What does Ant mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
נְמָלָ֥ה ant. 1

Definitions Related to Ant

H5244


   1 Ant.
   

Frequency of Ant (original languages)

Frequency of Ant (English)

Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Ant
A small insect, famous for its industry and economy, for its social habits and skill in building. Some species build habitations truly immense compared with themselves, and able to contain a dozen men. Their roofs are impervious to rain, and they contain numerous stories, galleries, etc., the result of skilful and incessant labor. Ants lavish the utmost care and pains upon their young, both in the egg and the chrysalis state. The termites or white ants are large and very destructive. Most varieties of ants are known to choose animal or saccharine food; and no species has yet been found laying up stores of grain for winter use, for while the frost continues they all lie torpid. The language of Solomon, Proverbs 6:6 , commends them for toiling as soon and as long as the season permits and rewards their labor, and bids us make the same diligent use of life and opportunities, Proverbs 30:24,25 . The inferior animals are in many respects wiser than sinful man, Job 12:7,8 .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Ant
(Heb. nemalah, from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy), referred to in Proverbs 6:6 ; 30:25 , as distinguished for its prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that has been observed in ants in Texas, India, and Italy.
Webster's Dictionary - Sauba Ant
A South American ant (Oecodoma cephalotes) remarkable for having two large kinds of workers besides the ordinary ones, and for the immense size of its formicaries. The sauba ant cuts off leaves of plants and carries them into its subterranean nests, and thus often does great damage by defoliating trees and cultivated plants.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant Cow
Any aphid from which ants obtain honeydew.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant Egg
One of the small white egg-shaped pupae or cocoons of the ant, often seen in or about ant-hills, and popularly supposed to be eggs.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant Bird
See Ant bird, under Ant, n.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant-Hill
(n.) A mound thrown up by ants or by termites in forming their nests.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant-Bear
(n.) An edentate animal of tropical America (the Tamanoir), living on ants. It belongs to the genus Myrmecophaga.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant-Eater
(n.) One of several species of edentates and monotremes that feed upon ants. See Ant-bear, Pangolin, Aard-vark, and Echidna.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant-Cattle
(n.) Various kinds of plant lice or aphids tended by ants for the sake of the honeydew which they secrete. See Aphips.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Ant
(Proverbs 6:6-8; Proverbs 30:25; "provideth her meat in the summer, and gathereth her food in the harvest.") So Hesiod, Works and Days, 776; Horace, Sat., 1:1, 33; Virgil, AEneid, 4:402; Plautus, Trinummus, 2:4, 1, 7; AElian, Natura Animal., 2:25, 6:43; AEsop's Fables, 92 (Tauchnitz edition). Ants in northern Europe lie dormant in winter; and do not feed on grain, but flesh of other insects, worms, birds, the honeydew of aphides, and saccharine matter, exuding from trees. But in southern Europe there are species which feed on grain and store it for winter use. Solomon implies, the ant providently and diligently uses the proper seasons for obtaining her food, though she has "no guide, overseer, or ruler," such as man has in parents, teachers, and masters; therefore men are inexcusable in sluggishness. "Redeem the time" (Greek favorable season) is the spiritual lesson (Ephesians 5:16).
There is no monarch, such as the queen is among bees; but ants labor together as a republic, having "no ruler" as Solomon describes. Moggridge (Harvesting Ants) has by observation proved that there are four harvesting ants on the Riviera, namely,: Atta barbara, under two forms, the one wholly black, the other red headed; Atta structor, claret brown colored; and Atta megacephala or Pheidole, a minute bodied, yellow ant, with great head, which works chiefly at night. The Atta barbara, mounting the stem of a fruiting plant as shepherd's purse, and seizing a green pod in its jaws, and fixing its hind legs as a pivot, turns round and round and strains the fibers until they snap. Ants sometimes allow the capsules which they have cut to drop, and their companions below carry them away. Neither the Atta barbara nor the structor bring aphids into their nests.
A host of ants seek and bring in the grain; others sort the materials, strip off the useless envelopes of seed or grain, and carry them out to throw away. Moggridge found masses of seeds stored in chambers and long subcylindrical galleries prepared in the soil. The granaries on a rock covered with earth lay horizontally from one and a half to six inches below the surface. The ants have some mysterious power which checks germination. The few seeds which may germinate the ants prevent from further growth by cutting off the end of the radicle. Hebrew "ant," nemalah , is derived by some from Arabic for" clever." The Arabs put one in the new-born infant's hand, saying, "May he prove clever!" Others take it from namal , Hebrew "cut off," the body being cut into segments, joined by but a slight thread. Similarly in Proverbs 30:25 the ants' wisdom is set forth as making up for the absence of the strength of larger creatures.
They belong to the family formicidae, and order Hymenoptera. The mutual affection between the members of the republic is conspicuous in ants. In northern Europe ants strike with their antennae and so make the aphids discharge the juice extracted by their suckers from vegetables; the ants in fact make the aphids their milk cows, imprisoning a number in their nests to serve as a supply in winter (Huber). Both the insect masters and the insect cows are torpid in winter in northern Europe; but in warm winters both at times come to life. The Indian ant (Atta, providens), according to Colossians Sykes, raises up heaps of grass seed in January when they ripen, in store for the season of need.
King James Dictionary - Ant
AN'T, in old authors, is a contraction of an it, that is if it. See An.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Ant
Proverbs 6:6 (c) The ways and the actions of this little creature are brought before us as a lesson and a picture for our own lives. The ant is tireless, never ceasing to work. It is unselfish, always laying up food for others. It is kind, helping other ants that are in need. It is energetic, for it searches continually until it finds the food it wants. It is wise in that it prepares for the future when ice and snow will prevent foraging for food. In all of these things, we too should seek these same graces that we may not be careless and lose that reward which GOD wishes to give to us.
Proverbs 30:25 (c) The ant in this portion is a type of those who recognize and realize their own weakness and danger. They remind us that we too are no match for our enemies and are unable to control our circumstances. They cannot prevent the winter from coming, but they do provide for that future time of storm. So we should remember that there is a coming time when old age, disease, accident and trouble may prevent us too from serving or from earning that which we need. We should prepare for that eventuality now while we may. We must prepare now in this life for death and eternity. As the ant lays up in store in its earthen nest, so we take advantage of the shelter of the Rock of Ages, and lay up treasure in Heaven.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant-Lion
(n.) A neuropterous insect, the larva of which makes in the sand a pitfall to capture ants, etc. The common American species is Myrmeleon obsoletus, the European is M. formicarius.
Webster's Dictionary - Ant Thrush
(1):
See Ant bird, under Ant.
(2):
One of several species of tropical birds, of the Old World, of the genus Pitta, somewhat resembling the thrushes, and feeding chiefly on ants.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ant.
= antiphon
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ant
ANT ( nemâlâh , Arab. [1] namlah ). Ants are exceedingly abundant all over Palestine, where, through their vast numbers, they perform a most important rôle, by continually changing the surface soil in the way earthworms do in northern countries. No more apt illustration of diligence ( Proverbs 6:6-8 ) could be found than these little insects, which, in all but the wettest weather, can be seen scurrying backwards and forwards on the long tracks they have made. Some common varieties of Palestine ants ( Aphœnogaster barbara, A. structor and Pheidole megacephala ) store up great quantities of various kinds of seeds, which they are able, in some unknown way, to prevent germinating and make use of as food ( Proverbs 30:25 ). Whole troops of these little insects may be seen carrying seeds, often many times their own size and weight, from a distant garden or corn-field. The writer has even seen a procession of ants carrying their harvest under the thickness of a broad mud wall which bounded the corn-field, and then across a wide and frequented road. The stores of seeds so collected have been found so great that the Mishna laid down rules in regard to their ownership. If they were discovered in the field before reaping, they belonged to the owner, but if afterwards, they were all or in part for the poor. The sagacity of the ant in this and other respects is widely recognized both in Oriental lore as in Proverbs 30:24-25 and even more forcibly by the modern naturalist.
E. W. G. Masterman.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ant
See Insects .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ant
There are several species of ants, but to which of these the Proverbs refer is not known: the Hebrew word nemalah is said to be from a root signifying 'to crowd together,' which applies to all ants. Buxtorf traces it from the root 'to eat.' This insect is held up as a practical reproof to the sluggard; the scripture says that it provides its meat in the summer, and gathereth its food in the harvest. Proverbs 6:6 ; Proverbs 30:25 . Sceptics take exception to this, because ants are held to be carnivorous and they could not lay up such food in summer; but there is abundance of evidence to prove that they lay up grain in the summer, and if it becomes damp they bring it out into the sun and dry it. Another point worthy of note is that they have 'no guide, overseer, or ruler,' and yet no one can watch this insect without seeing that they are 'exceeding wise:' each one finds what his particular work is, and diligently does it — a profitable lesson for the saints of God to learn.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Ant
(Heb. nemalah ). This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in ( Proverbs 6:6 ; 30:25 ) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise." (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while this is true of most of the 104European species, two of those species do lay up food, and are called harvesting ants . Like species have been found in Texas and South America, and are known to exist in Palestine. They show many other proofs of their skill. Some of them build wonderful houses; these are often several stories high, sometimes five hundred times the height of the builders, with rooms, corridors, and vaulted roofs supported by pillars. Some species keep a kind of cows; others have a regular army of soldiers; some keep slaves --"No closer imitation of the ways of man could be found in the entire animal economy." (See Encyc. Brit. ) McCook's "The Honey Ants" gives many curious facts about the habits of this peculiar kind of ant, and of the harvesting ants of the American plains.--ED.)

Sentence search

Ant Bird - See Ant bird, under Ant, n
Termite - ) Any one of numerous species of pseudoneoropterous insects belonging to Termes and allied genera; - called also white Ant. of White Ant
Ant Egg - One of the small white egg-shaped pupae or cocoons of the Ant, often seen in or about Ant-hills, and popularly supposed to be eggs
Ant Thrush - (1):...
See Ant bird, under Ant. ...
(2):...
One of several species of tropical birds, of the Old World, of the genus Pitta, somewhat resembling the thrushes, and feeding chiefly on Ants
Echidna - They are toothless and covered with spines; - called also porcupine Ant-eater, and Australian Ant-eater
Emmet - ) An Ant
Tamanoir - ) The Ant-bear
Antecians - ) See Ant/cians
Pismire - ) An Ant, or emmet
Sauba Ant - A South American Ant (Oecodoma cephalotes) remarkable for having two large kinds of workers besides the ordinary ones, and for the immense size of its formicaries. The sauba Ant cuts off leaves of plants and carries them into its subterranean nests, and thus often does great damage by defoliating trees and cultivated plants
Worker - ) One of the neuter, or sterile, individuals of the social Ants, bees, and white Ants. See Ant, and White Ant, under White
Formicaroid - ) Like or pertaining to the family Formicaridae or Ant thrushes
Formica - ) A Linnaean genus of hymenopterous insects, including the common Ants. See Ant
Formicary - ) The nest or dwelling of a swarm of Ants; an Ant-hill
Uidguid - ) A South American Ant bird of the genus Hylactes; - called also barking bird
Tamandu - ) A small Ant-eater (Tamandua tetradactyla) native of the tropical parts of South America
Harvester - ) A harvesting Ant
Demetrius - 175) to Rome as a hostage, but made his escape after the death of his uncie, Antiochus Epiphanes. Landing at Tripolis, he was joined by large bodies of the people, and even by the bodyguard of his cousin, Antiochus Eupator. ]'>[1] Ant . see) was set up as a claimant to the crown of Syria (b. ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant
Cleopatra - ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant
Megatherium - ) An extinct gigantic quaternary mammal, allied to the Ant-eaters and sloths
Myrmicine - ) Of or pertaining to Myrmica, a genus of Ants including the small house Ant (M
Ant-Eater - ) One of several species of edentates and monotremes that feed upon Ants. See Ant-bear, Pangolin, Aard-vark, and Echidna
Tachyglossa - ) A division of monotremes which comprises the spiny Ant-eaters of Australia and New Guinea
Planipennia - ) A suborder of Neuroptera, including those that have broad, flat wings, as the Ant-lion, lacewing, etc
Ant - Many Ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the Ant to which Solomon refers. This Ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for future use; a habit that has been observed in Ants in Texas, India, and Italy
Adasa - ]'>[1] Ant
Aphaerema - A district taken from Samaria and added to Judæa by Demetrius Soter ( Ant
Formicate - ) To creep or crawl like Ants; swarm with, or as with, Ants. ) Resembling, or pertaining to, an Ant or Ants
Adida - ]'>[1] Ant
Iscah - Same as Sarai, and Abraham, according to Jewish tradition (Josephus, Ant
Anti - It is often shortened to Ant-; as, Antacid, Antarctic
Drusilla - Ant. This marriage did not take place, as Epiphanes refused to undergo the rite of circumcision (Ant. Very shortly afterwards the procurator Felix, who had lately come to Judaea , met the young queen and was captivated by her charms (‘She did indeed exceed all other women in beauty’ Pangolin - They are covered with imbricated scales, and feed upon Ants. Called also scaly Ant-eater
Riphath - Paphlagonia (Josephus, Ant
Pant - P`ANT, ...
1. Yet might her piteous heart be seen to pant and quake. To have the breast heaving, as in short respiration or want of breath. Pluto pants for breath from out his cell. The whispering breeze ...
Pants on the leaves and dies upon the trees. Who pants for glory, finds but short repose. ...
As the heart panteth after the water brooks, so panteth my soul after thee, O God. Psalms 42 ...
P`ANT, n
Rehob (1) - Josephus (Ant
Vermilinguia - ) A tribe of edentates comprising the South American Ant-eaters
Abishua - Ant
Bonnet - ]'>[4] Ant . Ant
Rezon - Gathered the Syrian remnant, after David's slaughter of his master Hadadezer (2 Samuel 8:3-8), and set up a petty kingdom at Damascus, and thence harassed Solomon's kingdom. See also Josephus, Ant
Entomophaga - ) A group of edentates, including the Ant-eaters
Ezion-Geber - ]'>[1] Ant
Jaddua - One of those who sealed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:21 ). ]'>[1] Ant
Ophni - 3:3, section 5; Ant
Zaphhath Paaneah - " Not as Hebrew interpreters (Josephus Ant
Mire - ) An Ant
Antiochus (1) - AntIOCHUS ( 1Ma 12:16 ; 1Ma 14:22 ; cf. ]'>[1] Ant . 144) by Jonathan the Maccabee to renew the covenant made by Judas with the Romans, and to enter into friendly relations with the Spartans
Bacchides - ]'>[1] Ant
Ant - The Ant is tireless, never ceasing to work. It is kind, helping other Ants that are in need. It is energetic, for it searches continually until it finds the food it wants. ...
Proverbs 30:25 (c) The Ant in this portion is a type of those who recognize and realize their own weakness and danger. As the Ant lays up in store in its earthen nest, so we take advantage of the shelter of the Rock of Ages, and lay up treasure in Heaven
Breeches - Josephus describes those worn in his time in his Ant
Jadon - ]'>[1] ( Ant
Pitta - They are called also ground thrushes, and Old World Ant thrushes; but they are not related to the true thrushes
Judas the Galilaean - Judas the Galilaean, a Zealot leader at the time of the census under Quirinius, was probably the son of Hezekiah (Josephus, Ant. 5, Ant. ...
Josephus declares in Ant. ) Judas took advantage of the disorders following the death of Herod i. He is charged by Josephus (Ant. 275a), Judas allied himself with a Pharisee named Zadok and raised the signal for a theocratic or Messianic revolt, calling upon the Jews to refuse to pay tribute to the Romans and to recognize God alone as their ruler (Ant. Whether he succeeded in actually organizing a revolt is not altogether clear (Ant. If so, we know nothing as to the actual results of his endeavours except that Josephus (Ant. 46-48), for leading a revolt (Ant. After having armed himself from the Herodian arsenal at Masada, he became for a short time the master of a part of Jerusalem, but was tortured and executed, together with his lieutenants, by Eleazar of the high-priestly party
Assassins, the - Josephus says that at Felix’s suggestion they murdered Jonathan son of Ananus, the high priest ( Ant
Gazara - An important stronghold often mentioned during the Maccabæan struggle ( 1Ma 4:16 ; 1Ma 7:45 ; 1Ma 9:52 ; 1Ma 13:53 ; 1Ma 14:7 ; 1Ma 14:34 ; 1Ma 15:28 ; 1Ma 16:1 , 2Ma 10:32 . In Ant
Abelshittim - Josephus says (Ant
Onias - ]'>[2] Ant . His reluctance to pay the tribute of 20 talents to Egypt would have led to great trouble if his shrewd and self-seeking nephew Joseph had not conciliated Ptolemy ( Ant . Heliodorus being supernaturally repulsed, Onias went to Antioch to defend himself. fled to Egypt and was welcomed by Ptolemy Philometor, who gave him a disused temple in Leontopolis, which he re-built after the model of the one in Jerusalem, to serve as a centre of unity for the Hellenistic Jews ( Ant
Abilene - (Josephus Ant. 10), and this grant was confirmed in a. 44) his dominions passed into the charge of Roman procurators (Ant. 53 some parts of them, including Abilene, were granted by Claudius to Agrippa II. (Ant. ; Porter, Giant Cities of Bashan, 352 I
Grant - GR`ANT, ...
1. We take that for granted which is supposed to be true. Grant that the fates have firmed, by their decree-- ...
2. Thou hast granted me life and favor. Job 10 ...
God granted him that which he requested. The legislature have granted all the new land. Grant me the place of this threshing floor. 1 Chronicles 21 ...
GR`ANT, n. The act of granting a bestowing or conferring. The thing granted or bestowed a gift a boon. A grant is an executed contract
Merom, the Waters of - ]'>[4] Ant . 18), but probably they descended, as did Demetrius at a later date ( Ant . It is almost certainly the lake Semechonitis of Ant . was known as Ulatha ( Ant
Archelaus - Judaea, with the title of ‘king,’ was bequeathed to him by his father’s will; but he would not assume the royal dignity till he had obtained confirmation of that will from the emperor Augustus (Ant. ...
After the rebellion, Archelaus proceeded to Rome (Ant. The emperor finally decided that Archelaus should receive Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea, with the title not of ‘king,’ but of ‘ethnarch’ (Ant. In the ninth or tenth year of his reign, after many acts of tyranny and violence, he was banished by the emperor to Vienne in Gaul (Ant. —Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Wars of the Jews [1], as cited above; references s
Rumah - Josephus ( Ant
College - the lower city (Ant
Hobah - Nicolaus of Damascus makes him to have reigned there (Josephus, Ant
Beth-Arbel - ]'>[1] Ant
Porch - Ant. Ant. Josephus appears to have believed that it had survived from the time of Solomon (Ant
Sadducees - Additional information about them, primarily through the Jewish historian, Josephus, and the rabbinic writings, is scanty and hostile. It may be assumed that the Sadducees generally supported Herod and his reigning descendants (although Herod executed forty-five of them at the beginning of his reign), but there is no evidence for equating the Herodians and Sadducees. ...
Josephus lists the Sadducees as one of the three sects/groups of Jewish "philosophy" (Ant 18. Josephus describes them as argumentative (Ant 18. 14 [5]), few in number but including "men of the highest standing" (Ant 18. They have "the confidence of the wealthy" but not the populace (Ant 13. When exercising their office the Sadducees were forced by public opinion to follow "the formulas of the Pharisees" (Ant 18. Evidently they were more severe in administering punishments than Pharisees (Ant 13. 14 [10]; Ant 18. ...
Josephus says, "The Pharisees had passed on certain regulations handed down by former generations and not recorded in the Laws of Moses, rejected by the Sadducean group, who hold only those regulations should be considered valid which were written down (in Scripture)" (Ant 13. Ant 18
Mearah - (Josephus Ant
Solomon's Porch - 5:5, section 1; Ant
Drusilla - The fair but loose daughter of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros (Acts 12); sister of Herod Agrippa II; married to Azizus, king of Emesa, on his becoming a Jew; seduced by Felix, procurator of Judea, through Simon the Cyprian sorcerer (Josephus, Ant
Cabul - Josephus says (Ant
Apollonius - ]'>[2] Ant . An envoy sent to Egypt by Antiochus IV. An official under Antiochus V. ]'>[2] Ant
Telaim - ]'>[1] reads Gilgal for Telaim, and Josephus ( Ant
Nain - Josephus (Ant
Hammath - ]'>[1] ( Ant
Psaltery - " Josephus (Ant
Egyptian, the - This man is also mentioned by Josephus as a leader defeated by Felix, but not as connected with the ‘Assassins’ ( Ant
Cendebaeus - A general of Antiochus VII. Sidetes, who was given the command of the sea-coast, and sent with an army into Palestine in order to enforce the claims of Antiochus against Simon Maccabæus. ]'>[1] Ant
Arsaces - ]'>[1] Ant
Ramoth Gilead - Keenly fought for by the Israelites and their enemies the Syrians under Ahab and Joram (1 Kings 22:4; it had been seized by Benhadad I from Omri; Josephus Ant. Joram of Israel allied himself with Ahaziah of Judah (2 Chronicles 22:5-6), gained and kept Ramoth Gilead in spite of Hazael (2 Kings 9:14-15; Josephus Ant. The spot called by Jacob in his covenant with Laban, of which the pillar and stone heap was pledge, Galeed and Mizpah
Agagite - Josephus ( Ant. ]'>[1] reads Bugaios , Esther 3:1 , Esther 8:5 , omits at Esther 3:10 , and at Esther 9:24 , EST 16:10 has Macedonian , a word of evil connotation after Antiochus Epiphanes
Lasthenes - ]'>[1] Ant
Mire - An Ant
Abishua - Josephus (Ant. 8:1, 3) says he was succeeded in the priesthood by Eli; his descendants, until Zadok, falling to the rank of private persons
Jazer - ]'>[1] Ant
Salamis - Herod the Great farmed the Cyprian copper mines, this would bring many Jews there (Josephus, Ant. Constantine or his successor rebuilt it, and named it Constantia
Puteoli - The port of Italy to which ships from Egypt and the Levant commonly sailed (Josephus, Ant
Assassin - Here it is used as a proper name (see the RV) of the Sicarii, "assassins," the fanatical Jewish faction which arose in Judea after Felix had rid the country of the robbers referred to by Josephus (Ant
Machaerus - —A fortress on the east of the Dead Sea, in which, according to Josephus (Ant. 2), John the Baptist was imprisoned and put to death by Herod Antipas (Matthew 14:3-12, Mark 6:17-29, Luke 3:19). 5; Ant. On his death it passed into the hands of Antipas, as it lay in the Peraean portion of his tetrarchy
Antipatris - (Ἀντίπατρις)...
Antipatris, a Hellenistic town of Palestine, stood at the eastern edge of the Plain of Sharon, where the military road from Jerusalem to Caesarea left the hills. Under the protection of a body of Roman cavalry and infantry, St. Antipatris was a border town between Judaea and Samaria (Neubauer, Géogr. Josephus (Ant. 2) gives an account of its foundation:...
‘Herod erected another city in the plain called Kapharsaba, where he Chose out a fit place, both for plenty of water and goodness or soil, and proper for the production of what was there planted, where a river encompassed the city itself, and a grove of the beet trees for magnitude was round about it: this he named Antipatris, from his father Antipater. ’...
The historian elsewhere identifies it with Kapharsaba (Ant
Breve - ) A curved mark [1] used commonly to indicate the short quantity of a vowel. ) The great Ant thrush of Sumatra (Pitta gigas), which has a very short tail
Jaddua - In the reign of the last Persian king Darius and of Alexander; when he invaded Judea Jaddua is said to have gone out in priestly robes to meet Alexander, and to have implored his goodwill toward the Jews (Josephus, Ant
Zeruiah - Josephus preserves a tradition that he was named Souri (Ant
Pharisees - ...
Josephus says the Pharisees maintained a simple lifestyle (Ant 18. 14 [2]), especially respectful to their elders ( Ant 18. 13 [1]), and quite influential throughout the land of Israel (Ant 13. 3 [6])although at the time of Herod they numbered only about six thousand (Ant 17. 14 [8], Ant 18. 14 [10]; Ant 17. Some Pharisees refused to take oaths (Ant 17. Of particular importance are Josephus's statements that the Pharisees adhered to "the laws of which the Deity approves" (Ant 17. Pharisees "follow the guidance of that which their doctrine has selected and transmitted as good, attaching the chief importance to the observance of those commandments which it has seen fit to dictate to them" ( Ant 18. 3 [1]) and they "passed on to the people certain regulations handed down by former generations and not recorded in the Laws of Moses" (Ant 17. ...
John Hyrcanus was at first "a disciple" of the Pharisees but became their enemy (Ant 13. The hostility was especially great during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76), and they seem to have taken a leading part in opposition to him; it is usually assumed that Pharisees composed either all or a large part of the eight hundred Jews he later crucified (Ant 13. At first they attempted to persuade the Jews against militant actions (War 2. In verse 23Jesus condemns them, not for what they did, but for neglecting "the more important matters of the lawjustice, mercy and faithfulness. Pharisaic zeal for the Law is obvious, but what is meant by Law? The sanctity of the written Law was never questioned, but intertestamental Jewish groups differed on how it was to be interpreted and applied. ...
Some modern scholars have objected to the assumption that intertestamental Judaism, including Pharisaism, believed in a "wage price-theory of righteousness, " that eternal life is granted on the basis of faithfulness in keeping the Law. Rather, they insist, Israel's religion was a "covenantal nominism" in which Law-keeping was a response to God's grace offered in his covenant with Israel. These studies provide a helpful corrective to traditional views of intertestamental Judaism, including Pharisaism, as merely a blatant legalism. , Mark 10:17 ; Luke 15:29 ; [22] ); John 6:28 ; and Paul's constant fight against earning salvation by works of the law (note: Romans 9:30-32 , ; Israel "pursued it [23] not by faith but as if it were by works" )
Zipporah - Josephus (Ant
Porch - side of the temple (Josephus, Ant
Robber - Thus Shakespeare calls pirates ‘water thieves’ (Merchant of Venice, i. Herod, when quite young, first made his reputation by ruthlessly executing robbers in Galilee (Josephus, Ant. At a later time he destroyed robbers who lived in inaccessible caverns, by lowering chests full of soldiers from the cliff above (Ant. There was a great outbreak of robbery on the death of Herod (Ant. We read later of robbers plundering a servant of the Emperor’s, near Bethhoron, which was avenged on the neighbouring villagers by Cumanus (Ant. 2), and of Fadus, Felix, and Festus destroying large numbers of them (Ant
Idumaea - Fifty-five years later, John Hyrcanus conquered the country, and compelled the people to be circumcised (Josephus Ant. By the law of Deuteronomy 23:7-8 they thus became full Jews in the third generation, though Herod himself was sometimes reproached as a ‘half-Jew’ (Josephus Ant
Trachonitis - (Josephus Ant. Josephus (Ant. 15:10, section 1) says "the inhabitants dwelt in caves that served as a refuge for themselves and their flocks; they had cisterns of water, and stored granaries, and so were able to defy their enemies
Ant - Ants in northern Europe lie dormant in winter; and do not feed on grain, but flesh of other insects, worms, birds, the honeydew of aphides, and saccharine matter, exuding from trees. Solomon implies, the Ant providently and diligently uses the proper seasons for obtaining her food, though she has "no guide, overseer, or ruler," such as man has in parents, teachers, and masters; therefore men are inexcusable in sluggishness. ...
There is no monarch, such as the queen is among bees; but Ants labor together as a republic, having "no ruler" as Solomon describes. Moggridge (Harvesting Ants) has by observation proved that there are four harvesting Ants on the Riviera, namely,: Atta barbara, under two forms, the one wholly black, the other red headed; Atta structor, claret brown colored; and Atta megacephala or Pheidole, a minute bodied, yellow Ant, with great head, which works chiefly at night. The Atta barbara, mounting the stem of a fruiting plant as shepherd's purse, and seizing a green pod in its jaws, and fixing its hind legs as a pivot, turns round and round and strains the fibers until they snap. Ants sometimes allow the capsules which they have cut to drop, and their companions below carry them away. ...
A host of Ants seek and bring in the grain; others sort the materials, strip off the useless envelopes of seed or grain, and carry them out to throw away. The Ants have some mysterious power which checks germination. The few seeds which may germinate the Ants prevent from further growth by cutting off the end of the radicle. Hebrew "ant," nemalah , is derived by some from Arabic for" clever. " The Arabs put one in the new-born infant's hand, saying, "May he prove clever!" Others take it from namal , Hebrew "cut off," the body being cut into segments, joined by but a slight thread. Similarly in Proverbs 30:25 the Ants' wisdom is set forth as making up for the absence of the strength of larger creatures. The mutual affection between the members of the republic is conspicuous in Ants. In northern Europe Ants strike with their Antennae and so make the aphids discharge the juice extracted by their suckers from vegetables; the Ants in fact make the aphids their milk cows, imprisoning a number in their nests to serve as a supply in winter (Huber). The Indian Ant (Atta, providens), according to Colossians Sykes, raises up heaps of grass seed in January when they ripen, in store for the season of need
Gorgias - A general of Antiochus Epiphanes, who is described as ‘a mighty man of the king’s friends’ ( 1Ma 3:38 ), and a captain who ‘had experience in matters of war’ ( 2Ma 8:9 ). When Antiochus set out on his Parthian campaign (b. ]'>[1] Ant
Libertines - Descendants of Jews who, having been taken prisoners by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, were enslaved and afterward emancipated, and who returned to their native land. 85; Josephus, Ant. Humphrey conjectures that, having made their way to Jerusalem, they naturally were Stepben's bitterest opponents as having suffered so much for that religion which Christianity was supplanting
Baalzebub - " Ant
Annas - Ant
Seleucus - He founded Antioch and its fortified port Seleucia ( 1Ma 11:8 ), and is said by Josephus ( Ant. 246 226), son of Antiochus Soter , is entitled the ‘king of the north’ in the passage ( Daniel 11:7-9 ) which alludes to the utter discomfiture of the Syrian king and the capture of Seleucia. ’s]'>[2] sons’ ( Daniel 11:10 ), was murdered during a campaign in Asia Minor: the struggle with Egypt was continued by his brother Antiochus ( Daniel 11:10-16 ). the king of Egypt’s]'>[1] , Ant. 10, calls him Soter ), son of Antiochus The Great , reigned b
Ant - Ant ( nemâlâh , Arab. Ants are exceedingly abundant all over Palestine, where, through their vast numbers, they perform a most important rôle, by continually changing the surface soil in the way earthworms do in northern countries. Some common varieties of Palestine Ants ( Aphœnogaster barbara, A. structor and Pheidole megacephala ) store up great quantities of various kinds of seeds, which they are able, in some unknown way, to prevent germinating and make use of as food ( Proverbs 30:25 ). Whole troops of these little insects may be seen carrying seeds, often many times their own size and weight, from a distant garden or corn-field. The writer has even seen a procession of Ants carrying their harvest under the thickness of a broad mud wall which bounded the corn-field, and then across a wide and frequented road. The sagacity of the Ant in this and other respects is widely recognized both in Oriental lore as in Proverbs 30:24-25 and even more forcibly by the modern naturalist
Comgall - of Antrim, and on the shore of Lough Larne. Ant. Ant
Earthquake - Josephus (Ant. Josephus (Ant. 31, when as many as 10,000 of the inhabitants lost their lives
Nathan - A descend* Ant of Caleb
Rei - ]'>[2] ( Ant
Trachonitis - Josephus frequently speaks of the inhabitants of these parts as predatory ( Ant
Amomum - hamma, ‘heat’)...
An aromatic balsam used as an unguent for the hair, made from the seeds of an eastern plant which has not been identified with certainty, Josephus (Ant. The term is now applied to a genus of aromatic plants, some species of which yield cardamoms and grains of paradise
Ituraea - Both Strabo and Josephus ( Ant . ’ He was put to death by Mark Antony in b. ]'>[2] Ant
Aretas - , when the Greek kings of Syria and Egypt had lost so much of their power, ‘ut adsiduis proeliis consumpti in contemptum finitimorum vencrint praedaeque Arabum geuti, imbelli Antea, fuerint’ (Trog. The second Aretas, called δʼ Αράβων βασιλεύς, is mentioned by Josephus (Ant. He incurred the displeasure of the Romans by interfering in the quarrel of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, but the war which Scaurus waged against him left his power unbroken (Ant. He could not, however, prevent Lollius and Metellus from taking possession of Damascus (Ant. Ant. ...
This Aretas’ daughter became the wife of Herod Antipas, who divorced her in order to marry Herodias (Mark 6:17). Again acting, at this new juncture, without consulting Rome, he attacked and defeated Antipas (a. ...
There is circumstantial evidence, though perhaps too slender to be quite convincing, that Tiberius’ successor Caligula favoured the cause of Aretas. But it is probable that Caligula favoured the enemy of Herod Antipas. One of his first imperial acts was to give the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias to Agrippa (Ant. Antipas was ultimately deposed and banished in 39. 34, and the fact that none has been found with the image of Caius or Claudius is significant of a change of régime; but the image of Nero appears from 62 onwards. It was probably this successful reign that Josephus had in view when he wrote of the extension of the Nabataean kingdom from the Euphrates to the Red Sea (Ant. Ewald, article ‘Aretas,’ In Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche 3
Gedaliah - He was joined by Jeremiah, and apparently ruled well; but he was treacherously murdered by Ishmael of Judah, who, according to Josephus (Ant
Pinnacle - Matthew 4:5, "the pinnacle of the temple," the summit of the southern portico, rising 400 cubits above the valley of Jehoshaphat (Josephus Ant. Tregelles translated Daniel 9:27, "upon the wing (kenaph ) of abominations shall be that which causeth desolation," namely, an idol set up on a wing or pinnacle of the temple by Antichrist, who covenants with the restored Jews for the last of the 70 weeks of years (John 5:43) and breaks the covenant in the midst of the week, causing the daily sacrifices to cease. The pinnacle of the temple restored may be the scene of Satan's tempting Israel by Antichrist as it was of his tempting Jesus
Frost - It is rendered by Gesenius, the Hebrew lexicographer, "ant," and so also by others, but the usual interpretation derived from the ancient versions may be maintained
Tiberias - City on the west of the Sea of Galilee: it was founded by Herod Antipas, and named after the emperor Tiberius. Josephus states (Ant
Uzzi - Between Abishua and Zadok in the genealogy, yet never high priest (Josephus Ant
Festus, Porcius - ]'>[1] Ant
Golan - Both the town, Golan, and a district, Gaulanitis , were known to Josephus ( Ant
Ithamar - ]'>[1] Ant
Ptolemy v - He married Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus iii. During his reign Palestine and Cœle-Syria were lost to Egypt, and were incorporated into the kingdom of Syria under Antiochus iii. ]'>[1] Ant
Ptolemy vi - was still sole king, he attempted to reconquer the Syrian provinces which had been lost during his father’s reign; the attempt was, however, abortive, and he was defeated by Antiochus iv. It was only through the intervention of the Romans that Antiochus was prevented from following up this victory by further conquests. ]'>[1] Ant
Medeba - ]'>[2] Ant . ]'>[2] Ant . During the Byzantine period Medeba was a flourishing Christian centre, the seat of a bishopric, and represented at the Council of Chalcedon. Many ancient remains have come to light, a large pool with solid walls, remains of gates, towers, four churches, some fine mosaics, especially a deeply interesting and important mosaic map of Christian Palestine and Egypt
Tishbite - In 1 Kings 17:1 the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in the LXX. Josephus, the Jewish historian (Ant 8:13,2), however, supposes that Tishbi was some place in the land of Gilead
Machaerus - According to Josephus, the daughter of Aretas retired to this place when she left the higamous Antipas. He describes it as ‘in the borders of the dominions of Aretas and Herod,’ and then ‘subject to her father’ ( Ant
Jabneel - On the northern boundary of Judah, near the sea (Joshua 15:11); Josephus (Ant. 5:1, section 22) assigns it to Daniel That tribe and the Philistines were in constant warfare for the towns in the lowland
Tiras - Josephus (Ant. 1:6, section 1) identifies his descendants with the Thracians, including the Getae (from whence came the Goths) and Dacians. Thus Genesis 10 includes among Japhet's descendants the vast nation of the Thracians, extending from the Halys in Asia Minor to the Drave and Save in Europe
Shaveh, Valley of - Josephus says it was a column and of marble (Ant
Regeneration - Josephus (Ant
Tryphon - An officer of Alexander Balas, who, after the death of the latter, took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius to put forward Antiochus, the son of Balas, as a claimant to the throne ( 1Ma 11:39 ). His real aim, however, was to gain the crown for himself, and this he accomplished after he had murdered in succession Jonathan the Maccabee ( 1Ma 12:39-50 ) and Antiochus ( 1Ma 13:31 f. In the end, Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, attacked Tryphon, besieged him in Dor, and pursued him when he escaped thence to Orthesia ( 1Ma 15:10-14 ; 1Ma 15:37-39 ). ]'>[1] Ant
Felix - (See Josephus, Ant
Hazor - ]'>[1] Ant
Elah - Josephus (Ant
Seba - Meroe, at the confluence of the Astaboras and Astapus, was called Seba, until Cambyses called it Meroe from his sister (Josephus, Ant
ba'Ruch -
Son of Neriah, the friend, (Jeremiah 32:12 ) amanuensis, (Jeremiah 26:4-32 ) and faithful attendant of Jeremiah. Ant. ) ...
A priest, or family of priests, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. ...
The son of Col-hozeh, a descendant of Perez or Pharez, the son of Judah
Cappadocia - Seleucus first introduced Jewish colonists into Asia Minor (Josephus, Ant
Cuthah - It would be a natural policy to transplant some of the hardy mountaineers (called also Cossaei) from their own region, where they gave the Assyrians trouble, to Samaria. Intermixing with the ten tribes' remnant, they became progenitors of the Samaritans who are called "Cuthaeans" by the Jews. The Samaritans claimed kindred with the Sidonians, and these again with the Cuthaeans (Josephus, Ant
Theatre - In the theater Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:21-23; Josephus, Ant
Beth-Shean, Beth-Shan - ]'>[1] Ant . There must always have been a strong admixture of heathen inhabitants (Jos
Menelaus - Brother of Simon the Benjamite ( 2M Malachi 3:4 ), or, according to Josephus ( Ant . He purchased the office of high priest from Antiochus Epiphanes for the sum of 660 talents ( c Moon (2) - ...
The Passover always took place at full moon, for it was held on the 14th of the month Nisan, and it was the lunar month that was used, as it is still used by the Jews (Josephus Ant
Sardine - Josephus (the best authority, being a priest, therefore having often seen the high priest's breast-plate) calls it the sardonyx, the first stone in the high priest's breast-plate, in Ant
Tadmor - Josephus (Ant
Perez-Uzza - " Uzzah was a Kohathite Levite (Josephus, Ant
Pinnacle - Here, as Josephus informs us and the excavations corroborate his testimony a spectator looking down into the valley of the Kidron ‘would turn giddy, while his sight could not reach down so such an abyss’ ( Ant
Paphnutius, Surnamed Bubalus - 1) regarding his promotion of abbat Daniel to the diaconate and priesthood have been held to prove that a presbyter had the power of ordaining, but Bingham ( Ant. In the Anthropomorphic controversy between Theophilus bp
Theudas - In Ant. 6-7 (Ant. Ant. He has been identified with the Simon who is found among the disturbers arising soon after the death of Herod the Great (Ant. ) equates the Theudas of Acts with Matthias (θευδᾶς = θεόδωρος = מַתִּיָה), who in the last days of Herod’s reign incited his pupils to pull down the golden eagle which had been placed over the great gate of the Temple (Ant. -All the important commentaries on Acts discuss the present subject
Caesarea - Ant. Among its inhabitants there were both Jews and Greeks. Ant. Aqueducts supplied the inhabitants with water from Carmel and the Crocodile River. The Arab and the shepherd avoid the spot’ (Giant Cities, 235). -Josephus, Ant. Porter, The Giant Cities of Bashan, 1873, p
Peraea - —The name (ἡ Περαία), while constantly used by Josephus, is not found in LXX Septuagint or NT, in both of which it is represented by the equivalent πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου = עֵבֶר־הַיַּרְדֵּן (cf. ’ In what sense he uses this term there is no means of ascertaining, but he must intend to include under the name ‘Peraea’ the region extending north from the Jabbok to the Yarmuk (Hieromax), close to which river Gadara stood, that is to say, all that the Hebrews meant by ‘beyond the Jordan. ’ His usage may depend on whether he happened at the moment to be referring to the district which was more completely Jewish, or to the whole region, which was governed as one, and which included the Hellenistic towns of the Decapolis (Ant. Still he admits that it is in parts very fertile, and produces all kinds of fruits, and its plains are planted with various trees, chiefly the olive, the vine, and the palm. Of the third and fourth he writes: ‘The Third Belt is that of the valleys of the Ghaur (the Jordan valley), wherein are found many villages and streams, also palm trees, well-cultivated fields, and indigo plantations. ) it is exceedingly fertile; and in any period when the country was settled and a good government in power, it must have been one of the most wealthy and important sections of Palestine for the raising of wheat and other products, while the foot-hills would afford excellent pasturage,’...
3. —Under the will of Herod the Great, Galilee and Peraea were united for purposes of government under Antipas, and this arrangement was confirmed by Augustus. Josephus Ant. 394; Josephus Ant. The mission of the Seventy was to Peraea, and although the restriction laid upon the Twelve (whose number corresponded with that of the tribes of Israel), ‘Go not into any way of the Gentiles’ (Matthew 10:5-6), is significantly absent in the case of the Seventy (whose number is typical of the nations of the earth), yet the scope of our Lord’s ministry makes it evident that they were to encounter, at least for the most part, Jews. 166–135) endeavoured to withdraw the Jews (who presumably were at that time the smaller section of the inhabitants) to Judaea (1 Maccabees 5:45-54). 104–78), who brought the country from Lake Merom to the Dead Sea completely under his control (Josephus Ant. He took Hippos, Gadara, Pella, Dion, and other important towns, and extinguished the Greek culture which had flourished in them. 20, Herod the Great obtained permission to appoint his brother Pheroras tetrarch of Peraea (Ant. 4) Herod left Galilee and Peraea to his son Antipas (Ant. The tribute paid by these provinces was 200 talents (Ant. Antipas ruled with the title of tetrarch till his banishment in a. 39 by Caius Caesar, who added his tetrarchy to the dominions of Agrippa (Ant. Antipas was therefore in authority in Galilee and Peraea during the whole lifetime of John the Baptist and of Christ
Chief Priests - A common explanation used to be that these ‘chief priests’ were the heads or presidents of the twenty-four courses into which the Jewish priesthood was divided (1 Chronicles 24:4, 2 Chronicles 8:14, Luke 1:5; Luke 1:8; Josephus Ant. Both Herod and the Roman legates deposed and set up high priests at their pleasure (Josephus Ant. 1), as the Seleucidae appear to have done at an earlier period (2 Maccabees 4:24; Josephus Ant. They belonged to the party of the Sadducees (Acts 5:17; Josephus Ant. ]'>[4] But in NT times their influence, even in the Sanhedrin, was inferior to that of the scribes and Pharisees, who commanded the popular sympathies as the high priestly party did not (Josephus Ant
Abdon (1) - Of him Josephus (Ant
Coele-Syria - between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges ( 1Es 4:48 ; Strabo, xvi. of Jordan to Cœle-Syria ( Ant
Mareshah - An important city in the Shephçlah of Judah ( Joshua 15:44 ), fortified by Rehoboam ( 2 Chronicles 11:8 ; see also 2Ch 14:9-10 ; 2 Chronicles 20:37 , Micah 1:15 ). Later on, under the name Marissa , Josephus describes ( Ant . , and about 200 inscriptions recording the names of many Phœnician inhabitants of Marissa, about b
Lod, Lydda - Its inhabitants were enslaved by Cassius, and freed by Antony (Jos. ]'>[1] Ant . It was known as Diospolis in the Byzantine period, but the dirty modern town which represents the ancient site retains the old name Ludd
Arbela - ]'>[1] Ant
Absalom - ]'>[2] Ant . ]'>[2] Ant
Hur - Josephus makes him husband of Miriam (?), Ant
Nisroch - Asorach, Esorach, for which Josephus (Ant
Slothful - The wise, hardworking Ant illustrates the opposite of sloth (Proverbs 6:6 ), while the slothful wants only to sleep (Proverbs 6:9 ; compare Proverbs 10:26 ; Proverbs 13:4 ; Proverbs 15:19 ; Proverbs 19:24 ; Proverbs 20:4 ; Proverbs 21:25 ; Proverbs 22:13 ; Proverbs 24:30 ; Proverbs 26:16 ). Jesus condemned a wicked, slothful servant (Matthew 25:26 ) but praised and rewarded the “good and faithful servant” (Matthew 25:23 )
Halicarnassus - 144), it was a very important city in respect of politics, commerce, literature, and art. , granting to the Jews religious liberty and the right to build their proseuchai beside the sea (Jos. ]'>[1] Ant
Settle - Cover Ant-hills up that the rain may settle the turf before the spring
Judgment Hall - Probably the tower of Antonia was the Praetorium of Pilate. ) In Acts 23:35 Herod's Praetorium was part of the magnificent buildings erected by king Herod (Josephus, Ant
Sabina, Poppaea - She was almost certainly a Jewish proselyte, as the language of Josephus, Θεοσεβὴς γὰρ ἦν ( Ant. A romantic theory was put forward by M
Proseuche - προσευχή, the name for the Jewish place of worship, originally meant ‘prayer,’ afterwards ‘place of prayer’ (τόπος τῆς προσευχῆς, 1 Maccabees 3:46). and Josephus, Ant
Archelaus - Brought up at Rome with his brother Antipas. Originally Herod excluded him from any share in his dominions, because of his elder brother Antipater's accusations. But at Herod's death the kingdom, by a change in the will, was divided between his three sons, Antipus, Archelaus, and Philip. Josephus (Ant. " A deputation of Jews in consequence went to Rome to beg Augustus not to ratify his appointment; but the emperor confirmed Herod's will (Ant. Joseph turned to Galilee, where the less cruel brother Antipas reigned. The kingdom was originally designed for Antipas; its unexpected transference to Archelaus made Joseph change his direction
Samaria - The situation combines strength, fertility and beauty (Josephus, Ant. There is abundant water in the valley; but the city, like Jerusalem, is dependent on rain cisterns. Alexander the Great replaced its inhabitants with Syro Macedonians. ) destroyed the city after a 12 months' siege (Josephus, Ant. Herod the Great rebuilt and adorned it, naming it Sebaste from Sebastos, Greek for Augustus, his patron (Ant. Septimius Severus planted a Roman colony there in the third century A. ...
Now Sebustieh; its houses of stone are taken from ancient materials, but irregularly placed; the inhabitants are rude but industrious. The ruin of the church of John the Baptist marks the traditional place of his burial; the original structure is attributed to Helena, Constantine's mother; but the present building, except the eastern Greek end, is of later style: 153 ft. )...
Its present state accords with prophecy: (
Hosea 13:16) "Samaria shall become desolate"; (Micah 1:6) "I will make Samaria as an heap of the field, and as plantings of a vineyard, and I will pour down the stones thereof into the valley (a graphic picture of its present state which is 'as though the buildings of the ancient city had been thrown down from the brow of a hill': Scottish Mission Enquiry, 295), and I will discover the foundations thereof. " The hill planted with vines originally should return to its pristine state. After Shalmaneser's capture of Samaria and carrying away of Israel to Halah and Habor, and in the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17:5-6; 2 Kings 17:23-24), Esarhaddon or Asnapper planted "instead" men of Babylon (where Esarhaddon resided in part: 2 Chronicles 33:11), Cuthah, Ava, and Sepharvaim (Ezra 4:2-3; Ezra 4:10). Josephus (Ant. Henceforward the Samaritans refused all kindness to the pilgrims on their way to the feasts at Jerusalem, and often even waylaid them (Josephus, Ant. The Pentateuch was their sole code; for their copy they claimed an Antiquity and authority above any Jewish manuscript Jewish renegades joined them; hence they began to claim Jewish descent, as the Samaritan woman (John 4:12) says "Jacob our father. Pilate chastised them, to his own downfall (Josephus, Ant
Cherethites And Pelethites - Benaiah, whom Josephus calls ‘captain of the guard’ ( Ant
Shittim - ’ Josephus ( Ant
Theudas - Josephus ( Ant
Sihon - Josephus says that every man in the nation fit to bear arms fought in the Amorite army against Israel (Ant
Hur - ]'>[3] Ant
Ant - This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in ( Proverbs 6:6 ; 30:25 ) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the Ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise. " (For a long time European commentators and naturalists denied that Ants stored up grain for future use, as was asserted in Proverbs but while this is true of most of the 104European species, two of those species do lay up food, and are called harvesting Ants . ) McCook's "The Honey Ants" gives many curious facts about the habits of this peculiar kind of Ant, and of the harvesting Ants of the American plains
Nebaioth - they were strong enough to resist Antigonus (Diodorus Siculus, 2:732, 733). they flourished under their "illustrious" (Josephus, Ant. Coins are extant of the dynasty which ended A. " Josephus (Ant
Ethnarch - In 1 Maccabees 14:47 Simon accepts from the people the following offices-ἀρχιερατεῦσαι καὶ εἶναι στρατηγὸς καὶ ἐθνάρχης τῶν Ἰουδαίων καὶ ἰερέων καὶ τοῦ προστατῆσαι πάντων (‘to be high priest and to be general and ethnarch of the Jews and their priests and to rule over all’); and in 1 Maccabees 15:2 a letter of King Antiochus of Syria is addressed to him as ἱερεῖ μεγάλῳ καὶ ἐθνάρχῃ (‘great priest and ethnarch’). Josephus (Ant. 616) from a village, El-Mâlikîje in the Hauran, mentions by the names ‘ethnarch’ and ‘general (or praetor) of nomads’ a chief of nomad Arabs of the time of Hadrian or Antoninus Pius who must have submitted to the Emperor. 3, Ant
Cyrene - Josephus Ant. 2), the inhabitants of Cyrene were divided into four classes—citizens, husbandmen (i. The Jews enjoyed equality of civil rights (Ant. Other NT references to Cyrenian Jews are: Acts 2:10 (at Pentecost), 6:9 (members of special synagogue at Jerusalem, opposing Stephen), 11:20 (preaching at Antioch to Greeks [3]), 13:1 (Lucius of Cyrene, probably one of these preachers, a prophet or teacher at Antioch)
Augustan Band - Ant. 44-66 (Ant. 5; Ant. Mommsen, followed by Ramsay, attempts to connect the σπεῖρα Σεβαστή with a body of officers detached from the foreign legions and known as frumentarii, who were employed under the Empire not only, as their name indicates, in connexion with the commissariat, but as agents maintaining communications between the central government and the distant provinces. As they were constantly passing backwards and forwards, it was natural that prisoners should be entrusted to them, and in time they became hated as police-agents and spies. Paul’s case would seem to be on all fours with that of an appellant mentioned in the correspondence of Trajan and Pliny (Ep
Lysanias - 32) as having been made king of Ituraea by Mark Antony and afterwards put to death by him. This same Lysanias is also spoken of by Josephus (Ant. 1), who adds that Antony was moved to the step of putting Lysanias to death by Cleopatra, on the ground that he had conspired against her with the Parthians. 1; Ant. A Lysanias is mentioned again by Josephus in Ant. 8; Ant. 36 is meant wherever the name is used. (4) During the reign of Tiberius, or at least 50 years after the death of the first Lysanias, a certain Nymphaeus built a road and erected a temple, and left an account of these acts in an extant inscription (CIG Sanhedrin - -Song of Solomon 4:1; Josephus, Ant. Ant. Ant. ...
