him Euergetes (benefactor). He "continued four more years than the king of the N.," Antiochus.
2. Antiochus the Great, the grandson of Antiochus Theus, and son of Seleucus Callinicus, "came and overflowed and passed through," recovering all the parts of Syria taken by Euergetes, and reached "even to his (border) fortress," Raphia, near Gaza. Here "the king of the S.," Ptolemy Philopator, Euergetes' son, "shall fight with" Antiochus, and Antiochus's "multitude (70,000 infantry and 500 cavalry) shall be given into his hand." 10,000 were slain and 4,000 made captive. Ptolemy's "heart was lifted up" by the victory, so that though he "cast down many ten thousands, he was not strengthened by it" through his luxurious indulgence. For Antiochus "returned after certain years" (14 after his defeat at Raphia) against Philopator's son, Ptolemy Epiphanes.
"In those times many stood against the king of the S.," Epiphanes, namely, Philip of Macedon and "robbers of the people," factious Jews, who, revolting from Ptolemy, helped Antiochus unconsciously, "establishing the vision," i.e. fulfilling God's purpose of bringing trials on Judaea, "but falling," i.e. failing in their aim to make Judaea independent. So Antiochus, overcoming the Egyptian general Scopas at Paneas, near the Jordan's sources, forced him to surrender at Zidon, a "fenced city." Thus Antiochus "did according to his own will, standing in the glorious land (Judaea) which by his hand was consumed," Hebrew perfected, i.e. perfectly brought under his sway, or else desolated by being the arena of conflict between Syria and Egypt. The "upright ones with him" were Israelites, so called from their high privileges, though their practice of violence in support of a pagan king is reprobated.
Next he thought, by wedding his "daughter" Cleopatra to Ptolemy Epiphanes, ultimately to gain Cilicia, Lycia, and even Egypt itself; "corrupting her," i.e. making her his tool; but "she did not stand on his side, but on that of her husband." Then he "took many of the isles'" in the AEgean in his war with the Romans. But Scipio Asiaticus routed him at Magnesia 190 B.C., and so "caused the reproach Offered by him (to Rome's allies) to cease."
Then, compelled to cede his territory W. of Taurus, "he turned his face toward the fort of his own land," i.e. garrisoned the cities left to him. Finally, trying to plunder Jupiter's temple at Elymais, he "fell" in an insurrection of the inhabitants. Selenens succeeded," raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom," or, as Maurer explains, "one who shall cause the taxgatherer to pass through the glorious kingdom," Judaea; i.e. inheriting it by hereditary right. "Within a few days (12 years, "few" in comparison with Antiochus's 37 years) he was destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle," but poisoned by Heliodorus.
3. Antiochus IV. succeeded, surnamed Epiphanes, "the Illustrious," for establishing the royal line against Heliodorus. Nicknamed Epimanes, "madman," for his great unkingly freaks, carousing with the lowest, bathing with them in public, and throwing stones at passers by. Hence, and because of his craftily supplanting Demetrius, the rightful heir, he is called in Daniel 11: "a vile person." He "came into the kingdom by flatteries" to Eumenes and to Attalus of Pergamus, and to the Syrians high and low. With his "flood" like hosts the Egyptians and Ptolemy Philometer, "the prince of the covenant," were "overflown from before him." Philometor was in covenant with him by right, being son of Cleopatra, Antiochus's sister, to whom Antiochus the Great had promised, as dowry in marrying Ptolemy Epiphanes, Coelosyria and Palestine.
Philometor's generals in trying to obtain these covenanted promises were defeated, and Pehsium, the key of Egypt, was taken 171 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes "worked deceitfully," feigning friendship to young Philometor, and" with a small people" or force, "peaceably" in pretense, he took Memphis and "the fattest places," and seized Philometer. Thus he" did that which his fathers had not done," namely, gained Egypt, and "scattered among (his dependents) the prey." "He forecast his devices against the strongholds" of Egypt. He gained all except Alexandria. Retiring Judaea, where the Jews in joy at the report of his death had revolted, he took Jerusalem. He then "stirred up his power with a great army against the king of the S.," Ptolemy Physcon (the gross), made king by the Egyptians because Philometer was in Antiochus's hands. The Egyptian king did "not stand," for his own nobles "forecast devices against him."
At last Antiochus, when checked at Alexandria, met the Egyptian king at Memphis, and "both spoke lies at one table," trying to deceive one another. In his capture of Jerusalem, guided by Menelaus the high priest "against the holy covenant," he took away the golden altar, candlestick, vessels of gold and silver from the temple, sacrificed swine on the altar, and sprinkled swine broth through the temple; his spoils from it amounted 1800 talents. A second time he openly invaded Egypt, but his invasion was not successful "as the former," Popilius. Laenas, the Roman ambassador, arriving in Graeco Macedonian ships ("of Chittim") and compelling him to return. Finding that God's worship had been restored at Jerusalem, "he had indignation against the holy covenant." He "had intelligence (correspondence) with them that forsook the holy covenant," Menelaus and others, who had cast off circumcision and treated all religions as equally good for keeping the masses in check, and adopted Greek customs and philosophy.
Antiochus's general, Apollonius, dismantled Jerusalem, and from a high fortress slew the temple worshippers. Antiochus commanded all on pain of death to conform to the Greek religion, and consecrated the temple to Jupiter Olympius or Capitolinus. Identifying himself with that god "whom his fathers knew not," and whose worship he imported from Rome, he wished to make his own worship universal. The Jews were constrained to profane the sabbath and monthly on the king's birthday to eat of the idol sacrifices, and to go in procession to Bacchus, carrying ivy. This was the gravest peril that ever betel the theocratic nation; hence arose the need of a prediction so detailed as Daniel 8; 11. Porphyry the opponent of Christianity, had to admit the accurate correspondence of the facts to the prediction, but explained it away by alleging the latter to have been written after the events.
But as Messianic events are foretold in Daniel, Jesus' adversaries, the Jews, would never have forged the prophecies which confirm His claims. Daniel 9 would comfort the faithful Jews amidst the "abominations" against "the covenant," with the prospect of Messiah, who would confirm it. Bringing salvation, yet abolishing sacrifices, He would show that the temple services which they so missed were not indispensable to real worship. Language is used (Daniel 11:31-45) which only in type applies to Antiochus, but exhaustively to Antichrist. Antiochus "took away the daily sacrifice, and placed (on the 15th day of Cisleu, on Jehovah's altar) the abomination (idol, Jupiter Olympius' image) that maketh desolate," i.e. that pollutes the temple.
The Maccabees (see 1 and 2 Maccabees in Apocrypha), "who knew their God, were strong" in their determination not to deny Him, and "did exploits." Judas, son of the patriot Mattathias, took as his motto the initials of Mi Camokah Baelim Jehovah (Exodus 15:11), "Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the gods?" Allusion occurs to the martyrs under Antiochus in Hebrews 11:35-37; "others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection." Seven brothers and their mother submitted to a torturing death rather than deny their faith, the third saying, "Thou takest us out of this present life, but the King of the world shall raise us up who have died for His laws unto everlasting life" (compare Daniel 12:2). Two women who circumcised their infant boys were cast down with them headlong from the wall. Eleazar when forced to eat swine's flesh spit it out, choosing to suffer death at fourscore and ten rather than deny the faith (compare the apocryphal 2 Maccabees 6 and 2 Maccabees 7).
Some were roasted alive "by flame" in caves, whither they had fled to keep the sabbath. The first of the seven brothers, after his tongue was cut off, was fried to death in a heated pan. The persecution lasted three years; then, by the Maccabees, who defeated Antiochus's troops under Lysias, the Jews were "holpen with a little help," i.e. saved from extinction until the times of the Romans. Antiochus, while invading Egypt, hearing "tidings out of the E. and out of the N. of a revolt of his vassal Artaxias, king of Armenia, in the N., and Arsaces of Parthid in the E., went forth with great fury, on the way took Arad in Judah, devastated Phoenicia (according to Porphyry), "planting the tabernacles of his palace between the seas" (the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean), attacked the temple of Nanae at Elymais, ("the desire of women," the Syrian Venus; but the antitypical reference is to Messiah, whom Antichrist shall try to supplant,) to replenish his treasury, so as to renew the war with the Jews.
But, failing, "he came to his end" at Tabes, and "none helped him" (1 Maccabees 3:10-37; 1 Maccabees 6:1-16; 2 Maccabees 9:5). "The Lord Almighty, the God of Israel, smote him with an incurable plague; for as soon as he had spoken these words (that he would make Jerusalem a common burying place of the Jews) a remediless pain of the bowels came upon him," etc., 164 B.C. The prominence given to Antiochus in Daniel is because it was the turning point in Jewish history, deciding whether Greek worldly refinements were to stifle Israel's true faith. Persecution was God's appointed way to save His people from seductions which had wellnigh made them compromise their witness for His truth.
Antiochus was the unconscious instrument. At first he followed the liberal policy of his predecessors; but when it suited his purpose to plunder the Jews and destroy their polity, he did not hesitate, and the corruptions prevalent and the rivalries of Jason and Menelaus for the high priesthood afforded him the occasion. Disregarding his hereditary gods himself (Daniel 11:37-39), and only recognizing the Roman war god or "god of forces," he regarded "fortresses" as the true temples (the Hebrew for "forces" may be translated "fortresses"), and was incapable of appreciating the power which true religion can call forth. Thus he is the vivid type of the last Antichrist, whose terrible, though short, persecutions shall drive Israel to their Savior, and so usher in their coming glory (Zechariah 11; 12; 13; 14; Daniel 12; Ezekiel 37; 38; 39).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Antiochus, Bishop of Ptolemais
Antiochus (1) , bp. of Ptolemais, c. A.D. 401. To display his oratorical powers in a wider field he left Ptolemais and settled at Constantinople, where his fine voice and appropriate action, together with the eloquent and perspicuous character of his discourses, soon attracted large auditories, by whom, like his great contemporary John, he was surnamed "The Golden-mouthed." Having amassed considerable wealth, he returned to his deserted see, where he employed his leisure in composing a long treatise "against avarice." He took a zealous part in the proceedings against Chrysostom, and is reckoned by Palladius among his bitterest enemies. He died in the reign of Arcadius, before A.D. 408, and, according to Nicephorus, his end, like that of all the enemies of Chrysostom, was miserable. A homily on The Cure of the Blind Man is also mentioned. With the exception of a sentence quoted by Theodoret, Dial. 2, and a longer fragment given in the Catena on St. John , xix. p. 443, his works have perished (Socr. vi. 11; Soz. viii. 10; Niceph. xiii. 26; Gennadius in Catalog. ; Pallad. Dialog. p. 49; Fabr. Bibl. Gk. ix. 259).
[1]
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antiochus
ANTIOCHUS . A name borne by a number of the kings of Syria subsequent to the period of Alexander the Great.
1. Antiochus I . (b.c. 280 261) was the son of Seleucus Nikator, the chiliarch under Perdiccas who was regent immediately after the death of Alexander. On the murder of his father he came into possession of practically the entire region of Asia Minor as far east as the provinces beyond Mesopotamia. The most important fact of his reign was his defeat of the Celts, who, after devastating Macedonia and Thrace, swarmed into Asia Minor and established a kingdom which was subsequently known as Galatia. The date and place of the victory are unknown, but it won him the name of Soter (‘Saviour’). His capital was Antioch in Syria, but he was never able to bring his vast empire into complete subjection. He was a friend of literature and art, and it is possible that under him the beginning was made for the Greek translation of the Pentateuch.
2. Antiochus II ., Theos (b.c. 261 246). Son of the foregoing, essentially a warrior, carrying on interminable struggles both with the free Greek cities of his own territory, to which he finally gave something like democratic rights, and with Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt. Under him, however, the Jews of Asia Minor gained many civic rights.
3. Antiochus III ., the Great . He ascended the throne when only 15 years of age, and he reigned from b.c. 223 to 187. Along with Antiochus I. and Antiochus II. he may be referred to in the early portions of Daniel 11:1-45 . His reign, like that of most of his contemporaries, was one of constant war, particularly with Egypt. In the course of these wars he gained possession of Palestine through the battle of Banias (b.c. 198), and established the Syrian administration over Judæa, although for a time he ruled the province jointly with Ptolemy Epiphanes of Egypt. Like Antiochus I., he was a great colonizer, and induced 2000 Jewish families to go from Mesopotamia into Lydia and Phrygia, thus laying the foundation for the influential Jewish Dispersion in those regions. So warlike a monarch could not fail to come into conflict sooner or later with Rome. He was defeated in the battle of Magnesia in b.c. 190, and three years later was killed, according to some authorities, while plundering a temple at Elymais.
4. Antiochus IV ., Epiphanes (‘the Illustrious’; also nicknamed Epimanes , ‘the Madman’). The son of the preceding, who had been sent as a hostage to Rome. In b.c. 175 he seized the Syrian throne, and began a series of conquests which bade fair to rival his father’s. While in Egypt, however, he was ordered by the Romans to leave that country, and thus found himself forced to limit his energies to Syria. In the course of his conflict with Egypt he had become suspicious of Judæa, and determined to force that country into complete subjection to his will. His motives were probably more political than religious, but as a part of his programme he undertook to compel the Jews to worship heathen gods as well as, if not in place of, Jehovah. His plans were first put into active operation probably towards the end of b.c. 170, when he returned from Egypt, although the chronology at this point is very obscure and it may have been a couple of years later. He plundered the Temple of some of its treasures, including the seven-branch candlestick, the altar of incense, and the table of shewbread. He also placed a garrison in the citadel of Jerusalem, and set about the complete Hellenizing of Judæa. Circumcision and the observance of the Sabbath were forbidden under penalty of death. Pagan sacrifices were ordered in every town in Judæa, and every month a search was made to discover whether any Jew possessed a copy of the Law or had circumcised his children. In December 168 b.c. a pagan altar, probably to Olympian Zeus, was erected on the altar of burnt-offering, and the entire Jewish worship seemed threatened with extinction. This probability was increased by the apostasy of the high priest.
