What does Antioch mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἀντιόχειαν Capital of Syria 11
ἀντιοχείᾳ Capital of Syria 4
ἀντιοχείας Capital of Syria 3
ἀντιοχέα an Antiochian 1

Definitions Related to Antioch

G490


   1 Capital of Syria, situated on the river Orontes, founded by Seleucus Nicanor in 300 B.
   C.
   and named in honour of his father, Antiochus.
   Many Greek-Jews lived there and it was here that the followers of Christ were first called Christians.
   2 A city in Pisidia on the borders Phrygia, founded by Seleucus Nicanor.
   Under the Romans it became a “colonia” and was also called Caesarea.
   Additional Information: Antioch = ‘driven against”.
   

G491


   1 an Antiochian, a native of Antioch.
   

Frequency of Antioch (original languages)

Frequency of Antioch (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Antioch
In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was the metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of the Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman empire. It was called the "first city of the East." Christianity was early introduced into it (Acts 11:19,21,24 ), and the name "Christian" was first applied here to its professors (Acts 11:26 ). It is intimately connected with the early history of the gospel (Acts 6:5 ; 11:19,27,28,30 ; 12:25 ; 15:22-35 ; Galatians 2:11,12 ). It was the great central point whence missionaries to the Gentiles were sent forth. It was the birth-place of the famous Christian father Chrysostom, who died A.D. 407. It bears the modern name of Antakia, and is now a miserable, decaying Turkish town. Like Philippi, it was raised to the rank of a Roman colony. Such colonies were ruled by "praetors" (RSV marg., Acts 16:20,21 ).
In the extreme north of Pisidia; was visited by Paul and Barnabas on the first missionary journey (Acts 13:14 ). Here they found a synagogue and many proselytes. They met with great success in preaching the gospel, but the Jews stirred up a violent opposition against them, and they were obliged to leave the place. On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the purpose of confirming the disciples (Acts 14:21 ). It has been identified with the modern Yalobatch, lying to the east of Ephesus.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Maximilian of Antioch, Saint
Martyr, died Antioch, c353He was a soldier of the Herculean cohort, and was martyred for refusing to remove the monogram of Christ from the standard, as had been ordered by Julian the Apostate. Feast, August 21,.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Antioch
The name of two cities mentioned in the New Testament. The first was situated on the river Orontes, twenty miles from its mouth, and was the metropolis of all Syria. It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called by him after the name of his father Antiochus. This city is celebrated by Cicero, as being opulent and abounding in men of taste and letters. It was at one time a place of great wealth and refinement, and ranked as the third city in the Roman Empire. Its situation, amid innumerable groves and small streams, midway between Alexandria and Constantinople, rendered it a place of great beauty and salubrity, as well as commercial importance. It was also a place of great resort for the Jews, and afterwards for Christians, to all of whom invitations and encouragements were held by Seleucus Nicator. The distinctive name of "Christians" was here first applied to the followers of Jesus, Acts 11:19,26 13:1 Galatians 2:11 . Antioch was highly favored by Vespasian and Titus, and became celebrated for luxury and vice. Few cities have suffered greater disasters. Many times it has been nearly ruined by earthquakes, one of which, in 1822, destroyed one-fourth of its population, then about twenty thousand. It is now called Antakia.
The other city, also found by Seleucus Nicator, was called Antioch of Pisidia, because it was attached to that province, although situated in Phrygia, Acts 13:14 14:19,21 2 Timothy 3:11 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ignatius of Antioch, Saint
Martyr, Bishop of Antioch, born Syria, c.50;died Rome, Italy, 107. He was known also as Theophoros, "God-Bearer," and from that, was said to have been the infant whom Christ took up in His arms (Mark 9). Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the persecution of Domitian. Trajan sent him in chains to Rome; during this last journey he was welcomed by the faithful of Smyrna, Troas, and other places along the way; he addressed epistles, of supreme interest and value, to various congregations, for, as a disciple of the Apostles, Ignatius testifies to the dogmatic character of Apostolic Christianity. His name occurs in the "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass. Relics at Rome. Feast, Roman Calendar, February 1,.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Antioch
Speedy as a chariot
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Antioch
1. In Syria, capital of its Greek kings, and of its Roman governors subsequently. Built where Lebanon running N. and Taurus E., meet at a bend of the river Orontes; partly on an island, partly on the level left bank. Near it was Apollo's licentious sanctuary, Daphne. Nicolas the deacon was a proselyte of Antioch. The Christians dispersed by Stephen's martyrdom preached at Antioch to idolatrous Greeks, not "Grecians" or Greekspeaking Jews, according to the Alexandrine manuscript (Acts 11:20; Acts 11:26), whence a church having been formed under Barnabas and Paul's care, the disciples were first called "Christians" there. From Antioch their charity was sent by the hands of Barnabas and Saul to the brethren at Jerusalem suffering in the famine.
Paul began his ministry systematically here. At Antioch Judaizers from Jerusalem disturbed the church (Acts 15:1). Here Paul rebuked Peter for dissimulation (Galatians 2:11-12). From Antioch Paul started on his first missionary journey (Acts 13:1-3), and returned to it (Acts 14:26). He began, after the Jerusalem decree, addressed to the Gentile converts at Antioch, and ended, his second missionary journey there (Acts 15:36; Acts 18:22-23). His third journey also began there. Ignatius was subsequently bishop there for forty years, down to his martyrdom A. D. 107.
Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and Jews were given the same political privileges as Greeks. Antiochus Epiphanes formed a great colonnaded street intersecting it from one end to the other. Pompey made it a free city. The citizens were framed for scurrility and giving nick-names. "Christian" was probably a name of their invention, and not of the disciples' origination. (See CHRISTIAN.) Now called Antakia, a poor mean place; some ancient walls remain on the crags of mount Silpius. A gateway still bears the name of Paul.
2. ANTIOCH IN PISIDIA: Also founded by Seleucus Nicator. Made a colony by Rome; called also Caesarea. Now Yalobatch, on a high ridge. When Paul, on his first missionary tour with Barnabas, preached in the synagogue there, many Gentiles believed. The Jews therefore raised a persecution by the wealthy women of the place, and drove him from Antioch to Iconium, and followed him even to Lystra (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21). On his return from Lystra he revisited Antioch to confirm the souls of the disciples amidst their tribulations. In 2 Timothy 3:11 he refers to Timothy's acquaintance with his trials at Antioch of Pisidia; and Timothy's own home was in the neighborhood (Acts 16:1).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Anastasius, a Presbyter of Antioch
Anastasius (1) , a presbyter of Antioch, the confidential friend and counsellor of Nestorius, the archbp. of Constantinople. Theophanes styles him the "syncellus," or confidential secretary of Nestorius, who never took any step without consulting him and being guided by his opinions. Nestorius having commenced a persecution against the Quartodecimans of Asia in 428, two presbyters, Antonius and Jacobus, were dispatched to carry his designs into effect. They were furnished with letters commendatory from Anastasius and Photius, bearing witness to the soundness of their faith. The two emissaries of the archbp. of Constantinople did not restrict themselves to their ostensible object, to set the Asiatics right as to the keeping of Easter, but endeavoured to tamper with their faith. At Philadelphia they persuaded some simple-minded clergy to sign a creed of doubtful orthodoxy, attributed to Theodore of Mopsuestia. This was strongly opposed by Charisius, the oeconomus of the church, who charged Jacobus with unsoundness in the faith. His opposition aroused the indignation of Anastasius and Photius, who dispatched fresh letters, reasserting the orthodoxy of Jacobus, and requiring the deprivation of Charisius (Labbe, Conc. iii. 1202 seq.; Socr. vii. 29).
It was in a sermon preached by Anastasius at Constantinople that the fatal words were uttered that destroyed the peace of the church for so many years. "Let no one call Mary θεοτόκος . She was but a human being. It is impossible for God to be born of a human being." These words, eagerly caught up by the enemies of Nestorius, caused much excitement among clergy and laity, which was greatly increased when the archbishop by supporting and defending Anastasius adopted the language as his own (Socr. H. E. vii. 32; Evagr. H. E. i. 2). [1] In 430, when Cyril had sent a deputation to Constantinople with an address to the emperor, Anastasius seems to have attempted to bring about an accommodation between him and Nestorius (Cyril, Ep. viii.; Mercator, vol. ii. p. 49). We find him after the deposition of Nestorius still maintaining his cause and animating his party at Constantinople (Lupus, Ep. 144).
Tillemont identifies him with the Anastasius who in 434 wrote to Helladius, bp. of Tarsus, when he and the Oriental bishops were refusing to recognize Proclus as bp. of Constantinople, bearing witness to his orthodoxy, and urging them to receive him into communion (Baluz. § 144).
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Babylas, Bishop of Antioch
Babylas (1) , bp. of Antioch from a.d. 237 or 238 until his martyrdom, a.d. 250 or 251, under Decius, either by death in prison for the faith (Eus. H. E. vi. 39), or by direct violence (St. Chrys. de St. Bab. c. Gentes , tom. i.); other authorities—Epiphanius (de Mens. xviii.), Sozomen (v. 19), Theodoret ( H. E. iii. 6)—simply calling him martyr, while St. Jerome ( de Scriptt. Eccl. liv. lxii.) gives both accounts in different places. The Acta of Babylas ( Acta SS. Jan. 24), place his martyrdom under Numerian, by a confusion (according to Baronius's conjecture, ad ann. 253, § 126) with one Numerius, who was an active officer in the Decian persecution (Tillemont, M. E. iii. 729). The great act of his life was the compelling the emperor Philip, when at Antioch shortly after the murder of Gordian, to place himself in the ranks of the penitents, and undergo penance, before he was admitted to church privileges ( κατέχει λόγος , according to Eus. H. E. vi. 34, but asserted without qualification by St. Chrysostom, as above, while the V. St. Chrys. in Acta SS. Sept. tom. iv. 439, transfers the story, against all probability, to Decius, and assigns it as the cause of St. Babylas's martyrdom). But his fame has arisen principally from the triumph of his relics after his death over another emperor, viz. Julian the Apostate, a.d.362. The oracle of Apollo at Daphne, it seems, was rendered dumb by the near vicinity of St. Babylas's tomb and church, to which his body had been translated by Gallus, a.d.351. And Julian in consequence, when at Antioch, ordered the Christians to remove his shrine ( λάρνακα ), or rather (according to Amm. Marcell. xxii.), to take away all the bodies buried in that locality. A crowded procession of Christians, accordingly, excited to a pitch of savage enthusiasm characteristic of the Antiochenes, bore his relics to a church in Antioch, the whole city turning out to meet them, and the bearers and their train tumultuously chanting psalms the whole way, especially those which denounce idolatry. On the same night, by a coincidence which Julian strove to explain away by referring it to Christian malice or to the neglect of the heathen priests, the temple of Apollo was struck by lightning and burned, with the great idol of Apollo itself. Whereupon Julian in revenge both punished the priests and closed the great church at Antioch (Julian Imp. Misopog. Opp. ii. 97 (Paris, 1630); St. Chrys. Hom. de St. Bab. c. Gent. and Hom. de St. Bab. ; Theod. de Cur. Graec. Affect. x. and H. E. iii. 6, 7; Socr. iii. 13; Soz. v. 19, 20; Rufin. x. 35; Amm. Marcell. xxii. pp. 225, 226). St. Chrysostom also quotes a lamentable oration of the heathen sophist Libanius upon the event. The relics of St. Babylas were subsequently removed once more to a church built for them on the other side of the Orontes (St. Chrys. Hom. de St. Bab. ; Soz. vii. 10).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Basilius of Cilicia, Presbyter of Antioch
Basilius of Cilicia , presbyter of Antioch and bp. of Irenopolis in Cilicia, c. 500; the author of an Ecclesiastical History in three books, from a.d.450 to the close of Justin's reign. Photius speaks disparagingly of it ( Cod. 42). He also wrote a violent book against Joannes Scythopolitanus, and Photius ( Cod. 107) says its object was to oppose the doctrine of the union of the two natures in Christ.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch
Flavianus (16) II. , bp. of Antioch, 458-512, previously a monk in the monastery of Tilmognon, in Coelesyria (Evagr. H. E. iii. 32), and at the time of his consecration "apocrisiarius" or nuncio of the church of Antioch at the court of Constantinople (Vict. Tunun. Chron. ; Theophan. Chronogr. p. 122). Before his consecration Flavian passed for an opponent of the decrees of Chalcedon, and on his appointment he sent to announce the fact to John Haemula, bp. of Alexandria, with letters of communion, and a request for the same in return (Evagr. iii. 23). He speedily, however, withdrew from intercourse with the patriarchs of Alexandria, and joined the opposite party, uniting with Elias of Jerusalem and Macedonius of Constantinople (Liberat. c. 18, p. 128). Flavian soon found a bitter enemy in the turbulent Monophysite Xenaias or Philoxenus, bp. of Hierapolis. On Flavian's declaring for the council of Chalcedon, Xenaias denounced his patriarch as a concealed Nestorian. Flavian made no difficulty in anathematizing Nestorius and his doctrines. Xenaias demanded that he should anathematize Diodorus, Theodore, Theodoret, and others, as necessary to completely prove that he was not a Nestorian. On his refusing, Xenaias stirred up against him the party of Dioscorus in Egypt, and charged Flavian before Anastasius with being a Nestorian (Evagr. iii. 31; Theophan. p. 128). Anastasius used pressure, to which Flavian yielded partially, trusting by concessions to satisfy his enemies. He convened a synod of the prelates of his patriarchate which drew up a letter to Anastasius confirming the first three councils, passing over that of Chalcedon in silence, and anathematizing Diodorus, Theodore, and the others. Xenaias, seeking Flavian's overthrow, required of him further a formal anathema of the council of Chalcedon and of all who admitted the two natures. On his refusal, Xenaias again denounced him to the emperor. Flavian declared his acceptance of the decrees of Chalcedon in condemning Nestorius and Eutyches, but not as a rule of faith. Xenaias having gathered the bishops of Isauria and others, induced them to draw up a formula anathematizing Chalcedon and the two natures, and Flavian and Macedonius, refusing to sign this, were declared excommunicate, a.d. 509 (Evagr. u.s. ; Theophan. p. 131). The next year the vacillating Flavian received letters from Severus, the uncompromising antagonist of Macedonius, on the subject of anathematizing Chalcedon, and the reunion of the Acephali with the church (Liberat. c. 19, p. 135). This so irritated Macedonius that he anathematized his former friend, and drove with indignation from his presence the apocrisiarii of Antioch (Theophan. p. 131). On the expulsion of Macedonius, a.d. 511, Flavian obeyed the emperor in recognizing his successor Timotheus, on being convinced of his orthodoxy, but without disguising his displeasure at the violent and uncanonical measures by which Macedonius had been deposed. This exasperated Anastasius, who readily acceded to the request of Xenaias and Soterichus that a council should be convened, ostensibly for the more precise declaration of the faith on the points at issue, but really to depose Flavian and Elias of Jerusalem; but it was broken up by the emperor's mandate, to the extreme vexation of Soterichus and Xenaias, without pronouncing any sentence (Labbe, Concil. iv. 1414, vii. 88; Theophan. u.s. ; Coteler. Monum. Eccl. Graec. iii. 298). Flavian's perplexities were increased by the inroad of a tumultuous body of monks from Syria Prima, clamouring for the anathematization of Nestorius and all supposed favourers of his doctrines. The citizens rose against them, slew many, and threw their bodies into the Orontes. A rival body of monks poured down from the mountain ranges of Coelesyria, eager to do battle in defence of their metropolitan and former associate. Flavian was completely unnerved, and, yielding to the stronger party, pronounced a public anathema in his cathedral on the decrees of Chalcedon and the four so-called heretical doctors. His enemies, determined to obtain his patriarchate for one of their own party, accused him to the emperor of condemning with his lips what he still held in his heart. The recent disturbances at Antioch were attributed to him, and afforded the civil authorities a pretext for desiring him to leave Antioch for a time. His quitting Antioch was seized on by the emperor as an acknowledgment of guilt. Anastasus declared the see vacant, sent Severus to occupy it, and. banished Flavian to Petra in Arabia, where he died in 518. Eutych. Alex. Annal. Eccl. p. 140; Marcell. Chron. ; Theophan. p. 134; Evagr. H. E. iii. 32.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch
Flavianus (4) I. , bp. of Antioch, 381-404. Born at Antioch, of a distinguished family, he was still very young when his father's death left him heir of his considerable property. As bishop he continued to occupy the family mansion at Antioch, which he devoted to the reception of the sick and distressed of his flock. Chrysostom, in his highly coloured eulogium pronounced on receiving priest's orders at his hands, records that he was remarkable from his earliest years for temperance and contempt of luxury, although early deprived of parental control and exposed to temptations incident to youth, wealth, and good birth. Theodoret (H. E. ii. 24) relates that, when a half-concealed Arianism was triumphing, Flavian, with his friend Diodorus (afterwards bp. of Tarsus), left his home and adopted the life of a solitary. The necessities of the times soon recalled them to Antioch, where as laymen they kept alive an orthodox remnant. Leontius was then the intruding bp. of Antioch, and, while a Eusebian at heart, sought by temporizing to preserve a hollow peace in his church. The counsel of the orthodox bp. Eustathius, before he was expelled from Antioch ( c. 328), was that his adherents should maintain the unity of the church and continue in communion with his successors in the see; but there was no small risk of their being thus gradually absorbed by the Eusebians and losing hold of the Catholic faith. This danger was strenuously met by Flavian and Diodorus. They rallied the faithful about them, accustomed them to assemble round the tombs of the martyrs, and exhorted them to adhere steadfastly to the faith. They are said by Theodoret to have revived the antiphonal chanting of the Psalms, which tradition ascribed to Ignatius ( ib. ii. 24; Socr. H. E. vi. 8). Leontius endeavoured to check the growing influence of these gatherings by causing them to be transferred from the martyries without the walls to the churches of the city, but this only increased their popularity and strengthened the cause of orthodoxy. Flavian and Diodorus became all-powerful at Antioch; Leontius, being unable to resist them, was compelled to retrace his steps (Theod. ii. 24).
Leontius was succeeded by Eudoxius, then by the excellent Meletius, who was deposed, and in 361 by Euzoïus, the old comrade of Arius. Euzoïus was repudiated with horror by all the orthodox. Those who had till now remained in communion with the bishops recognized by the state, separated themselves and recognized Meletius as their bishop. The old Catholic body, however, who bore the name of Eustathians, would not submit to a bishop, however orthodox, consecrated by Arians, and continued to worship apart from their Meletian brethren, as well as from Euzoïus, having as leader Paulinus, a presbyter highly esteemed by all parties. This schism between two orthodox bodies caused much pain to Athanasius and others. A council at Alexandria, early in 362, wisely advised that Paulinus and his flock should unite with Meletius, who had now returned from exile; but the precipitancy of Lucifer of Cagliari perpetuated the schism by ordaining Paulinus bishop. The Arian emperor Valens came to reside at Antioch in June 370; and this was the signal for a violent persecution of the orthodox. Meletius was banished a third time, and the duty of ministering to the faithful under their prolonged trials devolved on Flavian and Diodorus. The Catholics, having been deprived of their churches, took refuge among ravines and caverns in the abrupt mountain ranges overhanging the city. Here they worshipped, exposed to the assaults of a rude soldiery, by whom they were repeatedly dislodged. The persecution ceased with the death of Valens in 378. The exiles were recalled, and Meletius resumed charge of his flock. His official recognition as the Catholic bp. of Antioch was more tardy. Gratian had commanded that the churches should be given up to prelates in communion with Damasus, bp. of Rome, and that Arian intruders should be expelled. But here were two bishops with equal claims to orthodoxy, Paulinus and Meletius, and a third, Vitalian, who held Apollinarian views. Sapor, a high military officer, to whom Gratian had committed the execution of the edict, was much perplexed. Flavian convinced him that the right lay with Meletius. The separation, however, still continued. Paulinus declined the proposal of Meletius that they should be recognized as of equal authority and that the survivor should be sole bishop. The Oriental churches recognized Meletius, the West and Egypt Paulinus (ib. v. 1-3). In 381 Flavian accompanied Meletius to the council of Constantinople, during the session of which Meletius died. Gregory of Nazianzus entreated his brother-bishops to heal the schism by recognizing Paulinus as orthodox bp. of Antioch (Greg. Naz. de Vita Sac. v. 1572 seq. p. 757). But this, however right in itself, would have been a triumph for the Westerns. The council was composed of Oriental bishops, and, in spite of the remonstrances of Gregory, Flavian was elected to succeed Meletius. Flavian cannot be altogether excused for this continuance of the schism; and the less so if, as Socrates (v. 5) and Sozomen (vii. 3, 11) state, he was one of the six leading clergy of Antioch who had sworn not to seek the bishopric themselves at the death of Meletius or Paulinus, but to acknowledge the survivor. This charge, however, is rendered very doubtful by the absence of reference to it in the letters of Ambrose or any contemporary documents published by adherents of Paulinus during the controversy. Flavian was consecrated by Diodorus of Tarsus and Acacius of Beroea with the ratification of the council. Paulinus remonstrated in vain (Theod. v. 23), but his cause was maintained by Damasus and the Western bishops and those of Egypt; while even at Antioch, though most of the Meletians welcomed Flavian with joy (Chrys. Hom. cum Presbyt. fuit ordinatus , § 4), some, indignant at his breaking an engagement, real or implied, separated from his communion and joined Paulinus (Soz. vii. 11). The West refused all intercourse with Flavian, and the council at Aquileia in Sept. 381 wrote to Theodosius in favour of Paulinus, and requested him to summon a council at Alexandria to decide that and other questions. Theodosius acquiesced, but selected Rome. The Eastern prelates declined to attend, and held a synod of their own at Constantinople in 382. Even here the bishops of Egypt, Cyprus, and Arabia recognized Paulinus, and demanded the banishment of Flavian, who was supported by the bishops of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria (Socr. v. 10). A synodal letter was, however, dispatched to Damasus and the Western bishops, recognizing Flavian's consecration as legitimate (Theod. v. 9). Paulinus himself attended the council at Rome, accompanied by Epiphanius and his ardent supporter Jerome. At this council the West refused to acknowledge Flavian as canonically elected. It is said that they even excommunicated him and his two consecrators (Soz. vii. 11). The two rivals continued to exercise episcopal functions for their respective flocks. Consequently church discipline became impossible. Early in his episcopate Flavian exercised his authority against the Syrian sect of perfectionists known as Euchites or Messalians, and to make himself acquainted with their doctrines, which it was their habit to conceal, he condescended to an unworthy act of deception.
In 386 Flavian ordained Chrysostom presbyter, and Chrysostom preached a eulogistic inaugural discourse (Chrys. u.s. §§ 3, 4). The sedition at Antioch and the destruction of the Imperial Statues, 387, shewed Flavian at his best. When the brief fit of popular madness was over and the Antiochenes awoke to their danger, Flavian at their entreaty became their advocate with the emperor, starting immediately on his errand of mercy (Chrys. de Statuis, iii. 1, xxi. 3). The success of his mission was complete. Though Paulinus died in 388, the schism continued; for on his deathbed he had consecrated Evagrius, a presbyter of his church, as his successor (Socr. v. 15; Soz. vii. 15; Theod. v. 23). Theodosius summoned Flavian to meet him at a synod at Capua. Flavian excused himself as winter was setting in, but promised to obey the emperor's bidding in the spring (Theod. v. 23). Ambrose and the other leading Western prelates urged Theodosius to compel Flavian to come to Rome and submit to the judgment of the church. Flavian replied to the emperor that if his episcopal seat only was the object of attack, he would prefer to resign it altogether. The knot was before long cut by the death of Evagrius. Flavian's influence prevented the election of a successor. The Eustathians, however, still refused to acknowledge Flavian, and continued to hold their assemblies apart (Soz. vii. 15, viii. 3; Socr. v. 15). This separation lasted till the episcopate of Alexander, 414 or 415. The division between Flavian and Egypt and the West was finally healed by Chrysostom, who took the opportunity of the presence of Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, at Constantinople for his consecration in 398, to induce him to become reconciled with Flavian, and to join in dispatching an embassy to Rome to supplicate Siricius to recognize Flavian as canonical bishop of Antioch. Their mission was entirely successful (Socr. v. 15; Soz. viii. 3; Theod. v. 23). To shew that all angry feeling had ceased, and to conciliate his opponents, Flavian put the names of Paulinus and Evagrius on the diptychs (Cyril. Alex. Ep. 56, p. 203). Flavian lived long enough to see the deposition and exile of Chrysostom, against which he protested with his last breath. His death probably occurred in 404 (Pallad. Dial. p. 144; Soz. viii. 24; Theophan. p. 68). He governed the church of Antioch for 23 years; and Tillemont thinks it probable that he lived to the age of 95. The Greek church commemorates him on Sept. 26.
He left behind certain homilies of which a few fragments are preserved. Theodoret in his Eranistes quotes one on Joh_1:14 (Dial. i. p. 46) another on St. John the Baptist (ib. p. 66) on Easter and the treachery of Judas (Dial. iii. p. 250) or the Theophania and a passage from his commentary on St. Luke (Dial. ii. p. 160).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Gregorius Theopolitanus, Bishop of Antioch
Gregorius (31) Theopolitanus , bp. of Antioch a.d. 569–594. In his earliest youth he devoted himself to a monastic life, and became so celebrated for his austerities that when scarcely past boyhood he was chosen superior of the Syrian laura of Pharon or Pharan (Moschus), called by Evagrius the monastery of the Byzantines. Sergius the Armenian in the monastery of the Eunuchs near the Jordan was earnestly importuned by Gregory to conduct him to his venerable master, another Sergius, dwelling by the Dead Sea. When the latter saw Gregory approach, he cordially saluted him, brought water, washed his feet, and conversed with him upon spiritual subjects the whole day. Sergius the disciple afterwards reminded his master that he had never treated other visitors, although some had been bishops and presbyters, as he had treated father Gregory. "Who father Gregory may be," the old man replied, "I know not; but this I know, I have entertained a patriarch in my cave, and I have seen him carry the sacred pallium and the Gospels" (Joann. Mosch. Prat. Spirit. c. 139, 140, in Patr. Lat. lxxiv. 189. From Pharan Gregory was summoned by Justin II. to preside over the monastery of Mount Sinai (Evagr. H. E. v. 6). On the expulsion of Anastasius, bp. of Antioch, by Justin in 569, Gregory was appointed his successor. Theophanes ( Chron. a.d. 562, p. 206) makes his promotion take place from the Syrian monastery. His administration is highly praised by Evagrius, who ascribes to him almost every possible excellence. When Chosroes I. invaded the Roman territory, a.d. 572, Gregory, who was kept informed of the real state of affairs by his friend the bp. of Nisibis, then besieged by the Roman forces, vainly endeavoured to rouse the feeble emperor by representations of the successes of the Persian forces and the incompetence of the imperial commanders. An earthquake compelled Gregory to flee with the treasures of the church, and he had the mortification of seeing Antioch occupied by the troops of Adaormanes, the general of Chosroes (Evagr. H. E. v. 9). The latter years of his episcopate were clouded by extreme unpopularity and embittered by grave accusations ( ib. c. 18). In the reign of Maurice, a.d. 588, a quarrel with Asterius, the popular Count of the East, again aroused the passions of the excitable Antiochenes against their bishop. He was openly reviled by the mob, and turned into ridicule on the stage. On the removal of Asterius, his successor, John, was commissioned by the emperor to inquire into the charges against Gregory, who proceeded to Constantinople, accompanied by Evagrius as his legal adviser, c. 589, and received a triumphal acquittal ( ib. vi. 7). He returned to Antioch to witness its almost total destruction by earthquake, a.d. 589, barely escaping with his life ( ib. c. 8). In the wide spread discontent of the imperial forces, the troops in Syria on the Persian frontier broke out into open mutiny. Gregory, who by his largesses had made himself very popular with the troops, was dispatched to bring them back to their allegiance. He was suffering severely from gout, and had to be conveyed in a litter, from which he addressed the army so eloquently that they at once consented to accept the emperor's nominee, Philippicus, as their commander. His harangue is preserved by his grateful friend Evagrius ( ib. c. 11–13). Soon after, his diplomatic skill caused him to be selected by Maurice as an ambassador to the younger Chosroes, when compelled by his disasters to take refuge in the imperial territory, a.d. 590 or 591, and Gregory's advice was instrumental in the recovery of his throne, for which the grateful monarch sent him some gold and jewelled crosses and other valuable presents ( ib. c. 18–21). In spite of his age and infirmities, Gregory conducted a visitation of the remoter portions of his patriarchate, which were much infected with the doctrines of Severus, and succeeded in bringing back whole tribes, as well as many separate villages and monasteries, into union with the catholic church ( ib. c. 22). After this he paid a visit to Simeon Stylites the younger, who was suffering from a mortal disease ( ib. c. 23). Soon after he appears to have resigned his see into the hands of the deposed patriarch Anastasius, who resumed his patriarchal authority in 594, in which year Gregory died ( ib. c. 24). His extant works consist of a homily in Mulieres unguentiferas found in Galland and Migne ( Patr. Gk. lxxxviii. p. 1847), and two sermons on the Baptism of Christ , which have been erroneously ascribed to Chrysostom. Evagrius (vi. 24) also attributes to Gregory a volume of historical collections, now lost. Fabric. Bibl. Graec. xi. 102; Cave, Hist. Lat. i. 534. Cf. Huidacher in Zeitschr. für Kathol. Theol. 1901, xxv. 367.
[1]
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antioch, Syria
Ancient Greek capital on the Orontes river in Asia Minor, at the junction of the Lebanon and Taurus ranges, founded 300 B.C.; next to Rome and Alexandria the greatest city of the Roman Empire. Here Christianity received its name (Acts 11). Its first community was founded by Christianized Jews, driven from Jerusalem by persecution. Peter's long residence here is proved by the episode of the observance of the Jewish ceremonial law even by Christianized pagans, as related by Paul (Galatians 2); the Chair of Peter is commemorated as a feast on February 22,. From Antioch Paul and Barnabas started on their missionary journeys through Asia Minor and Greece (Acts 13; 18).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Antioch
ANTIOCH (Syrian). By the issue of the battle of Ipsus, Seleucus Nikator (b.c. 312 280) secured the rule over most of Alexander the Great’s Asiatic empire, which stretched from the Hellespont and the Mediterranean on the one side to the Jaxartes and Indus on the other. The Seleucid dynasty, which he founded, lasted for 247 years. Possessed with a mama for building cities and calling them after himself or his relatives, he founded no fewer than 37, of which 4 are mentioned in the NT (1) Antioch of Syria ( Acts 11:19 ), (2) Seleucia ( Acts 13:4 ), (3) Antioch of Pisidia ( Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:21 , 2 Timothy 3:11 ), and (4) Laodicea ( Colossians 4:13-16 , Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 3:14 ). The most famous of the 16 Antiochs, which he built and named after his father Antiochus, was Antioch on the Orontes in Syria. The spot was carefully chosen, and religious sanction given to it by the invention of a story that sacred birds had revealed the site while he watched their flight from a neighbouring eminence. It was politically of advantage that the seat of empire should be removed from the Euphrates valley to a locality nearer the Mediterranean. The new city lay in the deep bend of the Levant, about 300 miles N. of Jerusalem. Though 14 miles from the sea, the navigable river Orontes, on whose left bank it was built, united it with Seleucia and its splendid harbour. Connected thus by the main caravan roads with the commerce of Babylon, Persia, and India, and with a seaport keeping it in touch with the great world to the W., Antioch speedily fell heir to that vast trade which had once been the monopoly of Tyre. Its seaport Seleucia was a great fortress, like Gibraltar or Sebastopol. Seleucus attracted to his new capital thousands of Jews, by offering them equal rights of citizenship with all the other inhabitants. The citizens were divided into 18 wards, and each commune attended to its own municipal affairs.
His successor, Antiochus I., Soter (b.c. 280 261), introduced an abundant water supply into the city, so that every private house had its own pipe, and every public spot its graceful fountain. He further strove to render Antioch the intellectual rival of Alexandria, by inviting to his court scholars, such as Aratus the astronomer, and by superintending the translation into Greek of learned works in foreign tongues. In this way the invaluable history of Babylon by Berosus, the Chaldæan priest, has been rescued from oblivion.
The succession of wars which now broke out between the Seleucidæ and the Ptolemys is described in Daniel 11:1-45 . The fortunes of the war varied greatly. Under the next king but one, Seleucus II., Kallinikus (b.c. 246 226), Ptolemy Euergetes captured Seleucia, installed an Egyptian garrison in it, and harried the Seleucid empire as far as Susiana and Bactria, carrying off to Egypt an immense spoil. Worsted on the field, Kallinikus devoted himself to the embellishment of his royal city. As founded by S. Nikator, Antioch had consisted of a single quarter. Antiochus I., Soter , had added a second, but Kallinikus now included a third, by annexing to the city the island in the river and connecting it to the mainland by five bridges. In this new area the streets were all at right angles, and at the intersection of the two principal roads the way was spanned by a tetrapylon, a covered colonnade with four gates. The city was further adorned with costly temples, porticoes, and statues. But the most remarkable engineering feat begun in this reign was the excavation of the great dock at Seleucia, the building of the protecting moles, and the cutting of a canal inland through high masses of solid rock. The canal is successively a cutting and a tunnel, the parts open to the sky aggregating in all 1869 ft., in some places cut to the depth of 120 ft., while the portions excavated as tunnels (usually 24 ft. high) amount in all to 395 ft.
With Antiochus III., the Great (b.c. 223 187), the fortunes of the city revived. He drove out the Egyptian garrison from Seleucia, ended the Ptolemaic sovereignty over Judæa, reduced all Palestine and nearly all Asia Minor to his sway, until his might was finally shattered by the Romans in the irretrievable defeat of Magnesia (b.c. 190). After the assassination of his son Seleucus IV., Philopator (b.c. 187 175), who was occupied mostly in repairing the financial losses his kingdom had sustained, the brilliant but wholly unprincipled youth Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (b.c. 175 164), succeeded to the throne. With the buffoonery of a Caligula and the vice of a Nero, he united the genius for architecture and Greek culture which he inherited from his race. In his dreams Antioch was to be a metropolls, second to none for beauty, and Greek art and Greek religion were to be the uniform rule throughout all his dominions. To the three quarters already existing he added a fourth, which earned for Antioch the title ‘Tetrapolis.’ Here he erected a Senate House, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus on one of the eminences of Mt. Silpius, and a strong citadel on another spur of the mountains that surround the city. From E. to W. of Antioch he laid out a splendid corso with double colonnades, which ran for 5 miles in a straight line. In wet weather the populace could walk from end to end under cover. Trees, flowers, and fountains adorned the promenade; and poets sang of the beauty of the statue of Apollo and of the Nymphæum which he erected near the river. To avert the anger of the gods during a season of pestilence, he ordered the sculptor Leios to hew Mt. Silpius into one vast statue of Charon, the infernal ferryman. It frowned over the city, and was named the Charonium. Epiphanes’ policy of Hellenizing Palestine evoked the determined opposition of the Maccabees, and in the wars which ensued his forces suffered many defeats, though the injuries and atrocities he committed in Jerusalem were unspeakable. With Antiochus Epiphanes died the grandeur of the Syrian throne.
Succeeding princes exercised only a very moderate influence over the fortunes of Palestine, and the palmy days of Antioch as a centre of political power were gone for ever. The city was the scene of many a bloody conflict in the years of the later Seleucidæ, as usurper after usurper tried to wade through blood to the throne, and was shortly after overcome by some rival. In several of these struggles the Jews took part, and as the power of Antioch waned, the strength and practical independence of the Jewish Hasmonæan princes increased. In b.c. 83 all Syria passed into the hands of Tigranes, king of Armenia, who remained master of Antioch for 14 years. When Tigranes was overwhelmed by the Romans, Pompey put an end to the Seleucid dynasty, and the line of Antiochene monarchs expired in b.c. 65. The strong Pax Romana gave new vigour to the city. Antioch was made a free city, and became the seat of the prefect and the capital of the Roman province of Syria. Mark Antony ordered the release of all the Jews in it enslaved during the recent disturbances, and the restoration of their property. As a reward for Antioch’s fidelity to him, Julius Cæsar built a splendid basilica, the Cæsareum , and gave, besides, a new aqueduct, theatre, and public baths. Augustus, Agrippa, Herod the Great, Tiberius, and, later, Antoninus Pius, all greatly embellished the city, contributing many new and striking architectural features. The ancient walls were rebuilt to the height of 50 60 ft., with a thickness at the top of 8 ft., and surmounted by gigantic towers. The vast rampart was carried across ravines up the mountain slope to the very summit of the hills which overlook the city. Antioch seemed thus to be defended by a mountainous bulwark, 7 miles in circuit. Earthquakes have in later ages demolished these walls, though some of the Roman castles are still standing.
When Christianity reached Antioch, it was a great city of over 500,000 inhabitants, called the ‘Queen of the East,’ the ‘Third Metropolis of the Roman Empire.’ In ‘Antioch the Beautiful’ there was to be found everything which Italian wealth, Greek æstheticism, and Oriental luxury could produce. The ancient writers, however, are unanimous in describing the city as one of the foulest and most depraved in the world. Cosmopolitan in disposition, the citizens acted as if they were emancipated from every law, human or Divine. Licentiousness, superstition, quackery, indecency, every fierce and base passion, were displayed by the populace; their skill in coining scurrilous verses was notorious, their sordid, fickle, turbulent, and insolent ways rendered the name of Antioch a byword for all that was wicked. Their brilliance and energy, so praised by Cicero, were balanced by an incurable levity and shameless disregard for the first principles of morality. So infamous was the grove of Daphne, five miles out of the city, filled with shrines to Apollo, Venus, Isis, etc., and crowded with theatres, baths, taverns, and dancing saloons, that soldiers detected there were punished and dismissed the Imperial service. ‘Daphnic morals’ became a proverb. Juvenal could find no more forcible way of describing the pollutions of Rome than by saying, ‘The Orontes has flowed into the Tiber.’ In this Vanity Fair the Jews were resident in large numbers, yet they exerted little or no influence on the morals of the city. We hear, however, of one Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch (Acts 6:5 ), and there may have been more. But after the death of St. Stephen, Christian fugitives from persecution fled as far north as Antioch, began to preach to the Greeks there ( Acts 11:19 ), and a great number believed. So great was the work that the Jerus. Church sent Barnabas to assist, who, finding that more help was needed, sought out and fetched Saul from Tarsus. There they continued a year, and built up a strong Church. Antioch had the honour of being the birthplace of (1) the name ‘Christian’ ( Acts 11:26 ), and (2) of foreign missions. From this city Paul and Barnabas started on their first missionary journey ( Acts 13:1-4 ), and to Antioch they returned at the end of the tour ( Acts 14:26 ). The second journey was begun from and ended at Antioch ( Acts 15:35-41 ; Acts 18:22 ); and the city was again the starting-point of the third tour ( Acts 18:23 ). The Antiochene Church contributed liberally to the poor saints in Jerus. during the famine ( Acts 11:27-30 ). Here also the dispute regarding the circumcision of Gentile converts broke out ( Acts 15:1-22 ), and here Paul withstood Peter for his inconsistency ( Galatians 2:11-21 ). After the fall of Jerusalem, Antioch became the true centre of Christianity. A gate still bears the name of ‘St. Paul’s Gate.’ It was from Antioch that Ignatius set out on his march to martyrdom at Rome. The city claimed as its natives John Chrysostom, Ammianus Marcellinus, Evagrius, and Libanius. From a.d. 252 380 Antioch was the scene of ten Church Councils. The Patriarch of Antioch took precedence of those of Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Alexandria. Antioch was captured in a.d. 260 by Sapor of Persia; in a.d. 538 it was burned by Chosroes; rebuilt by Justinian, it again fell before the Saracens in a.d. 635. Nicephorus Phocas recovered it in a.d. 969, but in a.d. 1084 it fell to the Seljuk Turks. The first Crusaders retook it in 1098 after a celebrated siege, signalized by the ‘invention of the Holy Lance’; but in 1268 it passed finally into the hands of the Turks. Earthquakes have added to the ruining hand of man. Those of b.c. 184, a.d. 37, 115, 457, and esp. 526 (when 200,000 persons perished), 528, 1170, and 1872 have been the most disastrous. The once vast city has shrunk into a small, ignoble, and dirty town of 6,000 inhabitants, still, however, hearing the name of Antaki (Turkish) or Antakiyah (Arabic). It is again the centre of a Christian mission, and the Church of Antioch, as of old, is seeking to enlighten the surrounding darkness.
G. A. Frank Knight.
ANTIOCH (Pisidian). The expression ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ or ‘Antioch in Pisidia’ is incorrect, as the town was not in Pisidia. Its official title was ‘Antioch near Pisidia,’ and as it existed for the sake of Pisidia, the adjective ‘Pisidian’ was sometimes loosely attached to it. It was actually in the ethnic district of Phrygia, and in the Roman province of Galatia (that region of it called Phrygia Galatica). Founded by the inhabitants of Magnesia, it was made a free town by the Romans, and a colonia was established there by the emperor Augustus to keep the barbarians of the neighbourhood in check. The municipal government became Roman, and the official language Latin. St. Paul visited it four times ( Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:21 ; Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:22 ), and it is one of the churches addressed in the Epistle to the Galatians.
A. Souter.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antioch, Pisidia
City, situated in Asia Minor, on the south slope of the mountains that separated Phrygia from Pisidia, two miles east of the ruins of Yalo-bach. Acts 13, gives a lengthy account of Paul's stay here, and shows the influence of his and Barnabas's work.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antioch, School of
Designation given to the Fathers of Antioch, who insisted more on the so-called grammatico-historical sense of the Holy Scripture than its moral and allegorical meaning. They steered a course between Origen and Theodore, avoiding the excesses of both, and thus laying the foundation of the principles of interpretation which Catholic exegetes follow. The principal representatives of the school are: John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Isidore of Pelusium, and Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antioch, Ignatius of, Saint
Martyr, Bishop of Antioch, born Syria, c.50;died Rome, Italy, 107. He was known also as Theophoros, "God-Bearer," and from that, was said to have been the infant whom Christ took up in His arms (Mark 9). Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the persecution of Domitian. Trajan sent him in chains to Rome; during this last journey he was welcomed by the faithful of Smyrna, Troas, and other places along the way; he addressed epistles, of supreme interest and value, to various congregations, for, as a disciple of the Apostles, Ignatius testifies to the dogmatic character of Apostolic Christianity. His name occurs in the "Nobis quoque peccatoribus" in the Canon of the Mass. Relics at Rome. Feast, Roman Calendar, February 1,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Antioch, Maximilian of, Saint
Martyr, died Antioch, c353He was a soldier of the Herculean cohort, and was martyred for refusing to remove the monogram of Christ from the standard, as had been ordered by Julian the Apostate. Feast, August 21,.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch
Ignatius (1), St. (called Theophorus ), Oct. 17, the 2nd bp. of Antioch (c. 70– c. 107), between Evodius and Hero. He is sometimes reckoned the 3rd bishop, St. Peter being reckoned the first (Bosch, Pat. Ant. in Boll. Acta SS. Jul. iv. introd. p. 8; Le Quien, Or. Chr. ii. 700).
The question of the life and writings of Ignatius, including the connected subject of the Ep. of Polycarp to the Philippians, has been described by M. Renan as the most difficult in early Christian history next to that of the fourth gospel.
I. About 165 Lucian in his satire de Morte Peregrini relates (cc. 14–41) that Peregrinus was made a prisoner in Syria. The Christians of Asia Minor sent messengers and money to him according to their usual custom when persons were imprisoned for their faith. Peregrinus wrote letters to all the more important cities, forwarding these by messengers whom he appointed ( ἐχειροτόνησε ) and entitled νεκραγγέλους and νερτεροδρόμους . The coincidence of this story with that of Ignatius, as told afterwards by Eusebius, would be alone a strong evidence of connexion. The similarity of the expressions with the πρέπει χειροτονῆσαί τινα ὃς δυνήσεται θεοδρόμος καλεῖσθαι of ad Pol. vii. would, if the words stood alone, make it almost certain that Lucian was mimicking the words of the epistle. These two probabilities lead us to believe that the composition was by one acquainted with the story and even some of the letters of Ignatius. (Renan, i. 38; Zahn, i. 517; Pearson, i. 2; Denzinger, 85; Lightfoot, ii. See Authorities at the foot of this art.)
Theophilus, bp. of Antioch (fl. before 167), has a coincidence with Ignat. ad Eph. xix. 1, where the virginity of Mary is said to have been concealed from the devil. Irenaeus, c. 180 ( adv. Haer. iii. 3, 4), bears witness that Polycarp wrote to the Philippians, and (v. 28) mentions how a Christian martyr said, "I am the bread-corn of Christ, to be ground by the teeth of beasts that I may be found pure bread"—words found in Ignat. ad Rom. iv. 1. the passage of Irenaeus is quoted by Eusebius ( H. E. iii. 36) as a testimony to Ignatius. Origen, early in 3rd cent., Prol. in Cant. ( Op. ed. Delarue, iii. 30), writes, "I remember also that one of the saints, by name Ignatius, said of Christ, 'My love was crucified'"—words found in Ignat. ad Rom. vii. 2. Origen also ( Hom. in Luc. vol. iii. 938) says, "I find it well written in one of the epistles of a certain martyr, I mean Ignatius, 2nd bp. of Antioch after Peter, who in the persecution fought with beasts at Rome, that the virginity of Mary escaped the prince of this world" (Ignat. ad Eph. xix. 1).
Eusebius, early in 4th cent., gives a full account which explains these fragmentary allusions and quotations. In his Chronicle he twice names Ignatius as 2nd bp. of Antioch after the apostles; in one case adding that he was martyred. In his Ecclesiastical History , besides less important notices of our saint and of Polycarp, he relates (iii. 22, 37, 38, iv. 14, 15) how Ignatius, whom he calls very celebrated among the Christians, was sent from Syria to Rome to be cast to the beasts for Christ's sake. When journeying under guard through Asia he addressed to the cities near places of his sojourn exhortations and epistles. Thus in Smyrna, the city of Polycarp, he wrote to Ephesus, Magnesia, and Tralles. He wrote to the Romans, begging them not to impede his martyrdom. Of this epistle Eusebius appends § v. at length. Then he tells how Ignatius, having left Smyrna and come to Troas, wrote thence to the Philadelphians and Smyrnaeans and to Polycarp. One sentence from Smyr . iii. Eusebius copies as containing a saying of Christ not otherwise handed down. The Apostolical Constitutions , in their uninterpolated form as known to us through the Syriac trans. of the Didascalia , in several places coincide very strikingly with the shorter Greek or 7 Vossian epistles. An epistle which passes under the name of Athanasius, and which if not by him is by a contemporary writer, quotes a passage from ad Eph. vii. 2, as written by Ignatius, who after the apostles was bp. of Antioch and a martyr of Christ. (See, as to the genuineness of this epistle, Cureton, lxviii.; Zahn, i. 578.) St. Basil (ed. Ben. ii. 598) quotes, without naming Ignatius, the familiar sentence from ad Eph. xix. 1, concerning Satan's ignorance of the virginity of Mary. St. Jerome's testimony is dependent on that of Eusebius. St. Chrysostom ( Op. vol. ii. 592) has a homily on St. Ignatius which relates that he was appointed by the apostles bp. of Antioch; was sent for to Rome in a time of persecution to be there judged; instructed and admonished with wonderful power all the cities on the way, and Rome itself when he arrived; was condemned and martyred in the Roman theatre crying, Ἐγὼ τῶν θηρίων ἐκείνων ὀναίμην ; and his remains were transferred after death with great solemnity to Antioch. (Zahn [1] does not believe that the genuine writings of Chrysostom shew that he was acquainted with the writings of Ignatius. But see the other side powerfully argued by Pearson, i. 9; Denzinger, 90; Lipsius, ii. 21.) Theodoret frequently cites the 7 Vossian epistles, and mentions Ignatius as ordained by St. Peter and made the food of beasts for the testimony of Christ. Severus, patriarch of Antioch (513–551), has a long catalogue of sayings from Ignatius, in which every one of the 7 epistles is laid under contribution. These are to be found in Syr. in Cureton, in Gk. in Zahn (ii. 352). Cureton furnishes also a large collection of Syriac fragments, in which passages taken from the 7 Vossian epistles are declared to have the force of canons in the church.
II. We possess also a multitude of Acts of the martyrdom of St. Ignatius, which, if we could accept them, would supply very particular accounts of his life and death. Of these Ussher published 3 in whole or part: one in Lat. from two related MSS.; another in Lat. from the Cottonian library; a third in Gk. from a MS. at Oxford. The Bollandists published a Latin martyrdom in the Acta SS. for Feb. 1; Cotelerius a Gk. one by Symeon Metaphrastes. Ruinart, and afterwards Jacobson ( Pat. Ap. ii.), printed a Gk. MS. from the Colbertine collection (MS, Colb.); J. S. Assemani found a Syriac one which may be the same as that partly printed by Cureton (i.). Aucher, and afterwards Petermann (p. 496), published an Armenian one. Dressel printed a Gk. version of the 10th cent. (MS. Vat.). The 9 are reducible to 5, possessing each a certain independence. But of these MS. Colb. and MS. Vat. are by far the most valuable, being completely independent, while the remaining versions are mixtures of these two.
MS. Colb. (see Zahn, ii. p. 301) relates the condemnation of Ignatius by Trajan in Antioch, and incorporates the Ep. to the Romans. This MS. bears marks of interpolation, and its chief value lies in its incorporation of the Ep. to the Romans. The other epistles the author of the MS. has not read carefully. We conclude that this martyrdom, written in the 4th cent., assumed its present form after the first half of the 5th.
MS. Vat. (Zahn, ii. 307) omits all judicial proceedings in Antioch. Ignatius is sent for by Trajan to Rome, as a teacher dangerous to the state; an argument takes place before the senate between the emperor and the saint; the lions kill him, but leave the body untouched, and it remains as a sacred deposit at Rome. Thus MS. Vat. seems to have arisen on the basis of an account of the journey and death of the saint, extant at the end of the 4th cent. On the whole, the martyrdoms are late and untrustworthy compositions, wholly useless as materials for determining the question of the epistles; we are thrown back on Eusebius.
III. Eusebius in the Chronicle (ed. Schöne, ii. 152, I58, 162) omits (contrary to his custom) the durations of the episcopates of Antioch. We can, therefore, place Ignatius's death any time between Ab. 2123, Traj. 10, and 2132, Traj. 19. In H. E. iii. 22, Eusebius, in a general way, makes the episcopates of Symeon and Ignatius contemporary with the first years of Trajan and the last of St. John and (iii. 36) with Polycarp and Papias. We may date his epistles, journey, and death in any year from 105; to 117. Funk fixes it at 107.
In 1878 Harnack published a tract (Die Zeit des Ign. Leipz.) impugning the tradition that Ignatius was martyred under Trajan. The argument rests upon the acts of the martyrdom being proved by Zahn, with the general assent of all his critics, to be untrustworthy; the date of the saint's death thus resting wholly on the testimony of Eusebius, who shews that he had no data except the untrustworthy information of Julius Africanus (Harnack, pp. 66 sqq.). But it is very improbable that Eusebius had no tradition save through Africanus, or the latter no tradition save four names.
The theory of Volkmar; which the author of Supernatural Religion (i. 268) regarded as "demonstrated," was that the martyrdom of Ignatius happened not in Rome but in Antioch, upon Dec. 20, 115 (on which day his feast was kept), in consequence of the excitement produced by an earthquake a week previously; but it is now known from the ancient Syriac Menologion, published by Wright ( Journ. Sac. Lit. Jan. 1866, p. 45), that the feast was originally kept not upon Dec. 20, but upon Oct. 17. (Zahn, i. 33, and Lightfoot, ii. 352, note §, are to be corrected in accordance with this discovery.)
The other details in the martyrdoms and elsewhere are but expansions from hints supposed to be found in the letters, of which we find an instance in the long dialogue between Ignatius and Trajan upon the name Θεοφόρος . There is no reason to suspect the genuineness of this addition to the saint's name. It is given untranslated in the 4th cent. Syriac version. The interpolator found it in his copy, for it stands in all his epistles except that to Polycarp and in all the MSS. of the shorter translation, both Greek and Latin. The 4th-cent. writers, regarding it as a title of honour, do not quote it; in the 6th it came to be regarded as a name.
The tradition that Ignatius was martyred at Rome can be traced higher than the records of Eusebius and Origen. The designation of world-famed, which Eusebius gives him, shews the general tradition; and the words of Origen are to the same effect. The testimony of Irenaeus which Eusebius adduces as perfectly agreeing with the tradition known to him, dates but 70 years after the fact. True, these expressions come from writers who knew the epistles; but the mere existence of the epistles at such a date, even if they were spurious, would be sufficient proof of the existence of the tradition; and it is impossible that such a story should have arisen so soon after Trajan, if it had contradicted known facts or prevalent customs of his reign.
Eusebius clearly wrote with the collection of letters before him, and knew of no other collection besides the 7 he mentions. These he arranges according to place and time of writing, gives his quotation from Romans as out of "the Epistles," and cites Irenaeus's quotation from Ignatius, as proof of that writer's knowledge of them, although Irenaeus did not mention the author's name.
IV. The gradual presentation of the various Ignatian documents to the modern world is related in the introduction to Cureton's Corpus Ignatianum and is briefly as follows. Late in the 15th and in the beginning of the 16th cents. 12 epistles, purporting to be by Ignatius, were given to the world, first in Latin translations, then in the original Greek, together with three others manifestly spurious, which existed in Latin alone. The epistles which bear non-Eusebian titles were soon suspected of spuriousness, and it was proved that the text of the Eusebian, as then known, was interpolated. Ussher first restored the genuine text by means of a Latin translation which he discovered, and his arguments (except as to his doubt whether Ignatius wrote separately to Polycarp) were confirmed by Vossius's publication of the Medicean MS. Thenceforward we have had the longer and the shorter (or Vossian) recensions, the former containing the 7 Eusebian epistles in a longer text and also epistles of Mary of Castabala to Ignatius, with his reply, of Ignatius to the Tarsians, Philippians, Antiochenes, and Hero, his successor; the Vossian comprising only the Eusebian letters and those in a shorter text. The longer recension has had few defenders, while the shorter had many and early assailants, moved especially by its support of episcopacy. Of these Daillé was perhaps the ablest, but he was sufficiently answered by bp. Pearson. The genuineness of the longer recension as a whole is now generally denied, the time and method of its interpolations and additions being the only points for consideration.
Cureton in 1839 transcribed from Syriac MSS. in the Brit. Mus. a fragment of the martyrdom of Ignatius and of the Ep. to the Romans therein contained. In 1847 he discovered, among Syriac MSS. acquired in the meantime, three epistles of Ignatius, viz. to Polycarp, to the Ephesians, and to the Romans, transcribed in the 6th or 7th cent. These epistles are in a form considerably shorter even than the shorter recension of the earlier time. Cureton believed this the sole genuine text, and argued the point very ably, but with a confidence which in its contrast with the present state of belief should be a warning to all who are tempted to be too positive on this difficult controversy. Many scholars at the time accepted the Curetonian theory, and Bunsen wrote a voluminous work in its defence. The Armenian version, first printed, though very incorrectly, in 1783, is mentioned by Cureton, who failed to perceive the effect its testimony was to have upon his own argument. The correct publication and due estimate of the Armenian version are due to Petermann. According to him, it was rendered out of Syriac in the 5th cent., and agrees with Ussher's Latin MS. in that, while it contains several post-Eusebian epistles united with the Eusebian, the latter are free from any systematic interpolations such as are in the longer recension.
V. Date of the Longer Recension. —The latest ancient writer who cites only the Eusebian epistles in the uninterpolated text is the monk Antonius in the early part of the 7th cent. (Cureton, p. 176; Zahn, ii. 350). Severus of Antioch, 6th cent. (Cureton, 212; Zahn, 352) cites all the Eusebian epistles in a text free from interpolations.
We cannot doubt that in Ussher's MS. and in the Armenian translation we have (minute textual criticism apart) the 7 epistles as the Fathers from Eusebius to Severus of Antioch and as the interpolator had them. The arguments of Ussher upon this point remain unanswered. But the Armenian, with the Syriac translation from which it sprang, brings back the composition of the six additional epistles to a.d. 400 at latest; and these are undoubtedly the work of the same hand which interpolated the others. On the other hand, the interpolation cannot have been before 325, or Eusebius would have cited or alluded to it; moreover, it shews undoubted marks of dependence on his history. The period of the interpolator is thus fixed at the latter part of the 4th cent. His doctrine, as Ussher shewed (p. 221), is stark Arianism.
Several names in Pseudo-Ignatius are borrowed from the period a.d. 360 to 380 (Philost. iii. 15; Theod. i. 5, v. 7; Socr. iii. 25, iv. 12). The titles of the new letters are also easily accounted for in the same period. Pseudo-Ignatius interests himself against the Quartodecimans; proving that they must have been still strong when he wrote, which was not the case at the conclusion of the 4th cent. These oppositions point to the period 360–380. Thus all historical indications point to the 2nd half of the 4th cent. as the date of the interpolations.
Zahn conjectures the interpolator to have been Acacius, the scholar, biographer, and successor of Eusebius at Caesarea, who, as Sozomen (iv. 23) informs us, was regarded as heir to the learning as well as the position of that divine. The roughness of the known character of Acacius (c. 360) agrees with the abusiveness of Pseudo- Ignatius.
Different Syriac translations of Greek works give similar citations from Ignatius in somewhat varying language; probably because the authors cited from memory an existing Syriac version. Zahn contends that the Armenian version came from the one Syriac translation in the 5th cent., and from it the extracts were taken, perhaps somewhat later, which Cureton mistook for the original epistles. The connexion in which Cureton's epistles were found is that of a series of extracts from Fathers whose remaining works are not to be supposed rendered doubtful by their absence from this Syriac MS., and Petermann (xxi.) has corrected Bunsen's supposition that the concluding words of the MS. imply that the epistles of Ignatius, as known to the writer, were all comprised in what he copied. Zahn (pp. 199, 200) compares the Syriac extracts numbered i. and ii. in Corp. Ignat., taken as they were, beyond doubt, from the existing Syriac translation, with S. Cur. ( i.e. Cureton's Syriac Epp. ); and apparently succeeds in making out that the same translator, whose work is presented in a fragmentary form in S. Cur., meets us in these extracts. E.g. the expression θηριομαχεῖν , and many other peculiar words, are similarly rendered; though no. i. seems sometimes to preserve better the text from which it was copied. We might cull from S. Cur. itself certain proofs that it was not the original. Moreover, there are certain passages in it which are plainly not complete in themselves. It is surely a quite sufficient motive to suppose that the epitomator intended to make one of those selections of the best parts of a good work, which in all ages have been practised upon the most eminent writers without disrespect. Hefele (see Denzinger, pp. 8, 196) thinks he can discern the practical ascetic purpose of the selection, and we observe that very naturally the abbreviator begins each epistle with a design of taking all that is most edifying; but his resolution or his space fails him before the end, when he abridges far more than at the beginning. His form of Ephesians has alone an uniform character of epitome from the first; but a number of personal names plainly fit to be omitted come very early. Denzinger powerfully urges (pp. 77 seq.) the certainty that the Monophysites would have complained when the seven epistles were quoted against them had these been spurious, and he and Uhlhorn have fully shewn how entirely the epitomator is committed to any doctrines in the shorter recension which can be found difficult. What a useless and objectless task then would any one have in interpolating and extending Cureton's three into the seven! Upon the whole case we can pronounce with much confidence that the Curetonian theory is never likely to revive.