The first positive record of the Sanhedrin, under the name of Gerousia, appears in the decree of Antiochus the Great about 200 (Jos. Ant. Ant. 4), but forty-five of its members fell victims to the terrible revenge of the tyrant. , who took the title of Nâsî as the lineal descendant of Hillel, offered to the Talmudic tradition many of the features ascribed to the ancient Sanhedrin. Ant. 17a), and then by the significant fact that nowhere else are these men spoken of as Nâsî, Hillel being simply called ‘the elder’ = senator (Suk. Ant. -It is nevertheless unwarranted to dismiss as fictitious, as Schürer, Wellhausen, and Kuenen do, the whole tradition concerning the leadership of the so-called Nesîîm and the duumvirate. As a matter of fact, the important innovations (ṭekkânôth) ascribed to such masters as Jose b. In giving an exposition of the Mosaic constitution, in all probability taken from an older Pharisaic source, he writes (Ant. 14): ‘Each city shall have for its magistrates seven men known for their practice of virtue and zeal for righteousness, and to each magistracy two men of the tribe of Levi shall be assigned as assistants [12]. Ant. Ant. Ant. 2), and the other before the Temple court, probably the one concerned with the Temple practice and the priestly legitimacy (Ant. This would also account for the forty-five slain by king Herod, if it may be assumed that the Senate of Jerusalem sided with him (Ant. 5) and the NT (Matthew 26:59; Matthew 27:41 and elsewhere), dominant in influence, and the patricians, called ‘the men of power’ (δυνατοί) in Josephus (locc. Ant. 17b) says: ‘They must also be of high stature, of pleasing appearance and of advanced age, conversant with the art of magic and the seventy spoken languages,’ to which Judah han-Nâsî is said to have added ‘the dialectic power by which Levitically unclean things can be proven to be clean. Ant. Ant
Badger - Others think it is the stag goat, of the Antelope kind, called thacasse , related perhaps to tachash , to be seen on Egyptian monuments. A great objection to the badger is, it is not found in Bible lands, Syria, Arabia, or Egypt, and certainly not in sufficient quantities for the Israelites' purpose. Josephus makes the color sky blue (Ant
Manaen - One of the teachers and prophets at Antioch when Saul and Barnabas were "separated" to missionary work, A. Brought up with Herod Antipas, who beheaded John Baptist. Of the six named, four were to stay at Antioch, two to itinerate. As Archelaus was brought up with Herod Antipas at Rome, and Mahaen is mentioned in this relation with Antipas alone, perhaps "foster brother" is the true sense; he may have been brought up with Antipas also. Herod the Great favored highly a Manaen an Essene, who in early life foretold Herod's royal greatness (Josephus, Ant. Chuza, another connecting link between Christ and Herod Antipas. How naturally Herod turned to his "servants" for information as to Christ (Matthew 14:1)!...
Manoah - ...
These scanty details are somewhat amplified by Josephus ( Ant
Theudas - 2:4, section 2; Ant
Antipatris - The modern Arabic Kerr Saba does not exactly correspond to Antipatris; for Antipatris was 16 miles from Jaffa, Kefr Saba is only 14; Antipatris was well watered, Kefr Saba has no spring. Herod rebuilt it, and called it Antipatris from his father. The remains of the old Roman road by Gophna to Antipatris were discovered by Dr. of Antipatris it is, as Josephus describes, in the plain, yet near the mountains. (See Josephus, Ant
Sabbatical Year - " Josephus (Ant
Abistobulus - 6, Ant
Shur - " So 1 Samuel 15:7; 1 Samuel 27:8; Josephus (Ant
Hadad - 31), friend of Augustus Caesar (Josephus, Ant. of Persian gulf, seem his descendants (Ant
Taxes - This became an annual payment on the return from Babylon; at first only a third of a shekel (Nehemiah 10:32); afterward a half, the didrachma (Matthew 17:24); paid by every Jew wherever in the world he might be (Josephus Ant. Judas of Galilee raised a revolt against it (Josephus Ant
Ephraim - Ant. Ant
Ophir - ) The "al " in almug or algum is the Arabic article "the," and mica is "sandalwood" (Gesenius), so that that wood must have come to the Hebrew through Arabic merchants. The indigo used in Egyptian dyeing from of old must have come from India; muslins of Indian origin are found with the mummies; Josephus (Ant. Tennant); Chinese porcelain vases have been found in the tombs of kings of the 18th dynasty, i. Two of his statements have been confirmed: (1) that there were gold mines in Egypt, Linant and Bonomi found theta (?) in the Bisharce desert (Wilkinson, Ant
Antonius - Antonius , St. Ant. We have a tolerably complete, but probably interpolated, biography of him by Athanasius, derived in part from his own recollections, in part from others who had known him, as well as frequent mention of him by the ecclesiastical historians; and we shall here treat Anthony as a historic character, despite the recent assumption that he is "a myth" (see, e. ...
Anthony was born c. Ant. Anthony retired by degrees farther and farther from his native village, fixing his abode first in a tomb, afterwards in a ruined castle near the Nile. " But he soon returned to the congenial seclusion of his cell, and there died, at the great age of 105, in the presence of the two disciples, Amathas and Macarius, who had ministered to his wants during the last 15 years. Ant. ...
The fame of Anthony spread rapidly through Christendom; and the effect of his example in inducing Christians, especially in the East, to embrace the monastic life is described by his biographers as incalculable. 88), but whether these are the same as those now extant in Latin is doubtful (cf. Ant. Constantine the Great and his sons wrote to him as a father (Athan. ), and when Athanasius was contending with the Meletians, Anthony wrote from his cell to the emperor in behalf of his friend (Soz. ...
Anthony was evidently a man, not merely of strong determination, but of ability, and the discourses, if indeed they are his, which his disciples record as addressed to themselves and to the pagan philosophers who disputed with him, shew that if he read little he thought much. ...
Beyond these encounters and powers of exorcism it is not clear how far and in what manner Anthony believed himself able to work miracles. Among the many in whom the marvellous experiences of Anthony awoke a longing to renounce the world was Augustine himself (Aug. Antoine le Grand (Tours, 1898)
Army - That significant act was the beginning of the Pax Romana. Augustus found himself master of three standing armies, his own and those of Lepidus and Antony, amounting to 45 legions. Augustus initiated the policy, which was respected by his successors down to the time of the Antonines, of ‘maintaining the dignity of the Empire, without attempting to enlarge its limits’ (Gibbon, Hist. Distributing the legions in the frontier provinces of the Empire-which had the Atlantic as its boundary on the west, the Rhine and the Danube on the north, the Euphrates on the east, and the deserts of Arabia and Africa on the south-he charged them to guard the borders which were exposed to the attacks of restless barbarians. Each consisted of 6000 heavy infantry divided into ten cohorts, with a troop of 120 horsemen to act as dispatch riders. Gallica’ at Antioch. Regiments of infantry (cohortes) or cavalry (alœ), 500 to 1000 strong, were recruited from the subjects, not the citizens, of the provinces, and formed a second force equal in numbers if not in importance to the first. Julius Caesar’s edict granting this privilege is preserved by Josephus (Ant. Ant. 44-66 (Ant. The barracks (παρεμβολή, used six times in the same narrative) adjoined the fortress of Antonio, close to the N. Paul was escorted from Jerusalem to Antipatris by 200 foot-soldiers, 70 horsemen (ἱππεῖς), and 200 spearmen (δεξιολάβοι), and thence to Caesarea by the horsemen alone. Ant
Crowd - Josephus (Ant. The bloodshed with which the movement was checked led to an information being laid against him at Rome (Josephus Ant. Herod’s annual income (Josephus Ant. The excellence of the roads is borne witness to by the fact that the Roman procurator, who resided at Caesarea, could reach Jerusalem with troops by way of Antipatris in less than twenty-four hours
Heshbon - , in the distance, of the hills of Judah, and nearer, through a gap in the near hills, of the Jordan valley, which lies some 4000 feet below, the river itself being barely 20 miles distant. According to Josephus ( Ant
Weaving - Sacerdotal garments were woven without seam (Josephus, Ant
Manaen - Luke prefaces his account of the Church of Jerusalem (Acts 1-5) by giving a list of the apostles who were its chiefs and leaders (1:23), so he prefaces his account of the Church of Antioch, and the missionary activity of which it was the centre, by a list of the most noted prophets and teachers who were connected with it: they were Barnabas, and Symeon called Niger, and Lucius the Cyrenian, and Manaen, the foster-brother of Herod the tetrarch, and Saul (13:1). What brought Manaen to Antioch we do not know. As foster-brother or playmate of Herod Antipas (for the Greek term bears either meaning) he must have been brought up mainly at Jerusalem. Josephus tells (Ant. Luke was a native of Antioch and a resident there, he may well have known Manaen personally and have learnt from him the many details respecting the Herod family which he has introduced into both his Gospel and the Acts
Libya - Luke’s designation of Cyrenaïca closely resembles that of Josephus, ἡ πρὸς Κυρήνην Λιβύη (Ant
Firkin - LXX Septuagint 2 Chronicles 4:5), and is therefore ‘able to contain seventy-two sextaries’ (Josephus Ant. Very effective is the touch added by the expression ἕως ἄνω, ‘up to the brim,’ if only in presenting a sure basis for calculating the quantity of this wedding gift. The lowest estimate of the quantity of wine must be over 12 firkins or 108 gallons; yet, had the vessels been larger they had been filled; had there been more vessels, more wine
Castle - The word παρεμβολή, translated ‘castle’ six times in Acts, meant in the Macedonian dialect an encampment, and in the Septuagint it is used for the camp of the Israelites in the desert (Exodus 29:14, etc. Paul’s arrest in Jerusalem (Acts 21:22) it probably denotes the barracks of the Roman soldiers who were stationed at the castle of Antonia, though the Revised Version as well as the Authorized Version identifies it with the castle itself. , built the Hasmonaean castle which Josephus calls ‘Baris’ (Ant. ‘When Herod became king, he rebuilt that castle, which was very conveniently situated, in a magnificent manner, and because he was a friend of Antonius, he called it by the name of Antonia’ (Ant. Fort Antonia was for some days his place of confinement. From the castle he was taken by night to Antipatris, and thence to Caesarea (Acts 23:31-33)
Annas - Ant. Josephus tells us that he was regarded as the most fortunate of men, for he had live sons who all held the office of high priest (Ant. Both Josephus and the writers of the NT uniformly give the title ‘high priest’ not only to the actual occupant of the office at the time, but to all his predecessors who were still alive, as well as to all the more influential members of the families from which the high priests were selected. ...
The important and influential position held by Annas even after his deposition is proved by the fact that it was to him that Jesus was first sent before He appeared at the more formal tribunal of the Sanhedrin (John 18:13). -Josephus, Antiquities, passim; A
Annas (2) - 15 (Josephus Ant. The duration of his rule, and the fact that of his sons no fewer than five succeeded him at intervals in the high priesthood (‘which has never happened to any other of our high priests’), caused him to be regarded by his contemporaries as a specially successful man (Ant
Essenes (2) - ; Ant. Their numbers are estimated by Josephus (Ant. Full membership was granted only after a novitiate of two years, and then upon an oath to reveal everything to the members and nothing to the outside world. On the other hand, they were rigid beyond all others in their observance of the Sabbath; and they went beyond the Pharisees in their absolute determinism, affirming ‘that fate governs all things, and that nothing befalls men but what is according to its determination’ (Josephus Ant
Julius - It was borne by all the Jewish princes from Antipater, the father of Herod the Great. (Ant
Girdle - See also the description in Josephus, Ant
Alexander the Great - He then entered the city, offered sacrifice, was shown the passages in Daniel relating to himself, granted the people unmolested use of their customs, promised to befriend their eastern settlements, and welcomed Jews to his army ( Ant . 4), he is Anticipating by some years what happened under the Ptolemys
Experience - experientia, from experior, to try ex and Ant
Earthquake - ]'>[1] Ant
Roman Empire - Pompey's lieutenant, M. Next year Pompey himself took Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant. Hyrcanus was titular sovereign and high priest, subject to his minister Antipater, the partisan of Rome. Antipater's son, Herod the Great, was made king by Antony, 40 B. (Josephus, Ant. Roman soldiers were quartered at Jerusalem in Herod's time to maintain his authority (Ant. Rome exacted tribute and an oath of allegiance to the emperor as well as to Herod (Ant. The bounds of the Roman empire were the Atlantic on the W. The free cities were governed by their own magistrates, and were exempt from Roman garrisoning; as Tarsus, Antioch in Syria, Athens, Ephesus, Thessalonica. communities of Roman citizens, as it were a miniature Rome transplanted into another land (Acts 16:12-21; Acts 16:35). So Corinth, Troas, and the Pisidian Antioch. The magistrates bore the Roman designation "praetors " (Greek strategoi ), and were attended by "lictors " (Greek rabdouchoi , "serjeants". Under all the outward appearance of unity, peace, and prosperity, moral death and stagnant corruption prevailed on all sides. There were no hospitals for the sick, no establishments for the relief of the poor, no societies for ameliorating men's condition, no instruction for the lower classes, no Antidote to the curse of slavery. Charity and philanthropy were scarcely recognized as duties. It was ever instilling humanity, coldly commended by an impotent philosophy, among men and women whose infant ears had been habituated to the shrieks of dying gladiators; it was giving dignity to minds prostrated by years of despotism; it was nurturing purity and modesty, and enshrining the marriage bed in a sanctity long almost lost, and rekindling the domestic affections; substituting a calm and rational faith for worn out superstitions, gently establishing in the soul the sense of immortality
Samaria, Samaritans - The limits and extent of the Samaritan territory varied from time to time (Josephus Ant. We learn that Ginea—the modern Jenîn—on the south edge of the plain of Esdraelon, was its northern boundary (Ant. 1); and this is confirmed by the fact that Caphar Outheni—now Kefr Adan—4 miles distant, was in Galilee (M. The eastern boundary was, of course, the Jordan, while the hill slopes towards the Shephelah constituted the western—the plain between Caphar Outheni and Antipatris being regarded as a heathen district (Bab. 110) when he says: ‘One may be excused for becoming somewhat enthusiastic over this pretty vale of Nâblus, sparkling with fountains and streams, verdant with olive groves and fig orchards, interspersed with walnut, apple, apricot, orange, quince, pomegranate, and other trees and shrubs. The name was strictly limited to the religious sect, the metropolis of which was Shechem (Ant. We regard the Samaritan statement (el-Tolidoth), that 300,000 men besides women and children were brought back from captivity in the days of Sanballat, as baseless; but, on the other hand, when Israel was carried away captive, a remnant must have been left; and that such was the case we have abundant evidence (2 Kings 23:17-20, Jeremiah 41:5). There can be no question of the accuracy of the OT narrative of the originally mixed origin of the Samaritans, but repeated accessions from Judaism (Nehemiah 13:28-29; Ant. 332)—one hundred years too late (Ant. 198), the Samaritans, being then in a flourishing condition, are accused of having harassed the Jews and carried away captives to serve as slaves (Ant. In his account of Maccabaean times Josephus continually accuses them of denying all kinship with the Jews, when they see them in suffering and difficulties, and of claiming to be Sidonians (Ant. 128) made an expedition against Samaria (Ant. After repeated successes against their ally and protector Antiochus Cyzicenus, he took Samaria, ravaged the country, subdued the Cuthaeans who dwelt about the temple at Gerizim, and destroyed their temple (Ant. 6), the Samaritans became so aggressive that they came privately into Jerusalem by night, and, when the gates of the Temple were opened just after midnight, they entered and scattered dead men’s bodies in the cloisters to defile the Temple (Ant. A number of Galilaean pilgrims were attacked, and many killed, at Ginea (Jenîn), the first Samaritan village on the way (Ant. Alexander and Ptolemy Lagi had taken many Jews and Samaritans to Egypt (Ant. 6), and there in Alexandria we read of rivalry and disorders between them (Ant. Not only are they the enemies or images and every visible representation of the Deity, but they have ever resented as strongly as do the Jewish Targums every Anthropomorphic representation of God; and, so far as we can judge, they have made no concessions to heathenism. In the matter of their ritual orthodoxy we have even the testimony of Josephus; for, when he tells of Jewish fugitives accused of ritual irregularities being received by the Samaritans, he adds that they complained of being falsely accused (Ant. It was doubtless in connexion with such a hope that the prophet arose, and tumults occurred which were put down by Pilate, causing him finally the loss of his office (Ant. —The most ancient and important document the Samaritans possess is the (Hebrew-) Samaritan Pentateuch; and this they seem to have become possessed of at a very early date—indeed, before the Babylonian (אשורי) alphabet had supplanted the older Hebrew, for, like all the later books of this people, it is written in a character that is now peculiar to them,—the Samaritan alphabet,—but which in itself is nothing more or less than a cursive form of the old lapidary script of Hebrew, Phœnician, and Moabite. But more to be considered than all these taken together are certain variations that have had an important hearing on their religion. They possess over a dozen volumes, mostly unpublished, which they designate Tarteel (‘chanting’). ...
So far as Manuscripts are concerned, the only one that, on account of its Antiquity, merits our consideration is the jealously guarded Pentateuch roll in Nâblus. It thus appears that, in the absence of vowels to preserve the memory of the sounds when Arabic supplanted these languages as the colloquial, and in the absence of any formulated grammar till the year 1400, the Samaritan pronunciation was allowed to go through the same processes of decay as the common sister Semitic dialects on the same soil
Samaritans - The descendants of the Cuthites, Avvites, Sepharvites, and Hamathites, established by Sargon in Samaria after he had put an end to the Israelite kingdom. ]'>[1] Ant
Gerizim - It stood over against Mount Ebal, the summits of these mountains being distant from each other about 2 miles (Deuteronomy 27 ; Joshua 8:30-35 ). Josephus relates (Ant 11:8,2-4) that Sanballat built a temple for the Samaritans on this mountain, and instituted a priesthood, as rivals to those of the Jews at Jerusalem
Araunah - "These things did Araunah (as) a king give" hardly warrant the guess that he Was of the royal Jebusite race. Josephus (Ant
Cistern - ]'>[4] Ant
Tribute (2) - In the days of Nehemiah the amount was a third of a shekel (Nehemiah 10:32-33), but in NT times it was half a shekel (Josephus Ant
Baruch - ‘Baruch’ the scribe, named in Jeremiah 36:26 along with ‘Jeremiah the prophet,’ is already the recognized attendant and amanuensis of the latter; he seems to have rendered the prophet over twenty years of devoted service. ]'>[1] Ant . A signatory to the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:5 )
Liver - ]'>[2] , followed by Josephus ( Ant . Either they are strong expressions for a deadly disease, or they denote sorrowful emotion of the most poignant kind
Lot (2) - —The suddenness of the Divine Parousia and the unpreparedness and want of expectation on the part of the world, find illustration from ‘the days of Lot’ (Luke 17:28), when the people of Sodom continued their social and commercial activity until ‘the day that Lot went out’ (Luke 17:29). 505; Josephus Ant
Rabbah - The ark apparently accompanied the camp (2 Samuel 11:11), a rare occurrence (1 Samuel 4:3-6); but perhaps what is meant is only that the ark at Jerusalem was "in a tent" (2 Samuel 7:2; 2 Samuel 7:6) as was the army at Rabbah under Jehovah the Lord of the ark, therefore Uriah would not go home to his house. Josephus (Ant. 7:7, section 5) says the fortress had but one well, inadequate to supply the wants of its crowded occupants. Jerusalem's fall should be followed by that of Rabbah (compare Josephus, Ant
Festus - No information is forthcoming concerning Porcius Festus, who succeeded Felix in the procuratorship of Judaea , other than that supplied by Acts 24:27; Acts 26:32 and by Josephus, Ant. , withstanding ‘the chief men of Jerusalem’ (Ant
Palace - " Three rows stood free, the fourth was built into the outer wall (Josephus, Ant. square, was opposite the center of the longer side of the great hall (Josephus, Ant. Behind was the inner court (1 Kings 7:8) with gardens, fountains, and cloisters, and courts for residence of attendants and guards, and for the 300 women of the harem
Italy - ‘He was also no fortunate, upon landing, as to bring the Jews that were there under the same delusion’ (Ant. 1); but Augustus himself was not so easily deceived (Ant. The presence of a great Jewish colony in Rome, dating from the time when Pompey brought his prisoners of war from Jerusalem, is abundantly attested by Latin historians and poets. The swindling of Fulvia, ‘a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion’ (Ant
Dates - In re-stating the information accessible on these dates, it will be well to exhibit clearly the limits of the apostolic period, to reproduce some Roman Imperial dates, to fix some pivotal points which may serve as landmarks, and to determine the times of some of the important events in the life of the Christian community so far as they can be related to the above. Ant. 29, if sole reign is meant, and 27, if co-regency with Augustus), it follows that the earliest year for the Crucifixion is 28. Nero followed Claudius in 54, and was supplanted in 68 by Galba. This is made clear from the extant Syrian coins of these years, which bear the heads of the Roman Emperors Tiberius and Nero and do not allude to subject rulers. For the accession of this king is placed by Josephus (Ant. His immediate successor Abia ruled under Claudius and was a contemporary of Izates, of Adiabene, against whom he waged war upon invitation of certain malcontents and traitors (Ant. -According to Josephus (Ant. 6), Agrippa died at the age of 54, at the end of the seventh year of his reign, four of which had been passed under Caligula and three under Claudius; Josephus also makes it plain that the three years that fell under the reign of Claudius were the period of Agrippa’s sole rule over the whole of Palestine, and that he had been made king over the whole of Palestine by Claudius immediately after his accession (Ant. This conclusion harmonizes with the circumstance that the festivities at Caesarea during which he was stricken with his fatal illness were being held in honour of the safe return of the Emperor from Britain (σωτηρίας, Ant. 2-7; Ant. There is no doubt that, like Cumanus, Felix had by his misrule made himself the object of hatred and the ground of complaint on the part of the Jews, and that, owing to representations mode by the latter, he had fallen into disfavour, and had escaped condemnation only by the timely intercession of his brother Pallas (Josephus, Ant. 5; Ant. For she had been given by her brother Agrippa to Azizus of Emesa, being herself 15 years of age, in 53 (Ant. Felix continued until 60, and meantime added to the grievances of the Jews, and yet entrenched himself in favour with sundry leaders because of his bold measures against certain classes of criminals. -Josephus, in connexion with his account of Agrippa’s death (Ant. By way of explanation it may be said that the enumeration of the visits in Galatians 1:17 was meant to be exhaustive, not absolutely but relatively to the possibility of St. Since both Josephus and the author of Acts introduce the whole transaction (Ant
Samaria - 4), and Antipatris was just beyond the S. Gerizim was begun by a renegade Jewish priest-Manasseh the high priest’s brother-who had married a Cuthaean satrap’s daughter (Ant. 2); and that when Antiochus Epiphanes desecrated the Temple in Jerusalem, the Samaritans denied ‘that the temple on Mt. Gerizim belonged to Almighty God,’ and petitioned ‘Antiochus, the god Epiphanes,’ to permit them to name it ‘the temple of Jupiter Hellenius’ (ib. Josephus therefore glories in the Maccabaean zeal which ‘subdued the nation of the Cuthaeans, who dwelt round about that temple which was built in imitation of the Temple at Jerusalem,’ ‘demolished the city [3] and made slaves of its inhabitants’ (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) I. He asserts that in his own time the Samaritans still continued to distress the Jews, ‘cutting off parts of their land and carrying off slaves’ (Ant. In later times they seem to have become as fanatical as the Jews, and under the Byzantine Emperors Zeno and Justinian they were punished for their cruelty to the Christian Church. -The city of Samaria, rather than the territory, appears to be meant in Acts 8:5; Acts 8:9; Acts 8:14, the best Manuscripts having the article before πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρίας in Acts 8:5, and the genitive being probably that of apposition. ‘Wartburg’ or ‘Watch Tower,’ would indicate) across the Plain of Sharon to the Western Sea, 23 miles distant. He avenged the cruel death of Andromachus, his governor in CCEle-Syria, by killing many of the inhabitants of Samaria, deporting others to Shechem, and substituting Macedonian colonists, who continued to occupy the city till the time of John Hyrcanus. Ant. Being afterwards separated from Judaea by Pompey, and made a free city (Ant. 7), it was rebuilt by Gabinius (Ant. Its second period of royal splendour began when Augustus presented it to Herod the Great, who made it an impregnable fortress with a wall 2½ miles in circumference, built in it a magnificent temple to Divus Caesar, adorned it with public buildings, colonnades and gateways, settled in it thousands of his veterans along with people from the neighbourhood, and renamed it ‘Sebaste’ (=Augusta) in honour of his Imperial patron (Ant. The time was not yet come for ‘turning unto the Gentiles’; that was first done in the purely Gentile city of Antioch
Dates (2) - —The chronological sequence of the Gospels is quite as important as that of the Epistles to the student of the beginnings of Christianity, and forms an essential branch of the study of the development of our Lord’s revelation and His Messianic consciousness. The difficulties in the way of forming an exact time-table of the dates in the Gospels are due (1) to the indifference of the early Christians, as citizens of the heavenly city, to the great events that were taking place in the world around them; (2) to their lack of means of ascertaining these events, and their obliviousness of the important bearing they might have on the evidences of the faith; (3) to the fact that, the early Christian traditions being recorded in the interest of religion and not of history, the writers confined their attention to a few events, which were arranged as much according to subject-matter as to time sequence. 14, or from the time when Tiberius was associated with Augustus in the empire by special law; but that law, again, is variously dated, being identified by some with the grant of the tribunicia potestas for life in a. Originally the Paschal full moon was settled by observation, but that became impossible when the people were spread over distant lands, and was also hindered by atmospheric causes; and, in any case, the beginning of the month was determined not by the astronomical new moon, but by the time when the crescent became visible, about 30 hours afterwards, the first sunset after that event marking the beginning of the new month. ]'>[1] ); the religious and regal in Nisan (April) (Josephus Ant. ...
(a) Herod’s death, the terminus ad quem of the Nativity, is generally settled by the Jewish chronology in Ant. and BJ, in which are found indications of the dates of Herod’s accession and death, and of the dates of his predecessor Antigonus, and of his immediate successors, Archelaus, Herod Philip, and Herod Antipas. For notice of Herod’s death see Ant. 1, ‘having reigned, since he had procured the death of Antigonus, 34 years, but, since he had been declared king by the Romans, 37 years. ’ The death of Antigonus is noted in Ant. 63 (consulship of Cicero and Antonius), when Pompey took Jerusalem (Ant. 6), in the 10th year of his reign (Ant. (2) Herod Philip died in the 20th year of Tiberius, having been tetrarch of Trachonitis and Gaulanitis 37 years (Ant. ...
There are two move data to help us to fix the year of Herod’s death: the eclipse of the moon which preceded his last illness (Ant. Although Matthew 2:11 τὸ παιδίον does not suggest an infant babe, the stay of the Holy Family in Bethlehem, where the Magi found them, cannot have been long, the presentation in the Temple following 40 days after the Nativity. 67) therefore, elaborating another suggestion of Kepler, held that a brilliant evanescent star, similar to that which appeared in Sept. 7) and the mission of Antipater, his heir, to Rome (s. 6, after the deposition of Archelaus, and caused the revolt of Judas of Gamala (Ant. And his, indeed, might be the name wanting in a mutilated inscription, describing an official who was twice governor of Syria under Augustus. Certain riots mentioned in Josephus (Ant. It is quite possible that a series of periodical enrolments in a cycle of 14 years were initiated by Augustus, an indefatigable statistician, in other parts of the empire, and that the first of these may have taken place in the days of Herod, who would have carried it out according to Jewish tastes, and so without much disturbance (unless the riots of Ant. 37, when Tiberius died (Ant. The Jews do not refer, therefore, to the completion of the restoration, which took place much later (Ant. This work was begun in the 18th year of Herod (Ant. 37, death of Antigonus), in the 15th (BJ i. Passover time would also account for the presence of so many Galilaeans in Judaea, while the atmosphere of the scenes of the baptism of Jesus and of His interviews with His first disciples in John 1 is spring, the budding life of the year, in the buoyant sunshine when men’s hearts are most ready for a change of life. ‘Bethnimrah’) in holding that Beth-aimrah on the east of Jordan, opposite to Jericho, is the place meant. Beth-nimrah, now known as Nimrîn, is ‘beyond Jordan,’ τἐραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου (John 1:28; John 3:26); it is well supplied with water, and accessible both from Jericho and Jerusalem, and may have produced the variants ‘Bethahara’ and ‘Bethany. But the variant Βηθαραβα for Βηθαβαρα is found in his text. That variant and the traditional site of our Lord’s baptism, Makhadet Hojla, are strongly against Col. Conder’s suggestion, while tradition connects our Lord’s temptation with the district of Quarantania, named from His 40 days’ fast; and something must be allowed for tradition in such matters
Captain - 8]'>[1]) of provincial troops, Syrian Greeks, and Samaritans, whose commandant would be a civis Romanus (Acts 22:28), while they would be presented with the Imperial franchise on their discharge, was reinforced during the Passover by additional troops which were stationed in one of the Temple buildings (Mommsen, Prov. The χιλίαρχος is also called φρούραρχος by Josephus (Ant. Mommsen gives its strength, at a subsequent period, as consisting of a detachment (ala) of cavalry and five cohorts of infantry, or about 3000 men. στρατηγὸς τοῦ ἱεροῦ, the commandant of the Temple Levites. Josephus mentions the ‘captain’ (στρατηγός) of the Levitical guard in the time of Claudius (Ant. ...
Literature—Josephus, Ant. ...
In accordance with its derivation (ἀρχή and ἡγέομαι), ἁρχηγός originally meant a leader, and so naturally came to be applied to a prince or chief
Shewbread - The 12 cakes of unleavened bread, arranged in two piles, with a golden cup of frankincense on each (Josephus Ant. The tables were probably made of cedarwood overlaid with gold (see Josephus Ant. Antiochus Epiphanes carried away the table of the second temple (2 Maccabees 1:22). ...
Afterward Ptolemy Philadelphus presented a splendid table (Josephus Ant
Uriah - ]'>[4] Ant
Bushel - While the seah measure varied in size according to locality, it is generally regarded as being equal to one modius and a quarter, though Josephus (Ant
Balm - The queen of Sheba, according to Josephus, brought "the root of the balsam" as a present to Solomon (Ant. ...
The fragrant resin known as "the balsam of Mecca" is from the Αmyris Gileadensis , or opobalsamum
Tertullus - The term ‘orator’ indicates that the man belonged to the class of hired pleaders often employed in the provincial courts by those ignorant alike of Roman law and of the Latin tongue, in which as a rule all judicial procedure was carried on (but see Lewin, St. Ant
Maacah - ]'>[1] Ant . A small kingdom out of which the Aramæan ( 1 Chronicles 19:6 ) inhabitants were not driven ( Joshua 13:13 ). The inhabitants were called Maacathites ( 2 Samuel 23:34 etc
Tirhakah - Herodotus (2:141) and Josephus (Ant
Trachonitis - limit extended to the districts of Ulatha and Paneas, at the southern base of Mount Hermon; and also that it bordered on Auranitis (en-Nukra) and Batanaea (Ant. 268–272, Giant Cities of Bashan, 24–97: Graham in Jour
War - It is not possible to say who the soldiers were, or in what expedition they were engaged, but they were not Roman soldiers, or any part of the force of Herod Antipas against his father-in-law Aretas, since the quarrel between Herod Antipas and Aretas had not developed then. Possibly there is here a historical allusion to the war between Herod Antipas and Aretas (Josephus Ant. ...
Jesus seems to have recognized war as rising from the nature of man and the constitution of society; but as His teaching lays hold upon nations, the methods of war become less barbarous, and we have good cause to Anticipate a time, and to work for it, when ‘nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more
Shewbread - ’ Every Sabbath day the shewbread, unleavened (Josephus, Ant
Joppa - Palestine; a place of high Antiquity, being mentioned in the tribute lists of Thothmes iii. ]'>[3] Ant
Zealot - " The Jewish historian Josephus calls the movement, "The Fourth of the Philosophies, " and says it agreed with the Pharisees, differing only in their "passion for liberty convinced that God alone is their leader and master"; they were willing to die for this conviction (Ant 18. 9 [2]) as one of several Jewish revolutionary factions, one he says was a coalition of bandits and miscreants, who fought between themselves and against the Romans in the Judeo-Roman war (a
Dioscuri - According to one fable the Father of the Gods granted Castor life on condition that the brothers should alternately spend a day in Hades, but another states that their love was rewarded by Zeus, who placed them together among the stars as the Gemini. Ant
Gaza - (Γάζα)...
Gaza, the most southern of the five chief cities of Philistia, was important as the last place of call on the road to Egypt. Ant. Ant. In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was still a notable Greek city, where paganism stoutly resisted Christianity; and it played an important part in the time of the Crusades. To-day it is a flourishing town of 16,000 inhabitants, built on and around a hill rising 100 ft
Salt - An Antidote to the effects of heat on animal food. A necessary accompaniment of the various altar offerings, bloody and unbloody (Leviticus 2:13, "the salt of the covenant of thy God"; Ezekiel 43:24; Mark 9:49-50). It signifies the imperishableness of Jehovah's love for His people; as an Antiseptic salt implies durability, fidelity, purity. Covenants were cemented by feasts and hospitality, the viands of which were seasoned, as all foods, with salt. Hence, "a covenant of salt for ever before the Lord" is an indissoluble covenant (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5; Ezra 4:14, margin). Being "salted with the salt of the (heavenly King's) palace," and bound to fidelity to Him, and brought into a covenant of salt with Him, they are called on to have a loving, imperishable savour toward one another and to all men. ...
The southern shore of the Salt Sea supplied, salt abundantly; compare "the valley of salt" (2 Samuel 8:13) near the mountain of fossil salt, five miles long, the chief source of the salt in the sea. The salt pits (a source of revenue; Josephus Ant. of the Dead Sea; the marshes here are coated with salt deposited periodically by the spring rising of the waters which in summer evaporate; and here were the pillars of salt traditionally represented as Lot's wife (Josephus Ant. The Israelites used to rub infants with salt to make the skin dense and firm, and for purification and dedication of them to God (Ezekiel 16:4)
Dispersion - Nebuchadnezzar transplanted to Babylonia the choicest of the Judæan population (2 Kings 24:12-16 ; 2 Kings 25:11 , Jeremiah 52:15 ). Many others migrated to Egypt under the Ptolemys ( Ant . (312 280) gave the Jews rights in all the cities founded by him in Syria and Asia ( Ant . Jews were in all this region, as well as in Greece and Rome, in the most important centres about the Mediterranean, and had also penetrated to Arabia ( Acts 2:11 ). , the legitimate Aaronic high priest, who had left Palestine because he hated Antiochus IV
Proselyte (2) - Galatians 5:3), and they were granted privileges almost equal to those of an Israelite. 40, Ant. ...
From these proselytes a very considerable revenue was received by the Temple authorities (Josephus Ant. This pecuniary advantage from the spread of Judaism stimulated activity in proselytizing, such as that noticed by Christ in Matthew 23:15. Some Jews fraudulently enriched themselves from the gifts of proselytes (Josephus Ant. ...
Illustrations of the fanatical zeal of the Jews in making proselytes are found in Josephus Life, 23, Ant. ...
The account of the Acts shows that proselytes often became converts to Christianity, and this was an important factor in the establishment of the Gentile Christian Church. We find: (1) The centurion (Matthew 8:5-13, Luke 7:1-10), who was an officer in the army of Herod Antipas
Pharisees - 14), and asserts that in Rabbinical literature the root p-r-sh is constantly found used in the sense of ‘explain,’ ‘expound,’ or ‘interpret,’ in reference to Scripture which is explained in the interests of the Oral Law (Cesterley, Books of the Apocrypha, p. Ant. Ant. Passionately devoted to the Law as they were, they interpreted and applied it in a more tolerant, generous sense than the Sadducees (Ant. Ant. Though Josephus is desirous of representing them as a distinct party, he is compelled to admit this (Ant. How soon this Anti-Judaism began, and to what extent if any it is present in the NT writings, are problems that require investigation
Sadducees - In Ant. , but there we find only a scanty reference to Pharisees and Sadducees, while his notice of the Essenes is full. Its difficulties are obvious, a chief one being that we cannot argue safely from modern Persian to an Ante-Christian usage. Ant. ...
All other sources fully bear out the accuracy of this statement, which in a sense is the most important that we have. It explains why they were more rigid than the Pharisees in enforcing the penal law (Ant. It would be misleading to call the Sadducees the Protestants of Judaism, but there is some similarity between their divergence from the Pharisees and the divergence of Protestants from Roman Catholics on the question of authority. On the one hand, the complexities of life convinced the Sadducees that cases had to be met for which there was no definite guidance in the written Word, and popular feeling compelled them to fall in with the procedure of the Pharisees (Ant. ...
While the Pharisees, he tells us, hold that some things in the world happen by the will of Providence, and that other things lie in the power of men, ‘the Sadducees take away Providence, and say there is no such thing, and that the events of human affairs are not at its disposal; but they suppose that all our actions are in our own power’ (Ant. Again, while Rabbinical writings contain no evidence of any dispute with the Pharisees on this topic-a silence which is very significant-the Zadokite fragments show the Sadducean doctrine of God to be in harmony with OT teaching (see Cesterley, op. ’ And he argues that what is meant is that Sadducees did not believe that the departed become angels or spirits (op. Ant. On the other hand, it is important to remember that the common notion that they were mere politicians and irreligious has absolutely no foundation in the authentic evidence we possess. Josephus informs us that they were responsible for the death of James, the brother of the Lord (Ant. Significant also is the stress laid upon His alleged threat to destroy the Temple. They were in power, and they meant to keep it, and anything that threatened to be a danger to their power or to the Temple cultus with which their power was bound up they strove to destroy
Tiberias - ]'>[1] Ant. After the fall of Jerusalem many of the Jews took up their abode in Tiberias, and by a strange reversal of fate this unclean city became a most important centre of Rabbinic teaching. ...
Constantine built a church and established a bishopric at Tiberias, but Christianity never flourished there. There is here an important mission of the United Free Church of Scotland
Taxing - The words refer to the registration of the inhabitants of Palestine, with a view to levying taxation upon them for Imperial purposes. 6 (Josephus Ant
Essenes - 7,11; Ant
Bee - The bee ( Apis fasciata ) is a very important insect of Palestine. Most of the honey consumed and exported in large quantities is made by domesticated bees. The vast numbers of flowers and especially of aromatic plants enable the skilled bee-keeper to produce the most delicately flavoured honey, e. Honey has probably always been plentiful in Palestine, hut it is very doubtful whether ‘a land flowing with milk and honey ’ could have meant the product of bees alone. ]'>[1] there is an addition to Proverbs 6:8 , in which the bee is, like the Ant, extolled for her diligence and wisdom
Sharon - 2) or οἱ δρυμοί (Ant. The use of the article with the Greek and the Hebrew noun proves that a whole district-‘the level country’ (from יָשָׁר)-is meant
Guard (2) - Herod sent some of his guards (δορυφόροι) to kill his son Antipater (Ant
Captain of the Temple - Ant. Grant
Chios - its inhabitants were said to be the wealthiest in Greece. Chios was one of the seven claimants to the honour of being the birth-place of Homer, and its pretensions received stronger support from tradition than those of any of its rivals. … And when the high winds were laid he sailed to Mitylene, and thence to Byzantium’ (Ant
Levirate Law - ...
For the statement of a problem regarding the resurrection, propounded to Jesus (Matthew 22:23-33, Mark 12:18-27, Luke 20:27-38), the Levirate law was used by the Sadducees, who are described by the Synoptists as saying that there is no resurrection, and by Josephus (Ant. Josephus Ant
Dedication, Feast of - 164 (1 Maccabees 4:36-59, 2 Maccabees 10:1-8, Josephus Ant. In particular, the ritual of both included a special illumination, which was so marked at Dedication that, according to Josephus (Ant. ’ In either case, therefore, there is special point in our Lord’s announcement in John 9:5 ‘I am the light of the world,’ in which He pointed to the brilliant illuminations of the Temple and Jerusalem generally, whether at Tabernacles or Dedication, and claimed that, while these lamps and candles made the city full of light, He Himself was giving light to the whole world
Felix - Acts 23:9) calls him ‘Antonius Felix. ’ Of his public life prior to his appointment to his procuratorship in Palestine, nothing is known; of his private life, only that he had married a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, whom Tacitus (loc. 12; Ant. Not less significant of the misery of the people was their readiness to answer the call of religious fanatics like ‘the Egyptian’ mentioned in Acts 21:38, whom Josephus (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. Ant
Herod - First, the course of world-power in Antiquity, and the relation between it and the political principle in the constitution of the Chosen People. ...
The foundations of the Herodian house were laid by Antipater, an Idumæan (Jos. ]'>[1] Ant . Antipater was a man of undistinguished family, and fought his way up by strength and cunning. Antipater’s son, Herod, had shown himself before his father’s death both masterful and merciless. His courage was high, his understanding capable of large conceptions, and his will able to adhere persistently to a distant end of action. His temperament was one of headlong passion; and when, in the later period of his life, the power and suspiciousness of the tyrant had sapped the real magnanimity of his nature, it converted him into a butcher, exercising his trade upon his own household as well as upon his opponents. ]'>[1] Ant . They stood by Herod and his descendants even when the task was not wholly pleasing. ]'>[1] Ant . His sons were set up in power, Archelaus over Judæa and Idumæa, Antipas over Galilee and Peræa, Philip over Batanæa, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. For now was born what Josephus calls ‘the fourth philosophical sect’ amongst the Jews ( Ant . Herod Antipas , called ‘the tetrarch’ ( Matthew 14:1 , Luke 3:19 ; Luke 9:7 , Acts 13:1 ), had better fortune. The corroding immorality of his race shows itself in his marriage with Herodias , his brother’s wife, and the wanton offence thereby given to Jewish sensibilities. That he was not altogether unmanned is proved by his dissuading Caligula from his insane proposal to set up a statue of himself in the Temple; for, in setting himself against the tyrant’s whim, he staked life and fortune (Jos. ]'>[1] Ant . The story of his death, wherein the Book of Acts ( Acts 12:20-23 ) and Josephus ( Ant . 2) substantially agree, brings this out
Slave, Slavery (2) - Herod ordained that thieves should be sold to foreigners; but the enactment aroused such a degree of animosity as rendered its enforcement impracticable (Josephus Ant. Ptolemy Philadelphus redeemed Jewish captives in Egypt at the price of 120 drachmae, or about £4 each (Josephus Ant. 457, 482; Josephus Ant. ...
At a time when Pharisaism was predominant, such slaves as were found in a Jewish household, whether Hebrews or aliens by birth, had on religious grounds to be treated humanely. The bond-servant of Jesus Christ can be bound to no other master; and in their equal dependence upon Him disciples cease to be able to maintain artificial distinctions of grade or privilege. ]'>[1] Ant
Manaen (2) - Antipas (Acts 13:1). But this must be read side by side with a statement of Josephus, who tells us (Ant. As Antipater, Herod’s father, was only a military governor, the prediction seemed absurd. Connexion between the later Manaen and Herod Antipas. Antipas was a son of Herod the Great, and if the old king had an elder Manaen living in his household, nothing would be more natural than that a young Herod and a young Manaen (perhaps a grandson, since Manaen the elder was a man of standing when Herod the Great was a boy) should be brought up together. Manaen may well have shared both the home-life and the subsequent education, under a private tutor at Rome, which Antipas and Archelaus enjoyed (Ant. On the other hand, Archelaus is not mentioned here, so perhaps the narrower sense of σύντροφος may be pressed, that Manaen’s mother was also nurse to Antipas. —One wonders how the companion of Herod became the servant of Christ. He may have been amongst the number of those who listened on the Jordan’s banks, and brought tidings to Antipas. At any rate, in Herod’s household he must have heard the stirring words of the rugged prophet of the old Essene type, and if Herod ‘heard gladly,’ how much more Manaen! The twin-texts, ‘Repent ye’ and ‘Behold the Lamb,’ may well have become the head-lights of his course, and the forerunner’s words have led to Christ one more fruitful servant. Besides Manaen, we know of spiritual interests kindled in Joanna, wife of Herod’s major-domo (Luke 8:3), in the king’s courtiers (βασιλικός, John 4:46), perhaps in Herodion (Romans 16:11), whose name indicates court connexions; we know, further, that there were servants to whom Herod talked on religious topics (Matthew 14:1 f. 39? If so, he may have gone to Antioch at that date, and been one of the founders of the Church in that city, which comes into view about a. At Antioch, in any case, we find him four years later occupying a position of authority (Acts 13:1). Luke also came from Antioch (Euseb. 211; Josephus Ant
Tarshish (1) - Vocalizing Turshush with Josephus ( Ant. The name probably denoted specially large merchant vessels, designed for distant voyages ( Psalms 48:7 , Isaiah 2:16 ; Isaiah 23:1 , Ezekiel 27:25 )
Zadok - Founder of an important branch of the priesthood in Jerusalem. From the time of Solomon the descendants of Zadok constituted the most prominent family among the priests, the high priests being taken from them till the time of the Maccabees. A warrior of David’s, of the house of Aaron ( 1 Chronicles 12:28 ), identified by Josephus ( Ant. One of the ‘chiefs of the people’ who sealed the covenant ( Nehemiah 10:21 )
Michmash - ) Josephus (Ant
Etam - Etam was one of Judah's descendants (1 Chronicles 4:3). Now Beit 'Arab, a steep, stony, bore knoll, standing amidst the winding, narrow valleys, without a blade of grain on its sides, but olive groves at its feet and three abundant springs. ...
Probably near the city Etam (2): distant enough from Tinmath to seem a safe retreat for Samson from the Philistines' revenge, yet not too far for them to reach in searching after him; The many springs and rocky eminences round Urtas seem the likely site where to find the rock of Etam and the En-hak-kore. " Josephus (Ant
Insurrection - Its use in these passages is important as showing that Barabbas was not merely a robber (λῃστής, John 18:40), but also a leader in one of those fierce fanatical out bursts which were so common in the last years of the Jewish nation, especially from the accession of Herod. Josephus tells of notable leaders such as Ezekias, his son Judas, and his four grandsons, all of whom were put to death (Ant
Caiaphas - Ant
Coat - This was the garment worn by free townsmen; that of peasants and slaves was no doubt shorter and looser. Josephus mentions a slave in the time of Herod the Great who was found to have an incriminating letter of his master’s concealed in his inner tunic, or true shirt (Ant
Pekah - In Pekah's weakened state Hoshea (his "friend": Josephus, Ant
Excuse - 99: ‘In the evening he sent me out of the palace, desiring to be excused that he could not entertain me all night’), παραιτεῖσθαι is used by Josephus exactly as here of declining an invitation (Ant
Agabus - 44 at Antioch, where he predicted that a great famine (q. The immediate effect of this prediction was to call forth the liberality of the Christians of Antioch and lead them to send help to the poor brethren of Judaea (Acts 11:29). 43), and Josephus testifies to the severity of the famine in Palestine and refers to measures adopted for its relief (Ant. Tradition makes him one of the ‘seventy’ and a martyr at Antioch
Clean, Unclean, Common - We see the process with κοινός in Hebrews 10:29 -‘counted the blood of the covenant a common Alexandrians - Till the time of Augustus the Jews were presided over by an ethnarch, who, according to Strabo (quoted by Josephus, Ant. Ant
Weights And Measures - These are naturally scanty and obscure. The situation was not unlike that of modern Syria, with its bewildering confusion of coinage and other standards of value, brought in and grafted on the native system by French, German, and English merchants. But Josephus (Ant. of Antiq. ...
As to the equivalency of the seah in the classical Graeco-Roman system, the following data give testimony: Josephus (Ant. Ant. of Ant. and Ant
Zebedee - He was with James and John in a boat when they were summoned by Jesus (Matthew 4:21), and their call as disciples left him with the hired servants (Mark 1:20), and broke up the partnership with Simon. Josephus, indeed, tells us (Ant. It remains in this condition all winter, and often contains a large quantity of water till June or July. There is nothing of the nature of forests now except in the west and southwest—beside Shefâ-‘Amr and el-Hâritîye, still there is abundant evidence to show that in the 1st cent. Antoninus Martyr (6th cent. ) draws a most enchanting picture of the regions around Nazareth, and he compares the district to Paradise (Itiner. 1; Ant. 1; Ant. On the latter occasion the city was burned, and many of the inhabitants were sold into slavery. Such an event would be long impressed on the minds of the people, especially those of Nazareth, who from three miles distant would view the scene from the hill tops around their city. When the boy Jesus was ten years old, the land was again to pass through the horrors of war, when Judas and his Zealots held out till overcome by Gessius Florus (Ant. We learn that the inhabitants of Sepphoris had ample means. It was one of the cities rebuilt and fortified by Herod, who made it again the capital of Galilee (Ant. 1); and amongst its inhabitants were senators and citizens (Jerus. More distant were Mt. Ebal, with its memories of blessing and cursing, and Pisgah’s peak in the distant haze; while westward there would be a glimpse of the ‘great sea. —Although our Lord’s teaching was for the most part given in the tribe of Naphtali, the land of Zebulun takes precedence not only in the prophecy (Matthew 4:15), but also in historical sequence, and it is equally important for a knowledge of the Gospels. His earlier years were spent in the midst of its fierce politics, He knew the various party watchwords; He knew what was meant by ‘wars and rumours of wars’; He had come into contact with soldiers from Tabor and Sepphoris, and early learned the terrors associated with the word ‘legion’; He had met returned slaves—redeemed, freed, or fugitive; He had wrought in the villages of this tribe, and we can even think of Joseph taking the young Jesus to work with him at Sepphoris during the busy days of its rebuilding—for there was not the same objection to entering it as the polluted Tiberias
Tribute - As Son of the heavenly King He was free from the legal exactions which bound all others, since the law finds its Antitypical realization in Him the Son of God and "the end of the law" (Romans 10:4). ...