This excess of zeal on the part of Antiochus led to the reaction, which, under the Chasidim and Mattathias, the founder of the Maccabæan house, ultimately brought about the release of Judæa from Syrian control. The events of this period of persecution are related in detail, though with a large element of legend, in 2 Maccabees, and reference is to be found to them also in Daniel 11:21-45 . Antiochus finally died on an expedition against the Parthians in b.c. 164. (For an account of the struggle of Mattathias and Judas against Antiochus, see Maccabees).
5. Antiochus V ., Eupator . Son of the preceding; began to reign at the death of his father, when a mere boy of 9 (or 12) years. He was left by his father under the control of Lysias, his chief representative in Palestine, and with him was present at the victory of Beth-zacharias, b.c. 163, when Judas Maccabæus was defeated ( 1Ma 6:32-47 ). The complete conquest of Judæa was prevented by the rise of the pretender Philip, who, however, was conquered. In the midst of their success, both young Antiochus and Lysias were assassinated by Demetrius I. (b.c. 162). Their death reacted favourably on the circumstances surrounding the rising Maccabæan house.
6. Antiochus VI ., Son of Alexander Balas. Trypho, one of the generals of Alexander Balas, at first championed the cause of this boy after his father had been killed in Arabia. After a few months, however, he caused the assassination of Antiochus by the physicians of the court, and reigned in his stead ( 1Ma 13:31 f.).
7. Antiochus VII ., Sidetes (b.c. 138 128), the last of the energetic Syrian monarchs, came to the throne during the imprisonment of Demetrius II. After defeating Trypho, he undertook to establish his sovereignty over the Jews. Simon partially won his favour by presents and by furnishing auxiliary troops, but at last refused to meet his excessive demands for permitting such independence as Judæa had come to enjoy under the weak predecessor of Antiochus. Thereupon Antiochus sent his generals into Judæa, but they were defeated by the sons of Simon ( 1Ma 15:1-41 ; 1Ma 16:1-24 ). He himself came during the first year of John Hyrcanus (135 134), and after devastating Judæa shut up Hyrcanus in Jerusalem. He was about to capture the city through starvation when he unexpectedly made terms with Hyrcanus, probably because of the interference of the Romans. These terms laid very heavy demands upon the Jews, and included the destruction of the fortifications of the city. Until b.c. 129 128 Judæa was again subject to the Syrian State, but at the end of that year Antiochus was killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and Hyrcanus was enabled to reassert his independence. See Maccabees.
Shailer Mathews.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antiochus (1)
ANTIOCHUS ( 1Ma 12:16 ; 1Ma 14:22 ; cf. Jos. [1] Ant . XIII. v. 8). The father of Numenius, who was one of the envoys sent ( c [2] . b.c. 144) by Jonathan the Maccabee to renew the covenant made by Judas with the Romans, and to enter into friendly relations with the Spartans.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Antiochus
There were many kings of this name in Syria, much celebrated in the Greek, Roman, and Jewish histories, after the time of Seleucus Nicanor, the father of Antiochus Soter, and reckoned the first king of Syria after Alexander the Great.
1. ANTIOCHUS SOTER was the son of Seleucus Nicanor, and obtained the surname of Soter, or Saviour, from having hindered the invasion of Asia by the Gauls. Some think that it was on the following occasion: The Galatians having marched to attack the Jews in Babylon, whose army consisted only of eight thousand men, reinforced with four thousand Macedonians, the Jews defended themselves with so much bravery, that they killed one hundred and twenty thousand men, 2Ma_8:20 . It was perhaps, too, on this occasion, that Antiochus Soter made the Jews of Asia free of the cities belonging to the Gentiles, and permitted them to live according to their own laws.
2. ANTIOCHUS THEOS, or, the God, was the son and successor of Antiochus Soter. He married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt. Laodice, his first wife, seeing herself despised, poisoned Antiochus, Berenice, and their son, who was intended to succeed in the kingdom. After this, Laodice procured Seleucus Callinicus, her son by Antiochus, to be acknowledged king of Syria. These events were foretold by Daniel: "And in the end of years," the king of Egypt, or of the south, and the king of Syria, or of the north, "shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened her in these times,"
Daniel 11:6 .
3. ANTIOCHUS THE GREAT was the son of Seleucus Callinicus, and brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, whom he succeeded in the year of the world 3781. and before Jesus Christ 223. He made war against Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, but was defeated near Raphia, 3 Maccabees 1. Thirteen years after, Ptolemy Philopator being dead, Antiochus resolved to become master of Egypt. He immediately seized Coelo-Syria, Phenicia, and Judea; but Scopas, general of the Egyptian army, entered Judea while Antiochus was occupied by the war against Attalus, and retook those places. However, he soon lost them again to Antiochus. On this occasion happened what Josephus relates of this prince's journey to Jerusalem. After a victory which he had obtained over Scopas, near the springs of Jordan, he became master of the strong places in Coelo-Syria and Samaria; and the Jews submitted freely to him, received him into their city and furnished his army plentifully with provisions. In reward for their affection, Antiochus granted them, according to Josephus, twenty thousand pieces of silver, to purchase beasts for sacrifice, one thousand four hundred and sixty measures of meal, and three hundred and seventy-five measures of salt to be offered with the sacrifices, and timber to rebuild the porches of the Lord's house. He exempted the senators, scribes, and singing men of the temple, from the capitation tax; and he permitted the Jews to live according to their own laws in every part of his dominions. He also remitted the third part of their tribute, to indemnify them for their losses in the war; he forbade the Heathens to enter the temple without being purified, and to bring into the city the flesh of mules, asses, and horses to sell, under a severe penalty.
In the year of the world 3815, Antiochus was overcome by the Romans, and obliged to cede all his possessions beyond Mount Taurus, to give twenty hostages, among whom was his own son Antiochus, afterward surnamed Epiphanes, and to pay a tribute of twelve thousand Euboic talents, each fourteen Roman pounds in weight. To defray these charges, he resolved to seize the treasures of the temple of Belus, at Elymais; but the people of that country, informed of his design, surprised and destroyed him, with all his army, in the year of the world 3817, and before Jesus Christ 187. He left two sons, Seleucus Philopator, and Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded him.
4. ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES, the son of Antiochus the Great, having continued a hostage at Rome fourteen years, his brother Seleucus resolved to procure his return to Syria, and sent his own son Demetrius to Rome in the place of Antiochus. Whilst Antiochus was on his journey to Syria, Seleucus died, in the year of the world 3829. When, therefore, Antiochus landed, the people received him as some propitious deity come to assume the government, and to oppose the enterprises of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who threatened to invade Syria. For this reason Antiochus obtained the surname of Epiphanes, the illustrious, or of one appearing like a god.
Antiochus quickly turned his attention to the possession of Egypt, which was then enjoyed by Ptolemy Philometor, his nephew, son to his sister Cleopatra, whom Antiochus the Great had married to Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt. He sent Apollonius, one of his officers, into Egypt, apparently to honour Ptolemy's coronation, but in reality to obtain intelligence whether the great men of the kingdom were inclined to place the government of Egypt in his hands during the minority of the king his nephew, 2Ma_4:21 , &c. Apollonius, however, found them not disposed to favour his master; and this obliged Antiochus to make war against Philometor. He came to Jerusalem in 3831, and was received there by Jason, to whom he had sold the high priesthood. He designed to attack Egypt, but returned without effecting any thing. The ambition of those Jews who sought the high priesthood, and bought it of Antiochus, was the beginning of those calamities which overwhelmed their nation under this prince. Jason procured himself to be constituted in this dignity in the stead of Onias III; but Menelaus offering a greater price, Jason was deprived, and Menelaus appointed in his place. These usurpers of the high priesthood, to gratify the Syrians, assumed the manners of the Greeks, their games and exercises, and neglected the worship of the Lord, and the temple service.
War broke out between Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy Philometor. Antiochus entered Egypt in the year of the world 3833, and reduced almost the whole of it to his obedience, 2Ma_5:3-5 . The next year he returned; and whilst he was engaged in the siege of Alexandria, a false report was spread of his death. The inhabitants of Jerusalem testifying their joy at this news, Antiochus, when returning from Egypt, entered this city by force, treated the Jews as rebels, and commanded his troops to slay all they met. Eighty thousand were killed, made captives, or sold on this occasion. Antiochus, conducted by the corrupt high priest Menelaus, entered into the holy of holies, whence he took and carried off the most precious vessels of that holy place, to the value of one thousand eight hundred talents. In the year 3835, Antiochus made a third expedition against Egypt, which he entirely subdued. The year following, he sent Apollonius into Judea, with an army of twenty-two thousand men, and commanded him to kill all the Jews who were of full age, and to sell the women and young men, 2Ma_5:24-25 . These orders were too punctually executed. It was on this occasion that Judas Maccabaeus retired into the wilderness with his father and his brethren, 2 Mac. 5:29. These misfortunes were only preludes of what they were to suffer; for Antiochus, apprehending that the Jews would never be constant in their obedience to him, unless he obliged them to change their religion, and to embrace that of the Greeks, issued an edict, enjoining them to conform to the laws of other nations, and forbidding their usual sacrifices in the temple, their festivals and their Sabbath. The statue of Jupiter Olympus was placed upon the altar of the temple, and thus the abomination of desolation was seen in the temple of God. Many corrupt Jews complied with these orders; but others resisted them.
Mattathias and his sons retired to the mountains. Old Eleazar, and the seven brethren, suffered death with great courage at Antioch, 2 Maccabees 7. Mattathias being dead, Judas Maccabaeus headed those Jews who continued faithful, and opposed with success the generals whom king Antiochus sent into Judea. The king, informed of the valour and resistance of Judas, sent new forces; and, finding his treasures exhausted, he resolved to go into Persia to levy tributes, and to collect large sums which he had agreed to pay to the Romans, 1Ma_3:5-31 ; 2Ma_9:1 , &c; 1Ma_6:1 , &c. Knowing that very great riches were lodged in the temple of Elymais, he determined to carry it off; but the inhabitants of the country made so vigorous a resistance, that he was forced to retreat toward Babylonia. When he was come to Ecbatana, he was informed of the defeat of Nicanor and Timotheus, and that Judas Maccabaeus had retaken the temple of Jerusalem, and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices. On receiving this intelligence, the king was transported with indignation; and, threatening to make Jerusalem a grave for the Jews, commanded the driver of his chariot to urge the horses forward, and to hasten his journey. However, divine vengeance soon overtook him: he fell from his chariot, and bruised all his limbs. He was also tormented with such pains in his bowels, as allowed him no rest; and his disease was aggravated by grief and vexation. In this condition he wrote to the Jews very humbly, promised them many things, and engaged even to turn Jew, if God would restore him to health. He earnestly recommended to them his son Antiochus, who was to succeed him, and entreated them to favour the young prince, and to continue faithful to him. He died, overwhelmed with pain and grief, in the mountains of Paratacene, in the little town of Tabes, in the year of the world 3840, and before Jesus Christ 164.
5. ANTIOCHUS EUPATOR, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, was only nine years old when his father died and left him the kingdom of Syria. Lysias, who governed the kingdom in the name of the young prince, led against Judea an army of one hundred thousand foot, twenty thousand horse, and thirty elephants, 1 Maccabees 6; 2 Maccabees 13. He besieged and took the fortress of Bethsura, and thence marched against Jerusalem. The city was ready to fall into his hands when Lysias received the news that Philip, whom Antiochus Epiphanes had entrusted with the regency of the kingdom, had come to Antioch to take the government, according to the disposition of the late king. He therefore proposed an accommodation with the Jews, that he might return speedily to Antioch and oppose Philip. After concluding a peace, he immediately returned into Syria, with the young king and his army.
In the meantime, Demetrius Soter, son of Seleucus Philopator, and nephew to Antiochus Epiphanes, to whom by right the kingdom belonged, having escaped from Rome, came into Syria. Finding the people disposed for revolt, Demetrius headed an army, and marched directly to Antioch, against Antiochus and Lysias. However, the inhabitants did not wait till he besieged the city; but opened the gates, and delivered to him Lysias and the young king Antiochus Eupator, whom Demetrius caused to be put to death, without suffering them to appear in his presence. Antiochus Eupator reigned only two years, and died in the year of the world 3842, and before Jesus Christ 162.
6. ANTIOCHUS THEOS, or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c. Demetrius Nicanor, king of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, one Diodotus, otherwise called Tryphon, came to Zabdiel, a king in Arabia, and desired him to entrust him with young Antiochus, whom he promised to place on the throne of Syria, which was then possessed by Demetrius Nicanor. After some hesitation, Zabdiel complied with the request; and Tryphon carried Antiochus into Syria, and put the crown on his head. The troops dismissed by Demetrius, came and joined Tryphon, who, having formed a powerful army, defeated Demetrius, and forced him to retreat to Seleucia. Tryphon seized his elephants, and rendered himself master of Antioch, in the year of the world 3859, and before Jesus Christ 145. Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea. He also received Jonathan into the number of his friends, sent him vessels of gold, permitted him to use a gold cup, to wear purple, and a golden buckle; and he gave his brother, Simon Maccabaeus, the command of all his troops on the coast of the Mediterranean, from Tyre to Egypt. Jonathan, engaged by so many favours, declared resolutely for Antiochus, or rather for Tryphon, who reigned under the name of this young prince; and on several occasions he attacked the generals of Demetrius, who still, possessed many places beyond Jordan and in Galilee, 1Ma_11:63 , &c; 1Ma_12:24 ; 1Ma_12:34 . Tryphon, seeing young Antiochus in peaceable possession of the kingdom of Syria, resolved to usurp his crown. He thought it necessary, in the first place, to secure Jonathan Maccabaeus, who was one of the most powerful supporters of Antiochus's throne. He came, therefore, with troops into Judea, invited Jonathan to Ptolemais, and there, on frivolous pretences, made him prisoner. However, Simon, Jonathan's brother, headed the troops of Judea, and opposed Tryphon, who. intended, to take Jerusalem. Tryphon, being disappointed, put Jonathan to death at Bassa or Bascama, and returned into Syria, where, without delay, he executed his design of killing Antiochus. He corrupted the royal physicians, who, having published that Antiochus was tormented with the stone, murdered him, by cutting him without any necessity. Thus Tryphon was left master of Syria, in the year of the world 3861, and before Jesus Christ 143.