VI. The Ep. to the Romans differs from the other six Eusebian letters in being used by some authors who use no others and omitted by some who cite the others. Zahn suggests that it did not at first belong to the collection, but was propounded by itself, with or without a martyrdom. This seems supported by the fact that it escaped the interpolations which the other epistles suffered at the hand, probably, of Acacius.
VII. The circumstances of the journey and martyrdom of Ignatius, gathered from the seven epistles and from that of Polycarp, are as follows: He suffers under a merely local persecution. It is in progress at Antioch while he is in Smyrna, whence he writes to the Romans, Ephesians, Magnesians, and Trallians. But Rome, Magnesia (xii.), and Ephesus (xii.) are at peace, and in Troas he learns that peace is restored to the church in Antioch. Of the local causes of this Antiochene persecution we are ignorant, but it is not in the least difficult to credit. The imagined meeting of the emperor and the saint is not found in the epistles; it is "the world" under whose enmity the church is there said to suffer. All now recognize that, according to the testimony of the letters, Ignatius has been condemned in Antioch to death, and journeys with death by exposure to the beasts as the settled fate before him. He deprecates interposition of the church at Rome (quite powerful enough at the end of the 1st cent. to be conceivably successful in such a movement) for the remission of a sentence already delivered. The supposition of Hilgenfeld (i. 200) that prayer to God for his martyrdom, or abstinence from prayer against it, is what he asks of the Romans seems quite inadmissible, and we could not conceive him so assured of the approach of death if the sentence had not been already pronounced. The right of appeal to the emperor was recognized, and could be made without the consent of the criminal, but not if the sentence had proceeded from the emperor himself. Thus the Colbertine Martyrdom, which makes Trajan the judge at Antioch, contradicts the epistles no less than the Vatican which puts off the process to Rome. MS. Colb. brings Ignatius by sea to Smyrna; but Eusebius, who had read the epistles, supposes the journey to be by land, and he is clearly right. The journey "by land and sea" (ad Rom. v.) may easily refer to a voyage from Seleucia to some Cilician port, and thence by road. The ordinary way from Antioch to Ephesus was by land, and Ignatius calls the messenger to be sent by the Smyrnaeans to Antioch θεοδρόμος ( Pol. vii.). Ignatius did not, as was usual, pass through Magnesia and Ephesus, but left the great road at Sardis and came by Laodicea, Hierapolis, Philadelphia, and perhaps Colossae, as he had certainly visited Philadelphia and met there the false teachers from Ephesus (Zahn, 258 seq. also 266 seq.). The churches written to were not chosen at random, but were those which had shewn their love by sending messengers to him. The replies were thus, primarily, letters of thanks, quite naturally extending into admonitions.
We find him in the enjoyment of much freedom on his journey, though chained to a soldier. In Philadelphia he preaches, not in a church, but in a large assembly of Christians; in Smyrna he has intercourse with the Christians there and with messengers of other churches. He has much speech with the bishops concerning the state of the churches. That of Ephesus he treats with special respect, and anticipates writing a second letter (ad Eph. xx.); that of Tralles he addresses in a markedly different manner ( ad. Tr. 2, 12). He must, therefore, have had lime in Smyrna to acquaint himself with the condition of the neighbouring churches. If the writing of epistles under the circumstances of his captivity should cause surprise, it must be remembered that they are only short letters, not books. The expression βιβλίδιον , which in Eph 20 he applies to his intended second missive, is often applied to letters. He dictated to a Christian, and thus might, as Pearson remarks, have finished one of the shorter letters in an hour, the longest in three. Perpetua and Saturus wrote in prison narratives as long as the epistles of Ignatius (Acta SS. Perp. et Fel. Ruinart). A ten days' sojourn would amply meet the necessities of the case; and there is nothing in the treatment to which the letters witness inconsistent with that used to other Christian prisoners, e.g. St. Paul. The numberless libelli pacis , written by martyrs in prison, and the celebrations of the holy mysteries there with their friends, shew that the liberty given Ignatius was not extraordinary; especially as the word εὐεργετούμενοι which he applies to his guard points, doubtless, to money given them by the Christians. Ignatius is always eager to know more Christians and to interest them in each other. The news of the cessation of persecution in Antioch stirs him to urge Polycarp to take an interest in that church. The great idea of the Catholic church is at work in him. He does not deny that his request that messengers should be sent to Antioch is an unusual one, but dwells upon the great benefit which will result ( Pol. 7; Sm. 11; Phil. 10). But when Polycarp, a few weeks or months afterwards, writes to the Philippians, the messenger had not yet been sent. Ignatius had but lately passed through Philippi, by the Via Egnatia to Neapolis. The Philippians immediately after wrote to Polycarp, and forwarded a message to the Antiochenes, expecting to be in time to catch the messenger for Antioch before his departure. Ignatius had plainly been suggesting the same thoughts to them as to Polycarp; and this would be plainer still if the reading in Eus. H. E. iii. 36, 14 ( ἐγράψατέ μοι καί ὑμεῖς καί Ἰγνάτιος ) were more sure, and thus a second letter had been received by Polycarp from Ignatius. But this second epistle, if written, has been lost. Polycarp wrote immediately after receiving the epistle of the Philippians. He speaks of the death of Ignatius, knowing that the sentence in Antioch made it certain; probably knowing also the date of the games at which he was to die. But he is not acquainted with any particulars, since he asks for news concerning the martyr and those with him (Ep. Pol. xiii.), and at the request of the Philippians forwards all the epistles of Ignatius to which he had access, viz. those to the Asiatic churches; but not all that he knew to have been written.
VIII. The chief difficulty in accepting the epistles as genuine has always arisen from the form of church government which they record as existing and support with great emphasis. They display the threefold ministry established in Asia Minor and Syria, and the terms Ἐπίσκοπος and πρεσβύτερος are applied to perfectly distinct orders—a state of things and use of language which are argued to be wholly incompatible with a date early in the 2nd cent. Hence Daillé derived his "palmary argument" (c. xxvi., answered by Pears. ii. 13).
It is noteworthy that the testimony of the epistles on this point extends no further than the localities named. To the Romans Ignatius only once names the office of a bishop, and that in reference to himself; and in Polycarp's Ep. to the Philippians there is no mention of any bishop, while the deacons and presbyters are addressed at considerable length. The standpoint of the epistles is perfectly consistent with the supposition that episcopacy existing from the times of the apostles in Asia Minor and Syria and believed by the Christians there to be a divinely ordained institution, made its way gradually into other parts of the church, and that those who most valued it might yet know that it did not exist in churches to which they wrote, or not be assured that it did, and might feel it no part of their duty to enter upon a controversy concerning it.
Zahn fairly observes that there is no attempt, even in those epistles where obedience to the bishop is most urged, to recommend it in opposition to other forms of church government. Not only is the supposition that Ignatius was introducing episcopacy utterly out of the question, but none of the epistles bear the slightest trace of any recent introduction of it in the places in which it exists. The presbyterate is everywhere identified with the episcopate in its claims to obedience, and those who resist the one resist the other. It is extremely hard to reconcile these characteristics with the supposition that the letters were forged to introduce the rule of bishops or to uplift it to an unprecedented position in order to resist the assaults of heresy.
A good deal of uncertainty remains as to the relations which the smaller congregations outside the limits of the cities held in the Ignatian church order to the bishops of the cities. No provision appears for episcopal rule over country congregations whose pastors are not in the "presbytery"—an uncommon expression in antiquity, but used 13 times by Ignatius.
The duties the epistles ascribe to bishops are very similar to those which St. Paul (Acts 20 ) lays upon presbyters. Only in one place (Pol. 5) do they speak of the preaching of the bishop; and it is not peculiar to him, but common with the. presbyters. The deacons have duties wholly distinct, concerned with the meat and drink given to the poor and with the distribution of the mysteries of the Eucharist. But the presbyters are very closely united with the bishop. They are not his vicars, but his συνέδριον ( Phil. 8; Pol. 7), and yet the bishop is by no means a mere president of the college of presbyters. Zahn shews that even though the development of episcopacy were thought to have taken place through the elevation of one of a college to a presidency in those parts where it did not exist in the end of the 1st cent., it would still be impossible to hold this of Asia. The youth of many of the earliest Asiatic bishops puts this theory entirely out of the question there. Whatever development is implied in the passage from the state of things represented in I. Pet. and I. Tim. to organized episcopacy, took place, according to the testimony of all records both of Scripture and tradition, in the 30 years between the death of St. Paul and the time of Domitian, had Asia Minor for its centre, and was conducted under the influence of St. John and apostolic men from Palestine, in which country Jerusalem offers the records of a succession of bishops more trustworthy perhaps than that of any other see. Now the Syrian churches were from the first in closest union with Palestine. Thus all the most undoubted records of episcopacy in the sub-apostolic age centre in the very quarters in which our epistles exhibit it, a weighty coincidence in determining their authenticity.
It is certainly somewhat startling to those accustomed to regard bishops as the successors of the apostles that Ignatius everywhere speaks of the position of the apostles as corresponding to that of the existing presbyters, while the prototype of the bishop is not the apostles, but the Lord Himself. It would be hasty, however, to infer that Ignatius denied that the office and authority of the apostles was represented and historically succeeded by that of the bishops. The state of things visibly displayed when the Lord and His apostles were on earth is for Ignatius the type of church order for all time. (See Bp. Harold Browne, The Strife and the Victory , 1872, p. 62.) If, however, the epistles had been forged to support episcopacy, they would not have omitted an argument of such weight as the apostolical authority and succession.
The duty of submission is with Ignatius the first call upon each member of the church, and exhortations to personal holiness go hand in hand with admonitions to unity and obedience. The word ὑποτάσσεσθαι denotes the duty of all, not (be it marked) towards the bishop alone, but towards authority in all its steps ( Mgn. 13 and 7). But the bishop represents the principle of unity in the church.
Sprintzl ingeniously argues (p. 67) that the supremacy of the bp. of Rome is taught by Ignatius, on the ground that, first, he teaches the supremacy of the Roman church over others (Rom. prooem. ), and secondly, the supremacy of the bishop in every church. But the explanation of the passage in Romans is very doubtful, and the marked omission of any mention of the bp. of Rome seems inconsistent with any supremacy apart from the natural position of his church.
The emphatic terms in which these letters propose the bishop as the representative of Christ have always presented a stumbling-block to many min
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria
Isaacus (31) Antiochenus, born at Amid (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia, called "the Great" and "the Elder," a priest of Antioch in Syria, said to have visited Rome. His teacher was Zenobius the disciple of St. Ephraim, not (as Cave) Ephraim himself. The Chronicle of Edessa speaks of him as an archimandrite, without specifying his monastery, which was at Gabala in Phoenicia. He died c. 460. He is sometimes confused with Isaacus of Nineveh. Bar-hebraeus ( Hist. Dynast. p. 91) unjustly brands him as a heretic and a renegade. He was author of numerous works in Syriac, of which the chief were polemics against the Nestorians and Eutychians, and of a long elegy on the overthrow of Antioch by the earthquake of 459. He also wrote a poem on the Ludi Seculares, held by Honorius in his sixth consulship (a.d. 404), and another on the sack of Rome by Alaric (a.d. 410). Jacobus of Edessa reckons him among the best writers of Syriac. His poems are extant in MSS. in the Vatican and other European libraries. Many of them are wrongly ascribed to St. Ephraim, and included amongst his works in the Roman edition. In discourse No. 7 Isaacus speaks of relic-worship and holy days. Besides Sunday, many Christians observed Friday, the day of the Passion. No. 9 attacks prevalent errors on the Incarnation. Here Isaacus seems to fall into the opposite heresies, failing to distinguish Nature from Person; but elsewhere he uses language unmistakably orthodox. Assemani thinks his words have been tampered with by Jacobite copyists. No. 24, Christ suffered as man, not as God. No. 50 touches on future retribution: "The fault is temporal, the punishment eternal." This aims at those Syrian monks who had adopted the opinion of Origen on this subject. No. 59 is a hymn asserting, against the Cathari or Novatianists, that fallen man recovers innocence not only by baptism, but also by penitence. No. 62 is a hymn of supplication, lamenting the disasters of the age, e.g. the inroads of Huns and Arabs, famine, plague, and earthquake. Johannes Maro quotes two discourses not found in the Vatican MSS. The first, on Ezekiel's chariot, clearly asserts two natures and one person in Christ: "duo aspectus, una persona; duae naturae, unus salvator." Similarly, the second, on the Incarnation. Bickell printed both, so far as he found them extant ( S. Isaac. Op. i. 50, 52).
The library of the British Museum possesses about 80 of the discourses, hymns, prayers, etc., of St. Isaacus in MSS., ranging from the 6th to the 12th cent. Dr. Bickell, in the preface to his edition of the works of Isaac, gives a list of 178 entire poems, and of 13 others imperfect at the beginning or end (179–191); three prose writings dealing with the ascetic life (192–194); five sermons in Arabic, on the Incarnation, etc. (195–199); and a sermon in Greek, on the Transfiguration, usually assigned to St. Ephraim (200).
See S. Isaaci Antiocheni opera omnia ex omnibus quotquot exstant codd. MSS. cum varia lectione Syr. Arab. primus ed. G. Bickell, vol. i. 1873, ii. 1877; Gennadius, Vir. Illustr. 66; Assem. Bibl. Orient. i. 207–234; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 434; Ceillier, x. 578; Wright's Cat. Syr. MSS. Brit. Mus. General Index, p. 1289.
The poems of Isaac are important for the right understanding of the doctrines of the Nestorians, Eutychians, Novatianists, Pelagians, and other sects; besides being authorities for the events, manners, and customs of the writer's age.
[1]
Holman Bible Dictionary - Antioch
(an' ti ahch) names two New Testament cities one of which was home to many Diaspora Jews (Jews living outside of Palestine and maintaining their religious faith among the Gentiles) and the place where believers, many of whom were Gentiles, were first called Christians.
1. The largest city of the Roman empire after Rome in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt. Because so many ancient cities were called by this name, it is often called Antioch on the Orontes (River) or Antioch of Syria. Antioch was founded around 300 B.C. by Seleucus Nicator. From the beginning it was a bustling maritime city with its own seaport. It lay about 20 miles inland from the Mediterranean in ancient Syria on the Orontes River nearly three hundred miles north of Jerusalem. Many Jews of the Diaspora lived in Antioch and engaged in commerce, enjoying the rights of citizenship in a free city. Many of Antioch's Gentiles were attracted to Judaism. As was the case with many of the Roman cities of the east, Antioch's patron deity was the pagan goddess Tyche or “Fortune.”
In the New Testament only Jerusalem is more closely related to the spread of early Christianity. Luke mentioned Nicholas of Antioch in Acts 6:5 among the Greek-speaking leaders of the church in Jerusalem. The persecution that arose over Stephen resulted in Jewish believers scattering to Cyprus, Cyrene, and Antioch ( Acts 11:19 ). In Antioch the believers were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ), and it was to Antioch that Barnabas fetched Saul (Paul) from Tarsus so that they could teach this mixed congregation of Jewish and Gentile followers of the Lord. At Antioch the Christian prophet Agabus foretold the famine that would shortly overtake the Roman world (Acts 11:28 ). The disciples responded with the work of famine relief for the church in Jerusalem, directed and carried out from Antioch. The church at Antioch felt the leading of the Holy Spirit to set aside Barnabas and Saul for what was the first organized mission work (Acts 13:1-3 ). Barnabas and Saul left for Seleucia (also known as Pieria, Antioch's Mediterranean seaport) to begin their preaching. The church at Antioch heard the reports of Paul and Barnabas on return from their first missionary journey (Acts 14:27 ) and likely their second missionary journey (Acts 18:22 ). This was a missionary effort to both Jews and Gentiles, about which Paul says in Galatians 2:11 that he had to oppose Peter to his face at Antioch.
Archaeological excavations at Antioch have been very fruitful, revealing a magnificent, walled Roman city of theatres, forums, a circus, and other public buildings. The language of the city was Greek, as inscriptions and public records show, but the language of the peasantry around this mighty city was Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic.
2. A city in Pisidia, Asia Minor, west of Iconium. Like the Syrian Antioch, this Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator. Under Roman rule, this city was called Caesarea. Paul preached in a synagogue there on his first missionary journey (Acts 13:14 ) and was warmly received (Acts 13:42-44 ). Jewish jealously led to a separate ministry to Gentiles (Acts 13:46 ). Finally, Jews drove Paul and Barnabas from the city. These Jews from Antioch followed Paul to Lystra and stirred up trouble there (Acts 14:19 ). Despite this, Paul returned to Antioch to strengthen the church (Acts 14:21 ). Paul used the experience to teach Timothy (2 Timothy 3:11 ).
James F. Strange
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antioch in Pisidia
A Roman colony of Phrygia in Asia Minor, founded by Seleueus Nicator. Its ruins are now called Yalobatch or Yalowaj . Paul's labour here was so successful that it roused the opposition of the Jews and he was driven to Iconium and Lystra; but he returned with Silas. Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:19-21 ; 2 Timothy 3:11 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Antioch in Syria
This is memorable in the annals of the church as the city where the disciples were first called Christians, Where an assembly of Gentiles was gathered, and from which Paul and his companions went forth on their missionary journeys, and to which they twice returned. It formed a centre for their labours among the Gentiles, outside the Jewish influence which prevailed at Jerusalem; yet the church in this city maintained its fellowship with the assembly at Jerusalem and elsewhere. Acts 6:5 ; Acts 11:19-30 ; Acts 13:1 ; Acts 14:26 ; Acts 15:22-35 ; Acts 18:22 ; Galatians 2:11 .
Antioch was once a flourishing and populous city, the capital of Northern Syria, founded by Seleueus Nicator, B.C. 300, in honour of his father Antiochus. It was afterwards adorned by Roman emperors, and was esteemed the third city was eventually the seat of the Roman proconsul of Syria. It stood on a beautiful spot on the river Orontes, where it breaks through between the mountains Taurus and Lebanon. It is now called Antakia 36 12', 36 10' E. It has suffered from wars and earthquakes, and is now a miserable place. Comparatively few antiquities of the ancient city are to be found, but parts of its wall appear on the crags of Mount Silpius.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Antioch
(Ἀντιόχεια)
1. In Syria.-About 20 miles from the Mediterranean, the Orontes, turning abruptly westward, enters a fertile plain, 10 miles long and 5 wide, which separates the great Lebanon range from the last spurs of the Taurus. Here Seleucus Nicator, after his defeat of Antigonus at Issus in 301 b.c., discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom, the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus. Planned by Xenarius, the original city occupied the level ground between the river and Mt. Silpius, and, like all the Hellenistic foundations in Syria, it had two broad colonnaded streets intersecting at the centre, or Omphalus. The Seleucid kings vied with one another in extending and adorning their metropolis. A second quarter was added on the eastern side, perhaps by Antiochus I.; a third, the ‘New City,’ was built by Seleucus Callinicus on an island-similar to the island in the Seine at Paris-which has since disappeared, probably owing to one of those seismic disturbances to which the region has always been peculiarly subject; and a fourth, on the lowest slopes of Silpius, was the work of Antiochus Epiphanes. Henceforth the city was known as a Tetrapolis, or union of four cities (Strabo, xvi. ii. 4). Such was the magnificent Greek substitute for the ancient and beautiful but too essentially Semitic capital of Syria-Damascus. A navigable river and a fine seaport-Seleucia of Pieria-made it practically a maritime city, while caravan roads converging from Arabia and Mesopotamia brought to it the commerce of the East. It attained its highest political importance in the time of Antiochus the Great, whose power was shattered by the Romans at Magnesia. In 83 b.c. it fell into the hands of Tigranes of Armenia, from whom it was wrested by the Roman Republic in 65 b.c. Thereafter it was the capital of the province of Syria, and the residence of the Imperial legate. Pompey made it a civitas libera, and such it remained till the time of Antoninus Pius, who made it a colonia. The early emperors often visited it, and embellished it with new streets and public buildings.
During the Jewish wars (69 b.c.) ‘Vespasian took with him his army from Antioch, which is the metropolis of Syria, and without dispute deserves the place of the third city in the habitable world that is under the Roman Empire, both in magnitude and in other marks of prosperity’ (Job. Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) iii. ii. 4). In the 4th cent. Chrysostom estimated the population at 200,000, of whom 100,000 were then Christians, and probably he did not reckon slaves and children.
Antioch was called ‘the Beautiful’ (ἡ καλή [1]), but its moral repute was never high. ‘In no city of antiquity was the enjoyment of life so much the main thing, and its duties so incidental, as in “Antioch upon Daphne,” as the city was significantly called’ (Mommsen, Prov. 2, 1909, ii. 128). The pleasure-garden of Daphne, 5 miles from the city, 10 miles in circumference, with its sanctuary of Apollo, its groves of laurel and cypress, its sparkling fountains, its colonnades and halls and baths, has come down through history with an evil name. Daphnici mores were proverbial, and Juvenal flung one of his wittiest jibes at his own decadent Imperial city when he said that the Orontes had flowed into the Tiber (Sat. iii. 62), flooding Rome with the superstition and immorality of the East. The brilliant civilization and perfect art of the Greek failed to redeem the turbulent, fickle, and dissolute character of the Syrian. Instead of either race being improved by the contact, each rather infected the other with its characteristic vices. Cicero flattered Antioch as a city of ‘most learned men and most liberal studies’ (pro Arch. iii.), but the sober verdict of history is different.
‘Amidst all this luxury the Muses did not find themselves at home; science in earnest and not less earnest art were never truly cultivated in Syria and more especially in Antioch.… This people valued only the day. No Greek region has so few memorial-stones to shown as Syria; the great Antioch, the third city of the empire, has-to say nothing of the land of hieroglyphics and obelisks-left behind fewer inscriptions than many a small African or Arabian village’ (Mommsen, op. cit. 130, 131f.)
No city, however, after Jerusalem, is so closely associated with the Apostolic Church. From its very foundation it had in its population a strong Jewish element, attracted by the offer of ‘privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks’ (Jos. Ant. xii. iii. 1). The Jewish nation ‘had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the size of the city.… They made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body’ (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) vii. iii. 3). While the Judaism of Antioch did not assimilate Hellenic culture so readily as that of Alexandria, and certainly made no such contribution to the permanent thought of the world, it yet did much to prepare the city for the gospel. ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch,’ who was early won to Christianity, and is named among the Seven of the Jerusalem Church (Acts 6:5), was evidently one of that great number of Antiochene Greeks who had previously felt the spell of the Jewish faith. And it was the mixture of national element in the Church of Antioch-pure Greeks with Greek-speaking Jews-that peculiarly fitted her to play a remarkable part in the Apostolic Age. Her distinction was that, while unquestionably the daughter of the Jewish Christian community at Jerusalem, full of filial gratitude and devotion, she became the first Gentile Church, and the mother of all the others. The diaspora that followed the death of Stephen brought many fugitive Jewish Christian preachers to Antioch, and some Cypriotes and Cyrenians among them inaugurated a new era by going beyond the Hellenist Jews for an audience and preaching to ‘the Greeks also’ (Acts 11:20). καὶ πρὸς τοὺς Ἕλληνας is probably the correct reading, in spite of ‘many ancient authorities’ who have Ἑλληνιστάς; otherwise the historian’s words would be singularly pointless. The new evangelism resulted in many conversions (Acts 11:21), and the vigilant Church in Jerusalem sent Barnabas down, if not to assist in the work, at least to supervise it. It was the merit of Barnabas that he could not be a mere onlooker. Grasping the situation, and flinging himself impetuously into the novel movement, he went, apparently without consulting anybody, to Tarsus to summon Paul to his lifework. In Antioch the two men exercised a united and fruitful ministry for a year (Acts 11:22-26). It was at this time and in this place that ‘the disciples were first called Christians’ (Acts 11:26), the designation probably coming from the lively populace, who quickly noted the new phenomenon in their midst, and justified their reputation for the invention of nicknames. Their wit never spared anybody who seemed worthy of their attention.
‘The only talent which indisputably belonged to them-their mastery of ridicule-they exercised not merely against the actors of their stage, but no less against the rulers sojourning in the capital of the East, and the ridicule was quite the same against the actor as against the emperor.’ While Julian ‘met their sarcastic sayings with satirical writings, the Antiochenes at other times had to pay more severely for their evil speaking and their other sins’ (Mommsen, Provinces, ii. 134, 135).
But the ‘Christians’ gratefully accepted the mocking sobriquet bestowed upon them, changing it into the most honourable of all titles (cf. 1 Peter 4:16). And the first Gentile Church was now to become the first missionary Church. While Antioch was never wanting in respect for Jerusalem, contributing liberally to its poor in a time of famine, and consulting its leaders in all matters of doctrine and practice, her distinguishing characteristic was her evangelistic originality. Her heart was not in Judaea but in the Roman Empire. The fresh ideas of Christian liberty and Christian duty, which the mother-Church at Jerusalem was slow to entertain, found ready acceptance in the freer atmosphere of the Syrian capital. That the victory over Judaism was not easily won even there is proved by the fact that not only Peter but Barnabas vacillated under the alternate influence of cosmopolitan liberalism and Judaea n narrowness, till Paul’s arguments and rebukes convinced them of their error (Galatians 2:4-14). But contact with the great world and sympathy with its needs probably did more than the force of reason to lighten the Antiochene Church of the dead-weight of Judaism. Christians of Hellenic culture and Roman citizenship taught her a noble universalism, and it was accordingly at the instance of the Church of Antioch that the Council of Jerusalem sent to the Gentile converts a circular letter which became the charter of spiritual freedom (Acts 15:23-29). Above all, it was from Antioch that Paul started on each of his missionary journeys (Acts 11:1-3; Acts 15:36; Acts 18:23), and to Antioch that he returned again and again with his report of fresh conquests (Acts 14:26; Acts 18:22). It was master-minds of Christian Antioch who at length changed the pathetic dream of ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ into a reality.
Antioch gave rise to a school of Christian thought which was distinguished by literal interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence upon the human limitations of Jesus. Theodore of Mopsuestia was one of its best representatives. Between the years 252 and 380, ten Councils were held at Antioch. Antakiyeh is now but a meagre town of 600 inhabitants, though its environs ‘are even at the present day, in spite of all neglect, a blooming garden and one of the most charming spots on earth’ (Mommsen, ii. 129).
Literature.-C. O. Müller, Antiquitates Antiochenœ, Göttingen, 1839; Conybeare-Howson, St. Paul, London, 1872, i. 149ff.; W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and Roman Citizen, do. 1895, also Church in Rom. Emp., do. 1893, chs. ii.-vii., xvi.; A.C. McGiffert, Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897; C. v. Weizsäcker, Apostolic Age, Eng. translation , London, 1897.
2. In Pisidia (Acts 13:14 Revised Version , Ἀ. τὴν Πισιδίαν, ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ which is the correct reading, instead of Ἀ. τῆς Πισιδίας).-This city was probably founded by Seleucus Nicator (301-280 b.c.) about the same time as Syrian Antioch, being another of the many cities which he called after his father Antiochus. It was intended as a garrison town and a centre of Hellenic influence in the heart of Asia Minor, commanding the great trade route between Ephesus and the Cilician Gates. Guided by Strabo’s description of the place (xii. viii. 14), as standing ‘on a height’ to the south of a ‘backbone of mountains, stretching from east to west,’ Arundell identified it in 1833 with the extensive ruins of Yalowatch, on the skirts of the long Sultan Dagh, about 3600ft. above sea-level, overlooking the great plain which is drained by the river Anthios.
After the battle of Magnesia (190 b.c.), which cost Antiochus the Great the whole of his dominions north of the Taurus, the Romans made Antioch a free city. In 39 b.c. Mark Antony gave it to king Amyntas, after whose death in 25 b.c. it became a city of the vast Roman province of Galatia. At some time before 6 b.c., Augustus raised it to the rank of a colony-Pisidarum colonia Cœsarea (Pliny, Historia Naturalis (Pliny) v. 24)-and made it the governing and military centre of the southern half of the province. Its importance increased when the first emperors found it necessary to pacify the ‘barbarian’ high-landers of Pisidia. ‘In the mountain-land proper no trace of Hellenistic settlement is found, and still less did the Roman senate apply itself to this difficult task. Augustus did so; and only here in the whole Greek coast we meet a series of colonies of Roman veterans evidently intended to acquire this district for peaceful settlement’ (Mommsen, Provinces, i. 336f.). Roman roads connected Antioch with all the other colonies founded in the district-Olbasa, Comama, Cremna, Parlais, and Lystra. The work of pacification was in especially active progress during the reign of Claudius (a.d. 41-54), in which St. Paul visited Antioch. The city was not yet ‘Antioch in Pisidia’ (Authorized Version ), being correctly styled by Strabo ‘Antioch towards Pisidia’ (Ἀ. ἡ πρὸς Πισιδίᾳ καλουμένη [2]), in distinction from Antioch on the Maeander; but St. Luke already calls it ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ to differentiate it from Antioch in Syria. The boundaries of Pisidia gradually moved northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia, and then ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ became the usual designation of the city. At a still later period Pisidia was constituted a Roman province, with Antioch as its capital.
On the South-Galatian theory, in the form advocated by Ramsay (Church in Rom. Emp., 74ff.), Antioch is regarded by St. Luke as belonging to the Phrygio-Galatic region (τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν, Acts 16:6), Phrygian being a geographical term and Galatic a political, the one used by the Greeks and the other by the Roman government. In Acts 18:23 the region is simply called ‘Phrygian,’ and if, as many think, Φρυγίαν is here to be taken as a noun, the sense is still much the same (see Galatia and Phrygia). St. Paul’s first mission to Antioch was so successful that the whole political regio of which this colony was the centre soon heard of the new faith (Acts 13:49). In no other Asian city, except Ephesus, was the influence of his preaching so far-reaching. His success was no doubt in great measure due to the strong Jewish element in the population, even though it was Jewish persecution that compelled him to leave the city for a time (Acts 13:45; Acts 13:50). The early Seleucid kings settled Jews in many of their cities, and gave them the same civic rights as the Greeks, finding them to be trusty supporters and often real Hellenizers. Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. Ant. xii. iii. 4), many of whom must have found a home in Antioch. Trade doubtless attracted others to so important a centre, and thus the Jewish leaven had been working for a long time before Christianity was introduced. Ramsay thinks that ‘the Jews are likely to have exercised greater political power among the Anatolian people, with their yielding and easily moulded minds, than in any other part of the Roman world’ (Hist. Com. on Gal., 193); and their spiritual influence was at least as great. St. Paul found many ‘devout proselytes’ in Antioch (Acts 13:43), and his presence attracted ‘the whole city’ to the synagogue (Acts 13:44). While the native Phrygian type or religious feeling was more eastern than western, and thus had a certain natural affinity with the Semitic type, the Phrygian Jews, whose laxity gave deep offence to the rigidly orthodox, no doubt increased their power among their neighbours by their freedom from bigotry. The attraction of the Jewish faith for Gentile women (τὰς σεβομένας γυναῖκας, Acts 13:50) was a familiar theme in ancient writings (Juvenal, vi. 543; Jos. Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii. xx. 2); and the influence of ‘women of honourable estate’ (τὰς εὐσχήμονας), not only in Antioch but in Asia Minor generally, is one of the most striking features in the social life of the country (Conybeare-Howson, St. Paul, i. 219; Ramsay, Church in Rom. Emp., 67). Strabo (loc. cit.) mentions another fact which may help to explain the rapid progress of Christianity in Antioch: ‘In this place was established a priesthood of Mçn Arcaeus, having attached to it a multitude of temple slaves and tracts of sacred territory. It was abolished after the death of Amyntas by those who were sent to settle the succession to his kingdom.’ This drastic action of the Romans had removed one of the greatest obstacles to the new faith-the vested interests of an old and powerful hierarchy.
Literature.-F. V. J. Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor, London, 1834, i. 281f.; Conybeare-Howson, St. Paul, do. 1872, i. 204f.; W. M. Ramsay, Hist. Com. on Gal., do. 1899, pp. 196-213, Church in Rom. Emp., do. 1893, passim; J. R. S. Sterrett, Wolfe Expedition to Asia Minor, Boston, 1888, p. 218f.
James Strahan.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Calandio or Calendio, Bishop of Antioch
Calandio or Calendio ( Καλανδίων ), succeeded Stephen II. as bp. of Antioch, a.d. 481. He owed his promotion to the episcopate to the emperor Zeno and Acacius, bp. of Constantinople; but the exact circumstances of his appointment are uncertain. There is a large body of evidence (not, however, to be admitted without grave question) that Calandio's election was of the same uncanonical character as that of his predecessor in the see [1]; and that being at Constantinople on business connected with the church of Antioch at the time of the vacancy of the see, he was chosen bishop, and ordained by Acacius; but the letter of pope Simplicius to Acacius, dated July 15, a.d. 482, conveying his sanction of Calandio's election (Labbe, Conc. iv. 1035), suggests a possible confusion between the election of Calandio and of Stephen II.
Calandio commenced his episcopate by excommunicating his theological opponents. He refused communion with all who declined to anathematize Peter the Fuller, Timothy the Weasel, and the Encyclic of Basiliscus condemning the decisions of the council of Chalcedon (Evagr. H. E. iii. 10; Niceph. H. E. xv. 28). He is reported to have endeavoured to counteract the Monophysite bias given to the Trisagion by Peter the Fuller in the addition of the words ὁ σταυρωθεὶς δἰ᾿ ἡμᾶς , by prefixing the clause Χριστὲ Βασιλεῦ (Theod. Lector. p. 556 B.) Calandio translated the remains of Eustathius, the banished bp. of Antioch, with the permission of Zeno, from Philippi in Macedonia, where he had died, to his own city—a tardy recognition of the falsehood of the charges against Eustathius, which had the happy result of reuniting to the church the remains of the party that still called itself by his name (Theod. Lector. p. 577; Theophanes, p. 114). Calandio fell into disfavour and was banished by the Emperor Zeno, at the instigation of Acacius, to the African Oasis, a.d. 485, where, probably, he died. The charge against him was that of having erased from the diptychs the name of Zeno, as the author of the Henoticon ; and of having favoured Illus and Leontius in their rebellion, a.d. 484. But the real cause of his deposition was the theological animosity of Acacius, whom he had offended by writing a letter to Zeno accusing Peter Mongus of adultery, and of having anathematized the decrees of the council of Chalcedon (Evagr. H. E. ii. 16; Liberatus Diaconus, Breviar. c. xviii.; Gelasius, Ep. xiii. ad Dardan. Episc. ; Labbe, iv. 1208–1209, xv. ad Episc. Orient. ib. 1217). On his deposition, the victorious Peter the Fuller was recalled to occupy the see of Antioch.
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch
Diodorus (3) , presbyter of Antioch, and c. a.d. 379 bp. of Tarsus, of a noble family of Antioch, where he passed nearly the whole of his life until he became a bishop (Theod. H. E. iv. 24). He studied philosophy or secular learning at Athens, where he probably was an associate of Basil and Julian, the future emperor (Facund. lib. iv. c. 2, p. 59). On his return to his native city, Diodorus and his friend Flavian, also of noble birth (subsequently bp. of Antioch), embraced a religious life. Here, while still laymen, during the reign of Constantius, they exerted themselves energetically for the defence of the orthodox faith against the Arians, who were covertly supported by bp. Leontius, c. 350. They gathered the orthodox laity even by night around the tombs of the martyrs, to join in the antiphonal chanting of the Psalms, which, Theodoret tells us, was first instituted or revived by them, as a means of kindling religious zeal, after the model ascribed by tradition to the martyred bishop of their church, the holy Ignatius (Socr. H. E. vi. 8; Theod. H. E. ii. 24). These services strengthened the faithful to meet the persecutions. The weight of Diodorus and Flavian at Antioch was proved when in 350 their threat of withdrawal from communion induced Leontius to suspend Aetius from the diaconate (Theod. u.s. ). On the accession of Julian, his attempt to rekindle an expiring paganism provided a new field for the energies of Diodorus. With pen and tongue he denounced the folly of a return to an exploded superstition, and so called forth the scurrilous jests of Julian.
The persecution of the Catholic cause by the Arian Valens recalled Diodorus, now a presbyter, to his former championship of the Nicene faith. During the frequent banishments of Meletius, the spiritual instruction of his diocese was chiefly entrusted to him and Flavian, and Diodorus saved the barque of the church from being "submerged by the waves of misbelief" (Theod. H. E. v. 4). Valens having forbidden the Catholics to meet within the walls of cities, Diodorus gathered his congregation in the church in the old town S. of the Orontes. Immense numbers were there "fed by him with sound doctrine" (Chrys. Laus Diodori , § 4, t. iii. p. 749). When forcibly driven out of this church, he gathered his congregation in the soldiers' exercising ground, or "gymnasium," and exhorted them from house to house. The texts and arguments of his discourses were chiefly furnished by Flavian, and clothed by Diodorus in a rhetorical dress. His oratory is compared by Chrysostom to "a lyre" for melody, and to "a trumpet" for the power with which, like Joshua at Jericho, he broke down the strongholds of his heretical opponents. He also held private assemblies at his own house to expound the faith and refute heresy (Theod. H. E. iv. 25; Chrys. l.c. ; Facund. iv. 22). Such dauntless championship of the faith failed not to provoke persecution. His life was more than once in danger, and he was forced to seek safety in flight (Chrys. l.c. ). Once at least when driven from Antioch he joined his spiritual father Meletius in exile at Getasa in Armenia, where, in 372, he met Basil the Great (Basil, Ep. 187). The intimate terms of Diodorus and Basil are seen from the tone of Basil's correspondence.
Even more than for his undaunted defence of the catholic faith Diodorus deserves the gratitude of the church as head of the theological school at Antioch. He pursued a healthy common-sense principle of exposition of Holy Scripture, which, discarding alike allegorism and coarse literalism, sought by the help of criticism, philology, history, and other external resources, to develop the true meaning of the text, as intended by the authors (Socr. H. E. vi. 3; Soz. H. E. viii. 2; Hieron. de Vir. Illust. No. 119).
Meletius, on being restored to Antioch in 378, appointed Diodorus bp. of Tarsus and metropolitan of the then undivided province of Cilicia (Facundus, viii. 5). His career as bishop, according to Jerome (l.c. ), was less distinguished than as presbyter. He took part in the great council of Antioch a.d. 379, which failed to put an end to the Antiochene schism, as well as in the 2nd oecumenical council at Constantinople a.d. 381. By the decree of the emperor Theodosius, July 30, 381, Diodorus was named as one of the orthodox Eastern prelates, communion with whom was the test of orthodoxy (Cod. Theod. lib. xvi. tit. i. 3; t. vi. p. 9). Meletius having died during the session of the council, Diodorus, violating the compact made to heal the schism, united with Acacius of Beroea in consecrating Flavian as bp. of Antioch, for which both the consecrating prelates were excommunicated by the bishops of the West (Soz. H. E. vii. 11). As Phalerius was bp. of Tarsus at a council at Constantinople in 394, the date of Diodorus's death is approximately fixed. Facundus and others tell us that he died full of days and glory, revered by the whole church and honoured by its chief doctors, by Basil, Meletius, Theodoret, Domnus of Antioch, and even by the chief impugner of the soundness of his faith, Cyril of Alexandria.
This high credit was disturbed by the Nestorian controversies of the next cent. His rationalizing spirit had led him to use language about the Incarnation containing the principles of that heresy afterwards more fully developed by his disciple Theodorus. Thus, not without justice, he has been deemed the virtual parent of Nestorianism and called "a Nestorian before Nestorius." It was his repugnance to the errors of Apollinarianism which led him to the opposite errors of Nestorianism. His sense of the importance of the truth of Christ's manhood caused him to insist on Its distinctness from His Godhead in a manner which gradually led to Its being represented as a separate personality. He drew a distinction between Him Who according to His essence was Son of God—the eternal Logos—and Him Who through divine decree and adoption became Son of God. The one was Son of God by nature, the other by grace. The son of man became Son of God because chosen to be the receptacle or temple of God the Word. It followed that Mary could not be properly termed the "mother of God," nor God the Word be strictly called the Son of David, that designation belonging, according to human descent, to the temple in which the Divine Son tabernacled. Diodorus therefore distinguished two Sons, the Son of God and the son of Mary, combined in the person of Christ. When, then, the great Nestorian controversy set in, Cyril clearly saw that, apart from the watchword θεοτόκος , which had not arisen in the days of Diodorus, what men called Nestorianism was substantially the doctrine of Diodorus as developed by Theodorus of Mopsuestia, and that Nestorianism could only be fully crushed by a condemnation of the doctrines of Diodorus as the fountain head. This condemnation was most difficult to obtain. No name was held in so much reverence throughout the East. Cyril, however, was of far too determined a spirit to hesitate. If orthodox views of the Incarnation were to be established, the authority of Diodorus must, at any cost of enmity and unpopularity, be destroyed. Every means was therefore taken to enforce, by the aid of the emperor and the patriarch Proclus, his condemnation, together with that of his still more heretical pupil Theodorus. Cyril himself, in a letter to the emperor, described them in the harshest terms as the fathers of the blasphemies of Nestorius (Theodoret, t. v. p. 854), and in a letter to John of Antioch denounced them as "going full sail, as it were, against the glory of Christ." It is not surprising that Diodorus began to be looked upon with suspicion by those who had been accustomed to regard him as a bulwark of the faith, insomuch that Theodoret, when himself accused of Nestorian leanings, did not venture to quote the words of Diodorus in his defence, though he regarded him with reverence (σέβω ), as "a holy and blessed father" (Theod. Ep. 16). In the hope of rehabilitating his credit, Theodoret wrote a treatise to prove the orthodoxy of Diodorus, which led Cyril to peruse them and to pronounce them categorically heretical (ib. Epp. 38, 52). All attempts, however, to depreciate the authority of Diodorus, both by Cyril and Rabbulas of Edessa, only exalted him in the estimation of the Nestorian party, and the opposition contributed to the formation of the independent and still existing Nestorian church, which looks upon Diodorus and Theodorus with deepest veneration as its founders. The presbyter Maris of Hardaschir, in Persia, translated the works of Diodorus into Persian, and they, together with those of Theodorus, were also translated into Armenian, Syriac, and other Oriental tongues (Neander, Ch. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 209, 284; Clark's trans. Liberat. Breviar. c. 10). Diodorus was naturally anathematized by Eutyches and his followers. Flavian III., also bp. of Antioch, was compelled by the Monophysites to pass an anathema on the writings of Diodorus and Theodorus in a.d. 499. The controversy respecting the orthodoxy of Diodorus was revived in the 6th cent. by the interminable disputes about "the Three Articles." There is a full defence of his orthodoxy by Facundus in his Defensio Trium Capitulorum " (lib. iv. c. 2). Photius asserts that Diodorus was formally condemned by the fifth oecumenical council held at Constantinople a.d. 553, but it does not appear in the acts of that council. Diodorus was a very copious author, the titles of between 20 and 30 distinct works being enumerated in various catalogues. The whole have perished, except some fragments, no less than 60 having been burnt, according to Ebed-Jesu, by the Arians. His writings were partly exegetical, mainly controversial. He wrote comments on all the books of O. and N. T., except the Ep. to the Hebrews, the Catholic Epistles (I. John however being commented on), and the Apocalypse. In these, according to Jerome (de Vir. Illust. No. 119), he imitated the line of thought of Eusebius of Emesa, but fell below him in eloquence and refinement.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Domnus i, Bishop of Antioch
Domnus I. (2) , bp. of Antioch, appointed a.d. 269 on the deposition of Paul of Samosata, by the sole authority of the council, without any reference to the clergy and people, the bishops evidently fearing they might re-elect Paul (Eus. H. E. vii. 30). Paul, relying on the support of Zenobia, retained for two years the episcopal residence and its church. The orthodox section appealed to Aurelian after he had conquered Zenobia and taken Antioch, a.d. 272. The emperor decided that the right of occupation should belong to the party in communion with the bishops of Italy and the see of Rome. This decision was enforced by the civil power, and Paul was compelled to leave the palace in disgrace (Eus. u.s. ). Domnus died a.d. 274, and was succeeded by Timaeus (Till. Mém. eccl. t. iv. p. 302; Neander, Ch. Hist. vol. i. p. 193, Clark's trans.; Neale, Patr. of Antioch , pp. 52-57).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Domnus ii, Bishop of Antioch
Domnus II. (4) , bp. of Antioch, a friend of Theodoret. He was nephew of John, bp. of Antioch, brought up under Euthymius the famous anchoret of Palestine. He was ordained deacon by Juvenal of Jerusalem on his visit to the Laura of Euthymus in a.d. 429. Two years afterwards, learning that his uncle the bp. of Antioch had become entangled in the Nestorian heresy, he besought Euthymius to allow him to go and extricate him. Euthymius counselled him to remain where he was, telling him that God could take care of his uncle without him; that solitude was safer for him than the world; that his design would not turn out to his ultimate advantage; that he might not improbably succeed to his uncle's dignity, but would become the victim of clever and unprincipled men, who would avail themselves of his simplicity, and then accomplish his ruin; but the old man's counsels were thrown away. Domnus left the Laura without even saying farewell to Euthymius (Vita S. Euthymii , cc. 42, 56, 57). He obtained such popularity at Antioch that on the death of his uncle, a.d. 441, he was appointed his successor, and at once ranked as the chief bishop of the Eastern world. In 445 he summoned a synod of Syrian bishops which confirmed the deposition of Athanasius of Perrha. In 447 he consecrated Irenaeus to the see of Tyre (Theod. Ep. 110; Labbe, Concil. t. iii. col. 1275); but Theodosius II., having commanded that the appointment should be annulled, Irenaeus being both a digamus and a favourer of the Nestorian heresy, Domnus, despite Theodoret's remonstrances, yielded to the imperial will (Theod. u.s. ; Ep. 80). Ibas, bp. of Edessa, being charged with promulgating Nestorian doctrines (Labbe, ib. t. iv. col. 658), Domnus summoned a council at Antioch (a.d. 448) which decided in favour of Ibas and deposed his accusers ( ib. 639 seq.). Domnus's sentence, though revoked by Flavian, bp. of Constantinople, was confirmed by three episcopal commissioners to whom he and the emperor Theodosius had committed the matter. Domnus was one of the earliest impeachers of the orthodoxy of Eutyches, in a synodical letter to Theodosius, c. 447 (Facundus, viii. 5; xii. 5). At the Latrocinium, held at Ephesus, Aug. 8, 449, on this matter, Domnus, in virtue of an imperial rescript, found himself deprived of his presidential seat, which was occupied by Dioscorus, while precedence over the patriarch of Antioch was given to Juvenal of Jerusalem (Labbe, ib. 115, p. 251). Cowed by the dictatorial spirit of Dioscorus, and unnerved by the violence of Barsumas and his monks, Domnus revoked his former condemnation of Eutyches, and voted for his restoration ( ib. col. 258) and for the condemnation of Flavian ( ib. col. 306). Domnus was, nevertheless, deposed and banished by Dioscorus. The charges against him were, approval of a Nestorian sermon preached before him at Antioch by Theodoret on the death of Cyril (Mercator, t. i. p. 276), and some expressions in letters written by him to Dioscorus condemning the perplexed and obscure character of Cyril's anathemas (Liberatus, c. 11, p. 74). He was the only bishop then deposed and banished who was not reinstated after the council of Chalcedon. At that council Maximus, his successor in the see of Antioch, obtained permission to assign Domnus a pension from the revenues of the church (Labbe, ib. col. 681; append. col. 770). Finally, on his recall from exile Domnus returned to the monastic home of his youth, and ended his days in the Laura of St. Euthymius, where in 452, according to Theophanes, he afforded a refuge to Juvenal of Jerusalem when driven from his see (Theoph. p 92).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dorotheus (3) Presbyter of Antioch
Dorotheus (3) , a presbyter of Antioch, ordained by Cyril of Antioch (Hieron. Chron. ) c. a.d. 290, who with his contemporary Lucian may be regarded as the progenitor of the sound and healthy school of scriptural hermeneutics which distinguished the interpreters of Antioch from those of Alexandria. Eusebius speaks of him with high commendation, as distinguished by a pure taste and sound learning, of a wide and liberal education, well acquainted not only with the Hebrew Scriptures, which Eusebius says he had heard him expounding in the church at Antioch, with moderation ( μετρίως ) but also with classical literature. He was a congenital eunuch, which commended him to the notice of the emperor Constantine, who placed him at the head of the purple-dye-house at Tyre Eus. H. E. , vii. 32; Neander, Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 528, Clark's trans.; Gieseler, Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 247, Clark's trans.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Ephraim (6), Bishop of Antioch And Patriarch
Ephraim (6) ( Ephrem, Ephraemius, or, as Theophanes gives the name, Euphraimius ), bp. of Antioch and patriarch, a.d. 527-545. The title, ὁ Ἀμίδιος , given him by Theophanes, indicates that he was a native of Amida in Armenia. He devoted the early part of his life to civil employments, and became Count of the East in the reign of Justin I. The city of Antioch having been nearly destroyed in a.d. 525 and 526 by earthquake and conflagration, Ephraim was sent by Justin as commissioner to relieve the sufferers and restore the city. The high qualities manifested in the fulfilment of these duties gained the affection and respect of the people of Antioch, who unanimously chose him bishop on the death of Euphrasius (Evagr. H. E. iv. 5, 6). His consecration is placed in a.d. 357. As bishop he exhibited an unwavering firmness against the heretical tendencies of his day. Theophanes says that he shewed "a divine zeal against schismatics" ( Chronogr . p. 118). Moschus tells a story of his encounter near Hierapolis with one of the pillar ascetics, a follower of Severus and the Acephali (Prat. Spiritual. c. 36). Ephraim examined synodically the tenets of Syncleticus, metropolitan of Tarsus, who was suspected of Eutychian leanings but was acquitted (Phot. Cod. 228). In 537, at the bidding of Justinian, he repaired with Hypatius of Ephesus and Peter of Jerusalem to Gaza to hold a council in the matter of Paul the patriarch of Alexandria, who had been banished to that city and there deposed. In obedience to the emperor Justinian, Ephraim held a synod at Antioch, which repudiated the doctrines of Origen as heretical (Liberat. c. 23, apud Labbe, Concil. v. 777 seq.; Baronius, Annal. 537, 538) He was the author of a large number of theological treatises directed against Nestorius, Eutyches, Severus, and the Acephali, and in defence of the decrees of Chalcedon. In 546, yielding to severe pressure, he subscribed the edict Justinian had put forth condemning "the three chapters" (Facund. Pro Defens. Trium Capit. iv. 4). He did not survive the disgrace of this concession, and died in 547.
His copious theological works have almost entirely perished, and we have little knowledge of them save through Photius (Biblioth. Cod. 228, 229), who speaks of having read three of the volumes, but gives particulars of two only. Some few fragments of his defence of the council of Chalcedon, and of the third book against Severus, and other works, are given by Mai ( Bibl. Nov. iv. 63, vii. 204) and are printed by Migne ( Patr. Gk. lxxxvi. par. 2, pp. 2099 seq.). Theophanes, Chronogr. ad ann. 519, p. 118 d; Moschus, Prat. Spiritual. cc. 36, 37; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 507; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. lib. v. c. 38; Le Quien, Oriens Christ. ii. 733).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch
Euzoïus (1) , Arian bp. of Antioch, the companion and intimate friend of Arius from an early age. He was one of 11 presbyters and deacons of that church, deposed together with Arius by Alexander bp. of Alexandria, c. 320 (Socr. H. E. i. 6; Soz. H. E. i. 15; Theod. H. E. i. 4, ii. 311; Athan. de Syn. p. 907). He was again condemned and banished, with Arius, by the council of Nicaea, a.d. 325. When Arius was recalled from banishment, and summoned to the emperor's side in 330, he was accompanied by Euzoïus, by this time a priest. Both regained the emperor's confidence by an evasive declaration of their faith and a professed acceptance of the creed of Nicaea (Socr. H. E. i. 25, 26; Soz. H. E. ii. 27). He accompanied Arius to Jerusalem at the great gathering of Eusebian bishops for the dedication of the church of the Anastasis, Sept. 13, 335, and with him was received into communion by the council then held (Soz. l.c. ; Athan. de Synod. p. 891). In 361 Constantius, having banished Meletius, bp. of Antioch, summoned Euzoïus from Alexandria, and commanded the bishops of the province to consecrate him. A few months later Constantius, being seized with a fatal fever, summoned the newly appointed bishop, Euzoïus, to his bedside on Nov. 3, 361, and received from him the sacrament of baptism. Whether this was at Antioch or Mopsucrene in Cilicia is uncertain (Athan. ib. 907; Philost. H. E. vi. 5). On the accession of Valens, Euzoïus was urged by Eudoxius to convene a synod of bishops at Antioch to take off Aetius's sentence, and this he ultimately did, c. 364 ( ib. vii. 5). On the death of Athanasius in 373, Euzoïus was, at his own petition, dispatched by Valens, with Magnus the imperial treasurer and troops, to instal the imperial nominee, the Arian Lucius of Samosata, instead of Peter the duly elected and enthroned bishop. This commission was carried out with shameless brutality and persecution of the orthodox (Socr. H. E. iv. 21; Theod. iv. 21, 22). Euzoïus's death is placed by Socrates in 376 at Constantinople ( H. E. iv. 35). Le Quien, Or. Chr. ii. 713; Baron. Ann. ad ann. 325, lxxix.; 335, xlix.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Evagrius of Antioch
Evagrius (5) , known as Evagrius of Antioch, was consecrated bishop over one of the parties in Antioch in 388 or 389, and must have lived until at least 392. Socr. H. E. v. 15; Soz. H. E. vii. 15; Theod. H. E. v. 23; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. cap. 25; Ambrose, Ep. lvi.
Evagrius belonged to the Eustathian division of the orthodox church at Antioch, of which he became a presbyter. After the schism at Antioch caused by Lucifer's consecration of Paulinus, Evagrius left Antioch, and accompanied Eusebius of Vercelli to Italy in 363 or 364. Here he zealously co-operated with Eusebius in restoring peace to the churches distracted by the results of the council of Ariminum, and re-establishing orthodoxy on the terms laid down by the synod of Alexandria in 362. He also afforded pope Damasus important aid against Ursicius and his faction, a.d. 367. At Milan he resolutely withstood the Arian bp. Auxentius. After nine or ten years he returned to the East, with Jerome, with the view of healing the schism that still divided the church of Antioch. He called at Caesarea to visit Basil in the autumn of 373, and found him suffering from ague. He was commissioned by the Western bishops to return to Basil the letters he had sent them, probably relating to the Meletian schism, as unsatisfactory, and to convey terms dictated by them, which he was to embody in a fresh letter to be sent into the West by some duly authorized commissioners. Only thus would the Western prelates feel warranted in interfering in the Eastern church, and making a personal visit (Basil, Ep. 138 [1]). On his return to Antioch, Evagrius wrote in harsh terms to Basil, accusing him of a love of controversy and of being unduly swayed by personal partialities. If he really desired peace, let him come himself to Antioch and endeavour to re-unite the Catholics, or at least write to them and use his influence with Meletius to put an end to the dissensions. Basil's reply is a model of courteous sarcasm. If Evagrius was so great a lover of peace, why had he not fulfilled his promise of communicating with Dorotheus, the head of the Meletian party? It would be far better for Evagrius to depute some one from Antioch, who would know the parties to be approached and the form the letters should take ( ib. 156 [2]). On the death of Paulinus, a.d. 388, Evagrius manifested the hollowness of his professed desire for peace by becoming himself the instrument of prolonging the schism. He was ordained by the dying bp. Paulinus, in his sick-chamber, without the presence or consent of any assisting bishops, in direct violation of the canons. Flavian had been consecrated by the other party on the death of Meletius, a.d. 381. Thus the hope of healing the schism was again frustrated (Socr. H. E. v. 15; Theod. H. E. v. 23). A council was summoned at Capua, a.d. 390, to determine whether Flavian or Evagrius was lawful bp. of Antioch, but found the question too knotty, and relegated the decision to Theophilus of Alexandria and the Egyptian bishops. The death of Evagrius deprived Flavian of his rival. This was not before 392, in which year Jerome speaks of him as still alive ( de Vir. Ill. c. 125). Jerome praises treatises on various subjects which he heard Evagrius read while still a presbyter, but which he had not yet published. He translated into Latin the Life of St. Anthony by St. Athanasius (Migne, Patr. Gk. xxvi. 835-976). Its genuineness has been much disputed, but the balance of critical judgment seems in its favour.
[3]
[4]
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Antioch
a city of Upper Syria, on the river Orontes, about twenty miles from the place where it discharges itself into the Mediterranean. It was built by Seleucus Nicanor, about three hundred years before Christ; and became the seat of empire of the Syrian kings of the Macedonian race, and afterward of the Roman governors of the eastern provinces; being very centrally and commodiously situated midway between Constantinople and Alexandria, about seven hundred miles from each, in 37 17' north latitude, and 36 45' east longitude. No city perhaps, Jerusalem excepted, has experienced more frequent revolutions, or suffered more numerous and dire calamities, than Antioch; as, besides the common plagues of eastern cities, pestilence, famine, fire, and sword, it has several times been entirely overthrown by earthquakes.
In 362, the emperor Julian spent some months at Antioch; which were chiefly occupied in his favourite object of reviving the mythology of Paganism. The grove at Daphne, planted by Seleucus, which, with its temple and oracle, presented, during the reigns of the Macedonian kings of Syria, the most splendid and fashionable place of resort for Pagan worship in the east, had sunk into neglect since the establishment of Christianity. The altar of the god was deserted, the oracle was silenced, and the sacred grove itself defiled by the interment of Christians. Julian undertook to restore the ancient honours and usages of the place; but it was first necessary to take away the pollution occasioned by the dead bodies of the Christians, which were disinterred and removed! Among these was that of Babylas, a bishop of Antioch, who died in prison in the persecution of Decius, and after resting near a century in his grave within the walls of Antioch, had been removed by order of Callus into the midst of the grove of Daphne, where a church was built over him; the remains of the Christian saint effectually supplanting the former divinity of the place, whose temple and statue, however, though neglected, remained uninjured. The Christians of Antioch, undaunted by the conspiracy against their religion, or the presence of the emperor himself, conveyed the relics of their former bishop in triumph back to their ancient repository within the city. The immense multitude who joined in the procession, chanted forth their execrations against idols and idolaters; and on the same night the image and the temple of the Heathen god were consumed by the flames. A dreadful vengeance might be expected to have followed these scenes; but the real or affected clemency of Julian contented itself with shutting up the cathedral, and confiscating its wealth. Many Christians, indeed, suffered from the zeal of the Pagans; but, as it would appear, without the sanction of the emperor.
In 1268, Antioch was taken by Bibars, or Bondocdar, sultan of Egypt. The slaughter of seventeen thousand, and the captivity of one hundred thousand of its inhabitants, mark the final siege and fall of Antioch; which, while they close the long catalogue of its public woes, attest its extent and population. From this time it remained in a ruinous and nearly deserted condition, till, with the rest of Syria, it passed into the hands of the Ottoman Turks, with whose empire it has ever since been incorporated.
To distinguish it from other cities of the same name, the capital of Syria was called Antiochia apud Daphnem, or Antioch near Daphne, a village in the neighbourhood, where was a temple dedicated to the goddess of that name; though, in truth, the chief deity of the place was Apollo, under the fable of his amorous pursuit of the nymph Daphne; and the worship was worthy of its object. The temple stood in the midst of a grove of laurels and cypresses, where every thing was assembled which could minister to the senses; and in whose recesses the juvenile devotee wanted not the countenance of a libertine god to abandon himself to voluptuousness. Even those of riper years and graver morals could not with safety breathe the atmosphere of a place where pleasure, assuming the character of religion, roused the dormant passions, and subdued the firmness of virtuous resolution. Such being the source, the stream could scarcely be expected to be more pure; in fact, the citizens of Antioch were distinguished only for their luxury in life and licentiousness in manners. This was an unpromising soil for Christianity to take root in. But here, nevertheless, it was planted at an early period, and flourished vigorously. It should be observed, that the inhabitants of Antioch were partly Syrians, and partly Greeks; chiefly, perhaps, the latter, who were invited to the new city by Seleucus. To these Greeks, in particular, certain Cypriot and Cyrenian converts, who had fled from the persecution which followed the death of Stephen, addressed themselves; "and a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord."