The temple offerings, for which the half shekels were collected, through Him become needless to His people also; hence they, by virtue of union with Him in justification and sanctification, are secondarily included in His pregnant saying, "then are the children (not merely the SON) free" (John 8:35-36; Galatians 4:3-7; Galatians 5:1). The legal term "the didrachma" Matthew uses as one so familiar to his readers as to need no explanation; he must therefore have written about the time, alleged, namely, some time before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, after which an explanatory comment would have been needed such as Josephus gives (Ant
Samos - Ant. Paul was sailing left Chios on a Wednesday morning, ‘struck across to Samos’-here probably the island is meant-and rounded either the west or the east extremity
Italian Band - How, then, could an auxiliary cohort be called Italian? Josephus states that there were five cohorts, composed of citizens of Caesarea and Sebaste, stationed in the former city at the time of the death of Herod Agrippa (Ant
Gibeon - Here were encamped the five kings of the Amorites when Joshua came down on them from Gilgal (Josephus, Ant
Elder - Josephus sums up correctly when he makes Moses declare: ‘Aristocracy … is the best constitution’ ( Ant
Peraea - Rough mountain heights rise from the midst of wooded slopes, while rich fields stretch between; anon romantic vales break down into mighty gorges, where the sound of running water makes music all the year. Peræa was given as a tetrarchy to Pheroras, the brother of Herod ( Ant . ), and later to Herod Antipas (XVII
Purple (2) - Its colour apparently could even be compared to the dark blue of an Eastern sky (Josephus Ant. ...
The fiery-red purple (proper) of Antiquity had practically no resemblance, as a colour, to the modern purple: the latter could never be described, even approximately, as ‘scarlet’ (Matthew 27:28)
Famine - The most important of these references is Acts 11:28, where μεγάλην, followed by ἤτις, the reading of the best Manuscripts , proclaims the noun as feminine. In Josephus, Ant. For the actual situation in Palestine compare Josephus, Ant
Armour - Ant. The cavalry wore armour like that of the infantry, with a broadsword (μάχαιρα), a buckler slung from the horse’s side, a lance, and several javelins (ἄκοντες), almost as large as spears, in a sheath or quiver. Ant
Abomination of Desolation - The original reference is clearly to the desecration of the Temple by the soldiers of Antiochus Epiphanes, the ceasing of the daily burnt-offering, and the election of an idol-altar upon the great Altar of Sacrifice in b. 168 (1 Maccabees 1:33-59; Josephus Ant. Thus it is plain that Christ, in quoting the words of Daniel, intends to foretell a desecration of the Temple (or perhaps of the Holy City) resembling that of Antiochus, and resulting in the destruction of the national life and religion. Josephus (Ant. 7) draws a similar parallel between the Jewish misfortunes under Antiochus and the desolation caused by the Romans (ὁ Δανίηλος καὶ περὶ τῆς Ῥωμαίων ἡγεμονίας ἀνέγραψε, καὶ ὅτι ὑπʼ αὐτῶν ἐρημωθήσεται). In opposition to Ananus, they set up as high priest one Phannias, ‘a man not only unworthy of the high priesthood, but ignorant of what the high priesthood was’ (ἀνὴρ οὑ μόνον ἀνάξιος ἀρχιερεὺς ἀλλʼ οὐδʼ ἐπιστάμενος σαφῶς τί ποτʼ ἧν ἀρχιερωσύνη). 493) thinks it has to do with the order of Caligula to erect in the Temple a statue of himself, to which Divine honours were to be paid (Ant. ...
(6) Bousset treats the passage as strictly eschatological, and as referring to an Antichrist who should appear in the ‘last days. But it occurs in all the Synoptists, and ‘it is difficult to think that even these words … are without a substantial basis in the words of Christ’ (Driver). Newton on Matthew 24 (1879); Bousset, Der Antichrist (1885), English translation by A
Maccabees - The name commonly given to the Jewish family otherwise known as Hasmonæans , who led the revolt against Syria under Antiochus iv. When, in accordance with the policy of Antiochus iv. Antiochus iv. , who had succeeded Antiochus iv. He sent ambassadors to Rome asking for assistance, which was granted to the extent that the Senate sent word to Demetrius i. Each made him extravagant offers, but Jonathan preferred Alexander Balas; and when the latter defeated his rival, Jonathan found himself a high priest, a prince of Syria, and military and civil governor of Judæa (b. Demetrius did not find himself strong enough to punish the Jews, but apparently bought off the siege by adding to Judæa three sections of Samaria, and granting remission of tribute. This steady advance towards independence was checked, however, by the treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho, the guardian and commanding general of the young Antiochus v. It was greatly to his advantage that the Syrian State was torn by the struggles between the aspirants to the throne. The need of that monarch was too great to warrant his refusal of Simon’s hard terms, and the political independence of Judæa was achieved (b. Josephus describes him as high priest, king, and prophet, but strangely enough the records of his reign are scanty. Antiochus vii. Antiochus was presently killed in a campaign against the Parthians, and was succeeded by the weak Demetrius ii. The affairs of Syria growing ever more desperate under the succession of feeble kings, John ceased payment of the tribute which had been exacted by Antiochus, and established a brilliant court, issuing coins as high priest and head of the Congregation of the Jews. ]'>[1] Ant . The latter, however, put his mother in prison, where she starved to death, established his brother Antigonus as joint-ruler, and threw his other three brothers into prison. In a short time, urged on by suspicion, he had his brother Antigonus killed, and he himself took the title of ‘king. ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . ]'>[1] Ant . It was at this time that Antipater, the father of Herod i. Scaurus proceeded towards Judæa to take advantage of the struggle between the two brothers. This decision, however, did not end the controversy between the brothers, and they appealed to Pompey himself, who meantime had arrived at Damascus. ]'>[1] Ant . was a weak man, but had for his adviser and major domo Antipater, an exceedingly able man. During this time Judæa was swept more completely into the current of Roman history, because of the assistance rendered by Antipater and Hyrcanus to Cæsar in his struggle with the party of Pompey in Egypt. Hyrcanus was, however, not appointed king, but ‘ethnarch,’ and Antipater was made procurator. Hyrcanus, completely under the control of Antipater, supported Cassius in the struggle which followed the death of Cæsar, but in the disturbances following the death of Brutus and Cassius espoused the cause of Antony. At this critical juncture Antipater was killed, and his two sons, Phasael and Herod, were appointed by Antony tetrarchs of the country of the Jews. Antigonus, however, the second son of Aristobulus, with the assistance of the Parthians, captured Phasael, compelled Herod to flee, and seized the State. ]'>[1] Ant . Antigonus , with his father Aristobulus, escaped from the Romans, and in b. Antigonus in b. 47 attempted unsuccessfully to induce Cæsar to establish him as king of Judæa in place of Hyrcanus and Antipater. After the death of Cæsar and during the second triumvirate, Antigonus attempted to gain the throne of Judæa with the assistance of the Parthians, and in 40 37 maintained himself with the title of ‘king and high priest. , who had been appointed king by the Romans, conquered Antigonus with the assistance of Rome. Antigonus was beheaded (b. 37) by Antony at the request of Herod (Jos. ]'>[1] Ant
Josephus - It is not, however, the man that concerns us here, but the historian; and if, even in that capacity, his talent was of a distinctly mediocre order, yet, in virtue of our interest in his subject, he is for us one of the most important historical authors we have. As against the many unreliable and merely hearsay reports of the war, and the mischievous distortions of fact emanating from Anti-Jewish feeling, Josephus proposed, as an eye-witness, to give an unbiased and veracious chronicle, which, by means of a just estimate of the Jewish people, of their good qualities and their military achievements, should not only exhibit in a clearer light the tragic element in the catastrophe they had brought upon themselves, but should also make manifest the real greatness of the Roman triumph. ...
(b) The Antiquities. -He fulfilled this design in his Antiquities of the Jews, which he completed in a. In the Antiquities Josephus recounts in twenty books the history of his people from the creation of the world. the period from the execution of Antipater and the death of Herod till the deposition of Archelaus (a. of the Antiquities run parallel with bks I. -Josephus hoped to supplement his Antiquities by a narrative bringing down the history to the reign of Domitian-i. by an abridgment and continuation of the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) (Ant. The Antiquities, however, is followed by an autobiography (Vita), written after a. the apology for Judaism in two books, in which Josephus replies to the attacks of Anion, an Alexandrian littérateur (contra Apionem), may be regarded as in some degree a compensation for the second of the projected works, and was composed subsequently to the Antiquities. in Ant. 2-14 [14]), which he seeks to divest of all political significance, and to represent as the exact counterparts of the philosophic schools of Greece (Pharisees = Stoics; Sadducees = Epicureans; and Essenes = Pythagoreans): an affinity which he tries to establish by introducing quite irrelevant considerations, such as their attitude to the problems of free-will and fate-thus misleading even modern investigators-while, as a matter of fact, the unphilosophical and non-Hellenic character of the sects reveals itself at every point. Thus Josephus, in spite of his Hellenic guise, is in all things a genuine Jew, a Palestinian Rabbi: witness, for instance-as compared with the tractates of Philo-his version of the story of Moses, where he not only gives us the name of Pharaoh’s daughter (Thermuthis), but also relates how Moses as a child was presented to Pharaoh, and how, when the king put his diadem on the child’s head, the latter threw it upon the ground; and again, how, when Moses had grown to manhood, and was in command of an Egyptian army in a war against Ethiopia, he broke a way into that all but inaccessible country by making use of ibises to destroy the serpents which obstructed the march, and further, how he captured the impregnable city of Saba (or Meroë; Philae, an island in the Nile?) by gaining the love of Tharbis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king (Ant. ]'>[18]): here Josephus states that he had personally witnessed an exorcism which a Jew named Eleazar performed before Vespasian and his officers by means of a ring, a root, and certain incantations, all associated with Solomon. But even for the latter he is not entirely dependent upon his own personal recollections, but falls back upon documents; and, in fact, while preparing this part of his Antiquities, he seems to have re-examined, and here and there to have more fully utilized, the same authorities from which he had already quoted more briefly in Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) i. As regards the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , we may certainly affirm that it is a carefully executed work, and that in the Antiquities the author has in general reproduced-though with a veneer of Hellenism-what his sources supplied. Ant. 5 [24]) cannot be verified in his extant works, and must therefore have been inadvertently taken over from the source he happened to be using. He has no regular method of dating-neither consulates nor reigns-and it is only occasionally that we find such chronological references as ‘the third year of the 177th Olympiad, when Quintus Hortensius and Quintus Metellus were consuls’ (Ant. 2-4 [25]) Josephus refers to Pilate only in connexion with the two tumults which he caused by introducing into Jerusalem standards bearing the figure of the Emperor and by using the Temple funds for the construction of an aqueduct, he apparently gives a much fuller record in Ant. ]'>[20]4) with the tumults which he had already described in Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , he describes from another source the founding of Tiberias by Herod Antipas (xviii. ), the extinction of the royal house of Commagene in the death of Antiochus (a. This outline will serve to show how little the narrative takes account of strict chronological sequence, as also-to take but one instance-how unwarranted it is of Schürer, on the supposed evidence of Josephus, to assign the foundation of Tiberias to a date after a. Similarly, from the statement of Josephus that the defeat of Herod Antipas in the war against his father-in-law Aretas of Arabia (an event which should probably be assigned to a. It is certainly true that in the Antiquities, between the two sections dealing, as noted above, with Pilate, we find the following passage (xviii. 302) from the Acta Pilati belongs to the late Byzantine recension of that work, and is in reality an echo of the very passage under consideration. ...
A second passage of similar character is Ant. version of the Ant. Berendts was able to show that in this Slavonic Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) we have a record largely divergent from the Greek text, and exhibiting a markedly Anti-Roman bias-a record, too, which, as e. Luke made use of Josephus Were this really the case, it would certainly be a fact of great importance, not only for our estimate of the Evangelist’s credibility, but also for fixing the date of his works, which, on this theory, could not have been written till after the publication of the Antiquities (a. , with its inaccurate historical sequence, Theudas-Judas of Galilee; and the error is supposed to be explained by Ant. (Ant
Nethinim - Servants of the temple (Josephus uses of them the name given to the slaves attached to the Greek temples, hiero douloi , Ant. The Gibeonites similarly, having obtained by craft a covenant from Joshua (Joshua 9:9; Joshua 9:27), "because of the name" and "fame of Jehovah, Israel's God," were made "hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and altar. "...
The Nethinim were their successors; a larger number of servants of the sanctuary being needed when David was reorganizing the worship, he and the princes "appointed" (Hebrew, "gave") Nethinim for the service of the Levites (Ezra 8:20), probably from the prisoners taken in war, upon their embracing the worship of Jehovah. So "Solomon's servants" (Ezra 2:55; Nehemiah 7:60), those "left of the Amorites, Hittites . ...
But when the Levites were slow in coming forward at the return from Babylon, 341 only under Zerubbabel as contrasted with 4,289 priests (Ezra 2:36-58) and none under Ezra until especially called (Ezra 8:15; Ezra 8:17; Ezra 8:20), the Nethinim became more conspicuous, 392 under Zerubbabel, 220 under Ezra, "all expressed by name," registered after the Levites (1 Chronicles 9:2) and admitted to join the covenant (Nehemiah 10:28, compare Deuteronomy 29:11)
Heresy - ]'>[1] ( Ant
Gadara - Josephus (Ant
Jericho - A small hamlet remained on the site, belonging to Benjamin ( Joshua 18:21 ), which was insignificant enough for David’s ambassadors to retire to, to recover from their insulting treatment by Hanun ( 2 Samuel 10:5 , 1 Chronicles 19:5 ). ]'>[1] Ant . Its inhabitants, whom the great heat of the Ghôr had deprived of fighting strength, fled before Herod ( ib. The Roman and Byzantine towns are represented by other sites in the neighbourhood. Ancient aqusducts, mills, and other Antiquities are numerous, as are also remains of early monasticism. Even yet it is an important source of fruit supply
Tax Taxing Taxation - In later tunes it appears that, though relief was sometimes granted, direct tribute, duties on salt, crown taxes, and a certain proportion of the produce of fruit trees, and corn land, with a tax on cattle were ordinarily required. Josephus' Ant
ir-ha-Heres - , after his deposition by Antiochus Epiphanes in b. Ptolemy granted him a site at Leontopolis, in the ‘nome,’ or district, of Heliopolis; and there Onias erected his temple (Jos. 1, Ant . ]'>[5] Ant . These facts have indeed no bearing on Isaiah 19:18 , supposing the passage to be really Isaiah’s; but many modern scholars are of opinion that Isaiah 19:16-25 (Isa 18:16 25) are not Isaiah’s, and even those who do not go so far as this would be ready to grant that Isaiah 19:18 b (from ‘one shall be called’) might be a later addition to the original text of Isaiah
Hair - Josephus says that young gallants among the horsemen of Solomon sprinkled gold dust on their long hair, ‘so that their heads sparkled with the reflexion of the sunbeams from the gold’ ( Ant . ]'>[2] Ant
Bear - Bears are plantigrade Carnivora, but they live largely on fruit and insects. ) An animal which has some resemblance to a bear in form or habits, but no real affinity; as, the woolly bear; Ant bear; water bear; sea bear
Basilidians - The inhabitants of the lowest heavens, which touched upon the borders of the eternal, malignant, and self-animated matter, conceived the design of forming a world from that confused mass, and of creating an order of beings to people it. ...
This design was carried into execution, and was approved by the Supreme God, who to the animal life, with which only the inhabitants of this new world were at first endowed, added a reasonable soul, giving at the same time to the angels the empire over them. The most arrogant Ant turbulent of all these angelic spirits was that which presided over the Jewish nation. ...
Hence, the Supreme God, beholding with compassion the miserable state of rational beings, who groaned under the contest of these jarring powers, sent from heaven his son Nus, or Christ, the chief of the aions, that, joined in a substantial union with the man Jesus, he might restore the knowledge of the Supreme God, destroy the empire of those angelic natures which presided over the world, and particularly that of the arrogant leader of the Jewish people
Sheba, Queen of - ...
The fantastic legends which gathered round this journey may be conveniently read in Sura 27 of the Koran, and the notes on that chapter from Mohammedan sources which Sale has collected. ]'>[2] ( Ant
Zealot - Josephus (Ant. These qualities were all abundantly illustrated in the final struggle at Jerusalem and at Masada
Eunuch - ...
The kings of Israel and Judah imitated their powerful neighbours in employing eunuchs (1) as guardians of the harem (2 Kings 9:32 , Jeremiah 41:16 ); Esther 1:12 ; Esther 4:4 are instances of Persian usage; (2) in military and other important posts ( 1Sa 8:15 , 1 Kings 22:9 , 2Ki 8:6 ; 2 Kings 23:11 ; 2 Kings 24:12 ; 2Ki 24:15 ; 2 Kings 25:19 , 1 Chronicles 28:1 , 2 Chronicles 18:8 , Jeremiah 29:2 ; Jeremiah 34:19 ; Jeremiah 38:7 ; cf. ]'>[3] Ant
Gerizim - " Now in Genesis 22:14 he sees that "God" (the Εlohim whose resources he knew to be infinite) proves Himself to be JEHOVAH the Provider for the people in covenant with Him, "Jehovah-jireh. "...
The meaning of "Moriah" "what Jehovah has made one see", alluding to "the mount of the vision of Jehovah" (Genesis 22:14), favors the view that the name "Moriah" in Genesis 22:2 is used by Anticipation, and originated in Abraham's words, Genesis 22:14. Manasseh, brother of Jaddua the high priest, married the daughter of Sanballat the Cuthaean (2 Kings 17:24), who in order to reconcile his son-in-law to this forbidden affinity obtained leave from Alexander the Great to build a temple on Gerazim (Josephus, Ant. )...
Henceforward the Samaritans and Jews assumed mutual Antagonism; but whereas the Jerusalem temple and worship were overthrown soon after our Lord's crucifixion, the Samaritan on Gerazim have continued from age to age, and the paschal lamb has been yearly offered by this interesting community; they possess a copy of the law, attributed to Manasseh, and known to the Christian fathers of the second and third centuries
Brimstone - ’]'>[1] or sulphur, is scientifically one of the most important or the non-metallic elements, widely distributed in the mineral world, sometimes pure, and sometimes chemically combined with other elements, forming sulphates and sulphides. Ant
Desolation - Josephus Ant
Brimstone - ’]'>[1] or sulphur, is scientifically one of the most important or the non-metallic elements, widely distributed in the mineral world, sometimes pure, and sometimes chemically combined with other elements, forming sulphates and sulphides. Ant
Simeon (1) - 290) in regarding Simeon as a brother of James and also of Jude though perhaps by another mother (Mill Pantheistic Principles pp. According to Hegesippus Simeon was unanimously chosen to fill the vacant see of Jerusalem on the violent death of James the Just the date usually assigned for which being 62 or 63 (see Josephus Ant. His retreat at Pella would save him from the inquisition after descendants of the royal line of David made by Vespasian according to Eusebius (H. Hegesippus says that in his 121st year Simeon was accused before Atticus then proconsul by certain Jewish sectaries first that being of the line of David he was a possible claimant of the throne of his royal ancestor and secondly that he was a Christian
James, the Lord's Brother - ...
He in understood to be meant by the modest self-designation ‘James the servant of the Lord’ (James 1:1), and the author of the Ep. ’ In view of the fact that he seems to have remained constantly at Jerusalem, it is at least uncertain whether he is included among the brethren of the Lord who ‘led about’ a wife (1 Corinthians 9:5). )...
Turning to the extra-canonical references, we find in Josephus (Ant. Burkitt has lately defended, the genuineness of the famous reference to Jesus in Josephus, Ant. Among other personal traits Hegesippus mentions that James was a Nazirite and strict ascetic, and that, so constant was he in prayer, his knees had become hard as a camel’s. There is a variant of the martyrdom story in Clem. , where, after James has shown ‘by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ,’ a tumult is raised by an enemy, and he is hurled from the Temple steps and left for dead, but recovers. Sieffert, in Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche 3, viii
Herod - Antipas, son of Herod the Great by the Samaritan Malthace. Ant. The other reference to Herod Antipas (Acts 13:1) is unimportant, though of some interest for the sidelight it casts upon the age of Manaen (q. ]'>[1] ), one of the leaders in the Church at Antioch, who is said to have been his foster-brother or early companion. 23 his intrigues and extravagances had brought him to such straits that he was forced to retire to the Idumaean stronghold of Malatha till be found an asylum with Antipas in Galilee. The new Emperor bestowed on him the eastern tetrarchy of his half-uncle Philip, which had been vacant for three years, with the title of king, and added to it Abilene, the former tetrarchy of Lysanias in north-eastern Palestine (Luke 3:1); at the same time he commanded the Senate to decree him praetorian honours, and gave him a golden chain of the same weight and pattern as that which he had worn in his captivity. A few years later the tetrarchy of the exiled Antipas was also conferred on him; and in a. Ant. ‘He saw it pleased the Jews’ is the explanation given of this severity in Acts (acts 12:3), and there is no reason to doubt its substantial accuracy. Between the account of his death given in Acts (acts 12:20-23) and that of Josephus (Ant. There is nothing about his having been ‘eaten of worms,’ which may have been only a descriptive phrase commonly used of the death of tyrants (2 Maccabees 9:9). Disposed at first to grant him the succession to the Jewish kingdom, Claudius allowed himself to the dissuaded by his ministers, and re-transformed it into a Roman province
Uz - ]'>[3] Huz ), whose descendants are placed in Aram-naharaim ( Genesis 24:10 ). A district containing a number of kings, situated between Philistia and Egypt, or, with a different pointing of the consonants of one word, between Philistia and the country of the Bedouin ( Jeremiah 25:20 : the name not in LXX Lydia - 16) time; see also Josephus Ant
Hunting - The hunting dog is not mentioned; but it is familiar to Josephus ( Ant
Hiram - So he made a "league" with his son Solomon (beriyt , "a covenant," recognizing Jehovah, and guaranteeing to Jewish sojourners at Tyre religious liberty). " Hiram gave Solomon for the temple cedars and firs, and gold, six score talents, according to all his desire, and Solomon in return gave Hiram 20,000 measures of wheat and 26 measures of pure oil yearly; the mercantile coast cities being dependent on the grain and olive abounding region of Palestine (Acts 12:20 end). ...
Tyre is threatened with punishment for delivering the Jewish captives to Edom, and not remembering "the brotherly covenant," namely, between Hiram and David and Solomon. Hiram sent also in the navy expert shipmen to Ophir from Ezion-Geber, with Solomon's servants; and a navy. Josephus (Ant
Famine - The famine of Acts 11:28 is usually identified with one mentioned by Josephus ( Ant
Interest - Now neshekh is rightly rendered ‘usury,’ the reference being to the interest, often exorbitant, charged by money-lenders in the ancient East. of Ant
Cherubim - In Solomon’s Temple there were two colossal cherubim whose out-spread wings filled the most holy place (1 Kings 6:23-28), but in the ideal description of the Tabernacle two much smaller figures are represented as standing on the ark of the covenant itself (which was only about four feet long), facing each other and overshadowing the place of God’s presence. It is significant that while precise directions are given regarding their material, position, and attitude, nothing is said of their shape except that they were winged. While Lenormant (Les Origines, 1880-84, i, 112f. ’ As the symbols were blazoned on the doors, walls, and curtains of the Temple, their general appearance must originally have been quite well known, but time once more threw a veil of mystery over them, and Josephus declares that ‘no one can tell or guess what the cherubim, were like’ (Ant
Nobleman - 2, Ant. The ‘king’ in whose court this officer served was Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee. He has wrongly been identified with the ‘centurion’ (ἑκατόνταρχος) referred to in Matthew 8:5 and Luke 7:2,—a Gentile officer in the army of Antipas. To identify the healing of the nobleman’s son with the healing of the centurion’s servant is not only to manufacture discrepancies, but also to lose the light which the earlier miracle casts upon the later one. ); the strong faith of the centurion (Matthew 8:10) ‘becomes intelligible, without ceasing to be admirable, when we reflect that he was evidently aware of the miracle formerly wrought for another inhabitant of the same city, an eminent person, one of the court which his own sword protected
Pinnacle - Some understand the apex of the roof of the Temple building to be meant. Josephus (Ant
Murder - 5) he says that the majority of the 30,000 followers were captured or slain, and in the other (Ant. ’ In later days it was a commonplace of Anti-Christian abuse to charge Christians with the horrors of child-slaying and cannibalism, but there seems to be no sufficient reason for reading into the passage quoted any reference to these charges
Sadducees - Matthew (as distinguished from Mark) does not usually explain Jewish usages, taking for granted that his readers are familiar with them. say there is no resurrection" is cleared up by what Josephus (Ant. 1105) states that Antigonus of Socho (mentioned in the Mishna, Avoth 1, as having received the oral law from Simon the Just, last of the great synagogue). had two disciples, who in turn taught disciples his saying "be not like servants who serve their master for the sake of reward, but serve without view of reward"; and that the disciples reasoned, "if our fathers had known that there is another world, and a resurrection of the dead, they would not have spoken thus"; so they separated themselves from the law (and denied there is another world and a resurrection); "so there arose two sects, the Zadokites from Zadok, and Baithusians from Baithos. " But this does not justify the modern notion that Zadok himself misinterpreted Antigonus' saying; still the Sadducees might claim this Zadok as their head. The Sadducees make all things in the power of ourselves as the causes of our good things, and meeting with evils through our own inconsiderateness" (Ant. The Sadducees, the Pharisees, and the Herodians of Jesus' day represent the three schools Antagonistic to vital Christianity in our days: infidelity; superstition, spiritualism and spiritual pride; worldly compromise. This "leaven" (see Leviticus 2:11; 1 Corinthians 5:8) Jesus warns against; called "doctrine" in Matthew 16:12, "hypocrisy" in Luke 12:1, "the leaven of Herod" Mark 8:15; Antichrist's Antitrinity, the three frogs out of the mouth of the dragon, the false prophet, and the beast (John 18:3)
Ananias - Much has been written on the need in the infant Church of such a solemn warning against a type of hypocrisy which, had it become prevalent, would have rendered the existence of the Christian community impossible. Neander, Planting of Christianity, ed. He ruled in Jerusalem with all the arbitrariness of an Oriental despot, and his violence and rapacity are noted by Josephus (Ant. -Josephus, Ant
Balaam - ]'>[1] Ant . This time permission was granted. 23, with its elaborate building of altars and offering of sacrifices, seems to belong to a later date; while the constant shifting of position in the effort to secure a more favourable oracle presents Balaam in a much more unfavourable light than before. ]'>[1] Ant
Herod - Of Idumean descent (Josephus, Ant. Eschewing Antiochus Epiphanes' design to Graecize Jerusalem by substituting the Greek worship and customs for the Jewish law, the Herod's, while professing to maintain the law, as effectively set at nought its spirit by making it a lever for elevating themselves and their secular kingdom. ...
Thus a descendant of Esau tried still to get from Jacob the forfeited blessing (
Genesis 27:29; Genesis 27:40), in vain setting up an earthly kingdom on a professed Jewish basis, to rival Messiah's spiritual kingdom, as it was then being fore-announced by John Baptist. HEROD THE GREAT (Matthew 2; Luke 1:5), second son of Antipater (who was appointed by Julius Caesar procurator of Judaea, 47 B. At the time of Antipater's elevation, though only 15 (or as other passages of Josephus make probable, 20), he received the government of Galilee and soon afterwards Coelo-Syria. He skillfully gained the favor of Antony, who made him and his elder brother Phasael joint tetrarchs of Judea. Forced to abandon Judaea by the Parthians, who supported Antigonus the representative of the Asmonaean dynasty, Herod fled to Rome (40 B. ), where he was well received by Antony and Octavian, and made by the senate "king of Judea. ...
Undertaking next for Antony an expedition to Arabia against Malchus, he thereby escaped taking share in the war between Antony his patron and Octavian. He put to death successively Hyrcanus, his wife Mariamne's grandfather, Mariamne herself to whom he had been passionately attached, his two sons by her, Alexander and Aristobulus, and just four days before his death signed the order for executing their bitter accuser, his oldest son Antipater. Josephus does not notice this, probably both because of his studied reserve as to Jesus' claims, and also because the slaughter of a comparatively few infants in a village seemed unimportant as compared with his other abounding deeds of atrocity. 410) says that "when Augustus heard that among the children whom Herod ordered to be killed Herod's own son (Antipater) was slain, he remarked, It would be better to be one of Herod's swine than Herod's sons," punning on the similar sounding Greek terms for "son" and "swine", hus , huios . Josephus records what illustrates the Scripture account of the massacre of the innocents; "Herod slew all those of his own family who sided with the Pharisees, looking forward to a change in the royal line" (Ant. Menahem did not define the time, but in answer to Herod's question whether ten years or not, replied, Yes 20, nay 30 years" (Ant. For Herod was not a born Jew, much less born king of the Jews, but an Idumean alien, made king by the Anti-Jewish world power, Rome. Unimportant as the event seemed to the world, the murder of the innocents was the consummation of his guilt before God, and places him among the foremost of Satan's and the world's foretold (Jeremiah 31:15) representative adversaries of the Lord and His church, answering to the Pharaoh who oppressed Christ's type, Israel, murdering the male children in the nation's infancy in order to stifle the nation's first beginnings; but in vain, for God secured the nation's Exodus from Egypt by the tyrant's overthrow, just as subsequently He saved Jesus and destroyed Herod, and in due time "called His (antitypical) Son out of Egypt" (Matthew 2:15; compare Hosea 11:1). Thereupon he erected the castle of Antonia, near the temple, to overawe the disaffected. AntIPAS contracted for Antipater; son of Herod the Great by a Samaritan, Malthake. ...
(Josephus, Ant. ...
When Christ appeared conscience reasserted her supremacy; he said unto his servants, "This is John the Baptist, therefore mighty works do show forth themselves in him. ...
So Herod and Pilate are coupled together in their divinely foretold Anti-Christianity (
Acts 4:25-27; Psalms 2:1-2, etc. " Josephus states that the Herod who slew James (Acts 12) was "not at all like that Herod who reigned before him, he took pleasure in constantly living in Jerusalem" (Ant. 19:7, section 3); this proves that Herod Antipas did not reside much at Jerusalem. So Pilate's usual residence was at Caesarea, the abode of the Roman governors of Judea (Ant. He married Herodias, sister of Agrippa I, by whom he had Salome, the daughter who by dancing pleased Herod AntIPAS (see above), the paramour of her own mother and dishonourer of her father! Owing to his own mother Mariamne's treachery, Herod Philip I was excluded from all share in his father's dominions, and lived privately. Galilee and Peraea were added to his dominions on the exile of Herod AntIPAS (see above), whom, notwithstanding the kindnesses he formerly when in difficulties received from him, Agrippa supplanted by intrigues at Rome. 44) he attended games at Caesarea "in behalf of the emperor's safety" (possibly on his return from Britain), according to Josephus (Ant. ...
Providence thus instantly reproves the lying words you just now addressed to me, and I who was by you called immortal am immediately to be hurried away by death
Superstitious - It is used in a bad sense, for instance, by later writers, as Josephus (Ant. It is unlikely that he meant to convey the idea of reproof, but he certainly meant ‘superstitious
Miriam - She watched her infant brother in the ark on the Nile, and suggested to Pharaoh's daughter the mother as a nurse. ...
Her prophetic gift was perverted into a ground of jealousy of Moses, whose foreign Ethiopian wife, just espoused, to Miriam's disappointment had supplanted her from the influence which she had with Moses after Zipporah's death. in Jerome) time at Petra; but Josephus Ant
Council - ) was an illegal assumption of power, an outbreak of fanatical violence, as also the execution of the apostle James in the procurator's absence (Josephus, Ant
Salamis - (Σαλαμίς)...
Salamis, the most important city of ancient Cyprus, was the first place visited by St. Situated at the eastern extremity of the island, about equidistant from Cilicia in the north and Syria in the east, it was the emporium of the wide and fertile plain of Salaminia, which stretched inward between two mountain ranges as far as Nicosia, the present capital of Cyprus. The same waters witnessed the greatest sea-fight of ancient times, in which Demetrius the son of Antigonus achieved in 306 b. a brilliant victory over Ptolemy Soter and thus wrested the island from him. Ant. ‘Hadrian, afterwards Emperor, landed on the island, and marched to the assistance of the few inhabitants who had been able to act on the defensive. If one were accidentally wrecked on the inhospitable shore, he was instantly put to death’ (H. Devastated by earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine, Salamis was restored by Constantius II and named Constantia. 477, and the Emperor Zeno consequently made the Cyprian Church independent of the patriarchate of Antioch
Tiberias - Josephus (Ant. 2:9, section 1) says it was built by Herod Antipas, and named in honour of the emperor Tiberius. Antipas built in Tiberias a Roman stadium and palace adorned with images of animals which offended the Jews, as did also its site on an ancient burial ground. Our Lord avoided Tiberias on account of the cunning and unscrupulous character of Herod Antipas whose headquarters were there (Luke 13:32); Herod never saw Him until just before the crucifixion (Luke 23:8). The Romans recognized the patriarch of Tiberias and empowered him to appoint his subordinate ministers who should visit all the distant colonies of Jews, and to receive contributions from the Jews of the whole Roman empire. ...
The colony round Tiberias flourished under the emperors Antoninus Plus, Alexander Severus, and Julian, in the second and third centuries. (See SYNAGOGUE on the Roman character of the existing remains of synagogues in Palestine, due no doubt to the patronage of Antoninus Pius and Alexander Severus, the great builders and restorers of temples in Syria
Tower - 222) suggests that the tower may have been connected with the building of the aqueduct constructed by Pilate with money taken from the temple treasury (Josephus Ant. For the Tower of Antonia see art
Lydda - ) Cassius sold the inhabitants of Lydda into slavery for refusing the sinews of war, but Antony gave them back their liberty (Ant. His relics were taken to Lydda, and round his name was gradually woven a tissue of legend, in which the Greek myth of Perseus and Andromeda (see Joppa), the Moslem idea of Elijah (or alternatively of Jesus) as the destined destroyer of the Impostor (al-dajjâl) or Antichrist, and the old Hebrew story of the fall of Dagon before the ark, were all inextricably intertwined, till Lydda became the shrine of St
Coat (2) - ’ Josephus (Ant
Ararat - distant and 4000 ft. This seems the view of Joseph us ( Ant . On this principle the ultimate selection of the imposing Mount Massis would be almost inevitable: and it is probable that this is the view of Genesis 8:4 , although the alternative hypothesis that Jebel Jûdî is meant has still some claim to be considered
Assassins - 1), whom Josephus describes as an able man and a descendant of that Judas who had led the revolt against the census under Quirinius. Josephus mentions this Egyptian as having appeared during the procuratorship of Felix, but does not connect the Sicarii with him (Ant
Allegory - , the veiled meaning is the more important, if not indeed the only true one, and is supposed to have been primary in the intention of the writer, or of God who inspired the writer. ]'>[1] ), a half-century or so later, says that Moses taught many things ‘under a decent allegory’ (Ant. Paul claims to be allegorizing when he finds the two covenants not only prefigured, but the validity of his idea of two covenants proved, in the story of Hagar (q
Ptolemais - Ant. The Romans used it as a base of operations in the Jewish war, at the outbreak of which its inhabitants proved their loyalty to Rome by massacring 2,000 Jews resident in the city and putting others in bonds (Jos
Puteoli - 5)-but the haven for the merchant-ships of Syria and Egypt in the east, of Carthage and Spain in the west. The mercantile supremacy of Puteoli is explained by Strabo (c. Ant. Paul found Christianity already planted in that great commercial city. Dubois, Pouzzoles Antique, 1908; C
Urbanus, Bishop of Sicca Veneria - of Sicca Veneria, a town of proconsular Africa (Kaff) 22 miles from Musti (Ant. He proposed that reference should be made by themselves and by Boniface to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch, to obtain information as to its genuineness
Nazirite - ...
Opinions differ as to whether the abstinence from wine or the untrimmed hair was the more important. If we look outside the OT, we see that among the ancients generally the hair was regarded as so important an outcome of the physical life as to be a fit offering to the deity, and a means of initiating or restoring communion with Him. ]'>[3] Ant . (2) The important tractate of the Talmud entitled Berakhoth tells a story of slightly later date than the above, which illustrates the ingenuity which the Rabbis displayed in finding reasons for releasing from their vows persons who had rashly undertaken them (vii. ]'>[3] Ant
Proselyte - In the former case, προσήλυτος originally meant advena, ‘new-comer’ (for which the classical equivalent is ἔπηλυς); in the latter, it meant ‘proselyte’ in the sense of ‘one who comes or draws near to God. 7, τούτους δὲ καλεῖ προσηλύτους ἀπὸ τοῦ προσεληλυθέναι καινῇ καὶ φιλοθέῳ πολιτείᾳ), and also the words of Josephus (Ant. 245a), and ‘the proselyte of righteousness’, who by complete adoption of Israel’s laws became incorporated with the covenant people (HDB_ ii. It had its precedents, however, in the differences of religious standing observable among the in Israel; while the σεβόμενοι τὸν θεόν mentioned by Josephus (Ant. (2) There were proselytes among the multitude who witnessed the miracle of Pentecost (Acts 2:10), some of whom may have been added to the Church; the selection of ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch’ (Acts 6:5) as one of the seven deacons indicates that there was a certain proportion of men of his class in the primitive Christian community. ’ (6) Lydia (Acts 16:14), Titus Justus (Acts 18:7), and the σεβόμενοι of Thessalonica and Athens (Acts 17:4; Acts 17:17) illustrate the important aid that members of this class gave to St. Some of the proselytes whom he mentions by name were acquisitions of very doubtful value, as the kings Azizus of Emesa and Polemo of Cilicia, who were prompted to embrace Judaism by the desire to contract advantageous marriages with Herodian princesses (Ant. ...
It should be mentioned that in two passages of the LXX_ where a proselyte proper is meant (Exodus 12:19, Isaiah 14:1) ðÌÅø is rendered, not by προσήλυτος but by γειώρας, an Aramaic word derived from ðÌÅø (HDB_ iv
Tadmor - (That it is really the city of Tadmor so famous in after times that is meant, is confirmed by the equally unhistorical details given in 2 Chronicles 8:3-4 regarding the Syrian cities of Hamath and Zobah. But the correction supplies a very important evidence that at the time when Chronicles was composed ( c
Neither in the OT nor in the NT is there any other mention of Tadmor (Palmyra), and Josephus names it only when he reproduces the above passage of Chronicles ( Ant
Censer - 7), Josephus (Ant
Esarhaddon - The Assyrian inscriptions state that for some months after his accession he warred with his half brothers (Rawlinson, Ant. and the Antechamber 160 by 60. Though distressed on the way by want of water, he at last drove Tirhakah out of Egypt
Supper (2) - ; Josephus Ant. The guests reclined upon the outside, and the servants ministered from the inside
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - The enemies Tyre, Sidon, the Philistines, Edom, and Egypt (Joel 3:4; Joel 3:19), are types of the last confederacy under Antichrist (Revelation 16; Revelation 17; Revelation 19), which shall assail restored Israel and shall be judged by Jehovah. As Jehoshaphat means "the judgment of Jehovah," "the valley of Jehoshaphat" is probably the general name for the scene of His judgment, Jehoshaphat's victory over the godless horde that sought to dispossess Judah typifying the last victory over the Anti-Christian host that shall seek to dispossess restored Israel (Ezekiel 38-39). )...
Some great plain Anti-typical to the two valleys will probably be the scene of the last conflict. " Josephus (Ant
Queen (2) - Littmann; also Josephus Ant
Linen - ]'>[3] Ant
Michael - the patron or guardian angel of Israel, in Antithesis to the ‘prince’ of Persia and the ‘prince’ of Greece (Daniel 10:20). The significant thing here is the position assigned to Michael. Bousset, Der Antichrist, 1895, p. Ant. This is the only place in the NT besides Judges 1:9 where the word ‘archangel’ occurs, and though the archangel in this case is not named, it is natural to suppose that the great archangel is meant
Games (2) - Herod is said by Josephus (Ant. It is clear that to Him the body was not an end in itself (Matthew 10:28), but must become the docile servant of the soul (Matthew 18:8), even at the cost of severe discipline
on (2) - Josephus (Ant 10:9, section 7) says Nebuchadnezzar, the fifth year after Jerusalem's fall, left the siege of Tyre to march against Egypt
Sidon - An ancient mercantile city of Phoenicia, in the narrow plain between Lebanon and the Mediterranean, where the mountains recede two miles from the sea; 20 miles N. ...
Justin Martyr makes (Judges 18:3) Tyre a colony planted by Sidon when the king of Ascalon took Sidon the year before the fall of Troy. Thus Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians (1 Kings 16:31), is called by Menander in Josephus (Ant. On a coin of the age of Antiochus IV Tyre claims to be "mother of the Sidonians," being at that time the capital city
Bartholomew - ’ In the LXX Septuagint Talmai has many variants (Θολμί, Θολμεί, Θαλαμεί, Θολομεί, Θολμαίλημ): and in Josephus (Ant
Ambassage - Both forms are obsolete, being supplanted by embassy, the direct equivalent of ambassade. While the servants of the distant dignitary are, in his absence, carrying out instructions and using opportunities, a section of his subjects resolve to cast off his authority. The former corresponds with the struggle between Antipas and his father-in-law, Hareth, king of Arabia; the latter is illustrated by Herod, by Archelaus, and by Antipas, each of whom went to Rome to obtain an enhancement of power. But details apply to the case of Archelaus, who put his friends in command of cities, and against whom the Jews sent to the emperor an embassy of fifty men (Josephus Ant
Praetorium - prœtorium, which originally meant the tent of the commander of an army, and then the official residence of a provincial governor; other senses, such as that of the Imperial bodyguard or even of a spacious country house, were gradually acquired. More can be said in favour of Pilate’s occupation of the castle of Antonia, which stood to the north-west of the Temple area. Josephus (Ant. 4) describes it as a citadel, with abundant accommodation, and connected with the precincts of the Temple by a private way. It is true that the proximity of Antonia to the Temple would be a convenience to the priests and Sanhedrists, and save them from the toil of attendance at the more remote palace: but Pilate was not the man to study the wishes or comfort of the Jewish leaders at the cost of any discomfort to himself. When sentence was pronounced, Jesus was led away by the soldiers to Antonia, where they were themselves quartered, and where prisoners were ordinarily detained. Such a usage of the term is Anticipated, if not illustrated, in Livy (Hist
Edom, Edomites - , for by 312 they were in this region, and Antigonus and Demetrius came in, contact with them (cf. ]'>[2] Ant
Praetorium - prœtorium, which originally meant the tent of the commander of an army, and then the official residence of a provincial governor; other senses, such as that of the Imperial bodyguard or even of a spacious country house, were gradually acquired. More can be said in favour of Pilate’s occupation of the castle of Antonia, which stood to the north-west of the Temple area. Josephus (Ant. 4) describes it as a citadel, with abundant accommodation, and connected with the precincts of the Temple by a private way. It is true that the proximity of Antonia to the Temple would be a convenience to the priests and Sanhedrists, and save them from the toil of attendance at the more remote palace: but Pilate was not the man to study the wishes or comfort of the Jewish leaders at the cost of any discomfort to himself. When sentence was pronounced, Jesus was led away by the soldiers to Antonia, where they were themselves quartered, and where prisoners were ordinarily detained. Such a usage of the term is Anticipated, if not illustrated, in Livy (Hist
Essenes - , Ant. ...
As to worship, they differed from normal Judaism in two important points: (a) they rejected animal sacrifice, and sent to the Temple only offerings of incense (Jos. Ant. ...
In doctrine they held strongly a doctrine of Providence, appearing to Josephus to be fatalists (Ant. ...
(2) Did the Apostolic Church copy the Order?-The resemblances are striking, and we shall mention and examine the most important. Ant. And they are important as showing that in essence there was a pre-Christian Gnosticism, (b) They influenced those Jewish Christians who came into contact with them (see article Ebionism). 2, xx, 3) identifies Elkesaites with Sampsœans (sun-worshippers), and calls them a remnant of the Essenes who had adopted a debased form of Christianity. ’ The obscurity is all the more tantalizing because we know enough to perceive that for the history of religion the Essenes are of surpassing interest and importance. -This is very abundant
Pharisees - In contrast to "mingling" with Grecian and other heathen customs, which Antiochus Epiphanes partially effected, breaking down the barrier of God's law which separated Israel from pagandom, however refined. In Antiochus' time this narrowness became intensified in opposition to the rationalistic compromises of many. They "resolved fully not to eat any unclean thing, choosing rather to die that they might not be defiled: and profame the holy covenant. ...
So the beginning of the Pharisees was patriotism and faithfulness to the covenant. Josephus (Ant. ...
The defect in the Pharisees which Christ stigmatized by the parable of the two debtors was not immorality but want of love, from unconsciousness of forgiveness or of the need of it. 2:8, section 14; 3:8, section 5;
Ant. The Jews' question merely took for granted that some sin had caused the blindness, without defining whose sin, "this man" or (as that is out of the question) "his parents. The phrase "the world to come" (Mark 10:30; Luke 18:30; compare Isaiah 65:17-22; Isaiah 26:19) often occurs in the Mishna (Avoth, 2:7; 4:16): this world may be likened to a courtyard in comparison of the world to come, therefore prepare thyself in the Antechamber that thou mayest enter into the dining room"; "those born are doomed to die, the dead to live, and the quick to be judged," etc. ...
The Pharisees were notorious for proselytizing zeal (Matthew 23:15), and seem to have been the first who regularly organized missions for conversions (compare Josephus, Ant
Quirinius - 6 to 9, and that in that period he took the rating census mentioned in Acts 5:37 (Josephus Ant. The narratives of the two Evangelists seem to be at hopeless variance on a most important point. We might suppose that the clause Luke 2:2 was not in the original narrative, but was a marginal date inserted by an early copyist, who made a mistake as to the census intended; but the Manuscripts afford no warrant for this suggestion. The name has perished, but from the facts recorded Antiquarians of note agree in believing that he was Quirinius. [1]. 9 Sentius Saturninus succeeded Marcus Titius, and Josephus (Ant. 2) says: ‘Now Quintilius Varus was at this time at Jerusalem, being sent to succeed Saturninus as president of Syria’; and this statement is verified by coins of Antioch-in-Syria bearing his name with date. 19) states that the census at the time of Christ’s birth was taken by Saturninus, not Quirinius, and thus seems to correct the narrative; but that must be merely because he knew that the enrolment had been decided upon during the civil governorship of Saturninus: he cannot have meant that it was actually accomplished then; for that would be utterly inconsistent with the date he elsewhere (adv
Laodicea - -Laodicea was an important seat of commerce in the Roman province of Asia, one of three cities in the Lycus valley which were evangelized about the same time. Founded probably by the Seleucid king Antiochus ii. Imperial funds were usually given for the restoration of cities thus injured, and Laodicea accepted a grant from Tiberius after such a calamity, but of a later visitation Tacitus writes: ‘The same year Sanhedrin (2) - Names and Composition...