7. ANTIOCHUS SIDETES, or Soter the Saviour, or Eusebes the pious, was the son of Demetrius Soter, and brother to Demetrius Nicanor. Tryphon, the usurper of the kingdom of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, they deserted him, and offered their services to Cleopatra, the wife of Demetrius Nicanor. She lived in the city of Seleucia, shut up with her children, while her husband Demetrius was a prisoner in Persia, where he had married Rodeguna, the daughter of Arsaces, king of Persia. Cleopatra, therefore, sent to Antiochus Sidetes, her brother-in-law, and offered him the crown of Syria, if he would marry her; to which Antiochus consented. This prince was then at Cnidus, where his father, Demetrius Soter had placed him with one of his friends. He came into Syria, and wrote to Simon Maccabaeus, to engage him against Tryphon, 1Ma_15:1-3 , &c. He confirmed the privileges which the king of Syria had granted to Simon, permitted him to coin money with his own stamp, declared Jerusalem and the temple exempt from royal jurisdiction, and promised other favours as soon as he should obtain peaceable possession of the kingdom which had belonged to his ancestors. Antiochus Sidetes having married his sister-in- law, Cleopatra, in the year of the world 3865, the troops of Tryphon resorted to him in crowds. Tryphon, thus abandoned, retired to Dora, in Phoenicia, whither Antiochus pursued him with an army of 120,000 foot, 800 horse, and a powerful fleet. Simon Maccabaeus sent Antiochus two thousand chosen men, but the latter refused them, and revoked all his promises. He also sent Athenobius to Jerusalem to oblige Simon to restore to him Gazara and Joppa, with the citadel of Jerusalem; and to demand of him five hundred talents more, as reparation for injuries the king had suffered, and as tribute for his own cities. At the same time he threatened to make war upon him, if he did not comply. Simon showed Athenobius all the lustre of his wealth and power, told him he had in his possession no place which belonged to Antiochus, and said that the cities of Gazara and Joppa had greatly injured his people, and he would give the king for the property of them one hundred talents. Athenobius returned with great indignation to Antiochus, who was extremely offended at Simon's answer. In the meantime, Tryphon having escaped privately from Dora, embarked in a vessel and fled. Antiochus pursued him, and sent Cendebeus with troops into the maritime parts of Palestine, and commanded him to rebuild Cedron, and fight the Jews. John Hircanus, son of Simon Maccabaeus, was then at Gaza, and gave notice to his father of the coming of Cendebeus. Simon furnished his sons, John Hircanus and Judas, with troops, and sent them against Cendebeus, whom they routed in the plain and pursued to Azotus.
Antiochus followed Tryphon, till he forced him to kill himself, in the year of the world 3869. After this, Antiochus thought only of reducing to his obedience those cities which, in the beginning of his father's reign, had shaken off their subjection. Simon Maccabaeus, prince and high priest of the Jews, being treacherously murdered by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, in the castle of Docus, near Jericho, the murderer immediately sent to Antiochus Sidetes to demand troops, that he might recover for him the country and cities of the Jews. Antiochus came in person with an army, and besieged Jerusalem, which was bravely defended by John Hircanus. The siege was long protracted; and the king divided his army into seven parts, and guarded all the avenues of the city. It being the time for celebrating the feast of tabernacles, the Jews desired of Antiochus a truce for seven days. The king not only granted this request, but sent them bulls with gilded horns, and vessels of gold and silver filled with incense, to be offered in the temple. He also ordered such provisions as they wanted, to be given to the Jewish soldiers. This courtesy of the king so won the hearts of the Jews, that they sent ambassadors to treat of peace, and to desire that they might live according to their own laws. Antiochus required that they should surrender their arms, demolish the city walls, pay tribute for Joppa and the other cities they possessed out of Judea, and receive a garrison into Jerusalem. To these conditions, except the last, the Jews consented; for they could not be induced to see an army of strangers in their capital, and chose rather to give hostages and five hundred talents of silver. The king entered the city, beat down the breast work above the walls, and returned to Syria, in the year of the world 3870, and before Jesus Christ 134. Three years after, Antiochus marched against the Persians, or Parthians, and demanded the liberty of his brother Demetrius Nicanor, who had been made prisoner long before by Arsaces, and was detained for the purpose of being employed in exciting a war against Antiochus. This war, therefore, Antiochus thought proper to prevent. With an army of eighty thousand, or, as Orosius says, of one hundred thousand men, he marched toward Persia, and no sooner appeared on the frontiers of that country, than several eastern princes, detesting the pride and avarice of the Persians, came and surrendered. Antiochus defeated his enemies in three engagements, and took Babylon. He was accompanied in these expeditions by John Hircanus, high priest of the Jews, who, it is supposed, obtained the surname of Hircanus from some gallant action which he performed.
As the army of Antiochus was too numerous to continue assembled in any one place, he was obliged to divide it, to put it into winter quarters. These troops behaved with so much insolence, that they alienated the minds of all men. The cities in which they were, privately surrendered to the Persians; and all resolved to attack, in one day, the garrisons they contained, that the troops being separated might not assist each other. Antiochus at Babylon obtained intelligence of this design, and, with the few soldiers about him, endeavoured to succour his people. He was attacked in the way by Phraates, king of Persia, whom he fought with great bravery; but being at length deserted by his own forces, according to the generality of historians, he was overpowered and killed by the Persians or Parthians. Appian, however, says that he killed himself, and AElian, that he threw himself headlong from a precipice. This event took place in the year of the world 3874, and before Jesus Christ 130. After the death of Sidetes, Demetrius Nicanor, or Nicetor, reascended the throne of Syria.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Antiochus iv epiphanes
(2century BCE) Greek-Syrian emperor who desecrated the Holy Temple and enacted laws against Jewish practices during the Second Temple era. The Maccabees fought, and miraculously defeated his armies. The miracle 8634 of his defeat, and the subsequent rededication of the Temple, is commemorated on Chanukah.

Sentence search

Eupator - See Antiochus v
Imalcue - An Arab prince to whom Alexander Balas entrusted his youthful son Antiochus. 145, Imalcue reluctantly gave up the boy to Tryphon, who placed him on the throne of Syria as Antiochus vi
Lys'Ias - (dissolving ), a nobleman of the blood-royal, 1 Maccabees 3:32 ; 2 Maccabees 11:1 , who was entrusted he Antiochus Epiphanes (cir. 166) with the government of southern Syria and the guardianship of his son Antiochus Eupator. After the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, B
Antiochians - The efforts of Antiochus Epiphanes to spread Gr. , offered a large sum of money to Antiochus to induce the king to allow the inhabitants of Jerusalem ‘to be enrolled as Antiochians. ’ Antiochus acceded to the proposal, and shortly afterwards a party of ‘Antiochians’ from Jerusalem was sent by him with a contribution of money for the festival of Heracles at Tyre
Androni'Cus -
An officer left as viceroy, 2 Maccabees 4:31 , in Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes during his absence. ) ...
Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes who was left by him on Garizem
Ptol'Emee, - v, 61, a courtier who possessed great influence with Antiochus Epiphanes. He afterward deserted the Egyptian service to join Antiochus Epiphanes. He stood in the favor of Antiochus, and received from him the government of Phoenicia and Coele-Syria. On the accession of Antiochus Eupator his conciliatory policy toward the Jews brought him into suspicion at court
Demophon - A Syrian commandant in Palestine under Antiochus Eupator
Crates - A deputy left in charge of the citadel at Jerusalem (Acra) when the regular governor, Sostratus, was summoned to Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes, in consequence of a dispute with the high priest Menelaus ( 2Ma 4:29 ). 168, Antiochus obtained possession of the island
Antiochus - There were many kings of this name in Syria, much celebrated in the Greek, Roman, and Jewish histories, after the time of Seleucus Nicanor, the father of Antiochus Soter, and reckoned the first king of Syria after Alexander the Great. Antiochus SOTER was the son of Seleucus Nicanor, and obtained the surname of Soter, or Saviour, from having hindered the invasion of Asia by the Gauls. It was perhaps, too, on this occasion, that Antiochus Soter made the Jews of Asia free of the cities belonging to the Gentiles, and permitted them to live according to their own laws. Antiochus THEOS, or, the God, was the son and successor of Antiochus Soter. Laodice, his first wife, seeing herself despised, poisoned Antiochus, Berenice, and their son, who was intended to succeed in the kingdom. After this, Laodice procured Seleucus Callinicus, her son by Antiochus, to be acknowledged king of Syria. Antiochus THE GREAT was the son of Seleucus Callinicus, and brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, whom he succeeded in the year of the world 3781. Thirteen years after, Ptolemy Philopator being dead, Antiochus resolved to become master of Egypt. He immediately seized Coelo-Syria, Phenicia, and Judea; but Scopas, general of the Egyptian army, entered Judea while Antiochus was occupied by the war against Attalus, and retook those places. However, he soon lost them again to Antiochus. In reward for their affection, Antiochus granted them, according to Josephus, twenty thousand pieces of silver, to purchase beasts for sacrifice, one thousand four hundred and sixty measures of meal, and three hundred and seventy-five measures of salt to be offered with the sacrifices, and timber to rebuild the porches of the Lord's house. ...
In the year of the world 3815, Antiochus was overcome by the Romans, and obliged to cede all his possessions beyond Mount Taurus, to give twenty hostages, among whom was his own son Antiochus, afterward surnamed Epiphanes, and to pay a tribute of twelve thousand Euboic talents, each fourteen Roman pounds in weight. He left two sons, Seleucus Philopator, and Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded him. Antiochus EPIPHANES, the son of Antiochus the Great, having continued a hostage at Rome fourteen years, his brother Seleucus resolved to procure his return to Syria, and sent his own son Demetrius to Rome in the place of Antiochus. Whilst Antiochus was on his journey to Syria, Seleucus died, in the year of the world 3829. When, therefore, Antiochus landed, the people received him as some propitious deity come to assume the government, and to oppose the enterprises of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who threatened to invade Syria. For this reason Antiochus obtained the surname of Epiphanes, the illustrious, or of one appearing like a god. ...
Antiochus quickly turned his attention to the possession of Egypt, which was then enjoyed by Ptolemy Philometor, his nephew, son to his sister Cleopatra, whom Antiochus the Great had married to Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt. Apollonius, however, found them not disposed to favour his master; and this obliged Antiochus to make war against Philometor. The ambition of those Jews who sought the high priesthood, and bought it of Antiochus, was the beginning of those calamities which overwhelmed their nation under this prince. ...
War broke out between Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy Philometor. Antiochus entered Egypt in the year of the world 3833, and reduced almost the whole of it to his obedience, 2Ma_5:3-5 . The inhabitants of Jerusalem testifying their joy at this news, Antiochus, when returning from Egypt, entered this city by force, treated the Jews as rebels, and commanded his troops to slay all they met. Antiochus, conducted by the corrupt high priest Menelaus, entered into the holy of holies, whence he took and carried off the most precious vessels of that holy place, to the value of one thousand eight hundred talents. In the year 3835, Antiochus made a third expedition against Egypt, which he entirely subdued. These misfortunes were only preludes of what they were to suffer; for Antiochus, apprehending that the Jews would never be constant in their obedience to him, unless he obliged them to change their religion, and to embrace that of the Greeks, issued an edict, enjoining them to conform to the laws of other nations, and forbidding their usual sacrifices in the temple, their festivals and their Sabbath. Mattathias being dead, Judas Maccabaeus headed those Jews who continued faithful, and opposed with success the generals whom king Antiochus sent into Judea. He earnestly recommended to them his son Antiochus, who was to succeed him, and entreated them to favour the young prince, and to continue faithful to him. Antiochus EUPATOR, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, was only nine years old when his father died and left him the kingdom of Syria. The city was ready to fall into his hands when Lysias received the news that Philip, whom Antiochus Epiphanes had entrusted with the regency of the kingdom, had come to Antioch to take the government, according to the disposition of the late king. ...
In the meantime, Demetrius Soter, son of Seleucus Philopator, and nephew to Antiochus Epiphanes, to whom by right the kingdom belonged, having escaped from Rome, came into Syria. Finding the people disposed for revolt, Demetrius headed an army, and marched directly to Antioch, against Antiochus and Lysias. However, the inhabitants did not wait till he besieged the city; but opened the gates, and delivered to him Lysias and the young king Antiochus Eupator, whom Demetrius caused to be put to death, without suffering them to appear in his presence. Antiochus Eupator reigned only two years, and died in the year of the world 3842, and before Jesus Christ 162. Antiochus THEOS, or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c. Demetrius Nicanor, king of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, one Diodotus, otherwise called Tryphon, came to Zabdiel, a king in Arabia, and desired him to entrust him with young Antiochus, whom he promised to place on the throne of Syria, which was then possessed by Demetrius Nicanor. After some hesitation, Zabdiel complied with the request; and Tryphon carried Antiochus into Syria, and put the crown on his head. Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea. Jonathan, engaged by so many favours, declared resolutely for Antiochus, or rather for Tryphon, who reigned under the name of this young prince; and on several occasions he attacked the generals of Demetrius, who still, possessed many places beyond Jordan and in Galilee, 1Ma_11:63 , &c; 1Ma_12:24 ; 1Ma_12:34 . Tryphon, seeing young Antiochus in peaceable possession of the kingdom of Syria, resolved to usurp his crown. He thought it necessary, in the first place, to secure Jonathan Maccabaeus, who was one of the most powerful supporters of Antiochus's throne. Tryphon, being disappointed, put Jonathan to death at Bassa or Bascama, and returned into Syria, where, without delay, he executed his design of killing Antiochus. He corrupted the royal physicians, who, having published that Antiochus was tormented with the stone, murdered him, by cutting him without any necessity. Antiochus SIDETES, or Soter the Saviour, or Eusebes the pious, was the son of Demetrius Soter, and brother to Demetrius Nicanor. Cleopatra, therefore, sent to Antiochus Sidetes, her brother-in-law, and offered him the crown of Syria, if he would marry her; to which Antiochus consented. Antiochus Sidetes having married his sister-in- law, Cleopatra, in the year of the world 3865, the troops of Tryphon resorted to him in crowds. Tryphon, thus abandoned, retired to Dora, in Phoenicia, whither Antiochus pursued him with an army of 120,000 foot, 800 horse, and a powerful fleet. Simon Maccabaeus sent Antiochus two thousand chosen men, but the latter refused them, and revoked all his promises. Simon showed Athenobius all the lustre of his wealth and power, told him he had in his possession no place which belonged to Antiochus, and said that the cities of Gazara and Joppa had greatly injured his people, and he would give the king for the property of them one hundred talents. Athenobius returned with great indignation to Antiochus, who was extremely offended at Simon's answer. Antiochus pursued him, and sent Cendebeus with troops into the maritime parts of Palestine, and commanded him to rebuild Cedron, and fight the Jews. ...