When the heads of the church at Jerusalem were informed of this success, they sent Barnabas to Antioch, who encouraged the new disciples, and added many to their number; and finding how great were both the field and the harvest, went to Tarsus to solicit the assistance of Paul. Both this Apostle and Barnabas then taught conjointly at Antioch; and great numbers were, by their labours during a whole year, added to the rising church, Acts 11:19-26 ; Acts 15:22-35 . Here they were also joined by Peter, who was reproved by Paul for his dissimulation, and his concession to the Jews respecting the observance of the law, Galatians 2:11-14 .
Antioch was the birthplace of St. Luke and Theophilus, and the see of the martyr Ignatius. In this city the followers of Christ had first the name of Christians given them. We have the testimony of Chrysostom, both of the vast increase of this illustrious church in the fourth century, and of the spirit of charity which continued to actuate it. It consisted at this time of not less than a hundred thousand persons, three thousand of whom were supported out of the public donations. It is painful to trace the progress of declension in such a church as this. But the period now referred to, namely, the age of Chrysostom, toward the close of the fourth century, may be considered as the brightest of its history subsequent to the Apostolic age, and that from which the church at Antioch may date its fall. It continued, indeed, outwardly prosperous; but superstition, secular ambition, the pride of life; pomp and formality in the service of God, in place of humility and sincere devotion; the growth of faction, and the decay of charity; showed that real religion was fast disappearing, and that the foundations were laid of that great apostasy which, in two centuries from this time, overspread the whole Christian world, led to the entire extinction of the church in the east, and still holds dominion over the fairest portions of the west.
Antioch, under its modern name of Antakia, is now but little known to the western nations. It occupies, or rather did till lately occupy, a remote corner of the ancient enclosure of its walls. Its splendid buildings were reduced to hovels; and its population of half a million, to ten thousand wretched beings, living in the usual debasement and insecurity of Turkish subjects. Such was nearly its condition when visited by Pococke about the year 1738, and again by Kinneir in 1813. But its ancient subterranean enemy, which, since its destruction in 587, never long together withheld its assaults, has again triumphed over it: the earthquake of the 13th of August, 1822, laid it once more in ruins; and every thing relating to Antioch is past.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Antioch of Pisidia
Beside the Syrian capital, there was another Antioch visited by St. Paul when in Asia, and called, for the sake of distinction, Antiochia ad Pisidiam, as belonging to that province, of which it was the capital. Here Paul and Barnabas preached; but the Jews, jealous, as usual, of the reception of the Gospel by the Gentiles, raised a sedition against them, and obliged them to leave the city, Acts 13:14 , to the end. There were several other cities of the same name, sixteen in number, in Syria and Asia Minor, built by the Seleucidae, the successors of Alexander in these countries; but the above two are the only ones which it is necessary to describe as occurring in Scripture.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antioch
Antioch (ăn'ti-ŏk), place that withstands (from Antiochus). The name of two cities in New Testament times. 1. Antioch in Syria, Acts 11:19; Acts 11:22, founded by Seleucus Nicator, about 300 b.c., and enlarged by Antiochus Epiphanes. This city was about 300 miles north of Jerusalem, on the left bank of the river Orontes, 16½ miles from the Mediterranean, in a deep pass between the Lebanon and the Taurus ranges of mountains. At Antioch the disciples were first called Christians, Acts 11:26; it was an important centre for the spread of the gospel, Acts 13:1-52; from it Paul started on his missionary journeys, Acts 15:35-36; Acts 18:22-23; important principles of Christian faith and practice were raised and settled through the church at Antioch. Acts 14:26-27; Acts 15:2-30; Galatians 2:11-14. It was made a "free" city by Pompey, was beautified by the emperors with aqueducts, baths, and public buildings; and in Paul's time it ranked third in population, wealth and commercial activity among the cities of the Roman empire. Christianity gained such strength there, that in the time of Chrysostom, who was born at Antioch, one-half of the 200,000 inhabitants of the city were Christians. The old town, which was five miles long, is now represented by a mean, shrunken-looking place of about 6000 population, called Antakieh. 2. Antioch in or near Pisidia was also founded or rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator. It was situated on a ridge—Strabo calls it a "height"—near the foot of the mountain-range, and by the northern shore of Lake Eyerdir. Paul preached there, Acts 13:14; Acts 14:21, and was persecuted by the people. 2 Timothy 3:11. There were at least sixteen cities of the name of Antioch in Syria and Asia Minor.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - School of Antioch
Designation given to the Fathers of Antioch, who insisted more on the so-called grammatico-historical sense of the Holy Scripture than its moral and allegorical meaning. They steered a course between Origen and Theodore, avoiding the excesses of both, and thus laying the foundation of the principles of interpretation which Catholic exegetes follow. The principal representatives of the school are: John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Isidore of Pelusium, and Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joannes, Bishop of Antioch
Joannes (31), bp. of Antioch (429–448). Our knowledge of him commences with his election as successor to Theodotus in the see of Antioch. In 429 the bishops of the East, according to the aged Acacius of Beroea, congratulated themselves on having such a leader (Labbe, iii. 386); but the troubles which rendered his episcopate so unhappily famous began immediately to shew themselves. His old companion and fellow-townsman Nestorius had just been appointed to the see of Constantinople, and had inaugurated his episcopate with a sermon in the metropolitan church repudiating the term "Mother of God," θεοτόκος . Celestine, the Roman pontiff, summoned a synod of Western bishops in Aug. 430, which unanimously condemned the tenets of Nestorius, and the name of John of Antioch appears in the controversy. The support of the Eastern prelates, of whom the patriarch of Antioch was chief, being of great importance, Celestine wrote to John, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Rufus of Thessalonica, and Flavian of Philippi, informing them of the decree passed against Nestorius (Baluz. p. 438, c. xv.; Labbe, iii. 376). At the same time Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, wrote to John calling upon him, on pain of being separated from the communion of the West, to accept Celestine's decision and unite with him in defending the faith against Nestorius (Baluz. p. 442, c. xviii.; Labbe, iii. 379). Such a declaration of open hostility against an old friend, of whose virtual orthodoxy he was convinced, was very distasteful to John. He dispatched a letter full of Christian persuasiveness, by the count Irenaeus, to Nestorius, in his own name, and that of his brother-bishops Archelaus, Apringius, Theodoret, Heliades, Melchius, and the newly appointed bp. of Laodicea, Macarius, entreating him not to plunge the church into discord on account of a word to which the Christian ear had become accustomed, and which was capable of being interpreted in his own sense. He enlarged on the danger of schism, warning Nestorius that the East, Egypt, and Macedonia were about to separate from him, and exhorted him to follow the example of Theodorus of Mopsuestia in retracting words which had given pain to the orthodox, since he really held the orthodox faith on these points (Baluz. p. 445, c. xxi.; Labbe, iii. 390 seq.). John wrote also to count Irenaeus, Musaeus bp. of Antarada, and Helladius bp. of Tarsus, who were then at Constantinople, hoping to avail himself of their influence with Nestorius (Baluz. p. 688). Nestorius's reply indicated no intention of following John's counsels. He declared himself orthodox in the truest sense. He had no rooted objection to the term θεοτόκος , but thought it unsafe, because accepted by some in an Arian or Apollinarian sense. He preferred Χριστοτόκος , as a middle term between it and ἀνθρωποτόκος . He proposed to defer the discussion to the general council which he hoped for (ib. p. 688).
The divergence of the Antiochene and Alexandrian schools of thought in their way of regarding the mystery of the Incarnation lay at the root of this controversy about the term, and it was brought into open manifestation by the publication of Cyril's twelve "anathematisms" on the teaching of Nestorius. Nestorius, on receiving these fulminations at the end of 430, at once sent copies of them to John, together with his two sermons of Dec. 13 and 14, in which he professed to have acknowledged Mary as the "Mother of God" (ib. p. 691, c. iv.). John declared himself horror-stricken at the Apollinarian heresy which characterized Cyril's articles. He made them known far and wide, in Cappadocia, Galatia, and through the East generally, accompanying them with earnest appeals to the bishops and the orthodox everywhere to openly repudiate the grave errors they contained ( ib. p. 838, No. xxxvi. Ep. Alexandri Episc. ). His letter to Firmus is preserved (Baluz. p. 691, c. iv.), in which he expresses abhorrence of the "capitula," which he considers so unlike Cyril both in style and doctrine that he cannot believe they are his, and calls upon Firmus, if they reach Pontus, to get them abjured by the bishops of the province, without naming the supposed author. He rejoices over Nestorius's public acceptance of the test-word, in the two sermons he has sent him, which has quieted the storm and restored tranquillity to the church of Constantinople. John was also careful to have Cyril's heretical formularies refuted by able theologians. [1]
The breach between the two patriarchs was complete. Each denounced the other as heretical. A larger arena was supplied by the general council summoned by Theodosius to meet at Ephesus at Pentecost, 431. John's arrival having been delayed more than a fortnight beyond the time fixed for the opening of the council, he wrote that Antioch was 42 days' journey from Ephesus, at the fastest. He had been travelling without interruption for 30 days; he was now within five or six stages of Ephesus. If Cyril would condescend to wait a little longer, he hoped in a very few days to arrive (ib. p. 451, c. xxiii.). Cyril would not delay. On Mon. June 22, 431, 198 bishops met in the church of St. Mary the Virgin, and in one day Nestorius was tried, condemned, sentenced, deposed, and excommunicated. Five days later, Sat. June 27, John arrived with 14 bishops. His reasons for delay were quite sufficient. His patriarchate was a very extensive one. His attendant bishops could not leave their churches before the octave of Easter, Apr. 26. The distances some of them had to travel did not allow them to reach Antioch before May 10. John's departure had been delayed by a famine at Antioch and consequent outbreaks of the populace; their progress was impeded by floods (Labbe, iii. 602); the transport broke down; many of the bishops were aged men, unfit for rapid travelling. There was nothing to support Cyril's accusation that John's delay was intentional.
Cyril sent a deputation of bishops, and ecclesiastics to welcome John, apprise him in the name of the council of the deposition of Nestorius and that he must no longer regard him as a bishop (ib. iii. 761). John, who had already heard from count Irenaeus of the hasty decision of the council, refused to admit the deputation, and they complained that they were rudely treated by the guard whom Irenaeus had sent to do honour to and protect the Eastern bishops. The deputation were compelled to wait for some hours at the door of the house where John took up his quarters, exposed to the insults of the soldiers and the attendants of the Orientals ( ib. 593, 764) while a rival council was being held within. The bishops who sided with John had hastened to his lodgings, where, "before they had shaken the dust off their feet, or taken off their cloaks" (Cyril. Ep. ad Colest. Labbe, iii. 663), the small synod—the "conciliabulum" their enemies tauntingly called it—of 43 bishops, passed a sentence of deposition on Cyril and Memnon, bp. of Ephesus, and of excommunication on all the other prelates of the council, until they should have condemned Cyril's "capitula," which they declared tainted not only with Apollinarian, but with Arian and Eunomian heresy ( ib. 596, 637, 657, 664 passim ). The sentences of excommunication and deposition were posted up in the city. There John vouchsafed an audience to the deputies of the other council. They communicated its decrees as to Nestorius, but received, they asserted, no reply but insults and blows (ib. 764). Returning to Cyril they formally complained of John's treatment, of which they shewed marks on their persons. The council immediately declared John separated from their communion until he explained this conduct.
John's attempts to reduce Cyril and his adherents to submission by his own authority proved fruitless, and he had recourse to the emperor and the ecclesiastical power at Constantinople. Several letters were written to Theodosius, to the empresses Pulcheria and Eudocia, the clergy, the senate, and the people of that city (Labbe, iii. 601–609; Liberat. c. vi.) to explain the tardiness of John's arrival and to justify the sentence pronounced on Cyril, Memnon, and the other bishops. Theodosius wrote to the council, declaring their decisions null (Labbe, iii. 704). The letter reached Ephesus June 29. John and his friends welcomed it with benedictions, assuring the emperor that they had acted from pure zeal for the faith which was imperilled by the Apollinarianism of Cyril's "anathematisms." Relying on imperial favour, John strove in vain to persuade the Ephesians to demand a new bishop in the place of Memnon. Meantime, the legates of Celestine had arrived from Rome, and the council, strengthened by their presence and the approbation of the bp. of Rome, proceeded, July 16, to summon John before them. Their deputation was informed that John could hold no intercourse with excommunicated persons (ib. 640). On this the council declared null all the acts of John's "conciliabulum," and, on his persisting, separated him and the bishops who had joined him from the communion of the church, pronounced them disqualified for all episcopal functions, and published their decree openly ( ib. 302).
Two counter-deputations from the opposite parties presented themselves to Theodosius in the first week of September at Chalcedon. John himself did not shrink from an open defence of the orthodoxy of Nestorius, declaring his deposition illegal and exposing the heresy of Cyril's anathematisms (Baluz. pp. 837, 839). To support their evidently failing cause, John and his fellow-deputies wrote to some leading prelates of the West, the bps. of Milan, Aquileia, and Ravenna, and Rufus of Thessalonica, laying before them in earnest terms the heretical character of Cyril's doctrines (Theod. Ep. 112; Labbe, iii. 736), but apparently without favourable result. The victory was substantially with the Cyrillian party. After six audiences the emperor, weary of the fruitless strife, declared his final resolve. Nestorius, generally abandoned by his supporters, was permitted to retire to his former monastery of St. Euprepius at Antioch. Maximian, a presbyter of Constantinople, in defiance of the protest of John and his party, was consecrated (Oct. 25) bp. of the imperial see in his room. Memnon and Cyril were reinstated: the former to remain at Ephesus as bishop; Cyril and the other bishops to return home. John and the Orientals were only not formally condemned because the dogmatic question had not been discussed. Before he retired vanquished, John delivered a final remonstrance. The churches of Chalcedon were closed against the Oriental bishops, but they had obtained a spacious hall for public worship and preaching. Large crowds assembled to listen to the powerful sermons of Theodoret and the milder exhortations of John. The mortification with which John left Chalcedon was deepened by the events of his homeward journey. At Ancyra he found that letters from its bp. Theodotus, who was one of the eight deputies of the council, as well as from Firmus of Caesarea, and Maximian the newly appointed bp. of Constantinople, had commanded that he and his companions should be regarded as excommunicate.
From Ancyra John proceeded to Tarsus. Here, in his own patriarchate, he immediately held a council, together with Alexander of Hierapolis and the other deputies, at which he confirmed the deposition of Cyril and his brother-commissioners (Baluz, 840, 843, 847) Theodoret and the others engaged never to consent to the deposition of Nestorius. On reaching Antioch, about the middle of Dec., John summoned a very numerously attended council of bishops, which pronounced a fresh sentence against Cyril and wrote to Theodosius, calling upon him to take measures for the general condemnation of the doctrines of Cyril, as contrary to the Nicene faith which they were resolved to maintain to the death (Socr. H. E. vii. 34; Liberat. c. vi.; Baluz. p. 741, c. xxxix.). Soon after his return to Antioch John, accompanied by six bishops, visited the venerable Acacius of Beroea, whose sympathy in the controversy had greatly strengthened and consoled him. The old man was deeply grieved to hear the untoward result of their proceedings.
The battle was now over and the victory remained with Cyril. His return to Alexandria was a triumphal progress (Labbe, iii. 105). But the victory had been purchased by a schism in the church. Alexandria and Antioch were two hostile camps. For three years a bitter strife was maintained. The issue, however, was never doubtful. John, alarmed for his own safety, soon began to show symptoms of yielding. The emperor, at the urgent demand of Celestine, had pronounced the banishment of Nestorius. John might not unreasonably fear a demand for his own deposition. It was time he should make it clear that he had no real sympathy with the errors of the heresiarch. The pertinacity with which Nestorius continued to promulgate the tenets which had proved so ruinous to the peace of the church irritated John. The newly elected bp. of Rome, Sixtus, who had warmly embraced Cyril's cause, in a letter addressed to the prelates of the East in the interests of reunion, A.D. 432, declared that John might be received again into the Catholic church, provided he repudiated all whom the council of Ephesus had deposed and proved by his acts that he really deserved the name of a Catholic bishop (Coteler. Mon. Eccl. Graec. i. 47). Cyril was disposed to limit his requirements to the condemnation of Nestorius and the recognition of Maximian. John summoned Alexander of Hierapolis, Andrew of Samosata, Theodoret, and probably others, to Antioch and held a conference to draw up terms of peace. It was agreed that if Cyril would reject his anathematisms they would restore him to communion. Propositions for union were dispatched by John to Cyril. John and his fellow-bishops next sought the intervention of Acacius of Beroea, who was universally venerated, in the hope that his influence might render Cyril more willing to accept the terms (Baluz. 756, c. liii.; Labbe, iii. 1114). Cyril, though naturally declining to retract his condemnation of Nestorius's tenets, opened the way for a reconciliation with John. John, eager to come to terms with his formidable foe, declared himself fully satisfied of Cyril's orthodoxy; his explanation had removed all the doubt his former language had raised (Labbe, iii. 757, 782). Paul, bp. of Emesa, was dispatched by John to Alexandria to confer with Cyril and bring about the much-desired restoration of communion ( ib. 783). These events took place in Dec. 432 and Jan. 433. Cyril after some hesitation signed a confession of faith sent him by John, declaring in express terms "the union of the two natures without confusion in the One Christ, One Son, One Lord," and confessing "the Holy Virgin to be the Mother of God, because God the Word was incarnate and made man, and from His very conception united to Himself the temple taken from her" (Labbe, iii. 1094; Baluz. pp. 800, 804; Liberat. 8, p. 30), and gave Paul of Emesa an explanation of his anathematisms which Paul approved (Labbe, iii. 1090). Cyril then required acceptance of the deposition of Nestorius, recognition of Maximian, and acquiescence in the sentence passed by him on the four metropolitans deposed as Nestorians; terms acceded to by Paul. Each party was desirous of peace and disposed to concessions. Paul, placing in Cyril's hand a written consent to all his requirements, was admitted to communion and allowed to preach at the Feast of the Nativity (Cyril. Ep. 32, 40; Labbe, iii. 1095; Liberat. c. 8, p. 32). John, however, sent letters stating that neither he nor the other Oriental bishops could consent so hastily to the condemnation of Nestorius, from whose writings he gave extracts to prove their orthodoxy (Baluz. p. 908). Cyril and the court began. to weary of so much indecision, and, to bring matters to a point, a document drawn up by Cyril and Paul was sent for John to sign (Cyril, Epp. 40, 42), together with letters of communion to be given him if he consented. Fresh delays ensued, but at last, in Apr. 433, the act giving peace to the Christian world was signed and dispatched to Alexandria, where it was announced by Cyril in the cathedral on Apr. 23. John, in a letter to Cyril, stated that in signing this document he had no intention to derogate from the authority of the Nicene Creed, and expressly recognized Maximian as the lawful bp. of Constantinople in place of Nestorius, sometime bishop, but deposed for teaching which merited anathema. He also wrote a circular letter of communion addressed to pope Sixtus, Cyril and Maximian (Labbe, iii. 1087, 1090, 1094, 1154; Cyril, Ep. 41). The East and West were once more at one. Cyril testified his joy in the celebrated letter to John, commencing "Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad" (Labbe, iii. 1106–1111). John wrote to Theodosius thanking him for the peace which his efforts had procured, and begged him to render it universal by restoring the deposed bishops.
This accommodation was far from being satisfactory to the extreme members of either party. Isidore of Pelusium and other adherents of Cyril expressed a fear that he had made too large concessions; while John had given great offence to many of his warmest supporters, who accused him of truckling to powerful advocates of a hollow peace to secure his position as bishop. Theodoret refused to abandon Nestorius. Alexander of Hierapolis broke off communion with his patriarch John (Baluz. pp. 799, 832). During the next two years John sought to force the bishops of his patriarchate to accept the terms of peace. Theodoret's unwillingness to abandon Nestorius and rooted dislike to Cyril's articles raised a coldness between him and John which was much strengthened by an unwarrantable usurpation on John's part, who at the close of 433 or beginning of 434 had ordained bishops for Euphratesia. This aggression caused serious irritation among the bishops of the province, who, led by Theodoret, withdrew from communion with John. John unhappily continuing his acts of usurpation, the disaffection spread. Nine provinces subject to the patriarch of Antioch renounced communion with John, who had at length to request the imperial power to force them into union by ejecting the bishops who refused the agreement he had arranged with Cyril. Theodoret, yielding to the entreaties of James of Cyrus and other solitaries of his diocese, consented to a conference with John and was received by his old friend with great cordiality. All reproaches were silenced, and as John did not insist on his accepting sentence against Nestorius, he embraced concordat, and returned to communion with John and Cyril (ib. pp. 834–836). The way towards peace had been smoothed by the death of Nestorius's successor, Maximian, Apr. 12, 434, and the appointment as archbp. of Constantinople of the saintly Proclus, who, in the early part of the Nestorian controversy, had preached the great sermon on the Theotokos (Socr. H. E. vii. 40; Baluz. p. 851). Proclus's influence was exerted in favour of peace, and so successfully that all the remonstrant bishops, except Alexander of Hierapolis and five others, ultimately accepted the concordat and retained their sees. Alexander was ejected in Apr. 435. John made a strong representation to Proclus in 436 that Nestorius in his retirement was persisting in his blasphemies and perverting many in Antioch and throughout the East (Baluz. p. 894), and formally requested Theodosius to expel him from the East and deprive him of the power of doing mischief (Evagr. H. E. i. 7; Theophan. p. 78). An edict was accordingly issued that all the heresiarch's books should be burnt, his followers called "Simonians" and their meetings suppressed (Labbe, iii. 1209; Cod. Theod. XVI. v. 66). The property of Nestorius was confiscated and he was banished to the remote and terrible Egyptian oasis.
Nestorian doctrines were too deeply rooted in the Eastern mind to be eradicated by persecution. Cyril, suspecting that the union was more apparent than real and that some of the bishops who had verbally condemned Nestorius still in their hearts cherished his teaching, procured orders from the Imperial government that the bishops should severally and explicitly repudiate Nestorianism. A formula of Cyril's having been put into John's hands for signature, John wrote in 436 or 437 to Proclus to remonstrate against this multiplicity of tests which distracted the attention of bishops from the care of their dioceses (Labbe, iii. 894).
Fresh troubles speedily broke out in the East in connexion with the writings of the greatly revered Theodore of Mopsuestia and Diodorus of Tarsus, whose disciple Nestorius had been. The bishops and clergy of Armenia appealed to Proclus for his judgment on the teaching of Theodore (ib. v. 463). Proclus replied by the celebrated doctrinal epistle known as the "Tome of St. Proclus." To this were attached some passages selected from Theodore's writings, which he deemed deserving of condemnation ( ib. 511–513). This letter he sent first to John requesting that he and his council would sign it (Liberat. p. 46; Facundus, lib. 8, c. 1, 2), John assembled his provincial bishops at Antioch. They expressed annoyance at being called on for fresh signatures, as if their orthodoxy was still questionable, but made no difficulty about signing the "Tome," which they found worthy of all admiration, both for beauty of style and the dogmatic precision of its definitions. But the demand for the condemnation of the appended extracts called forth indignant protests. They refused to condemn passages divorced from their context, and capable, even as they stood, of an orthodox interpretation. A fresh schism threatened, but the letters of remonstrance written by John and his council to Proclus and Theodosius put a stop to the whole matter. Even Cyril, who had striven hard to procure the condemnation of Theodore, was compelled to desist by the resolute front shewn by the Orientals, some of whom, John told him, were ready to be burnt rather than condemn the teaching of one they so deeply revered (Cyril. Epp. 54, 199) Theodosius wrote to the Oriental bishops that the church must not be disturbed by fresh controversy and that no one should presume to decide anything unfavourable to those who had died in the peace of the church (Baluz. p. 928, c. ccxix.). The date of this transaction was probably 438. It is the last recorded event in John's career. His death occurred in 441 or 442. Tillem. Mém. eccl. t. xiv. xv.; Ceillier, Auteurs eccl. ; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 412; Neander, Church. Hist. vol. iv., Clarke's ed.; Milman, Latin Christ. vol. i. pp. 141–177; Bright, Hist. of Church , pp. 310–365.
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Leontius, Bishop of Antioch
Leontius (2), bp. of Antioch, a.d. 348–357: a Phrygian by birth (Theod. H. E. ii. 10), and, like many leading Arians, a disciple of the celebrated teacher Lucian (Philostorg. iii. 15). When the see of Antioch became vacant by the removal of Stephen, the emperor Constantius effected the appointment of Leontius, who strove to avoid giving offence to either Arians or orthodox. One of the current party tests was whether the doxology was used in our present form or in that which the Arians ( ib. 113) maintained to be the more ancient, "Glory be to the Father, through the Son, in the Holy Ghost." Those who watched Leontius could never make out more of his doxology than "world without end. Amen" (Theod. ii. 119). Among the orthodox of his flock were two ascetics, Flavian and Diodorus, who, though not yet advanced to the priesthood, had very great influence because of their holy lives. To them Theodoret ascribes the invention of the practice of dividing the choir into two and chanting the Psalms of David antiphonically, a use of the church of Antioch which legend soon attributed to its martyr-bishop Ignatius (Socr. vi 8). They assembled the devout at the tombs of the martyrs and spent the whole night in singing of hymns. Leontius could not forbid this popular devotion, but requested its leaders to hold their meetings in church, a request with which they complied. Leontius foresaw that on his death the conduct of affairs was likely to fall into less cautious hands, and, touching his white hairs predicted, "When this snow melts there will be much mud." The orthodox, however, complained that he shewed manifest bias in advancing unworthy Arians. In particular he incurred censure by his ordination to the diaconate of his former pupil Aetius, afterwards notorious as an extreme Arian leader. On the strong protest of Flavian and Diodorus Leontius suspended Aetius from ecclesiastical functions. Philostorgius (iii. 27) relates that Leontius subsequently saved the life of Aetius by clearing him from false charges made to the emperor Gallus. When Athanasius came to Antioch, he communicated not with Leontius and the dominant party, but with the ultra-orthodox minority called Eustathians, who had refused to recognize any other bishop while the deposed Eustathius was alive and who worshipped in private conventicles. Leontius accused Athanasius of cowardice in running away from his own church. The taunt stung Athanasius deeply. He wrote his Apologia de Fuga in reply to it, and always speaks bitterly of Leontius, seldom omitting the opprobrious epithet ὁ ἀπόκυπος . He even (de Fug. 26) accuses the aged bishop of criminality in his early relations with Eustolium. If there had been any proof of this, Leontius would have been deposed not for mutilation but for corrupting a church virgin; and if it had been believed at Antioch the respect paid him by orthodox members of his flock would be inconceivable. The censure of so great a man irretrievably damaged Leontius in the estimation of succeeding ages, and his mildness and moderation have caused him to be compared to one of those hidden reefs which are more dangerous to mariners than naked rocks. Yet we may charitably think that the gentleness and love of peace which all attest were not mere hypocrisy, and may impute his toleration of heretics to no worse cause than insufficient appreciation of the serious issues involved. The Paschal Chronicle, p. 503, quotes the authority of Leontius for its account of the martyrdom of Babylas. Leontius died at the end of 357 or beginning of 358. Athanasius, writing in 358, Hist. Ar. , speaks of him as still living, but perhaps the news had not reached Athanasius.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr
Lucianus (12), priest of Antioch, martyr; born at Samosata c. 240, educated at Edessa under a certain Macarius, a learned expounder of Holy Scripture (Suidas, s.v. ). Lucianus went to Antioch, which held a high rank among the schools of the East and was then, owing to the controversies raised by Paulus of Samosata, the great centre of theological interest. There he was probably instructed by Malchion, who seems to have been the true founder of the celebrated Antiochene school of divines, of whom Lucian, Chrysostom, Diodorus, Theodoret, and Theodore of Mopsuestia were afterwards some of the most distinguished. During the controversies after the deposition of Paulus, Lucian seems to have fallen under suspicion. Some have thought that he cherished sentiments akin to those of Paulus himself, which were of a Sabellian character, while others think that in opposing Paulus he used expressions akin to Arianism (cf. Newman's Asians, p. 7, and c. i. § 5). This latter view is supported by the creed presented at the council of Antioch, a.d. 341, and purporting to be drawn up by St. Lucian, which is extremely anti-Sabellian. He was separated from the communion of the three immediate successors of Paulus—Domnus, Timaeus, and Cyrillus. During the episcopate of Cyrillus he was restored, and became with Dorotheus the head of the theological school, giving to it the tone of literal, as opposed to allegorical, exposition of Scripture which it retained till the time of Chrysostom and Theodore of Mopsuestia. Lucian produced, possibly with the help of Dorotheus, a revised version of the LXX, which was used, as Jerome tells us, in the churches of Constantinople, Asia Minor, and Antioch, and met with such universal acceptance that it received the name of the Vulgate (Vulgata, Κοινή ), while copies of the LXX in general passed under the title of Lucianea (Westcott, Hist. of Canon, p. 360). He also wrote some doctrinal treatises, and a commentary on Job. See Routh, Reliq. Sacr. v. 3–17.
In the school of Lucian the leaders and supporters of the Arian heresy were trained. Arius himself, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Maris of Chalcedon, Leontius of Antioch, Eudoxius, Theognis of Nicaea, and Asterius appealed to him as their authority (but see ARIUS) and adopted from him the party designation of Collucianists (De Broglie, L᾿Eglise et l᾿Empire, i. 375). Lucian became afterwards more conservative, and during Diocletian's persecution he encouraged the martyrs to suffer courageously, but escaped himself till Theotecnus was appointed governor of Antioch, when he was betrayed by the Sabellian party, seized and forwarded to Nicomedia to the emperor Maximinus, where, after delivering a speech in defence of the faith, he was starved for many days, tempted with meats offered to idols, and finally put to death in prison, Jan. 7, 311 or 312. His body was buried at Drepana in Bithynia, where his relics were visited by Constantine, who freed the city from taxes and changed its name to Helenopolis. A fragment of the apology delivered by the martyr has been preserved by Rufinus and will be found in Routh, l.c. Dr. Westcott, l.c. , accepts it as genuine.
As to whether Lucian the martyr and Biblical critic was the same person as Lucian the excommunicated heretic, Ceillier, Fleury, and De Broglie take one side, Dr. Newman the other. The former contend that neither Eusebius, Jerome, nor Chrysostom mentions his lapse in early life. But their notices are very brief, none of them are professed biographers, and we cannot depend much upon mere negative evidence. On the other hand we have the positive statements of Alexander, bp. of Alexandria (in Theod. H. E. i. 3, and Philostorg. H. E. ii. 14 and 15; see also Epiphan. Ancorat. c. 33), which, together with the fact that the Arian party at Antioch sheltered themselves behind a creed said to have been "written in the hand of Lucian himself, who suffered martyrdom at Nicomedia" (Soz. H. E. iii. 5), outweigh the improbability involved in the silence of the others. He may easily have been 30 years in church communion when he died, and with the 4th cent. Christians a martyrdom like his would more than atone for his early fall.
The creed of Lucian is in Hefele, Hist. of Councils, ii. 77, Clark's ed.; cf. Soz. H. E iii. 5, vi. 12. Bp. Bull maintains its authenticity and orthodoxy ( Def. of Nic. Creed, lib. iv. c. xiii. vi. § 5). Wright's Syriac. Mart. Eus viii. 13, ix. 6; Chrysost. Hom. in Lucian, in Migne, Patr. Gk. t. 1. p. 520; Gieseler, H. E. i. 248; Neander, H. E. ii. 498. Neander gives the numerous references to Lucian in St. Jerome's writings.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Malchion, a Presbyter of Antioch
Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch in the reigns of Claudius and Aurelian, conspicuous for his prominent part in the deposition of the bp. of Antioch, Paul of Samosata, in 272. He was famed as a rhetorician and was a learned man well acquainted with heathen writers, from whom he was accustomed to make quotations (Hieron. Ep. lxx. 4), and held, while a presbyter of the church, the office of president of the faculty of rhetoric (Eus. vii. 29). The bishop having announced or implied doctrines concerning the nature of Christ which appeared to Malchion and most of his co-presbyters to be identical with the heresy of Artemon, he engaged him in a public discussion, which was taken down by shorthand writers and published. He compelled Paul unwillingly to unveil his opinions, and exhibited him to the assembly as a heretic. A great council of bishops and presbyters having then been called together, and having condemned Paul, Malchion was chosen to write the letter denouncing him as a heretic and a criminal to the bishops of Rome and Alexandria, and through them to the world. The letter and the report of the discussion were known in the 4th and 5th cents. by Eusebius and Jerome; the latter enrolled Malchion in his list of illustrious church-writers, while the former cites at length the principal portions of the condemning letter (Eus. H. E. vii. 29, 30; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. c. 71). A trans. of the existing fragments of Malchion are in the Ante-Nic. Lib. (T. & T. Clark).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch
Maximus (15) , patriarch of Antioch. After the deposition of Domnus II., patriarch of Antioch, by the "Latrocinium" of Ephesus, a.d. 449, Dioscorus persuaded the weak Theodosius to fill the vacancy with one of the clergy of Constantinople. Maximus was selected and ordained, in violation of all canonical orders, by Anatolius bp. of Constantinople, without the official sanction of the clergy or people of Antioch. Maximus, though owing his elevation to an heretical synod, gained a reputation for orthodoxy in the conduct of his diocese and province. He dispatched "epistolae tractoriae" through the churches subject to him as metropolitan, requiring the signatures of the bishops to Leo's famous "tome" and to another document condemning both Nestorius and Eutyches (Leo Magn. Ep. ad Paschas. 88 [1], June 451). Having thus discreetly assured his position, he was summoned to the council of Chalcedon in Oct. 451, and took his seat without question, and when the illegal acts of the "Latrocinium" were quashed, including the deposition of the other prelates, a special exception was made of the substitution of Maximus for Domnus on the express ground that Leo had opened communion with him and recognized his episcopate (Labbe, iv. 682). His most important controversy at Chalcedon was with Juvenal of Jerusalem regarding the limits of their respective patriarchates. It was long and bitter; at last a compromise was accepted by the council, that Antioch should retain the two Phoenicias and Arabia and that the three Palestines should form the patriarchate of Jerusalem ( ib. 614–618). Maximus was among those by whom the Confession of Faith was drawn up ( ib. 539–562), and stands second, between Anatolius of Constantinople and Juvenal of Jerusalem, in the signatories to the decree according metropolitical rank to Constantinople ( ib. 798).
The next notice of Maximus is in a correspondence with Leo the Great, to whom he had appealed in defence of the prerogatives of his see. Leo promised to help him against either Jerusalem or Constantinople, exhorting him to assert his privileges as bp. of the third see in Christendom (i.e. only inferior to Alexandria and Rome). Maximus's zeal for the orthodox faith receives warm commendation from Leo, who exhorts him as "consors apostolicae sedis" to maintain the doctrine founded by St. Peter "speciali magisterio" in the cities of Antioch and Rome, against the erroneous teaching both of Nestorius and Eutyches, and to watch over the churches of the East generally and send him frequent tidings. The letter, dated June 11, 453, closes with a desire that Maximus will restrain unordained persons, whether monks or simple laics, from public preaching and teaching (Leo Magn. Ep. 109 [2]). Two years later, a.d. 455, the episcopate of Maximus came to a disastrous close by his deposition. The nature of his offence is nowhere specified. We do not know how much longer he lived or what became of him. Tillem. Mém. eccl. t. xv. passim ; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus , t. ii. p. 725.
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Meletius, Bishop of Antioch
Meletius (3) , bp. of Antioch, previously of Sebaste in Armenia (Soz H. E. iv. 28; Theod. H. E. ii. 31), or according to Socrates ( H. E. ii. 44), of Beroea in Syria.
He came to Antioch (a.d. 361) when the see had been vacated through the disorderly translation of Eudoxius to Constantinople (a.d. 360) and the city was still a focus for theological rancour and dispute. The Eustathians, now under the venerated priest Paulinus, represented the orthodox party with whom Athanasius was in communion; the Eudoxians were Arian or semi-Arian. Meletius owed his appointment to the joint application to Constantius of both parties, and each counted on his support. His arrival was greeted by an immense concourse. It was reported that he maintained the doctrines of the council of Nicaea. He was entreated to give a brief synopsis of his doctrine; and his declaration "the Son is of the same substance as the Father," at once and unequivocally proclaimed him an upholder of the essential doctrine of Nicaea. The applause of the Catholics was met by the cries of the infuriated Arians. The Arian archdeacon sprang forward and stopped the bishop's mouth with his hand. Meletius instantly extended three fingers towards the people, closed them, and then allowing only one to remain extended, expressed by signs what he was prevented from uttering. When the archdeacon freed his mouth to seize his hand, Meletius exclaimed, "Three Persons are conceived in the mind, but we speak as if addressing One" (Theod. and Soz.). Eudoxius, Acacius, and their partisans were furious; they reviled the bishop and charged him with Sabellianism; met in council and deposed him; and induced the emperor, "more changeable than Aeolus," to banish him to his native country and to appoint Euzoïus, the friend of Arius, in his place. The Catholics repudiated Euzoïus, but did not all support Meletius. The Eustathian section could not conscientiously unite with one who, however orthodox in faith, had received consecration from Arian bishops; neither would they communicate with his followers who had received Arian baptism. Schism followed. The Meletians withdrew to the Church of the Apostles in the old part of the city; the followers of Paulinus met in a small church within the city, this being allowed by Euzoïus out of respect for Paulinus.
The death of Constantius (Nov. 361) and the decrees of toleration promulgated by Julian permitted the banished bishops to return. An effort was at once made, especially by Athanasius and Eusebius bp. of Vercelli, to establish unity in order to resist the pagan emperor; and this was one of the principal objects of a council held at Alexandria in 362 (Hefele, Conciliengeschichte , i. 727), where it was ordered that Paulinus and his followers should unite with Meletius, and that the church, thus united, should in the spirit of fullest toleration receive all who accepted the Nicene creed and rejected the errors of Arianism, Sabellianism, Macedonianism, etc. Eusebius of Vercelli and Asterius of Petra were commissioned to proceed to Antioch, taking with them the synodal letter (Tomus ad Antiochenos ), which was probably the work of Athanasius. The prospects of peace had, however, been fatally imperilled before the commissioners reached the city. Lucifer, bp. of Calaris, had gone direct to Antioch instead of to the council of Alexandria. He appears to have repeatedly exhorted both Meletians and Eustathians to unity; but his sympathies were strongly with the latter; and, when the former opposed him, he took the injudicious step of consecrating Paulinus as bishop. "This was not right," Theodoret justly protests (iii. 5). When Eusebius reached Antioch, he found that "the evil had, by such unwise measures, been made incurable." The long connexion of Athanasius with the Eustathians made him unwilling to disown Paulinus, who accepted the synodal letter; and attempts at union were suspended.
During the short reign of Julian Meletius remained at his post. Jovian's death (a.d. 364.) and the edict of Valens re-expelling the bishops recalled by Julian once more drove Meletius into exile. Two devoted Antiochians, Flavian and Diodorus, rallied the persecuted who refused to communicate with the Arian Euzoïus and assembled them in caverns by the river side and in the open country. Paulinus, "on account of his eminent piety" (Socr. iv. 2), was left unmolested. During the 14 years which followed, bitterness and alienation were rife amongst the followers of Meletius and Paulinus. Basil (Ep. 89) recommended Meletius to write to Athanasius, who, however, would not sever the old ties between himself and the Eustathians. The death of Athanasius (A. D. 373) did not improve matters. His successor Peter, with Damasus of Rome, spoke in 377 of Eusebius and Meletius as Arians (Basil, Ep. 266). The Western bishops and Paulinus suspected Meletius and the Easterns of Arianism; the Easterns imputed Sabellianism to the Westerns.
Gratian, becoming sovereign of the whole empire in 378, at once proclaimed toleration to all sects, with a few exceptions (Socr. v. 2), amongst which must have been the Arians of Antioch (Theod. v. 2). Sapor, a military chief, went there to dispossess the partisans of Euzoïus and to give the Arian churches to the orthodox party. He pacified the Meletians by handing the churches over to them, and the animosity of the two parties was for the time allayed by the six principal presbyters binding themselves by oath to use no effort to secure consecration for themselves when either Paulinus or Meletius should die, but to permit the survivor to retain the see undisturbed.
In 379 a council at Antioch under Meletius accepted the synodal letter of Damasus (a.d. 378), which, known as "the Tome of the Westerns," was sent in the first instance to Paulinus; and two years later (381) Meletius—though disowned by Rome and Alexandria—was appointed to preside at the council of Constantinople. He was greeted by the emperor Theodosius with the warmest affection (ib. v. 6, 7). During the session of the council, Meletius died. His remains finally rested by those of Babylas the Martyr at Antioch.
The schism ought now to have ended. Paulinus was still alive, and should have been recognized as sole bishop. The Meletian party, however, irritated by his treatment of their leader, secured the appointment of FLAVIAN; and a fresh division arose, "grounded simply on a preference of bishops" (Socr. v. 269). The history of the Meletians now merges into that of the Flavianists. The schism was practically ended in Flavian's life time, 85 years after the ordination of Paulinus by Lucifer.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paulinus, Bishop Eustathian Party at Antioch
Paulinus (6) , bp. of the Eustathian or old Catholic party at Antioch, 362–388, a man highly esteemed for piety. He was one of Eustathius's presbyters, and, subsequently to the death of Eustathius, was recognized as the head of the Eustathians, who, refusing to hold communion with Meletius, with whom they were doctrinally agreed, in consequence of his having been appointed and consecrated by Arians, remained some time without a bishop, holding their meetings for worship in a small church within the walls of Antioch, the use of which had been granted by the Arian bp. Evagrius, out of respect for Paulinus's high character. Lucifer of Calaris, on his way home from his banishment in Upper Egypt, a.d. 362, went straight to Antioch, where, finding it impossible to reconcile the two contending parties he took the fatal step of ordaining Paulinus bp. of the Eustathian Catholics. This rendered union impossible, and the church had to lament the consequent schism at Antioch for more than half a century. The controversy between the churches of the West and of Egypt which supported Paulinus, and that of the East which adhered to Meletius, was not finally healed till Alexander became bp, of Antioch, a.d. 413. For the history of this protracted schism see LUCIFERUS of Calaris; EUSTATHIUS (3) of Antioch; MELETIUS (3) of Antioch; EUSEBIUS (93) of Vercelli; FLAVIANUS (4). The death of Paulinus may be dated 388.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paulus ii, Patriarch of Antioch
Paulus (10) II. , patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 519–521 (Clinton, F. R. ). On the expulsion of the Monophysite Severus by Justin, Paulus, a presbyter of Constantinople, warden of the hospice of Eubulus, was nominated by the emperor to the vacant see, and was canonically ordained at Antioch. He strictly attended to Justin's commands to enforce the decrees of Chalcedon, and by inserting in the diptychs the names of the orthodox bishops of that synod caused a schism in his church, many of the Antiochenes regarding the council with suspicion, as tending to Nestorianism. Clergy, laity, and resident foreigners joined in accusing him before the papal legates, who were at that time in Constantinople, of conduct unbecoming a bishop. They departed without coming to any conclusion, and the charge was repeated before Justin. Paulus, unable to clear himself, obtained leave of the emperor to retire from his bishopric, a.d. 521. He was succeeded by Euphrasius. Evagr. H. E. iv. 4; Theophan. p. 141; Joann. Malal. lib. xvii. p. 411; Eutych. ii. 152; Ep. Justini , Labbe, iv. 1555; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 732.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch
Paulus (9) of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 260–270. A celebrated Monarchian heresiarch, "the Socinus of the 3rd century" (so Bp. Wordsworth), deposed and excommunicated for heretical teaching as to the divinity of our Blessed Lord, a.d. 269. His designation indicates that he was a native of Samosata, the royal city of Syria, where he may have become known to Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, through whom Cave and others ascribe his advancement to the highest post in the Syrian church. Dr Newman points out that the beginning of Paul's episcopate synchronizes with the commencement of the successes of Zenobia's husband Odenathus against Sapor ( Asians of the Fourth Cent. p. 4, n. 6). Athanasius distinctly calls her Paul's patroness (Athan. Hist. Ar. c. 71).
Our only knowledge of his career and character is from the encyclical letter of the bishops and clergy who condemned him. The picture of him is most unfavourable there. He is described as haughty, ostentatious, vain-glorious, worldly-minded, a lover of pomp and parade, avaricious, rapacious, self-indulgent and luxurious; as one whose manner of life laid him open to grave suspicions of immorality; and as a person originally of humble birth, who had adopted the ecclesiastical career as a lucrative speculation, and, by the abuse of its opportunities and the secular office obtained by favour of Zenobia, had amassed a large fortune. In public he affected the pomp and parade of a secular magistrate rather than the grave and modest bearing of a Christian bishop. He stalked through the forum surrounded by attendants, who made a way for him through a crowd of petitioners whose memorials he made a display of dispatching with the utmost celerity, dictating the replies without halting a moment. In his ecclesiastical assemblies he adopted an almost imperial dignity, sitting on a throne raised on a lofty tribunal (βῆμα ), with a cabinet (σήκρητον ) for private conferences screened from the public gaze. He is said to have suppressed the psalms which were sung to Christ as God, which had ever proved a great bulwark to the orthodox faith, as modern novelties not half a century old (cf. Caius ap. Routh, Rel. Sacr. ii. 129), and to have introduced others in praise of himself, which were sung in full church on Easter Day by a choir of women, causing the hearts of the faithful to shudder at the impious language which extolled Paul as an angel from heaven. By his flatteries and gifts, and by his unscrupulous use of his power, he induced neighbouring bishops and presbyters to adopt his form of teaching and other novelties. His private life is described in equally dark colours. He indulged freely in the pleasures of the table, and enjoyed the society of two beautiful young women, as spiritual sisters, "subintroductae," and encouraged other clergymen to follow his example, to the scandal of all and the moral ruin of many. Yet, disgraceful as his life was, he had put so many under obligations and intimidated others by threats and violence, so that it was very difficult to persuade any to witness against him (Eus. H. E. vii. 30).
However great the scandals attaching to Paul's administration of his episcopal office, it was his unsoundness in the faith which, chiefly by the untiring exertions of the venerable Dionysius of Alexandria, led to the assembling of the synods at Antioch, through which his name and character have chiefly become known to us. The first was held in 265, Firmilian of the Cappadocian Caesarea being the president. The second (the date is not precisely known) was also presided over by Firmilian, who, on his way to the third synod, in 269, was suddenly taken ill and died at Tarsus, the bishop of that city, Helenus, taking his place as president. In the first two synods Paul, by dialectical subtleness and crafty concealment of his real opinions (ib. vii. 29), escaped condemnation. The members of the second synod heard from all quarters that his teaching was unaltered and that this could be easily proved if the opportunity were granted. A third synod, therefore, was convened at Antioch, towards the close of 269. The leading part was taken by Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch, at one time president of the school of rhetoric there. Athanasius says that 70 bishops were present (Athan. de Synod. vol. i. p. ii. p. 605, ed. Patav.), Hilary says 80 (Hilar. de Synod. p. 1200). Malchion, as a skilled dialectician, was chosen by them to conduct the discussion. Paul's heresy being plainly proved, he was unanimously condemned, and the synod pronounced his deposition and excommunication, which they notified to Dionysius bp, of Rome, Maximus of Alexandria, and the other bishops of the church, in an encyclical letter, probably the work of Malchion, large portions of which are preserved by Eusebius ( H. E. vii. 30). In it the assembled fathers announced that they had of their own authority appointed Domnus, the son of Paul's predecessor Demetrianus, to the vacant chair. The sentence of deposition was easier to pronounce than to carry out. Popular tumults were excited by Paul's partisans. Zenobia supported her favourite in his episcopal position, while the irregularity of Domnus's appointment alienated many of the orthodox. For two years Paul retained possession of the cathedral and of the bishop's residence attached to it, asserting his rights as the ruler of the church of Antioch. On the defeat of Zenobia by Aurelian towards the end of 372, the Catholic prelates represented to him what they termed Paul's "audacity." Aurelian relegated the decision to the bp. of Rome and the Italian prelates, decreeing that the residence should belong to the one they recognized by letters of communion ( ib. ). The Italian bishops promptly recognized Domnus, Paul was driven with the utmost ignominy from the temporalities of the church, and Domnus, despite his irregular appointment, generally accepted as patriarch (ib. ; Cyril Alex. Hom. de Virg. Deip. ; Routh, iii. 358).
The teaching of Paul of Samosata was a development of that of Artemon, with whose heresy it is uniformly identified by early writers. Like the Eastern heresiarch, Paul held the pure humanity of Christ, "He was not before Mary, but received from her the origin of His being" (Athan. de Synod. p. 919, c. iii. s. 10). His pre-existence was simply in the divine foreknowledge. He allowed no difference in kind between the indwelling of the Logos in Christ and in any human being, only one of degree, the Logos having dwelt and operated in Him after a higher manner than in any other man. This indwelling was not that of a person, but of a quality. There is no evidence that he denied the supernatural conception of Christ. Athanasius distinctly asserts that he taught Θεὸν ἐκ παρθένου, Θεὸν ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ ὀφθέντα (Athan. de Salut. adv. Apoll. t. i. p. 635); but he laid no particular stress upon it. His inferior Being was ἐκ παρθένου ; his superior Being was penetrated by the Logos, Whose instrumentality by it was continually advancing itself towards God, until the "Jesus Christ from below" (κάτωθεν ) became worthy of union with God (ἐκ προκοτῆς τεθεοποιῆσθαι ). Therefore, although he called Christ God, it was not as God by His nature, but by progressive development. The Deity of Christ grew by gradual progress out of the humanity. He was convicted, according to Eusebius, of asserting that Christ was mere man deemed specially worthy of divine grace (Eus. H. E. vii. 27). He taught also that as the Logos is not a Person, so also the Holy Spirit is impersonal, a divine virtue belonging to the Father and distinct from Him only in conception.
It deserves special notice that Paul's misuse, "σωματικῶς et crasso sensu," of the term ὁμοούσιος , "consubstantial," which afterwards at Nicaea became the test word of orthodoxy, is stated to have led to its rejection by the Antiochene council (Athan. de Synodis , t. i. in pp. 917, 922). This is allowed by Athanasius, though with some hesitation, and only on the testimony of his semi-Arian opponents, as he said he had not seen the original documents (ib. pp. 918–920) by Hilary ( de Synod. § 81, p. 509; § 86, p. 513) on the ground that it appeared that "per hanc unius essentiae nuncupationem solitarium atque unicum sibi esse Patrem et Filium praedicabat" (in which words he seems mistakenly to identify the teaching of Paul with that of Sabellius), and still more emphatically by Basil ( Ep. 52 [1]).
Dr. Newman regards Paul of Samos "the founder of a school rather than of a sect" (Arians , p. 6). A body, called after him Paulianists, or Pauliani, or Samosatensians, existed in sufficient numbers at the time of the council of Nicaea for the enactment of a canon requiring their rebaptism and the reordination of their clergy on their return to the Catholic church, on the ground that orthodox formulas were used with a heterodox meaning (Canon. Nic. xix. Hefele, i. 43). The learned presbyter Lucian, who may be considered almost the parent of Arianism, was a friend and disciple of Paul, and, as being infected with his errors, was refused communion by each of the three bishops who succeeded the heresiarch. The many references to them in the writings of Athanasius show that for a considerable period after the Nicene council it was felt necessary for Catholics to controvert the Samosatene's errors, and for semi-Arians to disown complicity in them (Athan. u.s. ). The Paulinians are mentioned by St. Augustine as still existing (Aug. de Haer. 44), though pope Innocent spoke of the heresy as a thing of the past in 414 (Labbe, ii. 1275), and when Theodoret wrote, c. 450, there did not exist the smallest remnant of the sect ( Haer. ii. 11). Cf. Epiphan. Haer. 65; Tillem. Mém. eccl. t. iv. pp. 289–303.
[2]
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Antioch in Pisidia
Pisidia was the traditional name of a highland district in Asia Minor. When the Romans took control of Asia Minor, they replaced the many local districts with a smaller number of Roman provinces. Pisidia now fell within the Roman province of Galatia. Antioch lay within Galatia, on the border area between the two smaller districts of Pisidia and Phrygia (Acts 13:14; Acts 16:6; for map see GALATIA). It is usually referred to as Pisidian Antioch to distinguish it from Syrian Antioch.
When Paul and Barnabas first came to Antioch, they preached in the Jewish synagogue on the Sabbath and there was a good response, both from Jews and from Gentiles (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:42-43). The next Sabbath almost the whole Gentile population of Antioch came to the synagogue to hear the missionaries preach. The Jewish leaders became jealous and angry, and drove Paul and Barnabas from the city (Acts 13:44-50; 2 Timothy 3:11). The two missionaries, not lacking in courage, returned to the city soon after (Acts 14:21).
Antioch was one of the churches of Galatia that Paul addressed in his Letter to the Galatians (Galatians 1:2; see GALATIANS, LETTER TO THE). Paul visited the churches of Galatia again on his second and third missionary journeys (Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch
Porphyrius (4) , patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 404–413, succeeded Flavian (Socr. H. E. vii. 9), and is described in the dialogue which goes under the name of Palladius as a man of infamous character, who had disgraced the clerical profession by intimacy with the scum of the circus (Pallad. Dial. p. 143). Although his character was notorious, by his cleverness and adroit flattery he obtained considerable influence with the magistrates, and gained the confidence of some leading bishops of the province. Flavian's death having occurred almost contemporaneously with Chrysostom's exile, it became vitally important to the anti-Flavian cabal to have the vacant throne of Antioch filled with a man who would carry out their designs for the complete crushing of Flavian's adherents. Porphyry was chosen. To clear the field Constantius, the trusted friend of Chrysostom, whom the people of Antioch marked out as Flavian's successor, was accused at Constantinople as a disturber of the public peace. By his powerful influence with the party then dominant about the court, Porphyry obtained an imperial rescript banishing Constantius to the Oasis. Constantius anticipated this by fleeing to Cyprus ( ib. 145). Porphyry then managed to get into his hands Cyriacus, Diophantus, and other presbyters of the orthodox party who were likely to be troublesome, and seized the opportunity of the Olympian festival at Antioch, when the population had poured forth to the spectacles of Daphne, to lock himself and his three consecrators, Acacius, Antiochus, and Severianus, whom he had kept hiding at his own house, with a few of the clergy, into the chief church, and to receive consecration at their hands. The indignant Antiochenes next morning attacked the house of Porphyry, seeking to burn it over his head. The influence of Porphyry secured the appointment of a savage officer as captain of the city guards, who by threats and violence drove the people to the church ( ib. 147). Forewarned of his real character, pope Innocent received Porphyry's request for communion with silence ( ib. 141). Porphyry was completely deserted by the chief clergy and all the ladies of rank of Antioch, who refused to approach his church and held their meetings clandestinely ( ib. 149). In revenge Porphyry obtained a decree, issued by Arcadius Nov. 18, 404, sentencing all who refused communion with Arsacius, Theophilus, and Porphyry to be expelled from the churches, and instructing the governor of the province to forbid their holding meetings elsewhere (Soz. H. E. viii. 24; Cod. Theod. 16, t. iv. p. 103). His efforts to obtain the recognition of the Antiochenes proving fruitless, while Chrysostom's spiritual power in exile became the greater for all his efforts to crush it, Porphyry's exasperation drove him to take vengeance on Chrysostom. Through his machinations and those of Severianus, orders were issued for the removal of Chrysostom from Cucusus to Pityus, during the execution of which the aged saint's troubles ended by death (Pallad. Dial. p. 97). Porphyry's own death is placed by Clinton ( Fast. Rom. ii. 552) in 413 (cf. Theod. H. E. iii. 5). He was succeeded by Alexander, by whom the long distracted church was united. It is a misfortune that the chief and almost only source for the character of Porphyry is the violent pamphlet of Palladius, whose warm partisanship for Chrysostom unduly blackens all his opponents, and refuses them a single redeeming virtue. That Porphyry was not altogether the monster this author represents may be concluded from the statement of the calm and amiable Theodoret, that he "left behind him" at Antioch "many memorials of his kindness and of his remarkable prudence " (Theod. H. E. v. 35), as well as by a still stronger testimony in his favour in Theodoret's letter to Dioscorus, when he calls him one "of blessed and holy memory, who was adorned both with a brilliant life and an acquaintance with divine doctrines" (Theod. Ep. 83). Fragments of a letter addressed to Porphyry by Theophilus of Alexandria, recommending him to summon a synod, when some were seeking to revive the heresy of Paul of Samosata, are found in Labbe ( Concil. p. 472).
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Serapion, Bishop of Antioch
Serapion (1), bp. of Antioch, reckoned 8th in succession, a.d. 190–203 (Clinton), succeeding Maximin in the 11th year of Commodus (Eus. H. E. vi. 12; Chron. ), was a theologian of considerable literary activity, the author of works of which Eusebius had no certain knowledge besides those enumerated by him. Of the latter Jerome gives an account (de Script. Eccl. c. 41) borrowed from Eusebius ( H. E. v. i9; vi. 12). They are—(1) a letter to Caricus and Pontius against the Cataphrygian or Montanist heresy, containing a copy of a letter of Apollinaris of Hierapolis, and substantiated as to the facts by the signatures of several other bishops, including some of Thrace; (2) a treatise addressed to Domninus, who during the persecution of Severus had fallen away to the Jewish "will-worship"; and (3), the most important, directed against the Docetic gospel falsely attributed to St. Peter, addressed to some members of the church of Rhossus, who were being led away by it from the true faith. Serapion recalls the permission to read this apocryphal work given in ignorance of its true character and expresses his intention of speedily visiting the church to strengthen them in the true faith. Dr. Neale calls attention to the important evidence here furnished to "the power yet possessed by individual bishops of settling. the canon of Scripture" ( Patriarch. of Antioch, p. 36). Socrates refers to his writings, as an authority against Apollinarianism ( H. E. iii. 7). Jerome mentions sundry letters in harmony with his life and character. Tillem. Mém. eccl. iii. 168, § 9; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 86; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 702.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch
Severus (27), Monophysite patriarch of Antioch a.d. 512–519, a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and education a heathen, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, v. 40, 120).