(a) Of the whole body: (α) Greek: (1) συνέδριον, so first, in point of historical reference, in Josephus Ant. (2) γερουσία, first, in point of reference, in Ant. (1) Most important of all were the ἀρχιερεῖς, the chief priests, the members of the sacerdotal aristocraey. also Josephus Ant. The chief priests and elders belonged in general to the Sadducee party, while the scribes formed the Pharisee element, which, however influential among the people, was seldom in the ascendant in the Sanhedrin. When the crisis came under Antiochus Epiphanes, the aristocratic caste, and consequently the γερουσία, or Sanhedrin, was in the main ready to yield completely to the pressure of an enforced Hellenism. The old aristocracy was practically destroyed, and the remnants of it were forced to acquiesce in the rule of the new dynasty. At the time of John Hyrcanus, therefore, the Sanhedrin consisted of adherents of the Hasmonaean dynasty—the new aristocracy combined with the remnants of the old, representing two of the three elements of the later court, the chief priests and the elders—and was overwhelmingly, if not exclusively, Sadducee. * Temple - ) David cherished the design of superseding the tent and curtains by a permanent building of stone (2 Samuel 7:1-2); God praised him for having the design "in his heart" (1 Kings 8:18); but as he had been so continually in wars (1 Kings 5:3; 1 Kings 5:5), and had "shed blood abundantly" (1 Chronicles 22:8-9; 1 Chronicles 28:2-3; 1 Chronicles 28:10), the realization was reserved for Solomon his son. The stranger was not only permitted but encouraged to pray toward the temple at Jerusalem; and doubtless the thousands (153,600) of strangers, remnants of the Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites, whom Solomon employed in building the temple, were proselytes to Jehovah (2 Chronicles 2:17; 1 Chronicles 22:2). Antiochus Epiphanes profaned this temple; afterward it was cleansed or dedicated, a new altar of fresh stones made, and the feast of dedication thenceforward kept yearly (John 10:22). No ark is in it, for Jehovah the ark's Antitype shall supersede it (Jeremiah 3:16-17; Malachi 3:1). The fact that the Shekinah glory was not in the second temple whereas it is to return to the future temple proves that Zerubbabel's temple cannot be the temple meant in Ezekiel (compare Ezekiel 43:2-4). Herod sought to rival Solomon, reconcile the Jews to his dynasty as fulfilling Haggai 2:9 that the glory of the latter temple should be greater than that of the former, and so divert them from hopes of a temporal Messianic king (Josephus, Ant. one concealed passage led to the castle Antonia, the fortress commanding the temple. In the center of this is a pillar crowned with a Corinthian capital, the acanthus and the waterleaf alternating as in the Athenian temple of the winds, an arrangement never found later than Augustus' time. Westward there were four gateways to the outer enclosure of the temple (Josephus, Ant. wall was the grandest feature of all (Josephus, Ant. 5:2, Ant. "Solomon's porch" was within the outer eastern wall of the temple, and is attributed by Josephus (Ant. 265) prefers the Mishna's measurements to Josephus' (Ant
Laban (2) - Bethuel either had just died (Josephus, Ant. Ungenerously, he took 14 years of Jacob his nephew's service, when Jacob had covenanted with him for seven only; he tried to retain his labour without paying his labour's worth (Genesis 31). ) Yet he was shrewd enough to appreciate the temporal prosperity which Jacob's presence by his piety brought with it, but he had no desire to imitate his piety (Genesis 30:27), and finally, when foiled by God in his attempts to overreach and rob Jacob, Laban made a covenant with him, of which the cairn was a memorial, called by Laban, JEGAR SAHADUTHA, and by Jacob Galeed and Mizpah; it was also to be the bound beyond which neither must pass to assail the other
Army - The army was composed in early times entirely, and at all times chiefly, of infantry, the bulk of whom were armed with the spear or pike and the large shield or target (see Armour). The archers carried a sword and buckler ( 1 Chronicles 5:18 ), and with the slingers ( 2 Chronicles 26:14 ) made up the light infantry. ]'>[2] Ant . Exemption was granted in the cases specified in Deuteronomy 20:6 ff
Exorcism - An Anticipation of the later methods occurs in David’s attempt to expel Saul’s melancholia by means of music ( 1 Samuel 16:16 ; 1 Samuel 16:23 ); and in the perception of the benefit of music may possibly be found the origin of the incantations that became a marked feature of the process. ) contains many specimens of incantations; and the connexion of the Jews with that country, especially during the Exile, is an obvious explanation of the great extension both of the conception of the influence of demons and of the means adopted for their treatment. An illustration of the Jewish method may be found in Josephus ( Ant
Tithes - On coming into the land a second tenth of all produce was to be taken to Jerusalem, or, if the distance was too great, it could be turned into money, and when the offerer arrived at Jerusalem he could purchase any thing that he desired, which was to be eaten there by himself, his children, his servants, and any Levites that might be there at the time. Every third year (called 'the year of tithing') a third tenth was given according to Josephus (Ant
Oil (Olive) - Ant. The exact bearing of such facts on James 5:14 must remain obscure, but it is interesting to observe that the procedure here enjoined was Anticipated by the Twelve (Mark 6:13), though without any express injunction from Jesus
Pavement - Josephus (Ant. In Jerusalem the garrison occupied the castle of Antonia, within which would be the tribunal used in cases of military discipline, but probably not for the hearing of Jewish complaints and causes
Pilate - ’ Pontius may be derived from pons (‘bridge’), or be cognate with πέντε (‘five’); and Pilatus meant, no doubt, originally, ‘armed with the pike’ (of the Roman legionary); but we are no nearer his origin. In Matthew 27:19 he appears as married, but whether he left any descendants or not is uncertain. Thus in Jerusalem the Sanhedrin retained many judicial functions; death sentences, however, had to be confirmed by the governor, and were carried out under his supervision (John 18:31; Josephus Ant. His action in this matter showed want of tact, hot temper, and weakness; and as the occurrence took place early in his period of government, it was an evil augury for his rule (Ant. On another occasion he used money from the Temple-treasury for the building of an aqueduct, and broke up the riot which threatened by introducing disguised soldiers into the crowd (Ant. ) gives the incident of the deputation to Pilate with the request for permission to seal the tomb, and the granting of that permission. In order to get him to sign the warrant, they had to show that Jesus had committed a crime worthy of death. The procurator was in reality only an upper servant of the Emperor, and as such could be dismissed and ruined without appeal. He used armed force to suppress a fanatical movement in Samaria, which does not appear to have endangered the Roman supremacy in the slightest (Josephus Ant. , he is represented in a very favourable light; the author shows also Anti-Jewish tendencies. Acts of Peter and Paul) a so-called Letter of Pilate to Claudius (or Tiberius), which, though possibly interpolated at a later date, gives an impression of real Antiquity, and is no doubt the document referred to by Tertullian. , the date of the Apology of Tertullian: it was probably written in Greek originally, though it is extant also in Latin
Political Conditions - —Special permission had been given by Augustus to Herod to bequeath his kingdom as he liked (Josephus Ant. Under the pressure of various palace intrigues, and with a view to separate elements between which at the time there was no possible cohesion, Herod left Judaea to Archelaus, Galilee and Peraea to Antipas, and the north-eastern districts beyond Jordan to Philip. 34), when upon his death the territory was incorporated in the province of Syria, though without losing the privilege of the separate administration of its finances (Josephus Ant. The population was predominantly Syrian and Greek, with Jewish settlements in the south-west; and though Philip’s sympathies were entirely Roman, he respected the sentiments of the different classes of the people, and his long reign was disturbed by no outbreak of popular feeling, and no peremptory interference from Rome. Tetrarchy of Antipas. —The title of tetrarch was granted also to Antipas, whose dominions included the two districts of Galilee and Peraea, separated by the confederation of free Greek cities known as the Decapolis. Its population was prevailingly Jewish; though Antipas found an opportunity for the indulgence of his passion for building in the erection of Julias on the site of the ancient Beth-haram (Joshua 13:27), opposite Jericho. The administration of Antipas must have been successful on the whole, for it continued for more than forty years, though his father’s diplomacy became in him craft and meanness (Luke 13:32; Josephus Ant. (Acts 12:1; Josephus Ant. Augustus substantially confirmed Herod’s appointment; and Archelaus returned as ethnarch of the three districts. The new troops destined for the garrison of Jerusalem were ordered not, as before, to leave at Caesarea the medallions of the Emperor that were attached to the military standards, but to proceed in full equipment to their quarters in the Castle of Antonia. A riot was Anticipated; but the soldiers, dressed as citizens, were distributed among the crowd, and at a given signal turned their weapons against the people. Pilate was ordered to proceed to Rome to answer for the wanton cruelty of his administration, and Marcellus was entrusted provisionally with the duties of the procuratorship. —In Syria, as in Egypt, were regularly stationed three or four legions, to which recourse could be had in any emergency; but the ordinary garrison of Palestine consisted of auxiliaries, raised partially amongst the non-Jewish inhabitants of the country. At Caesarea, the headquarters, was a force of three thousand men, of whom five-sixths were infantry. A cohort of five or six hundred infantry, with a detachment of cavalry and a body of spearmen or slingers (Acts 23:23), was quartered in the fortress of Antonia. Smaller garrisons occupied Jericho, Machaerus, Samaria, and any other centre whence an important district could be commanded. The Sadducees were a priestly nobility, tenacious of the prestige of their own order, but tolerant of any system of government that did not threaten their prosperity. Opposed to them were the Pharisees, whose national ideal was that of a theocracy, and whose endurance of an alien rule was reluctant or sullen
Synagogue - Ant. Ant. Strack (PRE Zedekiah - This proves that Nebuchadnezzar treated his vassal kindly, allowing him to choose a new name (Zedekiah is Hebrew, "righteousness of Jehovah") and confirming it as a mark of his supremacy; this name was to be the pledge of his righteously keeping his covenant with Nebuchadnezzar who made him swear by God (Ezekiel 17:12-16; 2 Chronicles 36:13). ...
In his eighth year (Josephus Ant. Zedekiah had in consequence induced the princes and people to manumit their Hebrew bond servants. But when Pharaoh Hophra compelled the Chaldaeans to raise the siege of Jerusalem, the princes and people in violation of the covenant enslaved their Hebrew servants again. The terrible concomitants of a siege soon followed (Jeremiah 38:9), so that mothers boiled and ate the flesh of their own infants (Lamentations 4:5; Lamentations 4:8; Lamentations 4:10) and the visage of their nobles was blacker than coal, their skin clave to their bones and became withered. Josephus adds (Ant
Month - Josephus (Ant
Trump Trumpet - The passage from which it is taken (Hebrews 12:18-29) doses the main argument of the Epistle, and ‘offers a striking picture of the characteristics of the two Covenants summed up in the words “terror” and “grace” ’ (cf. Josephus (Ant
Treasury - (1) In the two Synoptic passages it is used, in connexion with the incident of the poor widow who gave her two mites, to denote a treasure-chest, or receptacle into which offerings were cast by worshippers coming into the Temple—a sense in which the word is found also in Josephus (Ant
Guard - Peter was arrested by Herod Agrippa, and imprisoned in the fortress of Antonia or the adjoining barracks, he was chained to two soldiers, while other two kept watch at the door of the prison (φυλακή, Vulgate carcer). It was fortunate for him that the Emperor’s sister-in-law Antonia, who used her influence with Macro, the prœfectus praetorio, ‘procured that the soldiers who kept him should be of a gentle nature, and that the centurion who was over them, and was to diet with him, should be of the same disposition’ (Jos. Ant. They were distinguished from other legionaries by shorter service and double pay, and on discharge they received a generous bounty or grant of land
Caiaphas (2) - 36 (Josephus Ant
Beelzebub or Beelzebul - (Ant. ...
How scanty is our knowledge of NT times, when such a name, which appears quite popular in the NT, defies as yet all explanation, and is not found anywhere else! Origen on John 19 (p
Door - Ant
Eternity - More importantly, it is life of a particular quality. Human beings, who live in time, might be likened to an Ant moving along the rod
Ninian, British Missionary Bsp - , had authentic evidence of an earlier date to assist him we do not know, except that he specially refers to Bede's information and also to a "liber de vita et miraculis ejus, barbario [1] scriptus," of the value of which we are ignorant. Ant. of Scotland among those barbarians who had defied the Roman power in the days of Agricola and who were separated from the Roman province of Valentia by the rampart of Antoninus; but the veneration attached to his name is shown by his dedications being found over all Scotland
Prison (2) - ...
The Latin and Greek terms translated ‘prison’ are expressive and significant. The φυλακή or place of guarding, in which John the Baptist was confined (Matthew 14:3), is believed to have been in the royal palace of Machaerus (Josephus Ant. In our Lord’s parable of the Unforgiving Servant, that ungrateful wretch fell into the hands of torturers (τοῖς βασανισταῖς, Matthew 18:34)—a staff of officials whose very name is sinister
Door - Ant
Jerusalem - quarter of the city, running up to Antonia, the castle situated at the N. than the extremity which went up from the Tyropaeon to Antonia. Watson concludes from a study of the records and from personal investigation of the site that the Second Wall was most probably built by Antipater, father of Herod the Great. of the Temple and Antonia. The fore-court of Antonia must therefore have projected some distance into the present Ḥaram area, and the rock on which the castle stood, while scarped on the other three sides, must on the S. point of the fore-court of Antonia and ran S. Antonia formed a fortress by itself, likewise the Temple both in its outer court and in the inner sanctuary. Ant. , and this was necessitated by the growth of the suburb Bezetha, or New Town, lying north of Antonia and the Temple on the N. This was a cause of friction, and led to the building of a screen within the sacred area (Ant. ’...
Since then there have been many changes in the buildings themselves and in their owners, but the tradition has been constant. Ant. Ant. sides there were also porches or cloisters which met at the entrance to Antonia. ...
(c) Antonia. As shown above, it is probable that some slight re-adjustment of the forecourt of Antonia and of the N. 8), on the corner where Antonia joined the N. Opinion is divided as to whether the Roman procurator made his headquarters in Antonia or in Herod’s Palace on the S. Antonia was certainly used as a place of detention, as is plain from Acts 22:30. lived and maintained his own guard (see Ant. ...
(3) James the Just, ‘the brother of Jesus, who was called the Christ’ (Ant. ’...
Constantine erected a basilica on the summit, where the Chapel of the Ascension now stands
Jerusalem - ...
It lay midway between the oldest civilized states; Egypt and Ethiopia on one hand, Babylon, Nineveh, India, Persia, Greece, and Rome on the other; thus holding the best vantage ground whence to act on heathendom. ...
The ranges of Lebanon and Antilebanon pass on southwards in two lower parallel ranges separated by the Ghor or Jordan valley, and ending in the gulf of Akabah. " The neighbouring hills though not very high are a shelter to the city, and the distant hills of Moab look like a rampart on the E. of the city an abundant waterspring existed, the outflow of which was stopped probably by Hezekiah, and the water conducted underground to reservoirs within the city. The castle of Antonia, in our Lord's time, rose above all other buildings in the city, and was protected by the keep in its S. ...
The first destruction of tide lower city is recorded Judges 1:3-8; Judah, with Simeon, "smote it with the sword, and set it on fire" as being unable to retain possession of it (for the Jebusites or Canaanites held the fortress), so that, as Josephus says (Ant. ...
For this its situation admirably adapted it, bordering between Judah, his own tribe, and the valiant small tribe of Benjamin, which formed the connecting link with the northern tribes, especially with Ephraim the house of Joseph.
Ant. " Josephus (Ant. Keil denies the certainty of Jerusalem having been taken this time, as "Judah" does not necessarily include Jerusalem which is generally distinctly mentioned; "the king's house" is not necessarily the palace, what may be meant is all whatever substance of the king's house (family) was found. Two of his servants slew him. ...
Josephus (9:9, section 9) says that he compelled the inhabitants to open the gates by threatening to kill Amaziah otherwise. Under Ahaz Jerusalem was besieged by Rezin of Syria and Pekah of Israel (
Ant. Josephus (Ant
Sadducees - His descendants long played the leading part among the priests, so that Ezekiel regarded them as the only legitimate priests ( Ezekiel 40:46 ; Ezekiel 43:19 ; Ezekiel 44:15 ; Ezekiel 48:11 ). 14, Ant. And this meant that their nation had outgrown them
Draw - ...
7: ἀντλέω (Strong's #501 — Verb — Antleo — Ant-leh'-o ) signified, primarily, "to draw out a ship's bilgewater, to bale or pump out" (from Antlos, "bilge-water"), hence, "to draw water" in any way (ana, "up," and a root, tel---, "to lift, bear"), John 2:8,9 ; 4:7,15 . ...
Note: In John 4:11 , "to draw with" translates the corresponding noun Antlema, "a bucket for drawing water by a rope
Lot (1) - The angels' visit was meant to test Lot as well as the Sodomites. ...
God grants even this, and adds "I cannot do anything until thou be come there"; God's love controls His omnipotence (Matthew 27:42). high, which may be the traditional one identified with Sodom's wife (Josephus, Ant
Micaiah - " Josephus (Ant
Tithes - In Deuteronomy 10:9; Deuteronomy 12:5-18; Deuteronomy 14:22; Deuteronomy 14:29; Deuteronomy 18:1-2; Deuteronomy 26:12-14, the general first tithe of all animal and vegetable increase for maintaining the priests and Levites is taken, for granted; what is added in this later time is the second additional tithe of the field produce alone, and for celebrating the sacred feasts each first and second year in the Shiloh or Jerusalem sanctuary, and every third year at home with a feast to the Levites, the stranger, fatherless, and widow. The six years thus marked were followed by the Jubilee year; on it the attendance was the larger because of the scant attendance on the sixth year when most stayed at home. Tobit (Tobit 1:7-8) says he gave a third tithe to the poor; Josephus (Ant
God And Magog - The name may have reached Palestine as that of a successful and distant king of barbarian tribes and may have been used by Ezekiel as symbolic of powers hostile to the Kingdom of God. ’ According to Uhlemann, all etymological and geographical indications point to the nation of Gog being the inhabitants of the Caucasus, as the καυκάσιν αὖρος of Herodotus is simply the Asiatic ‘Kauk’ or the Asiatic ‘mountain range. Josephus (Ant. Bousset, Die Offenbarung Johannis5 in Meyer’s Kommentar, 1896, Der Antichrist, 1895, Religion des Judentums im NT Zeitalter2, 1906; J
Jericho - The immediate vicinity enjoyed the advantage of abundant springs (2 Kings 2:19-22), and showed great fertility. ...
The Jericho which was destroyed by Joshua was a considerable town, characterized by the wealth of its inhabitants and the strength of its fortifications (Joshua 6, 7). ...
In the time of our Lord, Jericho was a large and important town. Antony granted the revenues of Jericho and the surrounding district to Cleopatra, and these were farmed from her by Herod the Great. This palace was rebuilt by Herod Archelaus after it had been burned down by Simon during the troubles which followed upon the death of Herod the Great (Josephus Ant. ...
Modern Jericho (er-Riha) is a miserable village of 300 inhabitants; the forest of palms has entirely disappeared, and only here and there can traces of the former fertility of the district be seen. The traditional scene of the Temptation is a mountain called from this association Quarantania, lying to the west of Jericho. Jericho, as within easy reach of Jerusalem and an important place, may have been a favourite residence for the priests (see Schurer, HJP ii
Jericho - The immediate vicinity enjoyed the advantage of abundant springs (2 Kings 2:19-22), and showed great fertility. ...
The Jericho which was destroyed by Joshua was a considerable town, characterized by the wealth of its inhabitants and the strength of its fortifications (Joshua 6, 7). ...
In the time of our Lord, Jericho was a large and important town. Antony granted the revenues of Jericho and the surrounding district to Cleopatra, and these were farmed from her by Herod the Great. This palace was rebuilt by Herod Archelaus after it had been burned down by Simon during the troubles which followed upon the death of Herod the Great (Josephus Ant. ...
Modern Jericho (er-Riha) is a miserable village of 300 inhabitants; the forest of palms has entirely disappeared, and only here and there can traces of the former fertility of the district be seen. The traditional scene of the Temptation is a mountain called from this association Quarantania, lying to the west of Jericho. Jericho, as within easy reach of Jerusalem and an important place, may have been a favourite residence for the priests (see Schurer, HJP ii
Pentecost - ἀσαρθά (a transliteration) betrayed Josephus into the error of supposing that this term itself meant Pentecost (Ant. Ant. Josephus (Ant. But all this has long since become Antiquated. 3; Ant. (Ant. -Much more important is the question as to what was the nature of the event which makes this day for ever memorable to the Christian. Suddenly the darkness of their souls was illumined by the inshining of this light from heaven, their hearts were filled with joy, and in the new exultant confidence that came to them, they were “clothed with power from on high” ’ (W. Bruce remarks, the Christian ‘believes in the Holy Ghost, and in His incessant struggle for the birth of a better world. Bingham, Antiquities, XX. (Truly it is a substantially different thing to hasten to Jerusalem to keep Pentecost from hurrying to be at Jerusalem at Pentecost
Pentecost - ἀσαρθά (a transliteration) betrayed Josephus into the error of supposing that this term itself meant Pentecost (Ant. Ant. Josephus (Ant. But all this has long since become Antiquated. 3; Ant. (Ant. -Much more important is the question as to what was the nature of the event which makes this day for ever memorable to the Christian. Suddenly the darkness of their souls was illumined by the inshining of this light from heaven, their hearts were filled with joy, and in the new exultant confidence that came to them, they were “clothed with power from on high” ’ (W. Bruce remarks, the Christian ‘believes in the Holy Ghost, and in His incessant struggle for the birth of a better world. Bingham, Antiquities, XX. (Truly it is a substantially different thing to hasten to Jerusalem to keep Pentecost from hurrying to be at Jerusalem at Pentecost
Surname - It seems probable, as indicated in the article Name, that originally a name was the designation of a stock or tribe-like the Grants or Howards-applied by outsiders to a group and subsequently adopted by it. , on entering the Egyptian army, changed his name to Antonis Maximus. This name occurs as Θολομαῖος in Josephus (Ant. Ant
Columbanus, Abbat of Luxeuil And Bobbio - The great principle of this Rule was obedience, absolute and unreserved; and the next was constant and severe labour, to subdue the flesh, exercise the will in daily self-denial, and set an example of industry in cultivation of the soil. Ant. A worldly priesthood felt the reproach of his exceeding earnestness and self-denial, and his pure severity was a constant accusation of loss of love and truth in them. Ant. Columbanus everywhere shews sound judgment, solid ecclesiastical learning, elegant taste, and deep spiritual discernment, which says much for the man and for the school in which he was educated
Mephibosheth - His nurse at the sad tidings took him up and fled; in her haste she let him fall from her shoulders (Josephus Ant. )...
Ziba, from being a menial of Saul's house, had managed to become master himself of 20 servants; with these and his 15 sons he, by David's command, tilled the land for Mephibosheth, for though Mephibosheth was henceforth David's guest, and needed no provision, he had a son Micha (1 Samuel 9; 1 Chronicles 8:34-35) and a retinue to maintain as a prince. Seventeen years subsequently, in Absalom's rebellion, Ziba rendered important service to David by meeting him as he crossed Olivet, with two strong "he donkeys" (chamor ) ready saddled for the king's use, bread, raisins, fruits, and wine. Bearing a name of reproach like Mephibosheth, instead of his name of innocence; banished to the outskirts of the moral wilderness, like Mephibosheth in Lodebar; liable to perish by the sword of justice, as Saul's other sons (2 Samuel 21); paralyzed by original sin, as Mephibosheth lamed from infancy in both feet; invited by the Lord and Savior, after having spoiled principalities, to sit down at the royal table (Matthew 8:11; Revelation 19:7; Revelation 19:9), as Mephibosheth was by David after conquering all his foes, on the ground of the everlasting covenant (Jeremiah 31:3); as David regarded Mephibosheth because of his covenant with Jonathan (1 Samuel 20:15; 1 Samuel 20:42)
Nimrod - Cush's son or descendant, Ham's grandson (Genesis 10:8). he was the first of Noah's descendants who became renowned for bold and daring deeds, the Septuagint "giant" (compare Genesis 6:4; Genesis 6:13; Isaiah 13:3). Josephus (Ant. Eastern tradition pictures hint a heaven-storming giant chained by God, among the constellations, as Orion, Hebrew Κeciyl , "fool" or "wicked
Thieves - " Lawless banditti infested Palestine in our Lord's days (Josephus, Ant. Marvelous faith! when the rest had given up all hopes of His Messiahship (Luke 24:20-21) he takes for granted the coming of Christ's kingdom, yet unlike the impatient disciples (Acts 1:6-7) is content to wait Christ's own time. The one instance is recorded, that none may despair; but one, that none may presume, He was never called before; now, when called, he instantly obeys: but we are all called from childhood
Joppa - On the family memorial at Modin, meant for the eyes of ‘all that sail on the sea,’ he caused carved ships to be represented (1 Maccabees 13:29). Ant. This is the true monster which has devoured many an Andromeda, for whose deliverance no gallant Perseus was at hand’ (W
Harp - Paul by this musical illustration criticizes a prevalent and unedifying speaking with tongues, though, in the light of the phrase eandem cantilenam recinere, his figure of ‘harping’ has come in colloquial use to represent rather monotonous persistency. The apocalyptic character of the book, which, as we have seen, contains, with but one exception, the references to harps, turns one to Jewish music; but, though there is much relevant information in Chronicles and other OT writings, it is lacking in precision. Josephus, who has a description of the frame-work and strings of these instruments is Ant
Gildas, Monk of Bangor - The diversities of chronological events, and of persons hardly contemporaneous, will only enable us to infer that the sources of information were occasionally doubtful, while the various coincidences of narrative seem to warrant a conclusion that both tracts were intended to chronicle the life of one and the same person. The former is a bare recital of the events of British history under the Romans, and between their withdrawal and his own time; the latter a querulous, confused, and lengthy series of bitter invectives in the form of a declamatory epistle addressed to the Britons, and relating specially to five kings, "reges sed tyrannos," named Constantinus, Aurelius, Conan, Vortiporus, Cuneglasus and Maglocunus. Ant
Pound - (including Calvin) treat the story of the Pounds (Luke 19:11-27) as a variant of the parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14-30). The Herodian princes, on coming to office (Luke 19:12), went to Rome to receive imperial investiture (Josephus Ant. ), where one servant wastes the goods of his lord among harlots and flute-players, another multiplies the pound, while a third conceals it; in the end, one is acknowledged, another reproved, and the third committed to prison. The seed of truth lay to their hand, but it could not grow and reproduce till it was planted in the soil
Slave, Slavery - ]'>[1] ‘servant,’ has a variety of meanings, between which it is not always easy to distinguish. in 2 Samuel 9:2 ‘servant’ = retainer, in 2 Samuel 9:10 b = bondman, in 2 Samuel 9:11 = a polite expression of self-depreciation (cf. In the earliest code (Book of the Covenant [2]) he is called his master’s money ( Exodus 21:21 ). The position of the maid-servant was in general the same as that of the manservant. In the BC it is assumed that the maid-servant is at the same time a concubine ( Exodus 21:7 ff. In practice the maid-servant, though the concubine of the master, is often the special property of the mistress ( Genesis 16:6 a, Genesis 16:9 , Genesis 25:12 , Genesis 30:3 ), at times having been given to her at marriage ( Genesis 24:56 ; Genesis 29:24 ; Genesis 29:29 ). Captives or subject populations were often employed not only as personal attendants, but also as public slaves at the Temple ( Joshua 9:23 ; Joshua 9:27 [5], Nehemiah 7:57-60 , and see art. (3) From native Israelites who bad become enslaved as a punishment for theft ( Exodus 22:1-4 ), whether for other crimes also is not stated; Josephus ( Ant. The numbers in the corvçe ( 1 Kings 5:13 ; 1 Kings 5:15 ) are discrepant, and in any case probably do not refer to slaves proper. The prosperous retainer of Saul has 20 servants ( 2 Samuel 9:10 ). In later times the price in Exodus seems to have been maintained ( 2Ma 8:11 ; Ant. Accordingly the BC ( Exodus 23:12 ) and the Decalogue ( Exodus 20:10 ) guarantee to him the Sabbath rest. Accordingly we find many illustrations of the man-servant rising to a position of importance. ), the custom of having body-servants (Heb. Especially servants of important men enjoy a reflected dignity ( 1 Samuel 9:22 , 2 Kings 8:4 ). The rise of servants into positions of prominence was so frequent as to be the subject of making-making ( Proverbs 14:35 ; Proverbs 17:2 ; Proverbs 19:10 ; Proverbs 30:22 a). ...
Whether a servant could own property while remaining a servant is not clear. ]'>[9], Leviticus 25:49 b [12]) are not pertinent. ...
Under a good house-wife the maid-servant would be well taken care of ( Judaea - The scattered remnants of the Israelites who availed themselves of this opportunity, representing most, if not all, of the several tribes, joined forces with the men of Judah in rebuilding the Temple and its defences; and from this date, except on the lists of the genealogical and tribal records, they were not distinguished from them. Hence the tribe of Judah, which, according to Josephus, arrived first in those parts, gave name both to the inhabitants and the territory, the former being designated as Jews and the latter as ‘Judaea’ or ‘Jewry’ (Ant. 6; Luke 1:5, Acts 28:21), also to include a portion, apparently, of the trans-Jordanic country (Ant. In the one case its northern limit was Antipatris, on the plain of Sharon; in the other it extended to Acre (Ptolemais) beyond Mt
City - The Court which he mentions (Ant. Round the Lake of Galilee there were nine cities with not less than 15,000 inhabitants, some of them with considerably more, so that there must have been along its margin an almost unbroken chain of buildings. Tiberias, built by Herod Antipas, was a stately city, whose ruins still indicate a wall three miles long. Cities like Bethsaida and Capernaum, again, were preponderantly Jewish. 11) as one of the chief centres of industry and commerce, and by Josephus (Ant. , granted them by Rome. Though some were preponderantly Jewish, and others, such as Tiberias, almost exclusively Gentile, there was yet in them all a mingling of races and a tolerably free and humane intercourse. It is perhaps significant, as showing the ecclesiastical character of the population of Jerusalem, that it was a priest and a Levite who first passed the man lying wounded and bleeding on the road to Jericho (Luke 10:31 f. This fact is very significant for the modern presentation of the gospel
Judaea - The scattered remnants of the Israelites who availed themselves of this opportunity, representing most, if not all, of the several tribes, joined forces with the men of Judah in rebuilding the Temple and its defences; and from this date, except on the lists of the genealogical and tribal records, they were not distinguished from them. Hence the tribe of Judah, which, according to Josephus, arrived first in those parts, gave name both to the inhabitants and the territory, the former being designated as Jews and the latter as ‘Judaea’ or ‘Jewry’ (Ant. 6; Luke 1:5, Acts 28:21), also to include a portion, apparently, of the trans-Jordanic country (Ant. In the one case its northern limit was Antipatris, on the plain of Sharon; in the other it extended to Acre (Ptolemais) beyond Mt
Mizpah - The name Laban gave to Galeed, the "heap of witness," the memorial of his covenant with Jacob, and the boundary landmark between them (Genesis 31:48-49; Genesis 31:52), "for he said, Jehovah watch between me and thee when we are absent one from another. " Josephus (Ant
Melchizedek - Described as king of Salem and priest of God Most High ( ‘El ‘Elyôn ), who met Abraham on his return from the slaughter of Chedorlaomer and his allies, refreshed him and his servants with bread and wine, blessed him, and received from him a tenth of the spoil he had taken ( Genesis 14:18-20 ). This view has the support of Josephus ( Ant . ’ This ascription of priestly functions to a sovereign who was expected to be of the house of David and the tribe of Judah is evidently meant as an exceptional distinction, and implies that the writer lived at a time when priests in Israel were taken exclusively from the tribe of Levi, as was the case after the promulgation of the Deuteronomic law (probably in the 7th cent. At an earlier date persons belonging to other tribes than that of Levi were sometimes priests: David’s sons ( 2 Samuel 8:18 ); and Ira the Jairite ( 2 Samuel 20:26 ), who belonged to Manasseh ( Numbers 32:41 ); but the author of Psalms 110:1-7 , in seeking a type for the combination in the same person of both the regal and priestly offices, had to go outside the limits of Israel, and found what he wanted in the priest-king of Salem, who was all the more adapted for the purpose by reason of the deference paid to him by so illustrious a personage as Abraham. He then proceeds to show the superiority of Christ’s priesthood over that of the Jewish priests, the descendants of Aaron, and seeks to illustrate it by the superiority of Melchizedek over Abraham, as he gathers it from Genesis 14:1-24 . He explains Melchizedek’s name to mean ‘king of righteousness,’ and his title of ‘king of Salem’ to mean ‘king of peace’; and then, arguing from the silence of the record respecting his parentage, birth, and death, describes him as ‘without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life, but made like unto the Son of God,’ and affirms him to have been greater than Abraham, since he blessed him (‘for without any dispute the less is blessed of the better’) and received from him (and through him from his unborn descendants the Levitical priests) a tithe of his spoils ( Hebrews 7:1-16 ). In this passage much of the writer’s argument is fanciful, the narrative in Genesis being handled after a Rabbinic fashion, and the parallel drawn between our Lord and Melchizedek being largely based on the mere omission, in the OT record, of certain particulars about the latter, which, for the historian’s purpose, were obviously irrelevant. It was in virtue of His personality that our Lord made, and makes, His appeal to the world; and to the authoritativeness of His attitude in regard to the current teaching of the Jewish religious teachers of His day ( Matthew 5:21-48 , Mark 7:1-28 ) a distant analogy is, in fact, afforded by the superior position which in Genesis seems to be ascribed to Melchizedek in respect of Abraham, the ancestor of the Jewish race
Veil of the Temple - "...
Therefore significantly "the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom" when Jesus yielded up the ghost (Matthew 27:50-51). Ganneau, tracing a curious similarity between some customs of ancient Elis in the Peloponnesus and those of the Hebrew, shows that in the Olympian sanctuary there was a great woolen veil of Assyrian workmanship, dyed with Phoenician purple, given by Antiochus; so Josephus (B. This veil given to Olympian Zeus at Elis may have been the very veil taken by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) from the temple of Jehovah (1 Maccabees 1:22-24; Josephus, Ant. Again, as the spoils of conquered deities were consecrated to the victorious ones, Antiochus naturally hung up Jehovah's veil in the temple of Olympian Zeus; for this was the very god to whom he dedicated the temple at Jerusalem, after defiling and plundering it (2 Maccabees 6:2). Curiously illustrating the similarity above referred to, he notices that the Eleans alone of the Greeks cultivated the byssus or fine flax plant
Gilgal - of Jordan (Josephus, Ant. As God abrogated at Kadesh the covenant, the sons of the rejected generation were not to receive the covenant rite. The manna and pillar of cloud were not withdrawn, because God would sustain the rising generation with the prospect of the ban being removed, and of the covenant temporarily suspended being renewed. So now He did not require the renewal of circumcision, the covenant sign of subjection to the law (Galatians 5:3), until He had first showed His grace in giving them victory over Og and Sihon, and in making a way through Jordan, a pledge that He would fulfill all His promises and finally give them the whole land. The circumcision at Gilgal was a practical restoration of the covenant, and a pledge of their now receiving Canaan. the scene of Balaam's wicked counsel taking effect in Israel's sin, from the fatal effects of which I saved thee, all along to Gilgal where I renewed the covenant with Israel by circumcision (2 Samuel 19:15). of the nomadic tribes, the aboriginal inhabitants of the country whose center was Gilgal
Phrygia - ...
‘In Phrygia once were gallant armies known...
In ancient time, when Otreus filled the throne,...
When godlike Migdon led his troops of horse’...
(Hom. ...
But to the later Greeks and the Romans Phrygia was politically unimportant, and the once illustrious names of Midas and Manes were given to Phrygian slaves. 557, 566]'>[1]), the most important town of which was called Antioch towards Pisidia; but as Pisidia gradually extended northwards this Antioch ceased to be Phrygian and was called Pisidian Antioch (q. Along this line the early Seleucids planted a series of Greek cities for the defence of their Empire and the diffusion of Hellenic culture. ...
Their status is indicated by Josephus (Ant. ‘The Jews also obtained honours from the kings of Asia, when they became their auxiliaries; for Seleucus Nicator made them citizens of those cities which he built in Asia … and gave them privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks, who were the inhabitants, insomuch that these privileges continue to this very day. ’ Antiochus the Great (223-187 b
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, called "the Moses of Mesopotamia," born at Nisibis or Antiochia Mygdoniae towards the end of 3rd cent. According to some Eastern accounts, James was one whom the emperor Constantine marked out for peculiar honour (Stanley, Eastern Church , p. His name occurs among those who signed the decrees of the council of Antioch, in Encaeniis , A. That the awfully sudden death of Arius at Constantinople, on the eve of his Anticipated triumph, A. The gross blunders of making the death of the heresiarch contemporaneous with the council of Nicaea, and of confounding Alexander of Alexandria with Alexander of Constantinople, prove it an ignorant forgery. 341, found James busily erecting his cathedral, towards which, on his return, Milles sent a large quantity of silk from Adiabene (Assemani, Bibl. 338, 346, 350, James maintained the faith of the inhabitants in the divine protection, kindled their enthusiasm by his words and example, and with great military genius and administrative skill thwarted the measures of the besiegers. Anthony at Venice, together with a request for some of his works from a Gregory and James's reply. These were all published with a Latin translation, and a learned preface establishing their authenticity, and notes by Nicolas Maria Antonelli in 1756; also in the collection of the Armenian Fathers, pub. at Venice in 1765, and again at Constantinople in 1824. ; Ceillier, Ant
Oil - It afforded light (Matthew 25:3) and nourishment (1 Kings 17:12) to the household; it was valued for its healing and medicinal virtues (Is 1:6 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , Luke 10:34); it had its place in the Hebrew ritual (Exodus 29:40, Leviticus 2:1); and it was an important article of commerce (2 Kings 4:7, Luke 16:6). ...
In the NT allusions to oil are not very frequent; those occurring in the Gospels have reference to its use:—(1) As an illuminant (Matthew 25:3-4; Matthew 25:8). In this instance, wine as well as oil was employed, the added wine imparting to the mixture an Antiseptic quality (cf, Pliny, HN xxxi. Oil-baths were sometimes used, as in the case of Herod the Great (Josephus Ant. It formed an important part of the supplies sent by Solomon to Hiram in return for the timber and other materials furnished for the building of the Temple (1 Kings 5:11)
Solomon - Josephus ( Ant. Adonijah, ‘a very goodly man’ ( 1 Kings 1:6 ), relying on the favour of the people ( 1 Kings 2:15 ) [3], made a bid for the throne, imitating the method of Absalom and taking advantage of David’s senility. At any rate the king’s suspicion or jealousy was aroused, and his rival was removed; Canticles suggests that Solomon himself was believed to have been the lover of Abishag. A grant of twenty cities in Galilee was unsatisfactory to Hiram, though he apparently paid for them ( 1 Kings 9:10-14 ). A more substantial return was the security which Solomon was able to offer to Phœnician trade with the E [11] Ant. Psalms 72:1-20 may possibly belong to his age, but not Psalms 127:1-5 or Canticles. ]'>[11] Ant . So the magnificence of the Temple, the pageantry and holocausts of its dedication ( 1 Kings 3:8 ), certainly ministered to his own glory, no less than to God’s
Dispersion - The most important NT reference occurs in John 7:35 : ‘Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the Diaspora among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?’ This splenetic utterance was an unconscious prophecy of the course our Lord actually followed, when, having reached the goal of His public ministry, and having received ‘all authority in heaven and on earth,’ He went on ‘to make disciples of all the nations. It was largely due to the policy adopted by the great conquerors of Antiquity of deporting into exile a considerable number of the population of the countries which they subdued. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. The accounts of Philo and Josephus, of which the substantial accuracy is attested by inscriptions (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. ...
Following Jeremiah’s advice to the exiles in Babylon, they ‘sought the peace’ of the cities they settled in, without, however, amalgamating with the other inhabitants. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. The freedom he granted them in the exercise of their religious customs was endorsed by his grand-nephew Augustus (Jos. Ant. The only occasion on which they were seriously threatened with the loss of their privileges occurred under Claudius, who, in the words of the historian, ‘Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit’ (Suet. Ant xix. Illustrations of this tendency are found in the Prophetic and Wisdom literature, in the modification of OT Anthropomorphism by the Septuagint , in the serious attempt or Philo to find the philosophy of Plato and the Stoics in the narratives of Genesis by the method of allegorical interpretation (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. As they went on communicating those spiritual principles to others, they became more spiritual themselves, and also more expectant of ‘the good things to come. Those whom they won over, the σεβόμενοι or φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν of the Apostolic Age, were already far on their way to the more complete satisfaction of their spiritual wants that was to be found in Christianity. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. , had the Roman civitas, as appears from the edicts preserved by Josephus (Ant. The latter right may have been conferred by some Roman potentate on certain important Tarsian families (Ramsay, Expositor, 7th ser. It was not the least important of St. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Dispersion - The most important NT reference occurs in John 7:35 : ‘Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the Diaspora among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?’ This splenetic utterance was an unconscious prophecy of the course our Lord actually followed, when, having reached the goal of His public ministry, and having received ‘all authority in heaven and on earth,’ He went on ‘to make disciples of all the nations. It was largely due to the policy adopted by the great conquerors of Antiquity of deporting into exile a considerable number of the population of the countries which they subdued. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. The accounts of Philo and Josephus, of which the substantial accuracy is attested by inscriptions (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. ...
Following Jeremiah’s advice to the exiles in Babylon, they ‘sought the peace’ of the cities they settled in, without, however, amalgamating with the other inhabitants. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. The freedom he granted them in the exercise of their religious customs was endorsed by his grand-nephew Augustus (Jos. Ant. The only occasion on which they were seriously threatened with the loss of their privileges occurred under Claudius, who, in the words of the historian, ‘Iudaeos impulsore Chresto assidue tumultuantes Roma expulit’ (Suet. Ant xix. Illustrations of this tendency are found in the Prophetic and Wisdom literature, in the modification of OT Anthropomorphism by the Septuagint , in the serious attempt or Philo to find the philosophy of Plato and the Stoics in the narratives of Genesis by the method of allegorical interpretation (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. As they went on communicating those spiritual principles to others, they became more spiritual themselves, and also more expectant of ‘the good things to come. Those whom they won over, the σεβόμενοι or φοβούμενοι τὸν θεόν of the Apostolic Age, were already far on their way to the more complete satisfaction of their spiritual wants that was to be found in Christianity. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. , had the Roman civitas, as appears from the edicts preserved by Josephus (Ant. The latter right may have been conferred by some Roman potentate on certain important Tarsian families (Ramsay, Expositor, 7th ser. It was not the least important of St. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. Was it by means of some of these (Acts 2:10), returning to their native synagogue ‘in the power of the Spirit,’ that the faith or Christ first reached the city of Rome? At Antioch, some Cyprian and Cyrenaean Christians were the first to take the bold step of ‘speaking unto the Gentiles also, preaching Jesus as the Lord’ (Acts 11:20, ‘where the sense of the passage seems to require Ἕλληνας’ Caesarea Philippi - Josephus Ant. From the cave (Mugharet Ras en-Neba’), now partly filled with fallen stone, issues a strong stream of water which has long been reckoned one of the chief sources of the Jordan (Josephus Ant. On the hill above, Herod built a white marble temple in honour of Augustus (Josephus Ant. it received and bore for a short time the name Neronias (Νερωνιάς, Josephus Ant. Finally, the mission of the Twelve had widely extended His work, and shortly thereafter we are told that Herod (Antipas) heard of Jesus (Mark 6:14, Matthew 14:1, Luke 9:7 ff
Games - Its secular use was condemned by Isaiah as a sign of extravagant luxury ( Isaiah 5:12 ). ...
We read in 2Ma 4:9-17 how Jason the high priest and the head of the Hellenizing party, having bribed Antiochus Epiphanes with 150 talents of silver, set up ‘a place of exercise’ (gymnasium) for the training up of youths ‘in the practices of the heathen. Later, Herod the Great appears from Josephus ( Ant. Athletic contests formed a very important feature in the social life of the Greeks. The most important of these games were the Olympic. The most important of these, from the Biblical student’s point of view, were the games of Ephesus. Paul speaks of wrestling against spiritual forces, and probably to boxing in Ephesians 4:27 , where ‘giving place’ means giving vantage-ground to the spiritual foe. Ant . Paul’s writings there is an important reference to athletic contests in 2 Samuel 6:14 . martyres ), whose past achievements are to encourage the Christian combatants for the faith; (2) the self-sacrifice and earnestness needed in running the Christian race
Government - ...
We may at once set aside Legislation , one of the most important departments of government as now understood. During this period the nomadic tribe gives way to the local; ties of place are more important than ties of birth. A more important check was found in the religious control, democratic in its best sense, exercised by the prophets (Samuel, Nathan, Elijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, etc. At the same time there is no constitutional check on misrule; the ‘law of the kingdom’ in Deuteronomy 17:14 deals rather with moral and religious requirements, as no doubt did Jehoiada’s covenant ( 2 Kings 11:17 ). The lists of officers ( 2 Samuel 8:16 , 1 Kings 4:1-34 ) are significant; they indicate the growth of the king’s authority, and the development of relations with other States. His servants hold office at his pleasure, and, provided they retain his favour, there is little to limit their power. Antipas was ‘tetrarch’ of Galilee and Peræa; Mark’s title of ‘king’ (6:14) is corrected by Matthew and Luke. ]'>[1] Ant. ]'>[1] Ant
Phoenicia, phNicians - Hemmed in between the mountains and the sea, they alone of the early Semites developed navigation, and became the merchantmen and the carriers of the ancient world. Their ships and shipping were important as early as b. 1471) he came out to the coast and conquered Arvad, the most northerly of the important Phœnician cities (cf. These kings were in constant feud with one another, with the people of Arvad, and with the Amorites beyond the Lebanon. They are constantly accusing one another (cf. 18) was founded at the time of this emancipation from Egypt, and the era to which he refers ( Ant . ]'>[5] Ant . ...
In the wars of the later Ptolemys and Seleucids the Phœnicians played an important part
Tiberias - shore of the Sea of Galilee, founded by Herod Antipas, and named by him in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. The original inhabitants were foreigners, whom Herod either forced to reside in the new city or to whom he gave special inducements if they would. Josephus (Ant. —Herod Antipas is supposed to have completed the building of Tiberias about a. During the struggle of the Jews with Rome, its inhabitants remained loyal to the national cause. The Protestants have a well-equipped hospital, and are doing a good religious work under the United Free Church of Scotland
Carmel - Flowering and fragrant herbs abound, hollyhocks, jasmine, and various vegetable creepers, "the excellency (i. ) Hence it is the image of the bride's head with luxuriant tresses (Song of Solomon 7:5). Josephus says the water was obtained from the neighboring spring (Ant
Ephraim - ]'>[5] , lost in the meantime 20 per cent. ]'>[4] had been adopted as Jacob’s own, and were therefore entitled on this important occasion to like consideration with the others, points to a traditional echo of the early days in the land when Ephraim and Manasseh were still united. ]'>[9] Ant
Gamaliel - Some see in this the mark of a humane, tolerant, generous, liberal-minded man (C. of the Planting and Training of the Christian Church, ed. Josephus (Ant
Dives - Lazarus, while the other chief character, the rich man, is significantly nameless, and that the parable has no prefatory introduction, such as ‘He spake another parable,’ or the like, have given rise to the conjecture that this is not a parable pure and simple, but that it is either a narrative of facts, or that persons more or less known are alluded to in the story. Some, as Tertullian and Schleiermacher, have supposed that in Dives allusion was made to Herod Antipas, and that Lazarus represents John the Baptist, who is referred to in v. This, however, is surely an extravagant notion which scarcely needs refutation. Another equally improbable suggestion, put forward by Michaelis, is that Dives represents Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, and that Lazarus is Christ; and so the five brethren of the rich man are explained as the five sons of Annas (Josephus Ant
Hymn - of Psalms* [1] ) and canticles (‘poetical extracts from Holy Scripture which are incorporated among the Psalms in the Divine office’†
The ecclesiastical canticles under the title of ᾠδαί immediately follow the Psalter in certain of the Greek uncials and in a large number of the Greek cursive MSS Emmaus - It might be held, however, that the territory of the colony extended over an area of several miles, and that it might, according to circumstances, be thus considered as being distant either 30 or 60 furlongs from the capital. Josephus Ant. Josephus Ant. In this quarter, indeed, is found a site which has left important ruins, and which is mentioned several times in the course of the first centuries of the Christian era under the name Emmaus. Interesting ruins have been discovered there: those of a church dating from the time of the Crusades, and in the interior of its eneeinte the remains of a more ancient structure, which might be those of a Byzantine church, but which the defenders of the Franciscan tradition consider to be the very house of Cleopas, around which the sanctuary had been built. 87–92), have, in the opinion of the present writer, shown irrefutably that the original reading must have been ‘60 furlongs,’ and that ‘160’ is a correction meant to enable the Emmaus of St. The remains of a church have been found there, which date not merely from the Crusades, but very probably from the Byzantine epoch; it is in vain that a recent author (Barnabé), who favours el-Kubeibeh, has tried to prove that this church was really nothing but a hot-baths establishment
Zidon - Zidon’s early pre-eminence was due no doubt to her success in commercial enterprise, the skill and intrepidity of her mariners and merchants, and the progress of her sons in arts and manufactures. ’ The planting of colonies was a natural, and almost necessary, outcome of her commercial enterprise. ]'>[2] Ant. To escape the cruelties of Ochus, the inhabitants burned the city, more than 40,000 perishing in the flames. While the oldest existing buildings date from the Middle Ages, there are many remains of great Antiquity, traces of walls, hewn stones, pillars, coins, and the reservoirs cut out of the rock. The most important discoveries so far have been (1855) the sarcophagus of king Eshmunazar (early in the 4th cent
Tabernacles, the Feast of - On the morning of this day the Hebrews left their huts and dismantled them, and took up their abode again in their houses. But it is very doubtful what is meant by "the last day, that great day of the feast. The eighth day may be meant and then the reference of our Lord would be to an ordinary and well-known observance of the feast, though it was not, at the very time, going on. Ant
Manna - ...
(2) The quantity gathered in a single day exceeded the present produce of a year. Vulgate, Septuagint, and Josephus (Ant
Nehemiah, Book of - It should be noted, however, that according to Josephus ( Ant
Nehemiah - He is granted a limited leave of absence by the latter, furnished with royal letters and an escort to assure his safe passage; and also with a royal rescript to Asaph, the keeper of the king’s forests, commanding that he shall be furnished with sufficient supplies of timber. 9); and the ‘covenant’ was sealed, the people pledging themselves to observe its obligations (ch. ...
On his return to Jerusalem in 433 Nehemiah found various abuses and internal disorders rampant in the community. But he deserves in every respect the eulogium pronounced upon him by ben-Sira ( Sir 49:13 ) and by Josephus, who ( Ant
River - Among the other streams and mountain torrents in Palestine there are the Kishon, which drains Galilee westward; the Yarmuk and the Jabbok, which carry the waters of Bashan and Gilead into the Jordan; the Leontes and Orontes, which rise in CCEle-Syria and drain the great basin between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and the Euphrates, greatest of All, forming the boundary of Palestine on the N. According to Josephus (Ant
Scythian - Like most barbarians, they existed in a condition of filth, never washing themselves, and the women daubed themselves with paste containing the dust of fragrant woods and removing it the second day (iv. On their death a vast multitude of slaves and even free-born servants were slain and buried in great funeral mounds along with horses and vessels of gold and silver. 171) state, rebuilt by the remnant of the Scythians who remained after the main body was bought off by the king of Egypt. ’ Just as terrors which are only partially known assume gigantic proportions, so these Scythians, by their rapid descent on Palestine, their unwonted appearance, their savage cruelty, and their short sojourn, impressed the imagination. Thus Josephus (Ant
Tradition - Ant
Circumcision - The cutting off all round of the foreskin (the projecting skin in the male member, the emblem of corruption, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 4:4) of males, appointed by God as token of His covenant with Abraham and his seed (Genesis 17:10-14). The Jews alone of the inhabitants of the Syrian region were circumcised. If the rite existed before Abraham it was then first sanctioned as a token of God's covenant with Abraham and his seed, and particular directions given by God as to the time of its being performed, the eighth day, even though it were a sabbath (John 7:22-23), and the persons to be circumcised, every male, every slave, and (at the Exodus it was added) every male foreigner before he could partake of the Passover (Genesis 17:12-13; Exodus 12:48). ...
So, the rainbow existed before the flood, but in Genesis 9:13-17 first was made token of the covenant. The testimony of the Egyptian sculptures, mummies, and hieroglyphics, is very doubtful as to the pre-Abrahamic Antiquity of circumcision. ...
Hyrcanus first compelled the Edomites to be circumcised (Josephus, Ant. " Moses had neglected to circumcise his son, owing to Zipporah's repugnance to it, as a rite not generally adopted in the East, even by the descendants of Abraham and Keturah, the Midianites. The painfulness of Old Testament initiatory rite, as compared with the New Testament sacrament of baptism, marks strongly the contrast between the stern covenant of the law and the loving gospel. "Oh wherefore bring ye here this holy Child? Such rite befits the sinful, not the clean; Why should this tender Infant undefiled Be thus espoused in blood, while we have been So gently into covenant beguiled? No keen edged knife our bleeding foreheads scored With the sharp cross of our betrothed Lord: But we belike in quiet wonder smiled. ...