Antiochus followed Tryphon, till he forced him to kill himself, in the year of the world 3869. After this, Antiochus thought only of reducing to his obedience those cities which, in the beginning of his father's reign, had shaken off their subjection. Simon Maccabaeus, prince and high priest of the Jews, being treacherously murdered by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, in the castle of Docus, near Jericho, the murderer immediately sent to Antiochus Sidetes to demand troops, that he might recover for him the country and cities of the Jews. Antiochus came in person with an army, and besieged Jerusalem, which was bravely defended by John Hircanus. It being the time for celebrating the feast of tabernacles, the Jews desired of Antiochus a truce for seven days. Antiochus required that they should surrender their arms, demolish the city walls, pay tribute for Joppa and the other cities they possessed out of Judea, and receive a garrison into Jerusalem. Three years after, Antiochus marched against the Persians, or Parthians, and demanded the liberty of his brother Demetrius Nicanor, who had been made prisoner long before by Arsaces, and was detained for the purpose of being employed in exciting a war against Antiochus. This war, therefore, Antiochus thought proper to prevent. Antiochus defeated his enemies in three engagements, and took Babylon. ...
As the army of Antiochus was too numerous to continue assembled in any one place, he was obliged to divide it, to put it into winter quarters. Antiochus at Babylon obtained intelligence of this design, and, with the few soldiers about him, endeavoured to succour his people
Try'Phon - "Tryphon, by treason and successive wars, gained supreme power, killed Antiochus and assumed the throne. "The coins bear his head as Antiochus and Trypho
Sostratus - The governor of the citadel at Jerusalem under Antiochus Epiphanes ( 2Ma 4:27 (28), 29)
Antiochus - The most notable of these were,
Antiochus the Great, who ascended the throne B. " ...
...
Antiochus IV. From this time the Jews began the great war of independence under their heroic Maccabean leaders with marked success, defeating the armies of Antiochus that were sent against them. Enraged at this, Antiochus marched against them in person, threatening utterly to exterminate the nation; but on the way he was suddenly arrested by the hand of death (B
Antiochus - Antiochus . Antiochus I . Antiochus II . Antiochus III . Along with Antiochus I. and Antiochus II. Like Antiochus I. Antiochus IV . ...
This excess of zeal on the part of Antiochus led to the reaction, which, under the Chasidim and Mattathias, the founder of the Maccabæan house, ultimately brought about the release of Judæa from Syrian control. Antiochus finally died on an expedition against the Parthians in b. (For an account of the struggle of Mattathias and Judas against Antiochus, see Maccabees). Antiochus V . In the midst of their success, both young Antiochus and Lysias were assassinated by Demetrius I. Antiochus VI . After a few months, however, he caused the assassination of Antiochus by the physicians of the court, and reigned in his stead ( 1Ma 13:31 f. Antiochus VII . Simon partially won his favour by presents and by furnishing auxiliary troops, but at last refused to meet his excessive demands for permitting such independence as Judæa had come to enjoy under the weak predecessor of Antiochus. Thereupon Antiochus sent his generals into Judæa, but they were defeated by the sons of Simon ( 1Ma 15:1-41 ; 1Ma 16:1-24 ). 129 128 Judæa was again subject to the Syrian State, but at the end of that year Antiochus was killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and Hyrcanus was enabled to reassert his independence
Cendebaeus - A general of Antiochus VII. Sidetes, who was given the command of the sea-coast, and sent with an army into Palestine in order to enforce the claims of Antiochus against Simon Maccabæus
Antiochis - A concubine of Antiochus Epiphanes, who assigned to her the revenues of the two Cilician cities, Tarsus and Mallus
Ptolemy - See under Antiochus
Tryphon - An officer of Alexander Balas, who, after the death of the latter, took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius to put forward Antiochus, the son of Balas, as a claimant to the throne ( 1Ma 11:39 ). His real aim, however, was to gain the crown for himself, and this he accomplished after he had murdered in succession Jonathan the Maccabee ( 1Ma 12:39-50 ) and Antiochus ( 1Ma 13:31 f. In the end, Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, attacked Tryphon, besieged him in Dor, and pursued him when he escaped thence to Orthesia ( 1Ma 15:10-14 ; 1Ma 15:37-39 )
Antiochian - ) Pertaining to Antiochus, a contemporary with Cicero, and the founder of a sect of philosophers
Hieronymus - under Antiochus v
na'um - (consolation ), son of Esli, and father of Amos, in the genealogy of Christ, ( Luke 3:25 ) about contemporary with the high priesthood of Jason all the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes
Are'Tas, or ar'Etas -
A contemporary of Antiochus Epiphanes, B
Antiochus - These are so clear and definite that sceptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been writtenafter the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided amonghis four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture 'Kings of the South;' and another series, called 'Kings of the North,' who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or Antiochus. ...
280 AntiochusI, Soter. ...
261 Antiochus II, Theos. He was at war with Ptolemy, but peace was restored on...
condition that Antiochus should put away his wife Laodice and marry Berenice the...
daughter of Ptolemy. ...
223 Antiochus III, the Great. War between Ptolemy and Antiochus. Antiochus seized the opportunity of the minority of ...
the king to regain the country. But Rome was now growing in...
power, and on being appealed to by Egypt for protection, Antiochus was told he must...
let Egypt alone. In the meantime an army from Egypt had re-taken Palestine; but...
Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there. Antiochus took many maritime ...
towns, but after many encounters he was compelled by Rome to quit all Asia on that ...
side of Mount Taurus, give up his elephants and ships of war and pay a heavy fine. ...
Antiochus had great difficulty in raising the money, and on attempting to rob a temple ...
at Elymais he was killed. Heliodorus seized the crown but was destroyed ...
by Antiochus IV. ...
175 Antiochus IV, Epiphanes. Then Antiochus ...
returned to his land with great riches: his heart was 'against the holy covenant,' and he...
entered Jerusalem and even into the sanctuary and took away the golden altar, the ...
candlestick, the table of showbread, the censers of gold, and the other holy vessels ...
and departed. also Daniel 8:9-12 where the 'little ...
horn' refers to Antiochus Epiphanes. 164 Antiochus V. Without doubt some of the acts of Antiochus Epiphanes are types of the deeds of the future king of the North — referred to in other prophecies as 'the Assyrian' — in respect to the Jews and Jerusalem
Maccabees, the - When Antiochus (Epiphanes) was expelled from Egypt by the Romans, he vented his anger on the Jews, and sought to abolish their worship at Jerusalem, putting multitudes to death (B. See Antiochus...
Maccabees, Maccabean War - Maccabees was the name given to the family of Mattathias, a faithful priest, who led in a revolt against the Hellenizing influences of the Seleucid King Antiochus Epiphanes in about 168 B
Dorymenes - The father of Ptolemy Macron, who was a trusted friend of Antiochus Epiphanes ( 2Ma 4:45 ), and was chosen by Lysias to command the Syrian army in Pal
Gorgias - A general of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is described as ‘a mighty man of the king’s friends’ ( 1Ma 3:38 ), and a captain who ‘had experience in matters of war’ ( 2Ma 8:9 ). When Antiochus set out on his Parthian campaign (b
Nica'Nor -
Son of Patroclus, 2 Maccabees 8:9 , a general who was engaged in the Jewish wars under Antiochus Epiphanes and Demetrius 1:1 Mattathias - Priest whose refusal to obey Antiochus' decree to offer sacrifice initiated the Maccabean revolt (1 Maccabees 2:1 )
Eumenes ii - The king of Pergamus, to whom Rome gave a large slice of the territory of Antiochus III
Ptolemy v - He married Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus iii. During his reign Palestine and Cœle-Syria were lost to Egypt, and were incorporated into the kingdom of Syria under Antiochus iii
Ptolemy vi - was still sole king, he attempted to reconquer the Syrian provinces which had been lost during his father’s reign; the attempt was, however, abortive, and he was defeated by Antiochus iv. It was only through the intervention of the Romans that Antiochus was prevented from following up this victory by further conquests
Athenobius - A friend of Antiochus VII
Antiochus - ) Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, to end the war with him, give Berenice his daughter to Antiochus, who divorced Laodice to marry Berenice. , she was unable to be the mainstay of peace; for on Ptolemy's death Antiochus took back Laodice, who then poisoned him and caused Berenice and her son to be slain. ," Antiochus. Antiochus the Great, the grandson of Antiochus Theus, and son of Seleucus Callinicus, "came and overflowed and passed through," recovering all the parts of Syria taken by Euergetes, and reached "even to his (border) fortress," Raphia, near Gaza. ," Ptolemy Philopator, Euergetes' son, "shall fight with" Antiochus, and Antiochus's "multitude (70,000 infantry and 500 cavalry) shall be given into his hand. For Antiochus "returned after certain years" (14 after his defeat at Raphia) against Philopator's son, Ptolemy Epiphanes. ," Epiphanes, namely, Philip of Macedon and "robbers of the people," factious Jews, who, revolting from Ptolemy, helped Antiochus unconsciously, "establishing the vision," i. So Antiochus, overcoming the Egyptian general Scopas at Paneas, near the Jordan's sources, forced him to surrender at Zidon, a "fenced city. " Thus Antiochus "did according to his own will, standing in the glorious land (Judaea) which by his hand was consumed," Hebrew perfected, i. "Within a few days (12 years, "few" in comparison with Antiochus's 37 years) he was destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle," but poisoned by Heliodorus. Antiochus IV. " Philometor was in covenant with him by right, being son of Cleopatra, Antiochus's sister, to whom Antiochus the Great had promised, as dowry in marrying Ptolemy Epiphanes, Coelosyria and Palestine. Antiochus Epiphanes "worked deceitfully," feigning friendship to young Philometor, and" with a small people" or force, "peaceably" in pretense, he took Memphis and "the fattest places," and seized Philometer. ," Ptolemy Physcon (the gross), made king by the Egyptians because Philometer was in Antiochus's hands. "...
At last Antiochus, when checked at Alexandria, met the Egyptian king at Memphis, and "both spoke lies at one table," trying to deceive one another. ...
Antiochus's general, Apollonius, dismantled Jerusalem, and from a high fortress slew the temple worshippers. Antiochus commanded all on pain of death to conform to the Greek religion, and consecrated the temple to Jupiter Olympius or Capitolinus. Language is used (Daniel 11:31-45) which only in type applies to Antiochus, but exhaustively to Antichrist. Antiochus "took away the daily sacrifice, and placed (on the 15th day of Cisleu, on Jehovah's altar) the abomination (idol, Jupiter Olympius' image) that maketh desolate," i. " Judas, son of the patriot Mattathias, took as his motto the initials of Mi Camokah Baelim Jehovah (Exodus 15:11), "Who is like unto Thee, O Lord, among the gods?" Allusion occurs to the martyrs under Antiochus in Hebrews 11:35-37; "others were tortured, not accepting deliverance, that they might obtain a better resurrection. The persecution lasted three years; then, by the Maccabees, who defeated Antiochus's troops under Lysias, the Jews were "holpen with a little help," i. Antiochus, while invading Egypt, hearing "tidings out of the E. The prominence given to Antiochus in Daniel is because it was the turning point in Jewish history, deciding whether Greek worldly refinements were to stifle Israel's true faith. ...
Antiochus was the unconscious instrument
Antiochus (1) - Antiochus ( 1Ma 12:16 ; 1Ma 14:22 ; cf
Mauzzim - Antiochus Epiphanes is the king referred to. But Antiochus also sent ‘an old man from Athens’ to ‘pollute the temple in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius’ ( 2Ma 6:2 )
Alcimus - Antiochus V. Demetrius Soter, cousin and successor to Antiochus, in response to Alcimus’s solicitations, reinstated him by the means of Nicanor, the Syrian general
Olympius - Antiochus Epiphanes caused the Temple at Jerusalem to be dedicated to Zeus Olympius in b
Persepolis - It is named in 2Ma 9:2 In connexion with the unsuccessful attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to plunder its temples and palaces
Tripolis - An important town in northern Phœnicla, where Demetrius Soter landed when he made his successful attack against Antiochus v
Seleucus - 246 226), son of Antiochus Soter , is entitled the ‘king of the north’ in the passage ( Daniel 11:7-9 ) which alludes to the utter discomfiture of the Syrian king and the capture of Seleucia. ’s]'>[2] sons’ ( Daniel 11:10 ), was murdered during a campaign in Asia Minor: the struggle with Egypt was continued by his brother Antiochus ( Daniel 11:10-16 ). 10, calls him Soter ), son of Antiochus The Great , reigned b
Jason - ...