He almost at once openly united himself with the Acephali, repudiating his own baptism and his baptizer, and even the Catholic church itself as infected with Nestorianism (Labbe, u.s. ). On embracing Monophysite doctrines he entered a monastery apparently belonging to that sect between Gaza and its port Majuma. Here he met Peter the Iberian, a zealous Eutychian, who had been ordained bp. of Gaza by Theodosius, the Monophysite monk, during his usurpation of the see of Jerusalem (Evagr. l.c. ). About this time Severus apparently joined a Eutychian brotherhood near Eleutheropolis under the archimandrite Mamas, who further confirmed him in his extreme Monophysitism (Liberat. Brev. c. xix.; Labbe, v. 762; Evagr. l.c. ). Severus rejected the Henoticon of Zeno, applying to it contumelious epithets, such as κενωτικόν , "the annulling edict," and διαιρετικόν , "the disuniting edict " (Labbe, v. 121), and anathematized Peter Mongus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, for accepting it. We next hear of him in an Egyptian monastery, of which one Nephalius was abbat, who, having been formerly a Monophysite, had embraced the faith of Chalcedon. Nephalius with his monks expelled Severus and his partizans (Evagr. l.c. , Cf. iii. 22). Severus is charged with having stirred up a fierce religious war among the excitable population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. 121). To escape the punishment of his turbulence he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of 200 Monophysite monks (ib. iv. 1419). Anastasius, who had succeeded the emperor Zeno, the author of the Henoticon, in 491, was a declared favourer of the Eutychians, and by him Severus was received with honour. His advent was an unhappy one for the peace of Constantinople, where a sanguinary tumult was stirred up by rival bands of monks, orthodox and Monophysite, chanting in their respective churches the opposing forms of the "Trisagion." This tumult resulted, a.d. 511, in the humiliation of Anastasius the temporary triumph of the patriarch Macedonius, and the depression of the Monophysite cause (Theophan, p. 132). Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy the vacant throne of Antioch a.d. 511. He was ordained, or, in the words of his adversaries, "received the shadow of ordination" (Labbe, v. 40), and enthroned on the same day in his patriarchal city ( ib. iv. 1414; Theod. Lect. ii. 31, pp. 563, 567; Theophan. p. 134), and that very day solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the Henoticon he had previously repudiated. He caused the name of Peter Mongus to be inscribed in the diptychs; declared himself in communion with the Eutychian prelates, Timotheus of Constantinople and John Niciota of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, iv. 1414, v. 121, 762; Theod. Lect. l.c. ). Eutychianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation and demanding communion. In these he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. They met with a very varied reception. Many rejected them altogether, nevertheless Monophysitism was everywhere in the ascendant in the East, and Severus was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Alex. ii. 27). Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l.c. ). The triumph of Severus was, however, short. His sanguinary tyranny over the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive his imperial patron. Anastasius was succeeded in 518 by Justin, who at once declared for the orthodox faith. The Monophysite prelates were everywhere replaced by orthodox successors. Severus was one of the first to fall. Irenaeus, the count of the East, was commissioned to arrest him. Severus, however, escaped, and in Sept. 518 sailed by night for Alexandria (Liberat. Brev. l.c. ; Theophan. 141 ; Evagr. H. E. iv. 4). Paul was ordained in his room. Severus and his doctrines were anathematized in various councils. At Alexandria his reception by his fellow-religionists was enthusiastic. He was gladly welcomed by the patriarch Timotheus, and generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism. His learning and argumentative power established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and the day of his entrance into Egypt was long celebrated as a Jacobite festival (Neale, u.s. p. 30). Alexandria speedily became the resort of Monophysites of every shade of opinion, who formed too powerful a body for the emperor to molest. But fierce controversies sprang up among themselves on various subtle questions connected with Christ's nature and His human body. A vehement dispute arose between Severus and his fellow-exile Julian of Halicarnassus as to the corruptibility of our Lord's human body before His resurrection. Julian and his followers were styled "Aphthartodocetae" and "Phantasiastae," Severus and his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolae," and "Ktistolatrae." The controversy was a warm and protracted one and no settlement was arrived at. The Jacobites, however, claim the victory for Severus (Renaudot, p. 129). After some years in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity, Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor Justinian, whose consort Theodora warmly favoured the Eutychian party. The emperor was utterly weary of the turmoil caused by the prolonged theological discussions. Severus, he was told, was the master of the Monophysite party. Unity could only be regained by his influence. At this period, a.d. 535. Anthimus had been recently appointed to the see of Constantinople by Theodora's influence. He was a concealed Eutychian, who on his accession threw off the orthodox mask and joined heartily with Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Monophysitism recognized as the orthodox faith. This introduction of turbulent Monophysites threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their pernicious heresy (Labbe, v. 124). For the further progress of this audacious attempt to establish Monophysitism in the imperial city see JUSTINIANUS; AGAPETUS. Eventually, at the instance of pope Agapetus, who happened to visit Constantinople on political business at this time, the Monophysites Anthimus and Timotheus were deposed, and Severus again subjected to an anathema. The orthodox Mennas, succeeding Anthimus (Liberat. Breviar. c. xxi.; Labbe, v. 774), summoned a synod in May and June 536 to deal with the Monophysite question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves" from the true fold, and anathematized (Labbe, v. 253–255). The sentence was ratified by Justinian ( ib. 265). The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to the flames was to lose his right hand (Evagr. H. E. iv. 11; Novell. Justinian. No. 42; Matt. Blastar. p. 59). Severus returned to Egypt, which he seems never again to have left. The date of his death is fixed variously in 538, 539, and 542. According to John of Ephesus, he died in the Egyptian desert (ed. Payne Smith, i. 78).
He was a very copious writer, but we possess little more than fragments. An account of them, so far as they can be identified, is given by Cave (Hist. Lit. vol. i. pp. 499 ff.) and Fabricius ( Bibl. Graec. lib. v. c. 36, vol. x. pp. 614 ff., ed. Harless). A very large number exist only in Syriac, for which consult the catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the Brit. Mus. by Prof. Wright.
Severus was successful in his great aim of uniting the Monophysites into one compact body with a definitely formulated creed. For notwithstanding the numerous subdivisions of the Monophysites, he was, in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, the scientific leader of the most compact portion of the party," and regarded as such by the Monophysites and their opponents. He was the chief object of attack in the long and fierce contest with the orthodox, by whom he is always designated as the author and ringleader of the heresy. His opinions, however, were far from consistent, and his opponents apparently had much difficulty in arriving at a clear and definite view of them, and constantly asserted that he contradicted himself. This was partly forced upon him by the conciliatory position he aimed at. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological colour, he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing his own sense upon them (Dorner, Pers. of Christ, div. ii. vol. i. p. 136, Clark's trans.). In 1904 the Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Severus, in the Syriac version of Athanasius of Nisibis, were ed. by G. E. W. Brooks (Lond.). For a full statement of his opinions see the great work of Dorner, and art. "Monophysiten" in Herzog's Encyc.
[1]
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Antioch in Syria
Soon after the sweeping conquests of Alexander the Great, the empire he established split into sectors under the control of his Greek generals. One of these sectors was centred on Syria, and in 300 BC the new rulers built the city of Antioch on the Orontes River as the administrative capital of the sector. They also built the town of Seleucia nearby, as a Mediterranean port for Antioch (Acts 13:1; Acts 13:4). With the conquest of the region by Rome in 64 BC, Antioch became the capital of the Roman province of Syria.
Christianity came to Antioch through the efforts of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians who had been driven from Jerusalem by violent Jewish persecution. The two people whose teaching most helped the church in its early stages were Paul and Barnabas. It was there in Antioch, during the stay of Paul and Barnabas, that people first gave the name ‘Christian’ to the followers of Jesus Christ (Acts 11:19-26; for the significance of the name see CHRISTIAN).
Upon hearing of the needs of poor Christians in Jerusalem, the Antioch church saw its responsibility to send gifts to help other Christians (Acts 11:27-30). Next it saw its responsibility to spread the gospel into more distant places where people had never heard it. The church therefore sent off Paul and Barnabas as its first missionaries (Acts 13:1-4). Antioch became the centre from which Christianity spread west into Asia Minor and Europe.
Paul and Barnabas returned to Antioch when they had completed their first missionary journey (Acts 14:26-28). Soon, however, they met trouble. Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch and tried to force the Gentile Christians to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Galatians 2:11-13). As a result of the trouble that these Jewish teachers caused, the leaders of the Antioch church went to Jerusalem to discuss the matter with the leaders there. The Antioch leaders asserted that Christians were not bound by the Jewish law, and returned to Antioch with the reassuring knowledge that the Jerusalem leaders supported them (Acts 15:6-35).
Paul’s second missionary journey also started and finished in Antioch (Acts 15:30-41; Acts 18:22). He left from Antioch on his third journey (Acts 18:23), but finished the journey in jail in Caesarea (Acts 23:31-35). There is no record of any further visits Paul made to Antioch.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Stephanus i., Patriarch of Antioch
Stephanus (16) I., patriarch of Antioch a.d. 478–480 (Clinton, F. R. ii. 536, 553). Stephen having sent a synodic letter to Acacius bp. of Constantinople acquainting him with the circumstances of his consecration, Acacius convened a synod, a.d. 478, by which the whole transaction was confirmed. The partisans of Peter the Fuller accused Stephen to Zeno of Nestorian heresy, and demanded to have his soundness in the faith investigated by a synod. Zeno yielded, and a synod was called for the Syrian Laodicea (Labbe, iv. 1152 ). The charge was declared groundless (Theophan. 108). Stephen's enemies, rendered furious by defeat, made an onslaught on the church of St. Barlaam in which he was celebrating the Eucharist, dragged him from the altar, tortured him to death, and threw his body into the Orontes (Evagr. H. E. iii. 10; Niceph. H. E. xv. 88). The emperor, indignant at the murder of his nominee, despatched a military force to punish the Eutychian party, at whose instigation the crime had been committed ( Simplicii Ep 14 ad Zenonem, Labbe, iv: 1033; Lib. Synod. ib. 1152). According to some authorities it was Stephen's successor, another Stephen, who was thus murdered. Valesius, Seb. Binius, Tillemont ( Mém. xvi. 315) and Le Quien ( Or. Christ. ii. 726) take the view given above.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch
Theodotus (18), patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 420–429 (Clinton, F. R. ii. 552). He succeeded Alexander, under whom the long-standing schism at Antioch had been healed, and followed his lead in replacing the honoured name of Chrysostom on the diptychs of the church. He is described by Theodoret, at one time one of his presbyters, as "the pearl of temperance," "adorned with a splendid life and a knowledge of the divine dogmas" (Theod. H. E. v. 38; Ep. 83 ad Dioscor. ). Joannes Moschus relates anecdotes illustrative of his meekness when treated rudely by his clergy, and his kindness on a journey in insisting on one of his presbyters exchanging his horse for the patriarch's litter (Mosch. Prat. Spir. c. 33). By his gentleness he brought back the Apollinarians to the church without rigidly insisting on their formal renouncement of their errors (Theod. H. E. v. 38). On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done. The most probable date of this synod is that given by Hefele, a.d. 424 (Marius Mercator, ed. Garnier, Paris, 1673, Commonitor. c. 3, p. 14; Dissert. de Synodis , p. 207; Phot. Cod. 54). When in 424 Alexander, founder of the order of the Acoemetae, visited Antioch, Theodotus refused to receive him as being suspected of heretical views. His feeling was not shared by the Antiochenes, who, ever eager after novelty, deserted their own churches and crowded to listen to Alexander's fervid eloquence (Fleury, H. E. livre xxv. c. 27). Theodotus took part in the ordination of Sisinnius as patriarch of Constantinople, Feb. 426, and united in the synodical letter addressed by the bishops then assembled to the bishops of Pamphylia against the Massalian heresy (Socr. H. E. vii. 26; Phot. Cod. 52). He died in 429 (cf. Theodoret's Ep. to Diosc. and his H. E. v. 40). Tillem. t. xii. note 2, Theod. Mops. ; Theophan. Chron. p. 72; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 720; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 405.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch
Theophilus (4) , bp. of Antioch (Eus. H. E. iv. 20; Hieron. Ep. ad Algas. quaest. 6), succeeded Eros c. 171, and was succeeded by Maximin c. 183, according to Clinton ( Fasti Romani ), but the dates are only approximations. His death may probably be placed c. 183–185 (Lightfoot, S. Ignatius , vol. ii. p. 166). We gather from his writings that he was born a heathen, not far from the Tigris and Euphrates, and was led to embrace Christianity by studying the Holy Scriptures, especially the prophetical books (ad Autol. i. 14, ii. 24). He makes no reference to his office in his existing writings, nor is any other fact in his life recorded. Eusebius, however, speaks of the zeal which he and the other chief shepherds displayed in driving away the heretics who were attacking Christ's flock, with special mention of his work against Marcion ( H. E. iv. 24). He was a fertile writer in different departments of Christian literature, polemics, exegetics, and apologetics. Dr. Sanday describes him as "one of the precursors of that group of writers who, from Irenaeus to Cyprian, not only break the obscurity which rests on the earliest history of the Christian church, but alike in the East and in the West carry it to the front in literary eminence, and distance all their heathen contemporaries" ( Studia Biblica , p. 90). Eusebius and Jerome mention numerous works of Theophilus current in their time. They are (1) the existing Apology addressed to Autolycus; (2) a work against the heresy of Hermogenes; (3) against that of Marcion; (4) some catechetical writings; (5) Jerome also mentions having read some commentaries on the gospel and on Proverbs, which bore Theophilus's name, but which he regarded as inconsistent with the elegance and style of his other works.
The one undoubted extant work of Theophilus is his Apologia ad Autolycum in three books. Its ostensible object is to convince a heathen friend Autolycus a man of great learning and an earnest seeker after truth of the divine authority of the Christian religion while at the same time he exhibits the falsehood and absurdity of paganism. His arguments drawn almost entirely from O.T. with but very scanty reference to N.T. are largely chronological. He makes the truth of Christianity depend on his demonstration that the books of O.T. were long anterior to the writings of the Greeks and were divinely inspired. Whatever of truth the heathen authors contain he regards as borrowed from Moses and the prophets who alone declare God's revelation to man. He contrasts the perfect consistency of the divine oracles which he regards as a convincing proof of their inspiration with the inconsistencies of heathen philosophers. He contrasts the account of the creation of the universe and of man on which together with the history contained in the earlier chapters of Genesis he comments at great length but with singularly little intelligence with the statements of Plato "reputed the wisest of all the Greeks" (lib. iii. cc. 15 16) of Aratus who had the hardihood to assert that the earth was spherical (ii. 32 iii. 2) and other Greek writers on whom he pours contempt as mere ignorant retailers of stolen goods. He supplies a series of dates beginning with Adam and ending with Marcus Aurelius who had died shortly before he wrote i.e. early in the reign of Commodus. He regards the Sibylline verses as authentic and inspired productions quoting them largely as declaring the same truths with the prophets. The omission by the Greeks of all mention of O.T. from which they draw all their wisdom is ascribed to a self-chosen blindness in refusing to recognize the only God and in persecuting the followers of Him Who is the only fountain of truth (iii. 30 ad fin.). He can recognize in them no aspirations after the divine life no earnest gropings after truth no gleams of the all-illumining light. The heathen religion was a mere worship of idols bearing the names of dead men. Almost the only point in which he will allow the heathen writers to be in harmony with revealed truth is in the doctrine of retribution and punishment after death for sins committed in life (ii. 37 38). The literary character of the Apology deserves commendation. The style is characterized by dignity and refinement. It is clear and forcible. The diction is pure and well chosen. Theophilus also displays wide and multifarious though superficial reading and a familiar acquaintance with the most celebrated Greek writers. His quotations are numerous and varied. But Donaldson (Hist. Christ. Lit. iii. p. 69) remarks that he has committed many blunders misquoting Plato several times (iii. 6 16) ranking Zopyrus among the Greeks (iii. 26) and speaking of Pausanias as having only run a risk of starvation instead of being actually starved to death in the temple of Minerva (ib.). His critical powers were not above his age. He adopts Herodotus's derivation (ii. 52) of θεός from τίθημι since God set all things in order comparing with it that of Plato (Crat. 397 c) from θέειν because the Deity is ever in motion (Apol. i. 4). He asserts that Satan is called the dragon δράκων on account of his having revolted ἀποδεδρακέναι from God (ii. 28) and traces the Bacchanalian cry "Evoe" to the name of Eve as the first sinner (ib.). His physical theories are equally puerile. He ridicules those who maintain the spherical form of the earth (ii. 32) and asserts that it is a flat surface covered by the heavens as by a domical vault (ii. 13). His exegesis is based on allegories usually of the most arbitrary character. He makes no attempt to educe the real meaning of a passage but seeks to find in it some recondite spiritual truth a method which often betrays him into great absurdities. He discovers the reason of blood coagulating on the surface of the ground in the divine word to Cain (Gen_4:10-12) the earth struck with terror (φοβηθεῖσα ἡ γῆ) refusing to drink it in. Theophilus's testimony to the O.T. is copious. He quotes very largely from the books of Moses and to a smaller extent from the other historical books. His references are copious to Ps. Prov. Is. and Jer. and he quotes Ezek. Hos. and other minor prophets. His direct evidence respecting the canon of N.T. does not go much beyond a few precepts from the Sermon on the Mount (iii. 13 14) a possible quotation from Luk_18:27 (ii. 13) and quotations from Rom. I. Cor and I. Tim. More important is a distinct citation from the opening of St. John's Gospel (i. 1–3) mentioning the evangelist by name as one of the inspired men (πνευματοφόροι) by whom the Holy Scriptures (αἱ ἅγιαι γραφαί) were written (ii. 22). The use of a metaphor found in 2Pe_1:19 bears on the date of that epistle. According to Eusebius (l.c.) Theophilus quoted the Apocalypse in his work against Hermogenes; a very precarious allusion has been seen in ii. 28 cf. Rev_12:3; Rev_12:7 etc. A full index of these and other possible references to O. and N. T. is given by Otto (Corp. Apol. Christ. ii. 353–355). Theophilus transcribes a considerable portion of Genesis 1 –iii. with his own allegorizing comments upon the successive work of the creation week. The sun is the image of God; the moon of man whose death and resurrection are prefigured by the monthly changes of that luminary. The first three days before the creation of the heavenly bodies are types of the Trinity—τύποι τῆς τρίαδος—the first place in Christian writings where the word is known to occur (lib. ii. c. 15)—i.e. "God His Word and His Wisdom."
The silence regarding the Apology of Theophilus in the East is remarkable. We find the work nowhere mentioned or quoted by Greek writers before the time of Eusebius. Several passages in the works of Irenaeus shew an undoubted relationship to passages in one small section of the Apology (Iren. v. 23, 1; Autol. ii. 25 init. : Iren. iv. 38, 1, iii. 23, 6; Autol. ii. 25: Iren. iii. 23, 6; Autol. ii. 25, 26), but Harnack (p. 294) thinks it probable that the quotations, limited to two chapters, are not taken from the Apology , but from Theophilus's work against Marcion (cf. Möhler, Patr. p. 286; Otto, Corp. Apol. II. viii. p. 357; Donaldson, Christ. Lit. iii. 66). In the West there are certain references to the Autolycus , though not copious. It is quoted by Lactantius (Div. Inst. i. 23) under the title Liber de Temporibus ad Autolycum . There is a passage first cited by Maranus in Novatian (de Trin. c. 2) which shews great similarity to the language of Theophilus ( ad Autol. i. 3). In the next cent. the book is mentioned by Gennadius (c. 34) as "tres libelli de fide." He found them attributed to Theophilus of Alexandria, but the disparity of style caused him to question the authorship. The notice of Theophilus by Jerome has been already referred to. Dodwell found internal evidence, in the reference to existing persecutions and a supposed reference to Origen and his followers, for assigning the work to a younger Theophilus who perished in the reign of Severus ( Dissert. ad Iren. §§ 44, 50, pp. 170 ff. ed. 1689). His arguments have been carefully examined by Tillemont ( Mém. eccl. iii. 612 notes), Cave ( Hist. Lit. i. 70), Donaldson ( u.s. ii. 65), and Harnack ( u.s. p. 287), and the received authorship fully established. Cf. W. Sanday in Stud. Bibl. (Oxf. 1885), p. 89.
Editions. —Migne's Patr. Gk. (t. vi. col. 1023–1168), and a small ed. (Camb. 1852) by the Rev. W. G. Humphry. Otto's ed. in the Corpus Apologet. Christ. Saec. Secund. vol. ii. (Jena, 1861, 8vo) is by far the most complete and useful. English trans. by Belty (Oxf. 1722), Flower (Lond.1860), and Marcus Dods (Clark's Ante-Nicene Lib. ).
[1]

Sentence search

Orontes River - The Orontes, modern Asi (Turkish), Nahr el Assi (Arabic), rises near Heliopolis (Bealbek) in the Beka's valley of Lebanon, and flows north some 250 miles through Syria and Turkey before turning southwest through the great city of Antioch to reach the coast just south of ancient Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch. This river is never actually mentioned in the Bible but was famous for its association with Antioch, which owed to the river the fertility of its district. See Antioch
Antioch in Syria - One of these sectors was centred on Syria, and in 300 BC the new rulers built the city of Antioch on the Orontes River as the administrative capital of the sector. They also built the town of Seleucia nearby, as a Mediterranean port for Antioch (Acts 13:1; Acts 13:4). With the conquest of the region by Rome in 64 BC, Antioch became the capital of the Roman province of Syria. ...
Christianity came to Antioch through the efforts of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians who had been driven from Jerusalem by violent Jewish persecution. It was there in Antioch, during the stay of Paul and Barnabas, that people first gave the name ‘Christian’ to the followers of Jesus Christ (Acts 11:19-26; for the significance of the name see CHRISTIAN). ...
Upon hearing of the needs of poor Christians in Jerusalem, the Antioch church saw its responsibility to send gifts to help other Christians (Acts 11:27-30). Antioch became the centre from which Christianity spread west into Asia Minor and Europe. ...
Paul and Barnabas returned to Antioch when they had completed their first missionary journey (Acts 14:26-28). Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch and tried to force the Gentile Christians to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5; Galatians 2:11-13). As a result of the trouble that these Jewish teachers caused, the leaders of the Antioch church went to Jerusalem to discuss the matter with the leaders there. The Antioch leaders asserted that Christians were not bound by the Jewish law, and returned to Antioch with the reassuring knowledge that the Jerusalem leaders supported them (Acts 15:6-35). ...
Paul’s second missionary journey also started and finished in Antioch (Acts 15:30-41; Acts 18:22). He left from Antioch on his third journey (Acts 18:23), but finished the journey in jail in Caesarea (Acts 23:31-35). There is no record of any further visits Paul made to Antioch
Antioch - Because so many ancient cities were called by this name, it is often called Antioch on the Orontes (River) or Antioch of Syria. Antioch was founded around 300 B. Many Jews of the Diaspora lived in Antioch and engaged in commerce, enjoying the rights of citizenship in a free city. Many of Antioch's Gentiles were attracted to Judaism. As was the case with many of the Roman cities of the east, Antioch's patron deity was the pagan goddess Tyche or “Fortune. Luke mentioned Nicholas of Antioch in Acts 6:5 among the Greek-speaking leaders of the church in Jerusalem. The persecution that arose over Stephen resulted in Jewish believers scattering to Cyprus, Cyrene, and Antioch ( Acts 11:19 ). In Antioch the believers were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ), and it was to Antioch that Barnabas fetched Saul (Paul) from Tarsus so that they could teach this mixed congregation of Jewish and Gentile followers of the Lord. At Antioch the Christian prophet Agabus foretold the famine that would shortly overtake the Roman world (Acts 11:28 ). The disciples responded with the work of famine relief for the church in Jerusalem, directed and carried out from Antioch. The church at Antioch felt the leading of the Holy Spirit to set aside Barnabas and Saul for what was the first organized mission work (Acts 13:1-3 ). Barnabas and Saul left for Seleucia (also known as Pieria, Antioch's Mediterranean seaport) to begin their preaching. The church at Antioch heard the reports of Paul and Barnabas on return from their first missionary journey (Acts 14:27 ) and likely their second missionary journey (Acts 18:22 ). This was a missionary effort to both Jews and Gentiles, about which Paul says in Galatians 2:11 that he had to oppose Peter to his face at Antioch. ...
Archaeological excavations at Antioch have been very fruitful, revealing a magnificent, walled Roman city of theatres, forums, a circus, and other public buildings. Like the Syrian Antioch, this Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator. These Jews from Antioch followed Paul to Lystra and stirred up trouble there (Acts 14:19 ). Despite this, Paul returned to Antioch to strengthen the church (Acts 14:21 )
Paulinus, Bishop Eustathian Party at Antioch - of the Eustathian or old Catholic party at Antioch, 362–388, a man highly esteemed for piety. He was one of Eustathius's presbyters, and, subsequently to the death of Eustathius, was recognized as the head of the Eustathians, who, refusing to hold communion with Meletius, with whom they were doctrinally agreed, in consequence of his having been appointed and consecrated by Arians, remained some time without a bishop, holding their meetings for worship in a small church within the walls of Antioch, the use of which had been granted by the Arian bp. 362, went straight to Antioch, where, finding it impossible to reconcile the two contending parties he took the fatal step of ordaining Paulinus bp. This rendered union impossible, and the church had to lament the consequent schism at Antioch for more than half a century. The controversy between the churches of the West and of Egypt which supported Paulinus, and that of the East which adhered to Meletius, was not finally healed till Alexander became bp, of Antioch, a. For the history of this protracted schism see LUCIFERUS of Calaris; EUSTATHIUS (3) of Antioch; MELETIUS (3) of Antioch; EUSEBIUS (93) of Vercelli; FLAVIANUS (4)
Antioch - Nicolas the deacon was a proselyte of Antioch. The Christians dispersed by Stephen's martyrdom preached at Antioch to idolatrous Greeks, not "Grecians" or Greekspeaking Jews, according to the Alexandrine manuscript (Acts 11:20; Acts 11:26), whence a church having been formed under Barnabas and Paul's care, the disciples were first called "Christians" there. From Antioch their charity was sent by the hands of Barnabas and Saul to the brethren at Jerusalem suffering in the famine. At Antioch Judaizers from Jerusalem disturbed the church (Acts 15:1). From Antioch Paul started on his first missionary journey (Acts 13:1-3), and returned to it (Acts 14:26). He began, after the Jerusalem decree, addressed to the Gentile converts at Antioch, and ended, his second missionary journey there (Acts 15:36; Acts 18:22-23). ...
Antioch was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and Jews were given the same political privileges as Greeks. Antiochus Epiphanes formed a great colonnaded street intersecting it from one end to the other. Antioch IN PISIDIA: Also founded by Seleucus Nicator. The Jews therefore raised a persecution by the wealthy women of the place, and drove him from Antioch to Iconium, and followed him even to Lystra (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21). On his return from Lystra he revisited Antioch to confirm the souls of the disciples amidst their tribulations. In 2 Timothy 3:11 he refers to Timothy's acquaintance with his trials at Antioch of Pisidia; and Timothy's own home was in the neighborhood (Acts 16:1)
Antioch in Pisidia - Antioch lay within Galatia, on the border area between the two smaller districts of Pisidia and Phrygia (Acts 13:14; Acts 16:6; for map see GALATIA). It is usually referred to as Pisidian Antioch to distinguish it from Syrian Antioch. ...
When Paul and Barnabas first came to Antioch, they preached in the Jewish synagogue on the Sabbath and there was a good response, both from Jews and from Gentiles (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:42-43). The next Sabbath almost the whole Gentile population of Antioch came to the synagogue to hear the missionaries preach. ...
Antioch was one of the churches of Galatia that Paul addressed in his Letter to the Galatians (Galatians 1:2; see GALATIANS, LETTER TO THE)
Pisidia - Its most important town was Antioch, where Paul established a church that spread the gospel throughout the region (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:49; Acts 14:24). (For map and other details see Antioch IN PISIDIA; GALATIA
Dorotheus (3) Presbyter of Antioch - Dorotheus (3) , a presbyter of Antioch, ordained by Cyril of Antioch (Hieron. 290, who with his contemporary Lucian may be regarded as the progenitor of the sound and healthy school of scriptural hermeneutics which distinguished the interpreters of Antioch from those of Alexandria. Eusebius speaks of him with high commendation, as distinguished by a pure taste and sound learning, of a wide and liberal education, well acquainted not only with the Hebrew Scriptures, which Eusebius says he had heard him expounding in the church at Antioch, with moderation ( μετρίως ) but also with classical literature
Antioch - Antioch (ăn'ti-ŏk), place that withstands (from Antiochus). Antioch in Syria, Acts 11:19; Acts 11:22, founded by Seleucus Nicator, about 300 b. , and enlarged by Antiochus Epiphanes. At Antioch the disciples were first called Christians, Acts 11:26; it was an important centre for the spread of the gospel, Acts 13:1-52; from it Paul started on his missionary journeys, Acts 15:35-36; Acts 18:22-23; important principles of Christian faith and practice were raised and settled through the church at Antioch. Christianity gained such strength there, that in the time of Chrysostom, who was born at Antioch, one-half of the 200,000 inhabitants of the city were Christians. Antioch in or near Pisidia was also founded or rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator. There were at least sixteen cities of the name of Antioch in Syria and Asia Minor
Nicolas - The victory of the people, a proselyte of Antioch, one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5 )
Pelagia, Surnamed Margarita - Pelagia (3) , surnamed Margarita, Marina, and Peccatrix , an actress of Antioch about the middle of 5th cent. 248–268, where she is distinguished from two other Pelagias of Antioch, and Pelagia of Tarsus, martyr under Diocletian. of Edessa and successor of Ibas in that see, was once preaching at Antioch when present at a synod of eight bishops. Pelagia was then the favourite actress and dancer of Antioch, whose inhabitants had poured riches upon her and surnamed her Margarita from the number of pearls she wore. Nonnus had been an ascetic of the severe order of Pachomius of Tabenna, and he addressed Pelagia with such plainness and sternness touching her sins and the future judgments of God, that she at once repented, and with many tears desired baptism, which, after some delay, was granted, the chief deaconess of Antioch, Romana, acting as sponsor for her. She finally left Antioch for a cell on the Mount of Olives, where she lived as a monk in male attire, and died some three years afterwards from excessive austerities
Symeon ( Simeon) Called Niger - Symeon is mentioned second in the list of prophets and teachers at Antioch (Acts 13:1). His sobriquet of ‘Niger’ has led some to suppose that he was African by descent and, if so, may have been one of those men of Cyprus and Cyrene by whom the Gentile Church at Antioch was founded (Acts 11:20)
Nicolas - A proselyte of Antioch, one of the seven chosen to look after the poor saints at Jerusalem
Lucius of Cyrene - Mentioned with Barnabas, Simeon Niger, Manaen, and Saul, among the prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch (Acts 13:1). He probably was one of the "men of Cyrene" who heard the tongues and then Peter's Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:10), and of the "men of Cyrene" who when "scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen" went to Antioch, "preaching the Lord Jesus" (Acts 11:19-20)
Nicomedia, Eusebius of - Bishop of Nicomedia; died 341 A pupil of Lucian of Antioch, Eusebius was the constant defender of Arius and exerted himself in every way to accomplish the downfall of Saint Athanasius and the other bishops opposed to the heresiarch. He succeeded in placing his tools in the sees of the deposed bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and having denied the jurisdiction of Rome usurped the See of Constantinople and induced the young Emperor Constantius to enforce his policy
Eusebius of Nicomedia - Bishop of Nicomedia; died 341 A pupil of Lucian of Antioch, Eusebius was the constant defender of Arius and exerted himself in every way to accomplish the downfall of Saint Athanasius and the other bishops opposed to the heresiarch. He succeeded in placing his tools in the sees of the deposed bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and having denied the jurisdiction of Rome usurped the See of Constantinople and induced the young Emperor Constantius to enforce his policy
Bectileth - Perhaps the Bactiali of the Peutinger Tables, 21 miles from Antioch
Paulianist - ) A follower of Paul of Samosata, a bishop of Antioch in the third century, who was deposed for denying the divinity of Christ
Seleucia - Antioch's seaport. The Orontes passes Antioch, and falls into the sea near Seleucia, 16 miles from Antioch
Agabus, Saint - According to tradition he was one of the seventy-two disciples, and was martyred at Antioch
Confirmation - Paul and Barnabas went to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith. Judas and Silas, messengers from Jerusalem to Antioch, being prophets, exhorted the brethren with many words and confirmed them
Agabus - ” Prophet in the Jerusalem church who went to visit the church at Antioch and predicted a universal famine. His prediction led the church at Antioch to begin a famine relief ministry for the church in Jerusalem
ni'Ger - (black ) is the additional or distinctive name given to the Simeon who was one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch
Domnus i, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, appointed a. The orthodox section appealed to Aurelian after he had conquered Zenobia and taken Antioch, a. of Antioch , pp
Barnabas - Five years afterwards, the church at Jerusalem, being informed of the progress of the gospel at Antioch, sent Barnabas thither, who beheld with great joy the wonders of the grace of God, Acts 11:20-24 . He afterwards went to Tarsus, to seek Paul and bring him to Antioch, where they dwelt together two years, and great numbers were converted. They left Antioch A. While they were at Antioch, the holy Ghost directed that they should be set apart for those labors to which he had appointed them, the planting of new churches among the Gentiles. They visited Cyprus and some cities of Asia Minor, Acts 13:2-14 , and after three years returned to Antioch. At Antioch he was led into dissimulation by Peter, and was, in consequence, reproved by Paul
Evagrius of Antioch - Evagrius (5) , known as Evagrius of Antioch, was consecrated bishop over one of the parties in Antioch in 388 or 389, and must have lived until at least 392. ...
Evagrius belonged to the Eustathian division of the orthodox church at Antioch, of which he became a presbyter. After the schism at Antioch caused by Lucifer's consecration of Paulinus, Evagrius left Antioch, and accompanied Eusebius of Vercelli to Italy in 363 or 364. After nine or ten years he returned to the East, with Jerome, with the view of healing the schism that still divided the church of Antioch. On his return to Antioch, Evagrius wrote in harsh terms to Basil, accusing him of a love of controversy and of being unduly swayed by personal partialities. If he really desired peace, let him come himself to Antioch and endeavour to re-unite the Catholics, or at least write to them and use his influence with Meletius to put an end to the dissensions. If Evagrius was so great a lover of peace, why had he not fulfilled his promise of communicating with Dorotheus, the head of the Meletian party? It would be far better for Evagrius to depute some one from Antioch, who would know the parties to be approached and the form the letters should take ( ib. of Antioch, but found the question too knotty, and relegated the decision to Theophilus of Alexandria and the Egyptian bishops
Antiochian - ) Pertaining to Antiochus, a contemporary with Cicero, and the founder of a sect of philosophers. ) Of or pertaining to the city of Antioch, in Syria
Manaen - One of the prophets or teachers at Antioch who had been 'brought up' with Herod Antipas, that is, was his foster brother, as in the R
Antioch - Antioch (Syrian). Possessed with a mama for building cities and calling them after himself or his relatives, he founded no fewer than 37, of which 4 are mentioned in the NT (1) Antioch of Syria ( Acts 11:19 ), (2) Seleucia ( Acts 13:4 ), (3) Antioch of Pisidia ( Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:21 , 2 Timothy 3:11 ), and (4) Laodicea ( Colossians 4:13-16 , Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 3:14 ). The most famous of the 16 Antiochs, which he built and named after his father Antiochus, was Antioch on the Orontes in Syria. , Antioch speedily fell heir to that vast trade which had once been the monopoly of Tyre. ...
His successor, Antiochus I. He further strove to render Antioch the intellectual rival of Alexandria, by inviting to his court scholars, such as Aratus the astronomer, and by superintending the translation into Greek of learned works in foreign tongues. Nikator, Antioch had consisted of a single quarter. Antiochus I. ...
With Antiochus III. 187 175), who was occupied mostly in repairing the financial losses his kingdom had sustained, the brilliant but wholly unprincipled youth Antiochus IV. In his dreams Antioch was to be a metropolls, second to none for beauty, and Greek art and Greek religion were to be the uniform rule throughout all his dominions. To the three quarters already existing he added a fourth, which earned for Antioch the title ‘Tetrapolis. of Antioch he laid out a splendid corso with double colonnades, which ran for 5 miles in a straight line. With Antiochus Epiphanes died the grandeur of the Syrian throne. ...
Succeeding princes exercised only a very moderate influence over the fortunes of Palestine, and the palmy days of Antioch as a centre of political power were gone for ever. In several of these struggles the Jews took part, and as the power of Antioch waned, the strength and practical independence of the Jewish Hasmonæan princes increased. 83 all Syria passed into the hands of Tigranes, king of Armenia, who remained master of Antioch for 14 years. When Tigranes was overwhelmed by the Romans, Pompey put an end to the Seleucid dynasty, and the line of Antiochene monarchs expired in b. Antioch was made a free city, and became the seat of the prefect and the capital of the Roman province of Syria. As a reward for Antioch’s fidelity to him, Julius Cæsar built a splendid basilica, the Cæsareum , and gave, besides, a new aqueduct, theatre, and public baths. Antioch seemed thus to be defended by a mountainous bulwark, 7 miles in circuit. ...
When Christianity reached Antioch, it was a great city of over 500,000 inhabitants, called the ‘Queen of the East,’ the ‘Third Metropolis of the Roman Empire. ’ In ‘Antioch the Beautiful’ there was to be found everything which Italian wealth, Greek æstheticism, and Oriental luxury could produce. Licentiousness, superstition, quackery, indecency, every fierce and base passion, were displayed by the populace; their skill in coining scurrilous verses was notorious, their sordid, fickle, turbulent, and insolent ways rendered the name of Antioch a byword for all that was wicked. We hear, however, of one Nicolas, a proselyte of Antioch (Acts 6:5 ), and there may have been more. Stephen, Christian fugitives from persecution fled as far north as Antioch, began to preach to the Greeks there ( Acts 11:19 ), and a great number believed. Antioch had the honour of being the birthplace of (1) the name ‘Christian’ ( Acts 11:26 ), and (2) of foreign missions. From this city Paul and Barnabas started on their first missionary journey ( Acts 13:1-4 ), and to Antioch they returned at the end of the tour ( Acts 14:26 ). The second journey was begun from and ended at Antioch ( Acts 15:35-41 ; Acts 18:22 ); and the city was again the starting-point of the third tour ( Acts 18:23 ). The Antiochene Church contributed liberally to the poor saints in Jerus. After the fall of Jerusalem, Antioch became the true centre of Christianity. ’ It was from Antioch that Ignatius set out on his march to martyrdom at Rome. 252 380 Antioch was the scene of ten Church Councils. The Patriarch of Antioch took precedence of those of Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Alexandria. Antioch was captured in a. It is again the centre of a Christian mission, and the Church of Antioch, as of old, is seeking to enlighten the surrounding darkness. ...
Antioch (Pisidian). The expression ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ or ‘Antioch in Pisidia’ is incorrect, as the town was not in Pisidia. Its official title was ‘Antioch near Pisidia,’ and as it existed for the sake of Pisidia, the adjective ‘Pisidian’ was sometimes loosely attached to it
Manaen - He was one of those with Barnabas and Saul at Antioch, w hen the Holy Ghost sent those servants out to the work of the ministry
Lucius - Lucius of Cyrene was one of the prophets and teachers who presided in the Church at Antioch (Acts 13:1). He seems to have belonged pretty certainly to the band of Cypriotes and Cyrenians by whom the Gentile Church at Antioch was founded (Acts 11:20)
Acephali - Cyril or John of Antioch; 2. of the followers of Severus of Antioch, and of all, in general, who held out against the council of Chalcedon
Pisidia - A province of Asia Minor, separated from the Mediterranean by Pamphylia, lying on Mount Taurus and the high table land north of it, and running up between Phrygia and Lycaonia as far as Antioch its capital. The Pisidians, like most of the inhabitants of the Taurus range, were an unsubdued and lawless race; and Paul in preaching the gospel at Antioch and throughout Pisidia, Acts 13:14 ; 14:24 , was in peril by robbers as well as by sudden storms and floods in the mountain passes
Symeon - A prophet and teacher at Antioch ( Acts 13:1 )
Lucius - One of the prophets of the Christian church at Antioch
Lucius - Christian prophet and/or teacher from Cyrene who helped lead church at Antioch to set apart Saul and Barnabas for missionary service (Acts 13:1 ). Thus an African was one of the first Christian evangelists and had an important part in the early days of the church of Antioch and in beginning the Christian world missions movement
Maximilian of Antioch, Saint - Martyr, died Antioch, c353He was a soldier of the Herculean cohort, and was martyred for refusing to remove the monogram of Christ from the standard, as had been ordered by Julian the Apostate
Antioch, Maximilian of, Saint - Martyr, died Antioch, c353He was a soldier of the Herculean cohort, and was martyred for refusing to remove the monogram of Christ from the standard, as had been ordered by Julian the Apostate
Antioch - , discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom, the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus. A second quarter was added on the eastern side, perhaps by Antiochus I. ; a third, the ‘New City,’ was built by Seleucus Callinicus on an island-similar to the island in the Seine at Paris-which has since disappeared, probably owing to one of those seismic disturbances to which the region has always been peculiarly subject; and a fourth, on the lowest slopes of Silpius, was the work of Antiochus Epiphanes. It attained its highest political importance in the time of Antiochus the Great, whose power was shattered by the Romans at Magnesia. ) ‘Vespasian took with him his army from Antioch, which is the metropolis of Syria, and without dispute deserves the place of the third city in the habitable world that is under the Roman Empire, both in magnitude and in other marks of prosperity’ (Job. ...
Antioch was called ‘the Beautiful’ (ἡ καλή
‘Amidst all this luxury the Muses did not find themselves at home; science in earnest and not less earnest art were never truly cultivated in Syria and more especially in Antioch. No Greek region has so few memorial-stones to shown as Syria; the great Antioch, the third city of the empire, has-to say nothing of the land of hieroglyphics and obelisks-left behind fewer inscriptions than many a small African or Arabian village’ (Mommsen, op. The Jewish nation ‘had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the size of the city. While the Judaism of Antioch did not assimilate Hellenic culture so readily as that of Alexandria, and certainly made no such contribution to the permanent thought of the world, it yet did much to prepare the city for the gospel. ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch,’ who was early won to Christianity, and is named among the Seven of the Jerusalem Church (Acts 6:5), was evidently one of that great number of Antiochene Greeks who had previously felt the spell of the Jewish faith. And it was the mixture of national element in the Church of Antioch-pure Greeks with Greek-speaking Jews-that peculiarly fitted her to play a remarkable part in the Apostolic Age. The diaspora that followed the death of Stephen brought many fugitive Jewish Christian preachers to Antioch, and some Cypriotes and Cyrenians among them inaugurated a new era by going beyond the Hellenist Jews for an audience and preaching to ‘the Greeks also’ (Acts 11:20). In Antioch the two men exercised a united and fruitful ministry for a year (Acts 11:22-26). ’ While Julian ‘met their sarcastic sayings with satirical writings, the Antiochenes at other times had to pay more severely for their evil speaking and their other sins’ (Mommsen, Provinces, ii. While Antioch was never wanting in respect for Jerusalem, contributing liberally to its poor in a time of famine, and consulting its leaders in all matters of doctrine and practice, her distinguishing characteristic was her evangelistic originality. But contact with the great world and sympathy with its needs probably did more than the force of reason to lighten the Antiochene Church of the dead-weight of Judaism. Christians of Hellenic culture and Roman citizenship taught her a noble universalism, and it was accordingly at the instance of the Church of Antioch that the Council of Jerusalem sent to the Gentile converts a circular letter which became the charter of spiritual freedom (Acts 15:23-29). Above all, it was from Antioch that Paul started on each of his missionary journeys (Acts 11:1-3; Acts 15:36; Acts 18:23), and to Antioch that he returned again and again with his report of fresh conquests (Acts 14:26; Acts 18:22). It was master-minds of Christian Antioch who at length changed the pathetic dream of ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ into a reality. ...
Antioch gave rise to a school of Christian thought which was distinguished by literal interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence upon the human limitations of Jesus. Between the years 252 and 380, ten Councils were held at Antioch. Müller, Antiquitates Antiochenœ, Göttingen, 1839; Conybeare-Howson, St. τὴν Πισιδίαν, ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ which is the correct reading, instead of Ἀ. ) about the same time as Syrian Antioch, being another of the many cities which he called after his father Antiochus. ), which cost Antiochus the Great the whole of his dominions north of the Taurus, the Romans made Antioch a free city. Roman roads connected Antioch with all the other colonies founded in the district-Olbasa, Comama, Cremna, Parlais, and Lystra. Paul visited Antioch. The city was not yet ‘Antioch in Pisidia’ (Authorized Version ), being correctly styled by Strabo ‘Antioch towards Pisidia’ (Ἀ. 14]'>[2]), in distinction from Antioch on the Maeander; but St. Luke already calls it ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ to differentiate it from Antioch in Syria. The boundaries of Pisidia gradually moved northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia, and then ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ became the usual designation of the city. At a still later period Pisidia was constituted a Roman province, with Antioch as its capital. ), Antioch is regarded by St. Paul’s first mission to Antioch was so successful that the whole political regio of which this colony was the centre soon heard of the new faith (Acts 13:49). Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. 4), many of whom must have found a home in Antioch. Paul found many ‘devout proselytes’ in Antioch (Acts 13:43), and his presence attracted ‘the whole city’ to the synagogue (Acts 13:44). 2); and the influence of ‘women of honourable estate’ (τὰς εὐσχήμονας), not only in Antioch but in Asia Minor generally, is one of the most striking features in the social life of the country (Conybeare-Howson, St. ) mentions another fact which may help to explain the rapid progress of Christianity in Antioch: ‘In this place was established a priesthood of Mçn Arcaeus, having attached to it a multitude of temple slaves and tracts of sacred territory
Lucius - Of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1 ), and Paul's kinsman (Romans 16:21 )
Pisidia - Antioch was made the capital, although some historians contend that the city was not actually in Pisidia. Paul and Barnabas came through Antioch (Acts 13:14 ) after John Mark left them in Perga (Acts 13:13 )
Niger - ” Surname of Simeon (KJV, Symeon), one of the teacher-prophets of the early church at Antioch. His inclusion in Acts 13:1 demonstrates the multiracial and multinational leadership of the church at Antioch
Orontes - (oh rahn tehss) The principle river of Syria which originates east of the Lebanon ridge and flows 250 miles north before turning southwest into the Mediterranean south of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Antakya). Cities of the Orontes valley include Antioch (Acts 11:19 ; Acts 13:1 ), Hamath (2 Samuel 8:9 ; 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Chronicles 8:4 ; Isaiah 11:11 ), Qarqar, where King Ahab of Israel joined a coalition of Syrian kings warring against Shalmaneser III, and Riblah (2 Kings 23:33 ; 2Kings 25:6,2 Kings 25:21 )
Basilius, Friend of Chrysostom - His see is unknown, but was probably near Antioch
Niger - Designation of Simeon, one of the teachers and prophets at Antioch
an'Tioch - (from Antiochus )-
IN SYRIA . Here the Orontes breaks through the mountains; and Antioch was placed at a bend of the river, 16 1/2 miles from the Mediterranean, partly on an island, partly on the levee which forms the left bank, and partly on the steep and craggy ascent of Mount Silpius, which, rose abruptly on the south. In the immediate neighborhood was Daphne the celebrated sanctuary of Apollo 2 Maccabees 4:33 ; whence the city was sometimes called Antioch by Daphne , to distinguish it from other cities of the same name. One feature, which seems to have been characteristic of the great Syrian cities,--a vast street with colonnades, intersecting the whole from end to end,--was added by Antiochus Epiphanes. (Antioch, in Paul's time, was the third city of the Roman empire, and contained over 200,000 inhabitants. The chief interest of Antioch, however, is connected with the progress of Christianity among the heathen, Here the first Gentile church was founded, ( Acts 11:20,21 ) here the disciples of Jesus Christ were first called Christians (Acts 11:26 ) It was from Antioch that St. This city, like the Syrian Antioch, was founded by Seleucus Nicator
Christian - In the 11th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles, the26th verse, we read, "And the disciples were called Christiansfirst in Antioch. Stephen, some of the disciples who had to flee for theirlives came to Antioch. In time there grew up a church there, a mixedsociety of Jews and Gentiles, and the citizens of Antioch naturallyasked, "What are they?" "What name do they bear?" "What is theirobject?" While they were acquainted with the Jews and theirpeculiarities, they saw that this was not a Jewish organization,for it embraced Gentiles as well. When they learned that theone bond which held this society together was their belief in aMessiah, a Christ, the people of Antioch, who were celebrated fortheir fertility in nicknames, called the members of this society,Christians
Niger - Surname of Simeon, second of the five teachers and prophets of the Antioch church (Acts 13:1)
Pisidia - Paul preached at Antioch in Pisidia, Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:24
Lucius - A Cyrenian, a Christian teacher at Antioch
Antioch - No city perhaps, Jerusalem excepted, has experienced more frequent revolutions, or suffered more numerous and dire calamities, than Antioch; as, besides the common plagues of eastern cities, pestilence, famine, fire, and sword, it has several times been entirely overthrown by earthquakes. ...
In 362, the emperor Julian spent some months at Antioch; which were chiefly occupied in his favourite object of reviving the mythology of Paganism. Julian undertook to restore the ancient honours and usages of the place; but it was first necessary to take away the pollution occasioned by the dead bodies of the Christians, which were disinterred and removed! Among these was that of Babylas, a bishop of Antioch, who died in prison in the persecution of Decius, and after resting near a century in his grave within the walls of Antioch, had been removed by order of Callus into the midst of the grove of Daphne, where a church was built over him; the remains of the Christian saint effectually supplanting the former divinity of the place, whose temple and statue, however, though neglected, remained uninjured. The Christians of Antioch, undaunted by the conspiracy against their religion, or the presence of the emperor himself, conveyed the relics of their former bishop in triumph back to their ancient repository within the city. ...
In 1268, Antioch was taken by Bibars, or Bondocdar, sultan of Egypt. The slaughter of seventeen thousand, and the captivity of one hundred thousand of its inhabitants, mark the final siege and fall of Antioch; which, while they close the long catalogue of its public woes, attest its extent and population. ...
To distinguish it from other cities of the same name, the capital of Syria was called Antiochia apud Daphnem, or Antioch near Daphne, a village in the neighbourhood, where was a temple dedicated to the goddess of that name; though, in truth, the chief deity of the place was Apollo, under the fable of his amorous pursuit of the nymph Daphne; and the worship was worthy of its object. Such being the source, the stream could scarcely be expected to be more pure; in fact, the citizens of Antioch were distinguished only for their luxury in life and licentiousness in manners. It should be observed, that the inhabitants of Antioch were partly Syrians, and partly Greeks; chiefly, perhaps, the latter, who were invited to the new city by Seleucus. "...
When the heads of the church at Jerusalem were informed of this success, they sent Barnabas to Antioch, who encouraged the new disciples, and added many to their number; and finding how great were both the field and the harvest, went to Tarsus to solicit the assistance of Paul. Both this Apostle and Barnabas then taught conjointly at Antioch; and great numbers were, by their labours during a whole year, added to the rising church, Acts 11:19-26 ; Acts 15:22-35 . ...
Antioch was the birthplace of St. But the period now referred to, namely, the age of Chrysostom, toward the close of the fourth century, may be considered as the brightest of its history subsequent to the Apostolic age, and that from which the church at Antioch may date its fall. ...
Antioch, under its modern name of Antakia, is now but little known to the western nations. But its ancient subterranean enemy, which, since its destruction in 587, never long together withheld its assaults, has again triumphed over it: the earthquake of the 13th of August, 1822, laid it once more in ruins; and every thing relating to Antioch is past
Attalia - A seaport in Pamphylia, at the mouth of the river Catarrhactes, visited by Paul and Barnabas on their way from Perga to Antioch, Acts 14:25
Manaen - A foster-brother of Herod Antipas, but unlike him in character and end: Manaen was a minister of Christ at Antioch; Herod was guilty of the blood of both Christ and his forerunner, Acts 13:1
Withstand - ...
When Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to his face
Vitalius - of the Apollinarian congregation at Antioch. Vitalius was a man of high character, brought up in the orthodox faith at Antioch, and ordained presbyter by Meletius (Theod. Damasus did not, however, receive him into communion, but sent Vitalius back to Antioch with a letter to Paulinus, whom, during the Meletian schism, Rome and the West recognized as the orthodox and canonical bishop of that see, remitting the whole matter to his decision. Apollinaris ordained Vitalius bishop of his schismatical church, his holiness of life and pastoral zeal gathering a large number of followers, the successors of whom were still at Antioch under the name of Vitalians when Sozomen wrote (Soz. It must have been very shortly after Vitalius's return to Antioch that Epiphanius, urged thereto by Basil (Bas. 258 [1]), visited Antioch to try to heal the differences then rending that church. ]'>[2] The schism of Vitalius added a third or, counting the Arians, a fourth church at Antioch, each denouncing the others
Christian - The name first given at Antioch to Christ's followers. But a new epoch arose in the church's development when, at Antioch, idolatrous Gentiles (not merely Jewish proselytes from the Gentiles, as the eunuch, a circumcised proselyte, and Cornelius, an uncircumcised proselyte of the gate) were converted. And the people of Antioch were famous for their readiness in giving names: Partisans of Christ, Christiani, as Caesariani, partisans of Caesar; a Latin name, as Antioch had become a Latin city
Fetters - Emblems in Christian art associated with ...
Saint Adjutor from his period as a prisoner
Saint Balbina because of her discovery of Saint Peter's chains
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Saint Jerome Emiliani
Saint Leonard of Noblac due to his work with slaves
Saint Theodosius the Cenobiarch
Chains - Emblems in Christian art associated with ...
Saint Adjutor from his period as a prisoner
Saint Balbina because of her discovery of Saint Peter's chains
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Saint Jerome Emiliani
Saint Leonard of Noblac due to his work with slaves
Saint Theodosius the Cenobiarch
Nicolas - A Jewish proselyte of Antioch, who afterwards embraced Christianity, and was among the most zealous of the first Christians, so that he was chosen one of the seven to minister in the church at Jerusalem
Niger - The second name of Symeon , one of the prophets and teachers in the Church of Antioch ( Acts 13:1 )
Domnus ii, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, a friend of Theodoret. of Antioch, brought up under Euthymius the famous anchoret of Palestine. of Antioch had become entangled in the Nestorian heresy, he besought Euthymius to allow him to go and extricate him. He obtained such popularity at Antioch that on the death of his uncle, a. 658), Domnus summoned a council at Antioch (a. 8, 449, on this matter, Domnus, in virtue of an imperial rescript, found himself deprived of his presidential seat, which was occupied by Dioscorus, while precedence over the patriarch of Antioch was given to Juvenal of Jerusalem (Labbe, ib. The charges against him were, approval of a Nestorian sermon preached before him at Antioch by Theodoret on the death of Cyril (Mercator, t. At that council Maximus, his successor in the see of Antioch, obtained permission to assign Domnus a pension from the revenues of the church (Labbe, ib
Seleucia - (ssih lew' cih uh) Syrian city on Mediterranean coast five miles north of the Orontes River and fifteen miles from Antioch
Lucius - Prophet or teacher of Cyrene, one of those at Antioch who, after prayer and fasting, laid their hands on Barnabas and Paul and sent them on the first missionary journey
Eudoxius, Bishop of Constantinople - of Germanicia and of Antioch, one of the most influential Arians. of Antioch. In 341 was held, at Antioch, the council of the Dedication or Encaenia, under Placillus. " Athanasius says that Eudoxius was sent with Martyrius and Macedonius to take the new creed of Antioch to Italy. This new creed may, however, have been the Macrostich, or Long Formula, drawn up at a later council of Antioch. At the latter was drawn up a creed more Arian than those of Antioch, and it was signed by Eudoxius. At the end of 347 Eudoxius was in attendance on the emperor in the West, when news came of the death of Leontius of Antioch. Excusing himself on the plea that the affairs of Germanicia required his presence, he hastened to Antioch, and, representing himself as nominated by the emperor, got himself made bishop, and sent Asphalus, a presbyter of Antioch, to make the best of the case at court. Constantius wrote to the church of Antioch: "Eudoxius went to seek you without my sending him. In the first year of his episcopate at Antioch he held a council, which received the creed of Sirmium
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint - Martyr, Bishop of Antioch, born Syria, c. Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the persecution of Domitian
Antioch, Ignatius of, Saint - Martyr, Bishop of Antioch, born Syria, c. Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the persecution of Domitian
Ico'Nium - It was a large and rich city, 120 miles north from the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of the Taurus mountains, and on the great line of communication between Ephesus and the western coast of the peninsula on one side, and Tarsus, Antioch and the Euphrates on the other. ( Acts 14:1,3,21,22 ; 16:1,2 ; 18:23 ) Paul's first visit here was on his first circuit, in company with Barnabas; and on this occasion he approached it from Antioch in Pisidia, which lay to the west
Christians - A name given at Antioch to those who believed Jesus to be the Messiah, A. It seems to have been given to them by the men of Antioch as a term of convenience rather than of ridicule, to designate the new sect more perfectly than any other word could do
Samosata, Paul of - Bishop of Antioch and heretic against whom probably three synods were held, 264-269, at Antioch
Psatyrians - A sect of Arians who in the council of Antioch, held in the year 360, maintained that the Son was not like the Father as to will; that he was taken from nothing, or made of nothing; and that in God generation was not to be distinguished from creation
Lucius - Of Cyrene, mentioned Acts 13:1 , was on of the ministers and teachers of the Christian church at Antioch, and probably a kinsman of Paul, Romans 16:21
Nicolas - A proselyte of Antioch, that is, one converted from paganism to the religion of the Jews
Man'Aen - (comforter ) is mentioned in ( Acts 13:1 ) as one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch at the time of the appointment of Saul and Barnabas as missionaries to the heathen
Luke - Luke is traditionally said to be a native of Antioch; this, however, has no better foundation than the confounding of him with that Lucius who is reckoned among the teachers at Antioch, Acts 13:1; from whom he must certainly be distinguished
Julianus Sabas, an Anchorite - of Antioch, the triumphant Arian party gave out that Julian had embraced their views; whereupon Acacius (subsequently bp. of Berrhoea), accompanied by Asterius, went to Julian and induced him to visit Antioch, where his presence exposed the slander and encouraged the Catholics
Iconium - On the route between western Asia and Ephesus on one side, and Tarsus, Antioch, and Euphrates on the other. Paul with Barnabas first visited it from Antioch in Pisidia which lay on the W. " In undesigned coincidence Paul in incidentally alludes (2 Timothy 3:11) to "persecutions, afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra, what (how grievous) persecutions I endured . "...
On his second missionary circuit Paul with Silas came from Syrian Antioch through Cilicia, and up through the Taurus passes into Lycaonia, and by Derbe and Lystra proceeded westward to Iconium (Acts 16:1-3)
Agabus - He prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27,28 )
Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea - Having gone to Antioch he endeavoured to mediate between Arius and the Catholic body. After his excommunication at Alexandria he sought admission among the clergy of Antioch but was steadily rejected by Eustathius (Athan. On this he retired to Arethusa where he acted as presbyter and on the expulsion of Eustathius was welcomed back to Antioch by the dominant Arian faction. 43) and that of the Dedication at Antioch in 341 (Soz. of Antioch openly sided with Aetius and the Anomoeans George earnestly appealed to Macedonius of Constantinople and other bishops who were visiting Basil at Ancyra to consecrate a newly erected church to lose no time in summoning a council to condemn the Anomoean heresy and eject Aetius. On the expulsion of Anianus from the see of Antioch George was mainly responsible for the election of Meletius believing him to hold the same opinions as himself. He was speedily undeceived for on his first entry into Antioch Meletius startled his hearers by an unequivocal declaration of the truth as laid down at Nicaea. 28) and Socrates quotes a panegyric composed by him on the Arian Eusebius of Emesa who was his intimate friend and resided with him at Laodicea after his expulsion from Emesa and by whose intervention at Antioch he was restored to his see (Socr
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - Theodotus (18), patriarch of Antioch, a. He succeeded Alexander, under whom the long-standing schism at Antioch had been healed, and followed his lead in replacing the honoured name of Chrysostom on the diptychs of the church. On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done. When in 424 Alexander, founder of the order of the Acoemetae, visited Antioch, Theodotus refused to receive him as being suspected of heretical views. His feeling was not shared by the Antiochenes, who, ever eager after novelty, deserted their own churches and crowded to listen to Alexander's fervid eloquence (Fleury, H
Manaen - Consoler, a Christian teacher at Antioch
Cyrene - Converts belonging to Cyrene contributed to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch (11:20). Among "the prophets and teachers" who "ministered to the Lord at Antioch" was Lucius of Cyrene (13:1)
Barnabas - Five years afterward, the church at Jerusalem, being informed of the progress of the Gospel at Antioch, sent Barnabas thither, who beheld with great joy the wonders of the grace of God, Acts 11:22 ; Acts 11:24 . Some time afterward, he went to Tarsus, to seek Paul, and bring him to Antioch, where they jointly laboured two years, and converted great numbers; and here the disciples were first called Christians. They left Antioch A. While they were at Antioch, the Holy Ghost directed that they should be separated for those labours among the Gentiles to which he had appointed them. Having revisited the cities through which they had passed, and where they had preached the Gospel, they returned to Antioch in Syria. 51, Barnabas was sent with Paul from Antioch to Jerusalem, on occasion of disputes concerning the observance of legal rites, to which the Jews wished to subject the Gentiles. Paul and Barnabas were present in the council at Jerusalem, and returned immediately to Antioch
Eudoxians - A sect in the fourth century; so called from their leader Eudoxius, patriarch of Antioch and Constantinople, a great defender of the Arian doctrine
Artemius Megalomartyr, Saint - Converted to the Catholic faith after the death of Constantius, he was accused by heathens of destroying idols, was conducted to Antioch, and after many tortures put to death
Seleucia - The seaport of Antioch, and the place at which Paul and Barnabas embarked, and to which they returned on their first missionary journey
Publius - The title Prôtos (‘first man’) at Malta is attested by inscriptions; it occurs also at Pisidian Antioch ( Acts 13:50 ; cf
Androni'Cus -
An officer left as viceroy, 2 Maccabees 4:31 , in Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes during his absence. ) ...