The reason of the omission of circumcision in the wilderness (
Joshua 5:5-6) was, while suffering the penalty of their unbelief the Israelites were practically discovenanted by God, and so were excluded from the sign of the covenant. Christianity did not interfere with Jewish usages, as social ordinances (no longer religiously significant) in the case of Jews, while the Jewish polity and temple stood
Gerizim - Gerizim (Ant. Ebal, at the head of the pass leading right through from the river Jordan to the sea, and also at the point where the great north road from Jerusalem to Galilee intersects this pass, has given them a commanding place in the topography of the Holy Land, and has led to their association with important events in the history of Israel. And it was at Shechem that Joshua gathered together the people for the renewal of the covenant, ‘and took a great stone and set it up there under an oak that was by the sanctuary of the Lord’ (Joshua 24:1; Joshua 24:28)
Lebbaeus - This is the reading of the Received Text, which is still maintained in the Patriarchal Edition of the Greek Testament (Constantinople, 1904), and supported by most of the Greek Manuscripts , to which was added lately the Palimpsest of Cairo. Josephus (Ant
Steward, Stewardship - ]'>[1] Ant. He had the ‘management of his affairs, the care of receipts and expenditures, and the duty of dealing out the proper portion to every servant and even to the children, (Grimm-Thayer). ; (b) pursue our calling, whatever it may be, in the interest of God’s Kingdom, whether our work be that of the labourer, the farmer, the merchant, the lawyer, physician, statesman, teacher, preacher, or any other; (c) utilize time, influence, opportunities, money, in the wisest way; (d) urge and help others to do the same
Melchizedek - The typical hero, first righteous and therefore self-governed and blessed with the tranquillizing consciousness of the presence of God, appears to the writer as an Anticipation of Him in whom alone righteousness and peace are completely realized both in His own person and life and in His gifts to men. The combination of kingly and priestly offices in one person, who was invested with a sacred character as a descendant of a deity, was a not unusual feature of government in the primitive ages (see J. ) combined in himself the triple functions of prophet, priest, and king (see Josephus, Ant. (c) Accordingly, through these timeless and regal qualities his priesthood becomes unique, incomparably above all Aaronic and Levitical institutions, and with nothing like it in human history until the Incarnate comes upon the stage and takes to Himself a Priesthood in which He admits no peer, and of which eternal and superabundant adequacy is the note (see Priest). ]'>[2] Jonathan), and the narrative was taken to mean that the priesthood was transferred to Abraham, while the rest of the descendants of Shem were excluded
Colossae - It was visited, however, by streams of travellers passing east and west, who made it conversant with the freshest thought of the time. Antioch us the Great (223-187 b. ) transplanted 2000 Jewish families from Babylonia and Mesopotamia to Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. Ant. ’ The Byzantine historian Nicetas Choniates-Chonae, on a spur of Cadmus, took the place of decaying Colossae-mentions τὸν ἀρχαγγελικὸν ναόν as Standing, μεγέθει μέγιστον καὶ κάλλει κάλλιστον, in or near the ancient city; and the fantastic legend of ‘the Miracle of Chonae’ (Ramsay, The Church in the Rom. ) reflects a popular belief in the mediation of Michael to save the inhabitants from an inundation
Pharaoh - Thothmes III broke the confederacy of the allied kings of all the regions between Euphrates and the Mediterranean, just 17 years before Israel's invasion of Canaan, thus providentially preparing the way for an easy conquest of Canaan; this accounts for the terror of Midian and Moab at Israel's approach (Numbers 22:3-4), and the "sorrow and trembling which took hold on the inhabitants of Palestina and Canaan" (Exodus 15:14-16). The civil war between Amasis and Apries would give an opportunity for the invader Nebuchadnezzar (in the 23rd year of his reign: Josephus Ant. ...
Berosus alone records Nebuchadnezzar's invasion, but similarly we find Assyrian monuments recording conquests of Egypt either unnoticed by our historians extant or mentioned only by inferior authorities
Fasting (2) - Josephus Ant
Silvester, Bishop of Rome - Though his time was important in church history, we have few genuine records of any personal action of his, but a great store of legend. ...
In his first year of episcopate Constantine the Great summoned the first council of Arles to reconsider the decision against the African Donatists of the synod held at Rome by his order in 313 under pope Miltiades. of Syracuse (see a letter to him from Constantine preserved by Eusebius, H. Constantine, in making arrangements for the council, evidently takes no account of him, not even mentioning him in writing to Chrestus. Hence Bingham contended ( Ant. ...
But the most memorable fable about Silvester is that of the baptism of Constantine by him, and the celebrated "Donation. He was advised to use a bath of infants' blood for cure. A great multitude of infants was accordingly collected for slaughter; but the emperor, moved by their cries and those of their mothers, desisted from his purpose. ...
The attribution of Constantine's conversion and baptism to Silvester is as legendary as the rest. His profession and patronage of Christianity were Anterior to the time spoken of, and he was not actually baptized till long afterwards, at the close of his life. There is abundant testimony that he did not seek baptism, or even imposition of hands as a catechumen, till in a suburb of Nicomedia, as death drew near, he received both from Eusebius, the Arian bishop of that see. Sylvestri , which seem to have furnished the materials for most of the legends—including the banishment to Soracte, the leprosy of Constantine, his lustration by Silvester, and his Donation—are mentioned and approved as genuine in the Decretum de Libris Recipiendis et non Recipiendis , commonly attributed to pope Gelasius (492–496), but probably of a later date. by pope Hadrian in a letter to Charlemagne, where the Donation is alluded to, and in another to the empress Irene and her son Constantine on the occasion of the 2nd Nicene council in 787. The extant editions of them, given in Latin by Surius (Acta SS
Messiah - In the case of prophets like Elijah and Elisha the hope is hardly more distinct than a belief that the nation which worshipped Jehovah would he triumphant over its enemies. So far as the records of their teaching show, however, there was no expectation of any superhuman deliverer, or, in fact, any future contemplated other than one which presupposed a conquering Israel with an equally triumphant Jehovah. It was inconceivable to them that the true God should be other than ultimately triumphant; cf. Whether or not the reference in Isaiah 9:6-7 is to Immanuel, it is unquestionable that it is to the coming of a descendant of David, who should deliver Israel and reign with Jehovah’s assistance for ever triumphantly. ...
The reformation of Josiah finds an echo in the equally exultant expectation of Jeremiah that Jehovah would surely place a descendant of David upon the throne, a ‘righteous branch,’ and one who would deliver Israel (Jeremiah 33:14-16 ). The glory of the restored kingdom was to he enhanced by a New Covenant to replace the broken covenant of Sinai. This covenant would be spiritual, and the relations which it would establish between Israel and Jehovah would be profoundly religious. Israel would be a servant of Jehovah, who would, on His part, forgive His people’s sins ( Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; cf. From the despair that followed, the people were rescued by the appearance of Cyrus, who became the instrument of Jehovah in bringing about the return of the remnant to their own land. Jehovah would make an everlasting covenant with His people ( Isaiah 55:1-6 ), but the new nation would not he composed of all those who had been swept into exile and their descendants. ...
At this point we have to decide whether the suffering Servant of Jehovah is to be interpreted collectively as the purified and vicarious remnant of Israel; or as some individual who would stand for ever as a representative of Jehovah, and, through his sufferings, purify and recall Israel to that spiritual life which would he the guarantee of a glorious future; or as the suffering nation itself. The interpretation placed upon these ‘Servant’ passages ( Isaiah 43:1-13 ; Isaiah 49:5 ; Isaiah 61:1-3 ; Isaiah 52:13-15 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ) in Rabbinic thought was ordinarily not personal, but national. See, further, Servant of the Lord. With the return of the exiles from Babylon to Judah attempts were made to inaugurate an ideal commonwealth which should embody these Anticipations. But the new commonwealth was thoroughly inefficient, and the Messianic hope seems to have become dormant in the struggles of the weak State. These elements were subsequently to develop into the dominant characteristics of the later Messianic hope the Kingdom of God, the Davidic King, the Day of Judgment, and the Resurrection of the Righteous. The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to crush out Judaism led to the appearance of a new type of religious literature the apocalypse. The international relations of Israel are traced, but the historical horizon is bounded by Antiochus Epiphanes. A most important element of the future as set forth by Daniel is to be seen in the triumph of the kingdom of the saints, whose symbol is a ‘son of man,’ over the oppressing kingdoms of Babylonia, Media, Persia, and Syria, symbolized by the four beasts. In the 17th and 18th of these the apocalyptic element is largely wanting, but there is nothing inconsistent with the view of apocalyptic Messianism. and his successors; as well as in the conspiracies under ‘the ten men’ ( Ant . 3, 4) and the Rabbis Judas and Matthias (Ant. According to Josephus ( Ant . All these movements co-operated to bring about the destruction of the Jewish State, for the revolt of 66 must be regarded as distinctly Messianic a fact perceived by Josephus in the important passage BJ VI. Ant . The chief difference between the Messianic hope of the Pharisees and that of the Zealots and people was probably the lack in the latter of the eschatological, transcendental element, such as the resurrection from the dead and the heavenly Jerusalem, which was so important in the hope of the Pharisees. How thoroughly social and political this folk-Messianism became is to be seen in the various abortive attempts to establish, during the revolt of 66, a peasant republic, as well as in the destruction of evidence of indebtedness and the massacre of the aristocrats. The Messiah was generally regarded as a descendant of David
Joram - It begins as a continuation of the Bekaʽa (Cœle-Syria), that valley which stretches between the Lebanon on the west and the Anti-Lebanon on the east, but whose waters run towards the north. The result of it was the formation of the parallel chains of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and further south that of the two ranges of hills which skirt the Jordan valley. ...
The ancients were completely ignorant of the fact that the bottom of the Jordan valley lay below the level of the Mediterranean Sea. Nor were they aware at that time that the depression between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akabah was intersected by a sort of natural barrier, forming two Anticlinal slopes and making a dividing line for the waters. 89), but which is usually left aside, so that attention may be given I only to the three other more important ones. 1; Ant. 4), or ‘the lesser Jordan’ (Ant. 7; Ant. ), but it is only 60 stades distant. —From the confluence, which we have just mentioned, to the Lake of Tiberias the course of the Jordan is unimportant from a historical point of view. Its chief interest lies in the fact that at 10 miles distance from the confluence it forms a lake or lagoon, the Bahr or Buheirat (lake or small lake) Huleh, triangular in shape, the level of which is 7 feet above the Mediterranean, and which is rich in papyrus plants. 2; Ant. But another reason for the latter important fact may be found in the danger to which the inhabitants would be exposed, owing to the impossibility of effectually fortifying themselves against attacks. The most important of these are on the left bank. The first time it was an Irishman, Costigan, who, in 1835, accomplished this daring feat alone in a boat for one oarsman; the second time it was Lieutenant Molyneux, of the British Navy, in 1847. Lastly, in 1848, an American expedition, under Lieutenant Lynch, sailed all the way down in two boats specially built for the purpose, reached the Dead Sea, and were able to record a whole series of very useful observations. Antonius Martyr in the 6th cent
Pharisees (2) - That captivity impressed the following things upon Judaism: intense monotheism, the Synagogue service, the OT Scriptures and Scribal interpretations of them, the Sabbath strictly observed as a sign of God’s covenant, and a Puritan hatred of heathenism, which put the stamp of separation for ever upon Pharisaic piety. —The chief differences were the following: (1) the Pharisees ‘delivered to the people a great many observances by tradition which are not written in the law of Moses’ (Josephus Ant. (5) The Pharisees were also missionary, and made many converts (Ant. The Pharisees even prescribed rules for the priestly Sadducees in the Temple (Ant. The Rabbis taught their disciples to honour the Scriptures, to seek first after heaven and its righteousness (Ant. He rebuked them for their Anti-scriptural traditions, as He did the Sadducees for ignorance of the word of God (Mark 7:9). God was Creator in the beginning, and will be final Judge at the end; but meantime He is a far-off ruler of the Universe. His name, the mysterious τετραγράμματον, was no longer spoken; and all Anthropomorphic and humanlike features in God were set aside. Two important views grew out of this theology: one was the doctrine of middle beings between God and man—good and evil spirits, angels, especially the Memra or mediating Word of God, and the Holy Spirit; the other was a personal conception of God, which appeared in belief in individual immortality and personal resurrection as involved in responsibility to God and hope of entrance into the Messianic Kingdom. His blurred hope of partly keeping the Law, partly being resigned to Divine chastisement, and partly redeemed in a world to come—all resting on merit—is supplanted by a joyful gospel of present peace. Obedience to God’s Law under the awful Categorical Imperative of Sinai, as applied by scribes and Pharisees, was the dominant principle, the yoke upon the neck of the Jews, when Christ appeared (Acts 15:10, Galatians 5:1). Stanton, The Jewish and Christian Messiah, 1886, p
Jonah - 782 745, Assyria was comparatively weak, and was governed by relatively insignificant kings. After making futile efforts to bring the vessel to land ( Jonah 1:13 ), the sailors reluctantly cast him into the sea, with the result that the storm at once subsides and the wondering heathen adore the God of the Hebrews ( Jonah 1:14-16 ). As he sulks in a booth outside the city, waiting to see the issue, a remarkable series of experiences is arranged for his instruction ( Jonah 4:5-8 ): the shooting up of a castor-oil plant (or, as some think, a bottle-gourd) appointed by Jahweh, which delights him by its welcome shade; the killing of the plant by a worm, also appointed by Jahweh; and the springing up of a hot wind which also blows by Divine appointment, so that the now unshaded prophet is so tormented by the heat, that, like Elijah ( 1 Kings 19:4 ), he longs for death. When he still sulks, it is pointed out to him that if he, a man, cares for the plant which sprang up and perished so quickly, and which was in no way the product of his toil, how much more must God care for the great city, which has in it so many thousands of little children and much cattle ( Jonah 4:9-11 ). ]'>[6] Ant. ” ’ How high the teaching of the book rose above later Judaism, say the Judaism of the time of Christ, and the following generation, is strikingly shown by the way in which it is summarized by Josephus ( Ant. A young man of Benares named Mittavindaka, the son of a merchant, went to sea in defiance of his mother’s objection
Galilee (2) - According to Judges 1:30-33, Zebulun was not altogether successful in driving out the inhabitant of their portion, while Asher and Naphtali had to be content to settle as best they could among the inhabitants, ‘for they did not drive them out. ’ These inhabitants seem to have been Amorites and Hivites from the Lebanon. in 734 (2 Kings 15:29), many of its inhabitants being carried into captivity. According to Strabo, on the authority of Timagenes (Josephus Ant. 104–103) conquered much of Galilee, and compelled the inhabitants to be circumcised and live according to Jewish laws. Herod at his death bequeathed Galilee to Herod Antipas, who succeeded after much opposition in having his legacy confirmed at Rome. ...
On the other hand, the middle division of Galilee, known as Lower Galilee, contains nearly all the important sites of the Gospel record. boundary of Lower Galilee to the Tyrian boundary, which seems to have been at the time of Christ just south of Kedesh, which according to Josephus was a Tyrian fortress on the borders of Galilee (Ant. The direct government of the land was in the hands of Herod Antipas, to whom, with the title of ‘tetrarch,’ it was assigned by Augustus after the death of Herod. Antipas was 17 years old at his accession to power, and established his capital at Sepphoris. ‘The cities lie very thick, and the very many villages are everywhere so populous from the richness of the soil, that the very least of them contains more than fifteen thousand inhabitants’ (Josephus BJ iii. and the land was a scene of constant activity. Besides, however, the natural bodily vigour and mental freshness of these highlanders, the most important difference between them and the people of Judaea lay in the different attitude in daily life towards the larger world of the Roman Empire and Hellenistic influence
Sepulchre - ’ Of the 750 (more or less) sepulchres extant there, some date back as far as the 6th cent. No elaborate or extravagant sepulchres were ever erected by them. Chamber-tombs frequently had porches, vestibules, or Antechambers. Even the single tomb might have its Antechamber as well as its chamber proper. Certain very interesting Antique examples still exist at Kadesh-Naphtali, Tell Hum, Malal, Teiasir, and ‘Ain el-B’anieh. Clothing, implements of agriculture, and other such peasant belongings are considered perfectly safe when deposited by a saint’s tomb; for, if they are injured or stolen, the act incurs the saint’s wrath. ’ To buy off Antiochus Epiphanes, Hyrcanus opened one of the chambers of David’s sepulchre and took out 3000 talents; Herod the Great rifled another in the time of Hadrian (cf. Josephus, Ant. Josephus (Ant
Day of Atonement - 7:3, 4, Josephus Ant. The more important parts of the ceremony were, briefly, as follows:—...
(a) The high priest procured and brought before the Tent a bullock as a sin-offering for himself, and two goats upon which lots were cast, one being destined as a sin-offering for the people, and the other to be ‘for Azazel. ...
(c) It is important to notice that the Jewish sacrifice was very different from those of the heathen. It is peculiarly significant that in Leviticus 16:24 the high priest is bidden to ‘offer his burnt-offering and the burnt-offering of the people, and make an atonement for himself and for the people. on Hebrews); Josephus Ant
Exorcism - He realized that it was his duty, and for his advantage, to cultivate friendly relations with these spirits, and one of the forms which this effort took developed into divination. ἐξορίζειν, on the other hand, meant the separating of the spirit from the person, and from it comes ἐξορκισμός, the Latin exorcismus, and the English ‘exorcism. A heathen amulet has the inscription ἐξορκίζω ὑμας κατὰ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀνόματος θεραπεῦσαι τὸν Διονύσιον; and ‘the adjective is of constant occurrence in the magic papyri’ (Moulton and Milligan, ‘Lexical Notes from the Papyri’ in Expositor, 7th ser. 7), still failures were overlooked and forgotten, and exorcism prevailed among all the nations of Antiquity, and prevails among all uncivilized peoples to-day (G. 209) and the Anthesteria of the Greeks (Gilbert Murray, Four Stages of Greek Religion, 1912, p. Ant. Solomon, according to tradition, acquired a great reputation as an expert practitioner of the art-‘a science,’ says Josephus (Ant. ’ He composed incantations by which cures were effected, and also formulas by which demons could be expelled. ]'>[9] Perhaps the secret of His power, His triumphant and universal success, and of the failure of others, is revealed in His words, ‘this kind cometh not out except by prayer’ (Mark 9:29). ) Christ is by way of honour called ‘this magician’ (μάγος αὑτος), and in the spurious Epistle to the Antiochians (ch. The rescripts of the Emperors granted to them, as well as to the other orders of clergy, exemption from civil offices. of Christian Antiquities , 1875, vol. The office of exorcist continued to be important: we read, e
Nation (2) - ]'>[1] whereas Ἰσραήλ is used always with a note of affection and pride by those who count themselves as its members, sharers in the Divine choice and covenant. He filled the high priest’s office with his own creatures; and by building theatres and pagan temples showed scant respect for the national ideal. temples of Caesar) in many towns’ outside Judaea (Josephus Ant. ...
On the death of this Idumaean tyrant an even sadder chapter from the standpoint of national independence began. ; Antipas succeeding to Galilee and Peraea; and Archelaus, after a long suit at Rome, obtaining the most important part with an allotted income of 600 talents. For although these were only half Judaeans, and in subtle and sometimes pronounced Antagonism to the nationalist party, they did not fail to give it some regard; whereas Pontius Pilate and his four predecessors mostly gave up even the attempt to understand so impracticable a people. The Temple was dominated by the tower of Antonia. Herod Antipas built Tiberias, S. They constituted the majority of the Sanhedrin, which, as the supreme court of appeal, professedly represented the remnant of Jewish independence. Thus in the name of a bastard independence, which meant that they had leave to grow rich and their country leisure to grow outwardly splendid, they opposed any national movement which might provoke the Romans to take away not only the nation, but also ‘our place’ (John 11:48). More than that, their doctrinal shortcomings received some countenance in high places; for the Sadducees say only what is written is to be esteemed as legal … the tradition of the fathers needs not to be observed’ (Josephus Ant. ...
If it was by the hands of the priests, in the name of national independence, that the Lord was betrayed to the ‘nations,’ so the chief Antagonism which He met in His ministry, and which His spirit encountered afterwards in the Apostolic mission, came from this close-knit theory and practice of national unity. ]'>[4] [5]; Ewald, Hist
Essenes - And even Josephus ( Ant . ...
Into this situation came the life-and-death struggle against the attempt of Antiochus to Hellenize Judaism. This meant a kind of holiness that put an immense emphasis on Levitical precision
Sanhedrin - an aristocratic, as distinct from a democratic, body), and that as such it is not mentioned before the time of Antiochus the Great (b. Ant . predominantly the Sadducæan interest; but under Herod, who favoured the Pharisaic party in his desire to restrict the power and influence of the old nobility, the Sadducæan element in the Sanhedrin became less prominent, while that of the Pharisees increased. Thus we see that it could issue warrants for the apprehension of Christians in Damascus to the synagogue there ( Acts 9:2 ; Acts 22:5 ; Acts 26:12 ); but the extent to which Jewish communities outside of Judæa were willing to submit to such orders depended entirely on how far they were favourably disposed towards the central authority; it was only within the limits of Judæa proper that real authority could he exercised by the Sanhedrin
Sandemanians - John Glass, who was a minister of the established church in that kingdom; but being charged with a design of subverting the national covenant, and sapping the foundation of all national establishments, by maintaining that the kingdom of Christ is not of this world, was expelled from the synod by the church of Scotland. " There have not been wanting writers, however, who have vindicated these ministers from his invectives, and have endeavoured to show that Mr. Their kiss of charity used on this occasion at the admission of a new member, and at other times when they deem it necessary and proper; their weekly collection before the Lord's supper, for the support of the poor, and defraying other expenses; mutual exhortation; abstinence from blood and things strangled; washing each other's feet, when, as a deed of mercy, it might be an expression of love, the precept concerning which, as well as other precepts, they understand literally: community of goods, so far as that every one is to consider all that he has in his possession and power, liable to the calls of the poor and the church; and the unlawfulness of laying up treasures upon earth, by setting them apart for any distant, future, and uncertain use. In the choice of these elders, want of learning and engagement in trade are no sufficient objection, if qualified according to the instructions given to Timothy and Titus; but second marriages disqualify for the office; and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of hands, and giving the right hand of fellowship. ...
See Glass's Testimony of the King of Martyrs; Sandeman's Letters on Theron Ant
Travel (2) - In Luke 2:44 it probably meant not more than 6 miles, for these festal caravans, with their crowds, moved at a leisurely pace; and tradition has it that the halting-place was Beeroth, which is 6 miles north of Jerusalem. Josephus in one place (Ant
High Priest (2) - Josephus declares (Ant. Jesus is not only the Mediator of the new covenant, the High Priest, but He is also the sacrifice itself
Galatians, the Epistle to the - " So Thierry: "flank, impetuous, impressible, eminently intelligent, but extremely inconstant, fond of show, perpetually quarreling, the fruit of excessive vanity. " This description is not altogether inapplicable to their descendants in France and Ireland. Many Jews resided in Ancyra (Josephus, Ant
Ammon, Ammonites - ’...
The really important feature of the story of Genesis 19:1-38 is that it reveals a consciousness that the Israelites regarded the Ammonites as their kindred. Nehemiah and Ezra fomented this enmity by making illegal the marriages of Ammonitish women with Israelitish peasantry who had remained in Judah ( Nehemiah 13:23 ). As Josephus ( Ant
Gift, Giving - In other cases the return is of a less material character, consisting of the granting of a request or the restoring of favour. Its acceptance was the sign of favour and of the granting of the request ( Judges 13:23 , 2 Chronicles 7:1 ); its rejection, of disfavour ( Genesis 4:4 , Malachi 1:10 ). ]'>[6] Ant. Paul from his converts ( Philippians 4:16 ), and from the Gentile Churches to Jerusalem ( Acts 11:29 , Romans 15:20 , 1Co 16:1 , 2 Corinthians 8:1-24 ; 2 Corinthians 9:1-15 ), play a very important part in the history of the early Church
Fast, the - Ant. -The word seems to afford an important clue to the exact year in which the voyage of St. Another advantage is that, by this means, the chronological difficulty created by the ‘three months” stay in Malta (Acts 28:11) is somewhat alleviated; for the patty could not possibly set sail again until the very beginning of February at the earliest. Such an investigation has a very important bearing on the question of the Lucan authorship, and cannot be entered upon here (see article Acts of the Apostles). Paul in Acts is therefore a Tendenz-product, we may find in this passage an important confirmation of Harnack’s position that a mere theory of accommodation to Jewish customs for the sake of peace on St
Arabia - Originally it meant simply ‘desert’ or ‘desolation,’ and when it became an ethnographic proper name it was long in acquiring a fixed and generally understood meaning. To the settled races of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine, it meant any part of that hinterland, skirting the confines of civilization, which was the camping-ground of wandering tribes for ever hovering around peaceful towns and spreading terror among their inhabitants. In the time of Josephus this people ‘inhabited all the country from the Euphrates to the Red Sea’ (Ant. This episode, which has an important bearing on the chronology of St. The Hellenism of the East … was a church militant, a thoroughly conquering power pushing its way in a political, religious, economic, and literary point of view’ (Mommsen, op
David, Welsh Saint - Ant. ...
His father was (in medieval Latin) Xantus or Sanctus, prince of Keretica—i. It is 8 miles from Lampeter, and from recent archaeological discoveries has been identified with an important Roman station, the Loventium of the itineraries (Lewis, Top. David, and give some curious Antiquarian details
Muratorian Fragment - in 1740 by Muratori (Ant. It has been generally conjectured that by the epistle "to the Alexandrians," Hebrews is meant; but it is nowhere else so described has no Marcionite tendency and is not "under the name of Paul. ); and if it be true that MONTANISM only became active in the Roman church in the episcopate of Zephyrinus, the date of the Muratorian document is settled, for it is clearly Anti-Montanist
Nicodemus - Josephus (Ant. It is said that it is really a brief sermon by the Evangelist, and follows the regular plan of the Johannine discourses:—a pregnant saying by the Master; a remark by an interlocutor who misunderstands the text by taking it literally and not spiritually; then a further exposition by the speaker: the whole being ‘a thoroughly artificial construction on a set plan’ (Gardner, A Historic View of the NT, sec. Nicodemus did not at all suppose that a second physical birth was meant. He could hardly at that moment have Anticipated the Resurrection
Procurator - Such a person was a superior servant, acting for his master, but still a servant. The Emperor required servants to manage his property in various parts of the Empire, and these were regularly known by the name procuratores. Only Imperial provinces were thus governed, and only the less important of these (see Governor, Province). Antonius Felix was brother of Claudius’ great minister of finance (a rationibus), Pallas, and, probably on account of his marriage into a higher class, was raised to the equestrian order before his appointment to Judaea . Sometimes also a sub-procurator (ἀντεπίτροπος) of equestrian rank is mentioned as an assistant to the procurator. The last tended to become less important in the later Empire. In the more important Imperial provinces the financial procurators acted ordinarily with the governors in the supervision of building and also in the settlement of boundary disputes, but also sometimes independently. Vitellius, the governor of Syria (Josephus, Ant. Ramsay, ‘The Tekmoreian Guest-Friends; an Anti-Christian Society on the Imperial Estates at Pisidian Antioch,’ in Studies in the History and Art of the Eastern Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1906, pp. 193, ‘Iconium and Antioch,’ in Exp_, 8th ser
Temple (2) - Josephus Ant. Its site is to-day occupied by the Haram es-Sherif, though this includes also part of the site formerly covered by the Tower of Antonia, which stood at the north-west of the temple area. On the north-west two sets of steps led up to the Tower of Antonia; the Roman garrison stationed here kept constant watch during the feasts and other occasions of great gatherings, in case of tumult (cf. Ant. Clermont-Ganneau says that this inscription ‘can scarcely refer to any other than the family or descendants of Nicanor,’ and that the ‘doors’ must be understood as referring to ‘the famous door of the temple of Herod, known as the Gate of Nicanor, after the rich individual who had presented it to the Sanctuary’; see PEFSt, 1903, pp. By far the most important part of Christ’s connexion with the temple is His teaching given within its precincts
Proverbs - § 39); and since, it is argued, the harvest was four months distant, it was in December that Jesus visited Sychar in the course of His journey from Jerusalem to Galilee. ’ Jesus is reported to have quoted this proverb on two occasions (John 4:44, Matthew 13:57 = Mark 6:4 = Luke 4:24), and it was constantly exemplified in His experience. He was quoting a flippant phrase which is current in the East to this day. The old gentleman was neither dead nor dying; he was in good health, and the youth meant merely that his home had the first claim upon him (Wendt, Teach. Ant. under ‘Absurda’) thus explains:...
‘It was said of one who, while too poor to procure the necessaries of life, endeavoured to maintain an establishment of horses or servants. ‘If,’ he replied, ‘there be feasts of gods and gods eat, certainly they have also attendants who see to it that even the scraps of ambrosia are not lost’ (Philostr. 38 the Galilaeans rose against Herod, and drowned his adherents in the Lake (Josephus Ant. The Talmud has ‘an elephant passing through the needle’s eye’ (see Lightfoot). under ‘Absurda’) quotes a Latin adage: ‘Transmisso camelo, culex in cribro deprehensus haesit,’ and refers to the bantering remark of Anacharsis the Scythian when he found Solon busy drawing up his laws. ‘They are exactly like spiders’ webs: they will hold back the weak and insignificant and be broken through by the powerful and rich’ (Plut. The proverb satirizes those who atone for laxity in important matters by scrupulosity in matters of no moment. ‘To every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have more abundantly; and from him that hath not, even what he hath shall be taken away from him’ (Matthew 25:29). Hillel had a more tolerant spirit. The merchants imported words as well as wares, and one meets many an alien vocable, uncouthly transliterated, on the pages of the Talmud. What wonder if the Jews caught up also some of the foreign merchantmen’s proverbs?...
(2) The traders were not the only strangers who visited the Holy Land. There were Roman soldiers and Herod’s mercenaries, the latter including Thracians, Germans, and Galatians (Josephus Ant
Sabbath - Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. Ant. also Ant. This is unimportant; the main point is that the ancient Jewish institution was carried over into the Christian Church, and lived on in some form or other. The legislation of Constantine (a. 321), which recognized Sunday as a feast day, must have been no small factor in the case; though, again, that would not have been enacted if the custom of keeping the Lord’s Day had not already been predominant among Christians. Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, bk
Antioch - Here Seleucus Nicator, after his defeat of Antigonus at Issus in 301 b. , discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom, the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus. A second quarter was added on the eastern side, perhaps by Antiochus I. ; a third, the ‘New City,’ was built by Seleucus Callinicus on an island-similar to the island in the Seine at Paris-which has since disappeared, probably owing to one of those seismic disturbances to which the region has always been peculiarly subject; and a fourth, on the lowest slopes of Silpius, was the work of Antiochus Epiphanes. It attained its highest political importance in the time of Antiochus the Great, whose power was shattered by the Romans at Magnesia. Pompey made it a civitas libera, and such it remained till the time of Antoninus Pius, who made it a colonia. ) ‘Vespasian took with him his army from Antioch, which is the metropolis of Syria, and without dispute deserves the place of the third city in the habitable world that is under the Roman Empire, both in magnitude and in other marks of prosperity’ (Job. ...
Antioch was called ‘the Beautiful’ (ἡ καλή
‘Amidst all this luxury the Muses did not find themselves at home; science in earnest and not less earnest art were never truly cultivated in Syria and more especially in Antioch. No Greek region has so few memorial-stones to shown as Syria; the great Antioch, the third city of the empire, has-to say nothing of the land of hieroglyphics and obelisks-left behind fewer inscriptions than many a small African or Arabian village’ (Mommsen, op. Ant. The Jewish nation ‘had the greatest multitudes in Antioch by reason of the size of the city. While the Judaism of Antioch did not assimilate Hellenic culture so readily as that of Alexandria, and certainly made no such contribution to the permanent thought of the world, it yet did much to prepare the city for the gospel. ‘Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch,’ who was early won to Christianity, and is named among the Seven of the Jerusalem Church (Acts 6:5), was evidently one of that great number of Antiochene Greeks who had previously felt the spell of the Jewish faith. And it was the mixture of national element in the Church of Antioch-pure Greeks with Greek-speaking Jews-that peculiarly fitted her to play a remarkable part in the Apostolic Age. The diaspora that followed the death of Stephen brought many fugitive Jewish Christian preachers to Antioch, and some Cypriotes and Cyrenians among them inaugurated a new era by going beyond the Hellenist Jews for an audience and preaching to ‘the Greeks also’ (Acts 11:20). The new evangelism resulted in many conversions (Acts 11:21), and the vigilant Church in Jerusalem sent Barnabas down, if not to assist in the work, at least to supervise it. In Antioch the two men exercised a united and fruitful ministry for a year (Acts 11:22-26). ’ While Julian ‘met their sarcastic sayings with satirical writings, the Antiochenes at other times had to pay more severely for their evil speaking and their other sins’ (Mommsen, Provinces, ii. While Antioch was never wanting in respect for Jerusalem, contributing liberally to its poor in a time of famine, and consulting its leaders in all matters of doctrine and practice, her distinguishing characteristic was her evangelistic originality. But contact with the great world and sympathy with its needs probably did more than the force of reason to lighten the Antiochene Church of the dead-weight of Judaism. Christians of Hellenic culture and Roman citizenship taught her a noble universalism, and it was accordingly at the instance of the Church of Antioch that the Council of Jerusalem sent to the Gentile converts a circular letter which became the charter of spiritual freedom (Acts 15:23-29). Above all, it was from Antioch that Paul started on each of his missionary journeys (Acts 11:1-3; Acts 15:36; Acts 18:23), and to Antioch that he returned again and again with his report of fresh conquests (Acts 14:26; Acts 18:22). It was master-minds of Christian Antioch who at length changed the pathetic dream of ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ into a reality. ...
Antioch gave rise to a school of Christian thought which was distinguished by literal interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence upon the human limitations of Jesus. Between the years 252 and 380, ten Councils were held at Antioch. Antakiyeh is now but a meagre town of 600 inhabitants, though its environs ‘are even at the present day, in spite of all neglect, a blooming garden and one of the most charming spots on earth’ (Mommsen, ii. Müller, Antiquitates Antiochenœ, Göttingen, 1839; Conybeare-Howson, St. τὴν Πισιδίαν, ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ which is the correct reading, instead of Ἀ. ) about the same time as Syrian Antioch, being another of the many cities which he called after his father Antiochus. above sea-level, overlooking the great plain which is drained by the river Anthios. ), which cost Antiochus the Great the whole of his dominions north of the Taurus, the Romans made Antioch a free city. Mark Antony gave it to king Amyntas, after whose death in 25 b. Roman roads connected Antioch with all the other colonies founded in the district-Olbasa, Comama, Cremna, Parlais, and Lystra. Paul visited Antioch. The city was not yet ‘Antioch in Pisidia’ (Authorized Version ), being correctly styled by Strabo ‘Antioch towards Pisidia’ (Ἀ. 14]'>[2]), in distinction from Antioch on the Maeander; but St. Luke already calls it ‘Pisidian Antioch,’ to differentiate it from Antioch in Syria. The boundaries of Pisidia gradually moved northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia, and then ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ became the usual designation of the city. At a still later period Pisidia was constituted a Roman province, with Antioch as its capital. ), Antioch is regarded by St. Paul’s first mission to Antioch was so successful that the whole political regio of which this colony was the centre soon heard of the new faith (Acts 13:49). Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. Ant. 4), many of whom must have found a home in Antioch. Trade doubtless attracted others to so important a centre, and thus the Jewish leaven had been working for a long time before Christianity was introduced. Paul found many ‘devout proselytes’ in Antioch (Acts 13:43), and his presence attracted ‘the whole city’ to the synagogue (Acts 13:44). 2); and the influence of ‘women of honourable estate’ (τὰς εὐσχήμονας), not only in Antioch but in Asia Minor generally, is one of the most striking features in the social life of the country (Conybeare-Howson, St. ) mentions another fact which may help to explain the rapid progress of Christianity in Antioch: ‘In this place was established a priesthood of Mçn Arcaeus, having attached to it a multitude of temple slaves and tracts of sacred territory
Sabbath - Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. Ant. also Ant. This is unimportant; the main point is that the ancient Jewish institution was carried over into the Christian Church, and lived on in some form or other. The legislation of Constantine (a. 321), which recognized Sunday as a feast day, must have been no small factor in the case; though, again, that would not have been enacted if the custom of keeping the Lord’s Day had not already been predominant among Christians. Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, bk
Mining And Metals - Though Palestine proper is deficient in mineral resources, yet these were present to some extent on its borders, and were not only abundantly found, but even largely developed, in other parts of the ancient East. The commonest ore of silver is argentiferous galena, which contains a large quantity of lead, and in which other metals may also be present. ...
Flint is a form of silica, and occurs abundantly, in the form of nodules, in many of the limestone rocks of Palestine. Josephus ( Ant
Moab, Moabites - ]'>[6] Ant
Slave - (3) The exercise of paternal authority was limited to the sale of a daughter of tender age to be a maidservant, with the ulterior view of her becoming the concubine of the purchaser. If a servant did not desire to avail himself of the opportunity of leaving his service, he was to signify his intention in a formal manner before the judges (or more exactly at the place of judgment ), and then the master was to take him to the door-post, and to bore his ear through with an awl, ( Exodus 21:6 ) driving the awl into or "unto the door," as stated in (15:17) and thus fixing the servant to it. A servant who had submitted to this operation remained, according to the words of the law, a servant "forever. ...
The condition of a Hebrew servant was by no means intolerable. His master was admonished to treat him, not "as a bond-servant, but as an hired servant and as a sojourner," and, again, "not to rule over him with rigor. (15:13,14) In the event of a Hebrew becoming the servant of a "stranger," meaning a non-Hebrew, the servitude could be terminated only in two ways, viz. by the arrival of the year of jubilee, or by the repayment to the master of the purchase money paid for the servant, after deducting a sum for the value of his services proportioned to the length of his servitude. (15:12,13) Thus far we have seen little that is objectionable in the condition of Hebrew servants. A master might, for instance, give a wife to a Hebrew servant for the time of his servitude, the wife being in this case, it must be remarked, not only a slave but a non-Hebrew. The position of a maiden thus sold by her father was subject to the following regulations: (1) She could not "go out as the men-servants do," i. Vast numbers of Hebrews were reduced to slavery as war-captives at different periods by the Phoenicians, (Joel 3:6 ) the Philistines, (Joel 3:6 ; Amos 1:6 ), the Syrians, 1 Maccabees 3:42 ; 2 Maccabees 8:11 , the Egyptians, Joseph Ant. (Exodus 21:20 ; Leviticus 24:17,22 ) A minor personal injury, such as the loss of an eye or a tooth, was to be recompensed by giving the servant his liberty
Thyatira - Doubtless an old Lydian settlement, it retained its Lydian name, but its history begins with its refounding by Seleucus Nicator, the first of the Seleucid kings of Syria, who saw the advantage of establishing garrison cities and centres of Greek culture throughout his dominions, which extended from Western Asia to the Indus. Some of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus the Great deported from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Jos. Ant. In the Roman period the town became an important station on the overland route by the Hellespont (Dardanelles) to the East. It lay midway between the once royal cities of Pergamos and Sardis, but its own significance was always purely mercantile. The purple of Thyatira was probably the well-known turkey-red, made from the madder-root which grows abundantly in that region. John uses the scathing language of indignant scorn, the piercing invective of wounded love. To him it is clear as daylight that no servant of God can become, or remain, a member of the gild as it is-steeped in idolatry and immorality. ’ To the indignant prophet of the Apocalypse this kind of reasoning is infernal; the ‘depths’ of experience into which members of the church of Thyatira are being initiated are the ‘depths of Satan’ (Revelation 2:24). All Antinomian progress is retrogression; every ascent ‘beyond good and evil’ is a disastrous fall. 20), and who had been granted time to repent (v. Ak-hissar, as Thyatira is now called, is a large town of mud houses, almost hidden from view by the luxuriant vegetation of its gardens
Tomb - There he and his immediate descendants were laid 3700 years ago, and there they are believed to rest now, under the great mosque of Hebron; but no one in modern times has seen their remains, or been allowed to enter into the cave where they rest. Up to the present time we have not been able to identify one single sepulchral excavation about Jerusalem can be said with certainty to belong to a period Anterior to that of the Maccabees, or more correctly, to have been used for burial before the time of the Romans. The only important hypogeum which is wholly Jewish in its arrangement, and may consequently belong to an earlier or to any epoch, is that known as the tombs of the prophets, in the western flank of the Mount of Olives. Ant
Tradition (2) - In the history of all religions, traditions play a very important part. The Sadducees took exception to the prevalent state of mind (Josephus Ant. 6); but the attitude of the Pharisees was the very opposite, and exerted a dominant influence in the matter. The covenant was founded not on the written, but on the oral word of God; for it is said, ‘after the tenor of these words I have made a covenant with thee and with Israel’ (Exodus 34:27)
Head, Headship - Greek statues show bare-headed Greek women displaying extravagant hairstyles. 56; Josephus Ant . As the church grew many wanted to know the reason for this custom
House (2) - Accordingly we find artisans and merchants plying their trades in the street, or in open shops looking out on the street. ’...
In the mountainous regions limestone rock was the building material chiefly used, as it was abundant, easily quarried, and readily worked. 2 Samuel 16:22, Nehemiah 8:16), and sometimes a more substantial room, where guests of honour are lodged (1 Kings 17:19, 2 Kings 4:10). Mark 13:15; Josephus Ant. The whole affair would seem to have been the extemporaneous device of plain peasants, accustomed to open their roofs and let down grain, straw, and other articles, as they still do in that country (Thomson, Land and Book, ii. ...
The Graeco-Roman architecture of the Hellenistic period did not exert any very marked or lasting influence upon the architecture of Palestine, partly because of the Jewish Antipathy to the Hellenizing tendency, and partly because it was confined to the larger buildings, such as palaces, baths, theatres, temples, etc
Israel - ‘Israel,’ on the other hand, is pre-eminently the people of privilege, the people who had been chosen by God and received His covenant. Augustine, Theodoret, Luther, Calvin, and others, nor to an elect remnant, as is held by Bengel and Olshansen. Paul declares, pertained ‘the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the Law, and the service of God, and the promises; whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came’ (Romans 9:4-5). They are partakers of the new covenant which has been ratified by the death of Jesus Christ (1 Corinthians 11:25). ...
The analogy between the first and the second covenant is fully worked out by the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who dwells upon the ritual and ceremonial aspect of ancient Israel’s relationship to God, and shows the higher fulfilment of that relationship under the new covenant, where there is direct personal access to God. The Mediator of the new covenant has entered not into an earthly temple but into heaven itself, there to make continual intercession for His people (Hebrews 7:25). The writer further emphasizes the superiority of the new covenant relationship of the spiritual Israel as being a fulfilment of the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:31-34, which presupposes that the old covenant had proved ineffective (Hebrews 8:7). On the other hand, the symbolic or metaphorical use of the term applied to the spiritual Israel is found in connexion with the sealing of the servants of God which takes place according to the tribes of the children of Israel (Revelation 7:4), and also in the description of the New Jerusalem, where the names of the twelve tribes are engraven on the twelve gates (Revelation 21:12). -Josephus, Ant. The following Commentaries on the relevant passages may be cited: on Romans: Calvin (1844), Olshausen (1866), Meyer (1872), Denney (Expositor’s Greek Testament , 1900), Sanday-Headlam (International Critical Commentary , 1902); on Hebrews: A
Games - Jason's introduction of Greek games and a gymnasium was among the corrupting influences which broke down the fence of Judaism, and threw it open to the assaults of the Old Testament Antichrist, Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Maccabees 1:14; 2 Maccabees 4:12-14). Herod erected a theater and amphitheater, with quinquennial contests in gymnastics, chariot races, music, and wild beasts, at Jerusalem and Caesarea, to the annoyance of the faithful Jews (Josephus, Ant 15:8, sec. ...
A second sense is nowhere positively sustained by Scripture, namely, that, as the crowd of surrounding spectators gave fresh spirit to the combatants, so the deceased saints who once were in the same contest, and who now are witnessing our struggle of faith, ought to increase our earnestness, testifying as they do to God's faith. "Looking off unto Jesus (aforontes , with eye fixed on the distant goal) the Prince-leader and Finisher (the Starting point and the Goal, as in the diaulos race, wherein they doubled back to the starting point) of our faith" (2 Timothy 3:7)
Jew, Jewess - Ἰουδαῖος) originally signified an inhabitant of the province of Judaea , or, more strictly, a member of the tribe of Judah in contrast with the people of the Northern Kingdom of the ten tribes. Josephus, referring to Nehemiah, use of the term in addressing the returned exiles, says: ‘That is the name they are called by from the day that they came up from Babylon, which [1] is taken from the tribe of Judah, which came first to these places; and thence both they and the country gained that appellation’ (Ant. The Dispersion was one of the most important factors in the spread of the Christian faith in apostolic and sub-apostolic times. In the Acts of the Apostles we see how the Roman proconsul Gallio (Acts 18:12-17) simply regards Christianity as an insignificant variation of Judaism, and the same view is taken by King Agrippa (Acts 26:32), as well as by the town-clerk of Ephesus (Acts 19:37)
Caesar - Augustus himself soon gave evidence that he meant to gather up and concentrate on himself all the fame that was associated with ‘Caesar. The imperial verdict, announced after a few days, upheld substantially the will of Herod. To Archelaus were assigned Judaea, Samaria, and Idumaea—not as king, but as ethnarch; to Antipas, Galilee and Peraea as tetrarch; Batanaea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, Gaulanitis, and Paneas to Philip, also as tetrarch (Josephus Ant. It was different with the ‘customs,’ which were farmed out to the highest bidder, thus creating that intense Antipathy which is revealed in the phrase ‘publicans and sinners
Samaritan Pentateuch - de Sancy, French ambassador at Constantinople, obtained it for Pietro della Valle, and sent it to the library of the Orateire at Paris in 1623. No Antediluvian in the Samaritan begets his first son after he is 150; but 100 years are subtracted before and added after the birth of the first son; so Jared in the Hebrew begat at 162, lived 800 more, and all his years were 962; in Samaritan he begat at 62, lived 785 more, and all his years were 847. Anthropomorphisms are removed. It remains therefore uncertain whether...
(1) the original Samaritan was inherited from the ten tribes whom the Samaritans succeeded; or...
(2) from Manasseh (Josephus Ant
For - In advantage of for the sake of on account of that is, towards, noting use, benefit or purpose. An Ant is a wise creature for itself. I cannot go for want of time. That which we for our unworthiness are afraid to crave, our prayer is, that God for the worthiness of his son would notwithstanding vouchsafe to grant. In quest of in order to obtain as, to search for arguments to recur to Antiquity for examples. Chimists have not been able, for aught is vulgarly known, by fire alone to separate true sulphur from Antimony. For the use of to be used in that is, towards, noting advantage. By the want of. The inhabitants suffered severely both for provisions and fuel
Dropsy - Josephus Ant. It is not easy to determine whether the diseased man was specially introduced into the house for a malignant purpose, or whether he appeared there unbidden in order to claim the sympathy and the help of Jesus. in Psalms 91:1 : ‘Hodiernus dies sabbati est: hunc in praesenti tempore otio quodam corporaliter languido et fluxo et luxurioso celebrant Judaei’). εἰς βόθυνον, Matthew 12:11) is particularly appropriate when the nature of the discase is remembered, and shows how wonderfully every incident was used by Jesus to illustrate the lesson He meant to teach
Phylacteries - Under the more legal and formal interpretation and observance of the OT which flourished after the Return, the literal interpretation became dominant. Josephus (Ant. According to the Kabbala, they were significant of the wisdom, reason, and greatness of God. The Mishna taught that’ be who has Tephillin on his head and his arm, Tsitsith on his garment, and Mezuzah on his door, has every possible guarantee that he will not sin
Baptism - ’-In 1 Peter 3:21 baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the Antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc. ), the fulfilment of the type; but in Hebrews 9:24 it is used conversely, as it often is in Christian Antiquity when the Eucharistic bread and wine are called the Antitype of our Lord’s body and blood, e. 112) ‘panem quidem in exemplar quod dicit Graecus Antitypum corporis Christi’; so Cyr. 14 the flesh is the ‘antitype’ of the Spirit. ) Hence in Christian Antiquity the baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e. varia lectio, variant reading. βάπτισμα), and in the plural in " translation="">Hebrews 6:2 (see above, 1); Josephus (Ant. , Mark 8:28, Luke 7:20; Luke 7:33; Luke 9:19; Josephus, Ant
Nazirite - ...
In the ascetic abstinence from wine and the abhorrence of everything connected with the vine, we find probably the remnant of a protest on the part of those who regarded themselves as true Jews against the adoption by Israel of Canaanitish culture. 5, 6), King Agrippa, ‘coming to Jerusalem in much greater prosperity than he had before, … ordered that many of the Nazirites should have their heads shorn (Josephus, Ant. ’ But the succeeding incredible statement, ‘he alone was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies,’ and the improbable account of his martyrdom which follows, and contrasts unfavourably with the account given by Josephus (Ant. -In this passage it is quite clear that it was a Nazirite vow that the four men had on them, and we have explained above what is meant by St. What is meant by St. This permission was commonly granted if the new-comer paid all the fees required from the whole company …, and finished the vow along with the others’ (T. of Christ and the Gospels , Encyclopaedia Biblica , Jewish Encyclopedia , PRE Dress - Scripture and Anthropology are in agreement as to the great Antiquity of the skins of animals, wild and domesticated, as dress material ( Genesis 3:21 ‘coats of skin’; cf. Antiq. That of the peasantry and of most workmen was probably both looser and shorter, resembling in these respects its modern representative, the kamees (Lat. ]'>[10] Ant . Antiq . Most recent authorities favour mantles (so AVm [10] Ant . ]'>[3] ‘hairy mantle’). Elijah’s mantle , in particular, is always so named. ]'>[3] gives ‘mantles. ’ Antiochus Epiphanes, it is recorded, compelled the young Jewish nobles to wear the petasus , the low, broad-brimmed hat associated with Hermes ( 2Ma 4:12 , RV Nazirite - ...