(2) Jason of Cyrene, author of the history of the Jews, persecuted under Antiochus Epiphanes and Eupator. During the second expedition of Antiochus into Egypt, hearing a rumor that the king had died, Jason at the head of the Ammonites besieged Jerusalem, and slew his countrymen without mercy (2Machabees 5)
Menelaus - He purchased the office of high priest from Antiochus Epiphanes for the sum of 660 talents ( c Dedication, Feast of the - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Feast of the Dedication - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Feast of Lights - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Lights, Feast of - ) to be celebrated yearly in all synagogues the 25th day of the month Casleu and during its octave, in commemoration of the purification of the Temple of Jerusalem, which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes on that day three years previously (1Macabees 4)
Mauzzim - " The reference may be to the fact that Antiochus Epiphanes erected a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus at Antioch, and dedicated Jehovah's temple at Jerusalem to Jupiter Olympius (Livy 41:20; 2 Maccabees 6:2)
Nicanor - The name is Greek, but was probably prevalent in Syria, as we find one of the generals of Antiochus Epiphanes called by it (2 Maccabees 8:9)
Apollonius - An envoy sent to Egypt by Antiochus IV. An official under Antiochus V
Ptolemae'us, - 247-222, was the eldest son of Ptolemy Philadelphus and brother of Berenice the wife of Antiochus II. "Many stood up against the king of the south" under Antiochus the Great and Philip III of Macedonia, who formed a league for the dismemberment of his kingdom. "So the king of the north [1] came, and cast up a mount, and took the most fenced city [2], and the arms of the south did not withstand" [4] a young maiden" [5]. The disputed provinces, however remained in the possession of Antiochus and Ptolemy was poisoned at the time when he was preparing an expedition to recover them from Seleucus, the unworthy successor of Antiochus. Antiochus Epiphanes seems to have made the claim a pretext for invading Egypt. 171,1 Maccabees 1:16 ff; and in the next year Antiochus, having secured the person of the young king, reduced almost the whole of Egypt. , the younger brother of Ptolemy Philometor, assumed the supreme power at Alexandris; and Antiochus, under the pretext of recovering the crown for Philometor, besieged Alexandria in B. By this time, however, his selfish designs were apparent: the brothers were reconciled, and Antiochus was obliged to acquiesce for the time in the arrangement which they made. These campaigns, which are intimately connected with the visits of Antiochus to Jerusalem in B
Machabees - The most notable martyrs of the persecution propagated by Antiochus in his effort to hellenize Jerusalem, were Eleazar, an old man, chief of the scribes, seven brothers, and their mother Samona
Maccabees - ) Books of the Apocrypha: interesting as giving a Jewish history of many events which occurred after the sacred Canon closed with Malachi; especially the heroic and successful struggle of the Maccabees for Judah's independence against the Old Testament antichrist and persecutor, Antiochus Epiphanes, of whom Daniel 8; Daniel 11 foretells
Lysias - A general of Antiochus Epiphanes, charged with a war of extermination against the Jews ( 1Ma 3:32 ff
Jupiter - Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8, 11), the Old Testament antichrist, to subvert the Jewish religion, dedicated the temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem to the Greek Olympian Jupiter
Agagite - ]'>[1] reads Bugaios , Esther 3:1 , Esther 8:5 , omits at Esther 3:10 , and at Esther 9:24 , EST 16:10 has Macedonian , a word of evil connotation after Antiochus Epiphanes
Nanaea - In 2Ma 1:10-17 we have a legendary account of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is said to have attempted to plunder a temple of Nanæa in Persia, and to have been treacherously killed in the temple by the priests
Caterpillar - The real foe meant in Joel 1:4 is the Assyrian Babylonian power, the Medo-Persian, the Graeco-Macedonian and Antiochus Epiphanes, Rome the fourth and most consuming foe of the four which successively ravaged Judaea
Jupiter - Antiochus Epiphanes dedicated the temple at Jerusalem to this deity as Zeus Olympius, that on Gerizim to him as Zeus Xenius, the "defender of strangers
Drusilla - She was first betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene; but, as he refused to become a Jew, she was married to Azizus, prince of Emesa
Dedication, Feast of - An annual Feast to celebrate the dedication of the Temple by Judas Maccabeus after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, B
Dedication - The "feast of the dedication" was a yearly commemoration of the cleansing and rededication of the temple, when polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, John 10:22
Drusil'la - She was at first betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene, but was married to Azizus, king of Emesa
Hanukkah - , to commemorate the dedication of the new altar set up at the purification of the temple of Jerusalem to replace the altar which had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccabees i
Mauzzim - The opinion of Gesenius is that "the god of fortresses" was Jupiter Capitolinus, for whom Antiochus built a temple at Antioch
Seleucia - 219) by Antiochus the Great
Abomination of Desolation - The Daniel 9:27 denotes, probably, the image of Jupiter, erected in the temple of Jerusalem by command of Antiochus Epiphanes
Drusilla - She had been engaged to Antiochus Ephiphanes of Commagene, but he refused to become a Jew
Mallus - A city of Cilicia which joined Tarsus in a rebellion against Antiochus Epiphanes about b
Maccabees - ) The name given later times to the Asmonaeans, a family of Jewish patriots, who headed a religious revolt in the reign of Antiochus IV
Laodicea - It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II
Alexander Balas - as son of Antiochus IV
Acra - King Antiochus gave orders for building a citadel at Jerusalem, north of the temple, on an eminence; which commanded the holy place; and for that reason was called Acra
Drusilla - She was first espoused to Epiphanes, son of Antiochus king of Comagena, on condition of his embracing the Jewish religion; but as he afterwards refused to be circumcised, Drusilla was given in marriage by her brother to Azizus king of Emessa
Dedication - ...
The Jewish festival known as the Feast of Dedication celebrated the rededication of the Jewish temple after the defilement by Antiochus Epiphanes in the second century BC (John 10:22; for details see FEASTS)
Abomination, Abomination of Desolation - ...
In Daniel, the historical situation was apparently the building of an altar of Zeus by Antiochus Epiphanes in Jerusalem in his attempt at complete hellenization of Israel in the second century B. Antiochus fancied himself to be a god who greatly resembled Zeus Olympios. ”...
Antiochus selected for himself the title “Epihyphanes” (God manifest). “Shamem” (desolate) could also mean “to be mad” and thus identified a more direct reference to Antiochus. Some would interpret the “eschaton” or end time in the Book of Daniel to be the end of Antiochus Epihyphanes
Dedication, Feast of the - 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B
Lyon, France, Archdiocese of - Suffragan dioceses include ...
Annecy
Belley-Ars
Chambéry, Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, et Tarentaise
Grenoble-Vienne
Saint-Etienne
Valence, Die, e Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux
Viviers
Notable bishops include ...
Saint Aetherius
Saint Agobard
Saint Alpinus
Saint Annemundus
Saint Antiochus
Saint Aredius
Saint Aurelian
Saint Elipidius
Saint Eucherius
Saint Felix
Saint Gebuin
Saint Genesius
Blessed Pope Innocent V
Saint Irenaeus
Saint Justus
Saint Lambert
Saint Lupicinus
Saint Lupus
Saint Martin
Saint Nicetius
Saint Patiens
Saint Priseus
Saint Rusticus
Saint Sardot
Saint Sicarius
Saint Stephanus
Saint Viventiolus
See also ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Heliodorus - Heliodorus murdered Seleucus, and attempted to seize the Syrian crown; but he was driven out by Eumenes of Pergamus and his brother Attalus; and Antiochus Epiphanes, brother of Seleucus, ascended the throne
Birthday - Pharaoh’s birthday ( Genesis 40:20 ), the monthly celebration of that of Antiochus Epiphanes ( 2Ma 6:7 ), and the birthday feast given by Herod Antipas ( Matthew 14:6 , Mark 6:21 )
Antioch - Antioch (ăn'ti-ŏk), place that withstands (from Antiochus). , and enlarged by Antiochus Epiphanes
Philip - A friend or foster-brother ( 2Ma 9:29 ) of Antiochus Epiphanes, who received the charge (previously given to Lysias) of bringing up the young Antiochus Eupator ( 1Ma 6:14 ). On the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, Lysias took upon himself to proclaim young Eupator king (b. when left in charge of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes, was remarkable for the cruelty of his government ( 2Ma 5:22 ; 2Ma 6:11 )
Dedication, Feast of - It began on the 25th of Chisleu (December), the anniversary of Antiochus Epiphanes' pollution of the temple 167 B
Dedication, Feast of the, - (John 10:22 ) It commenced on the 25th of Chisleu (early in December), the anniversary of the pollution of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, B
Taxes, Taxation, Taxing - Daniel 11:20 ; see Antiochus, SELEUCUS IV
Javan - God in retribution for the enslaving of Judah's children (Zechariah 9:13) declares He will fill His bow with Judah and Ephraim as His arrows, and "raise up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece"; fulfilled partly in His raising up the Jewish Maccabees against Antiochus Epiphanes the representative of Greece; hereafter to be exhaustively consummated in Israel being made victorious over the last antichrist, Antiochus' antitype
Derbe - After changing hands more than once, it was ultimately added-as the inscriptions on coins indicate-to the kingdom of Antiochus iv. 41 to the death of Antiochus in 72. In his second journey he evidently crossed the Taurus by the Cilician Gates, passed through the kingdom of Antiochus, and so ‘came to Derbe and Lystra’ (Acts 15:41; Acts 16:1). Imperial Derbe stood in closer relations with the Roman colonies of Antioch and Lystra than with the non-Roman Lycaones of the kingdom of Antiochus
Money - Antiochus VII about B
Laodicea - Its ancient name was Diospolis, but when Antiochus Theos rebuilt it he called it Laodicea, after the name of his wife
Circumcision - Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised
Lyc'ia - After the death of Alexander the Great, Lycia was included in the Greek Seleucid kingdom, and was a part of the territory which the Romans forced Antiochus to cede
Maccabees - After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the Romans, he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great numbers of whom he mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem
Thrace - 163) as saving Gorgias, the governor of Idumæa under Antiochus Epiphanes, from capture
Hanukkah - ” After Antiochus Epiphanes conducted pagan worship in the Temple, Judas Maccabeus cleansed the Temple from the pollution of pagan worship
Cilicia - The other portion to which the name was applied was the client-kingdom of king Antiochus, which was under the suzerainty of Rome, and included Cilicia Tracheia (Rugged Cilicia) to the W
Sele-u'Cus iv - (Philopator ), son of Antiochus the Great, whom he succeeded B
Machabees, the - Jewish dynasty which began with the rebellion of Mathathias and his five sons against the Syrian king, Antiochus IV (168 B. Jonathan defeated Bacchides, revenged the death of his brother, and made peace with Alexander who had usurped the throne of Demetrius, the successor to Antiochus
Antichrist - ” Many Jews viewed the arrival of Antiochus Epiphanes IV as the embodiment of these verses. Yet in the mind of many Jews, the rule of Antiochus did not meet the full expectations of these Scriptures. Mark and Matthew apparently expected a Roman ruler to once again enter the Temple as did Antiochus and Pompey
Beroea - The place where Antiochus Eupator caused Menelaus, the ex-high priest, to be put to death ( 2Ma 13:4 )
Cappadocia - of Cilicia, the kingdom of the client-king Antiochus, was incorporated in it at the time, and it afterwards received various accessions of territory
Abomination - ...
(Daniel 11:31 ), in that section of his prophecies which is generally interpreted as referring to the fearful calamities that were to fall on the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, says, "And they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate. " Antiochus Epiphanes caused an altar to be erected on the altar of burnt-offering, on which sacrifices were offered to Jupiter Olympus
Modin - Here Mattathias, by slaying a Jew who conformed to the paganizing commands of Antiochus, struck the first blow for Jewish religious freedom ( 1Ma 2:1-28 )
Dedicate, Dedication - , to commemorate the cleansing of the Temple from the pollutions of Antiochus Epiphanes; hence it was called the Feast of the Dedication, John 10:22
Lycia - After his death it belonged to the Seleucid Empire, was then taken from Antiochus by the Romans in b
Gadara - The date of its foundation is unknown, its capture by Antiochus (b
Dedication, Feast of the - After the desecration of the Temple and altar by Antiochus Epiphanes, Judas Maccabæus re-consecrated them in b
Antiochus, Bishop of Ptolemais - Antiochus (1) , bp
Asmonaeans - Nearly three centuries of prosperity ensued, until they were cruelly oppressed by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, when they were compelled to take up arms in their own defence
Dionysia - In 2Ma 6:7 we are told that Antiochus compelled the Jews to attend a festival of Dionysus, wearing wreaths of ivy , a plant sacred to the god
mo'Din, - At Modin the Maccabean armies encamped on the eves of two of their most memorable victories --that of Judas over Antiochus Eupator, 2 Maccabees 13:14 , and that of Simon over Cendebeus
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
205...
Palestine under Antiochus. ...
170...
Temple plundered by Antiochus Epiphanes
Gerizim - When Antiochus Epiphanes began to persecute the Jews, A. 186, the Samaritans entreated him that their temple upon Gerizim, which hitherto had been dedicated to an unknown and nameless god, might be consecrated to Jupiter the Grecian, which was easily consented to by Antiochus
Mac'Cabees - The Maccabees were a family of Jews who resisted the authority of Antiochus Epiphanes king of Syria and his successors who had usurped authority over the Jews, conquered Jerusalem, and strove to introduce idolatrous worship. After gaining several victories over the other generals of Antiochus, Judas was able to occupy Jerusalem except the "tower," and purified the temple exactly three years after its profanation
an'Tioch - (from Antiochus )-
IN SYRIA . One feature, which seems to have been characteristic of the great Syrian cities,--a vast street with colonnades, intersecting the whole from end to end,--was added by Antiochus Epiphanes
Altars in the Temple of Jerusalem - Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated this second altar, 168, and on that account it was completely removed by Judas Machabeus, 165, and a new one was erected which apparently remained until the destruction of Herod's Temple by the Romans 70 A
Laodicea - Its earlier name was Diopolis; but after being enlarged by Antiochus II, it was called Laodicea, from his wife Lodice
ha'Math - Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia
Circumcision - Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised
Hamath, Hemath - ...
Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia, which name appears on some maps
Antioch in Syria - 300, in honour of his father Antiochus
Gog - This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and destined overthrow of the Turks
Antioch - It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called by him after the name of his father Antiochus
Galatia - The invaders fought on their own capturing cities until stopped by Antiochus I in 275 B
Worm - Josephus tells the same of Herod the Great (Acts 19:8), and 2 Maccabees 9:9 of Antiochus Epiphanes
Demetrius - 175) to Rome as a hostage, but made his escape after the death of his uncie, Antiochus Epiphanes. Landing at Tripolis, he was joined by large bodies of the people, and even by the bodyguard of his cousin, Antiochus Eupator
Maccabees - It contains the history of forty years, from the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon, the high priest; that is, from the year of the world 3829 to the year 3869, B. After these epistles follows the preface of the author to his history, which is an abridgment of a larger work, composed by one Jason, a Jew of Cyrene, who wrote in Greek the history of Judas Maccabaeus, and his brethren, and the wars against Antiochus Epiphanes, and Eupator his son. The two last chapters contain events under the reign of Demetrius Soter, the successor of Antiochus Eupator, and contain such varieties in their style, as render it doubtful whether they had the same author as the rest of the work. Moreover, Josephus's history of the martyrs that suffered under Antiochus Epiphanes, is found in some manuscript Greek Bibles, under the name of the fourth book of the Maccabees
Pharisees - , the "pious"), a party that originated in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes in revolt against his heathenizing policy
Chittim - The "ships of Chittim" in Daniel 11:30 are the Macedonian-Greek or even Italian vessels, in which the Roman ambassador Popilius Laenas arrived to check Antiochus Epiphanes
Banner, Ensign, Standard - Psalms 74:4 where the reference is probably to the standards of Antiochus’ army) of the ‘fathers’ houses,’ and the standards (the banner of Song of Solomon 2:4 ; cf
Galatia - There they settled, namely, the Trocmi, Tolistoboii, and Tectosages (from Toulouse), and made inroads far and wide, but were checked by Antiochus I
Sar'Dis, - it was taken and sacked by the army of Antiochus the Great
Money - 140, Antiochus VII
Candlestick, Seven-Branched - A new lampstand, perhaps of the old pattern, existed in the second temple and was carried off by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Machabees 1)
Laodicea - It was founded by Antiochus ii
Seventy Weeks - following the atrocities of Antiochus Epiphanes
Rabbath - ...
Antiochus the Great afterwards took the city
Seven-Branched Candlestick - A new lampstand, perhaps of the old pattern, existed in the second temple and was carried off by Antiochus Epiphanes (1Machabees 1)
Rhodes - The Romans, after the defeat of Antiochus, assigned, during some time, to Rhodes certain districts on the mainland
Lycaonia - After the Roman victory over Antiochus the Great at Magnesia (190 b. Soon afterwards this brilliant soldier-the most interesting of Asiatic Gaels-overthrew Antipater of Derbe, with the result that the whole of Lycaonia, except the so-called Eleventh Strategia (which about this time was given to King Antiochus of Commagene, to be henceforth called Lycaonia Antiochiana) was now included in the Galatian realm
Veil of the Temple - Ganneau, tracing a curious similarity between some customs of ancient Elis in the Peloponnesus and those of the Hebrew, shows that in the Olympian sanctuary there was a great woolen veil of Assyrian workmanship, dyed with Phoenician purple, given by Antiochus; so Josephus (B. This veil given to Olympian Zeus at Elis may have been the very veil taken by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) from the temple of Jehovah (1 Maccabees 1:22-24; Josephus, Antiochus naturally hung up Jehovah's veil in the temple of Olympian Zeus; for this was the very god to whom he dedicated the temple at Jerusalem, after defiling and plundering it (2 Maccabees 6:2)
Salt - " The salt-pits formed an important source of revenue to the rulers of the country, and Antiochus conferred a valuable boon on Jerusalem by presenting the city with 375 bushels of salt for the temple service
Forehead - So Antiochus Epiphanes branded the Jews with the ivy leaf, Bacchus' symbol (2 Maccabees 6:7; 3 Maccabees 2:29)
Benefactor - So Antiochus vii
Abominable - This was Daniel's prediction of the pollution of the temple at Jerusalem, by Antiochus Epiphanes, who set up in it the altar and the statue of Jupiter Olympus: the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate drove ail the true worshippers of God from the temple
Abomination - This was Daniel's prediction of the pollution of the temple at Jerusalem, by Antiochus Epiphanes, who set up in it the altar and the statue of Jupiter Olympus: the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the abomination that maketh desolate drove ail the true worshippers of God from the temple
Sadducees - When conflict broke out between the two groups, the Greek ruler in Syria, Antiochus Epiphanes, used it as an excuse to invade Jerusalem and try to destroy the Jewish religion. ) Under the leadership of a priestly family known as the Maccabees (or Hasmoneans) the Jews rebelled against Antiochus, and after three years of fighting regained religious freedom (165 BC)
Antioch - The most famous of the 16 Antiochs, which he built and named after his father Antiochus, was Antioch on the Orontes in Syria. ...
His successor, Antiochus I. Antiochus I. ...
With Antiochus III. 187 175), who was occupied mostly in repairing the financial losses his kingdom had sustained, the brilliant but wholly unprincipled youth Antiochus IV. With Antiochus Epiphanes died the grandeur of the Syrian throne
Antioch - , discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom, the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus. A second quarter was added on the eastern side, perhaps by Antiochus I. ; a third, the ‘New City,’ was built by Seleucus Callinicus on an island-similar to the island in the Seine at Paris-which has since disappeared, probably owing to one of those seismic disturbances to which the region has always been peculiarly subject; and a fourth, on the lowest slopes of Silpius, was the work of Antiochus Epiphanes. It attained its highest political importance in the time of Antiochus the Great, whose power was shattered by the Romans at Magnesia. ) about the same time as Syrian Antioch, being another of the many cities which he called after his father Antiochus. ), which cost Antiochus the Great the whole of his dominions north of the Taurus, the Romans made Antioch a free city. Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia (Jos
Hamath - ...
In the Hellenistic period, Antiochus ...
Abomination of Desolation - In these passages the most natural reference is to the desecration of the Temple under Antiochus Epihanes, when an altar to Olympian Zeus was erected on the altar of burnt sacrifices
Laodicea - Lastly, Antiochus, the son of Stratonice, rebuilt it, and called it Laodicea, from the name of his wife Laodice
Altar - ) When Antiochus Epiphanes pillaged Jerusalem the altar of burnt offering was taken away. Antiochus Epiphanes took it away, but it was afterwards restored by Judas Maccabaeus (1 Maccabees 1:23 ; 4:49 )
Maccabees - The name commonly given to the Jewish family otherwise known as Hasmonæans , who led the revolt against Syria under Antiochus iv. When, in accordance with the policy of Antiochus iv. Antiochus iv. , who had succeeded Antiochus iv. This steady advance towards independence was checked, however, by the treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho, the guardian and commanding general of the young Antiochus v. Antiochus vii. Antiochus was presently killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and was succeeded by the weak Demetrius ii. The affairs of Syria growing ever more desperate under the succession of feeble kings, John ceased payment of the tribute which had been exacted by Antiochus, and established a brilliant court, issuing coins as high priest and head of the Congregation of the Jews
Hamath - From Antiochus Epiphanes it afterward got the name Epiphaneia
Abomination That Causes Desolation, the - First Maccabees, quoting Daniel, refers these words to the sacrifice of swine's flesh on the altar in Jerusalem by Antiochus IV, Epiphanes, in 168 b
Pergamos - The Nicephorium, or thank offering grove for victory over Antiochus, had an assemblage of temples of idols, Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Aesculapius, Dionysus, Aphrodite
an'Tichrist - ) The coming of Antichrist was (believed to be foretold in the "vile person" of Daniel's prophecy, (Daniel 11:21 ) which received its first accomplishment in Antiochus Epiphanes but of which the complete fulfillment was reserved for the last times
Daniel, Book of - Therefore, though the little horn refers to Antiochus Epiphanes (and though he caused the worship at Jerusalem to cease) a later and still future period is evidently referred to, and another king of Syria, who will stand against the Prince of princes, and shall be broken without hand. '*...
* In reference to the 2300 days of Daniel 8:14 , see under 'Antiochus '...
B. 175 Antiochus IV. The correspondence of history with the particulars given in this chapter will be found under Antiochus. Daniel 11:21 to 35 refer to Antiochus Epiphanes, type of the king of the north, or Assyrian of the last days: cf
Festivals, Religious - This feast was appointed by Judas Maccabaeus in commemoration of the purification of the temple after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes
Syria, Syrian - See Antiochus
Seleucia - , and Antiochus III
Antioch - Antiochus Epiphanes formed a great colonnaded street intersecting it from one end to the other
On - Here, also, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, leave was obtained of that king by Onias, high priest of the Jews, to build a temple, when dispossessed of his office by Antiochus; which was long used by the Hellenist Jews
Abomination of Desolation - The original reference is clearly to the desecration of the Temple by the soldiers of Antiochus Epiphanes, the ceasing of the daily burnt-offering, and the election of an idol-altar upon the great Altar of Sacrifice in b. Thus it is plain that Christ, in quoting the words of Daniel, intends to foretell a desecration of the Temple (or perhaps of the Holy City) resembling that of Antiochus, and resulting in the destruction of the national life and religion. 7) draws a similar parallel between the Jewish misfortunes under Antiochus and the desolation caused by the Romans (ὁ Δανίηλος καὶ περὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμονίας ἀνέγραψε, καὶ ὅτι ὑπʼ αὐτῶν ἐρημωθήσεται)
Boar - Eating it was the token of apostasy under Antiochus Epiphanes' persecution, and is mentioned among Judah's provocations of Jehovah (Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:17)
Lycaonia - 37 Eastern Lycaonia, which up to that time had continued under the weak Cappadocian rule, was placed under Antiochus of Commagene, along with most of Cilicia Tracheia, and got the name Lycaonia Antiochiana
School - ...
The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to eradicate Judaism by force brought about the fierce nationalistic revolt of the Maccabees (Jewish patriots) in 168 B
Abomination of Desolation - This was necessarily followed by the profanation of the temple under the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes
Bath, Bathing - When Greek culture tried to invade Judaea under Antiochus Epiphanes (circa (about) 168 b
Sanhedrin - Whilst some Jewish Doctors would trace back the Sanhedrin to the council of 70 elders instituted by Moses (Numbers 11), the earliest undisputed mention which we possess touching the council of elders of Jerusalem dates from the time of Antiochus the Great (223-187 B
Sardis - The same daring exploit was performed by the Cretan Lagoras, who scaled the heights and captured the citadel for Antiochus the Great (218 b. After the defeat of Antiochus at Magnesia (190 b
Ptolemies - , Antiochus III defeated the Egyptian army at Banyas (later Caesarea Philippi) and seized control of Palestine
Gog - ...
Antiochus Epiphanes, the Old Testament antichrist, the "little horn" of the third world empire, who defiled Jehovah's temple and altar with swine sacrifices and set up Jupiter's altar there, prefigures the "king of fierce countenance" who, "when the transgressors shall come to the full, shall destroy the holy people" (Daniel 8:10-26); "the king of the N
Ethnarch - In 1 Maccabees 14:47 Simon accepts from the people the following offices-ἀρχιερατεῦσαι καὶ εἶναι στρατηγὸς καὶ ἐθνάρχης τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ ἰερέων καὶ τοῦ προστατῆσαι πάντων (‘to be high priest and to be general and ethnarch of the Jews and their priests and to rule over all’); and in 1 Maccabees 15:2 a letter of King Antiochus of Syria is addressed to him as ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ καὶ ἐθνάρχῃ (‘great priest and ethnarch’)
Feasts - The 25th of Chisleu, the Feast of Dedication, instituted by Judas Maccabeus when the temple was re-dedicated after being defiled by Antiochus Epiphanes, B
Chronology - See JUDGES, KINGS, Antiochus,and NEW TESTAMENT. ' (See Antiochus
Tabor (1) - , Antiochus the Great captured the city Atabyrium which was upon Tabor, and afterwards fortified it
Olivet Discourse, the - by Antiochus Epiphanes, who built an altar there to Zeus
Swine - ...
In such detestation was the hog held by the Jews, that they would not so much as pronounce its name, but called it "the strange thing;" and we read in the history of the Maccabees, that Eleazer, a principal scribe, being compelled by Antiochus Epiphanes to open his mouth and receive swine's flesh, spit it forth, and went of his own accord to the torment, choosing rather to suffer death than to break the law of God, and give offence to his nation, 2Ma_6:18 ; 2Ma_7:1
Bible, Egypt in the - Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198)
Antichrist - also Zechariah 12:1-14 ; Zechariah 13:1-9 ; Zechariah 14:1-21 ), where the reference is to Antiochus IV. ...
( a ) The historical opponents of the Jews , such as Antiochus IV
Egypt in the Bible - Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198)
Feasts - ...
Feast of Dedication...
During the second century BC, the Greek ruler of the Syrian sector of the Empire, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, used his military power to try to destroy the Jewish religion. ...
A group of zealous Jews, the Maccabees, began a resistance movement against Antiochus, and after three years of untiring fighting won back their religious freedom (165 BC)
Dispersion - Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia
Rhodes - For assisting them in their war against Antiochus the Great, she received (189 b
Herodians - Thus, the Herod's were forerunners of the coming antichrist, and like the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8,11), they paved the way to apostasy by an introduction of Greek refinements, theaters, etc
Zadok - His descendants continued in the high priesthood (compare 2 Chronicles 31:10, "Azariah of the house of Zadok chief priest") until the time of Antiochus Eupator
Money - ( Ezra 2:69 ; 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70,71,72 ) [1] No native Jewish coinage appears to have existed till Antiochus VII
Antichrist - The coming of Antichrist was believed to be foretold in the "vile person" of Daniel's prophecy, Daniel 11:21, which received its first accomplishment in Antiochus Epiphanes, but of which the complete fulfillment was reserved for the last times
Daniel, Book of - The author is an unknown inspired writer who lived in the time of Antiochus Ephiphanes shortly before 164 B. The author used contemporary methods of interpreting the prophecies of Ezekiel, Jeremiah, and others to give hope to his generation when many Jews were seeking favor with the Syrian government of Antiochus by adopting a Hellenistic life-style and ignoring Jewish traditions. He then pointed to an immediate future when God would judge Antiochus and his followers who enforced the present persecution of God's people
Tarsus - 175 164 Tarsus was re-organized by Antiochus iv Epiphanes as an autonomous city under the name Antioch-on-the-Cydnus (cf. It is almost certain that, in accordance with the regular Seleucid practice, a large body of Jews also was added to the population by Antiochus. The later hostility of Antiochus to the ultra-Jewish party in Palestine cannot be alleged as an adequate reason against the view that he constituted, in b
Rabbah - It is probable, however, that the text of Samuel is corrupt that we should read ‘city’ or ‘cistern of waters’ and that Joab, like Antiochus III
Nail - Judah shall be under a native ruler, not a foreigner; the Maccabees primarily, Judah's deliverers from the oppressor Antiochus Epiphanes: antitypically Messiah of the tribe of Judah
Laodicea - A Seleucid king, Antiochus II, Theos, named it from Laodice his wife
Sidon - On a coin of the age of Antiochus IV Tyre claims to be "mother of the Sidonians," being at that time the capital city
Tarsus - Antiochus Epiphanes IV. The far-reaching change which this Antiochus, who was at first no enemy of the Jews, made in Tarsus was commemorated by the new name given to the city-‘Antioch on the Cydnus’-which, however, was soon dropped, as there were already so many Antiochs, and as Tarsus was still essentially an Oriental city
Laodicea - Founded probably by the Seleucid king Antiochus ii. If the first settlers were sent thither by the founder of the city, or by Antiochus the Great, who is said to have planted 2,000 Jewish families in Phrygia and Lydia (Jos
Sardis - The city was similarly captured by Antiochus the Great from Achæus late in the third century b
Biblical Chronology - The revolt of the Jews against Antiochus IV of Syria under Judas Machabeus took place, 167
Locust - , when Antiochus Epiphanes, Israel's persecutor, was overcome by the Roman L
Caesarea Philippi - ) in which Antiochus the Great defeated the Egyptians and thereby took control of Palestine for the Seleucids
Abomination - The "abomination of desolation" foretold by the Prophet Daniel 10:27, 11:31, is supposed by some interpreters to denote the statue of Jupiter Olympius, which Antiochus Epiphanes caused to be erected in the temple of Jerusalem
Dispersion - , the legitimate Aaronic high priest, who had left Palestine because he hated Antiochus IV
Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch - Porphyry then managed to get into his hands Cyriacus, Diophantus, and other presbyters of the orthodox party who were likely to be troublesome, and seized the opportunity of the Olympian festival at Antioch, when the population had poured forth to the spectacles of Daphne, to lock himself and his three consecrators, Acacius, Antiochus, and Severianus, whom he had kept hiding at his own house, with a few of the clergy, into the chief church, and to receive consecration at their hands
Palestine - ...