Another officer of Antiochus Epiphanes who was left by him on Garizem
John Chrysostom, Saint - Doctor of the Church, Archbishop of Constantinople, born Antioch, c. For two years he lived in a cave near Antioch, but his health being impaired by austerity, he returned to the city
Silas, Silvanus - One of his first missions was to carry news of the Jerusalem conference to the believers at Antioch (Acts 15:22 ). He and Paul left Antioch together on a mission to Asia Minor (Acts 15:40-41 ) and later to Macedonia
Greek Rites - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the language in which it is now used. ...
Antioch ...
(1) Pure, survives only in the "Apostolic Constitutions"
(2) Modified at Jerusalem in the Liturgy of Saint James
(a) Greek Saint James, used once a year by the Orthodox
(b) Syriac Saint James (Jacobites and Catholic Syrians)
(c) Maronite Rite
(3) Chaldean Rite (Nestorians and Chaldean Uniats)
(a) Malabar Rite (Uniats and non-Uniats of Malabar)
(4) Byzantine Rite (Orthodox, Bulgarians, Byzantine Uniats, and Bulgarian Uniats)
(5) Armenian Rite (Uniat and non-Uniat Armenians)
ALEXANDRIA ...
(1)
(a) Greek Liturgy of Saint Mark; no longer used
(b) Coptic Liturgies of Saint Cyril, Saint Basil and Saint Gregory Nazianzus (Uniat and non-Uniat Copts)
(2) AEthiopic Liturgy (non-Uniat Abyssinians)
lu'Cius - ...
Lucius of Cyrene is first mentioned in the New Testament in company with Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Manaen and Saul, who are described as prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch. Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, (Acts 2:10 ) and there can hardly be a doubt that he was one of "the men of Cyrene" who, being "scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen," went to Antioch preaching the Lord Jesus
Rites, Greek - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the language in which it is now used. ...
Antioch ...
(1) Pure, survives only in the "Apostolic Constitutions"
(2) Modified at Jerusalem in the Liturgy of Saint James
(a) Greek Saint James, used once a year by the Orthodox
(b) Syriac Saint James (Jacobites and Catholic Syrians)
(c) Maronite Rite
(3) Chaldean Rite (Nestorians and Chaldean Uniats)
(a) Malabar Rite (Uniats and non-Uniats of Malabar)
(4) Byzantine Rite (Orthodox, Bulgarians, Byzantine Uniats, and Bulgarian Uniats)
(5) Armenian Rite (Uniat and non-Uniat Armenians)
ALEXANDRIA ...
(1)
(a) Greek Liturgy of Saint Mark; no longer used
(b) Coptic Liturgies of Saint Cyril, Saint Basil and Saint Gregory Nazianzus (Uniat and non-Uniat Copts)
(2) AEthiopic Liturgy (non-Uniat Abyssinians)
Nicolas - Nicolas, one of the Seven appointed to look after the ministration of alms to the Hellenist widows, is described in the Acts as a proselyte of Antioch (Acts 6:5). 172) quotes the description of him as a proselyte of Antioch as a proof that this section of the Acts was probably derived from an Antiochene source-surely a very uncertain inference
Christian - The citizens of Antioch in Syria were the first people to give the name ‘Christian’ to believers in Jesus Christ (Acts 11:26). The language spoken in Antioch was Greek, and therefore the believers in that town spoke of Jesus not by the Hebrew word ‘Messiah’, but by the equivalent Greek word ‘Christ’
Manaen - Luke prefaces his account of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 1-5) by giving a list of the apostles who were its chiefs and leaders (1:23), so he prefaces his account of the Church of Antioch, and the missionary activity of which it was the centre, by a list of the most noted prophets and teachers who were connected with it: they were Barnabas, and Symeon called Niger, and Lucius the Cyrenian, and Manaen, the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul (13:1). What brought Manaen to Antioch we do not know. Luke was a native of Antioch and a resident there, he may well have known Manaen personally and have learnt from him the many details respecting the Herod family which he has introduced into both his Gospel and the Acts
Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, the companion and intimate friend of Arius from an early age. of Antioch, summoned Euzoïus from Alexandria, and commanded the bishops of the province to consecrate him. Whether this was at Antioch or Mopsucrene in Cilicia is uncertain (Athan. On the accession of Valens, Euzoïus was urged by Eudoxius to convene a synod of bishops at Antioch to take off Aetius's sentence, and this he ultimately did, c
Phrygia - The towns of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:14 ), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it
Attalia - ) Whence Paul and Barnabas sailed, on returning from their missionary tour inland to Antioch
Timon - Luke may himself have procured it at Antioch
Barsabas - Last name of Judas, who Jerusalem church chose to go with Paul and Silas to Antioch after the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:22 )
Crates - A deputy left in charge of the citadel at Jerusalem (Acra) when the regular governor, Sostratus, was summoned to Antioch by Antiochus Epiphanes, in consequence of a dispute with the high priest Menelaus ( 2Ma 4:29 ). 168, Antiochus obtained possession of the island
Felix i, Pope Saint - Felix sent a letter containing dogmatic exposition of the Catholic doctrine on the subject of the Trinity to the Synod of Antioch which had deposed Paul of Samosata, 269, a follower of Apollinaris, for his heretical teaching on the subject
Romanus, a Solitary - Romanus (7), a solitary, born and brought up at Rhosus, who retired to a cell on the mountains near Antioch, where he lived to extreme old age, practising the utmost austerities
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - Petrus (10) (surnamed Fullo , "the Fuller"), intruding patriarch of Antioch, 471–488, a Monophysite, took his surname from his former trade as a fuller of cloth. Here his true character having speedily become known, he fled to Zeno, who was then setting out for Antioch as commander of the East. Arriving at Antioch a. According to the Synodicon , he summoned a council at Antioch to give synodical authority to this novel clause (Labbe, iv. But notwithstanding the imperial authority, Peter's personal influence, supported by the favour of Zeno, was so great in Antioch that Martyrius's position was rendered intolerable and, wearied by violence and contumely, he soon left Antioch, abandoning his throne again to the intruder. Peter gladly complied, and was rewarded by a third restoration to the see of Antioch, a. He retained, however, the patriarchate at Antioch till his death, in 488, or according to Theophanes, 490 or 491. One of his latest acts was the unsuccessful revival of the claim of the see of Antioch to the obedience of Cyprus as part of the patriarchate
Babylas, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch from a. The great act of his life was the compelling the emperor Philip, when at Antioch shortly after the murder of Gordian, to place himself in the ranks of the penitents, and undergo penance, before he was admitted to church privileges ( κατέχει λόγος , according to Eus. And Julian in consequence, when at Antioch, ordered the Christians to remove his shrine ( λάρνακα ), or rather (according to Amm. A crowded procession of Christians, accordingly, excited to a pitch of savage enthusiasm characteristic of the Antiochenes, bore his relics to a church in Antioch, the whole city turning out to meet them, and the bearers and their train tumultuously chanting psalms the whole way, especially those which denounce idolatry. Whereupon Julian in revenge both punished the priests and closed the great church at Antioch (Julian Imp
Barnabas - Being more open-minded than most of the Jewish Christians, he was later sent by the Jerusalem leaders to help at Antioch in Syria, where many non-Jewish people had become Christians. He, in turn, invited Paul to Antioch, and through the help they gave over the next year the church grew rapidly (Acts 11:19-26). Their first trip together was to Jerusalem, where they helped the church by taking an offering of goods and money from the Christians in Antioch (Acts 11:27-30; Galatians 2:1). They then returned to Antioch, from where they set out on a missionary tour of Cyprus and parts of Asia Minor (Acts 12:25; Acts 13:1-4; Acts 13:14; Acts 14:12). ...
After returning to Antioch, the two missionaries met trouble when Jews from the Jerusalem church taught that Gentile Christians had to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5)
Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch - Maximus (15) , patriarch of Antioch. , patriarch of Antioch, by the "Latrocinium" of Ephesus, a. of Constantinople, without the official sanction of the clergy or people of Antioch. It was long and bitter; at last a compromise was accepted by the council, that Antioch should retain the two Phoenicias and Arabia and that the three Palestines should form the patriarchate of Jerusalem ( ib. Peter "speciali magisterio" in the cities of Antioch and Rome, against the erroneous teaching both of Nestorius and Eutyches, and to watch over the churches of the East generally and send him frequent tidings
Orthodox Church - Originally comprising the four Eastern patriarchates, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, they were separated from the West in the schism of the 9th and 11th centuries. ...
Church of Cyprus
Church of Greece (Modern)
Church of Mount Sinai
Greek Church in Australia
Greek Church in Western Europe (headquarters in London)
Greek Orthodox Church in the United States
Independent Greek Orthodox Church in America
Patriarchate of Alexandria (Egypt)
Patriarchate of Antioch (Syria)
Patriarchate of Constantinople
Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Patriarchate of Moscow (Russia; largest of all Eastern Churches)
Patriarchate of Poland
Patriarchate of Rumania
Patriarchate of Serbia
Russian Church (Czarist: headquarters in Serbia)
The Living Church (Russia; new)
The majority of them have become national churches, governed by a Holy Directing Synod and absolutely independent upon the state
Manaen - One of the Christian prophets and teachers at Antioch, and ‘foster-brother’ of Herod Antipas ( Acts 13:1 ). Manaen was clearly an official at Antioch
Simeon - , "black," perhaps from his dark complexion, a teacher of some distinction in the church of Antioch (Acts 13:1-3 ). Note the number of nationalities represented in the church at Antioch
Paulus ii, Patriarch of Antioch - , patriarch of Antioch, a. On the expulsion of the Monophysite Severus by Justin, Paulus, a presbyter of Constantinople, warden of the hospice of Eubulus, was nominated by the emperor to the vacant see, and was canonically ordained at Antioch. He strictly attended to Justin's commands to enforce the decrees of Chalcedon, and by inserting in the diptychs the names of the orthodox bishops of that synod caused a schism in his church, many of the Antiochenes regarding the council with suspicion, as tending to Nestorianism
Theodosius of Syria - Theodosius (20), a celebrated solitary of Syria contemporary with Theodoret, born at Antioch of a rich and noble family. Fearing, however, that the Isaurians might carry him off for ransom, Theodosius was persuaded to remove to Antioch, settling near the Orontes and gathering about him many who desired to adopt an ascetic life, but not long surviving his removal (Theod
Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea - He was originally a priest of Antioch under Meletius, whose confidence he enjoyed and with whom he resided (σύσκηνος ) (Theod. Elpidius had been an intimate friend of Chrysostom at Antioch, and now lent the weight of his age and well-deserved reputation to the defence of his old associate. When the validity of the canons of the council of Antioch, of suspected orthodoxy, used by Chrysostom's enemies as an instrument to secure their object, came into question before the emperor, Elpidius adroitly turned the tables on Acacius and his party by proposing that the advocates of the canons should declare themselves of the same faith with those who had promulgated them (Pallad. of Antioch, restored Elpidius to his see in a manner which testified deep reverence for his character, and pope Innocent heard of it with extreme satisfaction (Baron
Pisidia - Paul twice visited Pisidia, passing directly north from Perga to Antioch, Acts 13:14, and again returning through Pisidia to Pamphylia
Agabus - It was very severe in Judea; and aid was sent to the church at Jerusalem from Antioch, Acts 11:27
Quodcumque in Orbe Nexibus Revinxeris - Hymn for Vespers and Matins on January 18, the Feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Rome, and on February 22, the Feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Antioch
Agabus - ), whose prediction of a famine over the (civilized) world occasioned the sending of alms from Antioch to Jerusalem
Daphne - Beit el-Mâ (‘House of Waters’) about 5 miles from Antioch
Barsabas - The surname of JUDAS, who with Silas was sent to Antioch with the decision arrived at by the church at Jerusalem respecting Gentile converts being circumcised
Silas - He was sent to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas, after the council of the church at Jerusalem concerning Gentiles keeping the law
Basilius of Cilicia, Presbyter of Antioch - Basilius of Cilicia , presbyter of Antioch and bp
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - ...
Nothing is known with certainty of his acts, except the part he took in the deposition of Paul of Samosata from the see of Antioch. A synod at Antioch (a. Felix, who had in the meantime succeeded Dionysius, addressed a letter on the subject to Maximus and to the clergy of Antioch, fragments of which are preserved in the Apologeticus of Cyril of Alexandria, and in the Acts of the council of Ephesus, and which is also alluded to by Marius Mercator, and by Vincent of Lerins in his Commonitorium ; cf
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, 381-404. Born at Antioch, of a distinguished family, he was still very young when his father's death left him heir of his considerable property. As bishop he continued to occupy the family mansion at Antioch, which he devoted to the reception of the sick and distressed of his flock. The necessities of the times soon recalled them to Antioch, where as laymen they kept alive an orthodox remnant. of Antioch, and, while a Eusebian at heart, sought by temporizing to preserve a hollow peace in his church. Eustathius, before he was expelled from Antioch ( c. Flavian and Diodorus became all-powerful at Antioch; Leontius, being unable to resist them, was compelled to retrace his steps (Theod. The Arian emperor Valens came to reside at Antioch in June 370; and this was the signal for a violent persecution of the orthodox. of Antioch was more tardy. of Antioch (Greg. 3, 11) state, he was one of the six leading clergy of Antioch who had sworn not to seek the bishopric themselves at the death of Meletius or Paulinus, but to acknowledge the survivor. 23), but his cause was maintained by Damasus and the Western bishops and those of Egypt; while even at Antioch, though most of the Meletians welcomed Flavian with joy (Chrys. The sedition at Antioch and the destruction of the Imperial Statues, 387, shewed Flavian at his best. When the brief fit of popular madness was over and the Antiochenes awoke to their danger, Flavian at their entreaty became their advocate with the emperor, starting immediately on his errand of mercy (Chrys. The division between Flavian and Egypt and the West was finally healed by Chrysostom, who took the opportunity of the presence of Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, at Constantinople for his consecration in 398, to induce him to become reconciled with Flavian, and to join in dispatching an embassy to Rome to supplicate Siricius to recognize Flavian as canonical bishop of Antioch. He governed the church of Antioch for 23 years; and Tillemont thinks it probable that he lived to the age of 95
Mauzzim - " The reference may be to the fact that Antiochus Epiphanes erected a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus at Antioch, and dedicated Jehovah's temple at Jerusalem to Jupiter Olympius (Livy 41:20; 2 Maccabees 6:2)
Beate Pastor Petre, Clemens Accipe - Hymn for Lauds on January 18, feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Rome; on February 22, feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Antioch; and on June 29, feast of Saints Peter and Paul, when the hymns Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe and Egregie Doctor Paule, mores instrue are combined into one hymn
Patriarch - ) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch
Canaan - Paul at Antioch when referring to the destroying of the Canaanites and the giving of the Land of Promise to Israel
Grecians - The gospel was preached to them at Antioch, Acts 11:20 ; but in this last passage many MSS read 'Greeks
Seleucia - A seaport some sixteen miles from Antioch in Syria, from whence Paul and Barnabas embarked on their first missionary journey; doubtless they landed there on their return
Antioch, School of - Designation given to the Fathers of Antioch, who insisted more on the so-called grammatico-historical sense of the Holy Scripture than its moral and allegorical meaning
School of Antioch - Designation given to the Fathers of Antioch, who insisted more on the so-called grammatico-historical sense of the Holy Scripture than its moral and allegorical meaning
Joannes Scholasticus, Bishop of Constantinople - 31, 577), born at Sirimis, in the region of Cynegia, near Antioch. There was a flourishing college of lawyers at Antioch, where he entered and did himself credit. When Justinian, towards the close of his life, tried to raise the sect of the Aphthartodocetae to the rank of orthodoxy, and determined to expel the blameless Eutychius for his opposition, the able lawyer-ecclesiastic of Antioch, who had already distinguished himself by his great edition of the canons, was chosen to carry out the imperial will. ...
One of the most useful works of that period was the Digest of Canon Law formed by John at Antioch. To the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Ephesus, and Constantinople, already collected and received in the Greek church, John added 89 "Apostolical Canons," the 21 of Sardica, and the 68 of the canonical letter of Basil
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - Lucianus (12), priest of Antioch, martyr; born at Samosata c. Lucianus went to Antioch, which held a high rank among the schools of the East and was then, owing to the controversies raised by Paulus of Samosata, the great centre of theological interest. There he was probably instructed by Malchion, who seems to have been the true founder of the celebrated Antiochene school of divines, of whom Lucian, Chrysostom, Diodorus, Theodoret, and Theodore of Mopsuestia were afterwards some of the most distinguished. This latter view is supported by the creed presented at the council of Antioch, a. Lucian produced, possibly with the help of Dorotheus, a revised version of the LXX, which was used, as Jerome tells us, in the churches of Constantinople, Asia Minor, and Antioch, and met with such universal acceptance that it received the name of the Vulgate (Vulgata, Κοινή ), while copies of the LXX in general passed under the title of Lucianea (Westcott, Hist. Arius himself, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Maris of Chalcedon, Leontius of Antioch, Eudoxius, Theognis of Nicaea, and Asterius appealed to him as their authority (but see ARIUS) and adopted from him the party designation of Collucianists (De Broglie, L᾿Eglise et l᾿Empire, i. Lucian became afterwards more conservative, and during Diocletian's persecution he encouraged the martyrs to suffer courageously, but escaped himself till Theotecnus was appointed governor of Antioch, when he was betrayed by the Sabellian party, seized and forwarded to Nicomedia to the emperor Maximinus, where, after delivering a speech in defence of the faith, he was starved for many days, tempted with meats offered to idols, and finally put to death in prison, Jan. 33), which, together with the fact that the Arian party at Antioch sheltered themselves behind a creed said to have been "written in the hand of Lucian himself, who suffered martyrdom at Nicomedia" (Soz
Athanasius, Bishop of Perrha - , patriarch of Antioch, summoned a council to consider the matter. His case was fully heard, and it was determined that the original charges against him should be investigated by Maximus at Antioch
Bar'Nabas - (Acts 26:17 ) He brought him to Antioch, and was sent with him to Jerusalem. Their first missionary journey is related in (Acts 13:14 ) Returning to Antioch (A
Monophysites - The Monophysites, however, properly so called, are the followers of Severus, a learned monk of Palestine, who was created patriarch of Antioch, in 513, and Petrus Fullenis. ...
The Monophysites are divided into two sects or parties, the one African and the other Asiatic; at the head of the latter is the patriarch of Antioch, who resides for the most part in the monastery of St. From the fifteenth century downwards, all the patriarchs of the Monophysites have taken the name of Ignatius, in order to show that they are the lineal successors of Ignatius, who was bishop of Antioch in the first century, and consequently the lawful patriarch of Antioch
Seleucia - (Σελεύκεια)...
Seleucia was the seaport of Antioch and the maritime stronghold of the Macedonian monarchy in Syria. It was one of the cities which formed the Syrian Tetrapolis, the others being Antioch, Apameia, and Laodicea. , and Antiochus III. The Orontes was navigable as far as Antioch (Strabo, XVI. Paul and Barnabas sailed on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:4), and at the end of the adventure they ‘sailed to Antioch’ (14:26), landing probably at Seleucia
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - He urged Dionysius of Alexandria to attend the council of Antioch, held to repudiate Novatianism (ib. He presided at Antioch, a. 266, in the first synod held to try Paul of Samosata, and visited Antioch twice on this business ( Concil. Antioch
Calandio or Calendio, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, a. ]'>[1]; and that being at Constantinople on business connected with the church of Antioch at the time of the vacancy of the see, he was chosen bishop, and ordained by Acacius; but the letter of pope Simplicius to Acacius, dated July 15, a. of Antioch, with the permission of Zeno, from Philippi in Macedonia, where he had died, to his own city—a tardy recognition of the falsehood of the charges against Eustathius, which had the happy result of reuniting to the church the remains of the party that still called itself by his name (Theod. On his deposition, the victorious Peter the Fuller was recalled to occupy the see of Antioch
Machabees - Saints, martyrs (Antioch, 168 B. The most notable martyrs of the persecution propagated by Antiochus in his effort to hellenize Jerusalem, were Eleazar, an old man, chief of the scribes, seven brothers, and their mother Samona
Mother of God - It was employed by Saint Ignatius of Antioch (c
Attalia - Paul and Barnabas came on there from Perga, and took ship for Antioch ( Acts 14:25 )
God, Mother of - It was employed by Saint Ignatius of Antioch (c
Apollinaris, Saint - 79), first Bishop of Ravenna, born probably Antioch; died Ravenna, Italy
Aetians - another branch (as it is said) of Arians, so called from Aetius, bishop of Antioch, who is also charged with maintaining "faith without works," as "sufficient to salvation," or rather justification; and with maintaining "that sin is not imputed to believers
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - of Berrhoea in Syria then of Antioch c. of Antioch and that his election to that see was the unanimous act of the bishops presbyters and faithful laity of the city and province (Theod. On his return to Antioch Eustathius banished those of his clergy suspected of Arian tenets and resolutely rejected all ambiguous submissions. Eusebius of Nicomedia and Theognis of Nicaea in their progress of almost royal magnificence to Jerusalem passed through Antioch and had a fraternal reception from Eustathius and left with every appearance of friendship. Their inspection of the sacred buildings over Eusebius returned to Antioch with a large cortège of partisan bishops—Aetius of Lydda Patrophilus of Scythopolis Theodotus of Laodicea and Eusebius of Caesarea. The cabal entered Antioch with the air of masters. This aroused the indignation of the people of Antioch who took up arms in defence of their beloved bishop. Accompanied by many of his clergy he left Antioch without resistance or manifesting any resentment (Socr. The deposition of Eustathius led to a lamentable schism in the church of Antioch which lasted nearly a century not being completely healed till the episcopate of Alexander a
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - 331 he visited Antioch. Returning to Antioch, Flaccillus (otherwise Placillus), the Arian bishop, received him into his episcopal residence and admitted him to his confidence. The Arian synod which met at Antioch a. By George's exertions, and the influence of Flaccillus of Antioch and Narcissus of Neronias, the Emesenes were convinced of the groundlessness of their suspicions, and Eusebius obtained quiet possession. He was buried at Antioch (Hieron
Melchites - The Melchites, excepting some few points of little or no importance, which relate only to ceremonies, and ecclesiastical discipline, are, in every respect, professed Greeks; but they are governed by a particular patriarch, who assumes the title of Patriarch of Antioch
Pisidia - side Antioch and Lystra, reconstituted as colonies. The name ‘Pisidian Antioch’ ( Acts 13:14 ) would seem to record this fact, since Antioch was never included in Pisidia
Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch - Porphyrius (4) , patriarch of Antioch, a. Flavian's death having occurred almost contemporaneously with Chrysostom's exile, it became vitally important to the anti-Flavian cabal to have the vacant throne of Antioch filled with a man who would carry out their designs for the complete crushing of Flavian's adherents. To clear the field Constantius, the trusted friend of Chrysostom, whom the people of Antioch marked out as Flavian's successor, was accused at Constantinople as a disturber of the public peace. Porphyry then managed to get into his hands Cyriacus, Diophantus, and other presbyters of the orthodox party who were likely to be troublesome, and seized the opportunity of the Olympian festival at Antioch, when the population had poured forth to the spectacles of Daphne, to lock himself and his three consecrators, Acacius, Antiochus, and Severianus, whom he had kept hiding at his own house, with a few of the clergy, into the chief church, and to receive consecration at their hands. The indignant Antiochenes next morning attacked the house of Porphyry, seeking to burn it over his head. Porphyry was completely deserted by the chief clergy and all the ladies of rank of Antioch, who refused to approach his church and held their meetings clandestinely ( ib. His efforts to obtain the recognition of the Antiochenes proving fruitless, while Chrysostom's spiritual power in exile became the greater for all his efforts to crush it, Porphyry's exasperation drove him to take vengeance on Chrysostom. That Porphyry was not altogether the monster this author represents may be concluded from the statement of the calm and amiable Theodoret, that he "left behind him" at Antioch "many memorials of his kindness and of his remarkable prudence " (Theod
Paulinus, Bishop of Tyre - of Tyre and afterwards of Antioch, a. He was apparently a native of Antioch, and, according to his friend and panegyrist Eusebius (Eus. Paulinus was "claimed by the church of the Antiochenes as their own property," ὡς οἰκείου ἀγαθοῦ μεταποιηθῆναι , and chosen their bishop
Paul - ...
Paul's convention...
Sojourn in Arabia...
37-40...
First journey to Jerusalem after his conversion, Galatians 1:18; sojourn at Tarsus, ana afterward at Antioch, Acts 11:26...
Second journey to Jerusalem, in company with Barnabas, to relieve the famine...
Paul's first great missionary journey, with Barnabas and Mark; Cyprus, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe; return to Antioch in Syria. ...
45-49...
Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty: agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his difference with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter...
Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beræa, Athens, and Corinth). First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians...
52-53...
Paul's fourth journey to Jerusalem (spring); short stay at Antioch
Ephraim (6), Bishop of Antioch And Patriarch - of Antioch and patriarch, a. The city of Antioch having been nearly destroyed in a. The high qualities manifested in the fulfilment of these duties gained the affection and respect of the people of Antioch, who unanimously chose him bishop on the death of Euphrasius (Evagr. In obedience to the emperor Justinian, Ephraim held a synod at Antioch, which repudiated the doctrines of Origen as heretical (Liberat
Sele-u'Cia, - (named after its founder, Seleucus), near the mouth of the Orontes, was practically the seaport of Antioch
Carmonians - 240 273), the founder of the Sassanid dynasty, who, after defeating Valerian, overran Syria, and destroyed Antioch
Alexander Severus - Origen was invited by his mother, Mammma, to Antioch as his tutor
Severus, Alexander - Origen was invited by his mother, Mammma, to Antioch as his tutor
Phrygia - Within its limits were the cities of Laodicæa, Hierapolis, Colossæ, and Antioch of Pisidia
Cappadocia - As ecclesiastical province it was subject to Antioch, and the Byzantine Rite was first used here
Phrygia - The area remained relatively undefined but contained Antioch of Pisidia, Laodicea, and at times, Iconium
Hena - Büsching has identified Hena with the modern Ana on the Euphrates; and Sachau supposes that Ivvah is ‘Imm between Aleppo and Antioch
Nicolas - Nicolas was a proselyte, that is, a Gentile convert to Judaism, from Antioch
Iconium - City in Lycaonia in the centre of Asia Minor, visited by Paul and Barnabas when they had been driven from Antioch of Pisidia
Perga - Paul came in May when the passes would be cleared of snow, and would join a Pamphylian company on their way to the Pisidian heights (Acts 13:13), and would return with them on his way from Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 14:24-25)
Eastern Churches - All ancient churches which were originally under the jurisdiction of one of the four great Eastern patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem
Siricius, Pope Saint - By recognizing Flavian as head of the See of Antioch he healed the Meletian schism
Mauzzim - The opinion of Gesenius is that "the god of fortresses" was Jupiter Capitolinus, for whom Antiochus built a temple at Antioch
Iconium - It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50,51 )
Anastasius Sinaita - Two were patriarchs of Antioch; and it has been reasonably questioned whether they were ever monks of Mount Sinai, and whether the title "Sinaita" has not been given to them from a confusion with the one who really was so, and who falls, outside our period (see Smith's D. of Antioch, succeeded Domnus III. Gregory wrote him a congratulatory letter on his return to Antioch ( Ep. ...
(2 ) Followed the preceding as by of Antioch in the beginning of 599
Leontius, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, a. When the see of Antioch became vacant by the removal of Stephen, the emperor Constantius effected the appointment of Leontius, who strove to avoid giving offence to either Arians or orthodox. To them Theodoret ascribes the invention of the practice of dividing the choir into two and chanting the Psalms of David antiphonically, a use of the church of Antioch which legend soon attributed to its martyr-bishop Ignatius (Socr. When Athanasius came to Antioch, he communicated not with Leontius and the dominant party, but with the ultra-orthodox minority called Eustathians, who had refused to recognize any other bishop while the deposed Eustathius was alive and who worshipped in private conventicles. If there had been any proof of this, Leontius would have been deposed not for mutilation but for corrupting a church virgin; and if it had been believed at Antioch the respect paid him by orthodox members of his flock would be inconceivable
Paulus, Bishop of Emesa - of Emesa one of the most deservedly respected prelates of the period of the Nestorian controversy the contemporary of Cyril and John of Antioch the peacemaker between the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch after the disastrous close of the council of Ephesus a. He reached Ephesus together with John of Antioch and the other Oriental bishops and joined in the deposition of Cyril and Memnon (Labbe iii. Weary of conflict and anxious to obtain peace John of Antioch despatched Paul as his ambassador to Alexandria to confer with Cyril on the terms of mutual concord a. To quicken John's delay in accepting the terms of peace proposed by Cyril Paul accompanied Aristolaus and a deputation of two of Cyril's clergy to Antioch to lay before John for his signature a document recognizing Nestorius's deposition and the anathematizing of his teaching
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, 458-512, previously a monk in the monastery of Tilmognon, in Coelesyria (Evagr. 32), and at the time of his consecration "apocrisiarius" or nuncio of the church of Antioch at the court of Constantinople (Vict. This so irritated Macedonius that he anathematized his former friend, and drove with indignation from his presence the apocrisiarii of Antioch (Theophan. The recent disturbances at Antioch were attributed to him, and afforded the civil authorities a pretext for desiring him to leave Antioch for a time. His quitting Antioch was seized on by the emperor as an acknowledgment of guilt
Innocent i, Pope Saint - Aided the Emperor Honoriui to oppose the Montanists; settled an Arian schism at Antioch; and condemned the teachings of Pelagius
Seleucia - on the coast of Syria, at the mouth of the river Orontes, was the port of the great Antioch. 219) by Antiochus the Great
Seleucia - The sea-port of Antioch, near the mouth of the Orontes. He is reputed to have built in all nine Seleucias, sixteen Antiochs, and six Laodiceas
Mnason - Of Cyprus; possibly converted through Barnabas a Cypriote, and one of those Cypriotes scattered abroad after Stephen's martyrdom who preached to the Greeks at Antioch (Acts 4:36; Acts 11:15; Acts 11:19-20)
Silas - He is supposed to have been a native of Antioch, and a member of the Christian church there
Pisid'ia - Thus Antioch in Pisidia was sometimes called a Phrygian town
Nic'Olas - (victor of the people ), ( Acts 6:5 ) a native of Antioch and a proselyte to the Jewish faith
Antioch - It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called by him after the name of his father Antiochus. Antioch was highly favored by Vespasian and Titus, and became celebrated for luxury and vice. ...
The other city, also found by Seleucus Nicator, was called Antioch of Pisidia, because it was attached to that province, although situated in Phrygia, Acts 13:14 14:19,21 2 Timothy 3:11
Chair of Peter - The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch, commemorating his foundation of the See of Antioch, has also been long celebrated at Rome, on February 22,
Manaen - One of the teachers and prophets at Antioch when Saul and Barnabas were "separated" to missionary work, A. Of the six named, four were to stay at Antioch, two to itinerate
si'Las - ( Acts 16:37 ) He was appointed as a delegate to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch with the decree of the Council of Jerusalem. (Acts 15:33 ) He must, however, have immediately revisited Antioch, for we find him selected by St
Asterius, a Bishop of Arabia - of Petra, Tomus ad Antioch. One of the chief subjects that came before this synod was the unhappy schism at Antioch between the Eustathians and the Meletians
Barnabas - Moreover, when Paul had withdrawn from Grecian assailants at Jerusalem to Tarsus, and when subsequently it was thought safe for him to return in the direction of Syria, Barnabas was the one who sought him and brought him from Tarsus to Antioch (Acts 11:25-26). When men of Cyprus preached at Antioch to Greeks (according to the Alexandrinus manuscript and the Sinaiticus manuscript corrected manuscript; but "Grecians," i. (See Antioch. )...
The latter must be wrong; for there could be no difficulty about preaching to Greek speaking Jews), and the news reached Jerusalem, the church there sent Barnabas to Antioch; "who when he came, and had seen the grace of God, was glad and exhorted (in consonance with his surname, "son of exhortation") them all, that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord" (Acts 11:22-24). On their return to Antioch, they were marked by the Holy Spirit for missionary work, and were ordained by the church (Acts 13:2), A. delegates of the church (Acts 14:14), (Paul was also counted with the Lord's apostles by a special call: Galatians 1:1-17) they made their first missionary journey to Cyprus and Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycaonia, and back to Antioch, A. ) Judas and Silas were sent "with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ," to bear back the epistle to Antioch, settling the question in the negative. ...
After some stay in Antioch Paul proposed to revisit the brethren in the various cities where they had preached
Meletius, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, previously of Sebaste in Armenia (Soz H. ...
He came to Antioch (a. Eusebius of Vercelli and Asterius of Petra were commissioned to proceed to Antioch, taking with them the synodal letter (Tomus ad Antiochenos ), which was probably the work of Athanasius. of Calaris, had gone direct to Antioch instead of to the council of Alexandria. When Eusebius reached Antioch, he found that "the evil had, by such unwise measures, been made incurable. Two devoted Antiochians, Flavian and Diodorus, rallied the persecuted who refused to communicate with the Arian Euzoïus and assembled them in caverns by the river side and in the open country. 2), amongst which must have been the Arians of Antioch (Theod. ...
In 379 a council at Antioch under Meletius accepted the synodal letter of Damasus (a. His remains finally rested by those of Babylas the Martyr at Antioch
Barnabas - ’ His kindly introduction of Saul to the Christians at Jerusalem disarmed their fears ( Acts 9:27 ); his broad sympathies made him quick to recognize the work of grace amongst the Greeks at Antioch ( Acts 11:23 ), and to discern the fitness of his gifted friend for that important sphere of service ( Acts 11:25 f. After a year’s fellowship in work at Antioch, Barnabas and Saul were appointed to convey ‘the relief’ sent thence to the brethren in Judæa ( Acts 11:30 ). ...
The church at Antioch solemnly dedicated Barnabas and Saul to missionary service (Acts 13:1 f
Heliodorus, Bishop of Altinum - of Antioch, Rufinus, Bonosus, and Chromatius afterwards bp. The passion for asceticism and the troubles which arose about Jerome made the companions resolve, under the guidance of Evagrius, to go to Syria and Antioch. Returning to Antioch, he found Jerome resolved to go into the solitude of the desert of Chalcis
Agabus - 44 at Antioch, where he predicted that a great famine (q. The immediate effect of this prediction was to call forth the liberality of the Christians of Antioch and lead them to send help to the poor brethren of Judaea (Acts 11:29). Tradition makes him one of the ‘seventy’ and a martyr at Antioch
Ignatius - 50, there is absolutely no evidence as to the history of the Church of Antioch. In the time of Origen and Julius Africanus, Ignatius was considered as the second of the Antiochene bishops. John Chrysostom, in the panegyric which he pronounces at Antioch on St. Peter was the first bishop of Antioch and that Ignatius was his second successor, Euodius being the first. ...
Apart from the fact that he was bishop of Antioch and the details furnished by his authentic letters, the history of Ignatius is absolutely unknown. Bruston (Ignace d’Antioche, Paris, 1897, p. the Antiochene Christians]'>[6]; for neither am I worthy, being the very last of them and an untimely birth’ (Romans, ix. 107), when the latter was passing through Antioch on a march against the Parthians (the war against the Parthians, however, only began in 112). , and appears to have been compiled in Antioch. ...
Apart from these documents, we have no information as to the circumstances in which the bishop of Antioch was imprisoned and then sent to Rome. ’ It may be supposed, then, that Ignatius was delatus to the Roman magistrates of Antioch. on his arrival in Troas-Ignatius seems to have given up all anxiety about the Church of Antioch: ‘Seeing that in answer to your prayer and to the tender sympathy which ye have in Christ Jesus, it hath been reported to me that the church which is in Antioch of Syria hath peace, it is becoming for you as a church of God, to appoint a deacon to go thither as God’s ambassador, that he may congratulate them when they are assembled together, and may glorify the Name’ (Philad. He writes to Polycarp: ‘Seeing that the church which is in Antioch of Syria hath peace, as it hath been reported to me, through your prayers, I myself also have been the more comforted since God hath banished my care’ (vii. If it were a question of a persecution limited to Antioch, it would not be very clear how peace could have restored its stature to the Church of Antioch, i. With Ignatius gone, the Church of Antioch was left without a pastor, and the community (σωματεῖον) had become disunited and was in a state of schism. 1) is perhaps the consequence of the painful experience he has just passed through in Antioch. ...
Ignatius, though arrested and condemned in Antioch, is sent to Rome. 1, he begs the Christians of Rome not to intervene to rob him of the martyrdom he awaits, and it is thus obvious that he must have been tried and found guilty in Antioch. The fact of his being condemned in Antioch and yet undergoing his sentence in Rome is not unique. The journey from Antioch to Rome was made partly by land and partly by sea (Rom. Of the itinerary he followed between Antioch and that town we know nothing. Ignatius uses this means, although he knows that Antiochene devotees have gone straight to Rome. ...
Before leaving Troas, Ignatius receives comforting news of his beloved Church of Antioch. He suggests that Polycarp should depute one of the Smyrnaeans to go to Antioch to show the love that the Church of Smyrna bears to the Church of Syria (vii. He begs Polycarp to write to the churches lying between Smyrna and Antioch, enjoining them to send messengers or letters to the Church of Antioch as a token of their love (viii. ‘As a church of God’ they ought to elect a deacon and commission him to carry their congratulations to the devotees assembled together at Antioch and to glorify ‘the Name’ with them. From this passage we may infer that Ignatius wrote to Polycarp during his stay in Philippi; and that the Philippians wrote to the Church of Antioch at the same time as to Polycarp. ...
From Jerome we learn that Ignatius was buried in Antioch: ‘Reliquiae corporis eius in Antiochia iacent extra portam Daphniticam in cœmeterio’ (de Vir. ...
‘In his panegyric on Ignatius pronounced in Antioch (386-97), St. ...
The whole question of the transference of Ignatius’ bones from Rome to Antioch is a difficult one. , as we have seen above, public opinion was quite decided that Ignatius’ remains were in cœmeterio in Antioch. We must conclude, then, that, if the remains of Ignatius preserved in Antioch are authentic, it is quite possible that Ignatius did not suffer martyrdom in Rome at all, but returned to Antioch and died there. The existence of his tomb in Antioch is more probable on this supposition than on the hypothesis of the transference of his remains from Rome to Antioch. authentic Epistles and also manufactured six additional letters-Mary of Cassobola (there is a Cilician town called Castabala, possibly the same as Cassobola) to Ignatius, Ignatius to Mary of Cassobola, to the Tarsians, to the Philippians, to the Antiochenes, and to Hero the Deacon. It would be useless to retrace the history of this painful controversy with its tedious conflict of confessional (Saumaise, Blondel, Daillé) or pseudo-critical (Baur, Hilgenfeld, Lipsius) prejudices, which was finally terminated by Zahn’s Ignatius von Antiochien (Gotha, 1873) and F. Bruston’s objections and conjectures (Ignace d’Antioche) were never taken seriously, nor were those of D. Rackl, Christologie des heiligen Ignatius von Antiochien, Freiburg i
New Testament - ...
41 Claudius emperor of Rome; reigns 13 years...
Judaea and Samaria united, under Herod Agrippa as king...
Herod (brother of Agrippa) king of Chalcis...
Gospel preached to the Gentiles at Antioch Acts 11:20 ...
Barnabas goes to Antioch; fetches Paul Acts 11:26 ...
42-3 They remain a year at Antioch...
Herod Agrippa's persecution. Acts 11:30 ...
45 Paul returns to Antioch Acts 12:25 ...
46-8 First journey of Paul and Barnabas...
to Cyprus and Asia Minor Acts 13 . ...
48 Ananias nominated high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis...
49-50 Paul, after return, remains a long time at Antioch Acts 14:28 ...
Dispute concerning circumcision, council at Jerusalem Acts 15:1 ...
50 Paul's third visit to Jerusalem with Barnabas...
(fourteen years from his conversion. 1 ) Acts 15:2 ...
Returns and stays at Antioch
Melchites - After several attempts at reconciliation they were united to Rome in the 18th century under the Patriarch Cyril VI who, with his successors, represents the original line of Antioch
Justina, Saint - Overpowered by a greater strength than his own, Cyprian became converted to the Faith, entered the priesthood, and was made Bishop of Antioch in Pisidia
Melkites - After several attempts at reconciliation they were united to Rome in the 18th century under the Patriarch Cyril VI who, with his successors, represents the original line of Antioch
Manius - 163, sent a letter to the Jews confirming the concessions of Lysias, and offering to undertake the charge of their interests at Antioch in concert with their own envoy
Iconium - It was on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to Tarsus, Antioch, and the Euphrates, and at the foot of Mount Taurus, in a beautiful and fertile country, about 300 miles southeast of Constantinople and about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean
Antioch, Syria - From Antioch Paul and Barnabas started on their missionary journeys through Asia Minor and Greece (Acts 13; 18)
Pisidia - Antioch of Pisidia was the scene of Paul's striking sermon, Acts 13:16-41
Eusebius, Saint Bishop - In 361 he assisted in the election of Saint Meletius to the Patriarchate of Antioch and, notwithstanding the threats of the Emperor Constantius, refused to deliver to the Arians the synodal acts which proved its lawfulness
Judas Barsabas - Along with Silas accompanied Paul and Barnabas to deliver the epistle concerning the obligations of Gentiles, from the council at Jerusalem to the church at Antioch, and to confirm the same by word of mouth (Acts 15:27)
Simeon Stylites - From 413 to 423 Simeon dwelt in an enclosed cell near Antioch, where his austerities speedily attracted a number of followers, who formed a society called the Mandra. His body was transported with great pomp to Antioch, attended by bishops and clergy, and guarded by the troops under Ardabryius, commander of the forces of the East. of Antioch demanding It to be brought to Constantinople. The people of Antioch piteously reminded Leo, "Forasmuch as our city is without walls, for we have been visited in wrath by their fall, we brought hither the sacred body to be our wall and bulwark," and were permitted to retain it; but this did not avail to protect the city against capture by the Persians. ) extracts from one to Basil of Antioch on the same topic
Mark, John - After Barnabas and Saul completed a relief mission to Jerusalem, they took Mark with them when they returned to Antioch (Acts 12:25 ). They went from Antioch to Cyprus and then on to Pamphylia, where Mark left them and returned to Jerusalem (Acts 13:13 )
Malchion, a Presbyter of Antioch - Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch in the reigns of Claudius and Aurelian, conspicuous for his prominent part in the deposition of the bp. of Antioch, Paul of Samosata, in 272
Galatians, Letter to the - Paul established churches in the Galatian towns of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe (Acts 13:13-52; Acts 14:1-23), then returned to his base in Antioch in Syria (Acts 14:26-28). Most likely Paul wrote his letter to the Galatians while in Syrian Antioch at this time. ...
Purpose of the letter...
Paul was disturbed when certain Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5)
Philippus, the Arabian - of Antioch c. Babylas of Antioch. (2) No event, except his alleged penitence at Antioch, is recorded of Philip that implies he was a Christian. Is there, then, any foundation for the story of Philip and St Babylas? Philip may very possibly have been at Antioch at Easter, a
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - Diodorus (3) , presbyter of Antioch, and c. of Tarsus, of a noble family of Antioch, where he passed nearly the whole of his life until he became a bishop (Theod. of Antioch), embraced a religious life. The weight of Diodorus and Flavian at Antioch was proved when in 350 their threat of withdrawal from communion induced Leontius to suspend Aetius from the diaconate (Theod. Once at least when driven from Antioch he joined his spiritual father Meletius in exile at Getasa in Armenia, where, in 372, he met Basil the Great (Basil, Ep. ...
Even more than for his undaunted defence of the catholic faith Diodorus deserves the gratitude of the church as head of the theological school at Antioch. ...
Meletius, on being restored to Antioch in 378, appointed Diodorus bp. He took part in the great council of Antioch a. 379, which failed to put an end to the Antiochene schism, as well as in the 2nd oecumenical council at Constantinople a. of Antioch, for which both the consecrating prelates were excommunicated by the bishops of the West (Soz. Facundus and others tell us that he died full of days and glory, revered by the whole church and honoured by its chief doctors, by Basil, Meletius, Theodoret, Domnus of Antioch, and even by the chief impugner of the soundness of his faith, Cyril of Alexandria. 854), and in a letter to John of Antioch denounced them as "going full sail, as it were, against the glory of Christ. of Antioch, was compelled by the Monophysites to pass an anathema on the writings of Diodorus and Theodorus in a
Spear - The head of this spear is said to have been buried within the principal church of Antioch, where, under direction of Peter of Amiens, it was discovered by the besieged Crusaders, and proved their salvation from the onslaught of the prince of Mosul in 1098
Christian - A title first applied to professed believers at Antioch
Barnabas, Saint - Although not of the chosen Twelve Apostles, Barnabas is mentioned frequently in the Acts, and is included among the prophets and doctors at Antioch, where he received the name Barnabas, signifying son of consolation (Acts 4; 13)
Agabus - A prophet who came from Jerusalem to Antioch, and foretold a famine "throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar
Dionysius (7), Bishop of Rome - In 264 the Alexandrian and Roman Dionysii acted together with the council of Antioch in condemning and degrading Paul of Samosata
Anomoeans - The Semi-Arians condemned the Anomoeans in the council of Selcucia; and the Anomoeans, in their turn, condemned the Semi-Arians in the councils of Constantinople and Antioch, erasing the word like out of the formula of Rimini and Constantinople
Colony - Augustus founded colonies in Antioch (Psidian), Lystra, Troas, and Syracuse (all mentioned in Acts)
Judas - A 'prophet' sent from Jerusalem to Antioch
Phygelus - In the Acts of Paul and Thecla, Demas and Hermogenes are named as Paul’s fellow-travellers, full of hypocrisy, when he fled from Antioch to Iconium and enjoyed the hospitality of Onesiphorus
Paulus, the Black - Paulus (11), surnamed The Black , Jacobite patriarch of Antioch from about the middle of 6th cent. Paul's connexion with Theodosius, and his success as a disputant, marked him out for the titular see of Antioch and the patriarchate of the whole Monophysite body, then beginning to be called Jacobites, and he was consecrated by Jacob Baradaeus himself who originated the name. In 578 a new patriarch of Antioch, Peter of Callinicus, was appointed, and Paul withdrew into concealment at Constantinople, where he died in 582, as detailed by John of Ephesus
Luke - 300) identified Luke as being from Antioch. His interest in Antioch is clearly seen in his many references to that city (Acts 11:19-27 ; Acts 13:1-3 ; Acts 14:26 ; Acts 15:22 ,Acts 15:22,15:35 ; Acts 18:22 )
Apostolic - Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. In progress of time, the bishop of Rome growing in power above the rest, and the three patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, falling into the hands of the Saracens, the title apostolical was restrained to the pope and his church alone; though some of the popes, and St
Malchus, a Hermit in Syria - Finding the abbat of his monastery dead Malchus took up his abode in the hamlet of Maronia, near Antioch, his reputed wife living with the virgins near. of Antioch, in whose company Jerome came from Italy in 374; and the story of the aged hermit confirmed Jerome in his desire for the life in the desert, on which he entered in 375 (Hieron
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, reckoned 8th in succession, a. of Antioch, p
Silvanus, Bishop of Tarsus - 790), and in 359 in that of Seleucia, at which he vociferously advocated ( μέγα ἀνέκραγε ) the acceptance of the Lucianic dedication creed of Antioch (Socr. Silvanus was among the semi-Arian leaders who, first of the rival church parties, memorialized Julian on his arrival at Antioch after becoming emperor, requesting him to expel the Anomoeans and call a general council to restore peace to the church, and declaring their acceptance of the Nicene faith (Socr
Dragon - It is an emblem of ...
Saint Adelard
Saint Beatus of Lungern
Saint Donatus
Saint George
Saint John of Reomay
Saint Juliana of Nicomedia
Saint Magnus of Fussen
Saint Margaret of Antioch
Saint Martha, symbolizing victory over tempation
Michael the Archangel
Saint Philip the Apostle
Saint Servatus
Saint Tudwal
Nestorianism - This doctrine had previously been prevalent in the School of Antioch where it was held by Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia of whom Nestorius was the disciple
Nestorius - This doctrine had previously been prevalent in the School of Antioch where it was held by Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia of whom Nestorius was the disciple
Silas - He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22 ), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council
Lucius - Of Cyrene, one of certain prophets and teachers at Antioch in Syria, mentioned in Acts 13:1 , to whom it was revealed that Paul and Barnabas should be separated for the work to which they had been called
Antioch of Pisidia - Beside the Syrian capital, there was another Antioch visited by St. Paul when in Asia, and called, for the sake of distinction, Antiochia ad Pisidiam, as belonging to that province, of which it was the capital
Nestorianism - This doctrine had previously been prevalent in the School of Antioch where it was held by Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia of whom Nestorius was the disciple
Luke, Saint - Evangelist; born Antioch; died probably Bæotia, 74, author of the third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. A native of Antioch, Luke received an excellent education in that city renowned for its learning; he studied medicine at Tarsus, and rose to prominence in his profession
Tarsus - Through these passes a road led to Lystra and Iconium (Acts 14), another road by the Amanian and Syrian gates eastward to Antioch. He resided in Tarsus at intervals after his conversion (Acts 9:30; Acts 11:25); after his first visit to Jerusalem and before his ministry with Barnabas at Antioch, and doubtless at the commencement of his second and third missionary journeys (Acts 15:41; Acts 18:23)
Apostolic Council - ...
The two accounts apparently show that Paul and Barnabas, accompanied by Titus, represented the church in Antioch in seeking clarity from the leaders in Jerusalem on how to incorporate Gentile converts into the church. ...
The council showed the working of the early church with strong leadership yet involving the voice of the congregation (Acts 15:12 ,Acts 15:12,15:22 ), the messengers sent from Jerusalem to Antioch not being part of the twelve apostles
Barnabas - When the Gentiles were converted at Antioch it was Barnabas who was sent there from Jerusalem. " He then sought Saul and brought him to Antioch, where they laboured a whole year. Antioch became a centre, from whence the gospel went forth to the Gentiles; it was there that the Holy Ghost said, "Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them," and from thence they started on what is called Paul's first missionary journey
Acacius, Bishop of Beroea - He was apparently a Syrian by birth, and in his early youth adopted the ascetic life in the monastery of Gindarus near Antioch, then governed by Asterius (Theod. 746), and it is specially mentioned that he did great service in bringing the hermit Julianus Sabbas from his retirement to Antioch to confront this party, who had falsely claimed his support (Theod. The same year, on the death of Meletius, taking a prominent part in the consecration of Flavian to the bishopric of Antioch [1], thus perpetuating the Eustathian schism, he incurred displeasure both in East and West, and was cut off from communion with the church of Rome (Soz. 35), which he did not regain till 414, and then chiefly through Alexander of Antioch. Acacius's enmity to Chrysostom's memory seems however to have been unquenched; and on the succession of Theodotus of Antioch, A. 432, by John of Antioch, and doing all in his power, both by personal influence and by letters to Cyril and to the Roman bp
Agabus - He came from Judaea to Antioch while Paul and Barnabas were there, and foretold the famine which occurred the next year in Palestine (for a Jew would mean the Jewish world, by "throughout all the world
Gregory of Nyssa, Saint - He returned to his see 378, and was present at the Council of Antioch, 379, and probably at Constantinople, 383
Athanasius (1), Bishop of Anagastus - Lucian of Antioch (Philost
Antiochene Rite - The family of rites originally used throughout the Patriarchate of Antioch. The oldest form, the pure Antiochene, is marked by the absence of saints' names and Pater Noster
Barbara, Saint - Hieropolis in Egypt, Nicomedia, Antioch, Rome, and Hierapolis in Syria having been named
Christian - The disciples, we are told, (Acts 11:26 ) were first called Christians at Antioch on the Orontes, somewhere about A
Joannes Scythopolita, Scholasticus in Palestine - Photius had read a work of his in 12 books, Against Separatists from the Church or Against Eutyches and Dioscorus , written at the request of a patriarch Julianus, probably Julian patriarch of Antioch, A
Barnabas - Thereafter Paul retired to Tarsus, but Barnabas remained in Jerusalem till tidings reached the mother Church of the success of the gospel in Antioch, when he was commissioned to visit that city and confirm the disciples. Having sought out Paul at Tarsus, he induced him to join him in his work in Antioch. Soon after their return to Antioch they were solemnly set apart by the Church for special evangelization work, and started on what is usually called the first missionary journey, in the course of which they visited Cyprus and the southern parts of Asia Minor, accompanied as far as Perga in Pamphylia by John Mark (q. In the account of the journey, the independent character of Paul appears in the precedence gradually accorded him over Barnabas, whose name has previously had first place in the narrative, probably because he had been better known in Antioch and Cyprus. Following upon this mission came a prolonged stay at Antioch, broken at length by another visit to Jerusalem, in consequence of dissensions that had arisen over the necessity of circumcision. A judgment on this question having been obtained from the leaders of the mother Church met in Council, Paul and Barnabas repaired again to Antioch, and began to consult about another missionary journey. One of these (Galatians 1:18) seems to have been the occasion of his introduction by Barnabas, and the other (Galatians 2:1) has usually been identified with the visit to the Council; but, in that case, what becomes of the intervening visit in Acts-that on which Paul and Barnabas conveyed the offerings of the Antiochene Christians? Its comparative recentness and the asseveration of Galatians 1:20 preclude the supposition that it could have been forgotten or passed over by the Apostle. Such is the suggestion of Neander, Lightfoot, and others that, while Paul and Barnabas were both commissioned to carry the contributions from Antioch to Jerusalem, only the latter actually accomplished the journey; and that the author of Acts, finding the record of the appointment in his sources, naturally assumed that Paul had fulfilled his part of the mission. In Paul’s account of the trouble with Peter at Antioch over the eating with Gentiles (Acts 15:41), his co-worker is represented as taking part with his opponents. In both cases the internal evidence is strongly against the authorship of Barnabas, such references, for instance, being made to the Jewish Law as wore not likely to come from a member of the Jerusalem Church and a sympathizer with Peter at Antioch
Luciferus i, Bishop of Calaris - Lucifer and Eusebius of Vercelli were both in the Thebaid, and Eusebius pressed his friend to come with him to Alexandria, where a council was to be held under the presidency of Athanasius, to attempt to heal a schism at Antioch. Lucifer preferred to go straight to Antioch, sending two deacons to act for him at the council. Taking a hasty part in the affairs of the much-divided church at Antioch, where the Catholic party was divided into two sections, the followers of Meletius and the followers of Eustathius, Lucifer ordained Paulinus, the leader of the latter section, as bp. When Eusebius arrived at Antioch, bringing the synodal letter of the council and prepared to settle matters so as to give a triumph to neither party, he was distressed to find himself thus anticipated by the action of Lucifer. ...
After remaining some time at Antioch, Lucifer returned to Sardinia, and continued, it would seem, to occupy his see
Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis Euphratensis - of Hierapolis Euphratensis and metropolitan in the patriarchate of Antioch; the uncompromising opponent of Cyril of Alexandria, and the resolute advocate of Nestorius in the controversies that followed the council of Ephesus, A. His dignity as metropolitan gave him a leading place in the opposition of which the patriarch John of Antioch was the head, and his influence was confirmed by personal character. As soon as the Alexanders discovered Cyril's intention to open the council before John of Antioch's arrival they, on June 21, united with the other bishops of the East in signing a formal act demanding delay (Labbe, Concil. 840, 843, 874); also that at Antioch in the middle of December, ratifying the former acts and declaring adherence to the Nicene faith. A meeting was held at Antioch early in 432, attended by Alexander, when six alternative articles were drawn up, one of which it was hoped Cyril would accept, and so afford a basis of reconciliation ( ib. Cyril's reply was accepted by Acacius and John of Antioch, and other bishops now sincerely anxious for peace, but not by Alexander or Theodoret (Baluz. This defection of Acacius of Beroea and John of Antioch was received with indignant sorrow by Alexander
Godfrey of Bouillon - In 1098 he took Antioch, and on July 15, 1099, with his brother Eustace, was the first to enter Jerusalem
Creed - Besides these scattered remains of the ancient creeds, there are extant some perfect forms, as those of Jerusalem, Cesarea, Antioch, &c
Nicolaitans - Heretics who assumed this name from Nicholas of Antioch; who, being a Gentile by birth, first embraced Judaism and than Christianity; when his zeal and devotion recommended him to the church of Jerusalem, by whom he was chosen one of the first deacons
Christian - Believers “were called Christians first in Antioch” because their behavior, activity, and speech were like Christ (Acts 11:26 )
Aurelian, Roman Emporor - of Antioch in A. Such was the position of affairs at Antioch when Aurelian, having conquered Zenobia, became master of the city
Theodotus, Bishop of Laodicea - On the visit of Eusebius of Nicomedia to Jerusalem in 330 or 331, ostensibly to see the newly built church, he formed one of the Arian cabal which, proceeding to Antioch, succeeded in deposing Eustathius (Theod. 436) and of the Dedication at Antioch in 341 ( ib
Barnabas - Everlastingly well done, thou true son of consolation!...