In the ascetic abstinence from wine and the abhorrence of everything connected with the vine, we find probably the remnant of a protest on the part of those who regarded themselves as true Jews against the adoption by Israel of Canaanitish culture. 5, 6), King Agrippa, ‘coming to Jerusalem in much greater prosperity than he had before, … ordered that many of the Nazirites should have their heads shorn (Josephus, Ant. ’ But the succeeding incredible statement, ‘he alone was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies,’ and the improbable account of his martyrdom which follows, and contrasts unfavourably with the account given by Josephus (Ant. -In this passage it is quite clear that it was a Nazirite vow that the four men had on them, and we have explained above what is meant by St. What is meant by St. This permission was commonly granted if the new-comer paid all the fees required from the whole company …, and finished the vow along with the others’ (T. of Christ and the Gospels , Encyclopaedia Biblica , Jewish Encyclopedia , PRE Leper - Elephantiasis especially prevailed in Egypt, "the parent of such taints" (Justin 36:2; Josephus Ant. Νega'tsara'ath means a plague or stroke of leprosy (Septuagint), rather elephantiasis . The anesthetic elephantiasis begins in the forehead (2 Chronicles 26:19-21) with shining white patches which burst; bone by bone drops off; the skin is mummy-like; the lips hang down exposing the teeth and gums. Job was affected with acute tuberculous elephantiasis, rapidly ulcerating his body (2 Kings 2:7-8). Two birds were taken for him, provided by the priest not the man; one was killed over running water, the other set free; accompanied with cedar wood (Juniper oxycedar , whose smoke was disinfectant), scarlet (representing rosy health and vigour), and hyssop (the caper plant, medicinally cleansing ulcers and skin diseases). The seven sprinklings renewed to him the covenant, symbolized by that number. ...
When the leprosy was spread over the whole person from head to foot (Leviticus 13:12-13) with none of the proper symptoms of elephantiasis the man was clean, his disease was the common white leprosy or dry tetter, red pimples with scaly surface spreading until it covers the body, not much affecting the health and disappearing of itself
Theophilus (2) - Later tradition naturally busied itself with fanciful conjectures upon his personality, turning him eventually into the bishop of Antioch or of Caesarea (cf. -Evangeliums (1900), deduces from ἐν ἡμῖν (1:3) the fact that the author was one of the two Emmaus disciples, while Theophilus must have been a wealthy Antiochene tax-collector, an acquaintance of Chuza and Herod, who accompanied Herod and Bernice to Caesarea, where he fell in with St. Josephus Ant. To his open-mindedness we owe, in one sense, two of the most important historical documents in early Christian literature. It is needless to see anything subtle or significant in the change from Luke 1:3
Manasseh - ’ Josephus ( Ant . Jair, it is said, and Nobah, two other descendants of Manasseh, also look towns in Gilead, to which they gave their own names. But, according to Deuteronomy 3:13 , Moses, after completely exterminating the inhabitants, gave North Gilead, all Bashan, and Argob ‘to the half tribe of Manasseh’; cf
Restitution - According to the Authorized Version rendering the relative pronoun ὦν has πάντων for its Antecedent, so that the restitution is a restitution only of those things of which the prophets had spoken. According to the Revised Version and the great majority of modern commentators the Antecedent is χρόνων, so that it was the times of restoration of which the prophets spoke, and the restoration is a restoration of all things in some sense not defined in the context. Ant. In the light of such texts it seems safe to conclude that the Apostle’s ‘universalism’ implies not a universal redemption of individuals, but a restoration of the disordered world to unity and harmony by an elimination of all discordant elements or a subdual of all hostile powers. Even when a case has been made out for Universalism from the direct utterances of the NT, it has to be admitted that the materials for a case against it are abundantly present. To Martensen it seemed that on this subject the Scriptures set before us an unresolved Antinomy corresponding to the Antinomy between the sovereignty of God and the free will of man. ; articles ‘Restoration’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , ‘Apokatastasis’ in PRE Celibacy (2) - In the time of Christ the Essenes in general eschewed marriage, though one section of them practised it (Josephus, Ant
Hegesippus, Father of Church History - 8), where he quotes Hegesippus as speaking of certain games (ἀγών ) instituted in honour of Antinous, a slave of Hadrian, of which he says ἐφ᾿ ἡμῶν γενόμενος (a better established reading than γινόμενος ). This derives confirmation from a statement of Jerome, generally regarded as somewhat extravagant, that the life of Hegesippus had bordered on the apostolic age ("vicinus apostolicorum temporum," de Vir. And, when he had formed an accusation against them, he delivered them to be stoned" (Ant. ...
An important question remains: Was Hegesippus of the Judaizing Christian party?...
Baur looks upon him as representing the narrowest section of the Jewish Christians even as a most declared enemy of St
Proselytes - But he could not hold land nor intermarry with Aaron's descendants (Leviticus 19:10; Leviticus 21:14), he is presumed to be in a subject condition (Deuteronomy 29:11); Hobab and the Kenites (Numbers 10:29-32; Judges 1:16), Rahab of Jericho (Joshua 6:25), and the Gibeonites as "hewers of wood and drawers of water" (Joshua 9), are instances of strangers joined to Israel. In Psalms 94:6, as the pagan do not make widow and strangers their chief object of attack, "the stranger" is probably the saint in relation to this world (Psalms 39:12), and "the widow" is the widowed church awaiting Christ's glorious epiphany to avenge her on Antichrist (Luke 18:3-8). ...
All the prophets Anticipate the future sharing of proselytes in the kingdom of God, and even in the Holy Land as "sojourners" (Isaiah 56:3-6; Isaiah 2:2; Isaiah 11:10; Ezekiel 47:22; Micah 4:1), and meantime plead their cause (Jeremiah 7:6; Ezekiel 22:7; Ezekiel 22:29; Zechariah 7:10; Malachi 3:5). ...
But Jewish fanaticism sought proselytes also by force and fraud, as John Hyrcanus offered the Idumeans the alternative of death, exile, or circumcision (Josephus, Ant. Simon ben Gamaliel said: "when a pagan comes to enter the covenant we ought to stretch out, our hand to him and bring him under the wings of God" (Jost, Sea of Galilee - 1), ὕδατα Γεννήσαρα (Ant. 7), λίμνη Γεννησαρῖτις (Ant. Behind the village to the west is Wady Hamâm, known in the early centuries as בִּקְעַח אַרְבֵּאל, and containing in its cliffs the once famous caves of Arbela (Ant. ...
Complaint has been made by some of the tameness of the scenery around the Lake, and of the want of picturesqueness of the hills; while, on the other hand, Seetzen (Reisen, in loc. The hills and the valleys on both shores become clothed in a luxuriant greenness, while, as the season advances, the fresh bursting buds of the olive, the fig, the vine, and the pomegranate, with here and there a palm tree, add variety and pleasantness to the landscape. Very soon, too, the fields are covered with great patches of anemones of varied colours—white, red, purple, and deep dark-blue, interspersed with various species of the lily family and stretches of the dark green-leaved and yellow-flowered mustard, while the watercourses and shores of the Lake are marked out by the red blooms of the oleander with its dark-green and silvery-backed leaves; and on the western shore variety is added by the gigantic reeds of the papyrus, topped by their reddish-brown waving plumes; on the higher grounds, too, every crevice of the rock is shaded by the blossoms of the cyclamen and many another flower of the field. There was nothing in the rule of the tetrarchs Antipas and Philip to discourage perseverance, so that the land was coming more and more under cultivation. 13) says: ‘Lacus Tiberiadis omnibus Anteponitur ingenuo aestu et ad sanitatem usu efficaci. There would still be stretches of woodland remaining, tenanted by birds of brilliant colours and various forms. These would for the most part be constructed of black stone, but varied at times by buildings of white marble, while even the polished granite of Syene helped to break the monotony; and although, on the whole, the majority of the buildings would be dull and sombre, still, in the midst of waving fields of green and gold, the presence of the humble village, and the beach sparkling with the houses and the palaces, the synagogues and the temples of Jewish and Roman inhabitants, would present a scene of great beauty, so that we can well understand how the wild desolations of the pre-Christian century, and the calm and peaceful years that followed the advent of the Messiah, combined to render the district more beautiful when Christ was a citizen of Capernaum than at any other time during its whole history. it is 62°, and at a greater depth there is a constant temperature of 59° (PEFSt Jesus Christ - There is no historical task which is more important than to set forth the life and teaching of Jesus Christ, and none to which it is so difficult to do justice. It is quite certain that a modern European makes many mistakes when trying to reproduce the conditions of the distant province of Oriental Antiquity in which Jesus lived. ...
The author of the Fourth Gospel makes considerable use of the narratives of the Synoptists, but also suggests that their account is in important respects defective, and in certain particulars erroneous. It is, in the first place, substantially the same valuation of Christ which pervades the Pauline Epistles, and which has been endorsed by the saintly experience of the Christian centuries as answering to the knowledge of Christ that is given in intimate communion with the risen Lord. It is also significant that in allusions to the Temptation ( Hebrews 4:15 ), the Agony ( Hebrews 5:7 ), and the Transfiguration ( 2 Peter 1:17 ), the writers can reckon on a ready understanding. There is nothing more important than the statement of Justin, that as a carpenter Jesus made ploughs and yokes ( Dial . of the Ante-Nicene Library , 1870). Josephus mentions Jesus ( Ant . There is evidence in the classical writers for the historical existence, approximate date, and death of Jesus, but otherwise their attitude was ignorant and contemptuous (Tac. Elimination of the supernatural, from the standpoint of (1) Eighteenth Century Deism Paulus, Das Leben Jesu , 1828; (2) Modern Pantheism D. The works of Weiss and Sanday dispose of the arrogant assumption of Schweitzer ( op. Herod Antipas and Philip continued to rule as vassal princes, with the title of tetrarchs, over Galilee and Ituræa respectively. The best of their number must have exhibited, as Josephus shows, a zeal for God and a self-denial like that of Roman Catholic saints otherwise the veneration of the people, which Josephus shared, would be inexplicable ( Ant . ...
In this world presided over by pedants, formalists, and political ecclesiastics, the common people receive a fairly good character. ]'>[14]
Ant
Collection - ...
The next instance of a systematic collection of money for the purpose or relieving distress in Judaea and Jerusalem is found in the history of the Church of Antioch (Acts 11:27 ff. A threatened famine roused the sympathy of the Antiochene Christians, whose activity in the matter reveals their knowledge that the conditions of life amongst many of their Jewish brethren were those of chronic poverty and distress. Ant. Ant. Having returned to Antioch, he was compelled to renew in a more pronounced form the controversy which had been partially settled at the Jerusalem Conference. Of one fact he constantly reminds them-he never accepted the smallest help towards his own support during his two visits to Corinth (cf. Perhaps an even more significant proof of his feeling in this respect is to be discovered in the tone of friendliness with which he mentions his Corinthian friends in the document written immediately afterwards (Romans 16:1 f. At the time of writing the Epistle to the Romans he was the guest of Gaius in Corinth, and the unpleasant character of his relations with the Corinthian Church had undergone a complete change. From the scanty evidence available it would not be safe to dogmatize. It is not improbable that the triumphant joyousness (ἡ καρδία ἡμῶν πεπλάτυνται, 2 Corinthians 6:11) of his late appeal to them was due to their having chosen himself as their ambassador or representative to convey their ‘gracious’ gift (ἀπενεγκεῖν τὴν χάριν ὑμῶν εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ, 1 Corinthians 16:3) to its destination. It is pleasant to learn that the unsavoury bickerings in Corinth were forgotten when, during that winter’s sojourn there, St
Issachar - ...
Jacob prophetically describes the tribe, "Israel is a strong donkey crouching down between two burdens (the cattle pens or sheepfolds, Speaker's Commentary; 'the hurdles,' Keil; found only in Judges 5:16); and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and became a servant (slave) unto tribute" (Genesis 49:14-15), namely, unto the tribute imposed by the various invaders attracted to his land by the abundant crops. The strong boned he-ass used for field work (not the lighter and swifter she-ass for riding), crouching down between panniers or amidst sheepfolds, symbolizes a race content with agricultural labours instead of aspiring to political rule; a robust race, with a pleasant inheritance inviting to ease, as not requiring such toil as less fertile lands; ease at the cost of liberty. Pleasant serfdom, however suitable to Canaanites, was unworthy of Israelites, called of God to rule not serve (Deuteronomy 20:11; 1 Kings 9:21; Isaiah 10:27). , not merely Zebulun was to be noted for "going out" in maritime traffic and Issachar for nomad life" in tents," and grazing, and agriculture; but, according to poetical parallelism, the whole is meant of both tribes, Rejoice Zebulun and Issachar in your labour and your rest, in your undertakings at home and abroad, both alike successful. (Josephus, Ant
Armour, Arms - The rômach appears to have been a lighter form of spear, a lance , and to have largely supplanted the heavier spear or pike in later times ( Nehemiah 4:13 ; Nehemiah 4:16 , Joel 3:10 ). ...
( d ) The bow is common to civil ( Genesis 21:20 ) and military life, and vies in Antiquity with the spear. of Ant. ]'>[3] ) were more probably of leather, such as the monuments show to have been worn by the rank and file of other armies until supplanted in the Greek age by bronze, for the élite of the infantry at least ( 1Ma 6:35 ). ]'>[3] of the Antiquated habergeon ( 2 Chronicles 26:14 , Nehemiah 4:16 ), and brigandine ( Jeremiah 46:4 ; Jeremiah 51:3 ). The Syrian war-elephants were protected by breastplates ( 1Ma 6:43 ), and probably also the horses of the Egyptian cavalry ( Jeremiah 46:4 )
Divorce (2) - Salome, Josephus Ant. The supposed sanction of divorce in Deuteronomy 24:1-2 is practically reaffirmed, the clause עָרְוָת דָּבָר, which formed the point at issue in the Jewish schools, being interpreted or paraphrased as παρεκτὸς λόγου πορνεἰας, by which is probably meant any act of illicit sexual intercourse. Just as he has so arranged Matthew 5:16-20 as to represent Christ’s attitude to the Law to be that of the Rabbinical Jews, who regarded every letter of the Law as permanently valid, so here he has so shaped Christ’s teaching about divorce as to make it consonant with the permanent authority of the Pentateuch, and harmonious with the stricter school of Jewish theologians
Offices of Christ - ‘Jesu Christi dreifaches Ant’ in PRE Solomon - Josephus makes Solomon last born of David's sons (Ant. (See PROVERBS; CANTICLES; ECCLESIASTES. )...
His name Solomon , "peaceful", was given in accordance with the early prophecy that, because of wars, David should not build Jehovah's house, but that a son should be born to him, "a man of rest," who should build it (
1 Chronicles 22:9; compare the fulfillment 1 Kings 4:25; 1 Kings 5:4, and the Antitype Matthew 11:29; Psalms 132:8-14; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 9:6; Ephesians 2:14). Jehovah chose Solomon of all David's sons to be his successor, and promised to be his father, and to establish his kingdom for ever, if he were constant to His commandments (1 Chronicles 28:5-6-7). The Hittite and Syrian kings, vassals of Solomon, were supplied from Egypt with chariots and horses through the king's merchants. ...
He recognizes in it God's covenant-keeping faithfulness (1 Kings 8:23-26); His being unbounded by space, so that "the heaven of heavens cannot contain Him," much less any temple; yet he begs God to regard the various prayers which should, under various exigencies, be offered there (Psalms 89:30-368; Jeremiah 23:24; Acts 7:24). Like the wise men coming to the Antitype, she came with a great train, and with camels laden with presents, in search of Heaven-sent wisdom (Proverbs 1:6; Matthew 2:1), "to prove Solomon with hard questions" (chidah , pointed sayings hinting at deep truths which are to be guessed; very common in Arabic literature), and to commune with him of all that was in her heart; compare as to these "hard questions" Proverbs 30:18, etc. , 1618394313_34; Judges 14:12-19; also Josephus (Ant. abundant beyond measure (1 Kings 4:29). One trace of the servitude of the "hewers of stone" existed long after in the so-called children or descendants of "SOLOMON'S SERVANTS" attached to the temple (Ezra 2:55-58; Nehemiah 7:57; Nehemiah 7:60); inferior to the Nethinim, hewers of wood (1 Kings 5:13-15; 1 Kings 5:17-18; 1 Kings 9:20-21; 2 Chronicles 8:7-8; 1 Chronicles 22:2), compelled to labour in the king's stone quarries
Philo - -About the life of Philo we have only very scanty information; apart from occasional remarks in his own writings (in particular in Flaccum and de Virtut. ad Gaium) one has to refer to Josephus, Ant. Ant. In consequence of the Anti-Semitic riots at Alexandria under Flaccus, Philo, as the leader of a Jewish embassy, went to Rome to see the Emperor Caligula. The papyri report, in the time of Claudius, a hearing of the Alexandrian Anti-Semites against King Agrippa, but do not mention Philo. _ The way, however, in which he combines Platonic, Pythagorean, Stoic, Aristotelian, and Sceptic elements is very significant-significant also for contemporary philosophy. -The most important point to note in Philo is his method of reading the above system into the Law of Moses or the Pentateuch by means of allegorical interpretation. It is by his identifications in connexion with the manifold significance of the Logos that Philo’s interpretation gains further variety by application to physical cosmology, to Anthropological psychology, and to human ethics. So Origen systematizes the various ways of applied interpretation, by means of the Anthropological trichotomy: historical, moral, and mystical interpretation are combined in the Scripture as body, soul, and spirit are combined in man. Historical feeling, a prerogative of the Semitic race as compared with the Greeks, is still more predominant with the Antiochene School of interpretation: here typological interpretation is favoured
Benedictus of Nursia, Abbott of Monte Cassino - A later writer gives their names, Euproprius and Abundantia (Petr. The fame of his sanctity spreading abroad, Benedict was invited, his youth notwithstanding, by the monks of a neighbouring monastery (at Vicovarro) to preside over them, and very reluctantly consented. by Ant. 161 he is said (like Anthony) to have reproved a hermit who had chained himself to a rock, in these words, "Brother, be bound only by the chain of Christ!" The character of the Benedictine Order, by the specialities which have always distinguished it from other religious orders, attest the sagacious and liberal character of its founder
Proverbs, Book of - Mostly “antithetical sayings” which contrast opposites appear in Proverbs 10:1-15:33 , but mixed in are a few “better—than” sayings (“Better is a dinner with herbs where love is than a fatted ox and hatred with it,” Proverbs 15:17 ; compare Proverbs 15:16 ) which are also scattered in other sections (Proverbs 16:8 ,Proverbs 16:8,16:19 ; Proverbs 17:1 ; Proverbs 19:1 ; Proverbs 21:9 ; Proverbs 25:24 ; Proverbs 27:5 ,Proverbs 27:5,27:10 ; Proverbs 28:6 ). The epilogue of the book (Proverbs 31:10-31 ) presents an alphabetic poem on wisdom embodied in the “valiant woman. The sluggard must learn from the Ant because the Ant's work is in tune with the order of the seasons (Proverbs 6:6-11 ; compare Proverbs 10:5 )
Church - From the Greek kuriakee , "house of the Lord," a word which passed to the Gothic tongue; the Goths being the first of the northern hordes converted to Christianity, adopted the word from the Greek Christians of Constantinople, and so it came to us Anglo-Saxons (Trench, Study of Words). ) Professing Christendom numbers now probably 80 million of Greek churches, 90 million of Teutonic or Protestant churches, and 170 million of Roman Catholic churches. ' But those who ruled the church after the apostles' death had not the testimony of miracles, and were in many respects inferior, therefore they thought it unbecoming to assume the name of apostles; but dividing the names, they left to 'presbyters' that name, and themselves were called 'bishops'" (Ambrose, in Bingham Ecclesiastes Ant
Love-Feast - ’]'>[9] that it was at or near the Syrian Antioch is as good as any. ¶ Scribes - Scribe maybe meant in Ecclesiastes 12:11-12, "master of assemblies" under "one shepherd," but the inspired writers are probably meant, "masters of collections," i. ) is the best representative of the scribes; Menahem (probably the Essene Manaen: Josephus Ant. The scribes leant on "them of old time" (Matthew 5:21-27; Matthew 5:33); "He taught as one having authority and not as the scribes" (Matthew 7:29). The scanty notice of him in rabbinic literature makes the identification likely; the Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers") does not name him. The saying of a scribe illustrates the pleasant relations between master and scholars, "I have learned much from my teachers, more from my colleagues, most from my disciples. He was then a chaber , or "of the fraternity", no longer of "the ignorant and unlearned" (Acts 4:13), but, separated from the common herd, "people of the earth," "cursed" as not knowing the law (John 7:15; John 7:49). Fees were paid them for arbitrations (Luke 12:14), writing bills of divorce, covenants of espousals, etc
Dead, the - 8; Ant. , is of no dogmatic value to us, though suitable and significant to the men of our Lord’s day. 5), arguing on the whole against the doctrine of an intermediate state, relies mainly on the fact that no positive doctrine of this kind is found in Christ’s words, and observes that towards this subject ‘His attitude is one of significant reserve’; but this argumentum e silentio of itself tells just as much one way as the other. In Luke 15:24 it occurs as tantamount to ‘lost. 166; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Drummond, The Jewish Messiah; Stanton, The Jewish and the Christian Messiah; Luckock, After Death; Randles, After Death; Beet, Last Things; White, Life in Christ
John the Baptist - ...
Josephus ( Ant . 2) makes the preaching of John the cause of his execution, and says nothing of his reproof of Antipas for his adultery with his brother’s wife ( Mark 6:18 ). 507) has shown that when the person of Antipas is concerned, ‘we are bound to consider the historian’s statements with the greatest care
Education - In the importance which they attached to the education of the young, it may fairly be claimed that the Hebrews were facile princeps among the nations of Antiquity. In character Hebrew education was predominantly, one might almost say exclusively, religious and ethical. ...
Of schools and schoolmasters, however, there is no evidence till after the Exile, for the expression ‘schools of the prophets’ has no Scripture warrant. Although he grew up ignorant of much that ‘every school-boy’ knows to-day, he must not on that account be set down as uneducated. The arguments for the identity in all important respects of the early scribes and the sages are given by the present writer in Hastings’ DB Pilate - He possibly owed his appointment to Sejanus, and his administration, as described from the Jewish standpoint, shows either that he shared the Anti-Jewish feelings of Sejanus or that he failed to understand the temper of the people with whom he bad to deal. A deputation of Jews waited on Pilate for five days, and refused to desist though threatened with instant death. 37), and he was not re-appointed (Joseph, Ant. ...
Except at the times of the great feasts the governors usually stayed at Cæsarea; but Pilate was probably present with reinforcements to repress any disorder during the Passover, and had his headquarters in the fortress known as the Tower of Antonia, which adjoined the Temple on the N. (1) Hearing that He came from Galilee, he sends Him to Herod Antipas , who was at Jerusalem for the feast
Jonathan - It marks how prone to idolatry were the Israelites, that the priest to Micah's images and afterward to the Danites was a Levite, whose special duty it was to maintain pure Jehovah's worship, and he a descendant of Moses himself! Idolatry begins with the people, it being natural to our sensuous cravings; then it seeks the sanction of the church. Dutifully devoted to his father, whose constant companion he was (1 Samuel 20:2; 1 Samuel 20:25), yet true to his bosom friend David, whose modest:, youthful beauty, and heroic bravery won his whole heart at their first meeting after Goliath's fall, against whom nevertheless Saul cherished such deadly spite. Jonathan then covenanted with David that he should show kindness to him and his house forever, when David's kingdom would be established (1 Samuel 20), a promise faithfully fulfilled by David to Mephibosheth. "Jonathan's soul was knit with David's," so that the latter testifies, "thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women"; like a Homeric hero, he gave his friend all his own arms, stripping himself (compare the Antitype, Philippians 2:7-8): 1 Samuel 18:1-4; 2 Samuel 1:26. At once "a wise man and learned scribe and counselor" (for the Hebrew dod , "uncle," means a relative and so "nephew": 1 Chronicles 27:32; 2 Samuel 21:21; 1 Chronicles 20:7), and a brave warrior who like David slew a giant Philistine, of Gath, remarkable for six toes and six fingers. Notorious for murdering in the temple his own brother Jesus, who had tried to supplant him by the Persian general Bagoas' help. The latter in consequence entered and polluted the temple and imposed a tax of 50 shekels for every lamb sacrificed (Josephus, Ant
Synagogue (2) - Hence the germs of the institution are to be sought far back in the exigencies that arose as civilization became more complex; and the Exile marks not the first stage in the origin of the synagogue, but an important modification of its functions, worship becoming thenceforward the principal though far from the sole occupation, and the administrative functions falling for a time into abeyance. built a synagogue at Dora (Josephus Ant. Of the equipment the most important item was the press or ark containing the sacred writings. The other indispensable official was the attendant (hazzan or ὑπηρέτης, Luke 4:20), whose duties were varied and, whenever possible, distributed. These paraphrases were not literal translations, but rather condensed interpretations, of a passage, and mark an important stage in the history of preaching. Hence, in places where the population was preponderantly Jewish, local administration was in the hands of a court, which took cognizance of all the Jewish interests of the neighbourhood, and of which the Roman over-rule was apt to avail itself for both executive and minor judicial business. —Most of the officials of the synagogue were honorary; but the schoolmaster and the attendant would require at least partial support, whilst the cost of erection, with that of repairs and maintenance, must have been considerable, to say nothing of the fees paid at a later period to ‘ten unemployed men’ as the minimum of a congregation. ]'>[11] Ant. —Of the works cited in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible , Schürer is still the most important
High Priest - Certain priests, "apothecaries ", manufactured it (Exodus 28:25-28); this oil was wanting in the second temple. Christ, the Antitypical High Priest, was anointed with the fullness of the Spirit (Daniel 9:24; Acts 10:38; John 3:34); from Him the Spirit in measure streams on His members who touch by faith the hem of His garment (Matthew 9:20; John 1:16). In the Jewish church there was a delegation of the priesthood to one tribe and family; not so in the Christian church, which unites under the Antitypical Melchizedek the kingdom and priesthood which were distinct in Israel. ) They were kept in the Baris built by Hyrcanus for the purpose, and called Antonia by Herod, to be along with the high priesthood at the king's disposal. The epistle to the Hebrew explains the Antitypical meaning of the high priesthood, realized in Christ. ...
Superior to the Aaronic priests (Hebrews 7:11; Hebrews 8:1-21; Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 4:14; Hebrews 8:6) in that He was "consecrated with an oath" (Hebrews 7:20-21), has an intransmissible priesthood (margin of Hebrews 7:23; Hebrews 7:28), was "holy, harmless, and undefiled," and without "infirmity" (Hebrews 7:26-28), "faithful to Him that appointed Him" as the "Son," whereas Moses the lawgiver was but a "servant"; needed no sacrifice for Himself (Hebrews 7:27); Himself the sacrifice, purifying "the heavenly things" (Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 9:26), "better" than the sacrifices which "purified the patterns of things in the heavens" (Hebrews 7:23); not often, but offered once for all (Hebrews 7:27; Hebrews 9:25-26; Hebrews 9:28; Hebrews 10:1-2; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:9-10; Hebrews 10:14; Hebrews 10:17-18); "making him that did the service perfect, as pertaining to the conscience," which the law sacrifices could not (Hebrews 9:9; Hebrews 10:1-2; Hebrews 10:16-22). "Tempted Himself in all points like as we are, yet without sin," He is able to succour the tempted (Hebrews 2:18); "touched with the feeling of our infirmities," and so having the needful qualification of a priest, that He "can have compassion on the ignorant, and on them that are out of the way" (Hebrews 4:15; Jeremiah 21:1-2). The names of Israel's twelve tribes on the high priest's shoulders and breast, as a memorial before the Lord continually, imply that the weight of our salvation is upon His shoulders, and our names on His heart before God (Song of Solomon 8:6), not one name is wanting (Isaiah 49:16; John 10:3; Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12). Josephus (Ant. ...
On the other hand the priests truckled to the idolatrous Manasseh; the high priest Urijah was Ahaz' ready tool in copying the Damascus altar, supplanting Jehovah's brazen altar (2 Kings 16:10-16). ...
Josephus (Ant. This paved the way for the attack on Jehovah's worship by Antiochus Epiphanes t
Roman Law in the nt - The student of Christian origins cannot neglect the influence which the law of the Roman Empire had on the infant Church. , and so Josephs, Ant. A third such kingdom was Lycaonia Antiochi (between Galatia and Cilicia), which is indirectly alluded to in Acts 18:23, where St. Herod Antipas was also popularly called ‘king’ (Mark 6:25, Matthew 14:9), but he was really tetrarch (Matthew 14:1) of Galilee (Luke 3:1, τετρααρχοῦντος) and Peraea (Jos. Ant. The appeal need not necessarily have boon granted; but as we see from Agrippa’s remark in Acts 26:32, once it was allowed, the prisoner could not be released. There was a senate (βουλή), and also the popular assembly (δῆμος, Acts 19:30; also called ἐκκλησία, Acts 19:32; Acts 19:41) which met regularly three times a month and (when inquired) in extraordinary session; and this popular assembly had its clerk (γραμματεύς), a very important official, whose influence over it was great, as this chapter shows (Acts 19:35-41). ...
On the other hand, the Romans founded colonies in various parts of the Empire, chiefly for military reasons; their inhabitants were Roman citizens, and Roman law was observed in them more strictly; the city officials were named in Roman fashion duoviri, quaestores, CEdiles, praetores (the magistrates in Greek cities were called στρατηγοί or ἄρχοντες, and in Acts 16:20; Acts 16:22; Acts 16:35 f. The colonics mentioned in the NT are; Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Lystra (Acts 14:6), Philippi (Acts 16:12, where alone of NT passages κολωνία is found), Corinth (Acts 18:1), Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). ’ Citizenship (πολιτεία, Acts 22:28) was not conferred on all the inhabitants of the Empire till a. Even the inhabitants of ‘free’ cities were not Roman citizens, or ‘Romans,’ as citizens proudly and tersely called themselves (Acts 16:21, Acts 22:25 ff. In Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25 the word ἀκατάκριτος (‘uncondemned’) does not imply that the Apostle could have been flogged after trial, which is not the case; the want of trial merely suggests the possible excuse of ignorance which the officials might have urged: St. Paul applies the custom to the Jewish covenant or testament, while at that time a Roman will was revocable by the testator, for it was a secret document and was not recorded (Lightfoot denies that a will is intended in Galatians 3:15, and translates ‘covenant’). Suetonius, who was a few years younger than Tacitus, calls Christianity ‘a novel and malignant superstition’ (Nero, 16). Even had there been confusion between the two religions in Nero’s time, by the time of Domitian, when Emperor-worship was enthusiastically pressed, and the Imperial policy thus became directly Antagonistic to Christianity, there could be no possibility of confusing the two
Isaac - Isaac's submission (at 25 years of age: Josephus, Psalms 40:7-8 section 2) to his father's will when binding him, and his bearing the wood for his own intended sacrifice, make him a lively type of Him who bore His own cross to Calvary (John 19:17), and whose language was, "Lo I come to do Thy will O God" (Ant. What Isaac's sacrifice wanted to perfect the type was actual death and vicarious substitution; the offering of the ram's life instead of the human life, hereby saved, supplied the defect; the ram and Isaac jointly complete the type. Abraham herein had the glimpse which he had desired of Messiah's day "and was glad" (Isaac meaning "laughter flowing from gladness") (John 8:56); not that he fully comprehended the Anti-typical meaning. The angel's intervention, the ram's substitution, and the prohibition of the human sacrifice prevent the possibility of supposing God sanctions any human sacrifice save that of the Antitype. Isaac's carnal partiality and Rebekah's tortuous policy eventuated in their being left in their old age by both children, Esau disappointed and disinherited, Jacob banished to a long and distant servitude; the idols of God's children becoming their scourges, in order to bring them back to Himself (1 Corinthians 11:32; Jeremiah 2:19). Isaac had obeyed God's vision in not going down to Egypt, a place of spiritual danger though abundant in food, but sojourning in Gerar during the famine. ) So, the Lord who had given him a hundredfold increase in his harvests made room for him at last; and he retained the well Rehoboth ("room") without further contention, and made a covenant with Abimelech; compare Romans 12:18-21; Matthew 5:5; Matthew 5:25; Proverbs 16:7
Inn - When Jesus is sending out His disciples to preach, He does not take it for granted that they will always find a ready welcome or free entertainment (Matthew 10:11-14, Mark 6:10-11, Luke 10:10-11). ’...
The influx of Greeks into Palestine, the constant presence of a large Roman element, civil and military, the mixed retinue attached to the Herodian court, the increase of trade, the importation of foreign workmen, the presence in several towns of companies of gladiators, actors, and the like,—would necessitate not only inns, but various kinds and grades of inns. ...
There were inns built on a large scale, comfortable and elegant, suited for high officials (see CIL Name, Names - When a man was wanted to milk a camel, Mohammed disqualified one applicant after another till a man came whose name meant ‘Long Life’; if one of his converts was called ‘Rough,’ he called him ‘Smooth’; he was even guided in his strategy by the names of the places en route (Margoliouth, Mohammed , p. ‘Dawn’]'>[1] is brother’), Baal ( 1 Chronicles 5:5 ; 1 Chronicles 8:30 ), Bildad ( Job 2:11 ), Balaam, Obed-edom (‘servant of [2] Edom’), Reu and Reuel ( Genesis 11:18 , Exodus 2:18 ). ...
There is an important class of compounds in which relationship originally conceived as physical with the god of the nation or clan is asserted: Ammiel (‘kinsman is El’), Abijah (‘father is Jah’), Ahijah (‘brother is Jah’). They were meant to express the religious sentiments of the Chronicler and those like-minded. ]'>[12] Ant . family life, but the idea of a distinguishing and honourable surname is not altogether wanting; see Isaiah 44:5 ; Isaiah 45:4 , Job 32:21 , and some of the familiar double names. From their great Antiquity and the alterations to which they have been subjected, it is sometimes impossible to determine the meaning
Elijah - A rugged Bedouin in his hairy mantle ( 2 Kings 1:8 ), Elijah appears as a representative of the nomadic stage of Hebrew civilization. It lasts three years; according to a statement of Menander quoted by Josephus ( Ant . The priests of the Tyrian deity, termed ‘prophets’ because they practised the mantic art, select a bullock and lay it upon an altar without kindling the wood. ’ Towards evening a dismantled altar of Jehovah is repaired, and a trench is dug round it. Leaving his servant, he plunges alone into the desert a day’s journey. Instead of granting his request, God sends an angel who ministers to the prophet’s physical needs. Elijah takes refuge in a cave, perhaps the same in which Moses hid ( Exodus 33:22 ), and hears the voice of Jehovah, ‘What doest thou here, Elijah?’ The prophet replies, ‘I have been very jealous for Jehovah, God of Hosts; for the children of Israel have forsaken thy covenant thrown down thine altars, and slain thy prophets with the sword; and I, even I only, am left; and they seek my life, to take it away. After hearing his complaint, Jehovah gives His faithful servant a threefold commission: Hazael is to be anointed king of Syria, Jehu of Israel; and Elisha is to be his successor in the prophetic order. Abah, on his way to take possession of his ill-gotten estate, meets his old Antagonist, who pronounces the judgment of God upon him: ‘In the place where dogs licked the blood of Naboth shall dogs lick thy blood, even thine,’ is the prophet’s greeting. Accompanied by his faithful follower Elisha, he passes from Bethel to Jericho, and from thence they cross the Jordan, after Elijah has parted the waters by striking them with his mantle. Prophetism had two important duties to perform: (1) to extirpate the worship of heathen deities in Israel, (2) to raise the religion of Jehovah to ethical purity
Sabbath - Some argue from the silence concerning its observance by the patriarchs that no sabbatic ordinance was actually given before the Sinaitic law, and that Genesis 2:3 is not historical but Anticipatory. The history of the patriarchs for 2,500 years, comprised in the small compass of Genesis, necessarily omits many details which it takes for granted, as the observance of the sabbath. The Levites were dispersed throughout Israel to take advantage of these convocations, and in them "teach Israel God's law" (Deuteronomy 33:10). 3:27) and Josephus (Ant. The Sabbath was further a "sign" or sacramental pledge between Jehovah and His people, masters and servants alike resting, and thereby remembering the rest from Egyptian service vouchsafed by God. The Decalogue was proclaimed with peculiar solemnity from Mount Sinai (Exodus 19:16-24); it was written on tables of stone, and deposited in the ark (representing Himself) covered by the mercy-seat on which rested the Shekinah cloud of His glory; Moses significantly states "these vows the Lord spoke, and He added no more. " The Decalogue was "the covenant," and the ark containing it "the ark of the covenant;" and therefore the Decalogue sums up all moral duty. has fixed the mean between the too seldom and the too often, the exact proportion in which the day devoted to His service ought to recur, best suited to our bodily and spiritual wants. The typical Sabbath (Hebrews 4:9) must remain until the Antitypical sabbatism appears. But when Judaizing Christians wished to bring Christians under the bondage of the law, and the Jews became open Antagonists of the church, the observance of the Jewish Sabbath was tacitly laid aside, and the Lord's day alone was kept; see Colossians 2:16. The law leads to Christ, there its office ceases: it is Jesus, the Antitype of Joshua, who leads us into the heavenly rest (Hebrews 4:8-9). So legal sacrifices continued until the Antitypical sacrifice superseded it. As the Antitypical Sabbath rest will not be until Christ comes to usher us into it, the typical earthly Sabbath must continue until then
Simeon - Simeon was the "remnant" with Judah and Benjamin, which constituted Rehoboam's forces (1 Kings 12:23). Five hundred Simeonites undertook a second expedition under four chiefs, sons of Shimei, against the remnant of Amalek that had escaped from Saul and David (1 Samuel 14:48; 1 Samuel 15:7; 2 Samuel 8:12) to the mountains of Idumea; they smote them utterly, and dwelt in their place, and were there at the date of the composition of 1 Chronicles, i. " When Jesus' parents brought Him into the temple to redeem Him as the firstborn with five shekels according to the law (Numbers 18:15), and to present Him to the Lord, Simeon took Him up in his arms, and blessing God said, "Lord, now Thou dost let Thy servant depart in peace (not a prayer, but a thanksgiving; again like Jacob, Genesis 46:30); for mine eyes (not another, Job 19:27) have seen (1 John 1:1) Thy (Isaiah 28:16; Luke 3:6) salvation: which Thou hast prepared before the face of all people (the universality of the gospel): a light to lighten the Gentiles (Isaiah 9:2), and (not only light, but also) the glory of Thy people Israel" (Isaiah 60:1-3). 107, as David's descendant who might claim the throne and give trouble to the Romans. By the parable of the debtor forgiven 500 pence loving the creditor more than the one forgiven only 50, Christ showed that her warm and demonstrative love flowed from consciousness of forgiveness, his want of love from his fancy that he needed but little God's forgiveness. Josephus (Ant
Evil (2) - Hence the nothingness and transitoriness of all earthly and visible things are a constant theme with them: ‘Behold, heaven and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee,’ etc. (Isaiah 40:6); ‘The inhabitants of the earth are as grasshoppers’ (Isaiah 40:22). It is not an extravagant optimism, like that of Leibnitz, who maintained that this is the best of all possible worlds, or of Malebranche, who regarded it as the best conceivable. Josephus says of the Pharisees: ‘When they say that all things happen by fate, they do not take away from men the freedom of acting as they think fit; since their notion is that it hath pleased God to mix up the decrees of fate and man’s will, so that man can act virtuously and viciously’ (Ant. —Athanasius, contra Gentes; Augustine, Antipelagian Treatises, etc. 3, 4: Tennant, The Origin and Propagation of Sin; and The Fall and Original Sin; Bull, The State of Man before the Fall; Paley, Natural Theology, xxvi
Alexandria - From the dimensions given of one of them by Lucian, they appear to have been quite as large as the largest class of merchant ships of modern times’ (Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Seneca gives a vivid picture of the arrival of the Alexandrian fleet of merchantmen at Puteoli (Ep. The trade which came to Lake Mareotis from the Nile and the Red Sea was equally important. ]'>[4] in which divine honours were paid to the Roman emperors, but the Museum, which in many ways resembled a modern university, with lecture halls and State-paid professors, and the Library, in which were accumulated the books of Greece, Rome, Egypt, and India, to the number (according to Josephus, Ant. For literature her savants did a noble work in collecting, revising, and classifying the records of the past. Alexandria’s most brilliant scholars, detached from the realities of life, immured in academic cloisters, were, connoisseurs, not writers, of classics. ...
In the Roman period ‘numerous and respectable labours of erudition, particularly philological and physical, proceeded from the circle of the savants “of the Museum,” as they entitled themselves, like the Parisians “of the Institute”; but … it was here very clearly apparent that the main matter was not pensions and rewards, but the contact … of great political and great scientific work’ (Mommsen, Provinces2, ii. Naturalized in a foreign city and inevitably breathing its spirit, the Jews showed themselves at once pliant and stubborn
Proselyte - The needs of the world moved them powerfully, and the thoughts that found expression in such passages as Psalms 33:8 (‘Let all the earth fear the Lord, let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him’) Psalms 36:7-9 , Psalms 64:10 , Psalms 65:8 etc. ]'>[5] Ant. In their conflict with Rome their numbers were greatly reduced by slaughter, and their power of religious expansion was checked by the decree of Hadrian, modified later by Antoninus, in forbidding circumcision. Amongst the Jews both the proselyte and the devout worshipper occupied an inferior place, but here was a faith that made no distinction between Jew or Gentile, a faith whose conception of God was tenderer and whose ethical standards were higher, that made love and not law the interpreter of duty and the inspiration of service, that lived not in an evening twilight of Anticipation of a glorious Messianic morning, but in warm fellowship with a Personality that was the evidence of its power and truth
Moses - " Magicians foretold to Pharaoh his birth as a destroyer; a dream announced to Amram his coming as the deliverer (Josephus, Ant. Tunis (now San), Zoan, or Avaris near the sea was the place, where crocodiles are never found; and so the infant would run no risk in that respect. "...
This last may hint at what Josephus states, namely, that Moses led a successful campaign against Ethiopia, and named Saba the capital Meroe (Artapanus in
Eusebius 9:27), from his adopted mother Merrhis, and brought away as his wife Tharbis daughter of the Ethiopian king, who falling in love with him had shown him the way to gain the swamp surrounding the city (Josephus Ant. An Egyptian overseer, armed probably with one of the long heavy scourges of tough pliant Syrian wood (Chabas' "Voyage du Egyptien," 119, 136), was smiting an Hebrew, one of those with whom Moses identified himself as his "brethren. Stephen (Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35) implies that Moses meant by the act to awaken in the Hebrew a thirst for the freedom and nationality which God had promised and to offer himself as their deliverer. But on his striving to reconcile two quarreling Hebrew the wrong doer, when reproved, replied: "who made thee a prince (with the power) and a judge (with the right of interfering) over us? (Luke 19:14, the Antitype. He dwells not on Pharaoh's cruelty and power, but on the hopelessness of his appeals to Israel and on his want of the "eloquence" needed to move their stubborn hearts. ) His recording his own praises (Numbers 12:3-7) is as much the part of the faithful servant of Jehovah, writing under His inspiration, as his recording his own demerits (Exodus 2:12; Exodus 3:11; Exodus 4:10-14; Numbers 20:10-12). ...
He came to "the mountain of God" (Sinai, called so by Anticipation of God's giving the law there) on his way toward Horeb. So Israel's Antitype, Messiah, has "all the fullness of the Godhead dwelling in Him bodily" (John 1:14; Colossians 2:9). Nothing but God's extraordinary call could have urged him, against his judgment, reluctantly at fourscore to resume the project of rousing a debased people which in the rigor of manhood he had been forced to give up as hopeless. By the people's desire spies searched the land; they reported the goodness of the land but yet more the strength and tallness of its inhabitants. For the contrast between "Christ the Son over His own house" and "Moses the servant faithful in all God's house" see Hebrews 3:1-6. Moses stands at the head of the legal dispensation, so that Israel is said to have been "baptized unto Moses" (initiated into the Mosaic covenant) as Christians are into Christ. ...
His song in Exodus 15 abounds in incidents marked by the freshness and simplicity which we should expect from an eye-witness: he Anticipates the dismay of the Philistines and Edomites through whose territories Israel's path lay to the promised land. They are the earnest of the church's final "song of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb" (Revelation 15:3), the song which shall unite in triumph the Old Testament church and the New Testament church, after
John the Baptist - A number of commentators have assumed, without any warrant, that this must have been Hebron, as being a priestly town in that region. 2–13, Ant. But in his case it meant much more than this, much more even than the adoption of severely ascetic habits in the interests of his own spiritual life. ] ...
How long John remained in ‘the deserts,’ by which is doubtless meant the awful solitudes of the Wilderness of Judaea, and how he grew into the full sense of the precise nature of his prophetic vocation as the forerunner and herald of the Messiah, we cannot tell. But the Holy Ghost who had been working in him, and the hand of the Lord which had been laid upon him from the first, his own constant brooding over words of ancient prophecy (John 1:23, cf. Josephus, Ant. At first John was unwilling to perform the rite upon such an applicant, but Jesus insisted. Even if we suppose that in spite of their kinship and the friendship between their mothers the two had not met before, the fact that John’s baptism was a baptism of repentance and confession seems to imply a personal interview with applicants previous to the performance of the rite—an interview which in the case of Jesus must have revealed to one with the Baptist’s insight the beauty and glory of His character
Magi - —The only reference to Magi in the Gospels occurs in Matthew 2, where we have the well-known story of the visit of the Oriental Magi to the infant Jesus. 23); and classical writers conversant with Persian affairs use the word magus as synonymous with ‘priest’ (Apul. Lenormant, La magie chez les Chaldéens; R. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte; Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria). In Rabbinical writers this bad sense is predominant (Edersheim, Life and Times, i. Here also the evidence is insufficient to warrant a definite conclusion. ...
Of these attempted explanations the most important may briefly be summarized. Now to the Christians of the East Nero was Antichrist: hence it is argued that just as, in the early legends, the miraculous events of Christ’s life were transferred to Antichrist, so the story of being worshipped by Magi may have been transferred from the Antichrist Nero to the Christ. (c) Other critics, again, resort to a mythological solution, and regard the adoration of the Magi and the attendant events as ‘not history, but pious transformations of current mythic stories. Josephus Ant. Jesus is throughout represented as the Antitype of Moses. 4: ‘Quot vero isti magi fuerint, ex numero trinae oblationis tres eos fuisse multi suspicantur’), though allegorical reasons were also found (Patritius, iii. … per ea quae obtulerunt munera ostendisse quis erat qui adorabatur: myrrham quidem quod ipse erat qui pro mortali humano genere moreretur et sepeliretur: aurum vero quoniam rex, cuius regni finis non est: thus vero, quoniam Deus, qui et notus in Judaea factus est, et manifestus eis qui non quaerebant eum’ (Hœr. Helena herself), and to have been brought to Constantinople and deposited in the Church of St. , Leo’s Epiphany Sermons); and the common Western synonym for Epiphany was Festum Trium Regum (Bingham, Ant. 4; DCA Boyhood - The house-mother of such a family as our Lord’s was neither so ignorant, so secluded, nor so debased as the woman sometimes described by travellers in the East. But the prophet no doubt based his words on the customs and sights of his day, and thus a fairly early period of life is meant. Therefore, soon after the period of infantile games, comes that of sports practised by each sex alone, and in the case of boys ‘manly’ exercises soon follow, if practised at all. By their history as well as by their surroundings and details these exercises were connected with heathenism and apostate Judaism (Josephus Ant. But specific references to these arts as boyish exercises are apparently wanting. ...
A training in a foreign or in a dead language is always a mental advantage. The teacher of the school was usually the hazzân or servant of the congregation (Luke 4:20; Shabbath i. All reading is aloud, and in a kind of rhythmical chant or drone. Our Lord constantly referred to OT incidents (Matthew 6:29; Matthew 8:4; Matthew 12:40-42 etc. ), was said to the religious leaders, who would have more advantages and opportunities than the bulk of the population, and who were supposed to study the written Revelation. He was therefore called a ‘son of the Law’ (bar-mizvâh), or a ‘son of the Precept,’ and the ceremony in which he was recognized as such by the community was naturally regarded as important and interesting. The age is also stated by Josephus Ant
Palestine - "the pleasant land"; Daniel 11:16; Daniel 11:41, "the glorious (or goodly) land"; Ezekiel 20:6; Matthew 7:24-271 "a land that I had espied for them flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands. "Judaea" in the Roman sense was part of the province "Syria," which comprised the seaboard from the bay of Issus to Egypt, and meant the country from Idumea on the S. Lebanon, Antilebanon, and the Litany ravine at their feet form the northern bound. On the western verge of Asia, and severed from the main body of Asia by the desert between Palestine and the regions of Mesopotamia and Arabia, it looks on the other side to the Mediterranean and western world, which it was destined by Providence so powerfully to affect; oriental and reflective, yet free from the stagnant and retrogressive tendencies of Asia, it bore the precious spiritual treasure of which it was the repository to the energetic and progressive W. corner of the Negeb (Joshua 15:19); here too Nabal lived, so reluctant to give "his water" (1 Samuel 25:11). Low calcareous hills, covered with villages and ruins, and largely planted with olives, rise above broad arable valleys. Under Rome Caesarea, (now a ruin washed by the sea) and Antipatris in this region were leading cities of the province. ...
Syria is divided, from Antioch in the N. ...
ANTIQUITIES. The coins, rude and insignificant, the oldest, being possibly of the Maccabean era, are the solitary exception. ...
The earthquake in Uzziah's time (Zechariah 14:5), which injured the temple and brought down a mass of rock from Olivet (Josephus, Ant. Antioch in 1737, and Tiberius and Safed in 1837. The Tiberias hot springs flowed more abundantly and increased in temperature during the earthquake of 1837. It is loamy sand, red or black, formed of sandstone disintegrated by the waves and cast on the shore, or, as Josephus (Ant. Arabian and Indian tropical plants of about 100 different kinds are the remarkable anomaly in the torrid depression of the Jordan and Dead Sea. ...