After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty and opression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to the revolt under the Maccabees (B
Number - The 1,290 (Daniel 12:11-12) and 1,335 days correspond to 1290, during which Antiochus Epiphanes profaned the temple, from the month Ijar, 145th year of the era of the Seleucidae, to Judas Maccabeus' restoration of worship, the 25th day of the ninth month Chisleu, 148th year (1 Maccabees 1:54; 1 Maccabees 4:52-56); in 45 days more Antiochus died, ending the Jews' calamities; in all 1,335
Syria - The Graeco-Syrian civilization extended far down both sides of Jordan, and, but for the crazy policy of Antiochus Epiphanes and the consequent Maccabaean revolt, might have absorbed Judaea itself
Troas - Troas was under the power of the Seleucids till the defeat of Antiochus the Great at Magnesia in 190 b
Medicine - [1] The disease of King Antiochus, 2 Maccabees 9:5-10 , etc
Babylon - Antiochus Soter actually began the restoration of its great temple
Synagogue - ...
Synagogues in the strict and later sense are not mentioned until after the desecration of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes. The synagogue was the means of rekindling the Jewish devotion and patriotism which shone so brightly in the Maccabean struggle with Antiochus
Fasting - This was celebrated on the 17th day of the 4th month, and not on the 9th, because, according to the Talmudic tradition, the 17th was the day on which Moses broke the tables of the Law, on which the daily offering ceased owing to the famine caused by the Chaldæan siege, and on which Antiochus Epiphanes burnt the Law and introduced, an idol into the Holy Place
Grecians - ...
Zechariah (Zechariah 9:13) represents Judah and Ephraim as the arrows filling God's bow, "when I have raised up thy son, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece" (Javan) thus foretelling that the Jewish Maccabees would punish Greece in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, one of Alexander's successors, in just retribution for her purchasing from Tyre as slaves" the children of Judah and Jerusalem
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - Basil congratulated Antiochus, a nephew of Eusebius, on the privilege of having seen and talked with such a man ( Ep. His nephew Antiochus probably succeeded to the bishopric of Samosata
Arms - ...
This military cap was also worn by the Persians, Ethiopians, and Libyans, Ezekiel 38:5 , and by the troops which Antiochus sent against Judas Maccabaeus, 1Ma_6:35 . Goliath, and the soldiers of Antiochus, 1 Samuel 17:5 ; 1Ma_6:35 , were accoutred with this defence; which, in our authorized translation, is variously rendered habergeon, coat of mail, and brigandine, 1 Samuel 17:38 ; 2 Chronicles 26:14 ; Isaiah 59:17 ; Jeremiah 46:4
Feasts - The Feast of the Dedication recalled the purification of the Temple after its desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes
ir-ha-Heres - , after his deposition by Antiochus Epiphanes in b
Consecrate, Consecration - ) in memory of the cleansing of the Temple from the pollution of Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccabees 4:59)
Tabor - Antiochus, king of Syria, took the fortress on the top of this hill
Phrygia - ’ Antiochus the Great (223-187 b
Antichrist - Ezekiel’s prophecy of the overthrow of Gog and Magog (Ezekiel 38); Zechariah’s vision of the destruction of the destroyers of Jerusalem (Zechariah 14); above all, the representation in Daniel, with reference to Antiochus Epiphanes, of a world-power that waxed great even to the host of heaven (Daniel 8:10), and trod the sanctuary under foot (Daniel 8:13), and stood up against the Prince of princes until it was finally ‘broken without hand’ (Daniel 8:25)-all contributed to the idea of a great coming conflict with the powers of a godless world before the Divine Kingdom could be set up. But the distinctive character of this Pauline view of the Antichrist is that, while features in the picture are evidently taken from the description of Antiochus Epiphanes in Daniel (cf. In Daniel that power was the kingdom of the Seleucidae under Antiochus Epiphanes; here it is very plainly indicated as the Roman Empire (Revelation 17:3; Revelation 17:9; Revelation 17:18) with the Emperor at its head (Revelation 13:6-8)
Moab - ...
Daniel (Daniel 11:41) foretells "Moab shall escape out of his (Antiochus Epiphanes') hand. " So Porphyry says, in marching against Ptolemy, Antiochus turned out of his course to assail the Jews, but did not meddle with Moab, Edom, and Ammon
Samaria - 2); and that when Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, the Samaritans denied ‘that the temple on Mt. Gerizim belonged to Almighty God,’ and petitioned ‘Antiochus, the god Epiphanes,’ to permit them to name it ‘the temple of Jupiter Hellenius’ (ib
Antichrist - ) Distinct from the" little horn" of Daniel 8, which is connected with the third, not the fourth, kingdom; Antiochus Epiphanes, of the Syrian fourth part of the divided Graeco-Macedonian or third kingdom, who persecuted the Jews, prohibited circumcision, and substituted the worship of Jupiter Olympius, with whom he identified himself as if God, instead of that of Jehovah, in the templeat Jerusalem. The language of Daniel 8:8-25 and Daniel 11:36-39, partially fulfilled by Antiochus, is exhaustively fulfilled only in the last Antichrist
Pharisees - In contrast to "mingling" with Grecian and other heathen customs, which Antiochus Epiphanes partially effected, breaking down the barrier of God's law which separated Israel from pagandom, however refined. In Antiochus' time this narrowness became intensified in opposition to the rationalistic compromises of many
Caligula - The territory of Antiochus of Commagene, which had been made a province by Tiberius, was restored to his son: it ran along the northern side of the province of Cilicia
Altar - ); the sacrificial and incense altars to the host of heaven in the courts and probably even on the roof of the Temple ( 2 Kings 23:12 , Jeremiah 19:13 ); and finally, the altar to Olympian Zeus placed by Antiochus Epiphanes on the top of the altar of burnt-offering ( 1Ma 1:54 )
Shewbread - Antiochus Epiphanes carried away the table of the second temple (2 Maccabees 1:22)
Jerusalem - 170, Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, enraged at hearing that the Jews had rejoiced at a false report of his death, plundered Jerusalem, and killed eighty thousand men. Having thus reduced this unfortunate city into entire submission, and rendered resistance useless, the next step of Antiochus was to abolish the Jewish religion altogether, by publishing an edict which commanded all the people of his dominions to conform to the religion of the Greeks: in consequence of which, the service of the temple ceased, and a statue of Jupiter Olympus was set up on the altar. But this extremity of ignominy and oppression led, as might have been expected, to rebellion; and those Jews who still held their insulted religion in reverence, fled to the mountains, with Mattathias and Judas Maccabeus; the latter of whom, after the death of Mattathias, who with his followers and successors, are known by the name of Maccabees, waged successful war with the Syrians; defeated Apollonius, Nicanor, and Lysias, generals of Antiochus; obtained possession of Jerusalem, purified the temple, and restored the service, after three years' defilement by the Gentile idolatries. It was, however, twice besieged, first by Antiochus Eupator, in the year 163, and afterward by Antiochus Sidetes, in the year B
Daniel, the Book of - Antiochus Epiphanes' history and attack on the holy people are so accurately detailed (Daniel 11) that Porphyry thought they must have been written after the event. What a strange testimony then does Porphyry unwillingly bear to the divine inspiration of the book; the events so minutely fulfilling the prophecies about Antiochus that it might be supposed to be a history of the past instead of, as it is proved to be, a prediction of events then future
Ammonites - Polybius informs us, that Antiochus the Great took Rabboth, or Philadelphia, the capital of the Ammonites, demolished the walls, and put a garrison into it, A. During the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Ammonites manifested their hatred to the Jews, and exercised great cruelties against such of them as lived in their parts
Exaltation - Antiochus IV Epiphanes arrogantly tried to stamp out Jewish worship, foreshadowing a future ruler who would exalt and magnify himself against the Lord (Daniel 8:23-25 ; 11:36-37 )
Daniel, Book of - , are described with a fulness of detail which differentiates Daniel 7:1-28 ; Daniel 11:1-45 from all OT prophecy: see the precision with which the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes is related in ch
Essenes - ...
Into this situation came the life-and-death struggle against the attempt of Antiochus to Hellenize Judaism
Sanhedrin - an aristocratic, as distinct from a democratic, body), and that as such it is not mentioned before the time of Antiochus the Great (b
Obadiah - ...
The Maccabees (Judah's deliverers from Antiochus Epiphanes) who conquered Edom were types
Nations, the - The defilement of the temple by Antiochus IV and the Jewish response dramatizes the struggle between Judaism and the forces of Hellenization
Damascus - , on the partition of Syria between Antiochus Grypus and A
Samaritans - This was their practice in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes
Feasts - ...
The feast of the dedication of the temple, or rather of the restoration of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, 1Ma_4:52 , &c, was celebrated in winter, and is supposed to be the feast of dedication mentioned in John 10:22
Joel - , when Antiochus the Jews' great enemy was defeated by the Roman, Lucius Scipio
Daniel - Before that climax would arrive, however, the Jews would have intense suffering This would be so particularly during the Greek period, when they would suffer terrible persecution at the hands of Antiochus Epiphanes (10:1-12:13; for details see GREECE)
Egypt - But in the reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes, the fifth of the race, it was taken by Antiochus, king of Syria; which was the beginning of fresh sufferings and persecutions; for although this Antiochus, who was the one surnamed the Great, was a mild and generous prince, and behaved favourably toward them, their troubles began at his death; his successor, Seleueus, oppressing them with taxes; and the next was the monster, Antiochus Epiphanes, whose impieties and cruelties are recorded in the two books of Maccabees
Jews - Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), King of Syria, made a violent attempt to hellenize the Jews; but a priest of Modin named Mattathias, and his sons, Judas Machabeus, Jonathan, and Simon, carried on a long and successful struggle against the armies of Syria, and at length, in 143 BC, gained complete independence for Judea
Thyatira - Some of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus the Great deported from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Jos
Money - ...
Antiochus VII granted Simon the Maccabee permission to coin money with his own stamp, the first recorded coining of Jewish money (1 Maccabees 15:6; 140 B
Canon of the Old Testament - Antiochus Epiphanes (168 B
Man of Sin - Daniel 11:36) and influenced by the Antichrist tradition which had been developing in Judaism ever since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes (see article Antichrist, 1)
Games - Jason's introduction of Greek games and a gymnasium was among the corrupting influences which broke down the fence of Judaism, and threw it open to the assaults of the Old Testament antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccabees 1:14; 2 Maccabees 4:12-14)
Altar - Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small altar to Jupiter-‘the abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54)-upon the θυσιαστήριον of the temple, and ‘on the twenty-fifth day of the month they sacrificed upon the idol-altar (βωμός) which was upon the altar of God (θυσιαστήριον)
Sanhedrim - Others will have it, that the council of seventy elders, established by Moses, was temporary, and did not hold after his death; adding, that we find no sign of any such perpetual and infallible tribunal throughout the whole Old Testament; and that the sanhedrim was first set up in the time when the Maccabees, or Asmoneans, took upon themselves the administration of the government under the title of high priests, and afterward of kings, that is, after the persecution of Antiochus
Chronology of the Biblical Period - Seleucid rule brought a strong move to bring Hellenistic culture to Palestine, ending with the desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem and the persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) in 167 B
Altar - Antiochus Epiphanes erected a small altar to Jupiter-‘the abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54)-upon the θυσιαστήριον of the temple, and ‘on the twenty-fifth day of the month they sacrificed upon the idol-altar (βωμός) which was upon the altar of God (θυσιαστήριον)
Roman Empire - Discontent among Rome’s Greek allies led to war with the Seleucid king Antiochus, ally of Hannibal and Philip, who crossed to Greece by invitation. The Romans did not take over Asia at this time, but strengthened the power of the king of Pergamum and that of the State of Rhodes, to keep Antiochus out. He restored to Antiochus of Commagene the realm which Tiberius had taken from his father
Bishop - ]'>[1] it is used in Isaiah 60:17 of taskmasters, in Nehemiah 11:19 of minor officials, and in 1Ma 1:51 of the commissioners of Antiochus who enforced idolatry
Persecution - Antiochus Epiphanes, the most powerful representative of the Seleucid dynasty, made an effort to complete the subjugation of Judah by conquering her soul, but in his campaign he came across a stronghold in the nation’s conscience-or her religious self-consciousness-which defied all his assaults. Antiochus was an extremely able ruler. Antiochus Epiphanes was not actuated by any such intense faith in Greek culture
Zechariah, the Book of - , under Alexander's successors, especially Antiochus Epiphanes who profaned the temple, slew thousands, and enslaved more, should be delivered under the Maccabees by looking to the Lord. ...