The scene now shifts to Antioch, which is soon to eclipse Jerusalem herself, and to become the true mother-church of evangelical Christianity. The apostolic preaching had an instantaneous and an immense success at Antioch, and it was its very success that raised there also, and with such acuteness, all those doctrinal and disciplinary disputes that fill with such distress the book of the Acts, and the earlier Epistles of Paul. Jerusalem still remained the Metropolitan Church, and the difficulties that had arisen in Antioch were accordingly sent up to Jerusalem for advice and adjudication. And, that the heads of the Church at Jerusalem chose Barnabas out of the whole college of the apostles to go down and examine into the affairs of Antioch, is just another illustration of the high standing that Barnabas had, both as a man of marked ability, and of high Christian character. For Barnabas had not been long in Antioch till he became convinced that Antioch was very soon to hold the key of the whole Christian position. Already, indeed, so many questions of doctrine and administration were come to such a crisis in the Church of Antioch, that Barnabas felt himself quite unable to cope with them. In all Barnabas's knowledge of men, and it was not narrow, he knew only one man who was equal to the great emergency at Antioch, and that man was no other than Saul of Tarsus. And shall Barnabas take on himself the immense responsibility, and, indeed, immense risk, of sending for Saul of Tarsus, and bringing him to Antioch? And shall Barnabas take this great step without first submitting Saul's name to the authorities at Jerusalem? There were great risks in both of these alternatives, and Barnabas had to act on his own judgment and conscience and heart. Antioch must have Saul of Tarsus; and Barnabas, taking counsel with no one but himself, set out to Tarsus to seek for Saul. And the reformed city of Geneva was the evangelised city of Antioch over again. And when he had found him, he brought him to Antioch. " To have the heart to discover a more talented man than yourself, and then to have the heart to go to Tarsus for him, and to make way for him in Antioch, is far better than to have all Saul's talents, and all the praise and all the rewards of those talents to yourself. But if Barnabas had to get over any jealousy in connection with Saul's coming to Antioch, that jealousy, at any rate, did not hinder him from setting out to Tarsus to seek for Saul. And still more conclusively did Barnabas prove his fulness of the Holy Ghost, when he set out to Tarsus to seek for Saul in order that Saul might come to Antioch, and there supersede and extinguish Barnabas himself
Helladius, Bishop of Tarsus - Theodosius of Antioch, after whose death ( c. He was one of those who protested against commencing the council before the arrival of John of Antioch and the Oriental bishops (Baluz. 705) and to that to John of Antioch and Theodoret and the other members of the Oriental deputation to Theodosius ( ib. John of Antioch wrote, commending his action ( ib. When the rival leaders sought peace, Helladius kept aloof, and on the receipt of the six articles drawn up by John at a council at Antioch, which ultimately opened the way for reconcilation, he and Alexander of Hierapolis rejected the terms and all communion with Cyril
Mauzzim - Antiochus Epiphanes is the king referred to. He had begun to build a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus in Antioch (Livy, xli. But Antiochus also sent ‘an old man from Athens’ to ‘pollute the temple in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius’ ( 2Ma 6:2 )
Christian - The first use of the word "Christian" in the Bible is found in Acts 11:26, "And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch
Agabus - The Greeks say that he suffered martyrdom at Antioch
Silas - When a dispute was raised at Antioch about the observation of the legal ceremonies, they chose Paul, Barnabas, Judas, and Silas, to go to Jerusalem, to advise with the Apostles concerning this question
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - He was born at Antioch. He now began to take rank as a regular and recognized practitioner at Antioch (Greg. Philostorgius merely tells us that he devoted himself to the study of philosophy and dialectics, and became the pupil of Paulinus the Arian bishop, recently removed from Tyre to Antioch, c. On Antonius's elevation to the episcopate, Aetius returned to Antioch, where he studied the prophets, particularly Ezekiel, with Leontius, afterwards bishop of that see, also a pupil of Lucian. A storm of unpopularity soon drove him from Antioch to Cilicia; but having been defeated in argument by one of the Borborian Gnostics, he betook himself to Alexandria, where he soon recovered his character as an invincible adversary by vanquishing the Manichean leader Aphthonius. Athanasius to Alexandria in 349, Aetius retired to Antioch, of which his former teacher Leontius was now bishop. "Nearly the whole of Antioch had suffered from the shipwreck of Aetius, and there was danger lest the whole (once more) should be submerged" (Letter of George, bp. of Antioch (ib
Jerome, Saint - Returning to Antioch, he was ordained a priest
Consubstantial - The term consubstantial was first adopted by the fathers of the councils of Antioch and Nice, to express the orthodox doctrine the more precisely, and to serve as a barrier and precaution against the errors and subleties of the Arians, who owned every thing except the consubstantiality
Theophilus - Tradition connects Theophilus with Antioch
Manaen - (man' uh ehn) Greek form of Menahem (“Comforter”); the name of a prophet and teacher in the early church at Antioch (Acts 13:1 )
Simeon - Prophet and teacher in church at Antioch (Acts 13:1 )
Asia Minor - Divided into two ecclesiastical provinces, Asia under Constantinople, and Pontus under Antioch, it included more than 300 episcopal sees, one for practically every town
Christopher, a Martyr of Universal Fame - of Antioch, who suffered (c
Barsabas - Barsabas and some others were sent by the Apostles, with Paul and Barnabas, to Antioch, and carried a letter with them from the Apostles, signifying what the council at Jerusalem had decreed
Abana - Benjamin of Tudela will have that part of Barrady which runs through Damascus to be the Abana, and the streams which water the gardens without the city, to be Pharpar; but perhaps the Pharpar is the same with Orontes, the most noted river of Syria, which taking its rise a little to the north or north-east of Damascus, glides through a delightful plain, till, after passing Antioch, and running about two hundred miles to the north-west, it loses itself in the Mediterranean sea, 2 Kings 5:12
Simon - ...
Descendant of Juda (1Paralipomenon 4)
Simon, surnamed Thasi, brother of Judas Machabeus (1Machabees 2)
Simon of the tribe of Benjamin; governor of the Temple (2Machabees 3)
Simon who is called Peter, the Apostle (Matthew 4)
Simon the Cananean, the Apostle (Matthew 10)
one of the relatives of Our Lord, identified erroneously with the preceding (Matthew 13)
Simon the leper, a resident of Bethany (Matthew 26)
a Pharisee at whose house the penitent woman washed the feet of Jesus (Luke 7)
Simon the Cyrenean, who helped Our Lord carry the Cross (Matthew 27)
the father of Judas (John 6)
Simon Magus, a magician in the time of the Apostles (Acts 8)
Simon the tanner, a Christian of Joppe, in whose house Peter had the vision commanding him to receive the Gentiles into the faith (Acts 10)
Simon called Niger, a Christian living at Antioch in the time of the Apostles (Acts 13)
Serapion, Penitent of Alexandria - Dionysius of Alexandria uses his case as an argument against the Novatianist schism, to which his correspondent, Fabius of Antioch, was inclined
Timotheus, Patriarch of Constantinople - of Antioch and Elias of Jerusalem at first communicated with him. With SEVERUS of Antioch he afterwards assembled a synod which condemned that council, on which Severus communicated with him
Maris, Bishop of Chalcedon - 599), said to have been a disciple of the martyr Lucian of Antioch (Philost. In 341 he attended the council of Antioch and is named in the Ep. 764) and must be the Magnus of Chalcedon at the council of Antioch in 363 (Socr
Phrygia - Hence this portion of Phrygia, with its cities of Antioch and Iconium, came to be known as Phrygia Galatica. along the difficult mountain road to Antioch, here called ‘Pisidian Antioch’ (see Pisidia). ’ The natural interpretation of this is that from Lystra they traversed Phrygia Galatica , from Antioch took the road leading N
Christian - ‘The disciples were called Christiana first in Antioch’ (Acts 11:26). ...
The missionary work of the Church was about to begin from Antioch as its starting-point. Thence some came over to Antioch and preached to ‘Greeks also’ (Ἔλληνας; another reading has Ἐλληνιστάς, ‘Grecian Jews’), with the result that ‘a great number believed. ’ Barnabas then fetched Saul from Tarsus; both laboured in Antioch ‘a whole year’ and taught ‘much people’ (ὄχλον ἱκανόν). ...
The city of Antioch (q. This Antioch school of theology represented a type of interpretation more akin to modern thought than any other in those days. Ignatius, martyr and writer of the famous letters, was bishop of Antioch. The people of Antioch with their quick wit had a reputation for the invention of party names. Antiochene ingenuity could certainly have discovered a better expression for such an idea
Cainan - Nor had even the Septuagint originally, according to Berosus, Polyhistor, Josephus, Philo, Theophilus of Antioch, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome
Pamphylia - " Also Acts 13:13-14, "from Perga to Antioch in Pisidia," and Acts 14:24, "after Pisidia
Trinity, the Holy - The word "Trinity" is not found in the Bible and issaid to have been first used by Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, inthe second century as a concise expression of the Christian Faithconcerning the Godhead, that "there is but one living and true God,everlasting, without body, parts or passions; of infinite power,wisdom and goodness; the Maker and Preserver of all things bothvisible and invisible
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - 211, when he sent a letter by the hand of Clemens to congratulate the church of Antioch on the appointment of Asclepiades as their bishop in the room of Serapion (Eus. 11, to the church of Antioch, ib
Christian - It was in Antioch, and in connexion with the mission of Barnabas and Saul to that city, that the name arose. ...
(3) Almost certainly the name owed its origin to the non-Christian Gentiles of Antioch. As these Antiochenes saw Barnabas and Saul standing day by day in the market-place or at the corners of the streets, and proclaiming that the Christ had come and that Jesus was the Christ, they caught up the word without understanding it, and bestowed the name of ‘Christians’ on these preachers and their followers. In Acts 26:28 we find it on the lips of a Jewish ruler, speaking in Cæsarea before an audience of Roman officials and within 20 years after it was first used in Antioch. Luke wrote the Book of Acts; and when he says that the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch ( Acts 11:26 ), he evidently means that this was a name by which they were now commonly known, though his own usage does not suggest that they had even yet assumed it themselves. ’ The Antiochenes did not know who this Christ was of whom the preachers spoke; so little did they know that they mistook for a proper name what was really a designation of Jesus. But the Antiochenes saw that Christ’s disciples must be distinguished from the Jews and put into a category of their own. Probably it was because the missionaries to Antioch not only preached Christ, but preached Him ‘unto the Greeks also’ ( Acts 11:20 ), that the inhabitants discerned in these men the heralds of a new faith. Christianity appeared in Antioch as a universal religion, making no distinction between Jew and Gentile. (3) It is not without significance that it was ‘first in Antioch’ that the Christians received this name. And so Antioch became the headquarters of his missionary labours, and through him the headquarters of aggressive Christianity in the early Apostolic age ( Acts 13:1 ff. The men of Antioch were mistaken when they supposed that Christ was a personal name, but they made no mistake in thinking that He whose name they took to be Christos was the foundation-stone of this new faith
Gregorius Theopolitanus, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch a. of Antioch, by Justin in 569, Gregory was appointed his successor. An earthquake compelled Gregory to flee with the treasures of the church, and he had the mortification of seeing Antioch occupied by the troops of Adaormanes, the general of Chosroes (Evagr. 588, a quarrel with Asterius, the popular Count of the East, again aroused the passions of the excitable Antiochenes against their bishop. He returned to Antioch to witness its almost total destruction by earthquake, a
Pisidia - Supplying Antioch with veterans and re-organizing it in Roman fashion, he built one military road to connect it with the coloniae which he planted in Olbasa, Comama, and Cremna for the control of the western region, and another to join it with Parlais and Lystra, which were intended to hold the eastern tribes in check. Thus Antioch, which in St. Luke so describes it in Acts 13:14) but only ‘Antioch towards Pisidia’ (Ἀντιόχεια, ἡ πρὸς Πισιδίᾳ [1]), was at a later time correctly designated ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ (τῆς Πισιδίας; so the TR_ of Acts 13:14, following the Codex Bezae, which reflects the usage of the 2nd century)
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch (c. of Antioch (fl. of Antioch after Peter, who in the persecution fought with beasts at Rome, that the virginity of Mary escaped the prince of this world" (Ignat. of Antioch after the apostles; in one case adding that he was martyred. of Antioch and a martyr of Christ. of Antioch; was sent for to Rome in a time of persecution to be there judged; instructed and admonished with wonderful power all the cities on the way, and Rome itself when he arrived; was condemned and martyred in the Roman theatre crying, Ἐγὼ τῶν θηρίων ἐκείνων ὀναίμην ; and his remains were transferred after death with great solemnity to Antioch. Severus, patriarch of Antioch (513–551), has a long catalogue of sayings from Ignatius, in which every one of the 7 epistles is laid under contribution. 301) relates the condemnation of Ignatius by Trajan in Antioch, and incorporates the Ep. 307) omits all judicial proceedings in Antioch. 152, I58, 162) omits (contrary to his custom) the durations of the episcopates of Antioch. 268) regarded as "demonstrated," was that the martyrdom of Ignatius happened not in Rome but in Antioch, upon Dec. Thenceforward we have had the longer and the shorter (or Vossian) recensions, the former containing the 7 Eusebian epistles in a longer text and also epistles of Mary of Castabala to Ignatius, with his reply, of Ignatius to the Tarsians, Philippians, Antiochenes, and Hero, his successor; the Vossian comprising only the Eusebian letters and those in a shorter text. Severus of Antioch, 6th cent. and in the Armenian translation we have (minute textual criticism apart) the 7 epistles as the Fathers from Eusebius to Severus of Antioch and as the interpolator had them. It is in progress at Antioch while he is in Smyrna, whence he writes to the Romans, Ephesians, Magnesians, and Trallians. ) are at peace, and in Troas he learns that peace is restored to the church in Antioch. Of the local causes of this Antiochene persecution we are ignorant, but it is not in the least difficult to credit. All now recognize that, according to the testimony of the letters, Ignatius has been condemned in Antioch to death, and journeys with death by exposure to the beasts as the settled fate before him. Thus the Colbertine Martyrdom, which makes Trajan the judge at Antioch, contradicts the epistles no less than the Vatican which puts off the process to Rome. The ordinary way from Antioch to Ephesus was by land, and Ignatius calls the messenger to be sent by the Smyrnaeans to Antioch θεοδρόμος ( Pol. The news of the cessation of persecution in Antioch stirs him to urge Polycarp to take an interest in that church. He does not deny that his request that messengers should be sent to Antioch is an unusual one, but dwells upon the great benefit which will result ( Pol. The Philippians immediately after wrote to Polycarp, and forwarded a message to the Antiochenes, expecting to be in time to catch the messenger for Antioch before his departure. He speaks of the death of Ignatius, knowing that the sentence in Antioch made it certain; probably knowing also the date of the games at which he was to die
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - of Mopsuestia; also known, from the place of his birth and presbyterate, as Theodore of Antioch, the most prominent representative of te middle Antiochene school of hermeneutics. —Theodore was born at Antioch c. His father held an official position at Antioch, and the family was wealthy (Chrys. 1), then at Antioch in the zenith of his fame. Chrysostom credits his friend with diligent study, but the luxurious life of polite Antioch seems to have received an equal share of his thoughts. During this period doubtless the foundations were laid of Theodore's acquaintance with Holy Scripture and ecclesiastical doctrine, and he was imbued for life with the principles of scriptural interpretation which Diodore had inherited from an earlier generation of Antiochenes, and with the peculiar views of the Person of Christ into which the master had been led by his antagonism to Apollinarius. The orthodox at Antioch, it seems, resented the loss of the traditional Messianic interpretation, and, if we may trust Hesychius, Theodore was compelled to promise that he would commit his maiden work to the flames—an engagement he contrived to evade (Mansi, ix. 12) represents Theodore as a presbyter of the church of Antioch; and from a letter of John of Antioch (Facund. It seems, therefore, that he was ordained priest at Antioch a. 383, in his 33rd year, the ordaining bishop being doubtless Flavian, Diodore's old friend and fellow-labourer, whose "loving disciple" Theodore now became (John of Antioch, ap. The epithet seems to imply that Theodore was an attached adherent of the Meletian party; but there is no evidence that he mixed himself up with the feuds which for some years after Flavian's consecration distracted the Catholics of Antioch. 248) to have left Antioch while yet a priest and betaken himself to Tarsus, until 392, when he was consecrated to the see of Mopsuestia, vacant by the death of Olympius, probably through the influence and by the hands of Diodore. In 394 he attended a synod at Constantinople on a question which concerned the see of Bostra in the partiarchate of Antioch (Mansi, iii. Gregory of Nazianzus, declared that he had never met with such a teacher (John of Antioch, ap. Theodore "expounded Scripture in all the churches of the East," says John of Antioch ( ib. 2) John begs him to retract, urging the example of Theodore, who, when in a sermon at Antioch he had said something which gave great and manifest offence, for the sake of peace and to avoid scandal, after a few days as publicly corrected himself. When in 418 the Pelagian leaders were deposed and exiled from the West, they sought in the East the sympathy of the chief living representative of the school of Antioch. 2425) that Nestorius, on his way from Antioch to Constantinople (a. The germ of the Nestorian doctrine was in the teaching of Diodore and in the earliest works of Theodore; it could not have been new to Nestorius, as a prominent teacher of the church of Antioch. 39); by Ibas of Edessa, who in 433 wrote his famous letter to Maris in praise of Theodore; by John, who in 429 succeeded to the see of Antioch. of Edessa, who at Ephesus had sided with John of Antioch, now publicly anathematized Theodore (Ibas, Ep. 6), now under the influence of Rabbûlas took a decided attitude of opposition; he wrote to the synod of Antioch (Ep. Upon the suppression of the school of Edessa, Nisibis became the seat of the Antiochene exegesis and theology. that justice was done by Western writers to the importance of the great Antiochene as a theologian, an expositor, and a precursor of later thought. 4) speaks of Theodore's "innumerable books"; John of Antioch, in a letter quoted by Facundus (ii. It is, nevertheless, a considerable monument of his expository power, and the best illustration we possess of the Antiochene method of interpreting O. With the rest of the Antiochians he probably followed the old Syrian canon in rejecting II. 12) it was directed against the Apollinarians and Eunomians, and written while the author was yet a presbyter of Antioch, i
Judaizers - The Judaeo-Christians who came to Antioch of Syria and declared: "except you be circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved," persuaded Saint Peter to separate himself from the Ethnico-Christians (Acts 15; Galatians 2)
Damascus, Syria - In early times Damascus was a metropolis with eleven suffragan sees, subject to the Patriarchate of Antioch
Dissimulation, Dissemble - So in Galatians 2:13 , Peter with other believing Jews, in separating from believing Gentiles at Antioch, pretended that the motive was loyalty to the Law of Moses, whereas really it was fear of the Judaizers
Lycaonia - toward Antioch in Pisidia; Derbe was on the E
Novatian - His early life is known to us principally through the letters of Pope Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch
Saul - Paul’s address at Pisidian Antioch as the first king whom God gave to Israel
Colony - Pisidian Antioch, Lystra, Corinth, and Ptolemais, not to mention others, were coloniœ
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - He was present at the First Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Saint - He was present at the First Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata
Attalia - Paul and Barnabas sailed from its harbour to Antioch at the close of their first missionary tour (Acts 14:25)
Eusebius, Saint Martyr - After the synod at Alexandria, 362, Eusebius went to Antioch to reconcile the Eustathians and the Meletians, visited other churches of the Orient in the interest of the orthodox faith, and arriving at Vercelli, 363, became one of the chief opponents of Arianism
Eulogius, Bishop of Edessa - 894), Antioch in 379, and Constantinople in 381 ( ib
Silas - On occasion of a dispute at Antioch, as to the observance of legal ceremonies, Paul and Barnabas were chosen to go to Jerusalem, to advise with the apostles; and they returned with Judas and Silas
Thaumaturgus, Gregory, Saint - He was present at the First Council of Antioch against Paul of Samosata
Syria, Syrian - On his death it came under the power of Seleucus Nicator, who built Antioch and made it his capital. See AntiochUS. After Antioch had become a sort of central station from whence the gospel went out to the Gentiles, Paul travelled throughout Syria and Cilicia confirming the churches
Andreas Samosatensis of Samosata - The reputation of Andreas for learning and controversial skill caused John of Antioch to select him, together with his attached friend Theodoret, to answer Cyril's anathemas against Nestorius (Labbe, iii. In 453 Andreas accompanied Alexander and Theodoret to the council summoned at Antioch by Aristolaus the tribune, in compliance with the commands of Theodosius, to consult how the breach with Cyril might be healed (ib
Dianius, Bishop of Caesarea - If, as Tillemont holds, he is the Danius who heads the list of bishops to whom pope Julius directed his dignified reply to the insolent letter addressed to him from Antioch, he took a leading part in the synod held at that city in the early months of a. He also took part in the famous synod of Antioch, in Encaeniis , a
Eutherius, Bishop of Tyana - Before the council he was in active correspondence with John of Antioch, about the alleged Apollinarianism of Cyril of Alexandria and his adherents (Theod. After the reconciliation of Cyril and John of Antioch, Eutherius wrote to John to remonstrate with him on his inconsistency and want of loyalty to what he once contended for ( ib
Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea - )...
Acacius attended the council of Antioch, A. After the majority had confirmed the semi-Arian creed of Antioch ("Creed of the Dedication"), Acacius brought forward a Confession (preserved by Athanasius, de Synod, § 29; Socr. To complete their triumph, he and Eudoxius of Antioch, then bp. On his return to the East in 361 Acacius and his party consecrated new bishops to the vacant sees, Meletius being placed in the see of Antioch
Paul - Paul spent the final year of this preparation period at Antioch in Syria. In response to an invitation from Barnabas, he had come from Tarsus to help the newly formed Antioch church (Galatians 2:1). At the end of the year, Paul and Barnabas took a gift of money from Antioch to Jerusalem to help the poor Christians there (Acts 11:29-30; Galatians 2:1). ...
Peter, John and James the Lord’s brother, as representatives of the Jerusalem church, received the gift from the Antioch church and expressed their complete fellowship with the mission of Paul and Barnabas to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:9-10). Paul and Barnabas then returned to Antioch, taking with them the young man John Mark (Acts 12:25). ...
Breaking into new territory...
Having a desire to spread the gospel into the unevangelized areas to the west, the Antioch church sent off Paul and Barnabas as its missionaries (Acts 13:1-2; about AD 46)
Philoxenus, a Monophysite Leader - He shares with Severus of Antioch, the true scientific head of the previously leaderless party of the Acephali, the reputation of having originated the Jacobite form of Monophysitism, which was long supreme in Egypt and is still adopted by the Copts. " We soon find him in Syria, where, having accepted the Henoticon and the Twelve Chapters of Cyril, he proved an active opponent of all Nestorianizers and a zealous propagator of Monophysite views in the country villages round Antioch. Calandio, the patriarch of Antioch, expelled him from his diocese. The accession in 498 of the vacillating Flavian to the throne of Antioch, and his change of front from opposition to support of Chalcedon, led Philoxenus to adopt a more active line of conduct (Evagr. Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - The surname "golden-mouthed," given to the great preacher of Antioch, and bp. ...
Chrysostom was born at Antioch probably A. Chrysostom's life may be conveniently divided into five epochs: (a ) His life as a layman at Antioch till his baptism and admission as a reader, a. 370–381; (c ) his career as deacon, presbyter, and preacher at Antioch, a. ...
(a ) Life as a Layman at Antioch . The bar was chosen, and at about 18 years of age he began to attend the lectures of the celebrated sophist Libanius, the intimate friend and correspondent of the emperor Julian, and tutor of Basil the Great, who had come to end his days in his native city of Antioch. of Antioch, who had recently returned to his see after one of his many banishments for the faith. of Mopsuestia, adopted the ascetic life under the superintendence of Diodorus and Carterius, who presided over a monastery in or near Antioch. A body of prelates met at Antioch for this purpose. of Antioch. At the end of two years his health so completely gave way that he was forced to return to his home in Antioch. ...
(c ) A Preacher and Presbyter at Antioch . —Chrysostom did not return to Antioch to be idle. During his five years' diaconate he had gained great popularity by his aptness to teach, and his influence had made itself widely felt at Antioch. The succeeding ten years, embracing Chrysostom's life as a presbyter at Antioch, were chiefly devoted to the cultivation of the gift of pulpit eloquence on which his celebrity mainly rests. 387, while the fate of Antioch was hanging in awful suspense on the will of the justly offended emperor Theodosius. It was only too probable that an edict would be issued for the destruction of Antioch or for the massacre of its inhabitants, foreshadowing that of Thessalonica, which three years later struck horror into the Christian world. The homily delivered by Chrysostom on Easter day (the 21st of the series) describes the interview of Flavian with Theodosius, the prelate's moving appeal for clemency, and its immediate effect on the impressionable mind of the emperor, who granted a complete amnesty and urged Flavian's instant return to relieve the Antiochenes from their terrible suspense. For ten years longer Chrysostom continued as a preacher and teacher at Antioch. —Chrysostom's residence at Antioch ended in a. Passing by numerous candidates, he determined to elevate one who had no thought of being a candidate at all, John of Antioch, whose eloquence had impressed him during a recent visit to Antioch on state business. The difficulty lay with Chrysostom himself and the people of Antioch. The double danger of a decided "nolo episcopari" on Chrysostom's part and of a public commotion among the Antiochenes was overcome by stratagem. of Rome, after him coming the metropolitans of Alexandria and Antioch. This cabal received an important accession by the arrival of two bishops from Palestine, Antiochus of Ptolemais and the grey-haired Acacius of Beroea (Pallad. Lucius (11) - At the accession of Jovian, according to the Chronicon Acephalum, a Maffeian fragment, four leading Arian bishops put him forward to address the new emperor at Antioch, hoping to divert Jovian's favour from Athanasius. 582), "either at Antioch, or at some other place out of Egypt," he attempted to possess himself of the bishopric, and entered Alexandria by night on Sept. of Antioch, easily obtained from Valens an order to install Lucius
Mass, Saints of the - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady
twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)
Pope Saint Linus
Pope Saint Cletus
Pope Saint Clement
Pope Saint Sixtus
Pope Saint Cornelius
Saint Cyprian of Carthage
Saint Lawrence
Saint Chrysogonus
Saint John the Martyr
Saint Paul the Martyr
Saint Cosmas
Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist
Saint Stephen the First Martyr
Saint Matthias the Apostle
Saint Barnabas the Apostles
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Pope Saint Alexander I
Saint Marcellinus
Saint Peter the Exorcist
Saint Felicitas
Saint Perpetua
Saint Agatha
Saint Lucy
Saint Agnes
Saint Cecilia
Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Caesara Philippi - This name was given to the cavern by the Greeks of the Macedonian kingdom of Antioch because of its likeness to the grottos of Greece, which were always associated with the worship of their god Pan
Saints of the Mass - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady
twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)
Pope Saint Linus
Pope Saint Cletus
Pope Saint Clement
Pope Saint Sixtus
Pope Saint Cornelius
Saint Cyprian of Carthage
Saint Lawrence
Saint Chrysogonus
Saint John the Martyr
Saint Paul the Martyr
Saint Cosmas
Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist
Saint Stephen the First Martyr
Saint Matthias the Apostle
Saint Barnabas the Apostles
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Pope Saint Alexander I
Saint Marcellinus
Saint Peter the Exorcist
Saint Felicitas
Saint Perpetua
Saint Agatha
Saint Lucy
Saint Agnes
Saint Cecilia
Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Mark or Marcus - He was also the companion of Paul and Barnabas in their journey through Greece to Antioch, Perga, and Pamphylia, at which last place he left them and returned to Jerusalem, much to the dissatisfaction of Paul, Acts 13:5 , etc
Patriarch - ) ("After the destruction of Jerusalem, patriarch was the title of the chief religious rulers of the Jews in Asia and in early Christian times it became the designation of the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem
ha'Math - (fortress ), the principal city of upper Syria, was situated in the valley of the Orontes, which it commanded from the low screen of hills which forms the water-shed between the source of the Orontes and Antioch. Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia
Stephanus i., Patriarch of Antioch - , patriarch of Antioch a
Dispersion - The apostles in every city followed God's order, as Paul told the Jews at Antioch in Pisidia, "it was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken unto you" (Acts 3:26; Acts 13:46); so Romans 1:16, "to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. Africa were leading members of the church of Antioch
Titus - It seems that Titus was originally from Antioch in Syria. When Paul and Barnabas took a gift from the Antioch church to the Jerusalem church, Titus went with them (Acts 11:27-30; Galatians 2:1)
Simon Peter - His first see was at Antioch. The dedication of his chair at Rome is celebrated January 18,; at Antioch, February 22,
Mennas - On May 2, 536, he presided at a council assembled by Justinian at Constantinople at the request of 11 bishops of the East and of Palestine, and of 33 other ecclesiastics, to finish the case of Anthimus, and to decide those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the Eutychian monk Zoara. He confirmed the anathemas pronounced by Mennas against Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, Anthimus, and other schismatics, offering communion again to all who should come to a better mind
Silas or Silyanus - ...
The first appearance of Silas in Acts is at the close of the Council of Jerusalem, when he and Judas surnamed Barsabbas, described as chief men among the brethren, are chosen to accompany Paul and Barnabas to Antioch, with a letter notifying the decision. Being prophets, they not only deliver the letter but remain for a time at Antioch, exhorting and confirming the brethren, and then return to Jerusalem. As this implies the presence of Silas again at Antioch, it may be supposed that Paul has sent for him to Jerusalem, or that he has returned of his own accord after reporting to the primitive Church the fulfilment of his original mission; Acts 15:34 (Authorized Version , ‘it pleased Silas to abide there still’), which appears with variations in some ancient Manuscripts , is generally regarded as a gloss. As a member of the primitive Church and its agent in conveying the decree regarding circumcision to Antioch, Silas would be a pledge of relationship between Paul and Jerusalem on the second journey, as Barnabas had been on the first; and so lie would be regarded by the author of Acts as a more appropriate associate for the Apostle. Of the theories advanced in this connexion perhaps the least probable is that which finds two Silases in Acts-one the messenger of the Jerusalem Church to Antioch (Acts 15:22-32), the other the companion of Paul on his second journey (ACTS Acts 15:40 to Acts 18:5)-and identifies the latter with both Silvanus and Titus (Zimmer)
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch (429–448). Our knowledge of him commences with his election as successor to Theodotus in the see of Antioch. 430, which unanimously condemned the tenets of Nestorius, and the name of John of Antioch appears in the controversy. The support of the Eastern prelates, of whom the patriarch of Antioch was chief, being of great importance, Celestine wrote to John, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Rufus of Thessalonica, and Flavian of Philippi, informing them of the decree passed against Nestorius (Baluz. ...
The divergence of the Antiochene and Alexandrian schools of thought in their way of regarding the mystery of the Incarnation lay at the root of this controversy about the term, and it was brought into open manifestation by the publication of Cyril's twelve "anathematisms" on the teaching of Nestorius. John's arrival having been delayed more than a fortnight beyond the time fixed for the opening of the council, he wrote that Antioch was 42 days' journey from Ephesus, at the fastest. The distances some of them had to travel did not allow them to reach Antioch before May 10. John's departure had been delayed by a famine at Antioch and consequent outbreaks of the populace; their progress was impeded by floods (Labbe, iii. Euprepius at Antioch. On reaching Antioch, about the middle of Dec. Soon after his return to Antioch John, accompanied by six bishops, visited the venerable Acacius of Beroea, whose sympathy in the controversy had greatly strengthened and consoled him. Alexandria and Antioch were two hostile camps. John summoned Alexander of Hierapolis, Andrew of Samosata, Theodoret, and probably others, to Antioch and held a conference to draw up terms of peace. Nine provinces subject to the patriarch of Antioch renounced communion with John, who had at length to request the imperial power to force them into union by ejecting the bishops who refused the agreement he had arranged with Cyril. John made a strong representation to Proclus in 436 that Nestorius in his retirement was persisting in his blasphemies and perverting many in Antioch and throughout the East (Baluz. 1, 2), John assembled his provincial bishops at Antioch
Italy - see), and from there sailed to Ephesus or Antioch or Alexandria, as he desired
Titus - Honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Galatians 2:1-3 ; Acts 15:2 ), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles
Cyprus - It was the scene of Paul's first missionary labours (13:4-13), when he and Barnabas and John Mark were sent forth by the church of Antioch
Street - (Jeremiah 37:21 ) That streets occasionally had names appears from (Jeremiah 37:21 ; Acts 9:11 ) That they were generally unpaved may be inferred from the notices of the pavement laid by Herod the Great at Antioch, and by Herod Agrippa II
Luke - 4) states that Antioch was his native city
Mark - Mark left Jerusalem for Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Acts 12:25, and accompanied them on their first missionary journey
Grain of Wheat - Saint Ignatius of Antioch applied this parable to himself, just before being thrown to the lions, in the beautiful words "I am the wheat of Christ, I shall be ground between the teeth of beasts, that I may become clean bread
Acephali - Cyril or John of Antioch—the leaders of the two parties in the Nestorian controversy
Antioch in Syria - ...
Antioch was once a flourishing and populous city, the capital of Northern Syria, founded by Seleueus Nicator, B. 300, in honour of his father Antiochus
Euprepius, Bishop of Bizya - of Bizya in Thrace; one of 68 bishops who demanded that the opening of the council of Ephesus should be postponed until the arrival of John of Antioch
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - To the synod of Antioch, a
Simeon - A Christian teacher at Antioch, surnamed Niger (black)
Together - , as they had entered the synagogue at Pisidian Antioch)
Sergius, Saint And Martyr - Chosroes, king of Persia, returned it to Gregory, patriarch of Antioch, in 593
Cyrene - Other NT references to Cyrenian Jews are: Acts 2:10 (at Pentecost), 6:9 (members of special synagogue at Jerusalem, opposing Stephen), 11:20 (preaching at Antioch to Greeks [3]), 13:1 (Lucius of Cyrene, probably one of these preachers, a prophet or teacher at Antioch)
Silas - Delegated by the Jerusalem council to accompany Paul and Barnabas with the decree for Antioch. He doubtless revisited Antioch soon after his return to Jerusalem, so he was there chosen by Paul to be companion of his second missionary tour (Acts 15:40-17;Acts 15:14)
Maximianus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - John of Antioch approved the refusal of the bp. Harmony being restored, John of Antioch and the other Eastern bishops wrote Maximian a letter of communion indicating their consent to his election and to the deposition of Nestorius
Valens, Emperor - His anger was excited at this period against magical practices by a conspiracy at Antioch (Socr. Numerous acts of persecution at Edessa, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople are attributed to Valens, in all of which Modestus, the pretorian prefect, was his most active agent, save in Egypt, where Lucius, the Arian successor of Athanasius, endeavoured in vain to terrify the monks into conformity
Joannes Talaia, Bishop of Nola - When the magistrianus whom John employed as his messenger to Constantinople arrived there, he found that Illus had gone to Antioch, whither he followed him with the synodic. On receiving it at Antioch Illus delivered the synodic to Calandio, then recently elected to the patriarchate of that see (Liberat. Thus driven from Alexandria, Talaia went to Illus at Antioch, and thence to Rome (Liberat
Paul - ...
At length the city of Antioch, the capital of Syria, became the scene of great Christian activity. ), who had been sent from Jerusalem to superintend the work at Antioch, found it too much for him, and remembering Saul, he set out to Tarsus to seek for him. He readily responded to the call thus addressed to him, and came down to Antioch, which for "a whole year" became the scene of his labours, which were crowned with great success. ...
The church at Antioch now proposed to send out missionaries to the Gentiles, and Saul and Barnabas, with John Mark as their attendant, were chosen for this work. They sailed from Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch, across to Cyprus, some 80 miles to the south-west. The towns mentioned in this tour are the Pisidian Antioch, where Paul delivered his first address of which we have any record (13:16-51; Philippians 3:5), Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. From Perga they sailed direct for Antioch, from which they had set out. 50 or 51, in Antioch, a great controversy broke out in the church there regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the Mosaic law. The council or synod which was there held (Acts 15 ) decided against the Judaizing party; and the deputies, accompanied by Judas and Silas, returned to Antioch, bringing with them the decree of the council. ...
After a short rest at Antioch, Paul said to Barnabas: "Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do. Of this long journey from Antioch to Troas we have no account except some references to it in his Epistle to the (Galatians 4:13 ). He landed at Caesarea, and went up to Jerusalem, and having "saluted the church" there, and kept the feast, he left for Antioch, where he abode "some time" (Acts 18:20-23 )
Euchites - These sources probably were the Acts of the councils of Antioch and Side, which contained summaries of Messalian doctrine. of Antioch sent monks to bring the Messalian teachers at Edessa to Antioch. Photius represents the synod at Antioch just mentioned as having been called in consequence of the synodical letter from Side, but this is more than doubtful, though Theodoret also, in his Eccl. of Melitene obtained information from Flavian as to the proceedings in Antioch. 426, from the synod held for the consecration of Sisinnius, the successor of Atticus, in which Theodotus of Antioch and a bishop named Neon are mentioned by Photius as taking active parts. ...
Between the accession of Sisinnius and the council of Ephesus in 431, John of Antioch wrote to Nestorius about the Messalians, and Theodosius legislated against them (xvi. The cause of Gregory's oversight may have been that his correspondent cited to him as Ephesine the Acts of the council of Antioch. of Antioch
First Crusade - " During the first half of the 12th century, four Christian States were completely organized, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, and Edessa
Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria Prima - But going to Antioch to attend the synod against Paul of Samosata, on his way through Laodicea, which had just lost its bishop, his old friend Eusebius, he was detained and made bishop in his room, A
Dorotheus (7), Bishop of Martianopolis - Two letters of his to John of Antioch are preserved in the Synodicon (Nos
Titus - He joined Paul and Barnabas in the mission from Antioch to Jerusalem, Acts 15:2 Galatians 2:1 ; and subsequently was sent to Corinth and labored with success, 2 Corinthians 8:6 12:18
Gallus, Caesar - ...
The records of his short reign at Antioch come to us chiefly from Ammianus (lib. of Antioch, and became very friendly with him
Exegesis - The two schools of catechetics founded at Alexandria and Antioch soon devoted themselves to the exegesis of the Sacred Books. At Antioch more correct principles were applied since the grammatical-historical sense was given due prominence
Exegete - The two schools of catechetics founded at Alexandria and Antioch soon devoted themselves to the exegesis of the Sacred Books. At Antioch more correct principles were applied since the grammatical-historical sense was given due prominence
Patriarchs - Rome in Europe, Antioch in Asia, and Alexandria in Africa: and thus formed a trinity of patriarchs. In deed, it does not appear that the dignity of patriarch was appropriated to the five grand sees of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, till after the council of Chalcedon, in 451; for when the council of Nice regulated the limits and prerogatives of the three patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria, it did not give them the title of patriarchs, though it allowed them the pre-eminence and privileges thereof: thus when the council of Constantinople adjudged the second place to the bishop of Constantinople, who, till then, was only a suffragan of Heraclea, it said nothing of the patriarchate
Asia Minor, Cities of - Cities of Asia Minor important to the New Testament accounts included Alexandria Troas, Assos, Ephesus, Miletus, Patara, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Thyatira, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colassae, Attalia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and Tarsus. Moving northward from the port and crossing Pamplia, the group arrived at Antioch in the province of Galatia (Acts 13:14 ). Luke's “Antioch of Pisidia ” carried the title of Colonia Caesarea Antiocheia , a colony established in 25 B. Antioch had been renovated by Rome to provide for the defense of Galatia. Wagons bearing Anatolian marble passed through Antioch on their way to ships at Ephesus to be used in the decoration of the empire. ...
Moving southeast from Antioch, Paul and his companions traveled to Iconium ( Acts 13:51 ). Connected by a fine road with Antioch to the west, the city honored Zeus and Hermes as patron gods
Antioch - On his return, Paul again visited Antioch for the purpose of confirming the disciples (Acts 14:21 )
Paulianists - A sect so called from their founder, Paulus Samosatenus, a native of Samosata, elected bishop of Antioch, in 262
Apostolic Fathers - IGNATIUS, Bishop of Antioch
Luke, Festival of Saint - He appears tohave studied medicine at Antioch, and St
Stagirus, Friend of Chrysostom - Stagirus ( Stagirius ), a young friend of Chrysostom, of noble birth, who against his father's wishes embraced a monastic life, joining the brotherhood of which Chrysostom was a member, and continuing there after failure of health compelled Chrysostom's return to Antioch
Easter Controversy - The Church of Antioch, however, instead of computing this Sunday as the first after the 14th day of the full moon of the vernal equinox, began to compute it as the first after the 14th day of Nisan. The charge seems to have been well-founded, as discrepancies soon appeared between the Easter celebration at Antioch and in the rest of the Christian world
Quartodeciman Controversy - The Church of Antioch, however, instead of computing this Sunday as the first after the 14th day of the full moon of the vernal equinox, began to compute it as the first after the 14th day of Nisan. The charge seems to have been well-founded, as discrepancies soon appeared between the Easter celebration at Antioch and in the rest of the Christian world
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - Isaacus (31) Antiochenus, born at Amid (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia, called "the Great" and "the Elder," a priest of Antioch in Syria, said to have visited Rome. He was author of numerous works in Syriac, of which the chief were polemics against the Nestorians and Eutychians, and of a long elegy on the overthrow of Antioch by the earthquake of 459. Isaaci Antiocheni opera omnia ex omnibus quotquot exstant codd
Pamphylia - Landing at the river-harbour of Perga, they merely ‘passed through from’ the city (Acts 13:14), hastening northward over the Taurus to Antioch in Pisidia. Paul was labouring in Antioch (Apostolic Age, 1897, p
Eusebius, Bishop of Vercellae - One of its objects was to end a schism at Antioch, and after it was over Eusebius went thither to bear a synodal letter or "tome" from the council to the Antiochenes. But Lucifer of Cagliari had preceded him and aggravated the schism by the hasty consecration of Paulinus as a rival bishop; and Eusebius immediately withdrew from Antioch. Leaving Antioch, Eusebius visited Eastern churches to confirm them in the orthodox faith
Messalians - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Filthy, the - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Seleucus - He founded Antioch and its fortified port Seleucia ( 1Ma 11:8 ), and is said by Josephus ( Ant. 246 226), son of Antiochus Soter , is entitled the ‘king of the north’ in the passage ( Daniel 11:7-9 ) which alludes to the utter discomfiture of the Syrian king and the capture of Seleucia. ’s]'>[2] sons’ ( Daniel 11:10 ), was murdered during a campaign in Asia Minor: the struggle with Egypt was continued by his brother Antiochus ( Daniel 11:10-16 ). 10, calls him Soter ), son of Antiochus The Great , reigned b
Onias - Heliodorus being supernaturally repulsed, Onias went to Antioch to defend himself
Adelphians - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Euchites - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Adelphians - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Messalians - They were condemned in 376 by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch; in 388 by the Synod of Side; in 426 by a Council of Constantinople; and in 431 by the Third General Council of Ephesus
Petrus, a Solitary - After visiting the holy places at Jerusalem and Palestine, he settled at Antioch, living in an empty tomb on bread and water, and keeping a strict fast every other day
Galatia - (The effect of taking ‘Galatia’ in the other sense would be to leave out certain Pauline churches, Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch, and perhaps these alone, in all that vast region: which is absurd. ’ This can be none other than that section of the province Galatia which was known as Phrygia Galatica, and which contained Pisidian Antioch and Iconium, exactly the places we should expect St. ‘The Galatian region,’ then, will cover Derbe and Lystra; ‘Phrygia’ will include Iconium and Pisidian Antioch. We conclude then that, whether any other churches are comprised in the address of the Epistle to the Galatians or not, and a negative answer is probably correct, the churches of Derbe, Lystra, Iconium, and Pisidian Antioch are included
Apostolic Fathers - Several allusions indicate Syria (perhaps Antioch) as the place of origin. ...
En route to Rome, where he suffered martyrdom during the reign of Trajan (98-117), Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, wrote seven letters called the Epistles of Ignatius. At Troas he learned that persecution had ceased at Antioch and wrote to the churches of Philadelphia and Smyrna as well as to Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, entreating them to send messengers to Antioch to congratulate the faithful on the restoration of peace
Medicine - Luke "the beloved physician" practiced at Antioch, the center between the schools of Cilicia (Tarsus) and Alexandria
Eastern Church - The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia
Church - The followers of Christ in a particular city or province as the church of Ephesus, or of Antioch
Christian - What confirms this opinion is, that the people of Antioch in Syria, Acts 11:26 , where they were first called Christians, are observed by Zosimus, Procopius, and Zonaras, to have been remarkable for their scurrilous jesting
Moses - Shortly before his death he refused to communicate with Novatian and the five presbyters who sided with him ( ἀποσχίσασιν ) because he saw the tendency of his stern dogma (Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch, Eus
Damascus - But instead of making Damascus the provincial capital, the new rulers built a new capital at Antioch
Sisinnius, Bishop of Novatianists - Together with Theodotus of Antioch he composed a synodic letter against the Thessalians, in the name of the Novatianist bishops assembled at Constantinople for his consecration, addressed to Berinianus, Amphilochius, and other bishops of Pamphylia (Phot
Evagrius - 536 or 537, but accompanied his parents to Apamea for his education, and from Apamea seems to have gone to Antioch, the capital of Syria, and entered the profession of the law. of Antioch, and was chosen by him to assist in his judgments
Presbytery - On the other hand, it may have been no more than a commendation of Timothy to the grace of God for strength and guidance in his new work as a missionary, analogous thus to the action of the prophets and teachers of Antioch in the case of Barnabas and Saul ( Acts 13:1-3 ). Paul without doubt received a consecrating grace from the hands both of Ananias and of those prophets and teachers of the Church at Antioch, but he claimed to be an Apostle ‘not from men, neither through man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father who raised him from the dead’ ( Galatians 1:1 )
Paulus i, Bishop of Constantinople - The greatly exasperated emperor was at Antioch, and ordered Hermogenes, his general of cavalry, to see that Paulus was again expelled. ...
Constantius was again at Antioch, and as resolute as ever against the choice of the people of Constantinople
James the Brother of Jesus - ...
Some years later, when Paul, Barnabas and Titus visited Jerusalem to deliver a gift from the Antioch church, the leaders they met were James, Peter and John (Acts 11:30; Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:9). ...
After Paul’s first missionary journey, a group of Jews from the Jerusalem church came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5)
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - When, five days after Cyril had hastily secured the condemnation of Nestorius, the approach of John of Antioch and the Eastern bishops was announced, Irenaeus, accompanied by a guard of soldiers, hurried out to apprise them of the high-handed proceedings of the council. Since the reconciliation of John of Antioch and Cyril, a kind of truce had existed between the two parties—the Egyptians and Orientals—which this elevation of a leading Nestorian sympathiser to the episcopate rendered no longer possible. Irenaeus had been consecrated by Domnus, the patriarch of Antioch, who, therefore, was the first object of attack
Phrygia - 557, 566]'>[1]), the most important town of which was called Antioch towards Pisidia; but as Pisidia gradually extended northwards this Antioch ceased to be Phrygian and was called Pisidian Antioch (q. ’ Antiochus the Great (223-187 b
Luke (2) - —The Latin biography above referred to calls Luke a Syrian of Antioch. If that be not the explanation, the selection of Antioch may be due to a guess, which sought to connect him with an important city. Some have thought that ‘Antiochensis’ is right, but that ‘Syrus’ is wrong, and would claim him for Pisidian Antioch, a place of much less importance. In the absence of other evidence, this second theory would be possible, as Pisidian Antioch is much nearer the historical scene on which he first appears and figures prominently in the missionary journeys of St. Corinth, Lystra, Ptolemais, and Pisidian Antioch, to mention no others, were also Roman colonies; yet the author affixes the title to Philippi only
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - Paulus (9) of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch, a. ...
However great the scandals attaching to Paul's administration of his episcopal office, it was his unsoundness in the faith which, chiefly by the untiring exertions of the venerable Dionysius of Alexandria, led to the assembling of the synods at Antioch, through which his name and character have chiefly become known to us. A third synod, therefore, was convened at Antioch, towards the close of 269. The leading part was taken by Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch, at one time president of the school of rhetoric there. For two years Paul retained possession of the cathedral and of the bishop's residence attached to it, asserting his rights as the ruler of the church of Antioch. ...
It deserves special notice that Paul's misuse, "σωματικῶς et crasso sensu," of the term ὁμοούσιος , "consubstantial," which afterwards at Nicaea became the test word of orthodoxy, is stated to have led to its rejection by the Antiochene council (Athan
Paul - ) The leading facts of his life which appear in that history, subsidiary to its design of sketching the great epochs in the commencement and development of Christ's kingdom, are: his conversion (Acts 9), his labours at Antioch (Acts 11), his first missionary journey (Acts 13; 14), the visit to Jerusalem at the council on circumcision (Acts 15), introduction of the gospel to Europe at Philippi (Acts 16),: visit to Athens (Acts 17), to Corinth (Acts 18), stay at Ephesus (Acts 19), parting address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20), apprehension at Jerusalem, imprisonment at Casesarea, and voyage to Rome (Acts 21-27). Meantime at Antioch the gospel was preached to Gentile "Greeks" (Hellenas in the Alexandrinus manuscript, not "Grecians," Acts 11:20) by men of Cyprus and Cyrene scattered abroad at the persecution of Stephen; Barnabas went down then from Jerusalem, and glad in seeing this special grace of God, "exhorted them that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. )...
Desiring a helper he fetched Saul from Tarsus to Antioch, and for a whole year they laboured together, and in leaving for Jerusalem (Paul's second visit there, not mentioned in Galatians, being for a special object and for but "few days," Acts 11:30; Acts 12:25) brought with them a token of brotherly love, a contribution for the brethren in Judaea during the famine which was foretold by Agabus and came on under Claudius Caesar (1618454519_87; A. Returning from Jerusalem to Antioch, after having fulfilled their ministry, they took with them John Mark as subordinate helper (Acts 12:25). Here (Acts 13) while their minds were dwelling on the extraordinary accession of Gentile converts, "as they ministered to the Lord and fasted, the Holy Spirit said, "Separate Me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them," namely, to labors among the Gentiles, such as was the specimen already given at Antioch, in which these two had taken such an efficient part. ) In Antioch in Pisidia, as in Cyprus, they began their preaching in the synagogue on the Sabbath. But he arose and went into the city, and next day to Derbe and to Lystra again, and to Iconium and Antioch, ordaining elders in every church, and confirming the disciples by telling them "that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God. " From Pisidia they came to Perga and Attalia; thence to Antioch, where they reported at what may be called the first missionary meeting or covention "all that God had done with them, opening the door of faith unto the Gentiles"; and so ended Paul's first missionary tour. Next (Acts 14:28; Acts 15), during Paul's stay at Antioch, men from Judaea came teaching that the Gentile converts must be circumcised. So Judas Barsabas and Silas, chosen men of their own company, were sent with Paul and Barnabas to carry the decree to Antioch, the apostles having previously "given Paul the right hand of fellowship" as a colleague in the apostleship, and having recognized that the apostleship of the uncircumcision was committed to Paul as that of the circumcision to Peter. The Judaizers soon followed Paul to Antioch, where Peter had already come. Unable to deny that Gentiles are admissible to the Christian covenant without circumcision, they denied that they were so to social intercourse with Jews; pleading the authority of James, they induced Peter, in spite of his own avowed principles (Acts 15:7-11) and his practice (Acts 11:2-17), through fear of man (Proverbs 29:25), to separate himself from those Gentiles with whom he had heretofore eaten; this too at Antioch, the stronghold of universality and starting point of Paul's missions to Gentiles
Paul - Barnabas was sent on a special mission to Antioch. As the work grew under his hands, he felt the need of help, went himself to Tarsus to seek Saul, and succeeded in bringing him to Antioch. Antioch was in constant communication with Cilicia, with Cyprus, with all the neighboring countries. Something of direct expectation seems to be implied in what is said of the leaders of the Church at Antioch, that they were "ministering to the Lord and fasting," when the Holy Ghost spoke to them: "Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them. From Perga they travelled on to a place obscure in secular history, but most memorable in the history of the Kingdom of Christ --Antioch in Pisidia. At Antioch now, as in every city afterward, the unbelieving Jews used their influence with their own adherents among the Gentiles to persuade the authorities or the populace to persecute the apostles and to drive them from the place. Paul and Barnabas now travelled on to Iconium where the occurrences at Antioch were repeated, and from thence to the Lycaonian country which contained the cities Lystra and Derbe. Although the people of Lystra had been so ready to worship Paul and Barnabas, the repulse of their idolatrous instincts appears to have provoked them, and they allowed themselves to be persuaded into hostility be Jews who came from Antioch and Iconium, so that they attacked Paul with stones, and thought they had killed him. The next day he left it with Barnabas, and went to Derbe, and thence they returned once more to Lystra, and so to Iconium and Antioch. Then they came down to the coast, and from Attalia, they sailed; home to Antioch in Syria, where they related the successes which had been granted to them, and especially the opening of the door of faith to the Gentiles. Here again, as in Pisidian Antioch, the envy of the Jews was excited, and the mob assaulted the house of Jason with whom Paul and Silas were staying as guests, and, not finding them, dragged Jason himself and some other brethren before the magistrates. From Jerusalem the apostle went almost immediately down to Antioch, thus returning to the same place from which he had started with Silas. Paul "spent some time" at Antioch, and during this stay as we are inclined to believe, his collision with St. When he left Antioch, he "went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples," and giving orders concerning the collection for the saints
Galatians, Epistle to the - ), or the inhabitants of Pisidian Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, which lay in the S. ’ The Roman colonies like Pisidian Antioch were most jealous of their Roman connexion. But no part of the old Galatia overlapped Phrygia, and the only district satisfying the requirements is the region around Pisidian Antioch and Iconium; therefore in Acts 16:6 a detour to N. what was in Acts 16:6 called the Phrygo-Galatic region, that around Antioch and Iconium. Luke considers the travellers’ point of view; for in the latter case they leave Syrian Antioch, and enter, by way of non-Roman Lycaonia, into Galatic Lycaonia (‘the Galatic region’), while in the former case they start from Lystra and enter the Phrygo-Galatic region near Iconium. Galatian theory; for the very thing that one attacked with an illness in the low-lying lands of Pamphylia would do would be to go to the high uplands of Pisidian Antioch. Peter at Antioch . Galatian theory, the Epistle was written from Antioch. Timothy, he thinks, had been sent to his home at Lystra from Corinth, and rejoined Paul at Syrian Antioch, bringing news of the Galatian defection. ...
Another view is that of Weber, who also holds that Syrian Antioch was the place of writing, but dates the Epistle before the Council (see Acts 14:28 )
Iran - When Christianity was adopted by Constantine and invoked on behalf of the Roman Empire, in 312, the many thousand Christians within the rival Persian Empire who were still under the ecclesiastical authority of Antioch, were regarded with increasing suspicion of political disloyalty
Saturnians - They derived their name from Saturnius of Antioch, one of the principal Gnostic chiefs
Jealousy - in Jerusalem (Acts 5:17) and Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13:45)
Anatolius, Bishop of Constantinople - 55) that Anatolius had outstepped his jurisdiction, by consecrating Maximus to the see of Antioch; and he remonstrated with Anatolius ( Ep
Hegesippus, Author - 179), and of Antioch, once the metropolis of the Persians, being in his time the defence of the Byzantines against that people
Isaacus Senior, Disciple of Ephraim the Syrian - 91), and by many other Syriac and Arabic authors, most of whom, however, confuse him with Isaac presbyter of Antioch (Assemani, B
Christmas - Before the fourth century, churches in the East—Egypt, Asia Minor, and Antioch—observed Epiphany, the manifestation of God to the world, celebrating Christ's baptism, His birth, and the visit of the Magi
Luke - He was born at Antioch in Syria, and was taught the science of medicine
Paulus of Asia - of Aphrodisias had instructions to depose him from the episcopal office and consecrate him afresh to the see of the Carian Antioch, on the Meander, at the far east of the province and not very distant from Aphrodisias
Photinus, a Galatian - The Eusebians at Antioch, in their lengthiest formula, three years after the Encoenia, were the first to attack him, classing him with his preceptor
Sirmium, Stonemasons of - Simplicius was converted by his four companions, and baptized secretly by a bishop, Cyril of Antioch, who had been three years a slave in the quarries and had suffered many stripes for the faith
Derbe - After changing hands more than once, it was ultimately added-as the inscriptions on coins indicate-to the kingdom of Antiochus iv. , and therefore called ‘Strategia Antiochiane’ (Ptolemy, v. 41 to the death of Antiochus in 72. Derbe lay on the great trade-route between Ephesus and Syrian Antioch. In his second journey he evidently crossed the Taurus by the Cilician Gates, passed through the kingdom of Antiochus, and so ‘came to Derbe and Lystra’ (Acts 15:41; Acts 16:1). Imperial Derbe stood in closer relations with the Roman colonies of Antioch and Lystra than with the non-Roman Lycaones of the kingdom of Antiochus
Philippi - 117 Ignatius passed through Philippi on his journey from Antioch to his martyrdom in Rome. He was welcomed by the Church, and they wrote a letter of consolation to the Church of Antioch and another to Polycarp of Smyrna, asking for copies of any letters that Ignatius had written in Asia
Leo i, Emperor - In 471 a law was published, apparently elicited by the troubles at Antioch, commanding monks not to leave their monasteries. When Isocasius, a philosopher and magistrate of Antioch, was forced by torture to accept baptism at Constantinople, the emperor seems to have personally superintended the deed (Joan
Patrophilus of Scythopolis - In 330 he took part in the synod at Antioch by which Eustathius was deposed ( ib. In 341 be took part in the ambiguous council of Antioch, in Encaeniis (Soz
Roads And Travel - But there were certain districts where brigandage was a real menace; one was the Isaurian mountains in the neighbourhood of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra. Taurus to Pisidian Antioch and back again. We are not informed as to the way in which Barnabas and Saul journeyed from Antioch to Jerusalem (Acts 11:30), but there is little doubt that Saul was fetched from Tarsus to Antioch (Acts 11:25) by the coast-road passing within the bend between Asia Minor and the province of Syria. From there they took the road northwards by Adada to ‘Pisidian’ Antioch (described best in Ramsay, Church in Roman Empire3, p. , ‘Iconium and Antioch’ in Exp. The ‘Imperial Road,’ however, mentioned in the Acta Pauli in connexion with the Thecla legend, passed direct from Pisidian Antioch to Lystra, and did not touch Iconium (Ramsay’s discovery, told in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire Paul - Paul was soon after conducted by Barnabas from Tarsus, which had probably been the principal place of his residence since he left Jerusalem, and they both began to preach the Gospel to the Gentiles at Antioch, A. The first Gentile church was now established at Antioch; and in that city, and at this time, the disciples were first called Christians, Acts 11:26 . Upon the prospect of this calamity, the Christians of Antioch made a contribution for their brethren in Judea, and sent the money to the elders at Jerusalem by St. Paul and Barnabas, having executed their commission, returned to Antioch; and soon after their arrival in that city they were separated, by the express direction of the Holy Ghost, from the other Christian teachers and prophets, for the purpose of carrying the glad tidings of the Gospel to the Gentiles of various countries, Acts 13:1 . Thus divinely appointed to this important office, they set out from Antioch, A. 45, and preached the Gospel successively at Salamis and Paphos, two cities of the isle of Cyprus, at Perga in Pamphylia, Antioch in Pisidia, and at Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, three cities of Lycaonia. They returned to Antioch in Syria, A. ...
Paul and Barnabas continued at Antioch a considerable time; and while they were there, a dispute arose between them and some Jewish Christians of Judea. Paul and Barnabas to Antioch for that purpose. Paul, having preached a short time at Antioch, proposed to Barnabas that they should visit the churches which they had founded in different cities, Acts 15:36 . Paul chose Silas for his companion, and they set out together from Antioch, A. After the feast he went to Antioch, A. ...
Having made a short stay at Antioch, St
Syria - The Orontes flows north before abruptly turning west to the sea in the plain of Antioch, while the Leontes flows south then turns west through a narrow gorge and empties into the sea. At his death, the area formed the nucleus of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom with its capital at Antioch. Antioch, where believers were first called “Christians” (Acts 11:26 ), became the base for his missionary journeys (Acts 13:1-3 )
Acts of the Apostles - ...
Antioch, instead of Jerusalem, now became a centre of evangelisation, independent of apostolic authority, yet without breaking the unity of the Spirit by forming a separate church. ...