Herbaceous plants deck the hills and lowlands from Christmas to June, afterward the heat withers all. The mountains, unlike our own, have no alpine or arctic plants, mosses, lichens, or ferns. ; out no gooseberry, strawberry, raspberry, currant, cherry, Besides our cereals and vegetables there are cotton, millet, rice, sugar cane, maize, melons, cummin, sweet
Spinning And Weaving - Ant. In 2 Samuel 3:29 for ‘one that leaneth on a staff’ recent scholars render ‘one that holdeth a spindle,’ expressive of the wish that Joab’s descendants may be womanish and effeminate. It is almost certain, however, that Delilah’s loom is meant by the word rendered ‘beam’ in Judges 16:14 (see 4 ( c ))
Canon of the New Testament - " The earliest uninspired notice is that of the anonymous fragment of "the canon of the New Testament" attributed to Caius, a Roman presbyter, published by Muratori (Ant. " Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. " Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autolycum, 3:11) and Irenaeus (Adv. 325) Constantine appeals to "the books of the evangelists, apostles; and prophets" as "the divinely inspired books for deciding their controversies. ...
The scantiness of direct quotations from Scripture in the apostolic fathers arises from their being so full of all they had seen and heard, and so dwelling less on the written word. But they take it for granted, and imitate the tone and salutations of the apostolic epistles
Daniel, the Book of - He does not, as they writing amidst the covenant people do, make God's people the foreground; but writing in a pagan court he makes the world kingdoms the foreground, behind which he places the kingdom of God, destined ultimately to be all in all. Antiochus Epiphanes' history and attack on the holy people are so accurately detailed (Daniel 11) that Porphyry thought they must have been written after the event. What a strange testimony then does Porphyry unwillingly bear to the divine inspiration of the book; the events so minutely fulfilling the prophecies about Antiochus that it might be supposed to be a history of the past instead of, as it is proved to be, a prediction of events then future. Josephus (Ant. He represents the covenant nation in exile, and in subjection to the world power externally. But his heavenly insight into dreams which baffle the Chaldaeans' lore represents the covenant people's inner superiority to their pagan lords
Hospitality - It was to Lot’s credit and advantage that he had preserved this virtue amid the corruptions of Sodom ( Genesis 19:2 ff. It is a coveted distinction to be known as a ‘coffee sheik,’ one who without stint supplies his visitors with the fragrant beverage. ...
The Arabs are sometimes charged with want of gratitude; justly, as it seems from our point of view. His attendants supped with the crowd. ]'>[6] Ant . ...
In modern Palestine hotels are found only at important places on the most popular routes of travel
Martyr - The word is used in practically the same sense in Revelation 2:13 (Antipas) and Acts 22:20 (Stephen), but is in both passages translated ‘witness. Legends grew up which in time invested every member of the apostolic college with the martyr’s halo (a collection of these stories may be seen in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library, vol. A shorter and more authentic record may be found in Josephus, Ant. That they both suffered in Rome is a constant tradition. ...
The date of the death of Antipas of Pergamum (Revelation 2:13) was, according to legend, in the reign of Domitian, when he was burnt to death in a brazen bull. But the phrase ‘in the days of Antipas’ suggests a date some years before the words were written, and Antipas was probably killed in some unknown persecution under the earlier Flavians
James - ]'>[1] son of Zebedee, a well-to-do†
The following passages outside the Gospels have to do with this James: 1 Corinthians 15:7, Acts 1:13; Acts 12:17; Acts 12:15 (passim) Acts 21:18-25, Galatians 1:18-19; Galatians 2:1-10; Josephus Ant. ]'>[6]7 On these passages it may be remarked (1) that, while some of the parallels may be explained as coincidences, there remain others which even Renan (l’Antéchrist3 [8] , p
Keeping - ...
The most important of these words are τηρέω and φυλάσσω with their respective compounds, and for a discussion of the difference in meaning between them the reader is referred to Grimm-Thayer’s Gr. But ‘keep’ has the more precise meanings of: (a) believe, in such passages as ‘Blessed are they that hear the word of God and keep (φυλάσσω) it’ (Luke 11:28), Ant ‘If any man hear my sayings, and keep (φυλάσσω) them not. ...
But the significant passages in this connexion are those which (with the exception of Matthew 19:17; Matthew 28:20) occur in the Fourth Gospel, and in which the verb to ‘keep’ (τηρέω in every instance) is associated with the terms λόγος (sing, or plur. The point to notice is that the experience, and the only experience, of Divine ‘keeping’ which Christ by His example encourages men to pray for and Anticipate, consists not in immunity from adversity, injuries, suffering, sorrow, and death, but in maintenance in a condition of certitude with regard to the Father’s love and of perseverance in the path and practice of goodness—freedom from evil
Games - This word is itself derived from ἄγω, ‘gather,’ which reveals the spectacular nature of the games of Antiquity. It is perhaps significant of the spirit of the times that the strictly professional term (ἀθλέω) is but rarely used in the NT (2 Timothy 2:5; cf. ), ‘stretching forth’ (ἐπεκτεινόμενος; Philippians 3:14), κατὰ σκοπόν (‘mark,’ Authorized Version , ‘goal,’ Revised Version ; Philippians 3:14), while relevant, is not technical to racing (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iii. Ant. Antiquities, Seyffert’s, Dict. Antiquities (ed
Arts - masters, servants (slaves), bond, bondmen (Ephesians 6:5-6, Colossians 3:22, etc. The workers with agricultural implements could not at the same time fashion them, at least to advantage. It may he noted that the palm figures only in Revelation 7:9, although at this time it was also an important culture (Jos. Ant. ) no less than Jewish, we may also infer that this gave support to several important branches of industry. While an important craft, this was a despised one, and the fact of Simon’s house having been by the seaside was due as much to enforced separation from the town as to the necessities of business. Although these here appear as seen in vision, they were all of them possible to Antiquity. ) was built upon the practice of such arts as have here been passed in review, giving a livelihood to merchants, money-lenders, and also tax-collectors. This work is very important
Baptism - ’-In 1 Peter 3:21 baptism is the ‘antitype’ of the bringing of Noah safe through the water; the Antitype is here the ‘nobler member of the pair of relatives’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc. ), the fulfilment of the type; but in Hebrews 9:24 it is used conversely, as it often is in Christian Antiquity when the Eucharistic bread and wine are called the Antitype of our Lord’s body and blood, e. 112) ‘panem quidem in exemplar quod dicit Graecus Antitypum corporis Christi’; so Cyr. 14 the flesh is the ‘antitype’ of the Spirit. ) Hence in Christian Antiquity the baptismal rite, either as a whole or in one or other of its parts, is frequently called ‘the seal,’ σφραγίς; e. varia lectio, variant reading. βάπτισμα), and in the plural in " translation="">Hebrews 6:2 (see above, 1); Josephus (Ant
Profaning, Profanity - Similarly, in the Gospels we find a lower and a higher conception of what is meant by profanation. —It is significant that the only occasion of the use of the word ‘profane’ (βεβηλόω) in the Gospels is in relation to a charge of Sabbath-breaking brought against Jesus (Matthew 12:5). There is a profanation according to the letter that is not a profanation according to the spirit; and there is a seeming transgression of the commandment that is in reality a revelation of the benignity of the Law itself and the ‘philanthropy’ of Him who gave it. For any foot of Gentile or Samaritan to pass beyond the Court of the Gentiles meant death to the transgressor. And Josephus tells us how at one period the Samaritans were altogether excluded from the Temple enclosure because of an act of profanation committed by some of their people (Ant. Thus they had made His Father’s house ‘an house of merchandise’ (John 2:16); nay, a very ‘den of robbers’ (Matthew 21:13 ||)—an allusion either to the greed and extortion of the high-priestly family as landlords of the enclosure, or to the shameful and notorious cheating practised by the privileged traders on the ignorant country people who came up to the Feasts. And by reason of these abuses, such worshippers had first to make their way through the distracting scenes of this profane bazaar; and even as they Knelt at prayer on the other side of the boundary, to have their ears filled with the noisy cries of the merchants, the bleating of innumerable sheep, and the lowing of excited cattle. The Temple at Jerusalem has long since vanished from the world, but the acts and words of Jesus in driving out the profane traffickers still find abundant application
Passover - ’ So throughout the OT, except in Ezra and Ezekiel, Phase as an indeclinable substantive continues to be used, but some caprice is shown in using sometimes Phase and sometimes phase. Josephus mentions more than once the large numbers that came up to the feast, and speaks of it as a particularly turbulent time when sedition was liable to break out on the slightest provocation (see Ant. ...
Nothing could show better than these scanty notes of time how deep-rooted the custom was, how the feast was observed as regularly as the year came round. Men spoke naturally of ‘the days of the unleavened bread’ as a significant point in the calendar, just as we speak of ‘after Christmas’ or ‘at Christmas. Whilst a due reference was preserved to the all-important fact of the deliverance from Egypt, the emergence of the Jews as more or less a people, yet time and historical catastrophes had left their mark. Bingham, indeed, on very slender grounds holds that the ‘first Christians of Jerusalem … did not keep Easter with the Jews on what day of the week scever it fell, but on the Sunday following in honour of our Saviour’s resurrection’ (Ant. 370) is to go beyond what is warranted. He was ‘the Lamb of God’ (John 1:29) rather in Antithesis to the whole sacrificial system of the Jews. It must be admitted that the materials are scanty and not free from obscurity. , between the Synoptists and the Fourth Gospel as to the actual time when the Lord held His Last Supper, whether the meal was an ‘anticipated Passover’ or Passover itself, is well known. Speaking of the movable feasts, Duchesne says: ‘Dans ces fêtes, comme en tant d’autres choses, l’Eglise est, à un certain degré, héritière de la Synagogue. After observing that this symmetry must not be pressed too far, he remarks: ‘Les chrétiens ne conservèrent point toutes les fêtes juives; et quant à celles qu’ils retinrent, ils y attachèrent de bonne heure une signification appropriée à leurs croyances. ...
This correspondence is made abundantly clear by the fact that the name for the festival of the resurrection of our Lord is in most countries simply the name ‘Pascha’ reproduced in various forms
Music And Musical Instruments - It seems clear at any rate that an Antiphonal setting was in use for many of the Psalms ( e. 13, 20, 38, 68, 89); but the chanting must not be taken as resembling what we now understand by that term. Later, the descendants of Heman and other Levitical leaders of music were among the exiles of the Return from Babylon, and under them the services were reconstituted as of old ( Nehemiah 12:27 ; Nehemiah 12:45 ff. The strings, originally of twisted grass or fibres of plants, were afterwards formed of gut, and subsequently from silk or metal. Josephus ( Ant . In support of the last it is urged that the Arabic name for that instrument, santir , is a corruption of the Greek psaltçrion , by which, as has been said, the LXX Ezekiel - This fact, and his expressly calling himself "the priest" (Ezekiel 1:3), favor the view that his mention of the 30th fear of his own age is in order to mark his entering on a priestly ministry to his exiled countrymen (that being the usual age, Numbers 4:23; Numbers 4:30; "the heavens being opened" to him, as they were to his Antitype in beginning His ministry in His 30th year at Jordan, Luke 3:21-23). ...
It is an undesigned proof of genuineness that, while prophesying against the enemies of the covenant people, he directs none against Babylon, whereas Jeremiah utters against her terrible denunciations. "His word fell like a hammer upon all the pleasant dreams in which the captives indulged, and ground them to powder, a gigantic nature fitted to struggle against the Babylonian spirit of the age, which reveled in things gigantic and grotesque" (Hengstenberg). This was divinely ordered to satisfy the spiritual want and instinctive craving felt by the people in the absence of the national temple and the sacrifices. ...
His mysterious symbols presented in plain words, like our Lord's parables, were designed to stimulate the people's dormant minds. So Josephus (Ant. ...
(8) In the 12th year of the captivity, when the fugitives from Jerusalem (
Ezekiel 33:21) had reached Chaldaea, he foretells better times, Israel's restoration, God's kingdom triumphant over Seir, the pagan world powers, and Gog: Ezekiel 33-39. The Antitypical perfection of the old temple service, which seemed a cumbrous yoke unintelligible to the worshippers, shall then be understood fully and become a delightful service of love. ...
For Daniel was rather a seer, unveiling the future in the pagan court, but not discharging the prophetical office as Ezekiel among the covenant people; therefore his book was not classed with the prophets but with the hagiographa
Tabernacle - " Josephus (Ant. Christ's body is "the Antitypical tabernacle which the Lord pitched, not man" (Hebrews 8:2). " The "veil's" Antitype is His rent flesh, or suffering humanity, through which He passed in entering the heavenly holiest for us (Hebrews 5:7; Hebrews 10:19-20). Jehovah's name, the I AM, distinguishing the personal Creator from the creature, excludes pantheism and idolatry, as conversely the seemingly sublime inscription on Isis' shrine at Sais, identifying the world and God, involves both: "I am all that has been, and is, and shall be, and my veil no mortal has withdrawn" (Clemens Alex
Rufus - 336 A, the tyrant is one who μέγα οἴετκι δύνασθαι: he and his like have really no power (Gorg. Mark, 239) renders ‘they who are regarded as rulers,’ and says that our Lord ‘did not admit that the power of such a ruler as Tiberius was a substantial dignity: it rested on a reputation that might be suddenly wrecked, as indeed the later history of the Empire clearly proved. 107), is ‘depreciatory,—not indeed of the Twelve themselves, but of the extravagant and exclusive claims set up for them by the Judaizers. 766) are important: Sus 5 χριτῶν οἵ ἰδόχουν χυβερνᾷν τὸν λαότ, ‘judges who were accounted or recognized as governing the people’; Josephus Ant. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii. ...
‘The daughter of Zion must pass through the pangs of labour before her true king is born; she must come forth from the city and dwell in the open field; there, and not within her proud ramparts, Jehovah will grant her deliverance from her enemies. The most important differences from the latter are the following:—...
(α) Instead of צָעִיר לִחְיוֹת, lit. ‘little for being’ (‘a town too small to be reckoned as a canton in Judah,’ W. The quotations in the NT are an important subject of study, but it is not now considered necessary, in the interests of revelation, to make out a verbal correspondence between these quotations and their OT equivalents. this shepherd is Jesus Christ, and it is fitting that in this early chapter he should employ this title respecting Him whose life on earth, as set forth in the succeeding chapters of his Gospel, was to illustrate so abundantly His shepherd-rule in its tenderness and strength
Jonah - (3) Or did both our Lord and His hearers, the scribes and Pharisees, regard the story of Jonah as a parable or fictitious narrative, like others in the OT and in the Apocrypha, and did He thus refer to it? Although in view of Tobit 14:4; Tobit 14:8, 3 Maccabees 6:8, Josephus Ant. that our Lord would not naturally have said of persons whom a fiction represented as repentant, that they would rise up in the Judgment; nor would He have put as a parallel case to a fiction the facts of the queen of Sheba’s visit to Solomon
Session - 41), καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Πατρός (Creed of Constantinople). 1 Kings 2:19, Psalms 45:9, Matthew 20:21; Josephus Ant. This is the sense in which the Fathers interpret the words; as Westcott points out in his notes on Hebrews 8:1, they carefully avoided all puerile Anthropomorphism in their treatment of ‘the right hand of God,; for example, ‘plenitudinem majestatis summamque gloriam beatitudinis et prosperitatis debemus per dexteram intelligere in qua filius sedet’ (Primas. Matthew 6:9), from which hereafter He will return to judgment; meantime He is patiently waiting at the centre of all worship and power (Hebrews 10:12-13): cf. that he saw Jesus as risen from His throne and in the act of coming to help His suffering servant and faithful martyr. , following Chrysostom, τί οὖ, ἰστῶτα καὶ οὐχὶ καθήμενον; ἴνα δείξῃ τὴν ἀντίληψιν τὴν εἰς τὸν μάρτυρα καὶ γὰρ τερὶ τοῦ τατρος λέγεται ‘ἀνάστα ὁ θεός,’ and Gregory the Great, ‘Stephanus in labore certaminis positus stantem vidit quern adjutorem habuit
Cross, Cross-Bearing - But σταυρός (from ἵστημι) is not synonymous with crux, but was originally a wider term, and, like σκολοψ, meant a stake (Hom. But there is no need of this supposition, for the figure of bearing one’s cross would be quite intelligible to Jews since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Jannaeus, and Varus. Many of the followers of Judas and Simon in Galilee had been crucified (Josephus Ant. The true philosophy of the cross lies in the spiritual interpretation of man’s victorious conflict with sin, which is made possible by the shameful death of the Son of God on the cross as the supreme expression of the love of the Father for sinful men, and as the propitiatory sacrifice on the basis of which the repentant soul can find access to the Father
Providence - Though the word nowhere occurs in the Gospels, the subject is one that meets us constantly. And while it is the providence of God that is especially brought before us, there are not wanting suggestive references to providence on the part of man. ’ From Josephus we learn that Rabbinical Judaism was much occupied with the mysteries of Divine providence in its relation to human freedom; and that, as against the Sadducees who held an exaggerated view of liberty, and the Essenes who maintained a doctrine of absolute fate, the Pharisees kept to the middle path represented by the OT teaching, affirming the freedom and responsibility of man on the one hand, and the Divine providence and omnipotence on the other (Ant. As against a Deistic view which makes God sit aloof from the world He has created, and a Pantheistic view which identifies Him with Nature and its laws, Jesus always takes for granted the fact of God’s free and personal providence. ...
(4) Not only is a doctrine of providence a constant implication of our Lord’s life and ministry, it forms an express part of His teaching. He taught them that God also rules in human lives, bestowing His blessings on the evil and the good (Matthew 5:45), supplying the bodily wants of those upon whom He has conferred the gift of rational life (Matthew 6:25), devoting a peculiar care to such as seek His Kingdom and His righteousness (Matthew 6:33). ‘Magna dii curant; parva negligunt,’ Cic. As against a doctrine of providence which would turn it into a blind fate, and make the strivings of the human will as meaningless as the motions of a puppet, we have to set His constant emphasis on the momentousness of choice and effort and decision (Matthew 7:13; Matthew 7:21, Matthew 13:45 f. Thus in His teaching He Anticipated most of those questions which have been so much discussed by theologians in connexion with this whole subject—questions as to the relation of God’s government to secondary causes, of providence to free will, and as to distinctions between a providence that is special and one that is merely general. (b) Taking for granted that His hearers believe in God as their Creator, Jesus argues from creation to providence as from the greater to the less. If God feeds the birds of the air, shall He not much more feed His spiritual offspring? If He clothes the flowers of the field in their radiant beauty, how can He fail to clothe His own sons and daughters? (Matthew 6:26; Matthew 6:28-30). His appeal, therefore, to the birds of the air and the lilies of the field was not meant to encourage a belief that God would work for the idle and provide for the improvident
Rufus - 336 A, the tyrant is one who μέγα οἴετκι δύνασθαι: he and his like have really no power (Gorg. Mark, 239) renders ‘they who are regarded as rulers,’ and says that our Lord ‘did not admit that the power of such a ruler as Tiberius was a substantial dignity: it rested on a reputation that might be suddenly wrecked, as indeed the later history of the Empire clearly proved. 107), is ‘depreciatory,—not indeed of the Twelve themselves, but of the extravagant and exclusive claims set up for them by the Judaizers. 766) are important: Sus 5 χριτῶν οἵ ἰδόχουν χυβερνᾷν τὸν λαότ, ‘judges who were accounted or recognized as governing the people’; Josephus Ant. (he is writing to Herman of Metz, one of his partisans): ‘Who can be ignorant that kings and nobles took their beginning from those who, not knowing God, by their pride, robberies, perfidy, and murders, in short, by almost every kind of crime, no doubt at the suggestion of the prince of this world, the devil, have in blind ambition and intolerable presumption had a mind to tyrannize over other men who are undoubtedly their equals?’ Milman asks, ‘Are we reading a journalist of Paris in 1791?’ (Latin Christianity, iii. ...
‘The daughter of Zion must pass through the pangs of labour before her true king is born; she must come forth from the city and dwell in the open field; there, and not within her proud ramparts, Jehovah will grant her deliverance from her enemies. The most important differences from the latter are the following:—...
(α) Instead of צָעִיר לִחְיוֹת, lit. ‘little for being’ (‘a town too small to be reckoned as a canton in Judah,’ W. The quotations in the NT are an important subject of study, but it is not now considered necessary, in the interests of revelation, to make out a verbal correspondence between these quotations and their OT equivalents. this shepherd is Jesus Christ, and it is fitting that in this early chapter he should employ this title respecting Him whose life on earth, as set forth in the succeeding chapters of his Gospel, was to illustrate so abundantly His shepherd-rule in its tenderness and strength
John, the Gospel According to - 2 Peter 1:14 alludes to (John 21:18) Christ's prophecy of Peter's crucifixion, taking for granted his readers' acquaintance with the Gospel, the strongest kind of testimony as being undesigned. Theophihs of Antioch (Autol. He omits Christ's baptism, temptation, mission of the twelve, transfiguration (of which he was one of the three selected eye witnesses), the Lord's supper, and the agony in Gethsemane, yet incidental hints show his taking them for granted as known already (John 1:14; John 1:32; John 13:2; John 14:30; John 18:1; John 18:11), which last refers to the very words of His prayer during the agony, recorded by the synoptists, an undesigned coincidence and so a proof of authenticity; John 14:30 is the link between the temptation (Luke 4:13) and His agony (Luke 22:40-53); John 11:1 assumes the reader's acquaintance with Mary and Martha, from Luke 10:38. ...
So John 4:43-44; John 7:41, tacitly refer to the facts recorded in Matthew 13:54; Matthew 2:23; Matthew 18:33 takes for granted the fact recorded in Luke 23:2. They met the church's first needs; he, its later wants. 14) states on the authority of old presbyters (and the Muratorian Fragment, Ant. John, who leant on Jesus' breast, His closest intimate, was the fittest to set forth the deeper spiritual truths of the Son of God. ...
It is significant that in the Gospel setting forth the glory of the Son of God the Judaean ministry is prominent, for there is the appointed "throne of the great King"; whereas in the Gospels setting forth the Son of man the scene is "Galilee of the Gentiles
Law - ...
No museum possesses sculptured figures of Jewish Antiquities such as are brought from Egypt, Nineveh, Babylon, Persepolis, Greece, and Rome. , not to remove all transgressions, for the law rather stimulates the corrupt heart to disobedience (Romans 7:13), but to bring them out into clearer view (Galatians 3:19; Romans 3:20 end, Romans 4:15; Isaiah 1:10-185; Romans 7:7-9), to make men more conscious of their sins as being transgressions of the law, so to make them feel need and longing for the promised Saviour (Galatians 3:17-24), "the law was our "schoolmaster" (paidagoogos , rather guardian-servant leading us to school), to bring us to Christ. 12) is the heart of the whole, and therefore was laid up in the ark of the covenant beneath the "mercy-seat" or "propitiatory" (hilasteerion ), intimating that it is only as covered over by divine atoning mercy that the law could be the center of the (Romans 3:25-26) covenant of God with us. The law is the reflection of the holy character of the God of the covenant, the embodiment of the inner spirit of the Mosaic code. Its preeminence is marked by its being the first part revealed; not like the rest of the code through Moses, but by Jehovah Himself, with attendant angels (Deuteronomy 33:2; Acts 7:53; Galatians 3:19; Hebrews 2:2); written by God's finger, and on stone tables to mark its permanence. They were "the tables of the covenant," and the ark, because containing them, was called "the ark of the covenant" (Deuteronomy 4:13; Joshua 3:11). Philo and Josephus (Ant. The sacrificial part (3) taught the hope of propitiation, and thus represented the original covenant of promise, and pointed on to Messiah, through whom the sense of guilt, awakened by the moral law which only condemns men through their own inability to keep it, is taken away, and peace with God is realized
James - Their father's "hired servants" and fishing vessel imply some degree of competence. Their LEAVING THEIR FATHER "WITH THE HIRED servants" (Mark 1:20, a minute particular, characteristic of Mark' s vivid style and his knowledge through Peter of all which happened) was not an unfilial act, which it would have been if he had no helpers. to announce His Messiahship, which He did not conceal in Samaria as in Judaea and Galilee: John 4:26; Luke 9:54), because His face was as though He would go to Jerusalem, whereas they expected the Messiah would confirm their Anti-Jewish worship in the mount Gerizim temple. The ten were indignant at the claim. 44 Herod Agrippa I, a pliant politician but strict Jew, "very ambitious to oblige the people, exactly careful in the observance of the laws. and not allowing one day to pass without its appointed sacrifice" (Josephus, Ant. They looked for a reigning Messiah, and thought Jesus' miracles were wrought with a view to this end: "depart hence (from obscure Galilee) and go into Judea, that Thy disciples also may see the works that Thou doest, for there is no man that doeth anything in secret and (yet) he himself seeketh to be known openly (which they take for granted He seeks); if Thou do these things, show Thyself to the world. " Christ's special appearance to James strengthened him for the high position, tantamount to "bishop," which he subsequently held at Jerusalem. It was "certain who came from James," president of the mother church of Jerusalem, who led Peter to his Judaizing vacillation at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-12). 57 Paul, having been on the previous day "received gladly" by the brethren, went in officially, with Luke and his other assistant ministers, in the presence of all the elders, and "declared particularly what God had wrought among the Gentiles by his ministry" (Acts 21:17-19)
Woe - Josephus Ant. 136b); For pretending to guide others in the doing of God’s will when they showed that they were so wanting in moral perception themselves (cf. ...
‘Tremendous’ (Mozley) as this language is, we are not to think that it was meant to apply to all the Pharisees indiscriminately. Paul, as a Pharisee, was no hypocrite (Philippians 3:5-6); his Pharisaic upbringing was an important part of his providential training for his Christian Apostleship, and ‘from Pharisaism in so far as it meant zeal for the highest objects of Jewish faith he never departed, and never could depart’ (Acts 26:5; Acts 26:22; Hort, Judaistic Christianity, 108 ff. But ‘Schechter confesses that the view he has to give of Rabbinical religion presents a blank at the important period’—the time of Christ. But this is as impossible as to remove the burden, ‘Tiberio imperitante, supplicio adfectus erat,’ from the heart of mankind. are wanting. 68); the characteristics stated were comprehensive and significant enough to enable His hearers to understand who were the persons intended
James, Epistle of - The author claims to be ‘James, a servant of God, and of the Lord Jesus Christ’ ( Galatians 3:1-29 ). ...
( a ) Most important is its relation to St Paul . But the Antithesis between ‘faith and works’ seems to be essentially Christian; we cannot, therefore, on the ground of the Jewish use of Genesis 15:1-21 , deny any relationship between the writings of the two Apostles. Again, we find Christ mentioned (probably) in connexion with the Parousia ( James 5:7-8 ) [2]; ‘beloved brethren’ ( James 1:16 ; James 1:19 , James 2:5 ), the new birth ( James 1:18 ), the Kingdom ( James 2:5 ), the name which is blasphemed ( James 2:7 ), and the royal law of liberty ( James 1:25 , James 2:8 ) are all predominantly Christian ideas. ]'>[5] Ant
Gennesaret, Land of - The name ‘Gennesaret,’ however, occurs elsewhere: once as the name of the Lake, παρὰ τὴν λίμνην Γεννησαρέτ (Luke 5:1), once in 1 Maccabees 11:67 τὸ ὕδωρ τοῦ Γεννησάρ, and is frequently found in Josephus, who uses both λίμνη Γεννησαρῖτις (Ant. —...
‘Its nature is wonderful as well as its beauty: its soil is so fruitful that all sorts of trees can grow upon it, and the inhabitants accordingly plant all sorts of trees there; for the temper of the air is so well mixed that it agrees very well with these several sorts; particularly walnuts, which require the coldest air, flourish there in vast plenty; there are palm trees also, which grow best in hot air; fig trees also and olives grow near them, which yet require an air that is more temperate. One may call the place the ambition of nature, where it forces those plants that are naturally enemies to one another to agree together. ...
This classical passage from Josephus, though probably coloured to some extent, gives substantially the truth about the Plain as it must have been in the time of Christ, and for this reason it is of the utmost importance. Then, it was a most charming spot—‘the unparalleled garden of God,’ as a certain Rabbi calls it; and ‘the gem of Palestine,’ as Merrill speaks of it (Galilee in the Time of Christ, 33): now, it is, as Thomson says, ‘pre-eminently fruitful in thorns,’ a veritable thicket of oleanders and nubk trees, of gigantic thistles and brambles. of Magdala, is the largest and most important. (β) ‘Ain et-Tin, or ‘Fountain of the Fig Tree,’ is another large and important spring. But to-day, though its grapes, figs, olives, and walnuts have vanished, there are to be seen wild figs, oleanders, nubk trees, dwarf palms, papyrus plants, tall prickly centaureas: in summer, magnificent lilac-coloured convolvuli hanging in long festoons of blossom from the prickly shrubs; wild flowers of countless variety—tulips, anemones, irises; rice, wheat, the best and earliest melons and cucumbers in Palestine, sedges and rushes by the Lake; also thorns and thistles, especially in the central portion; in short, a tangle of luxuriant vegetation—a lovely floral carpet in February, a wilderness of thorns in summer. ...
(5) Inhabitants. —The Plain is without settled inhabitants to-day. —Fevers are still prevalent in this region as in the days of our Lord, when, not far distant, at least, Peter’s wife’s mother lay sick (Luke 4:38)
Capernaum - Antiq. And the broad presumption must be in favour of the latter, as Capernaum was no doubt the most important place at this end of the Lake, and the ruins are here far more extensive than those at Khân Minyeh, as well as demonstrably ancient. These reasons are, however, insufficient to warrant the invention of a second Bethsaida so near to the first, and itself so wholly hypothetical. 1; Ant. Political boundaries were so shifting, and the adjustments of territory in these little principalities were so constantly changed, that a loose use of terms grew up, and the more familiar names were apt to displace the less familiar, (b) The phrase εἱς τὸ πέραν cannot be pressed; it might be used of an oblique course from any one point on the shore of the Lake to any other: Josephus (Vita, § 59) uses διεπεραιώθην of taking ship from Tiberias to Taricheae, which are on the same side of the Lake, and very little farther from each other than Bethsaida from the scene of the miracle. ) that Herod Antipas had a small garrison here. 261) that down to the time of Constantine no one had ever dared to erect a church either at Nazareth or Capernaum, or at other places mentioned in the neighbourhood. —The most important descriptions and discussions are as follows:—On the side of those who would place Capernaum at Khân Minyeh: Robinson, BRP Christian (the Name) - Acts 5:41, James 2:7), the ‘name’ is not ‘Christian’ but ‘Christ,’ while the references in Josephus (Ant. Of these, the fontal reference in Acts 11:26 explains that the name by which the religion of Jesus has been known for nineteen centuries was coined by the pagan slang of Antioch on the Orontes, a city which, like Alexandria, was noted for its nicknames. It meant no more to these Syrian pagans than some leader of revolt or obscure religious fanatic in Palestine. ’ Unconsciously, in giving the title—which there is no evidence to show was applied previously to Jews—these citizens of Antioch were emphasizing one deep truth of the new religion, viz. that it rested not on a dogma or upon an institution, but on a person; and that its simple and ultimate definition was to be found in a relationship to Jesus Christ, whether ‘Christos’ to these Syrian Antiochenes was some strange god (1 Peter 4:14-172) or a Jewish agitator. ’ It was the pagan community of Antioch alone that would invent and apply this title. There was a Jewish ghetto at Antioch. Luke in Acts 11:26 must have Antedated and misplaced the origin of the name, or that Tacitus has done the same. (Ignatius—himself a native of Antioch—and the Didache, cf. 4, Romans 3)—a significant allusion. ]'>[3] 6) as the Antithesis to Judaism. ...
Bunyan made ‘Christian’ the Antithesis to ‘graceless,’ and various other definitions, practical and philosophical, have been essayed
Devil - With the indefinite article it stands for a malignant being of superhuman nature and powers, and represents the conception expressed by the Greeks in the original of our term ‘ demon . (2) It covered such of the angels as were thought to have been once attendants upon the true God, but to have fallen ( 2 Peter 2:4 , Judges 1:6 , Ethiop. (3) To these were added a survival with modification of the primitive animism the spirits of the wicked dead (Josephus, Ant . This demoniacal possession is referred to as the cause of various diseases, the cases being preponderantly such as exhibit symptoms of psychical disease in association with physical (see Possession). James ( James 4:7 ) the devil is an Antagonist who upon resistance takes to flight. In hindering and harming men he stands in Antithesis to Christ ( 2 Corinthians 6:15 ), and hence is fittingly termed the evil and injurious one ( Matthew 6:13 ; Matthew 13:18 , John 17:15 , Ephesians 6:16 , 2 Thessalonians 3:3 , 1 John 2:13 f. God and the devil are placed in Antithesis ( James 4:7 ); so ‘the power of darkness’ and ‘the kingdom of the Son of his love’ ( Colossians 1:13 ), as though the two were entirely distinct
Jeroboam - Had he "served them," they would have been "his servants for ever. " By acting the tyrant he precipitated the secession. ...
Rome compared the Protestant reformation to Jeroboam's secession; but it is she who breaks the unity of the faith by representing the one God underimages, in violation of the second commandment; paving the way to violating the first, as Jeroboam's sin prepared the way for Baal worship. , consecrated by the Danites' image worship, at which Moses' descendant (See JONATHAN officiated; so that no part of his kingdom was beyond easy reach of one or other of the two sanctuaries. ...
While Jeroboam stood in person to burn incense, or rather to burn the sacrificial portions of the flesh, upon the altar of Bethel, usurping the priest's office, a man of God out of Judah, impelled by (1 Kings 13:2; Hebrew in; Haggai 1:13) the word of Jehovah, Iddo according to Josephus (Ant. In all ages the ungodly have accused witnesses against the national sin as guilty of treason: as Elijah and Jeremiah 1 Kings 18:17; Jeremiah 37:13-14; John 19:12 the Antitype, John 11:48-50 political expediency being the plea for persecution; Acts 17:6-7; Acts 24:5, Paul
Insects - They have three distinct body parts: head, thorax, and abdomen as well as three pair of legs, one pair of Antennae, and usually one or two pairs of wings. Their primary food is green plants, and they are found almost everywhere that a food source is available. They are abundant in population, as well as in species. Most insects feed on plants, causing much damage to agricultural products. They are also a substantial food source for other animals, including man. The pollination of plants is another benefit provided by insects. At least six orders are mentioned:...
Hymenoptera: Ants, Bees, and Wasps These creatures generally have four wings. Ants live in communities, sometimes as large as one-half million individuals. Young Ants do not develop inside individual cells but are carried about in the nest. Ants are known to domesticate and enslave other insects, such as aphids and other Ants. They also practice agriculture and conduct war on other Ants. ...
The Ant (Hebrew, nemalah ) appears in the Bible only in the Book of Proverbs. The Ant's wisdom and ability to provide food though “a people not strong” is noted in Proverbs 30:25 . They were noted for their Antagonism, and armies were compared to swarms of bees (Deuteronomy 1:44 ). Wasps and hornets (tsir'ah ) are generally social creatures but to a lesser extent than bees and Ants. Moths usually have feathery Antennae while butterflies have hairlike or “clubbed” ones. Larvae are called caterpillars and are plant feeders. The adults feed upon plant and animal juices. Many species are considered injurious, both to animals and plants. Jesus charged the “hypocrites” with giving attention to such details as tithing their herb gardens while neglecting more important matters. Their small and insignificant nature even led to the formulation of proverbs of jest. Small, wingless insects, they are noted for short legs and Antennae, laterally-flattened body, and specialized mouthparts. This group contains grasshoppers, locusts, katydids, crickets, roaches, and mantids. In that verse the land “shadowing with wings” reflects a group of Ethiopian ambassadors arriving in Jerusalem to enlist Judah's support in an Anti-Assyrian alliance
Eschatology - The Hebrew Scriptures do not give us any considerable material for elaborating a theory as to life in Sheol, but from the warnings against necromancers, as well as from the story of Saul and the witch of Endor ( 1 Samuel 28:3-18 ), it is clear that, alongside of the Jehovistic religion as found in the literature of the Hebrews, there was a popular belief in continued existence and conscious life of the spirits of men after death, as well as in the possibility of recalling such spirits from Sheol by some form of incantation. The nation, or at least its pious remnant, was to be restored. It would be unwarranted to say that this new life included anything like the reconstruction of the body, which was conceived of as having returned to dust. The Jews came under the influence of the great Babylonian myth-cycles, in which the struggle between right and wrong was expressed as one between God and various supernatural enemies such as dragons and giants. ]'>[1] Ant . Paul believed to be close at hand ( 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ), but that it would be preceded by the appearance of an Antichrist ( 2 Thessalonians 2:1 f. The doctrine of the Antichrist, however, does not play any large rôle in Paulinism. ...
Such a reinstatement will include two fundamental doctrines: (1) that of individual immortality as a new phase in the great process of development of the Individual which is to be observed in life and guaranteed by the resurrection of Jesus
Hating, Hatred - John’s use of the term, to ‘all that is of the Father’ (1 John 2:16), it was inevitable that the holy and sinless Jesus should arouse its Antipathy; and this is specially noted in the Fourth Gospel. ‘When they came before the world, it showed at once and decisively its position of Antagonism to the gospel’ (ἐμίσησε, ‘hated,’ Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 John 17:14) (Westcott), the ultimate cause being that men had no true knowledge of Him who sent Jesus (John 15:21). The disciples might well suspect their loyalty if they escaped the enmity of those who hated their Lord (John 7:7), while their experience of it was a proof that they had been chosen out and united to Him (John 15:19-20), as also a pledge of their future glory (Romans 8:17, 2 Timothy 2:12; 1 Peter 4:13); ‘Christianos quoque aut summo amore prosequuntur homines Ant summo odio. The question then arises—Is it a fair deduction from, and does it represent the spirit of, the OT, or is it an unwarranted extension and addition of the scribes? In favour of the latter it is urged that this hatred is not conceived of as following in Leviticus 19:18, and that passages much nearer the Christian standard are found
Saul - " Searching for Kish's donkeys three days in vain, at last, by the servant's advice, Saul consulted Samuel, who had already God's intimation that He would send at this very time a man of Benjamin who should be king. A band whose hearts God had touched escorted him to Gibeah, while the worthless despised him, saying "how shall this man save us?" (compare Luke 14:14, the Antitype, meekly "He held His peace"; Psalms 38:13). In 1 Samuel 13:1 read "Saul reigned 40 years"; so Acts 13:21, and Josephus "18 years during Samuel's life and 22 after his death" (Ant. " The Gilgal meant is that in the Jordan valley, to which Saul withdrew in order to gather soldiers for battle, and offer sacrifices, and then advance again to Gibeah and Geba, thence to encounter the Philistines encamped at Michmash. His scrupulosity because the people flew upon the spoil, eating the animals with the blood (1618394313_42), contrasts with true conscientiousness which was wanting in him at Gilgal (1 Samuel 13). Saul's slaughter of the priests at Nob, on Doeg's information, followed (1 Samuel 22), Saul upbraiding his servants as if conspiring with David and feeling no sorrow for the king; "yet can David, as I can (1 Samuel 8:14, compare 1 Samuel 22:7), give every one of you fields and vineyards?" etc
Passover (i.) - Without accepting all such contentions, it may be granted that there is, at least, the union of an agricultural feast with a commemoration of the Exodus out of Egypt, in which commemoration certain of the circumstances which marked the historic deliverance are more or less literally repeated. ...
A cup of red wine, mixed with water, was poured out for each guest, not by the host but by a servant, for all things were on this night to be done with distinction; and over it the following blessing was spoken:...
‘Blessed art Thou, Jehovah our God, who hast created the fruit of the vine. After this, each participant washed his hands, our Lord apparently varying the custom and teaching a new and deeper lesson by Himself washing the feet of His guests (John 13:3 ff. This involved a recital of the national history from the Patriarchal times to the deliverance out of Egypt, and the constitution of the emancipated people by means of the covenant at Sinai. ; Reland, Ant
Trade And Commerce - ...
Prior to the settlement of the country by the exertions of the kings, trade can have been carried on by Israelites only to an insignificant extent. There is in the OT no allusion to the practice of coining metal, and where sums of money are mentioned they are given in silver; the effect, however, of the quantities of gold brought into Palestine in Solomon’s time was not, according to the historian, to appreciate silver, as might have been expected, but to depreciate it, and render it unfashionable. While it is clear that all silver in use must have come in by importation, the notices in the OT of transactions in which it would probably be employed are too scanty to permit of even a guess as to the amount in use; and though it is likely that (as in Eastern countries to this day) foreign coins were largely in circulation, there is little authority for this supposition. Among the more important imports in Biblical times were horses, which seem to have been procured regularly from Egypt. Of the slave-trade there are very few notices in the OT, and it may be that the reduction of the aboriginal population by the Israelites to serfs, and the almost continuous warfare leading to the constant capture of prisoners, rendered the importation of slaves ordinarily unnecessary. The words used in the OT for merchants are such as signify primarily ‘traveller’ ( 1 Kings 10:15 RV [1] ‘chapmen,’ ‘merchants,’ ‘traffic’), and convey the ideas of spying and making circuits. ( Ezekiel 7:12 ) ‘let not the buyer rejoice nor the seller mourn’ suggests that the latter operation was not ordinarily thought of as it is in communities a large portion of which lives by trade, but rather as a humiliation required at times by stern necessity; and there are few allusions to trade in the codes embodied in the Pentateuch, though such are not absolutely wanting. Perhaps, then, we are justified in concluding that the practice of trade was in pre-exilic times largely in the hands of itinerant foreigners; and it is only in NT times that merchandise is regarded as an occupation as normal as agriculture ( Matthew 22:5 ). after successful campaigns or long spells of peace, permitting of accumulations of produce it is probable that the arrival and residence of foreign merchants were facilitated by the practice of ‘protection,’ a citizen rendering himself responsible for the foreign visitors, and making their interests his own doubtless in most cases for a consideration. Ezekiel 26:2 is sometimes interpreted as implying that Jerusalem was a competitor with Tyre for the trade of the world, but perhaps it means only that the taking of any great city led to the Tyrian merchants obtaining the spoil at low prices. Josephus ( Ant. The prophets appear to have Anticipated that the exiles would carry on in their new home the same agricultural pursuits as had occupied them in Palestine ( Jeremiah 29:5 ); and it would appear that till the taking of Jerusalem by Titus, and perhaps even later, agriculture remained the normal occupation of the Israelites, whereas in modern times this pursuit has passed entirely out of their hands. The separation of great numbers of the people from the Palestinian soil, in successive captivities, must doubtless have led many of them to take to commerce, to which perhaps those who had no settled home would feel least repugnance; while the settlement of groups in a number of different regions would furnish them with the advantage that companies now secure by the establishment of agencies in various places
Isaiah - God had given Judah abundant prosperity during Uzziah's reign of 52 years, that His goodness might lead the people to loving obedience, just as in northern Israel He had restored prosperity daring the brilliant reign of Jeroboam II with the same gracious design. The prophet further announced to Hezekiah that all his treasures which he had ostentatiously shown to the Babylonian ambassadors should be carried off to that very land, and his descendants be made eunuchs in the Babylonian king's palace, the world on which Judah rested instead of on God being made her scourger. For the law of prophetical suggestion carried him on to the greater deliverance from the spiritual Babylon and the God-opposed world power and Satan, by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah, the Saviour of the present elect church gathered from Jews and Gentiles, and the Restorer of Israel and Head of the worldwide kingdom yet to come. ...
Even in the former part Babylon's downfall through Elamite and Persian assailants is twice foretold (Isaiah 13 and Isaiah 21). Josephus (Ant. It marks God's holy faithfulness to His covenanted promises. Israel in the Babylonian exile, suffering as God's representative amidst pagan conquerors, is viewed as "the servant of Jehovah"; but as the mass of Jews were suffering for their sins the idea of "servant of Jehovah" limited itself to the elect, the holy seed of Israel's future. Then in the fullest sense Israel, the "elect servant of Jehovah," becomes concentrated in MESSIAH, the innocent sufferer atoning for the guilty, the seed of an everlasting and holy generation (Isaiah 42:1-7; Isaiah 44:1; Isaiah 49:3-25; Isaiah 49:52; Isaiah 49:53). He is also "the Root of David" as well as the "rod out of the stem of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1; Revelation 22:16), "a tender plant, a root out of a dry ground" (Isaiah 53:2). ...
Having deep insight into the eternal principles on which God governs the world, that sin entails judgment but that God's covenant mercy to His people is unchangeable, the prophets speak accordingly. The Holy Spirit enlightened Isaiah's natural powers to foresee its rise and his spiritual faculties to foresee its fall, the sure result, in God's ways, of the pride which pagan success generates; also Judah's restoration as the covenant people with whom God according to His immutable faithfulness would not be wroth forever. ) Shearjashub, "the remnant shall return," and Maher-shalal-hash-baz, "speeding to the spoil he hasteth to the prey," intimate the two chief points of his prophecies, Jehovah's judgments on the world yet His mercy to the elect. His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the Antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt. to be; instead of synonyms the same words repeated in the parallel members of verses; hymns interspersed; "the remnant of olive trees," etc. , for the remnant of people who escape judgments
Jerusalem - ...
David transformed Jerusalem into the religious center of his kingdom by bringing into it the ark of the covenant (2 Samuel 6:1-19 ). The royal and covenantal functions of Jerusalem are linked in Psalm 2:6 , where God announces that "I have installed my King on Zion, my holy hill. While both kingship and covenant were to be centered in Jerusalem forever (cf. The prophets knew that the destruction of the city was imminent, for the cult had become corrupt and Jerusalem, the home of the covenant, would have to pay the price. As important as Jerusalem had been as a royal center for the kingdom of Israel and, after Solomon's death, for the kingdom of Judah, through the ages its importance has been as "the city of the Great King, " the Lord (Psalm 48:2 ; Matthew 5:35 ). The move of the ark of the covenant from the tent in the city to the temple proper may have prompted the shift of name. Jerusalem's inhabitants are called "sons of Zion" (Lamentations 4:2 ), the "women of Zion" (Isaiah 3:16 ), and the "elders of the Daughter of Zion" (Lamentations 2:10 ). The extension of a place name to refer to its inhabitants recognizes that the character of a city is determined more by the traits of its population than by its buildings. This is the earliest evidence for this connection which is also attested in Josephus (Ant. Finally, after Antiochus IV desecrated the temple by sacrificing a hog on the altar, devout Jews led by the Hasmonean family (Maccabees) rose in rebellion to reclaim Jerusalem in 164 b. In the Synoptic Gospels Jerusalem is first mentioned in connection with the birth stories of Jesus: Zechariah's vision in the temple (Luke 1:5-23 ), the visit of the Magi (Matthew 2:1-12 ), and the presentation of the infant Jesus (Luke 2:22-38 ). Luke records the visit of Jesus to the temple at age twelve (2:41-50), and in fact New Testament references to Jerusalem are predominantly in Luke-Acts. Jerusalem and the temple symbolized the covenant between God and his people, but the covenant relationship was askew. ...
Jewish messianism had long Anticipated the return of a Davidic king to the city. The Holy of Holies, the former center of covenant, was opened by this event to the new covenant with Christ
Peter, the Epistles of - In Pisidia was Antioch, where Paul preached (Acts 13) so effectively, but from which he was driven out by the Jews. He exhorts all, husbands, wives, servants, elders, and people, by discharging relative duties to give the foe no handle for reproaching Christianity, rather to attract them to it; so Peter seeks to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand "; but the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus manuscripts read "stand ye," imperatively (1 Peter 5:12), "Grace" is the keynote of Paul's doctrine which Peter confirms (Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 5:2). He does not state the details of gospel grace, but takes them for granted (1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 1:18; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Peter 3:1). The apostle of the circumcision would naturally be at Chaldaean Babylon where was "a great multitude of Jews" (Josephus, Ant. Exuberant feeling causes the same thought to be often repeated. "Simon Peter a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ" stands at its heading. The church in the fourth century had, beside the testimony which we have of its acceptante though with doubts by earlier Christians. ...
Hippolytus (de Antichristo) refers to
2 Peter 1:21. )...
Though not of "the universally confessed" (homologoumea ) Scriptures, but of "the disputed" (antilegomena ), 2 Peter is altogether distinct from "the spurious" (notha ); of these there was no dispute, they were universally rejected as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Revelation of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas. Christ's sufferings are prominent in 1 Peter, its design being to encourage Christians under sufferings; His glory in the second epistle, its design being to communicate fuller "knowledge" of Him, as the Antidote to the false teaching against which Peter forewarns his readers
Psalms of Solomon - 250) and by Lactantius (4th cent. Nevertheless, the foreign executant of God’s anger had outgone his commission: he too is punished; he is slain in Egypt, and his body exposed to dishonour. -The ‘men-pleasers’ are described as hypocrites-outwardly, even extravagantly respectable and severe in their condemnation of sinners; but actually consumed with lust, in their gratification of which they destroy the peace of family after family. and following years); and in the profanation of the altar to which Psalms 2 refers it is tempting at first to see an allusion to Antiochus Epiphanes’ act in setting up on the altar the ‘abomination of desolation’ (1 Maccabees 1:54). as described by Josephus (Ant. -Lastly, we may note the very important light cast by Psalms 17, 18 on the Messianic hope as cherished in this circle. The Messiah is to be, unlike the actual king whom the sinners had presumptuously set up (17:7, 8), a descendant of David (v. 765-787 (text of MS_ R with the variants of H and three MSS_ dependent on H). Rendel Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon, 1909 (21911, where the variants of a Cambridge University MS_ discovered by Barnes Hezekiah - In the very first year and first month of his reign the Lord put it "in his heart to make a covenant with the Lord God of Israel" (2 Chronicles 29), so he opened and repaired the doors of the Lord's house which had been "shut up," and charged the Levites not to be negligent but to "sanctify" the house and "carry forth the filthiness out of the holy place," and to light the lamps, to burn incense, and to offer burnt offerings as in former times; all which, to the shame and disaster of Judah, had latterly been neglected. ...