Zechariah 10 urges prayer, and promises in answer to it rulers coming out of themselves (the Maccabees, Judah's governors and deliverers from Antiochus, typifying Messiah), conquest of enemies, restoration of both Israel and Judah in their own land in lasting peace
Emperor-Worship - The Syrian kings named Antiochus are termed Θεός (God), the infamous Antiochus IV
Egypt - See Antiochus. ) See...
Antiochus
Idolatry - ...
A striking proof of the great change is given by the Maccabæan war, caused by the attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to force idolatry on the very nation which in an earlier period had been only too prone to accept it
Sadducees (2) - Influenced by Hellenic culture, they sympathized to some extent with the policy of Antiochus Epiphanes which provoked the Maccabaean rebellion; and although, as a consequence, they fell into the background during the earlier period of Hasmonaean rule, they recovered their position in the time of John Hyrcanus, under whom we find them, now known as Sadducees, in direct antagonism to the Pharisees, or party of the scribes
Covenant - , who was deposed by Antiochus about b
Habits - It is not, however, improbable, that the bulk of the nation continued to follow their ancient custom; and that the compliance prevailed only among those Jews who were connected with the Babylonish court; for many ages after that, we find Antiochus Epiphanes introducing the habits and fashions of the Grecians among the Jews; and as the history of the Maccabees relates, he brought the chief young men under his subjection, and made them wear a hat, or turban
Education - The edict of Antiochus Epiphanes at a later date ( 1Ma 1:57 ) equally implies a considerable circulation of the Torah among the people, with the ability to profit by its study
Jews - Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces. Near Jerusalem places were appropriated to gymnastic exercises; and the people were led by Jason, who had obtained the high priesthood from Antiochus Epiphanes by the most dishonourable means, to neglect the temple worship, and the observance of the law, in a far greater degree than, at any period since their return from the captivity. Antiochus Epiphanes, irritated at having been prevented by the Jews from entering the holy place when he visited the temple, soon after made a popular commotion the pretence for the exercise of tyranny: he took the city, (B
Vespasian - In the same year Antiochus IV. Antiochus was ordered to live at Lacedaemon, and his sons were allowed to come to Rome, where they obtained the citizenship
High Priest - ) in the days of Antiochus Epiphanes
Alexandria - Epiphanes the Alexandrian supremacy over Palestine was exchanged for that of Antiochus III
Benedictus - 63), and his pushing forward, like Antiochus Epiphanes, into the Holy of Holies
Philistim - After the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Asmoneans took by degrees several cities from the country of the Philistines, which they subjected
Money - They were still less able under the Chaldeans, during the Babylonish captivity; or afterward under the Grecians, to whom they were subject till the time of Simon Maccabaeus, to whom Antiochus Sidetes, king of Syria, granted the privilege of coining money in Judea, 1Ma_15:6
Apocrypha - against the Greek tyrant Antiochus IV, who attempted to ban the practice of Judaism
Games - ...
We read in 2Ma 4:9-17 how Jason the high priest and the head of the Hellenizing party, having bribed Antiochus Epiphanes with 150 talents of silver, set up ‘a place of exercise’ (gymnasium) for the training up of youths ‘in the practices of the heathen
Altar - ...
After its desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes, Judas Maccabaeus built a new altar of unhewn stones
Feasts - The feast of PURIM commemorated the baffling of Haman's plot for the Jews' destruction; the feast of Dedication the purification of the temple by the Maccabees, after its defilement by Antiochus Epiphanes
Money - 198 Antiochus iii. 139 138 Antiochus Sidetes granted to Simon Maccabæus the right to coin money (see 1Ma 15:5 f
Galatia - For siding with Antiochus the Great in his war with Rome, and frequently breaking their promise to refrain from raiding the lands of their neighbours, the Galatians ultimately brought on themselves a severe castigation at the hands of Cn. 41 by the gift of a slice or Lycaonia, including Laranda, to Antiochus of Commagene (called after him Lycaonia Antiochiana), so that Derbe became the frontier town and Customs’ station
Vincentius Lirinensis - The author then, to shew that his view is no offspring of private presumption, adduces the example of the council of Ephesus, held nearly 3 years before the time of writing, in the consulship of Bassus and Antiochus
Messiah - The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to crush out Judaism led to the appearance of a new type of religious literature the apocalypse. The international relations of Israel are traced, but the historical horizon is bounded by Antiochus Epiphanes
Rome And the Roman Empire - 132-135 was consistent with Hadrian's declaration of himself as another Antiochus Ephiphanes (the second century B
Lots - It was the intention of Antiochus, after subduing Palestine, to plant colonies in the land, dividing it among them by lot (" translation="">1 Maccabees 3:36)
Sepulchre - ’ To buy off Antiochus Epiphanes, Hyrcanus opened one of the chambers of David’s sepulchre and took out 3000 talents; Herod the Great rifled another in the time of Hadrian (cf
Cross, Cross-Bearing - But there is no need of this supposition, for the figure of bearing one’s cross would be quite intelligible to Jews since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Jannaeus, and Varus
Septuagint - The five books of Moses, indeed, were the only books read in the synagogues until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria; who having forbidden that practice in Palestine, the Jews evaded his commands by substituting for the Pentateuch the reading of the prophetic books
Synagogue - In speaking of synagogues, it is worthy to be noticed, that there is nothing said in respect to the existence of such buildings in Palestine, during the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - This cabal received an important accession by the arrival of two bishops from Palestine, Antiochus of Ptolemais and the grey-haired Acacius of Beroea (Pallad. Scribes - The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to suppress the Jewish religion compelled them to change their character, and drove them into open rebellion
Apocrypha - This is a historical work of rare value on the Jewish war of independence against the encroachments and invasions of Antiochus Epiphanes (b
Advent (2) - ...
With the Maccabaean struggle against Antiochus Epiphanes (b
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - ]'>[1] Cyril purposely kept silence for a year; and before he wrote, Celestine had received from Nestorius himself, by the hands of a man of high rank, named Antiochus, copies of his discourses, with a letter, in which Nestorius speaks of certain exiled Pelagians resident in Constantinople; and then passes on to the controversy about the Incarnation, and describes his opponents as Apollinarians, etc
Entry Into Jerusalem - ]'>[4] , the ideal son to whose descendants that throne was ensured (2 Samuel 7:16), upon which the prophets of the OT continued to build their hopes—hopes which had become greatly modified and materialized during the struggle with Antiochus and Rome, and by contact with Grecian thought, and which made the ordinary Jew dream of a deliverer with all the heroic qualities of a Judas Maceabaeus, and the more philosophic think of an earthly empire, cosmopolitan and world-ruling like the Roman
Temple - 163, this temple was plundered and profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, who ordered the discontinuance of the daily sacrifice, offered swine's flesh upon the altar, and completely suspended the worship of Jehovah
Dress - ’ Antiochus Epiphanes, it is recorded, compelled the young Jewish nobles to wear the petasus , the low, broad-brimmed hat associated with Hermes ( 2Ma 4:12 , RV Jerusalem - , Jerusalem fell under the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, who razed its walls, set up an image of Jupiter in the temple, and used every means to force the people into idolatry
Lots - It was the intention of Antiochus, after subduing Palestine, to plant colonies in the land, dividing it among them by lot (" translation="">1 Maccabees 3:36)
Jerusalem - Finally, after Antiochus IV desecrated the temple by sacrificing a hog on the altar, devout Jews led by the Hasmonean family (Maccabees) rose in rebellion to reclaim Jerusalem in 164 b
Language of Christ - It is, however, clear that whatever headway Greek may have made before the Maccabaean revolt,—which was a revolt against the Hellenizing policy referred to, as pushed to extremes by Antiochus Epiphanes,—it suffered a decided set-back, and was practically expelled the country during the Maccabaean régime
Temple - The second temple was profaned by order of Antiochus Epiphanes, A
Psalms of Solomon - and following years); and in the profanation of the altar to which Psalms 2 refers it is tempting at first to see an allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes’ act in setting up on the altar the ‘abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54)
Idol - But traces appeared still in their partially adopting Greek idolatry and usages for worldly compromise, just before Antiochus Epiphanes' attempt to overthrow Jehovah's worship (1 Maccabees 1:43-54)
Temple of Jerusalem - after Antiochus had profaned it in December, 164 B
Gods, Pagan - Thus, when Antiochus IV attempted to force Hellenism on the Jews in 167 B
Sanhedrin (2) - When the crisis came under Antiochus Epiphanes, the aristocratic caste, and consequently the γερουσία, or Sanhedrin, was in the main ready to yield completely to the pressure of an enforced Hellenism
Canon of the Old Testament - The conjecture is probable that the effort of Antiochus Epiphanes to destroy the copies of the Law may have evoked the determination to preserve the later religious literature by giving it a place in the Canon
Judea - In the southwest quarter of Judea were Gath, about twenty miles west from Jerusalem, near to which were the city of Eleutheropolis, a flourishing place in the second century; Makkedah, a strong place, eight miles north-east from Eleutheropolis; Bersabe, or Beersheba, about twenty-six miles south from Eleutheropolis; Gerar, between Beersheba and the sea coast; Azotus, or Ashdod, to the west of Eleuthero-polis, within a few miles of the sea, and the seat of a bishop in the first ages of the Christian church; Ascalon, a considerable maritime town, above forty-three miles south-west of Jerusalem; Gaza, fifteen miles southward from Ascalon; and Raphia, between Gaza and Rhinocurura, remarkable for a great battle in its neighbourhood, in which Philopater, king of Egypt, defeated Antiochus, king of Syria
Jeru'Salem - Under the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae the town was prosperous, until Antiochus Epiphanes sacked it, B
Synagogue - In Syria the most famous was the Great Synagogue at Antioch, to which the brazen vessels carried off from the Temple at Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes were presented by his successors (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) VII
High Priest - This paved the way for the attack on Jehovah's worship by Antiochus Epiphanes t
Jerusalem - 332 it was captured by Alexander the Great, and again under Antiochus Epiphanes, b
Assumption of Moses - The king of the kings of the earth (Antiochus Epiphanes) crucifies those who confess to circumcision, and compels them to blaspheme the law and beat idols, and persecutes them with tortures
Baruch, Apocalypse of - As Daniel shows us what was the spirit that nerved the Ḥasîdîm to resist Antiochus, so Baruch lets us see in what frame of mind it was possible for the Rabbis under Johanan ben Zakkai and his successors to sit down and adapt the religion and the hopes of Israel to the times of the long dominion of the Gentiles
Anger - One of the seven brothers, during the persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, prays that ‘in me and my brothers, the wrath of the Almighty may be appeased’ (2 Maccabees 7:38)
Canon - History informs us of the fierce and malignant design of Antiochus Epiphanes, to abolish every vestige of the sacred volume; but the same history assures us that the Jewish people manifested a heroic fortitude and invincible patience in resisting and defeating his impious purpose
Government of the Hebrews - Nearly three centuries of uninterrupted prosperity ensued, until the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, when they were most cruelly, oppressed, and compelled to take up arms in their own defence
Palestine - In this they found themselves opposed to the Seleucid princes of Syria, among whom Antiochus Epiphanes especially set himself deliberately to destroy the religion of Judaism
Herod - Eschewing Antiochus Epiphanes' design to Graecize Jerusalem by substituting the Greek worship and customs for the Jewish law, the Herod's, while professing to maintain the law, as effectively set at nought its spirit by making it a lever for elevating themselves and their secular kingdom
Fortification And Siegecraft - (in the original the Acra , built by Antiochus iv
Resurrection - At the same time it is easy to see that a great stride forward had been taken already, when the atrocities of Antiochus Epiphanes brought religious despair to the hearts of all true Israelites, and roused the fervid patriotism of Judas Maccabæus and his followers
Temple - Antiochus Epiphanes profaned this temple; afterward it was cleansed or dedicated, a new altar of fresh stones made, and the feast of dedication thenceforward kept yearly (John 10:22)
Sanhedrin - ...
The first positive record of the Sanhedrin, under the name of Gerousia, appears in the decree of Antiochus the Great about 200 (Jos
Hellenism - They came very near to a hellenizing of their religion as well, until the ill-timed attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes in 168 b
Bible - ...
Till the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, they read only the law; but, the reading of it being then prohibited, they substituted in the room of it fifty-four sections out of the prophets; and when the reading of the law was restored by the Maccabees, the section which was read every Sabbath out of the law served for their first lesson, and the section out of the prophets for their second
Samaria, Samaritans - After repeated successes against their ally and protector Antiochus Cyzicenus, he took Samaria, ravaged the country, subdued the Cuthaeans who dwelt about the temple at Gerizim, and destroyed their temple (Ant
Education - But when, under the influence of Antiochus Epiphanes, a gymnasion for the athletic performances of the Greeks was set up in Jerusalem and the youth of the city were required to strip themselves of their clothing, it became a grievous cause of offence to the pious among the people (1 Maccabees 1:11 ff
Josephus - ), the extinction of the royal house of Commagene in the death of Antiochus (a
Jerusalem - This leaven of Greek customs, and, we cannot doubt, of Greek religion also, was disquieting to those concerned for the maintenance of Deuteronomic purity, and the unrest was fanned into revolt in 168, when Antiochus Epiphanes set himself to destroy the Jewish religion
Jews - Antiochus Epiphanes, about 3834, enraged with them for rejoicing at the report of his death, and for the peculiar form of their worship, in his return from Egypt, forced his way into Jerusalem, and murdered forty thousand of them; and about two years after he ordered his troops to pillage the cities of Judea, and murder the men, and sell the women and children for slaves
Enoch Book of - belong to the earliest Enochic portion of this section; they are pre-Maccabaean, as, unlike lxxxiii-xc, they make no reference to Antiochus’ persecution
Babylon - The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror
Bible - Till the time of the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, they read only the law; but being then prohibited from reading it any more, they substituted in the room of the fifty-four sections of the law, fifty-four sections out of the prophets, the reading of which they ever after continued