Certain persons from Judaea insisting at Antioch that the Gentile converts must be circumcised or they could not be saved, the question was referred to the church at Jerusalem. ...
Paul with Silas took a second missionary journey, extending to Europe and returned to Antioch
Greek Church - The other patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, all nominated by the patriarch of Constantinople, who enjoys a most extensive jurisdiction. In this assembly the patriarch of Constantinople presides, with those of Antioch and Jerusalem, and twelve archbishops. The Greek church comprehends a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lybia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Siberia in Asia, Astrachan, Casan, and Georgia
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - He declared open war against the maintainers of "two natures" as being in effect Nestorianizers, and on this ground boldly broke off communion with Rome, Constantinople, and Antioch, denouncing bishops of the Alexandrian patriarchate who had accepted the formula of the council, and some of whom had held their sees before the accession of Cyril; he also sent to cities and monasteries a prohibition to communicate with such bishops or to recognize clerics ordained by them. 524), but yet deemed it expedient to send copies of both memorials to the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and to 55 other prelates and three leading monks (one of them being Symeon Stylites), requesting their opinion as to the case of Timotheus and as to the authority of the council (Evagr. But when the Eutychians of Constantinople, deeming his arrival a godsend, hastened to pay court to him, he disappointed them by declaring that he for his part accepted the statement which Cyril had in effect adopted at his reunion with John of Antioch, that "the Incarnate Word was consubstantial with us, according to the flesh" (ib
Thecla - Paul is represented as being on his way to Iconium after having been driven from Antioch of Pisidia; but whether his flight from Antioch related in Act_13:15 is meant and consequently whether the ensuing events are to be taken as belonging to his first visit to Iconium is not clear. The apostle with Thecla went on his way to Antioch. As they entered Antioch her beauty caught the eye of Alexander the Syriarch (this seems to prove that the city here meant is the capital of Syria) who sought to obtain possession of her by offering money to Paul. 2Ti_3:11 might suggest the scene "at Antioch at Iconium. Paul's course this Epistle belonged or which Antioch was meant. 16) and Antioch (c. 25), and Antioch was the capital of Syria, an imperial province governed by a propraetor. Even if we regard Iconium as of Lycaonia, and the Antioch meant to be the Pisidian, in neither city would so high an official as the proconsul of Asia be resident, as the Acts represent. The author, being of Asia—that is, of the Roman province supposed a proconsul to be found at Iconium and at Antioch, because he had himself been accustomed to see a proconsul at Ephesus or Smyrna; and thus Tertullian's statement that he was of Asia (taken in that limited sense) is borne out, not by his exact knowledge, as Schlau supposed, but by his mistake
Paul - From thence he was fetched by Barnabas to go to Antioch, where the gospel had been effectual, and there they both laboured. He and Barnabas returned to Antioch, where he remained 'a long time. ' On a dispute arising as to Gentile converts being circumcised, he went with Barnabas to Jerusalem concerning that question, and returned to Antioch. He now visited Jerusalem at the feast, and returned to Antioch
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - Severus (27), Monophysite patriarch of Antioch a. Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy the vacant throne of Antioch a. Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l. His sanguinary tyranny over the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive his imperial patron
Arius, Followers of - A council was assembled at Antioch (338–339) in which the old charges were revived against Athanasius, and which confirmed his sentence of deposition from his see. He further transmitted to Antioch a strong remonstrance against the inconsistency and unfairness of the proceedings at the council held there. At the council held at the dedication ( encaenia ) of a church at Antioch in 341, the sentence on Athanasius was confirmed, and after the rejection of a creed of distinctly Arian tendencies, a new creed, either composed by Lucian the Martyr or by his disciple Asterius, was brought forward as a substitute for the symbol of Nicaea. The West had been roused by the proceedings at Antioch, and Constantius, now engaged in a war with Persia, dared not refuse. The proceedings at Philippopolis and the outrageous conduct of Stephen, then patriarch of Antioch, gave offence even in the East, and the decision of the Western bishops to hold no communion with their Eastern brethren while the existing state of things lasted produced a reaction. Another council was held at Antioch, and a new and more conciliatory creed, usually called μακρόστιχος from its exceeding length, was substituted for the Lucianic document. Sirmium, in Slavonia, between the Save and the Drave, now takes the place of Antioch in the matter of creed-making. The episode of Meletius of Antioch (not to be confounded with Meletius of Egypt) shewed plainly which way events were tending. He had been elected patriarch of Antioch by the Homoean party. On the other hand, the dissensions which broke out between Eudoxius, patriarch of Antioch and afterwards of Constantinople and his Arian (or Anomoean) allies, drove both him and Valens into the arms of the Homoeans, in whose possession most of the churches were. The de Synodis of Athanasius passes in review the various councils and their creeds, from the Encaenia at Antioch to the councils of Ariminum and Seleucia
Pharisees - ...
While the Jews continued to be divided into these two parties, the spread of the testimony of the Gospel must have produced what in the public eye seemed to be a new sect, and in the extensive development which took place at Antioch, Acts 11:19-26 , the name "Christians" seems to have become a popular term applied to the disciples as a sect, the primary cause, however, being their witness to Christ (see CALL , A, No
Nicolas - Among the Seven chosen in Acts 6:1-15 to minister to the Hellenists or Greek-speaking Jews, was Nicolas, a ‘proselyte of Antioch
Elagabalus, Emperor - ...
Julia Mammaea had eclectic tendencies, and by her invitation the great Origen came to Antioch (probably, however, after the death of Elagabalus), and was received with many marks of honour
Syria - Antioch was built as the seat of the Seleucid dynasty, and became the third, if not the second, city in the world. The Graeco-Syrian civilization extended far down both sides of Jordan, and, but for the crazy policy of Antiochus Epiphanes and the consequent Maccabaean revolt, might have absorbed Judaea itself. Antioch remained the capital of Syria till the time of Septimius Severus, who gave the honour to Laodicea (now Latakia), making it a colonia
Mark (John) - John Mark was chosen as companion of Barnahas and Saul when they left Jerusalem for Antioch ( Acts 12:25 the reading of RVm ti'Tus - Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to (Galatians 2:1,3 ) We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15 ) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of circumcision to the Gentiles. Here we see Titus in close association with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch
Mark - When Paul and Barnabas visited Jerusalem with an offering from the church at Antioch, they met Mark. They were so impressed with him that they took him back to Antioch, and later took him with them on what has become known as Paul’s first missionary journey (Acts 12:25; Acts 13:5)
Joannes Philoponus, Distinguished Philosopher - of Antioch (Suidas, s. ...
At the request of Sergius (ordained patriarch of Antioch by the Monophysites c
Acts of the Apostles - , says that he was ‘by nation a Syrian of Antioch’; and Eusebius ( HE iii. 4), using a vague phrase, says that he was, ‘according to birth, of those from Antioch’; while later writers like Jerome follow Eusebius. Certainly we should never have guessed this from the cold way in which the Syrian Antioch is mentioned in Acts. Some (Rackham, Rendall) conjecture that Pisidian Antioch is really meant, as the scenes in the neighbourhood of that city are so vivid that the description might well be by an eye-witness. Yet he was quite probably a Macedonian [5], of a Greek family once settled at Antioch; he was a Gentile not without some contempt for the Jews, and certainly not a Roman citizen like St. Acts 13:8 (no reason given for Elymas’ opposition, it is not explicitly said that Paul preached to the proconsul), Acts 13:13 (the reason for Mark’s departure not stated, nor yet for Paul and Barnabas going to Pisidian Antioch), Acts 16:35 (no reason given for the Philippi prætors’ change of attitude), Acts 17:15 (not said that the injunction was obeyed, but from 1 Thessalonians 3:1 we see that Timothy had rejoined Paul at Athens and was sent away again to Macedonia, whence he came in Acts 18:5 to Corinth), Acts 20:16 (not stated that they arrived in time for Pentecost, but it must be understood), Acts 27:43 (it must be inferred that the injunction was obeyed). Contrast the account of the conduct of the Greek magistrates at Iconium and Thessalonica who were active against him, or of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens who were contemptuous, with the silence about the action of the Roman magistrates of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra, or the explicit statements about Sergius Paulus, Gallio, Felix, Festus, Claudius Lysias and Julius the centurion, who were more or less fair or friendly. He had perhaps visited the Syrian Antioch, and could get from the leaders of the Church there ( e. In Acts 11:28 this MS (supported by Augustine), by inserting ‘we,’ makes the writer to have been present at Syrian Antioch when Agabus prophesied. ( c ) The ‘first men’ at Pisidian Antioch ( Acts 13:50 ), i
Chronology of the New Testament - To Antioch with Barnabas, Acts 11:26 . First Missionary Journey, to Cyprus, Acts 13:4 ; Pamphylia, and Southern Galatia (Pisidian Antioch, Acts 13:14 ; Iconium, Acts 13:51 ; Lystra, Acts 14:6 ; Derbe, Acts 14:20 ), and back by Attalia to Antioch, Acts 14:26 Manaen (2) - 39? If so, he may have gone to Antioch at that date, and been one of the founders of the Church in that city, which comes into view about a. At Antioch, in any case, we find him four years later occupying a position of authority (Acts 13:1). Luke also came from Antioch (Euseb
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - He went to Alexandria, followed quickly by Severus on his expulsion from Antioch (Liberatus, Brev. Eutropius afterwards ordained ten Julianist bishops, and sent them as missionaries east and west, among other places to Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, and into Syria, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the country of the Homerites (Asseman. This naturally encountered great opposition, especially, among others, from Anastasius patriarch of Antioch (A
Judas - He was sent from Jerusalem to Antioch along with Paul and Barnabas with the decision of the council (Acts 15:22,27,32 )
Simeon - ...
The other Simeon mentioned in the New Testament was a prophet and teacher in the church at Antioch in Syria (Acts 13:1)
Hamath - The chief city of upper Syria, in the valley of the Orontes, commanding the whole valley, from the low hills which form the watershed between the Orontes and the Liturgy, to the defile of Daphne below Antioch; this was "the kingdom of Hamath. From Antiochus Epiphanes it afterward got the name Epiphaneia
Robbery - Paul reached Antioch
Barnabas - The church chose Barnabas to go to Syrian Antioch to investigate the unrestricted preaching to the Gentiles there
Anastasius, a Presbyter of Antioch - Anastasius (1) , a presbyter of Antioch, the confidential friend and counsellor of Nestorius, the archbp
Apollinaris, Saint And Mart - Apollinaris was a native of Antioch, well instructed in Gk
Bonosus, Founder Bonosiani Sect - 391, to settle the rival claims of Flavian and Evagrius to the see of Antioch, opportunity was taken to lay an accusation against Bonosus
Hesychius (3), Egyptian bp - This Hesychian recension is mentioned more than once by Jerome, who states that it was generally accepted in Egypt, as that of his fellow-martyr, Lucian of Antioch, was in Asia Minor and the East (Hieron
Dimoeritae, Followers of Apollinarius - Epiphanius at Antioch in a long discussion with Vitalius put the crucial question: "You admit the Incarnation do you also admit that Christ took a mind (νοῦν)?" "The answer was "No
Marcianus, a Solitary in Syria - of Antioch, in company with four of the most eminent bishops of Syria—Acacius of Berrhoea, Eusebius of Chalcis, Isidore of Cyrrhus, and Theodotus of Hierapolis—besides some religious laymen of high rank
Laying on of Hands - When the church in Antioch sent out Paul and Barnabas as missionaries, the elders of the church laid their hands on them, symbolizing the church’s identification with the two men as their missionary representatives (Acts 13:3)
Paulus Edessenus - Justin, becoming emperor, undertook to force the decrees of Chalcedon on Severus of Antioch and his followers, and committed the task to Patricius, who came in due course to Edessa (Nov
Timotheus i., Archbaptist of Alexandria - The council of Aquileia alludes to some annoyance given to him and Paulinus of Antioch by those whose orthodoxy had previously been suspected (Ambr
Damasus, Pope - 25), and in affixing the stigma of Arianism to Meletius of Antioch and Eusebius, who were upheld by Basil (Basil, Ep. On Meletius's death Damasus struggled hard to gain the chair of Antioch for Paulinus, and to exclude Flavianus; nor was he reconciled to the latter till some time later (Socr
Polychronius, Bishop of Apamea - He belonged to a wealthy family of position at Antioch, and the literary character of his remains indicates that his early education was liberal and many-sided. ...
As a disciple of the school of Antioch, Polychronius would naturally apply himself to Biblical exegesis. ascribed to "Polychronius the Deacon," and all these collections are characterized by a partiality for allegorical and mystical interpretations quite alien to the instincts of the Antiochenes
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - In 341, in deference to the Dedication Council of Antioch, he forcibly intruded one Gregorius into the see of Alexandria; in 342 he sent his magister equitum, Hermogenes, to drive Paulus from Constantinople, but he did not confirm Macedonius, the rival claimant (Socr. of Antioch, Stephen, against the messengers of Constans were happily discovered, and the faith of Constantius in the party was somewhat shaken (St. Athanasius to return to his see, which Athanasius did in 346, after a curious interview with the emperor at Antioch (see the letters in Socr. His suspicions were also aroused against his cousin Gallus, whose violence and misgovernment in the East, especially in Antioch, were notorious. of Antioch
Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste - On leaving Alexandria he repaired to Antioch, where he was refused ordination on account of his Arian tenets by his orthodox namesake (Athan. From Antioch Eustathius returned to Caesarea, where he obtained ordination from the orthodox bp. Somewhere about this time we may place Eustathius's conviction of perjury in the council of Antioch (see Socr. of Antioch, and produced a formulary of faith declaring the dissimilarity of the Father and the Son, which he asserted to be by Eudoxius. 365, under the presidency of Eleusius, and repudiated the Acacian council of Constantinople (360) and the creed of Ariminum, renewed the confession of Antioch ( In Encaeniis ), and pronounced sentence of deposition on Eudoxius and Acacius (Socr
Judas - Judas, surnamed Barsabas, was one of those chosen by the Church of Jerusalem to go with Paul and Barnabas to deliver the letter from James to the church at Antioch concerning the important matter of Gentile salvation (Acts 15:22 )
Ruler - In Acts 13:15 rulers of the synagogue are mentioned at Pisidian Antioch
Simeon - A disciple and prophet at Antioch, designated NIGER
Demophilus - of Antioch
Simeon - Surnamed NIGER, or the Black, Acts 13:1 , was among the prophets and teachers of the Christian church at Antioch
Luke - According to evidence from early records, Luke was a Gentile who was born in Antioch in Syria
Thomas Apameensis, Bishop of Apamea - In 540 Chosroes, at the head of his Persians, after burning Antioch, was reported to be marching on Apamea
Iconium - 295, when Diocletian formed the province Pisidia, with Antioch as its capital and Iconium as its ‘second metropolis. In the interval between the Apostle’s last two visits, he received the alarming tidings that his Galatian churches-which, on this hypothesis, were Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe-were being perverted by Judaizers, whoso fatal errors his Epistle to the Galatians was immediately written to confute
Jacobus Sarugensis, Bishop of Batnae - Further, he began his episcopate under Justin, by whose orders Severus was driven from Antioch, Philoxenos from Hierapolis, and other heretics from Mesopotamia and Syria. Jacobus of Sarug would not communicate with Paul of Antioch, because the latter confessed the two natures
Paula, a Roman Lady - Epiphanius of Salamis and Paulinus of Antioch, and by them her ascetic tendencies, already considerable, were heightened. After visiting Epiphanius in Cyprus, she rejoined Jerome and his friends at Antioch
Tarsus - ...
The great trade-route from the Euphrates by the Amanus Pass joined the one from Antioch by the Syrian Gates about 50 miles E. Antiochus Epiphanes IV. The far-reaching change which this Antiochus, who was at first no enemy of the Jews, made in Tarsus was commemorated by the new name given to the city-‘Antioch on the Cydnus’-which, however, was soon dropped, as there were already so many Antiochs, and as Tarsus was still essentially an Oriental city. His third tour also began with a journey from Syrian Antioch to the region of Phrygia and Galatia (Acts 18:23), no doubt via Tarsus, which he then probably saw for the last time
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - The procession passed into the inclosure, but the excited congregation went on shouting outside the gates of the choir in similar strains: "You shall not come out unless you anathematize Severus," referring to the heretical patriarch of Antioch. Severus of Antioch was anathematized after an examination of his works in which a distinct condemnation of Chalcedon was discovered. The emperor sent an account of the proceedings throughout the provinces and the ambassadors forwarded their report to Rome, saying that there only remained the negotiations with Antioch
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - In the Pratum Moschus is found at two monasteries named after two Theodosii, near Antioch and Jerusalem respectively. >From the wilderness of Jordan and the New Laura, says Photius, John went to Antioch and its neighbourhood, the Elogium adding that this occurred when the Persians attacked the Romans because of the murder (Nov. The Pratum shews Moschus at Antioch or Theopolis (88, 89) and at Seleucia while Theodorus was bp
Galatia - For siding with Antiochus the Great in his war with Rome, and frequently breaking their promise to refrain from raiding the lands of their neighbours, the Galatians ultimately brought on themselves a severe castigation at the hands of Cn. Galatia proper (the country of the three Galatian tribes), part of Phrygia (including Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, Isauria, and part of Lycaonia (with Lystra and Derbe). 41 by the gift of a slice or Lycaonia, including Laranda, to Antiochus of Commagene (called after him Lycaonia Antiochiana), so that Derbe became the frontier town and Customs’ station. ...
Antioch and Lystra (qq. In these cities, planted in the moat civilized and progressive part of central Asia Minor-the region traversed by the great route of traffic and inter-course between Ephesus and Syrian Antioch-many Greeks, Romans, and Jews swelled the native Phrygian and Lycaonian populace. 1 Corinthians 16:1) to be sought in the comparatively small district occupied by the Gauls, about Ancyra, Pessinus, and Tavium, or in the great Roman province of Galatia, which included Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe? In the absence of definite information, we have to make probability our guide, and to the present writer the balance of evidence appears to favour the South Galatian hypothesis. Paul’s first mission north of Taurus was conducted in the Greek-speaking cities of Antioch and Iconium (which were Phrygian), Lystra and Derbe (which were Lycaonian)-all in the Provincia Galatia, but far from Galatia proper. Twice he is forbidden to turn aside from the direct route between Antioch and Troas. For the natural reference of the words ‘they went through (διῆλθον) the Phrygo-Galatic region, having been forbidden (κωλυθέντες) … to speak the word in Asia’ is to a district east of Asia and north of Iconium and Antioch, South Galatia being now left behind. 19) that in the present contest ‘the region of Phrygia and Galatia’ can only mean ‘the borderland of Phrygia and Galatia northward of Antioch, through which the travellers passed after “having been forbidden to speak the word in Asia. (1) The baneful activity of Judaizers in Galatia suggests the presence of Jews and Jewish Christians in the newly planted churches, and there is abundant evidence of the strength and prominence of the Jews in Antioch (Acts 13:14-51; Acts 14:19), Iconium (14:1), and Lystra (16:1-3; cf
Mediterranean Sea, the - Paul's work involved such Mediterranean cities as Caesarea, Antioch, Troas, Corinth, Tyre, Sidon, Syracuse, Rome, and Ephesus
Creed, Apostles' - The constant repeating of it was not introduced into the church till the end of the fifth century; about which time Peter Gnaphius, bishop of Antioch, prescribed the recital of it every time divine service was performed
Aphthartodocetae, a Sect of the Monophysites - Their opponents among the Monophysites, the Severians (from Severus, patriarch of Antioch), maintained that the body of Christ before the Resurrection was corruptible, and were hence called Phthartolatrae ( Φθαρτολάτραι , from φθαρτός and λάτρεία ), or Corrupticolae , i
Forty Martyrs, the - 24 Forty Virgin Martyrs under Decius at Antioch in Syria are noted in Mart
Apostles Other Than the Twelve - Peru...
Saint Barnabas Cyprus...
Antioch...
Barradas, Sebastião, S
Judas - A Christian teacher, called also Barsabas, sent from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Acts 15:22,27,32
Pamphylia - ...
Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey crossed from Cyprus to Perga, but seem to have gone straight on to Antioch without preaching
Joannes Iii, Bishop of Jerusalem - of Jerusalem, by the emperor Anastasius, John, deacon of the Anastasis, was forcibly thrust into his episcopal seat by Olympius, prefect of Palestine, on his engaging to receive Severus of Antioch into communion and to anathematize the decrees of Chalcedon (Cyrill
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - 510; a Monophysite, a warm partisan of Severus the intruding patriarch of Antioch, the leader of the Acephali, and charged with sharing in the violent and sanguinary attempts to force the Monophysite creed on the reluctant Syrian church
Acts of the Apostles - This section has been entitled "From Jerusalem to Antioch. 13-28 have been entitled "From Antioch to Rome
Pelagius ii., Bishop of Rome - 588), a council at Constantinople, apparently a large and influential one, and not confined to ecclesiastics, dealt with Gregory patriarch of Antioch, who being charged with crime, had appealed "ad imperatorem et concilium" (Evagr. Nor do we know of any previous objection, and at this council it may have been ostentatiously assumed by the then patriarch, John the Faster, and sanctioned by the council with reference to the case before it, in a way that seemed to recognize jurisdiction of the patriarchate of Constantinople over that of Antioch
Ibas, Bishop of Edessa - To Proclus the matter appeared so serious that towards the close of 437 he wrote to John of Antioch, as the leading prelate of the East, though really having no canonical jurisdiction over Osrhoene, begging him to persuade Ibas, if innocent, to remove the scandal by condemning publicly certain propositions chiefly drawn from Theodore's writings against the errors of Nestorius. of Antioch, visiting Hierapolis for the enthronization of the new bp. In 445 Ibas was summoned by Domnus to the synod held at Antioch in the matter of Athanasius of Perrha, but he excused himself by letter ( ib. The council was held at Antioch, and was attended by only a few bishops. His enemies agreed to withdraw their accusations on Ibas promising that he would forget the past, regard his accusers as his children, and remit any fresh difficulty for settlement to Domnus ; and that, to avoid suspicion of malversation, the church revenues of Edessa should be administered, like those of Antioch, by oeconomi. Ibas was not cited to appear, being then in prison at Antioch (Labbe, iv
Mark, Gospel According to - Some have supposed Antioch (Compare Mark 15:21 with Acts 11:20 )
Silas - It is uncertain if he returned from Antioch to Jerusalem ( Acts 15:34 is of doubtful authenticity), but in any case he was soon after chosen by Paul to go with him on the Second Journey, taking Barnabas’ place, while Timothy afterwards took John Mark’s
Cyprus - " Some of the men of Cyprus too preached the Lord Jesus to the Greeks effectually at Antioch (Acts 11:19-20)
Judaizers - The context for this reference is the episode in Antioch when Paul condemns Peter's withdrawal from table fellowship with Gentile Christians
Asterius, Bishop of Amasea - Goth), who, having been sold in his youth to a citizen of Antioch, a schoolmaster, had made marvellous progress under his owner's instructions, and won himself a great name among Greeks and Romans (Phot
Cornelius, Bishop of Rome - Fabius of Antioch, in which he gives an account of his rival, with statistics as to the number of Roman clergy in his day
Joannes, the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople - of Antioch, who was acquitted and returned to his see
Mammaea or Mamaea, Julia - Her leanings to the Christian society were shewn more distinctly when she was with the emperor at Antioch, and hearing that Origen, already famous as a preacher, was at Caesarea, invited him to visit them with the honour of a military escort, welcomed him with all honour, and listened attentively as he unfolded the excellence of the faith of Christ (Eus
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - ) of Antioch, who during his stay in Italy had played a considerable part in church affairs (Ep. 30), but taking his library, he travelled through Thrace, Pontus, Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch. At first, as we see from his letter to Heliodorus, he was satisfied with his condition; but his last years in the desert were embittered by theological strife, relating to the conflicts in the church at Antioch, from which he was glad to escape. The see of Antioch was claimed by three bishops, Vitalis the Arian, Meletius, acknowledged by Basil and the orthodox bishops of the East (Basil, Ep. Proceeding in the spring of 379 to Antioch, he stayed there till 380, uniting himself to the party of Paulinus, and and by him was ordained presbyter against his will. Lucifer of Cagliari having taken part in the appointment of Paulinus, a corrective was needed for the more extreme among the Western party at Antioch; and this was given in Jerome's dialogue, which is clear, moderate, and free from the violence of his later controversial works. Paulinus of Antioch and Epiphanius of Constantia (Salamis) in Cyprus (cxxiii. Jerome's own experience in the desert, his anti-Ciceronian dream at Antioch, his knowledge of the desert monks, of whom he gives a valuable description, were here used in favour of the virgin and ascetic life; the extreme fear of impurity contrasts strangely with the gross suggestions in every page; it contains such a depreciation of the married state, the vexations of which ("uteri tumentes, infantium vagitus") are only relieved by vulgar and selfish luxury, that almost the only advantage allowed it is that by it virgins are brought into the world; and the vivid descriptions of Roman life—the pretended virgins, the avaricious and self-indulgent matrons, the dainty, luxurious, and rapacious clergy—forcible as they are, lose some of their value by their appearance of caricature. 22), he sailed direct to Antioch. The friends were reunited at Antioch, as winter was setting in
Gospels - "...
These not being bound under the ceremonial yoke, as the original Jews, formed a connecting link with the Gentiles; and hence at Antioch in Pisidia, when the Jews rejected the preaching of Paul and Barnabas, these proselytes, with the Gentiles, "besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath, . 11), Bishop of Antioch A. Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. There are three periods marked in Acts:...
(1) From the ascension to the rise of the first purely Gentile church at Antioch where the disciples were first called Christians (Acts 11:26); the first Gospel, Matthew, corresponds to this first and Jewish period, between A. The second period is from the rise of the Gentile church at Antioch to Paul's passing over to Europe in obedience to the vision at Troas; the second Gospel, Mark, answers to this Judaeo-Gentile transition period, A. ...
Theophilus probably lived at Antioch (Birks' Hor. " Mark probably wrote while having the opportunity of Peter's guidance in Palestine, between his return from Perga and his second journey with Barnabas in or for Caesarea, the second center of gospel preaching as Jerusalem was the first and Antioch the third, the scene of Cornelius' conversion by Peter, Mark's father in the faith, the head quarters of the Roman forces in Palestine, where Philip the evangelist resided
Paul - 46-48) began at Antioch (Acts 13-14 ). The church at Antioch had been founded by Hellenistic Christian believers like Stephen (Acts 11:19-26 ). Their itinerary took them from Antioch (Antakya of modern Turkey) to the seaport of Seleucia. Entering the highlands, they came into the province of Galatia where they concentrated their efforts in the southern cities of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. 49-52) departed from Antioch with Silas as his associate (Acts 15:36-18:18 ). From Corinth, Paul returned to Caesarea, visited Jerusalem, and then Antioch (Acts 18:22 )
Christian (the Name) - Of these, the fontal reference in Acts 11:26 explains that the name by which the religion of Jesus has been known for nineteen centuries was coined by the pagan slang of Antioch on the Orontes, a city which, like Alexandria, was noted for its nicknames. ’ Unconsciously, in giving the title—which there is no evidence to show was applied previously to Jews—these citizens of Antioch were emphasizing one deep truth of the new religion, viz. that it rested not on a dogma or upon an institution, but on a person; and that its simple and ultimate definition was to be found in a relationship to Jesus Christ, whether ‘Christos’ to these Syrian Antiochenes was some strange god (Acts 17:18) or a Jewish agitator. ’ It was the pagan community of Antioch alone that would invent and apply this title. There was a Jewish ghetto at Antioch. (Ignatius—himself a native of Antioch—and the Didache, cf
Peter - Peter at that time went to Antioch or to Rome. Peter went to Antioch, where he gave great offence, by refusing to eat with the converted Gentiles. Paul at Antioch. Peter was at Antioch with St
Hypocrisy - Paul accused Peter of hypocrisy for refusing to eat with Gentile Christians in Antioch (Galatians 2:12-13 )
See, Roman - In the early part of the 2century Ignatius of Antioch addressed the Roman Church as the President of the Christian society and gratefully received its instructions and commands
Roman See - In the early part of the 2century Ignatius of Antioch addressed the Roman Church as the President of the Christian society and gratefully received its instructions and commands
Mysia - Paul and Silas were travelling from Pisidian Antioch northward through Phrygian Asia, Ramsay observes that they would be ‘over against Mysia’ when they reached such a point that a line drawn across the country at right angles to the general line of their route would touch Mysia (The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, p
Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople - His first care was the funeral of his predecessor, and he then sent both to Cyril and John of Antioch the usual synodical letters announcing his appointment, both of whom approved of it
Pilate Pontius - With this reference may be taken that (Acts 13:28) in Paul’s address at Antioch in Pisidia, which somewhat resembles the earlier speech of Peter
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - The emperor and the great majority of the prelates of the East supported Acacius; and thus the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, as well as Constantinople, remained out of communion with Rome. the Fuller), had excited the orthodox zeal of Felix, patriarch of Antioch
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - On the one side he laboured to restore unity to Eastern Christendom, which was distracted by the varieties of opinion to which the Eutychian debates had given rise; and on the other to aggrandize the authority of his see by asserting its independence of Rome, and extending its influence over Alexandria and Antioch. Before long a serious difference arose, when Acacias, in 479, consecrated a bishop of Antioch (Theophan
Mark - The first historical fact mentioned of him in the New Testament is, that he went, in the year 44, from Jerusalem to Antioch, with Paul and Barnabas. Not long after, he set out from Antioch with those Apostles upon a journey, which they undertook by the direction of the Holy Spirit, for the purpose of preaching the Gospel in different countries: but he soon left them, probably without sufficient reason, in Perga in Pamphylia, and went to Jerusalem, Acts 13
Temptation - ) When the apostles and elders from the Jerusalem church came to Antioch and questioned the admission of the Gentiles into the church, Peter said that the Holy Spirit had been given to the Gentiles: “Why tempt ye God?” (Acts 15:6-11 )
Salamis - 477, and the Emperor Zeno consequently made the Cyprian Church independent of the patriarchate of Antioch
Judas - Judas Barsabbas , one of two deputies Silas being the other who were chosen by the rulers of the Church at Jerusalem to accompany Paul and Barnabas to Antioch, and report to the believers there the Council’s decision on the question on what terms the Gentiles should be admitted into the Christian Church ( Acts 15:22-33 )
Peter - Paul had to withstand him to the face at Antioch, for refusing under Jewish influence to continue eating with Gentiles
Feet - Paul and Barnabas shook off the dust of their feet against Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13:51; cf
Coelicolae - The scandal at Antioch which roused the holy indignation of St
Cyriac, Patriarch of Constantinople - In a letter to Anastasius of Antioch, who had written to him to remonstrate against disturbing the peace of the church, Gregory defends his conduct on the ground of the injury which Cyriac had done to all other patriarchs by the assumption of the title, and reminds Anastasius that not only heretics but heresiarchs had before this been patriarchs of Constantinople
Philippians, Epistle to the - The testimony is not viewed as opposed by the Jewish leaders, as in the beginning of the Acts, nor in conflict with Judaising influences, as at Antioch; but as in contact with the world power (Rome), which was holding Paul, the vessel of it, in bondage
Apostle - Two centres and two departments of apostolic working are described in the Acts of the Apostles; from Jerusalem among the Jews by Peter, from Antioch by Paul among the Gentiles
Mark, - (1 Peter 5:13 ) We hear Of him for the first time in Acts 15:25 where we find him accompanying and Barnabas on their return from Jerusalem to Antioch, A
Saturninus - The first two are the Samaritan heretics Simon and Menander; the next as having derived their doctrines from these Saturninus and Basilides who taught the former in the Syrian Antioch the latter in Egypt
Urbanus, Bishop of Sicca Veneria - He proposed that reference should be made by themselves and by Boniface to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch, to obtain information as to its genuineness
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - of Cyrrhus, or Cyrus, in the province of Euphratensis, was born at Antioch probably c. His parents held a high position at Antioch. His chief theological teacher, to whom be never refers without deserved reverence and admiration, was Theodore of Mopsuestia, "the great commentator," as he was called, the luminary and pride of the Antiochene school, but one who undoubtedly prepared the way for the teaching of Nestorius by his desire to provide, in Dorner's words, "for a free moral development in the Saviour's manhood. 113), taking up his abode in a monastery, one of two founded in a large village called Nicerte, 3 miles from Apamea, and about 75 from Antioch ( Ep. His personal share in it began towards the end of 430, with the receipt by John, the patriarch of Antioch, of the letters of Celestine and Cyril, relative to the condemnation of the doctrines of Nestorius obtained by the Western bishops in Aug. When these documents arrived, Theodoret was at Antioch with other bishops of the province. ), the Orientals were divided into two great parties: the peace-seeking majority, with John of Antioch and the venerable Acacius at their head, ready to meet Cyril half-way; the violent party of irreconcilables, with Alexander of Hierapolis as their leader, opposed to all reconciliation as treason to the truth; while a third or middle party was led by Theodoret and Andrew of Samosata, anxious for peace, but on terms of their own. The ear of the emperor was gained, and Theodoret was represented as a turbulent busybody, constantly at Antioch and other cities, taking part in councils and assemblies instead of attending to his diocese; a troublesome agitator, stirring up strife wherever he moved (Ep. 442 had succeeded his uncle John in the see of Antioch, informing him that Theodoret was creating a crypto-Nestorian party, practically teaching Nestorianism under another name and striking at "the one Nature of the Incarnate. The indictment was formulated by a presbyter of Antioch named Pelagius, who, in language of the most atrocious violence, proceeded to demand of the council to take the sword of God and, as Samuel dealt with Agag, and Elijah with the priests of Baal, pitilessly destroy those who had introduced strange doctrines into the church. The work on the Octateuch consists of answers to difficult points, for the most part characterized by the sound common-sense literalism of the Antiochene school, with but little tendency to allegory
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - We learn on good authority, that of Arius himself, that they were fellow-disciples of Lucian of Antioch (ib. Lucian afterwards modified his views and became a martyr for the faith, but his rationalizing spirit had had a great effect on the schools of Antioch. ...
Meanwhile, considerable controversy had occurred between Eusebius of Caesarea and Eustathius of Antioch on the true meaning of the term Homoousios. 21), the gathering of his Arian supporters on his return to Antioch, shew the scheme to have been deeply laid. ...
In 340 the Eusebians held a synod at Antioch, at which Athanasius was once more condemned. In 341 (May) the council developed into the celebrated council in Encaeniis , held also at Antioch, at which, under the presidency of Eusebius or Placetus of Antioch, and with the assent and presence of Constantius, divers canons were passed, which are esteemed of authority by later oecumenical councils. 13) is that he appealed from the council of Antioch to Julius, bp
Roman Empire - The free cities were governed by their own magistrates, and were exempt from Roman garrisoning; as Tarsus, Antioch in Syria, Athens, Ephesus, Thessalonica. So Corinth, Troas, and the Pisidian Antioch
pe'Ter - The establishment of a church in great part of Gentile origin at Antioch and the mission of Barnabas between whose family and Peter there were the bonds of near intimacy, set the seal upon the work thus inaugurated by Peter. The name of Peter as founder or joint founder is not associated with any local church save the churches of Corinth, Antioch or Rome, by early ecclesiastical tradition
Ptolemae'us, - 247-222, was the eldest son of Ptolemy Philadelphus and brother of Berenice the wife of Antiochus II. (Daniel 11:7 ) He extended his conquests as far as Antioch, and then eastward to Babylon, but was recalled to Egypt by tidings of seditions which had broken out there. "Many stood up against the king of the south" under Antiochus the Great and Philip III of Macedonia, who formed a league for the dismemberment of his kingdom. "So the king of the north [1] came, and cast up a mount, and took the most fenced city [2], and the arms of the south did not withstand" [4] a young maiden" [5]. The disputed provinces, however remained in the possession of Antiochus and Ptolemy was poisoned at the time when he was preparing an expedition to recover them from Seleucus, the unworthy successor of Antiochus. Antiochus Epiphanes seems to have made the claim a pretext for invading Egypt. 171,1 Maccabees 1:16 ff; and in the next year Antiochus, having secured the person of the young king, reduced almost the whole of Egypt. , the younger brother of Ptolemy Philometor, assumed the supreme power at Alexandris; and Antiochus, under the pretext of recovering the crown for Philometor, besieged Alexandria in B. By this time, however, his selfish designs were apparent: the brothers were reconciled, and Antiochus was obliged to acquiesce for the time in the arrangement which they made. These campaigns, which are intimately connected with the visits of Antiochus to Jerusalem in B. 170,168, are briefly described in (Daniel 11:25,30 ) The whole of Syria was afterward subdued by Ptolemy, and he was crowned at Antioch king of Egypt and Asia
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - of Antioch, who, though laughing at the idea of such a competitor, asked Nectarius to put off his journey a short time. of Antioch put at the bottom of his list, in compliment to the bp
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - The see of Edessa being vacant in 412 by the death of Diogenes, Rabbûlas was appointed by a synod meeting at Antioch. A synod summoned at Antioch by the patriarch John despatched letters to the bishops of Osrhoene desiring them, if the reports were true, to suspend communion with Rabbûlas (Baluz
Severus, l. Septimius - Severus left Rome after 30 days, to fight his most formidable rival Pescennius Niger, who had assumed the purple at Antioch a few days before himself, and overthrew him in 194. of Antioch, was a confessor (Eus
Procurator - Ramsay, ‘The Tekmoreian Guest-Friends; an Anti-Christian Society on the Imperial Estates at Pisidian Antioch,’ in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1906, pp. 193, ‘Iconium and Antioch,’ in Exp_, 8th ser
Titus - Paul on his journey from Antioch to Jerusalem a journey undertaken in connexion with the question of the circumcision of Gentile Christians ( Galatians 2:1 )
Love Feast - Ignatius of Antioch wrote to the Smyrnæans ( c
Hermon - A center to Syria and Palestine; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the Syrian Abana and Pharpar of Damascus, the Orontes of Antioch, and the Leontes
Laying on of Hands - Similarly the prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch laid their hands on Saul and Barnabas in order to "separate" them for their ground-breaking mission work (Acts 13:3 )
Galatians, Epistle to the - Galatia, however, was also the name of the Roman province embracing Galatia Proper and the region to the south of it in which were Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, the cities evangelized by Paul on his first missionary journey; many hold that the epistle was addressed to these southern churches
Cilicia - It was comparatively easy to cross the Amanus range, either by the Syrian Gates (Beilan Pass) to Antioch and Syria, or by the Amanan Gates (Baghche Pass) to North Syria and the Euphrates
Colony - ), Pisidian Antioch (before 27 b
Epistle to the Galatians - Galatia, however, was also the name of the Roman province embracing Galatia Proper and the region to the south of it in which were Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, the cities evangelized by Paul on his first missionary journey; many hold that the epistle was addressed to these southern churches
Eustathius (22), Bishop of Berytus - Flavian's successor Anatolius, together with Maximus of Antioch and other court bishops, had consequently, at the close of 449, dismembered the diocese of Tyre and assigned five churches to the formerly suffragan see of Berytus (Labbe, iv
Philip - A friend or foster-brother ( 2Ma 9:29 ) of Antiochus Epiphanes, who received the charge (previously given to Lysias) of bringing up the young Antiochus Eupator ( 1Ma 6:14 ). On the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, Lysias took upon himself to proclaim young Eupator king (b. Philip was overcome by Lysias at Antioch and put to death. when left in charge of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes, was remarkable for the cruelty of his government ( 2Ma 5:22 ; 2Ma 6:11 )
Justinus ii - of Antioch, was deposed and Gregorius substituted in his place
Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem - He, however, refused to attend the council of the Dedication assembled by the Eusebians at Antioch, a
Liturgy - John,  Antioch, or Jerusalem or Alexandria St
Nestorius And Nestorianism - He was brought from Antioch, we are told—a fact of which the significance will presently be seen. The violence of Nestorius and his supporters set fire to the material already provided; the immediate occasion being the sermon of a presbyter named Anastasius, whom Nestorius had brought with him from Antioch, and in whom he reposed much confidence. Another patriarch, John of Antioch, now appears on the scene. of Cyrus, now (430) came forward, at the request of John of Antioch, in defence of Nestorius. John of Antioch signed a condemnation of Nestorius, while Cyril consented in 432 to sign an Antiochene formulary which had been submitted by Theodoret to the Syrian bishops at Ephesus and was afterwards transmitted to the emperor. And he implored John of Antioch and count (comes ) Irenaeus, a friend of the emperor, to accept the word θεοτόκος . Nestorius was banished to a convent just outside the gates of Antioch, and Meletius of Mopsuestia, Alexander of Hierapolis, and Helladius of Tarsus, strong supporters of the school of Theodore, were involved in the fate of Nestorius. In 435 it was thought that Nestorius was nearer the patriarch of Antioch than was convenient, so his exile to Petra in Arabia was decreed, though he was actually taken to Egypt instead
Henoticon, the - Those addressed to Simplicius of Rome and Calandion of Antioch were duly received; but the letters for Acacius and Zeno were delayed, and Acacius heard of John's appointment from another quarter. Calandion, patriarch of Antioch, was deposed, and Peter the Fuller reinstated. Flavianus, accused of being a concealed Nestorian, was ejected from Antioch in a. Some honoured names were allowed to remain on the diptychs, and eventually Euphemius, Macedonius, Flavian of Antioch, Elias of Jerusalem and some others who had died during the separation, were admitted to the Roman Calendars (Tillem
Decius, Emperor - of Rome, was among the foremost of the victims; Babylas of Antioch, Pionius of Smyrna (seized, it was said, while celebrating the anniversary of the martyrdom of Polycarp), Agatha of Sicily, Polyeuctes of Armenia, Carpus and his deacon of Thyatira, Maximus (a layman) of Asia, Alexander, bp. of Jerusalem, Acacius of the Phrygian Antioch, Epimachus and Nemesius of Alexandria, Peter and his companions of Lampsacus, Irenaeus of Neo-Caesarea, Martial of Limoges, Abdon and Sennen (Persians then at Rome), Cassian of Imola, Lucian a Thracian, Trypho and Respicius of Bithynia, the Ten Martyrs of Crete, have all found a place in the martyrologies of this period, and, after allowing uncertainty to some of the names, the list is enough to shew that there was hardly a province of the empire where the persecution was not felt
Dionysius of Alexandria - 264-265 he was invited to the synod at Antioch which met to consider the opinions of Paul of Samosata. —To Novatian, to the Roman Confessors, to Cornelius of Rome, Fabius of Antioch, Conon of Hermopolis; and to Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, Laodicaea, Armenia, on discipline and repentance, with pictures from contemporary history (ib
Antiochus - There were many kings of this name in Syria, much celebrated in the Greek, Roman, and Jewish histories, after the time of Seleucus Nicanor, the father of Antiochus Soter, and reckoned the first king of Syria after Alexander the Great. AntiochUS SOTER was the son of Seleucus Nicanor, and obtained the surname of Soter, or Saviour, from having hindered the invasion of Asia by the Gauls. It was perhaps, too, on this occasion, that Antiochus Soter made the Jews of Asia free of the cities belonging to the Gentiles, and permitted them to live according to their own laws. AntiochUS THEOS, or, the God, was the son and successor of Antiochus Soter. Laodice, his first wife, seeing herself despised, poisoned Antiochus, Berenice, and their son, who was intended to succeed in the kingdom. After this, Laodice procured Seleucus Callinicus, her son by Antiochus, to be acknowledged king of Syria. AntiochUS THE GREAT was the son of Seleucus Callinicus, and brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, whom he succeeded in the year of the world 3781. Thirteen years after, Ptolemy Philopator being dead, Antiochus resolved to become master of Egypt. He immediately seized Coelo-Syria, Phenicia, and Judea; but Scopas, general of the Egyptian army, entered Judea while Antiochus was occupied by the war against Attalus, and retook those places. However, he soon lost them again to Antiochus. In reward for their affection, Antiochus granted them, according to Josephus, twenty thousand pieces of silver, to purchase beasts for sacrifice, one thousand four hundred and sixty measures of meal, and three hundred and seventy-five measures of salt to be offered with the sacrifices, and timber to rebuild the porches of the Lord's house. ...
In the year of the world 3815, Antiochus was overcome by the Romans, and obliged to cede all his possessions beyond Mount Taurus, to give twenty hostages, among whom was his own son Antiochus, afterward surnamed Epiphanes, and to pay a tribute of twelve thousand Euboic talents, each fourteen Roman pounds in weight. He left two sons, Seleucus Philopator, and Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded him. AntiochUS EPIPHANES, the son of Antiochus the Great, having continued a hostage at Rome fourteen years, his brother Seleucus resolved to procure his return to Syria, and sent his own son Demetrius to Rome in the place of Antiochus. Whilst Antiochus was on his journey to Syria, Seleucus died, in the year of the world 3829. When, therefore, Antiochus landed, the people received him as some propitious deity come to assume the government, and to oppose the enterprises of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, who threatened to invade Syria. For this reason Antiochus obtained the surname of Epiphanes, the illustrious, or of one appearing like a god. ...
Antiochus quickly turned his attention to the possession of Egypt, which was then enjoyed by Ptolemy Philometor, his nephew, son to his sister Cleopatra, whom Antiochus the Great had married to Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt. Apollonius, however, found them not disposed to favour his master; and this obliged Antiochus to make war against Philometor. The ambition of those Jews who sought the high priesthood, and bought it of Antiochus, was the beginning of those calamities which overwhelmed their nation under this prince. ...
War broke out between Antiochus Epiphanes and Ptolemy Philometor. Antiochus entered Egypt in the year of the world 3833, and reduced almost the whole of it to his obedience, 2Ma_5:3-5 . The inhabitants of Jerusalem testifying their joy at this news, Antiochus, when returning from Egypt, entered this city by force, treated the Jews as rebels, and commanded his troops to slay all they met. Antiochus, conducted by the corrupt high priest Menelaus, entered into the holy of holies, whence he took and carried off the most precious vessels of that holy place, to the value of one thousand eight hundred talents. In the year 3835, Antiochus made a third expedition against Egypt, which he entirely subdued. These misfortunes were only preludes of what they were to suffer; for Antiochus, apprehending that the Jews would never be constant in their obedience to him, unless he obliged them to change their religion, and to embrace that of the Greeks, issued an edict, enjoining them to conform to the laws of other nations, and forbidding their usual sacrifices in the temple, their festivals and their Sabbath. Old Eleazar, and the seven brethren, suffered death with great courage at Antioch, 2 Maccabees 7. Mattathias being dead, Judas Maccabaeus headed those Jews who continued faithful, and opposed with success the generals whom king Antiochus sent into Judea. He earnestly recommended to them his son Antiochus, who was to succeed him, and entreated them to favour the young prince, and to continue faithful to him. AntiochUS EUPATOR, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, was only nine years old when his father died and left him the kingdom of Syria. The city was ready to fall into his hands when Lysias received the news that Philip, whom Antiochus Epiphanes had entrusted with the regency of the kingdom, had come to Antioch to take the government, according to the disposition of the late king. He therefore proposed an accommodation with the Jews, that he might return speedily to Antioch and oppose Philip. ...
In the meantime, Demetrius Soter, son of Seleucus Philopator, and nephew to Antiochus Epiphanes, to whom by right the kingdom belonged, having escaped from Rome, came into Syria. Finding the people disposed for revolt, Demetrius headed an army, and marched directly to Antioch, against Antiochus and Lysias. However, the inhabitants did not wait till he besieged the city; but opened the gates, and delivered to him Lysias and the young king Antiochus Eupator, whom Demetrius caused to be put to death, without suffering them to appear in his presence. Antiochus Eupator reigned only two years, and died in the year of the world 3842, and before Jesus Christ 162. AntiochUS THEOS, or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c. Demetrius Nicanor, king of Syria, having rendered himself odious to his troops, one Diodotus, otherwise called Tryphon, came to Zabdiel, a king in Arabia, and desired him to entrust him with young Antiochus, whom he promised to place on the throne of Syria, which was then possessed by Demetrius Nicanor. After some hesitation, Zabdiel complied with the request; and Tryphon carried Antiochus into Syria, and put the crown on his head. Tryphon seized his elephants, and rendered himself master of Antioch, in the year of the world 3859, and before Jesus Christ 145. Antiochus Theos, to strengthen himself in his new acquisition, sent letters to Jonathan Maccabaeus, high priest and prince of the Jews, confirming him in the high priesthood, and granting him four toparchies, or four considerable places, in Judea. Jonathan, engaged by so many favours, declared resolutely for Antiochus, or rather for Tryphon, who reigned under the name of this young prince; and on several occasions he attacked the generals of Demetrius, who still, possessed many places beyond Jordan and in Galilee, 1Ma_11:63 , &c; 1Ma_12:24 ; 1Ma_12:34 . Tryphon, seeing young Antiochus in peaceable possession of the kingdom of Syria, resolved to usurp his crown. He thought it necessary, in the first place, to secure Jonathan Maccabaeus, who was one of the most powerful supporters of Antiochus's throne. Tryphon, being disappointed, put Jonathan to death at Bassa or Bascama, and returned into Syria, where, without delay, he executed his design of killing Antiochus. He corrupted the royal physicians, who, having published that Antiochus was tormented with the stone, murdered him, by cutting him without any necessity. AntiochUS SIDETES, or Soter the Saviour, or Eusebes the pious, was the son of Demetrius Soter, and brother to Demetrius Nicanor. Cleopatra, therefore, sent to Antiochus Sidetes, her brother-in-law, and offered him the crown of Syria, if he would marry her; to which Antiochus consented. Antiochus Sidetes having married his sister-in- law, Cleopatra, in the year of the world 3865, the troops of Tryphon resorted to him in crowds. Tryphon, thus abandoned, retired to Dora, in Phoenicia, whither Antiochus pursued him with an army of 120,000 foot, 800 horse, and a powerful fleet. Simon Maccabaeus sent Antiochus two thousand chosen men, but the latter refused them, and revoked all his promises. Simon showed Athenobius all the lustre of his wealth and power, told him he had in his possession no place which belonged to Antiochus, and said that the cities of Gazara and Joppa had greatly injured his people, and he would give the king for the property of them one hundred talents. Athenobius returned with great indignation to Antiochus, who was extremely offended at Simon's answer. Antiochus pursued him, and sent Cendebeus with troops into the maritime parts of Palestine, and commanded him to rebuild Cedron, and fight the Jews. ...
Antiochus followed Tryphon, till he forced him to kill himself, in the year of the world 3869. After this, Antiochus thought only of reducing to his obedience those cities which, in the beginning of his father's reign, had shaken off their subjection. Simon Maccabaeus, prince and high priest of the Jews, being treacherously murdered by Ptolemy, his son-in-law, in the castle of Docus, near Jericho, the murderer immediately sent to Antiochus Sidetes to demand troops, that he might recover for him the country and cities of the Jews. Antiochus came in person with an army, and besieged Jerusalem, which was bravely defended by John Hircanus. It being the time for celebrating the feast of tabernacles, the Jews desired of Antiochus a truce for seven days. Antiochus required that they should surrender their arms, demolish the city walls, pay tribute for Joppa and the other cities they possessed out of Judea, and receive a garrison into Jerusalem. Three years after, Antiochus marched against the Persians, or Parthians, and demanded the liberty of his brother Demetrius Nicanor, who had been made prisoner long before by Arsaces, and was detained for the purpose of being employed in exciting a war against Antiochus. This war, therefore, Antiochus thought proper to prevent. Antiochus defeated his enemies in three engagements, and took Babylon. ...
As the army of Antiochus was too numerous to continue assembled in any one place, he was obliged to divide it, to put it into winter quarters. Antiochus at Babylon obtained intelligence of this design, and, with the few soldiers about him, endeavoured to succour his people
Thom'as - ( Matthew 13:55 ) He is said to have been born at Antioch
Titus - Titus, one of the apostle Paul’s chief lieutenants, was a Greek, born probably in Antioch or its neighbourhood, and converted to Christianity perhaps by the Apostle himself (Titus 1:4)
Judas - 50, to Antioch
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - ...
Vigorous measures were at once adopted by Atticus in conjunction with the other members of the triumvirate to which the Eastern church had been subjected, Theophilus of Alexandria, and Porphyry of Antioch, to crush the adherents of Chrysostom
Apostle - The centre of the second period of the apostolic agency is Antioch, where a church soon was built up, consisting of Jews and Gentiles; and the central figure of this and of the subsequent period is St
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis - Hilarion, the founder of Palestinian monasticism, Epiphanius early stood in intimate relation, and at a time when the great majority of Oriental bishops favoured Arian or semi-Arian views, he adhered with unshaken fidelity to the Nicene faith, and its persecuted champions, Eusebius of Vercelli and Paulinus of Antioch, whom Constantius had banished from their sees. Vitalis, a presbyter of Antioch, had been consecrated bishop by Apollinaris himself; whereupon Epiphanius undertook a journey to Antioch to recall Vitalis from his error and reconcile him to the orthodox bp. Jerome, Paulinus of Antioch, and the three legates of that synod, at a council held under bp
Greek Church - Comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Libya, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine, which are all under the jurisdiction of the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The other patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria
Heathen - Peter in the presence of the congregation at Antioch (Galatians 2:14) was justly aimed against the moral inconsistency of his first eating with the Gentile converts (σύ … ἐθνικῶς ζῇς; cf. Few occurrences in Church history are more full of warning than this memorable crisis, which might have divided more than the Christiana of Antioch into two opposing camps, and made the Lord’s Supper itself a table of discord (cf
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - Timotheus, whom Apollinaris had sent to Rome, and Vitalis, bishop of the sect in Antioch, were included in the sentence pronounced against their master (cf. of Antioch, this being the Alexandrian view
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - At Antioch Julian, an orthodox patriarch, elected on the expulsion of Peter Fullo by Leo I. Simplicius complained, too, of the Eutychian leaders having been allowed to remain at Antioch, and attributed the troubles there to this cause
Charities - the church of Rome cared for 1,500 persons; that under Saint Chrysostom, the church of Antioch supported 3,000 widows and children, beside strangers and sick
Decapolis - The Seleucid kings of Antioch and the Ptolemies encouraged the immigration of Greeks into this region
Apocalypse - These two fathers are followed by Clement of Alexandria, Theophilus of Antioch, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Lactantius, Jerome, Athanasius, and many other ecclesiastical writers, all of whom concur in considering the Apostle John as the author of the Revelation
Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. - Constantius at once left Antioch, and punished Constantinople by depriving the people of half their daily allowance of corn
Mesrobes - Mesrobes attracted great numbers to his schools and sent the ablest pupils to study at Edessa, Athens, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and even Rome, whence they brought back the most authentic copies of the Scriptures, the Fathers, Acts of the councils, and the profane writers
Valerianus, Emperor - The Persians took Nisibis, and, penetrating into Syria, captured Antioch (? a
Apostle - Barnabas and Paul are first called ‘apostles’ (Acts 14:4; Acts 14:14) when they are acting as envoys of the Church in Antioch in St. It is certainly given to Barnabas, but perhaps primarily as being an envoy from the Church of Antioch (Acts 13:1-2; Acts 14:4; Acts 14:14), rather than as having a direct mission from Christ. We need not doubt that Barnabas continued to be called an apostle in a general sense after the mission from Antioch was over
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - 212, in Gaul 213, in Germany and on the Danube 214, at Antioch and Alexandria 215, marched against Parthia 216, killed on the way from Edessa to Carrhae, April 8, 217. By his own intercession he restored their ancient rights to the people of Antioch and Byzantium, who had helped Niger against his father
Scripture - Theophilus of Antioch ( c Church - Thus all the disciples in Antioch, forming several congregations, were one church (Acts 13:1 ); so also we read of the "church of God at Corinth" (1 Corinthians 1:2 ), "the church at Jerusalem" (Acts 8:1 ), "the church of Ephesus" (Revelation 2:1 ), etc
Laying on of Hands - The ‘prophets and teachers’ of the Church at Antioch ‘separated’ Barnabas and Saul for their missionary work by laying their hands on them with fasting and prayer ( Acts 13:3 )
Boldness - Paul and Barnabas at Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:46), of Apollos at Ephesus (Acts 18:26), of St
Asia - Only those who find ‘the Phrygian and Galatic region’ (Acts 16:6) in the north of Pisidian Antioch are obliged (like Conybeare-Howson, i
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - His own was a corrected edition of that earlier version, so far as regards the canons of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople—165 in all—together with 27 of Chalcedon: all originally published in Greek, and all, except the Laodicean, already translated in the Prisca Versio
Medicine - Luke, "the beloved physician," who practiced at Antioch whilst the body was his care, could hardly have failed to be convenient with all the leading opinions current down to his own time. [1] The disease of King Antiochus, 2 Maccabees 9:5-10 , etc
Titus - He is first mentioned as going from Antioch to the council at Jerusalem, A
Maximinus ii., Emperor - The church of Antioch supplied yet more illustrious martyrs
Perpetua, Vibia - 1, 202, Severus was at Antioch, where he appointed himself and Caracalla consuls for the ensuing year
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - of Old Rome, and, together with the errors of Anthimus, stating and denouncing those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the monk Zoaras
Prochorus, a Deacon - The author is certainly not a native of Asia Minor, but rather perhaps of Antioch, or the coast region of Syria and Palestine
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - ...
After the death of Chrysostom the pope and all the West remained for some time out of communion with Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch. The church of Antioch was the first to be reconciled, when bp. Alexander having, later, consulted the pope as to the jurisdiction of his patriarchal see of Antioch, Innocent replied that in accordance with the canons of Nice (Can. of Antioch extended over the whole diocese, not only over one province. The Oriental diocese here referred to included 15 provinces, over the metropolitans of which the patriarchal jurisdiction of Antioch is alleged to extend
Titus (Emperor) - By Syrian Antioch he went to Zeugma on the Euphrates, where he received an embassy from the Parthian king. From Zeugma he returned, probably via Tarsus, to Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria (reached probably in May 71)
Methodius - Jerome several times refers to him: Epiphanius calls him ἀνὴρ λόγιος καὶ σφόδρα περὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀγωνισάμενος ; Gregory Nyssen or Anastasius Sinaita (for the authorship is disputed), ὁ πολύς ἐν σοφίᾳ ; Andrew of Caesarea, ὁ μέγας ; Eustathius of Antioch, ὁ τῆς ἀγίας ἄξιος μνήμης ; and he is quoted by Theodoret, besides many later writers. We may presume, therefore, that its scope was the same as that bearing the same title by Eustathius of Antioch, viz
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - Athanasius received a summons to appear at Antioch and stand his trial. Constantine stopped the proceedings at Antioch on hearing of this exposure, and sent Athanasius a letter, to be read frequently in public, in which the Meletians were warned that any fresh offences would be dealt with by the emperor in person, and according to the civil law ( Apol. Athanasius saw at once that his enemies were dominant; the presiding bishop, Flacillus of Antioch, was one of an Arian succession. The Eusebians at Antioch, finding that Athanasius was at Rome, and that the council to which they were invited would be a free ecclesiastical assembly, detained the Roman legates beyond the time specified, and then dismissed them with the excuse that Constantius was occupied with his Persian war. On the contrary, the Eusebians resolved to take advantage of the approaching dedication of a new cathedral at Antioch, "the Golden Church," in order to hold a council there. The majority, ignoring the councils of Tyre and Antioch, and treating the whole case as open, could not but regard Athanasius as innocent, or, at least, as not yet proved guilty; and he "joined them in celebrating the Divine mysteries" (Hil
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - He accompanied Aetius to Antioch at the beginning of 358, to attend the Arian council summoned by Eudoxius, who had through court favour succeeded to the see of Antioch. These proceedings struck dismay into the Arian clique at Antioch, and Eunomius, now a deacon, was sent to Constantinople as their advocate
Confession - Polycarp’s teacher, Ignatius of Antioch, has much more to say on the lines of the developed teaching about the person of Christ in opposition to Docetic heresy. We are not concerned here to defend their authenticity, but only to ask whether it is possible to extract from them, as Zahn attempts to do, an Apostolic creed of Antioch, St. Ignatius of Antioch, writing to the Philadelphians (ch
Acts - The dispersion of Christians from Jerusalem during the persecution there resulted in a strong church at Antioch (Acts 11:19-30 ). By Acts 13:1 , the influence and missionary efforts of the church at Antioch began to surpass those of the church in Jerusalem. ...
It is the vision of the Christians in Antioch which shaped the remaining chapters of Acts
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - Together with Paul of Aphrodisias (subsequently patriarch of Antioch), Stephen, bp. In the heated debates which followed, the four Monophysite bishops stoutly charged John of Sirmin with breach of the canons in annulling the orders of their clergy, and, when the patriarch demanded of them "a union such as that between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch," declared their willingness provided they might drive out the council of Chalcedon from the church, as Cyril had driven out Nestarius. 581) his party made overtures to John of Ephesus, then living at the capital, to induce him to recognize Peter of Callinicus as patriarch of Antioch in place of Paul (iv
Habakkuk - Paul quotes Habakkuk 1:5 in his warning to the unbelieving Jews at Antioch in Pisidia
Joy - After the work of Paul and Barnabas in Antioch of Pisidia, “the diciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost” (Acts 13:52 )
Grecians - ...
Zechariah (Zechariah 9:13) represents Judah and Ephraim as the arrows filling God's bow, "when I have raised up thy son, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece" (Javan) thus foretelling that the Jewish Maccabees would punish Greece in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, one of Alexander's successors, in just retribution for her purchasing from Tyre as slaves" the children of Judah and Jerusalem. " Their conversation was a new thing, a special "grace of God," tidings of which reaching the Jerusalem church constrained them to send Barnabas as far as Antioch, who "when he had seen the GRACE of God was glad" and enlisted the cooperation of Paul who had been in vision already called to "bear Christ's name unto the Gentiles" (Acts 9:15)
Damascus, Damascenes - ...
During the centuries of Greek and of Roman sway in Syria, Damascus had to yield precedence to Antioch
Blasphemy - The Jews of Pisidian Antioch ‘contradicted the things which were spoken by Paul and blasphemed’ (Acts 13:45); those of Corinth ‘opposed themselves and blasphemed’ (Acts 18:6); and the historian might have multiplied instances without end
Damascus - He had a letter from the archbishop of Cyprus to Seraphim, patriarch of Antioch, the head of the Christian church in the east, who resides at Damascus
Pontus - The daughter of this Polemon, Queen Tryphæna, is mentioned in the apocryphal book, The Acts of Paul and Thecla , as having been present at a great Imperial festival at Pisidian Antioch in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, whose blood-relation she was
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - § 3) remonstrates against the acts of Nectarius as no rightful bishop, since the chair of Constantinople belonged to Maximus, whose restoration they demanded, as well as that a general council of Easterns and Westerns, to settle the disputed episcopate and that of Antioch, should be held at Rome
Peter - This subject had awakened new interest at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Galatians 2:11-16 ), who "rebuked him to his face
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - of Samorata in 361, he took part in the consecration of Meletius to the see of Antioch. Meanwhile Eusebius had returned to Samosata with the written record of the appointment of Meletius to Antioch. Basil congratulated Antiochus, a nephew of Eusebius, on the privilege of having seen and talked with such a man ( Ep. His nephew Antiochus probably succeeded to the bishopric of Samosata
Polycarp - ...
We know that Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, during the journey that led him a prisoner to Rome, stopped at Smyrna. He requests them to send a messenger to Antioch with a letter congratulating the Christians of Antioch on having restored concord in their church (xi. We must be careful not to think that the virtues which Ignatius recommends to Polycarp are so many virtues wanting in the latter! Ignatius insists that the Christians of Smyrna should send a messenger to Antioch: ‘It becometh thee, most blessed Polycarp, to call together a godly council and to elect some one among you who is very dear to you and zealous also, who shall be fit to bear the name of God’s courier-to appoint him, I say, that he may go to Syria and glorify your zealous love unto the glory of God’ (vii. 1); they wrote to him at the same time as Ignatius, and charged him with a letter to Antioch (xiii
Monophysitism - John of Antioch informed the latter that the Syrian bishops would rather be burned than condemn their great teacher Theodore. Dioscorus next wrote to the patriarch of Antioch accusing Theodoret of Nestorianism; and when Theodoret defended himself with temper and moderation, pointing out that he had condemned those who had denounced the term θεοτόκος and divided the Person of Christ, and appealing to the authority of Alexander, Athanasius, Basil, and Gregory, Dioscorus encouraged his monks to anathematize Theodoret openly in the church (448). By imperial decree Theodoret was ordered to keep in his own diocese, and not to cause synods to be summoned at Antioch or elsewhere. Just then a synod was held at Constantinople (448), under the patriarch Flavian (who had lately succeeded Proclus, and who is sometimes confounded with Flavian of Antioch, who died c. Domnus of Antioch yielded to the clamour, in spite of the warnings of Theodoret,but he also was afterwards deposed
Cyprus - Paul started from Antioch on the First Missionary Journey, they first of all passed through Cyprus (Acts 13:4-12 )
Maronites - The Maronites have a patriarch who resides in the monastery of Cannubin, on Mount Libanus, and assumes the title of patriarch of Antioch, and the name of Peter, as if he seemed desirous of being considered as the successor of that apostle
Eutychius - Vigilius refused, and Eutychius shared the first place in the assembly with the patriarchs Apollinarius of Alexandria and Domninus of Antioch
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, called "the Moses of Mesopotamia," born at Nisibis or Antiochia Mygdoniae towards the end of 3rd cent. His name occurs among those who signed the decrees of the council of Antioch, in Encaeniis , A
Gospels - The place most commonly suggested for the writing of such a book is Antioch in Syria, which was closely connected with the Jewish churches of Palestine and with the mission to the Gentile nations (Acts 11:19-22; Acts 11:27-29; Acts 13:1-4; Acts 14:26-27; Acts 15:1-3; Acts 15:22; Acts 15:30; see MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF)
Missions - Lastly, some of those who were scattered abroad upon the persecution which arose about Stephen went as far as to Antioch, and preached the word to the Greeks (“Ελληνας, the reading adopted by Tischendorf, Nestle, etc. ...
Taking Turner’s estimate as above (though we prefer Ramsay’s), the gospel was firmly established in Damascus (and in Antioch) 6 or 7 years after the Crucifixion. First stage, the beginning at Jerusalem (Acts 1:1 to Acts 6:7); second stage, the extension of the Church throughout Palestine (Acts 6:8 to Acts 9:31); third stage, the extension of the Church to Antioch (Acts 9:32 to Acts 12:24); fourth stage, the extension of the Church to Asia Minor, as a result of St. Unnamed disciples, as in the case of Antioch (Acts 11:20), and certainly also in the case of Rome, may have carried the gospel into many places of which no mention is made
Law - But the question regarding the Gentiles was in no sense solved, as soon appeared in what occurred at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14). Acts 7:47-507), we may infer also, from his speech in the Apostolic Council, and especially from his behaviour in the Gentile Christian community at Antioch, that he had a much clearer view than St. Peter at Antioch (Galatians 2:12 b) was nothing but dissimulation, as it was due, not to any change of conviction, but simply to fear of the Jews. Paul saw at once that he was called to be a missionary among the heathen, and he seems to have laboured as such for a time without any interference whatever-a circumstance which will hardly seem strange when we remember that certain Hellenists who had been driven out in consequence of the persecution connected with Stephen had preached the gospel in Antioch even to the Gentiles, and that the numerous converts whom they had won from heathendom were recognized as brethren by the community in Jerusalem (Acts 11:20-24)
Diognetus, Epistle to - ...
It is worth noting that an Ambrose, of the consecration of Antioch, is said in a Syriac tradition to have been the third primate of Edessa and the East (Burkitt, Early Eastern Christianity , p. ...
In free allied states like Antioch and Athens avowal of Christianity may have been tolerated when not suffered in Roman or subject regions
Peter - ...
The controversy became acute when the Judaizers, taking alarm at the missionary activity of Paul and Barnabas, went to Antioch and insisted on the converts there being circumcised. By and by Peter visited Antioch, and, though adhering to the decision at the outset, he was presently intimidated by certain Judaizers, and, together with Barnabas, separated himself from the Gentiles as unclean, and would not eat with them, incurring an indignant and apparently effective rebuke from Paul ( Galatians 2:11-21 )
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - "...
A still longer and more widespreading difference arose between James and Paul, whom he had ordained patriarch of Antioch (H. They clamoured for his deposition, which was carried into effect by Peter, the intruded patriarch, in violation of all canonical order; the patriarch of Antioch (Paul's position in the Monophysite communion) owning no allegiance to the patriarch of Alexandria ( ib
Theodosius i., the Great - , religious controversy burst forth with special violence in Egypt or Antioch, the bishop applied for edicts imposing perpetual silence on the opposite factions (cf. Two incidents, the insurrection of Antioch upon the destruction of the imperial statues, and the massacre of Thessalonica, illustrate his character in many respects
Circumcision - ...
Not all Jews rejoiced at their badge of pride and privilege being set aside (Philippians 3:4-6 ), and consequently a group of Pharisaic Jews known as the "circumcision party" proclaimed at Antioch (Acts 15:1-5 ) the necessity of circumcision for salvation
Ephesus - ...
Ephesus in the New Testament Paul stopped at Ephesus at the end of his second missionary journey, left Priscilla and Aquila there, and returned to Antioch (Acts 18:18-21 )
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - 38), by Leontius of Antioch, although he afterwards "compelled" the Arian bishops of Egypt to sign the decree of the Acacian synod of Constantinople of 360 against Aetius (Philost
Image - However, the generality of the popish divines maintain that the use and worship of images are as ancient as the Christian religion itself: to prove this, they allege a decree, said to have been made in a council held by the apostles at Antioch, commanding the faithful, that they may not err about the object of their worship, to make images of Christ, and worship them
Poverty - In the later period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great (from 322), prosperous communities of Jews grew up in such centres as Antioch and Alexandria (the Greek ‘Dispersion‘)
Clementine Literature - terminates with the baptism of Clement and the ordination of a bishop, after which Peter sets out for Antioch, having spent 3 months at Tripolis. The story proceeds to tell how Peter and Clement on their way to Antioch go over to the island of Aradus to see the wonders of a celebrated temple there. He has been very successful at Antioch in shewing wonders to the people and stirring up their hatred against Peter. For he sends Faustinianus to Antioch, who, pretending to be Simon, whose form he bore, makes a public confession of imposture, and testifies to the divine mission of Peter. After this, when Simon attempts again to get a hearing in Antioch, he is driven away in disgrace
Eusebius of Caesarea - 17) of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria. ...
(i) Synod of Antioch. of Antioch, was a staunch advocate of the Nicene doctrine and a determined foe of the Arians. A synod, mainly composed of bishops with Arian or semi-Arian sympathies, was assembled at Antioch, a. The see of Antioch thus became vacant
Justinianus i, Emperor - In 540 Antioch, far the greatest town of the eastern part of the empire, was sacked, and many thousand inhabitants carried to a new city, built for them near Ctesiphon, his own capital. Among the Monophysite leaders were Severus, deposed from the patriarchate of Antioch in the time of Justin, and Anthimus, bp. The other three, Ephraim of Antioch, Peter of Jerusalem, Zoilus of Alexandria, under real or imagined threats of deposition, obeyed and signed, and after more or less intimidation and the offer of various rewards, the great majority of bishops through Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and Macedonia signed also. By him sat Apollinaris of Alexandria and Domninus of Antioch. JULIAN of Halicarnassus, a leading Monophysite, in opposition to the view of Severus, patriarch of Antioch, that Christ's body was corruptible up to the resurrection, and only afterwards ceased to be so
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - The contents, as we have them, can be divided most conveniently as follows:...
(1) In Antioch. From the flames she was miraculously preserved, and went to Antioch, whore she found Paul. In Antioch her beauty attracted the attention of Alexander, a prominent Antiochian, and her refusal to consent to his wishes led to her condemnation to the wild beasts. Ultimately the protection of Queen Tryphaena and the sympathy of the women of Antioch secured her pardon
Canon of the New Testament - " Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. " Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autolycum, 3:11) and Irenaeus (Adv
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - 24), was written by Theophilus of Antioch, and which is mentioned also by Theodoret ( Haer. He probably had disciples at Antioch, and therefore must have taught at or near there, and any writing of his answered by Theophilus must have been written in Greek
Corinth - One of four prominent centers in the New Testament account of the early church, the other three being Jerusalem, Antioch of Syria, and Ephesus
Simon Magus - The earlier forms of the story lay the scene of the travels chiefly in Asia Minor, and describe the final conflict as taking place at Antioch
Deliver, Deliverance, Deliverer - , "to give upon or in addition," as from oneself to another, hence, "to deliver over," is used of the "delivering" of the roll of Isaiah to Christ in the synagogue, Luke 4:17 ; of the "delivering" of the epistle from the elders at Jerusalem to the church at Antioch, Acts 15:30
Colosse - ), Theophilus of Antioch (Autol
Timothy - He apparently first came in contact with Paul when Paul moved through the Galatian towns of Antioch, Iconium, Lystra and Derbe on his first missionary journey (2 Timothy 3:10-11; cf
Titus - " Included in the "certain other of them" who accompanied the apostle and Barnabas when they were deputed from the church of Antioch to consult the church at Jerusalem concerning the circumcision of Gentile converts (Acts 15:2), and agreeably to the decree of the council there was exempted from circumcision, Paul resisting the attempt to force Titus to be so, for both his parents were Gentile, and Titus represented at the council the church of the uncircumcision (contrast TIMOTHY who was on one side of Jewish parentage: Acts 16:3
Colossae - Antioch us the Great (223-187 b
Antiochus - AntiochUS . Antiochus I . His capital was Antioch in Syria, but he was never able to bring his vast empire into complete subjection. Antiochus II . Antiochus III . Along with Antiochus I. and Antiochus II. Like Antiochus I. Antiochus IV . ...
This excess of zeal on the part of Antiochus led to the reaction, which, under the Chasidim and Mattathias, the founder of the Maccabæan house, ultimately brought about the release of Judæa from Syrian control. Antiochus finally died on an expedition against the Parthians in b. (For an account of the struggle of Mattathias and Judas against Antiochus, see Maccabees). Antiochus V . In the midst of their success, both young Antiochus and Lysias were assassinated by Demetrius I. Antiochus VI . After a few months, however, he caused the assassination of Antiochus by the physicians of the court, and reigned in his stead ( 1Ma 13:31 f. Antiochus VII . Simon partially won his favour by presents and by furnishing auxiliary troops, but at last refused to meet his excessive demands for permitting such independence as Judæa had come to enjoy under the weak predecessor of Antiochus. Thereupon Antiochus sent his generals into Judæa, but they were defeated by the sons of Simon ( 1Ma 15:1-41 ; 1Ma 16:1-24 ). 129 128 Judæa was again subject to the Syrian State, but at the end of that year Antiochus was killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and Hyrcanus was enabled to reassert his independence
Army - Gallica’ at Antioch
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - John; while Eustathius of Antioch in the 4th cent
Cities - Pococke, speaking of a bridge not far from Antioch, called the iron bridge, says, there are two towers belonging to it, the gates of which are covered with iron plates; which he supposes is the reason of the name it bears
Ulfilas - He was consecrated bishop when 30 years of age, possibly by Eusebius of Nicomedia, at the council of the Dedication, held at Antioch 341. The material part runs thus: "We do not despise the Antiochian formula of the synod in Encoeniis , but because the terms Ὁμοούσιος and Ὁμοιουύιος occasion much confusion, and because some have recently set up the ἀνόμοιος , we therefore reject ὁμοούσιος and ὁμοιούσιος as contrary to the Holy Scriptures; the ἀνόμοιος , however, we anathematize, and acknowledge that the Son is similar to the Father in accordance with the words of the apostle, who calls Him the image of the invisible God
Church - At Antioch in Syria the momentous change was made to a mixed congregation containing both Jews and Christians. Who won the first Gentile converts at Antioch? Who first took Christianity to Rome? Whoever they were, there had been a long and complex preparation for their work, which goes a considerable way towards explaining its success. Peter at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14) is no evidence of a difference of principle between them. Paul there were Christians at Samaria (Acts 8:14), Damascus (9:19), and Antioch (11:20), which soon eclipsed Jerusalem as the Christian metropolis
Theophilus - 71) say that a rich citizen of Antioch named Theophilus founded a great basilica which was established as the See (cathedra) of Peter. Beck’s, who identifies Luke with the unnamed companion of Cleopas on the way to Emmaus and Theophilus with an Antiochene tax-collector, the friend of Chuza and Herod, who had gone to Caesarea with Herod and Berenice (Prolog des Lk
Raca - But there is another strange and not yet corroborated statement about the use of the word, found in Chrysostom, who was acquainted with Syriac as spoken in the neighbourhood of Antioch
Lebanon - , and enters the sea near Antioch
Circumcision - Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St
Maronites - Though they acknowledge the supremacy of the pope, their clergy continue, as heretofore, to elect a head, with the title of batrak, or patriarch of Antioch
Cerinthians - He is also stated to have been one of those who went down from Judea to Antioch, and said, "Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved," Acts 15:1
Luke - It is probable that he was by birth a Jew, and a native of Antioch in Syria; and I see no reason to doubt that "Luke, the beloved physician," mentioned in the Epistle to the Colossians, Colossians 4:14 , was Luke the evangelist
Prophets - Thus it is said in Acts 13:1 , that Judas and Silas were prophets; that there were in the church at Antioch certain prophets and teachers, that is, official instructors
Siricius, Bishop of Rome - ...
About the same time, or soon after, the Meletian schism at Antioch came under the notice of Siricius
Circumcision - Peter; the mission of certain evangelists to the Gentiles at Antioch; and finally the work of St
Money (2) - There were those issued chiefly from Antioch by the Seleucid kings on the Attic standard, weighing 262 grains troy. ]'>[1] was reinforced from the time of Augustus onwards by the tetradrachms coined in large numbers at Antioch for circulation in the province of Syria. Few coins of this denomination were issued from the Phœnician cities or from Antioch, and the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia had only recently begun to coin drachms on the Phœnician standard (of 55 grains) for use in the provinces of Syria and Cappadocia (Mommsen, op
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - ...
Immediately after his accession he sent, according to custom, a confession of his faith to the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, in which he declared his reception of the first four general councils, as of the four gospels, and his condemnation of the Three Chapters—i. He wrote to Eulogius of Alexandria and Anastasius of Antioch, representing the purpose of their brother of Constantinople as being that of degrading them, and usurping to himself all ecclesiastical power. Peter, and expresses adroitly a curious view of his correspondent, as well as the patriarch of Antioch, being a sharer in it. Mark, and in Antioch where he himself lived seven years
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - It was rumoured that, preaching at Antioch, he had practically taught Nestorianism; and Dioscorus, hearing this, wrote to Domnus, bp. of Antioch, Theodoret's patriarch; whereupon Theodoret wrote a denial ( Ep. Dioscorus presided, and next to him Julian, or Julius, the representative of the "most holy bishop of the Roman church," then Juvenal of Jerusalem, Domnus of Antioch, and—his lowered position indicating what was to come—Flavian of Constantinople (ib. Cyril's letter to John of Antioch, "Laetentur coeli," was read as part of the acts of Ephesus
Luke - -Very little is added by tradition to the information in the Pauline Epistles except (a) the constant attribution to Luke of the Third Gospel and Acts; (b) the statement that he was an Antiochene Greek; (c) somewhat less frequently, statements that he died in Bœotia, Bithynia, or Ephesus; (d) the statement, found only in late Manuscripts , that the Gospel was written in Alexandria. ...
(2) Jerome...
‘Lucas medicus Antiochensis, ut eius scripta indicant, Graeci sermonis non ignarus fuit, sectator apostoli Pauli et omnis peregrinationis eius comes scripsit evangelium, de quo idem Paulus: Misimus, inquit, cum illo fratrem cuius laus est in evangelio per omnes ecclesias; ed ad Colossenses: Salutat vos Lucas, medicus carissimus; et ad Timotheum: Lucas est mecum solus. ...
(3) The Monarchian Prologues...
‘Lucas Syrus natione Antiochensis, arte medicus, discipulus apostolorum, postea Paulum secutus usque ad confessionem eius, serviens deo sine crimine. ) Further information confirming the Eusebian tradition that Luke was an Antiochene is found in some Manuscripts , e. Paul; (2) an Antiochene Greek; (3) a physician; (4) the writer of the ‘wesections. ’...
(2) In the same way it is abundantly clear that a great part of the Acts is concerned with Antioch; but if, as Acts states, Antioch was really the centre of the Gentile Christian movement, this is really a sufficient explanation, and throws no necessary light on the provenance of the writer. , he would constantly be speaking of Manchester, but it would not follow that he was a Mancunian: similarly, the writer of Acts constantly speaks of Antioch, but he need not have been an Antiochene
Oracle - Apollo had the greatest number: such as those of Claros, of the Branchidae, of the suburbs of Daphne at Antioch, of Delos, of Argos, of Troas, AEolis, &c, of Baiae in Italy, and others in Cilicia, in Egypt, in the Alps, in Thrace, at Corinth, in Arcadia, in Laconia, and in many other places enumerated by Van Dale. Jupiter, beside that of Dodona and some others, the honour of which he shared with Apollo, had one in Boeotia under the name of Jupiter the Thunderer, and another in Elis, one at Thebes and at Meroe, one near Antioch, and several others. The fountains also delivered oracles, for to each of them a divinity was ascribed: such was the fountain of Castalia at Delphi, another of the same name in the suburbs of Antioch, and the prophetic fountain near the temple of Ceres in Achaia
Nestorian Church - Christianity spread from Antioch, not only to the west but also eastwards, and in particular it extended to Edessa, then the capital of the little "buffer state" of Osrhoene, situated between the Roman and Parthian empires. not to Antioch or Rome (the "Nestorian" church never deemed herself subject to either of them), but to the nearest important sees to the west of him, Nisibis and Edessa. A council held in 420 to deal with this, under the catholicos Yahb-Alaha, and another Roman ambassador, Acacius of Amida, could only suggest the acceptance of the rules of several Western councils—Gangra, Antioch, Caesarea—without considering whether rules adapted for the West would for that reason suit the East
Novatianus And Novatianism - The circumstances of his conversion and baptism are stated by pope Cornelius in his letter to Fabius of Antioch (Eus. After his consecration Novatian dispatched the usual epistles announcing it to the bishops of the chief sees to Cyprian Dionysius of Alexandria Fabius of Antioch. Fabius however so inclined to his side that Dionysius addressed him a letter on the subject; and two bishops Firmilianus of Cappadocia and Theoctistus of Palestine wrote to Dionysius requesting his presence at the council of Antioch to restrain tendencies in that direction (ib
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - 41 has been doubtfully attributed to Lucian of Antioch-a suggestion which might, as Achelis points out, connect the ‘Constitutions’ with his congregation. gained, as we have seen, a partly independent currency: 20 are derived from the Synod of Antioch (a
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - ]'>[1] Cyril purposely kept silence for a year; and before he wrote, Celestine had received from Nestorius himself, by the hands of a man of high rank, named Antiochus, copies of his discourses, with a letter, in which Nestorius speaks of certain exiled Pelagians resident in Constantinople; and then passes on to the controversy about the Incarnation, and describes his opponents as Apollinarians, etc. of Antioch, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Flavian of Philippi, and Rufus of Thessalonica ( Ep. " ...
Nestorius, though sent away from Ephesus, had been allowed to live at his old home near Antioch
Apostle - After Peter had laid the foundation of a Christian church among the devout Gentiles, others imitated his example, and a great number of persons of this description embraced the Christian faith, more especially at Antioch, where the disciples, whom their enemies had hitherto called Galileans, Nazarenes, and other names of reproach, and who, among themselves, had been called "disciples," "believers," "the church," "the saints," and "brethren," were denominated, probably not without a divine direction, Christians. Saul had been converted, and had hitherto preached chiefly on Gentile ground; and he had joined with Barnabas in teaching devout Gentiles for a whole year, at Antioch in Syria; by all which previous steps they were regularly conducted to the last gradation, or the conversion of the idolatrous Gentiles
Apostle - ...
Antioch, in concert with Jerusalem, is now the center, and Paul the prominent figure, in concert with the other apostles
Quirinius - 2) says: ‘Now Quintilius Varus was at this time at Jerusalem, being sent to succeed Saturninus as president of Syria’; and this statement is verified by coins of Antioch-in-Syria bearing his name with date
Bible, History of Interpretation - ...
The School of Antioch was the bright spot in the ancient world, so far as biblical interpretation was concerned
Ordination - In opposition to episcopal ordination, they urge that Timothy was ordained by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, 1 Timothy 4:14 ; that Paul and Barnabas were ordained by certain prophets and teachers in the church of Antioch, and not by any bishop presiding in that city, Acts 13:1-3 ; and that it is a well known fact, that presbyters in the church of Alexandria ordained even their own bishops for more than two hundred years in the earliest ages of Christianity
Minister - In the NT (see Note below) it is used (a) of the prophets and teachers in the church at Antioch, who "ministered to the Lord," Acts 13:2 ; (b) of the duty of churches of the Gentiles to "minister" in "carnal things" to the poor Jewish saints at Jerusalem, in view of the fact that the former had "been made partakers" of the "spiritual things" of the latter, Romans 15:27 ; (c) of the official service of priests and Levites under the Law, Hebrews 10:11 (in the Sept
Gospels - Read it from the standpoint of a Jewish Christian of Antioch about the period of the controversy as to the admission of Gentiles into the Church, and everything is in place. He left with his cousin Barnabas for Antioch, and there (circa, about 44-47) it may have been found desirable to translate the Gospel into Greek. When the controversy between the Churches of Antioch and Jerusalem broke out a little later, the writer of the First Gospel took St
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - 379 he took part in the council held at Antioch for the double purpose of healing the Antiochene schism (which it failed to effect) and of taking measures for securing the church's victory over the lately dominant Arianism (Labbe, Concil. These difficulties being settled, he set out on a long and toilsome journey, in fulfilment of a commission from the council of Antioch "to visit and reform the church of Arabia" (t. Gregory Nazianzen having been reluctantly compelled to ascend the episcopal throne of Constantinople, Gregory Nyssen delivered an inaugural oration now lost, and, soon after, a funeral oration on the venerable Meletius of Antioch, which has been preserved (Socr
Ordination - The mission of Barnabas and Saul from Antioch. Was it an ordination, or a ‘dismission service’? Was it the appointment of Barnabas and Saul to the apostolate? We read that certain ‘prophets and teachers’ were at Antioch-Barnabas, Symcon, Lucius, Manaen, Saul. This was after the return of Barnabas and Saul from Jerusalem, whither they had gone to take the alms of the Church at Antioch (Acts 11:30, Acts 12:25)
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - The Eusebians now shewed themselves by no means prepared to submit to his adjudication, but took advantage of the dedication of a new cathedral at Antioch to hold a council of their own there, known as the "Dedication council" (probably in Aug. Julius meanwhile had made public their letter, and, not yet knowing of the proceedings at Antioch, assembled his council in the church of the presbyter Vito at Rome, apparently in Nov. " The council was convened by the emperors on their own authority, to review the whole past proceedings, whether at Tyre, Antioch, or Rome, without asking the pope's leave or inviting him to take the lead
Dispersion - ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Dispersion - ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Alexander, of Alexandria - A Cilician bishop, Athanasius of Anazarbus, wrote to Alexander, openly declaring that Christ was "one of the hundred sheep"; George, an Alexandrian presbyter, then staying at Antioch, had the boldness to write to his bishop to the effect that the Son once "was not," just as Isaiah "was not," before he was born to Amoz (Athan
Theophilus (2) - Later tradition naturally busied itself with fanciful conjectures upon his personality, turning him eventually into the bishop of Antioch or of Caesarea (cf. -Evangeliums (1900), deduces from ἐν ἡμῖν (1:3) the fact that the author was one of the two Emmaus disciples, while Theophilus must have been a wealthy Antiochene tax-collector, an acquaintance of Chuza and Herod, who accompanied Herod and Bernice to Caesarea, where he fell in with St
Nicolaitans - Whether the Nicolaitans derived their name from Nicolas of Antioch, who was one of the seven deacons:...
2
Arius the Heresiarch - In his early days he was a pupil of Lucian of Antioch, a celebrated Christian teacher, and a martyr for the faith. For the synod of Antioch which condemned Paul of Samosata had expressed its disapproval of the word ὁμοούσιος in one sense. Eustathius of Antioch, one of the staunchest adherents of Athanasius, was the first victim
Collection - ...
The next instance of a systematic collection of money for the purpose or relieving distress in Judaea and Jerusalem is found in the history of the Church of Antioch (Acts 11:27 ff. A threatened famine roused the sympathy of the Antiochene Christians, whose activity in the matter reveals their knowledge that the conditions of life amongst many of their Jewish brethren were those of chronic poverty and distress. Having returned to Antioch, he was compelled to renew in a more pronounced form the controversy which had been partially settled at the Jerusalem Conference
Acts of the Apostles - ...
(a)The Antiochene tradition. in the neighbourhood of Antioch. , three revisions were made: (a) H, by Hesychius in Alexandria, which preserved in the main the text of I-H-K without the Tatianic additions, but with a few other corruptions; (b) K, by Lucian, in Antioch, which had many Tatianic corruptions, as well as some of its own; (c) I, in Palestine, possibly in Jerusalem, which preserved many Tatianic additions, though in a few cases keeping the I-H-K text against H
Tyre - After 70 years’ subjection to Egypt she was under Antioch till b
Peter - ...
Although Peter understood his mission as being primarily to the Jews (Galatians 2:7), he visited the mainly Gentile church in Syrian Antioch and ate freely with the Gentile Christians
Church Government - The call of Barnabas and Saul was acknowledged ( Acts 13:8 ) by a commission from the church at Antioch; and if Matthias remained an Apostle, we must suppose that the direct call was represented by some later Divine recognition
Macedonia - 100, bishop Polycarp of Smyrna wrote to the Philippians who had asked him to forward copies of the letters of the famous martyr Ignatius of Antioch
Mission(s) - God had called him as a missionary to the Gentiles (Acts 26:16-18 ; Romans 1:5 ; Ephesians 3:1 ), and he was sent out by the church in Antioch (Acts 13:1-3 )
Elements - of Antioch has στοιχεῖα θεοῦ (ad Autol
Herod - ]'>[1] ), one of the leaders in the Church at Antioch, who is said to have been his foster-brother or early companion
Mark - —When Paul and Barnabas returned to Antioch from Jerusalem, whither they had gone with the offering for the poor, they took Mark with them as assistant, perhaps owing to his kinship with Barnabas (Acts 12:25)
Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia - At Antioch, probably, he became acquainted with St
Galatians, Epistle to the - Subsequently, at Antioch, Paul had actually withstood Peter to the face as to the truth of the gospel, which Peter was fatally compromising from fear of the Jews
Africanus, Julius - 39), Theophilus of Antioch ( ad
Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylaeum - Cyril to Nestorius and his letter to John of Antioch should be read as representing the standard of orthodoxy
Council - In consequence of a dispute which had arisen at Antioch concerning the necessity of circumcising Gentile converts, it was determined that "Paul and Barnabas, and certain others of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the Apostles and elders about this question
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch (Eus
Christian Life - 4), possibly at an earlier date, used the title Χριστιανός, showing that the name which Antioch invented (Acts 11:26; cf. Thus, while the Hellenists were scattered abroad, being found in Samaria and as far north as Antioch, the Petrine section remained at Jerusalem to find a new head in St
Church - The church of Antioch did the same, Acts 14:27
Love-Feast - ’]'>[9] that it was at or near the Syrian Antioch is as good as any
Athens - Her University drew to itself a host of foreign students, especially from Rome, and became the model of the younger foundations of Alexandria, Antioch, and Tarsus
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - On leaving Egypt he visited Jerusalem, Caesarea, and Antioch
Maxentius, Joannes, Presbyter And Archimandrite - The controversy seems to have involved a considerable number of the clergy of the East, especially those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Syria Secunda (Justin
Christ in the Early Church - ...
(c) The seven genuine Epistles of Ignatlus of Antioch are in some respects the most notable writings of the 2nd century. This last point was reached by the teaching of the brilliant Paul of Samosata (260–270), who was condemned by a series of Councils at Antioch, and finally deposed in 270. ...
(a) The teaching of Arius, a parish priest of Alexandria, who had, however, previously studied at Antioch, brought swiftly the crisis when the Church must definitely and clearly state her belief as to the Person of Christ
Eutyches And Eutychianism - By whom he was first accused, whether by Theodoret in his Eranistes, or by his former friend, Eusebius of Dorylaeum, or by Domnus of Antioch, it seems difficult to decide (cf. Eusebius asked first for the recital of (a ) Cyril's first letter to Nestorius, (b ) the approbation of that letter by the council of Ephesus, and (c ) Cyril's letter to John of Antioch; secondly, that all present should express acceptance of these documents as true expositions of the Nicene Creed. Cyril's letter to John of Antioch was again read, in which occurred the following: "We confess our Lord Jesus Christ
Synods - It originated in the attempt made to oblige the Gentile converts at Antioch to submit to the rite of circumcision. With respect to all these, the fact is, that, instead of being councils or synods in any proper sense, they were mere meetings of the church at Jerusalem, and all of them ordinary meetings except the third, when they assembled upon the request of the deputies from Antioch who came to ask advice. In the third century eighteen synods were held; the principal of which were, that of Alexandria, against Origen; that of Africa, against the schismatic Novatus; that of Antioch, against the heresy of Sabellius, and another in the same city against Paul of Samosata; that of Carthage, against such persons as fell away in time of persecution; and that of Rome, against Novatian and other schismatics
Trade And Commerce - Syrian Antioch and Caesarea in Cappadocia (now Kaisarieh) issued large numbers of silver coins, and the cistophorus of republican times (cf. Besides these, smaller Imperial mints existed throughout the provinces, and the senate had a mint at Syrian Antioch; Lugudunum (Lyons), for example, served as a mint for the Gallic provinces
Vespasian - From Antioch he marched to Ptolemais, where Titus joined him. Vespasian marched to Antioch and, after entering into relations with the Parthians and Armenians, accompanied Titus to Alexandria. In the same year Antiochus IV. Antiochus was ordered to live at Lacedaemon, and his sons were allowed to come to Rome, where they obtained the citizenship
Peter - (On his vacillation as to not eating with Gentiles, and Paul's withstanding him at Antioch (Galatians 2), see PAUL. Ecclesiastes, 1) makes Peter bishop of Antioch, then to have preached in Pontus (from 1 Peter 1:1), then to have gone to Rome to refute Simon Magus (from Justin's story of a statue found at Rome to Semosanctus, the Sabine Hercules, which was confounded with Simon Magus), and to have been bishop there for 25 years (!) and to have been crucified with head downward, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and buried in the Vatican near the triumphal way
Galatians, Letter to the - ” In Acts 13:14-14:24 (first missionary journey) Paul founded churches at Antioch of Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, cities in the southern part of the Roman province
Tarsus - 175 164 Tarsus was re-organized by Antiochus iv Epiphanes as an autonomous city under the name Antioch-on-the-Cydnus (cf. It is almost certain that, in accordance with the regular Seleucid practice, a large body of Jews also was added to the population by Antiochus. The later hostility of Antiochus to the ultra-Jewish party in Palestine cannot be alleged as an adequate reason against the view that he constituted, in b
Apostle - Even though the only place in the Book of Acts where Paul is called an apostle is in reference to the apostles of the church in Antioch (14:4,14), Luke's portrayal of Paul's ministry as paradigmatic for the church gives implicit support to his apostolic claims
Intercession - ...
(c) Turning from the Church in Rome to the Church in Antioch, we find Ignatius on his way to martyrdom asking for intercession in the Eucharist that he may succeed in fighting with wild beasts (Eph
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - 559) tells us that, when the Crusaders were hard pressed by the Saracens at the battle of Antioch, June 28, 1089, the soldiers were encouraged by seeing "the martyrs George and Demetrius hastily approaching from the mountainous districts, hurling darts against the enemy, but assisting the Franks" (cf
Alexandria - ...
The wars of the Ptolemys with the Seleucidæ at Antioch are described in Daniel 11:1-45 . Epiphanes the Alexandrian supremacy over Palestine was exchanged for that of Antiochus III
Proselyte - (2) There were proselytes among the multitude who witnessed the miracle of Pentecost (Acts 2:10), some of whom may have been added to the Church; the selection of ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch’ (Acts 6:5) as one of the seven deacons indicates that there was a certain proportion of men of his class in the primitive Christian community
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - 431, and took part in the "Conciliabulum" held by Joannes of Antioch ( Relat
Pre-Eminence - Paul’s address at Pisidian Antioch, which stands as representative of his teaching, at least during the First Missionary Journey
Intercession - ...
(c) Turning from the Church in Rome to the Church in Antioch, we find Ignatius on his way to martyrdom asking for intercession in the Eucharist that he may succeed in fighting with wild beasts (Eph
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - Antioch had yielded; even Atticus of Constantinople had done so for peace' sake. When Cyril, two years later, came to an understanding with John of Antioch, Isidore exhorted him to be consistent and said that his most recent writings shewed him to be "either open to flattery or an agent of levity, swayed by vainglory instead of imitating the great athletes" of the faith, etc
Samaria - 2); and that when Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, the Samaritans denied ‘that the temple on Mt. Gerizim belonged to Almighty God,’ and petitioned ‘Antiochus, the god Epiphanes,’ to permit them to name it ‘the temple of Jupiter Hellenius’ (ib. The time was not yet come for ‘turning unto the Gentiles’; that was first done in the purely Gentile city of Antioch
Romans, the Epistle to the - 1; Romans 1:16-17,87); Athenagoras (13, Romans 12:1; Romans 12:37; Romans 1:24); Theophilus of Antioch (Autol
Stoning - His Jewish opponents in Antioch and Iconium appeared upon the scene, and so wrought upon the passions of the superstitious townspeople that a riot was created, in which the Apostle was stoned
Docetism - and as he taught in Antioch may very possibly have been encountered by Ignatius
Trajanus, m. Ulpius - ...
The only martyrs known by name as having suffered under Trajan are the bishops Symeon of Jerusalem and IGNATIUS of Antioch
Money - 198 Antiochus iii. 139 138 Antiochus Sidetes granted to Simon Maccabæus the right to coin money (see 1Ma 15:5 f. Since the denarius was almost equal in weight to the Syrian-Attic drachm (§ 4) the silver unit throughout the Seleucid empire the two coins were regarded as of equal value, and four denarii were in ordinary business the equivalent of a tetradrachm of Antioch. ...
In addition to these two imperial coins, the system based on the Greek drachm was continued in the East, and both drachms and tetradrachms were issued from the imperial mint at Antioch
Turning - So likewise at Antioch, when ‘a great number that believed turned unto the Lord’ (Acts 11:21); and when Paul and Barnabas preached to the people of Lystra that they should ‘turn from these vain things unto the living God’ (Acts 14:15); and again when the same Apostles passed through Phœnicia and Samaria ‘declaring the conversion of the Gentiles,’ and causing great joy unto all the brethren (Acts 15:3; see, further, Acts 15:19, Acts 26:18; Acts 26:20). On the other hand, we read of the Greeks of Antioch that ‘a great number that believed turned unto the Lord’ (Acts 11:21)
Manuscripts - The value of the Old Syriac Version consists in the fact that it reproduces the Greek text current in Antioch at the end of the 2nd cent. He regards it as ‘a revision of the Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, undertaken mainly with the object of conforming the translation more closely to the Greek text as read at Antioch early in the 5th century’ (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, vol
John, Gospel of - 180; Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, about a. Theophilus of Antioch quotes it as follows: ‘John says, in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God’ ( Aut
Palestine - ...
Syria is divided, from Antioch in the N. Antioch in 1737, and Tiberius and Safed in 1837
Paul the Apostle - It is noteworthy that he seems to have laid much stress on evangelizing Roman Colonies like Corinth, Pisidian Antioch, Lystra, and Philippi. The question arises, therefore, What is the meaning of the laying on of hands by the prophets and teachers of Antioch ( Trade And Commerce - Syrian Antioch and Caesarea in Cappadocia (now Kaisarieh) issued large numbers of silver coins, and the cistophorus of republican times (cf. Besides these, smaller Imperial mints existed throughout the provinces, and the senate had a mint at Syrian Antioch; Lugudunum (Lyons), for example, served as a mint for the Gallic provinces
Timothy, Epistles to - Irenæus, Clement, Tertullian, the Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons, Theophilus of Antioch, were all clearly acquainted with them
Jerusalem - ...
Paul, though sent out from Antioch, looked to Jerusalem as the center of the earthly church
Diocletian, Emperor - Among the buildings with which he embellished the various provinces were temples of Zeus, Apollo, Nemesis, Hecate, at Antioch, of Isis and Serapis at Rome, of Isis at Phylae, of Mithras at Vindobona
Prayer - Alike when the apostles were about to choose a successor to Judas (Acts 1:24) and when the Church of Antioch sent forth Barnabas and Paul on their first missionary journey (Acts 13:3), prayer was offered
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - We have evidence of prophecy not only in the churches of Jerusalem and Caesarea, but also in Antioch (Acts 11:27; Acts 13:1), in Rome, Corinth, and Thessalonica (Romans 12:6 f
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - 7) of the diversities which exist among the population of a great city he chooses Antioch as his example
Presentation - Ignatius of Antioch (c
Text of the Gospels - Hort also suggests the name ‘Antiochian,’ which is preferable, because it avoids any chance of confusion with the totally distinct Syriac versions. For reasons that will be explained later on in this article, Hort considers that the Antiochian text affords practically no evidence for the reconstruction of the original Greek of the NT, and he may therefore be considered as the most extreme opponent of the Textus Receptus . In his opinion (Introduction, § 185) the Antiochian text ‘must be the result of a recension in the proper sense of the word, a work of attempted criticism, performed deliberately by editors and not merely by scribes. According to Burgon and his close follower Miller, these recensions are purely imaginary creations; they believe the Church of Antioch (in company, no doubt, with practically all the Greek-speaking Churches) to have preserved the pure text from the first. It is at any rate certain that Chrysostom used this text: he was born at Antioch about the middle of the 4th cent. When at length, some time after the introduction of printing, the first New Testaments in Greek were published, they naturally rested on the Manuscripts in ordinary ecclesiastical use, and thus the Antiochian text became the ‘Received’ Greek text of modern Christendom, from which our own Authorized Version was made. is part of the history of the Antiochian text; although of no critical importance, it is a subject very full of interest. Hort, on the other hand, considered the ‘Traditional’ or ‘Antiochian’ text to be valueless as evidence. Hort’s ‘Syrian’ or ‘Antiochian’ Text. (§§ 130–168) is devoted to proving the posteriority of Antiochian to other known types of readings. Hort then adduces three lines of evidence to prove the posteriority of Antiochian readings: (i. Antiochian) readings (§§ 163–168). Hort adduces and examines eight eases of readings which he believes to be conflate: in each case, according to his view, the Antiochian text has combined two separate readings found in earlier texts. ) Hort’s next argument to prove the posteriority of Antiochian readings is founded on Ante-Nicene Patristic evidence. ’...
We are now in a position to consider the value of the argument for the posteriority of Antiochian readings which Hort bases on Ante-Nicene Patristic evidence: it is an e silentio argument—that no extant writer before Chrysostom used the Antiochian text. ) has attempted to prove the antiquity of the Traditional or Antiochian text by a wide appeal to Patristic evidence. In a sense he fails, because if a reading is shown to be older than the supposed revision which produced the Antiochian text, it is said by the school of Hort to be not distinctively Antiochian, but a ‘Western’ reading adopted by the revisers. The Antiochian text confessedly contained an ancient element, and the real question is whether critical editors have paid sufficient attention to the evidence afforded by it. Hort on the intrinsic value of the Antiochian readings must carry the greatest weight. ‘Another step is gained by a close examination of all readings distinctively Syrian (Antiochian) in the sense explained above, comparing them on grounds of Internal Evidence, Transcriptional and Intrinsic, with the other readings of the same passages
Paul - -The plan of Acts is indicated in Acts 1:8 : ‘But ye shall receive power, when the Holy Ghost is come upon you: and ye shall be my witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judaea and Samaria, and unto the uttermost part of the earth’; and the book divides itself as follows:-Acts 1:1 to Acts 6:6, in Jerusalem; ACTS Acts 6:8 to Acts 9:30, in Palestine (including Samaria); ACTS Acts 9:32 to Acts 12:23, from Judaea to Antioch; ACTS Acts 12:25 to Acts 16:4, in Asia Minor; ACTS Acts 16:6 to Acts 19:19, in Europe; ACTS Acts 19:21 to Acts 28:30, from Achaia to Rome. But, if its recipients were the churches of Antioch-in-Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, evangelized during the first missionary journey, and if the visit to Jerusalem mentioned in Galatians 2 be identified with a visit to Jerusalem preceding the Council held there-these two being the conclusions of what is called the South Galatian theory (see below)-it seems a natural inference that the Epistle was written before the commencement of the second missionary journey and before the Council of Jerusalem
Synagogue - Occasionally, it would seem, a synagogue might have two or more rulers, as at Antioch of Pisidia ( Acts 13:15 )
Chronology - Theophilus of Antioch ( Bible, Texts And Versions - When the Christians, fleeing from the persecution in which Stephen died, arrived in Antioch, they needed to use Syriac to evangelize the surrounding areas
Galatians, Theology of - Moreover, it was not trueas his opponents probably claimedthat the integrity of his preaching had been compromised on two specific occasionshis consultation with the leaders of the Jerusalem church (2:1-10) and his confrontation with Peter in Antioch (2:11-14)
Church Government - There is a fast and a solemn service conducted by prophets and teachers at Antioch
Judas - The other Jude or Judas is he who was surnamed Barsabas, (see Acts 15:22) and who was commissioned by the apostles to go to the church at Antioch
Philippi - Ignatius from Antioch to Rome, where he was to die in the arena
John, the Gospel According to - Theophihs of Antioch (Autol
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - According to Epiphanius (62 B, 68 D, 69 A), he had been a fellow-disciple of Menander with Saturnilus at Antioch in Syria; but this is evidently an arbitrary extension of Irenaeus's remarks on the order of doctrines to personal relations. As regards Basilides personally, the only grounds for expecting from him an Oriental type of doctrine are the quotation in the Acts of Archelaus, which will be discussed further on, and the tradition of his connexion with Saturnilus of Antioch, which we have already seen to be founded on a misconception
Church (2) - And so when a body of Christians established themselves in Antioch, a new use of the word ecclesia appears (Acts 11:26). And so the step which was perhaps the most momentous of any that have been taken in Church history—the mission of Paul and Barnabas—was apparently the work of the Church in Antioch alone, without any reference to Jerusalem (Acts 13:1 ff
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - " The churches of the East were mainly under the jurisdiction of the metropolitans of Alexandria or Antioch, and these great bishops would not brook the interference of their Western brethren. of Antioch, c
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - Residence at Antioch , July, 362 to March 5, 363. His name also appears, after that of Constantius, attached to a law issued on Mark 1 at Antioch, giving privileges to Christian ascetics
Leo i, the Great - Meanwhile, it appears that Flavian had really written soon after the close of the council to inform Leo, and to Domnus of Antioch and other prelates. In Mar 453 he tells Maximus of Antioch ( Ep
Virgin Birth - , Ignatius of Antioch , Justin Martyr , Irenaeus , Origen ) strongly endorses it as a well-accepted first-century Christian tradition
Mediation Mediator - At Antioch in Pisidia St
Ephesians, Book of - Leaving Aquila and Priscilla and perhaps Timothy there to carry on the Christian witness (Acts 18:18-21 ), Paul sailed to Antioch
James - It was "certain who came from James," president of the mother church of Jerusalem, who led Peter to his Judaizing vacillation at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-12)
Virgin Virginity - * Croisade, or Crusade - They set up three small states, one at Jerusalem, another at Antioch, and another at Edessa
Matthew, the Gospel of - The place of writing was probably some place along the coast of Phoenicia or Syria such as Antioch
Gestures - So Paul and Barnabas did at Pisidian Antioch (Acts 13:51), and so Paul ‘shook out his raiment’ against the unbelieving Jews at Corinth (Acts 18:6)
Judgments of God - We have observed, says that learned man, that count Julian, with Felix, superintendent of the finances, and Elpidius, treasurer to the emperor, apostates all three, had received orders to go and seize the effects of the church at Antioch, and carry them to the treasury
Simon Magus - Thus, the Homilies represent the final disputation between Peter and Simon to have occurred at Laodicea; but we must believe that the original form laid it at Antioch, where took place the collision between Peter and Paul (Galatians 2 )
Trinity - ’...
The term ‘Trinity’ dates from the second century, being found in Greek in Theophilus of Antioch (a
Paul the Apostle - From there Barnabas enlisted his services for teaching duties in the church at Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:25 )
Minister, Ministration - speaks of the prophets and teachers at Antioch λειτουργούντων τῷ Κυρίῳ, by which prayers to Christ are probably meant (Acts 13:2)
Peter, Second Epistle of - It is not referred to by the scholars of Antioch, nor is it in the Peshitta, the common version of the Syrian Church
Peter (2) - That he travelled about preaching the gospel, accompanied by his wife (1 Corinthians 9:5), is certain, but the one place he is known to have visited is Antioch (Galatians 2:11) in Syria, the second capital of Christianity
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - From the watershed, the Orontes flows northward and bends westward to empty into the Mediterranean near Antioch
Gentiles - -The account of what occurred at Pisidian Antioch when St
Family - Thus the influential women at Pisidian Antioch, the ‘devout women of honourable estate,’ are, with the chief men (πρῶτοι) of the city, urged by the Jews to arouse fooling against St
Fellowship (2) - —With the rise of Antioch a peril threatened the prestige of Jerusalem
Peter, the Epistles of - In Pisidia was Antioch, where Paul preached (Acts 13) so effectively, but from which he was driven out by the Jews
Persecution - The venerable bishops of Jerusalem and Antioch died in prison, the most cruel tortures were employed, and the numbers that perished are by all parties confessed to have been very considerable
Circumcision - The doctrine of the non-necessity of circumcision, he applies to the Jews as well as to the Gentiles, although he specially resists the attempts of the Judaizers to impose this rite upon the Gentile converts; in which he was supported by the decision of the Holy Spirit when the appeal upon this question was made to the "Apostles and elders at Jerusalem," from the church at Antioch
Preaching - Basil, bishop of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, preacher at Antioch, and afterward patriarch, as he was called, of Constantinople, and Gregory Nazianzen, who all flourished in the fourth century, seem to have led the fashion of preaching in the Greek church; Jerom and Augustine did the same in the Latin church
Preaching - Others came to Antioch ‘preaching the Lord Jesus’ (εὐαγγελιζόμενοι τὸν Κύριον Ἰησοῦν, Acts 11:20)
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - "...
In 391 or 392 Theophilus was named by the council of Capua as arbiter of the dispute between Flavian, as representing the Meletian succession to the see of Antioch, and Evagrius, whose claims, like those of his predecessor Paulinus, were upheld by the West
Revelation of John, the - So, Theophilus of Antioch (A
Unity (2) - ...
In the earlier stages of the Church’s life, government by bishops and presbyters in one local community could coexist with government by college of presbyters in another, without offence to either; Antioch, Epbesus, Smyrna communicated with Rome and Corinth
Election - Paul’s preaching for the first time to Gentiles at Antioch of Pisidia, ‘as many as were ordained to eternal life believed’ (Acts 13:48)
Gospel - In his address in the synagogue of Pisidian Antioch, he generalizes the incident of Cornelius; ‘Be it known unto you therefore, brethren, that through this man (Jesus) is proclaimed unto yon remission of sins; and by him every one that believeth is justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses
Sibylline Oracles - ...
An instance of the difficulty of deciding whether a passage of the Sibyllina was written by a Jew or by a Christian is afforded by the first of the fragments which Theophilus of Antioch has preserved (ad Autol
Ebionism And Ebionites - John excluded it from Asia Minor; in Antioch the names of Ignatius, Theophilus, and Serapion were vouchers for Catholic doctrine and practice; and the daughter-churches of Gaul and Alexandria naturally preferred doctrine supplied to them by teachers trained in the school of these Apostles
Prayer (2) - To say with Victor of Antioch (Swete on Mark 1:35), that Christ prayed οὐκ αὐτὸς ταύτης δεομενος … ἀλλʼ οἰκονομικῶς τοῦτο ποιῶν, is not adequate, even if in some sense true
Synagogue - In Syria the most famous was the Great Synagogue at Antioch, to which the brazen vessels carried off from the Temple at Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes were presented by his successors (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) VII
Roman Law in the nt - A third such kingdom was Lycaonia Antiochi (between Galatia and Cilicia), which is indirectly alluded to in Acts 18:23, where St. The colonics mentioned in the NT are; Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Lystra (Acts 14:6), Philippi (Acts 16:12, where alone of NT passages κολωνία is found), Corinth (Acts 18:1), Ptolemais (Acts 21:7)
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - In the numerous Hellenistic towns situated between the Phœnician coast and a line to the east of the Lake of Gennesaret and the Jordan-cities like Antioch, Acco, Damascus, and Gadara-the Greek language prevailed, as also did Greek administration, law, and culture
Galatians Epistle to the - His independent apostolic authority was further demonstrated at Antioch, where he publicly rebuked St
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - ’ Similarly in his speech at the Pisidian Antioch, as recorded in Acts 13:23, he says: ‘Of this man’s (i
Barnabas, Epistle of - The fifth argument of the same writer to be set aside is that Barnabas who had travelled in Asia Minor and lived at Antioch in Syria could not have asserted in c
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - ...
Gregory was present at the first council at Antioch (264) to try Paul of Samosata
Peter, First Epistle of - Peter’s visit to Antioch in Galatians 2:11
Inspiration - And in the disagreement between Peter and Paul at Antioch, we see how possible it was that men equally inspired should hold divergent and even antagonistic opinions upon matters essential to the well-being of the Church
Preaching - Basil, bishop of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, preacher at Antioch, and afterwards patriarch (as he was called) of Constantinople, and Gregory Nazianzen, who all flourished n the fourth century, seem to have led the fashion of preaching in the Greek church: Jerom and Augustin did the same in the Latin church
Mark, Gospel According to - The Second Gospel seems hardly to have engaged the attention of commentators; and the writer known as Victor of Antioch (quoted by Swete, St
Old Testament - Thus in his speech at Antioch he sets forth Jesus as the Saviour of David’s seed brought unto Israel ‘according to the promise,’ whose condemnation and death at the hands of the people and rulers of Jerusalem were the fulfilment of the words of the prophets ‘which are read every sabbath,’ and His resurrection the bringing to pass of ‘the holy and sure blessings of David,’ as promised in Psalms 2, 8 (Acts 13:23 ff
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - This was, according to Sozomen, concocted from three sources: first, the creed of the old Antiochene council of 269, in which the term consubstantial, alleged to be used heretically so as to compromise the Son's Personality by Paul of Samosta, was condemned; secondly, one of the creeds issued by the Eusebian council at Antioch in 341, which omitted that term; and thirdly, the first Sirmian creed, above described
Physician - ), and, further, if Luke was a Greek either of Antioch or of Antiochian descent, he may have had such training as was characteristic of Asia Minor at that time
Hellenism - They came very near to a hellenizing of their religion as well, until the ill-timed attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes in 168 b. Again, it was the Hellenists who spread the gospel, not only among the Samaritans (Philip the Deacon, Acts 8:5-25) but also among the Greeks in Antioch (Acts 11:20)
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] were published in the two principal provinces of Greek Christianity, by Hesychius at Alexandria, and by Lucian at Antioch
Peter - Paul and Barnabas on their return, he came to Antioch in Syria, where his reactionary attitude upon the question of table-fellowship with Gentiles evoked St
Mss - The kinship which the text of the OL has with the Old Syriac bas caused Antioch to be suggested (by Sanday) as the original home of the version, that being a metropolis where Syrian and Latin elements met, and whence versions of the Scriptures in either tongue might radiate from a common centre
Atonement - The discourse at Antioch in Pisidia may illustrate the character of his reference to it: ‘through this man is preached unto you forgiveness of sins’ (Acts 13:38); but nothing is defined more closely
Gospels, Apocryphal - 12) as having been rejected by Serapion, bishop of Antioch, in the last decade of the 2nd century
Education - But when, under the influence of Antiochus Epiphanes, a gymnasion for the athletic performances of the Greeks was set up in Jerusalem and the youth of the city were required to strip themselves of their clothing, it became a grievous cause of offence to the pious among the people (1 Maccabees 1:11 ff. Men like Justin Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus of Antioch, became Christians-such is their own acknowledgment-by reading the Scriptures for themselves
Jews - Antiochus Epiphanes, about 3834, enraged with them for rejoicing at the report of his death, and for the peculiar form of their worship, in his return from Egypt, forced his way into Jerusalem, and murdered forty thousand of them; and about two years after he ordered his troops to pillage the cities of Judea, and murder the men, and sell the women and children for slaves. In 602 they were severly punished for their horrible massacre of the Christians at Antioch
Montanus - Montanist teachers had made their way as far as Antioch; for Serapion, the bishop there, wrote against them, copying the letter of Apolinarius
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - Ignatius, journeying from Antioch to Rome, halted first at Smyrna, where, as at his other resting places, the Christians flocked from all around to receive his counsels and bestow attentions on him
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - ...
Axionikos was still working at Antioch when Tertullian composed his book against the Valentinians, therefore c
John, Gospel of (Critical) - ...
(5) Theophilus, bishop of Antioch (e
Simon Magus - And a man, Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetaea, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his magical art’ (26)
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - The tutor to whose care the brothers were committed was Carterius, perhaps the same who was afterwards head of the monasteries of Antioch and instructor of Chrysostom (Tillem
Clemens Romanus of Rome - The second epistle is first expressly cited as to the Corinthians by Severus of Antioch early in the same cent
Clement of Alexandria - 14), and charged him, in most honourable terms, with a letter of congratulation to the church of Antioch on the appointment of Asclepiades to the bishopric of that city, a
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - Dionysius of Alexandria, and with him Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Maximus of Nola, Babylas of Antioch, Alexander of Jerusalem, Fabian of Rome, were all attacked, the last three martyred
Jews - Seleucus Nicanor gave them the right of citizens in the cities which he built in Asia Minor and Coelo-Syria, and even in Antioch, his capital, with privileges, which they continued to enjoy under the Romans. Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces. Near Jerusalem places were appropriated to gymnastic exercises; and the people were led by Jason, who had obtained the high priesthood from Antiochus Epiphanes by the most dishonourable means, to neglect the temple worship, and the observance of the law, in a far greater degree than, at any period since their return from the captivity. Antiochus Epiphanes, irritated at having been prevented by the Jews from entering the holy place when he visited the temple, soon after made a popular commotion the pretence for the exercise of tyranny: he took the city, (B
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - A list of 60 books of Scripture appended to a writing of Anastasius, patriarch of Antioch in the reign of Justinian, is in Westcott's N
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - is proved by its antagonists in numerous countries: Dionysius in Corinth writing to Nicomedia, Philip in Crete, Theophilus in Antioch, besides Modestus (Eus
Paul (2) - Paul had long and familiar intercourse with disciples, like Barnabas and Mark, and with others in the church at Antioch (Acts 13:1), who could not fail to instruct him as to what was new and distinctive in the teaching of Christ