Hezekiah by letter invited not only Judah, but also Ephraim and Manasseh, to it: "Ye children of Israel, turn again unto the Lord God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, and He will return to the remnant of you, escaped out of the hand of the king of Assyria. Owing to the want of priests several were not duly cleansed and sanctified, yet did eat the Passover; but Hezekiah prayed for them, "the good Lord pardon every one that prepareth his heart to seek God, though he be not cleansed according to the purification of the sanctuary. , for he is constantly repeating the same thing as if to little children, and as one teaching young beginners how to make the strokes of a letter and join line to line; the scorners imitated Isaiah's stammering like repetitions, in Hebrew tsaw latsar, qaw laqaw. "Hezekiah smote them even unto Gaza (Gaza and Gath alone remained to them: Josephus, Ant. This was foretold by Isaiah (Isaiah 14:29-30): "Rejoice not thou, whole Palestina, because the God of him that smote thee (Uzziah, 2 Chronicles 26:6) is broken (namely, under Ahaz), for out of the serpent's (as Uzziah was regarded by the Philistines) root shall come forth a cockatrice," an adder, to the Philistines, Hezekiah; "and the firstborn of the poor (the poorest) shall feed" in safety, instead of constant alarms of Philistine invasions. Sargon moreover removed some of the Israelites to "the cities of the Medes"; the Scripture herein being confirmed by Assyrian monuments which mention his seizing and annexing several Median cities, to which Assyrian policy would of course transplant distant colonists. In the interval between Samaria's fall and this invasion Tyre's gallant resistance under their king Elulaeus had forced the Assyrians to retire after a five years' siege. God granted his earnest prayer; "afore Isaiah had gone out into the middle court the word of the Lord came to him," i
Unity (2) - But the idea of the unity of the Church as the ‘body of Christ’ is one that constantly meets us both in positive and in negative forms—in connexion, i. 1 John 3:14; 1 John 3:19); but that sense of unity does not constitute the bond which unites Christians; the bond is Antecedent to the sense of it, and stands in the life of Christ transfused through the discipleship. His verdict upon schism, as the interruption of such unity, must be inferred—it is nowhere stated*
In the earlier stages of the Church’s life, government by bishops and presbyters in one local community could coexist with government by college of presbyters in another, without offence to either; Antioch, Epbesus, Smyrna communicated with Rome and Corinth. ; Bacon, Essays, ‘Of Unity in Religion’; Barrow, Of the Unity of the Church; Bingham, Ant
Sibylline Oracles - 489) which is entitled The History of Joseph the Carpenter, the Saviour predicts that Antichrist will murder four persons and shed their blood like water, in revenge for their exposure of his evil policy. In the Coptic Apocalypse of Elijah she encounters Antichrist, and in a fragment of some Sahidic apocalypse, quoted by Crum (ZNTW
An instance of the difficulty of deciding whether a passage of the Sibyllina was written by a Jew or by a Christian is afforded by the first of the fragments which Theophilus of Antioch has preserved (ad Autol
Weights And Measures - Since the most important of all ancient Oriental systems of weights and measures, the Babylonian , seems to have been based on a unit of length (the measures of capacity and weight being scientifically derived there from), it is reasonable to deal with the measures of length before proceeding to measures of capacity and weight. Its object there was probably to give the government an advantage in the case of taxation; probably also in the case of measures of length the excess of the royal over the common measure had a similar object. The pace of 2 Samuel 6:13 is probably not meant to be a definite measure. of Olives was distant a Sabbath day’s journey from Jerusalem, and the same distance is given by Josephus as 5 stadia , thus confirming the 2000 cubits computation. ...
In later times, a Byzantine writer of uncertain date, Julian of Ascalon, furnishes information as to the measures in use in Palestine (Provincial measures, derived from the work of the architect Julian of Ascalon, from the laws or customs prevailing in Palestine,’ is the title of the table). ]'>[6] Ant. It was 150 sextarii, by which may be meant ordinary sextarii or the larger Syrian sextarii which would make it = 3 baths. 99 imperial pint is given for the sextarius by an actually extant measure
Marriage - Possible traces in OT are the marriages of Jacob (Laban claims wives and children as his own, Genesis 31:31 ; Genesis 31:42 ), Moses ( Exodus 2:21 ; Exodus 4:18 ), Samson ( Judges 14:1-20 ; Judges 15:1-20 , Judges 16:4 ; there is no hint that he meant to take his wife home; his kid seems to be the sadac or customary present). ) is significant as belonging to the middle class; Jehoiada ( 2 Chronicles 24:3 ) as a priest. Polygamy is, in fact, always an unnatural development from the point of view both of religion and of Anthropology; ‘monogamy is by far the most common form of human marriage; it was so also amongst the ancient peoples of whom we have any direct knowledge’ Westermarck, Hum. Being, however, apparently legalized, and having the advantage of precedent, it was long before polygamy was formally forbidden in Hebrew society, though practically it fell into disuse; the feeling of the Rabbis was strongly against it. ]'>[1] Ant . They are forbidden with the inhabitants of Canaan ( Exodus 34:16 , Deuteronomy 7:3 ), but tolerated with Moabites and Egyptians ( Deuteronomy 23:7 ). But ( a ) infant or child marriages were unknown; ( b ) the consent of the parties was, sometimes at least, sought ( Genesis 24:8 ); ( c ) the rule was not absolute; it might be broken wilfully ( Genesis 26:34 ), or under stress of circumstances ( Exodus 2:21 ); ( d ) natural feeling will always make itself felt in spite of the restrictions of custom; the sexes met freely, and romantic attachments were not unknown ( Genesis 29:10 ; Genesis 34:3 , Judges 14:1 , 1 Samuel 18:20 ); in these cases the initiative was taken by the parties. One view of Canticles is that it is a drama celebrating the victory of a village maiden’s faithfulness to her shepherd lover, in face of the attractions of a royal rival. ‘60 mighty men’ of Song of Solomon 3:7 ) going, often by night, to fetch the bride and her attendants; in Judges 14:11 ; Judges 14:15 ; Judges 14:20 Samson’s comrades are necessarily taken from the bride’s people. Psalms 19:5 speaks of his exultant ‘coming forth’ on the following morning; ‘the chamber’ can hardly refer there to the ‘canopy’ under which in modern weddings the pair stand during the ceremony, though this has no doubt been evolved from the old tent. Canticles is generally supposed to contain songs sung during these festivities; those now sung in Syria show a remarkable similarity. Judges 7:1-7 in particular would seem to be the chorus in praise of the bride’s beauty, such as is now chanted, while she herself in a sword dance
Wisdom of Solomon - classifies it with the Antilegomena (HE VI. Josephus (Ant. Thus in the latter the patriarchs and others are designated by such epithets as ‘the just one,’ ‘the servant of the Lord,’ ‘the refugee from his brother’s wrath,’ the nearest approach to a proper name being the Red Sea, and Pentapolis, used of the cities of the Plain. In the account in Isaiah, ‘half of it he burneth in the fire; on half of it he eateth flesh, he roasteth roast and is satisfied; yea he warmeth himself; and the residue thereof he maketh a god,’ wherein apparently two parts of the timber are employed as firewood, and the remainder used for the idol-the important matter, that the primary object was a piece of furniture, the secondary firewood, being forgotten by the prophet, yet very clearly somehow in his mind. ...
Similarly, whereas, according to the author of the Book of Kings, Solomon was told in a dream to make a wish and chose wisdom, the account of the matter in this book is much less fantastic; he was, he says, a lad of great talent, and pursued the study with all his might, employing among other expedients prayer. probably ancient, modern, and mediaeval history), the alterations of the turnings (of the sun) and the change of seasons, the circuits of years and the position of stars, the natures of living creatures and the dispositions of beasts, the forces of the winds and the reasonings of men, the diversities of plants and the virtues of roots’-a list which shows little sign of Greek influence, but is much more suggestive of the learning of Egypt, Phœnicia, and Arabia. the use to which substances can be put, is thought by many to be what is meant by knowledge of good and evil in Genesis 3:5
Money (2) - There were those issued chiefly from Antioch by the Seleucid kings on the Attic standard, weighing 262 grains troy. 36) holds that from the time of Pompey the Phœnician cities lost the power of issuing silver money, and points out that the extant Phœnician tetradrachms never bear the names of Emperors or any other indication of Roman sway. ]'>[1] was reinforced from the time of Augustus onwards by the tetradrachms coined in large numbers at Antioch for circulation in the province of Syria. The extant coins contain no indication of value, nor can any safe inference be drawn from their weight, seeing that, where a silver standard prevails, the copper coinage must always be very much of the nature of token money. (See, further, under ‘Assarion,’ ‘Kodrantes,’ and ‘Lepton,’ below). ...
=...
4 Quadrantes. Talent (τάλαντον, Matthew 18:24; Matthew 25:15-16; Matthew 25:20; Matthew 25:22; Matthew 17:278; Matthew 25:28) is originally the name of the highest weight in the various systems of Antiquity, hence the sum of money represented by that weight in gold or silver. In the parable of the Unmerciful Servant (Matthew 18:23-35) the one servant owes the king 10,000 talents, or nearly two-and-a-half millions of our money—an enormous sum, of which the 100 denarii (= £4) owed him by his fellow-servant represents but an insignificant fraction (1/6000). It may be remarked that the juxtaposition in this parable of the talent and the denarius is a confirmation of the view that it is the Attic talent that is meant). In the parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14-30) the master intrusts his capital of eight talents or £1920 to his three servants in sums of £1200, £480, and £240 respectively. ...
The only mention of this sum in the Gospels is in the parable of the Pounds (Luke 19:12-27), where a nobleman, going to a far country to get a kingdom, gives one mina to each of his ten servants, bidding them trade with it till his return. The explanation (as far as the story is concerned) seems to be that the master is not in this case a trader making provision for the suitable employment of his capital in his absence, but one who, having in prospect the acquisition of a kingdom, desires to test capacity of his servants for high office in that kingdom. It is the name of the most important Roman coin, which circulated throughout the Empire, and in terms of which all public accounts were made up. Thus in the parable of the Unmerciful Servant (Matthew 18:28, see above under ‘Talent’) a sum of 100 denarii is mentioned, while in the parable of the Two Debtors (Luke 7:41) the two debts are stated at 500 and 50 denarii respectively (£20 and £2). Few coins of this denomination were issued from the Phœnician cities or from Antioch, and the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia had only recently begun to coin drachms on the Phœnician standard (of 55 grains) for use in the provinces of Syria and Cappadocia (Mommsen, op. In his Notes on the Parables, Trench assumes that this drachm was Athenian, stamped with ‘an owl, a tortoise, or a head of Minerva,’ and reluctantly surrenders ‘the resemblance to the human soul, originally stamped with the image and superscription of the great King,’ which earlier expositors had delighted to trace. 2) to ‘the Tyrian coin which is of the value of four Attic drachms,’ and in another (Ant. In his Notes on the Parables, Trench assumes that this drachm was Athenian, stamped with ‘an owl, a tortoise, or a head of Minerva,’ and reluctantly surrenders ‘the resemblance to the human soul, originally stamped with the image and superscription of the great King,’ which earlier expositors had delighted to trace
Brethren of the Lord (2) - A careful comparison of the relevant Scripture passages renders it certain—...
(1) That the brethren of the Lord, whatever their true relationship to Him was, lived under the same roof with Jesus and His mother, and were regarded as members of the Virgin’s family. Thus the Gospels represent Jesus as lamenting the unbelief and want of sympathy of His near relatives: ‘A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house’ (Mark 6:4); and again, ‘My time is not yet come, but your time is alway ready. Cornelius a Lapide, for instance, commenting on John 7:5, says: ‘Licet enim viderent eum tot signa et miracula facere, illaque vera esse non dubitarent, tamen dubitabant an ipse esset Messias et Dei Filius: licet enim hoc verum esse optarent, et ex parte ob tot ejus miracula crederent—tamen alia ex parte videntes ejus paupertatem et neglectum, dubitabant. Ut ergo certi hac de re fiant, hortantur Christum ire secum in Jerusalem, etc. Granting that this is the case, though it has been denied (e. Even as late as the reign of Domitian they were sufficiently important to incur the jealousy of the tyrant (l. Josephus mentions the indignation which his execution excited among the Jews (Ant. 1), and in a passage not now extant ascribes the sufferings endured by the Jews during the siege of Jerusalem to Divine vengeance for his murder (Origen, circa (about) Celsum, i. But conceding the identity (which, however, whether true or not, is too precarious to bear the weight of an important argument), we still cannot concede the identity of Joses, the brother of this James, with Joses the brother of Jesus. ), there is a presumption against a word like Clopas, which begins with two consonants, representing a Semitic name. There are, however, important considerations on the other side
Passover - The seven stamped the feast with the seal of covenant relationship. ...
The lamb was roasted whole (Genesis 22:8, representing Jesus' complete dedication as a holocaust), not a bone broken (John 19:36); the skeleton left entire, while the flesh was divided among the partakers, expresses the unity of the nation and church amidst the variety of its members; so 1 Corinthians 10:17, Christ the Antitype is the true center of unity. ...
In such haste did Israel go that they packed up in their outer mantle (as the Arab haik or "burnous") their kneading troughs containing the dough prepared for the morrow's provision yet unleavened (Exodus 12:34). By "grain" the barley harvest is meant: had Moses written "wheat" it would have been impossible to reconcile him with himself; but as "corn" means here barley, all is clear, seven weeks still remaining until wheat harvest, when at Pentecost or the feast of weeks the firstfruit loaves were offered (Blunt, Undesigned Coincidences, 1). Joy before the Lord was to be the predominant feeling (Deuteronomy 27:7). " The inhabitants of Jerusalem accommodated at their houses as many as they could, so that our Lord's direction to His disciples as to asking for a guestchamber to keep the Passover in was nothing unusual, only His divine prescience is shown in His command (Matthew 26:18; Mark 14:13-15). " So John 19:31, "the preparation for the sabbath" began the ninth hour of the sixth day of the week (Josephus, Ant
Assumption of Moses - ’ The title is incorrectly applied to what is really the ‘Testament of Moses,’ a work which is extant in a more or less complete form in a Latin fragment discovered by Ceriani in a 6th cent. His silence with regard to the Maccabaean rising and its leaders is most significant. The king of the kings of the earth (Antiochus Epiphanes) crucifies those who confess to circumcision, and compels them to blaspheme the law and beat idols, and persecutes them with tortures. They obviously refer to the Antiochian persecution, and are quite out of place after ch. He suggests that the author ‘filled up his picture of the final woes from the stories of the Antiochian martyrs. -The date of composition is clearly fixed by the words in 6:7 ‘and he (Herod) shall beget children who succeeding him shall rule for shorter periods,’ As this is a prediction which was falsified by the event, for Antipas reigned forty-three years and Philip thirty-seven (while Herod reigned thirty-four), we must postulate a date earlier than thirty-four years from Herod’s death, i. ’-The subject-matter of the extant work (preserved largely in Ceriani’s Latin manuscript ) proves it to be a Testament of Moses, as it deals with the dying predictions and charges of Moses as related to Joshua, quite in the manner of the Testaments of The Twelve Patriarchs (q. of Vassiliev’s Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina (pp. ’ In Vassiliev’s work the words that follow seem to be derived from the true ‘Assumption,’ while Josephus (Ant. Matthew 25:34) to be the mediator of His (God’s) covenant’ (cf. Christ, too, was ‘before all things’ (Colossians 1:17, John 1:1; John 8:58; John 17:5), and was the Mediator of a new and better covenant (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). ...
(d) Michael is regarded as the chief Antagonist of Satan and of Israel’s foes
Hell - -(1) In Revelation 9:1 ‘the pit of the abyss’ (see Abyss) is regarded as the special prison-house of the devil and his attendant evil spirits. ...
‘They showed me there a very terrible place … and all manner of tortures in that place … and there is no light there, but murky fire constantly flameth aloft, and there is a fiery river coming forth, and that whole place is everywhere fire … and those men said to me: This place is prepared for those who dishonour God, who on earth practise … magic-making, enchantments, and devilish witchcrafts, and who boast of their wicked deeds, stealing, lies, calumnies, envy, rancour, fornication, murder … for all these is prepared this place amongst these, for eternal inheritance’ (cf. 2 there is a striking passage differentiating between the punishment of the ignorant and those who sin knowingly: ‘They that have not known God, and commit wickedness, are condemned to death; but they that have known God and seen His mighty works, and yet commit wickedness, shall receive a double punishment, and shall die eternally. ’ There can be no doubt here that ‘prison’ is meant to signify the place of punishment beyond death. ...
This idea is even more clearly set forth in the Apocalypse of Peter, and forms the beginning of the famous passage in which is set forth the punishment of sinners, in the manner that to later ages is most familiar in the pages of Dante, where the forms of torment bear an appropriate relation to the sins committed. of John and elsewhere, but the further descriptions of this Inferno borrow elements from Greek and other sources, and are considerably more extravagant than anything within the limits of the 1st century. In Ant. -Before our survey of the literature closes, note must be taken of two striking and somewhat fantastic conceptions contained in two works, which probably set forth, among their obviously later material, elements of an earlier tradition. There is nothing of the morbid curiosity and unpleasant lingering on horrors, to say nothing of the sense of gloating over vengeance and cruelty, that we find in so many kindred passages. This is certainly noteworthy and significant, even if the Gospel teaching on Gehenna is an echo of current ideas. Dante, the greatest apocalyptist of subsequent ages, had caught the true evangelical spirit of this most awful doctrine when he wrote:...
‘Justice incited my sublime Creator;...
Created me divine Omnipotence,...
The highest Wisdom and the primal Love’...
(Inferno, iii. The terrible nature of moral evil, and of the heart’s persistent rebellion against God, is the appalling reality that renders these pictures of judgment truly significant, and redeems them from being the mere pageantry of a heated imagination
Inspiration - Of this there is abundant evidence. And significantly in adducing the Law in contrast to the traditions of the elders, the highest human authority, He altogether neglects the human mediation of the writer, and simply says, ‘For God said’ (Matthew 15:4). Vying with Philo in reverential esteem for the OT, he bases this esteem on the belief that the authors of the various books wrote under the influence of the Divine Spirit (Ant. ...
No belief of later Judaism was more universal or constant than this acceptance of the OT Scriptures as inspired. This promise cannot be understood as meant to assure the disciples that they would be able to recall every word their Lord had said; as little as this assurance is conveyed to all Christians by the words of St. ’ At the same time it was meant to encourage them to believe that their sympathy with their Lord and their acceptance of His Spirit would give them a sufficient remembrance and understanding of His teaching. Scriptoribus naturaliter incognitae, sive naturaliter quidem cogniscibiles, actu tamen incognitae, sive denique non tantum naturaliter cogniscibiles, sed etiam actu ipso notae, vel aliunde, vel per experientiam, et sensuum ministerium, non solum per assistentiam et directionem divinam infallibilem literis consignatae sunt, sed singulari Spiritus S. ]'>[2] ...
This theory has all the prestige which Antiquity can give it, for it runs back to those primitive stages of civilization in which possession by a deity was produced by inhaling fumes, or by violent dancings and contortions. The relation of the Divine to the human is viewed quantitatively. And in the disagreement between Peter and Paul at Antioch, we see how possible it was that men equally inspired should hold divergent and even Antagonistic opinions upon matters essential to the well-being of the Church
Judas Iscariot (2) - 189, 240, 283)...
Two facts already mentioned have an important bearing on the interpretation of Ἰακαριώτης: (1) the true reading, ‘Simon Iscariot,’ shows that the epithet was equally applicable to the father and the son, and this twofold use of the word suggests that it is a local name; (2) the paraphrase ἀπὸ Καριώτου confirms the view that Judas is named after his place of abode (cf. (3) Others suggest the Kerioth mentioned in Amos 2:2, Jeremiah 48:24 (LXX Septuagint Καριώθ),—an important city, either Kir-Moab, or Ar, the capital of Moab. 1; Ant. Luke (22:3), who adds to his statement that ‘Satan entered into Judas’ these significant words: ‘being of the number of the twelve’—i. ...
That Judas was ‘one of the twelve’ is an important factor in the problem presented by his history. The rendering, ‘Jesus knew who it was that would betray him’ has the advantage of suggesting that Jesus discerned the thoughts and intents of His unfaithful Apostle, and knew that ‘the germ of the traitor-spirit was already in the heart of Judas’ (cf. It is the substantive derived from the same root as the main verb of the sentence (ἀπώλετο). ‘To suppose that Judas is now brought before us as one originally doomed to perdition, and that his character was but the evolving of his doom, would contradict not only the meaning of the Hebraic expression “son of” (which always takes for granted moral choice), but the whole teaching of this Gospel
Animals - —It cannot be said that animals play a very important part in the life and teaching of our Lord; yet the Gospel references cover a wider range than is usually imagined. Josephus (Ant. ...
The ass occupies a much more important place in the farm life of the East than his neglected descendant occupies in England to-day. altilia, translates ‘my volatilis (fowls)’; but fatted cattle are probably meant. It is distinguished by long pendant ears, stout recurved horns, and long black silky hair. The nature of the task is evidence at once of the difference between his home and the far country, and of the want and degradation into which he has fallen (Luke 15:15 f. Thomson says that ‘though there are now no lions (in Palestine), wolves, leopards, and panthers still prowl about the wild wadys’ (Land and Book, ‘Central Palestine,’ p. The same Antithesis is used by our Lord to portray the contrast between the Church and the world, between the patient non-resistance of the one and the brutal violence of the other. Finches and bulbuls are also abundant, according to Thomson. In Matthew 3:16 the vision of the Holy Ghost descending in the form of a dove (ὡσεὶ περιστεράν) seems to have been granted to all present at the Baptism
Jesus Christ - Even His own brethren could not understand His withdrawal into Galilee, as, regarding Him like other men, they took it for granted that publicity was His aim (John 7:3-4; contrast John 5:44). Jesus was always more accessible than His disciples, they all rebuked the parents who brought their infants for Him to bless (Luke 18:15-17), they all would have sent the woman of Canaan away. ) His secret spring of unstained holiness, yet tender sympathy, was His constant communion with God; at all times, so that He was never alone (John 16:32), "rising up a great while before day, in a solitary place" (Mark 1:35). His Father's glory, not His own, was His absorbing aim (John 8:29; John 8:50; John 7:18); from His childhood when at 12 years old (for it was only in His 12th year that Archelaus was banished and His parents ventured to bring Him to the Passover: Josephus, Ant. " Then followed the scribes' accusation of the woman from the law, but He who wrote on stone that law of commandments now writes with His finger on the ground (the law of mercy), showing the power of silence to shame the petulant into self recollection, the censorious into self condemnation. Herod, being an Edomite who had supplanted the Jewish Asmonaeans or Maccabees, was alarmed to hear of one "born king of the Jews," and failing to find Jesus slew all children from two years old and under (Herod fixed on this age as oriental mothers suckle infants until they are two years old). The mountain of Quarantania, a perpendicular wall of rock 1,400 feet above the plain, on this side of Jordan, is the traditional site. First Satan tried Him through His sinless bodily wants answering to "the flesh" in fallen man
Hell - -(1) In Revelation 9:1 ‘the pit of the abyss’ (see Abyss) is regarded as the special prison-house of the devil and his attendant evil spirits. ...
‘They showed me there a very terrible place … and all manner of tortures in that place … and there is no light there, but murky fire constantly flameth aloft, and there is a fiery river coming forth, and that whole place is everywhere fire … and those men said to me: This place is prepared for those who dishonour God, who on earth practise … magic-making, enchantments, and devilish witchcrafts, and who boast of their wicked deeds, stealing, lies, calumnies, envy, rancour, fornication, murder … for all these is prepared this place amongst these, for eternal inheritance’ (cf. 2 there is a striking passage differentiating between the punishment of the ignorant and those who sin knowingly: ‘They that have not known God, and commit wickedness, are condemned to death; but they that have known God and seen His mighty works, and yet commit wickedness, shall receive a double punishment, and shall die eternally. ’ There can be no doubt here that ‘prison’ is meant to signify the place of punishment beyond death. ...
This idea is even more clearly set forth in the Apocalypse of Peter, and forms the beginning of the famous passage in which is set forth the punishment of sinners, in the manner that to later ages is most familiar in the pages of Dante, where the forms of torment bear an appropriate relation to the sins committed. of John and elsewhere, but the further descriptions of this Inferno borrow elements from Greek and other sources, and are considerably more extravagant than anything within the limits of the 1st century. In Ant. -Before our survey of the literature closes, note must be taken of two striking and somewhat fantastic conceptions contained in two works, which probably set forth, among their obviously later material, elements of an earlier tradition. There is nothing of the morbid curiosity and unpleasant lingering on horrors, to say nothing of the sense of gloating over vengeance and cruelty, that we find in so many kindred passages. This is certainly noteworthy and significant, even if the Gospel teaching on Gehenna is an echo of current ideas. Dante, the greatest apocalyptist of subsequent ages, had caught the true evangelical spirit of this most awful doctrine when he wrote:...
‘Justice incited my sublime Creator;...
Created me divine Omnipotence,...
The highest Wisdom and the primal Love’...
(Inferno, iii. The terrible nature of moral evil, and of the heart’s persistent rebellion against God, is the appalling reality that renders these pictures of judgment truly significant, and redeems them from being the mere pageantry of a heated imagination
Money - Antiquity of a metallic currency: weights and values. The predominance of silver as the metal currency for everyday transactions is further shown by the constant use in Hebrew literature of the word for ‘silver’ ( keseph ) in the sense of ‘money. For this we have the express testimony of Josephus, who tells us ( Ant . ) Since the effective weight of the extant shekels is somewhat under the theoretical weight above given, the intrinsic value of any number of shekels of silver may be found with sufficient accuracy by equating the shekel roughly with our half-crown (2s. Accordingly, when Abraham bought the field and cave of Machpelah he ‘weighed to Ephron the silver … four hundred shekels of silver, current money with the merchant’ ( Genesis 23:15 ). the quarter-shekel of 1 Samuel 9:8 ) and smaller multiples, had the form of ingots of metal, without any stamp or other mark, so far as our evidence goes, as a guarantee of their purity and weight. The addition of such a mark by the issuing authority serves as a public guarantee of the purity of the metal and the weight of the ingot, and transforms the latter into a coin. 198 Antiochus iii. 139 138 Antiochus Sidetes granted to Simon Maccabæus the right to coin money (see 1Ma 15:5 f. Since the denarius was almost equal in weight to the Syrian-Attic drachm (§ 4) the silver unit throughout the Seleucid empire the two coins were regarded as of equal value, and four denarii were in ordinary business the equivalent of a tetradrachm of Antioch. ...
In addition to these two imperial coins, the system based on the Greek drachm was continued in the East, and both drachms and tetradrachms were issued from the imperial mint at Antioch. ...
Passing to the copper coins of the Gospels, we find three denominations in the original, the tepton , the kodrantes , and the assarion , rendered in Amer. ( g ) Two mites made a kodrantes (Lat. The one servant owed 100 denarii, the other 10,000 talents or sixty million denarii
Resurrection - At the same time it is easy to see that a great stride forward had been taken already, when the atrocities of Antiochus Epiphanes brought religious despair to the hearts of all true Israelites, and roused the fervid patriotism of Judas Maccabæus and his followers. ...
The most important and best known section of the Book of Enoch (chs. The words of this passage, if taken literally, would certainly convey the impression that a universal resurrection is meant. Ant. There seems to be an implied Antithesis between those whose sonship results in immortality and those who can have no such hope (cf. The resurrection of the wicked occupies a very subordinate place in Pauline eschatology, and we need not be surprised at the scanty notice taken of it, when we remember how constantly he is pressing on his readers’ attention the power by which the resurrection to life is brought about ( Romans 8:11 ,
Aristion (Aristo) - ’ We abridge the sentence, but give the relevant variants: εἱ δέ που καὶ παρηκολουθηκώς τις τοῖς πρεσβυτέροις ἔλθοι, τοὺς τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἀνέκρινον λόγους· τἰ Ἀνδρέας ἠ τί Πέτρος εἶπεν … ἤ τις ἔτερος τῶν τοῦ Κυρίου μαθητῶν, ἄτε Ἀριστίων καὶ ὁ πρεσβύτερος Ἰωάννης οἱ τοῦ Κυρίου μαθηταὶ λέγουσιν. Rufinus renders ceterique discipuli dicebant. Jerome changes the tense (loqucbantur). 20) omit οἱ...
Deferring the question of the significance of the valiant readings, it is apparent that ‘Aristion and the Elder John’ are in several ways placed in contrast with the group of ‘disciples of the Lord’ mentioned immediately before, by whom Papias certainly means the twelve Apostles, enumerating seven (including James the Lord’s brother; cf. ’...
(2) A distinction not referred to by Eusebius, but at least equally important, is the contrast of tense (disregarded by Rufinus and Jerome), whereby Papias makes it apparent that at the time of his inquiries the Apostles, including John, were dead; whereas Aristion and the Elder John were living. 400 (Syriac is extant in a MS of a. ...
On this view the variants are of no help to improve the text of Eusebius, which is correct in the received form (Bacon, art. They have some importance, even if arbitrary, as indicating that in Antiquity also the ‘chronological difficulty’ was felt as well as (in Arm. Origin of Variants. In Jewish literature only the form ‘Aristo’ occurs (Josephus Ant. Ἀριστίων) adds four others from Antiph. To speak of him and ‘the Elder John,’ if by the latter were meant John the elder of the Jerusalem Church (Eus. ]'>[2] 3, and Le Vaillant de Florival, Hist. Besides this, Stephen of Byzantium, who knows of no Aristo of Pella, mentions an Aristo of Gerasa (less than 25 miles distant) simply as an ἀστεῖος ῥήτωρ. ...
Our conclusion must be that, while direct acquaintance with Papias is quite conceivable, the variant form ‘Aristo’ in Syriac and Armenian sources is best accounted for by a mistaken identification of this Aristo of Historia Ecclesiastica iv. —The most important addition to our data regarding Aristo was made by Conybeare’s discovery at Eçmiadzin in 1893 of an Armenian MS. This, however, is unquestionably important, especially if, as Conybeare maintains, ‘it must have stood in the older copy transcribed. 14 ‘Et illi satisfaciebant dicentes: Saeculum istud iniquitatis et incredulitatis substantia (cod. According to Zahn, ‘The ancient book in which Mark 16:14-18 was extant independently of the Second Gospel, and whence it was drawn by transcribers of Mark, can only have been the work of Papias, in which it was contained as a διήγησις of Aristion (sic). ...
The Eçmiadzin Codex, accordingly, in the two most important questions of Gospel text makes deliberate departure from the received Armenian tradition, in both cases relying on authority which might conceivably go back indirectly to Papias himself
Greek Versions of ot - The story is repeated by Josephus ( Ant. That the Letter of Aristeas is substantially right in assigning the original translation of the Law to the time of one of the early Ptolemys there is no reason to doubt; but the story has the air of having been considerably written up, and it is impossible to say precisely where history stops and fiction begins. It is written in Greek, which in vocabulary and accidence is substantially that koinç dialektos , or Hellenistic Greek, which was in common use throughout the empire of Alexander, and of which our knowledge, in its non-literary form, has been greatly extended by the recent discoveries of Greek papyri in Egypt. , and Cant. , Ruth, Cant. In place of divisions which substantially represent three different stages of canonization, it classifies the books in groups according to the character of their subject-matter Law, History, Poetry, and Prophecy. The details of the order of the books differ in different MSS and authoritative lists, but substantially the principle is as here stated; and the divergence has had considerable historical importance. ]'>[1] and Massoretic canons respectively is a matter of controversy which cannot be settled offhand; but the fact of their divergence is certain and historically important. These translations, which are known under the names of Aquila, Theodotion, and Symmachus, are described below (§§ 15 18 ); here it is sufficient to say that they were all translated from the Massoretic OT, and represent it with different degrees of fidelity, from the pedantic verbal imitation of Aquila to the literary freedom of Symmachus. Elsewhere also there is occasional evidence of an additional version having been included; but these are unimportant. The principal extant fragment of a MS of the Hexapla (a 10th cent. ...
Origen’s Hebrew text was substantially identical with the Massoretic; and Aq. ]'>[1] , but wanting in the Heb. , were marked with an obelus ( or ); Passages Wanting In The LXX [1] substantially restored. ]'>[1] were published in the two principal provinces of Greek Christianity, by Hesychius at Alexandria, and by Lucian at Antioch. It is from these three editions that the majority of the extant MSS of the LXX Babel - A first Cushite empire (Lenormant quoted by G. The arable and pasture land within was enough to supply all its inhabitants' requirements. each way, which rose in terraces, the topmost being planted with large trees. So the monuments of Nineveh speak of the mounds of the palaces being planted with rows of fir trees. " The largest, the royal canal, navigable to merchant vessels, connected the Euphrates and Tigris. Its inhabitants were Chaldi, i. One Orchamar Urkhur, in the inscriptions, was the builder of gigantic works. Kudur Lagomer was the great conqueror, subduing distant Palestine and Syria, a feat not again achieved until Nebuchadnezzar, 1,600 years later. Then one Acises reigned a month, and Merodach Baladan held the throne six months, and was then supplanted by Belibus whom Sennacherib made his viceroy for three years and then placed his oldest son Aparanadius on the throne. Josephus, on the contrary (Ant. Xenophon, in his romantic story (Cyropaedia), mentions Cyaxares II
Trial-at-Law - The defendant’s rights were carefully safeguarded. Later laws excluded the evidence of women and slaves, that of the former, according to Josephus, ‘on account of the levity and boldness of their sex,’ and of the latter ‘on account of the ignobility of their soul’ (Ant. the scale of damages in the Book of the Covenant, Exodus 22:1 ff. 1); proof is required of every claim, however slight a bearing it may have on the main issue; the evidence of relatives and other interested persons, also of gamblers, usurers, and those ‘vicious in money matters’ (though not necessarily ‘in heavenly matters’), is disallowed; and judgment must be given for the defendant if the case fails of proof (iv. The plaintiff stated his ground of complaint before the magistrate (king, consul, or praetor), and a date was fixed for further procedure, both parties engaging to present themselves, and the defendant offering securities (vades). presided over Roman justice as a whole), on hearing the claims of both parties in iure, drew up a judicial formula, embodying a brief statement of the case in dispute (demonstratio), the plaintiff’s claim (intentio), a request to the judge to adjudicate the person or property as he thought most fitting (adjudicatio), and instructions to condemn the accused or dismiss the case as the evidence warranted (condemnatio). Execution of judgment was left to the winner; but strong judicial pressure was brought to bear on a recalcitrant debtor. Final judgment was arrived at through the evidence submitted to the higher court; and an unsuccessful appellant was made liable for four-fold his rival’s costs in appeal. As under the older system of public hearings, the case was opened by plaintiff’s counsel and followed up by defendant’s, in set speeches (perpetuae orationes), calculated to appeal not merely to the reason, but even more strongly to the feelings of the court. As a rule, too, he sought the assistance of a consilium of advisers, composed partly of Roman citizens and partly of his personal attendants (the cohors praetoria). The case against Peter and John was too vague to warrant criminal proceedings, and the Sanhedrists contented themselves with the scourging usual in minor breaches of the peace (Acts 5:40)
Jerusalem (2) - Built, as it has been, in a peculiarly bare and ill-watered region, off the natural lines of communication, it could never have enjoyed its long and famous history but for certain compensating advantages. The stones from this soft layer, however, never have the durability of those from the Mezzeh; and doubtless it is because of the poor material used that so few relies of real Antiquity have survived till to-day. Of these the most important, and the only one which to-day is clearly seen, is a valley known as el-Wad. Akra cannot have lain north of the Temple, for here lay the Antonia (Ant. So low a fall as this, especially if preceded by a scanty fall, means considerable distress in the succeeding dry season. The city never appears to have seriously suffered from want of water in sieges, but probably at no period was Jerusalem more lavishly supplied with water than it was during the Roman predominance, and most of the arrangements were complete before the time of Christ. This spring is that known to the Christians as ‘Ain Sitti Miriam—the spring of the Lady Mary—or the Virgin’s Fountain (from a tradition that the Virgin washed the clothes of the infant Jesus there), to the Moslem fellahin as ‘Ain umm ed-deraj—‘the spring of the mother of the steps,’ and to the eastern Jews as ‘Aaron’s (or “the priests”) bath. From here great quantities of water are drawn all the year round, much of which is carried in skins and sold in Jerusalem, but it is in no way of better quality than that from the Virgin’s Fountain. ...
More important than springs or wells are the innumerable cisterns with which, from the earliest times, the hill of Jerusalem has been honeycombed. ...
In other parts the more important cisterns are—the Birket Mamilla, Hammâm el-Batrak, Birket Israël, Birket es-Sultân, ‘The Twin Pools,’ the so-called ‘Pool of Bethesda,’ and the two Siloam pools—Birket Silwan and Birket el-Hamra. , while the Twin Pools near the ‘Sisters of Zion’ were made in the moat of the Antonia fortress after the destruction of the city in a. It is supposed by some authorities that the pool itself did not exist at the period of Christ’s ministry, but as a defence to the Temple enclosure and to the neighbouring Castle of Antonia (wh. He says the fifth legion raised a bank at the tower of Antonia ‘over against the middle of the pool that is called Struthius
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - ...
(1) He was born at Alexandria, and had but scanty private means (Apol. The position involved great advantages. Mark," and occupant of "the Evangelical throne," was second in the Christian hierarchy: we may call the bps. One experience of a different kind, most fruitful in its consequences, was Athanasius's acquaintance with the great hermit Anthony. He tells us, in his Life of Anthony , that he often saw him; and although that reading of the conclusion of the preface, which makes him say that "he himself for some time attended on him, and poured water on his hands," may be considered doubtful, yet we know that he was afterwards spoken of as "the ascetic," and that when, years later, he took shelter in the cells of the monks of Egypt, he found himself perfectly at home. He contracted an admiration for monasticism, which will not surprise those who remember that the spiritual intensity of the Christian life had found a most emphatic, though a one-sided expression, in the lives of men who fled, like Anthony, from a society at once tainted and brutalized beyond all modern conception. Antioch and stand his trial. Constantine stopped the proceedings at Antioch on hearing of this exposure, and sent Athanasius a letter, to be read frequently in public, in which the Meletians were warned that any fresh offences would be dealt with by the emperor in person, and according to the civil law ( Apol. Arcaph himself "came into the church," announced to Constantine his reconciliation with Athanasius, and received a gracious reply; while Arsenius sent to his "blessed pope" a formal renunciation of schism, and a promise of canonical obedience (Apol. Eusebius persuaded Constantine that such grave scandals as the recent charges ought to be examined in a council; and that Caesarea would be the fitting place. Being at last peremptorily ordered by Constantine to attend a council which was to meet at Tyre, he obeyed, in the summer of 335 and was attended by about fifty of his suffragans. Athanasius saw at once that his enemies were dominant; the presiding bishop, Flacillus of Antioch, was one of an Arian succession. He drew from behind the cloak first one hand, and then, after a pause, the other; and remarked with triumphant irony, "I suppose no one thinks that God has given to any man more hands than two. An inquiry of such an ex parte character called forth indignant protests from the Alexandrian and Mareotic clergy, one of the documents bearing the date Sept. " Attended by five of his suffragans, he took the first vessel for Constantinople, and suddenly presented himself in the middle of the road when the emperor was riding into the city. Constantine, on learning who he was, and what was his errand, tried to pass him by in silence; but Athanasius firmly stood his ground. The bishops of the council, after receiving their commissioners' report, had by a majority condemned Athanasius, and then pronounced Arius orthodox on the ground of a doctrinal statement made five years earlier, when they were startled by an imperial letter expressing suspicion of their motives, and summoning them to Constantinople. Many of them, in alarm, fled homewards; but the two Eusebii, Theognis, Patrophilus, Valens, and Ursacius repaired to court, and, saying nothing of "the chalice," or the report of the commission, presented a new charge, like the former quasi-political ones—that Athanasius had talked of distressing Constantinople by preventing the sailing of Alexandrian corn-ships. The emperor cut short Athanasius's defence with a show of indignation; and, perhaps not from real belief in the charge, but by way of getting rid of the case and silencing the archbishop's enemies in his own interest, banished him to the distant city of Trier or Trèves, the seat of government of his eldest son Constantine, who received the exile with much kindness, in Feb. He was "abundantly supplied with all necessaries" (Constantine II. ...
For more than a year Constantine's death produced no change in Athanasius's position; but at length, on June 17, 338, Constantine II. , who in the partition of the empire had a certain precedency over his brothers Constantius and Constans, the sovereigns of the East and of Italy, wrote from Trèves to the Catholics of Alexandria, announcing that he had resolved, in fulfilment of an intention of his father, to send back Athanasius, of whose character he expressed high admiration (Apol. In this he appears to have presumed his brother's consent, and to have then taken Athanasius with him to Viminacium, an important town of Moesia Superior, on the high-road to Constantinople. Here the three emperors had a meeting, and all concurred in the restoration of Athanasius, who, after passing through Constantinople, saw Constantius a second time, at a farther point on his homeward journey, at Caesarea in Cappadocia ( Apol. " But his enemies bestirred themselves, and "did not shrink from long journeys" in order to press on the emperors new charges against him—that he had misappropriated the corn granted by the late emperor for charitable purposes in Egypt and Libya, and that the day of his return had been signalized by bloodshed. Constantius wrote to him in anger, assuming the truth of the former charge; but Athanasius was successful in disproving both. However, Constantius—who was so soon to be "his scourge and torment" (Hooker, v. 42, 2)—fell more and more under the influence of his great enemy Eusebius, now transferred from Nicomedia to the see of Constantinople, which had been forcibly vacated by the second expulsion of the orthodox Paul. The Eusebians now resumed a project which had been found impracticable while Constantine lived; this was to place on "the Evangelical throne" an Arian named Pistus, who had been a priest under Alexander, had been deposed by him for adhering to Arius, and had been consecrated, as it seems ( Apol. The churches were more thronged than ever; the people, in great excitement, and with passionate outcries, called the magistrates and the whole city to witness that this attack on their legitimate bishop proceeded from the mere wantonness of Arian hatred. Quirinus, and encouraged a mob of the lowest townspeople and of savage peasants to perpetrate atrocious cruelties and profanations. " Athanasius, after hastily completing and dispatching his encyclic, sailed for Rome in the Easter season of 340, some weeks after Constantine II. Their presence in the city, and Athanasius's enthusiasm for Anthony and other types of monastic saintliness, made a strong impression on the Roman church society, and abated the prejudices there existing against the very name of monk, and the disgust at a rude and strange exterior. ...
Meantime Elpidius and Philoxenus had discharged their errand. The Eusebians at Antioch, finding that Athanasius was at Rome, and that the council to which they were invited would be a free ecclesiastical assembly, detained the Roman legates beyond the time specified, and then dismissed them with the excuse that Constantius was occupied with his Persian war. On the contrary, the Eusebians resolved to take advantage of the approaching dedication of a new cathedral at Antioch, "the Golden Church," in order to hold a council there. Constantius was present. Surprised at the summons, he inquired as to its probable cause, and learned that some bishops had been urging Constans to propose to Constantius the assembling of a new council, at which East and West might be represented. The majority, ignoring the councils of Tyre and Antioch, and treating the whole case as open, could not but regard Athanasius as innocent, or, at least, as not yet proved guilty; and he "joined them in celebrating the Divine mysteries" (Hil. "...
The bold line taken at Sardica provoked the advisers of Constantius to fresh severities; and the Alexandrian magistrates received orders to behead Athanasius, or certain of his clergy expressly named, if they should come near the city. Fortunatian, he was admitted to more than one audience; and whenever Constans mentioned Constantius, he replied in terms respectful towards the latter. 21), gave Constantius an occasion for yielding the point. 22), and employed six "counts" to write encouragingly to the exile; and Athanasius, after receiving these letters at Aquileia, made up his mind, at last, to act on those assurances; but not until Constantius could tell Constans that he had been "expecting Athanasius for a year
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - >From Caesarea he passed to Constantinople (Bas. Athens also afforded Basil the opportunity of familiar intercourse with a fellow-student whose name was destined to become unhappily famous, the nephew of the emperor Constantius, Julian. Benedict in later times, united active industry with regular devotional exercises, and by the labour of his monks over wide desert tracts, hopeless sterility gave place to golden harvests and abundant vintages. After two years thus spent Basil was summoned from his solitude in 359 to accompany Basil of Ancyra and Eustathius of Sebaste, who had been delegated by the council of Seleucia to communicate the conclusions of that assembly to Constantius at Constantinople. But when Constantius endeavoured to force those present to sign the creed of Ariminum, Basil left the city and returned to Cappadocia (Greg. Not long after his return George of Laodicea arrived at Caesarea as an emissary of Constantius, bringing with him that creed for signature. Eusebius was to compel the reluctant Basil to be ordained priest, that the bishop might avail himself of Basil's theological knowledge and intellectual powers to compensate for his own deficiencies. Basil availed himself of the breathing-time thus granted in organizing the resistance of the orthodox against the Eunomians or Anomoeans, who were actively propagating their pernicious doctrines through Asia Minor; and in uniting the Cappadocians in loyal devotion to the truth. Basil persuaded himself, not altogether unwarrantably, that the cause of orthodoxy in Asia Minor was involved in his succeeding Eusebius. Disappointed of the assistance Anticipated from the younger Gregory, Basil betook himself to his father, the aged bp. The people warmly espoused Basil's cause; the bishops were compelled to give way, and the triumph of the orthodox cause was consummated by the arrival of the venerable Gregory, who, on learning that one vote was wanting for the canonical election of Basil, while his son was still hesitating full of scruples and refused to quit Nazianzus, left his bed for a litter, had himself carried to Caesarea at the risk of expiring on the way, and with his own hands consecrated the newly elected prelate, and placed him on his episcopal throne (Greg. et Ant. At Constantinople it was received with far different feelings. They treated Basil with marked slight and shewed a complete want of sympathy in all his plans (Ep. Their expostulations were rejected with indignant disdain. He found the church flooded with "a sea" of worshippers whose chanted psalms pealed forth like thunder, uninterrupted by the entrance of the emperor and his train. Basil was at the altar celebrating the Eucharistic sacrifice, standing, according to the primitive custom, behind the altar with his face to the assembled people, supported on either hand by the semicircle of his attendant clergy. " The retort amused the emperor, who retired so well pleased with his theological opponent that he made him a grant of lands for the poor-house Basil was erecting (Theod. Basil at once made his simple preparations for departure, ordering one of his attendants to take his tablets and follow him. Before long his old enemy Modestus, attacked by a severe malady, presented himself as a suppliant to Basil, and attributing his cure to the intercessions of the saint, became his fast friend. He visited every part of his exarchate, and maintained a constant intercourse by letter with confidential friends, who kept him informed of all that passed and were ready to carry out his instructions. He established nocturnal services, in which the psalms were chanted by alternate choirs, which, as a novelty, gave great offence to the clergy of Neocaesarea ( Ep. These incessant labours were carried out by one who, naturally of a weak constitution, had so enfeebled himself by austerities that "when called well, he was weaker than persons who are given over" ( Ep. In 372 a harassing dispute with Anthimus, bp
Christ in Jewish Literature - —In spite of the fact that Jewish literature covers the whole period from the time of Christ to the present day, and that the relations between Jews and Christians during that period have usually been far from friendly, the references to Christ in the writings of Jews are, comparatively speaking, few and unimportant. But they are a mere drop in the ocean of the Talmud, and do not warrant the assertion of a general and bitter hatred on the part of the Rabbis towards Him. It is on a level with such misrepresentations of the Roman Catholic and Protestant religions as find favour with the ignorant and bigoted of the opposite party, but are repudiated by the responsible leaders on either side. ]'>[4] ) that Ben Stada denotes ‘that Egyptian’ who is mentioned in Acts 21:38; Josephus Ant. She is said to have been the descendant of princes and rulers, and to have played the harlot with a carpenter (Bab. 65b; Jesus is not mentioned by name, but there is no doubt that He is meant). There is also no warrant for arguing, from the Talmudic allusions, that Jesus actually lived a hundred years before the time usually accepted as the date of His birth. It is therefore important to note that the chief points in the Talmudic tradition which furnished the base for that caricature were His alleged illegitimate birth, and His character as a magician and a deceiver. It is merely a rather stupid and silly tale intended to tickle the ears of ignorant Jews, and to satisfy their contempt and hatred of the Christian religion by mockery of its Founder. Krauss, who is the chief authority on the subject, enumerates 22 complete Manuscripts and 6 fragments of the Tôl’dôth, which be arranges in five groups, according to their points of resemblance, it seems likely that these were not all derived from a single original, but rather that the story, founded on the scanty notices in the Talmud, was told and circulated orally, and in course of time written down by several hands in different countries. The leaders of the Jews, becoming alarmed, set up Judas, one of themselves, as an Antagonist to Jesus. It is rather the wretched device by which ignorant and persecuted Jews revenged themselves, and found a pitiful amusement in mocking the Christ of their persecutors. —We pass to a pleasanter region of literature, one where mention is made of Jesus in terms which, if not such as Christians would use, are very different from those of the Tôl’dôth
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch (c. Ant. Peregrinus wrote letters to all the more important cities, forwarding these by messengers whom he appointed ( ἐχειροτόνησε ) and entitled νεκραγγέλους and νερτεροδρόμους . of Antioch (fl. in Cant. of Antioch after Peter, who in the persecution fought with beasts at Rome, that the virginity of Mary escaped the prince of this world" (Ignat. of Antioch after the apostles; in one case adding that he was martyred. In his Ecclesiastical History , besides less important notices of our saint and of Polycarp, he relates (iii. of Antioch and a martyr of Christ. of Antioch; was sent for to Rome in a time of persecution to be there judged; instructed and admonished with wonderful power all the cities on the way, and Rome itself when he arrived; was condemned and martyred in the Roman theatre crying, Ἐγὼ τῶν θηρίων ἐκείνων ὀναίμην ; and his remains were transferred after death with great solemnity to Antioch. Severus, patriarch of Antioch (513–551), has a long catalogue of sayings from Ignatius, in which every one of the 7 epistles is laid under contribution. 301) relates the condemnation of Ignatius by Trajan in Antioch, and incorporates the Ep. 307) omits all judicial proceedings in Antioch. seems to have arisen on the basis of an account of the journey and death of the saint, extant at the end of the 4th cent. 152, I58, 162) omits (contrary to his custom) the durations of the episcopates of Antioch. 268) regarded as "demonstrated," was that the martyrdom of Ignatius happened not in Rome but in Antioch, upon Dec. Thenceforward we have had the longer and the shorter (or Vossian) recensions, the former containing the 7 Eusebian epistles in a longer text and also epistles of Mary of Castabala to Ignatius, with his reply, of Ignatius to the Tarsians, Philippians, Antiochenes, and Hero, his successor; the Vossian comprising only the Eusebian letters and those in a shorter text. The longer recension has had few defenders, while the shorter had many and early assailants, moved especially by its support of episcopacy. acquired in the meantime, three epistles of Ignatius, viz. —The latest ancient writer who cites only the Eusebian epistles in the uninterpolated text is the monk Antonius in the early part of the 7th cent. Severus of Antioch, 6th cent. and in the Armenian translation we have (minute textual criticism apart) the 7 epistles as the Fathers from Eusebius to Severus of Antioch and as the interpolator had them. It is in progress at Antioch while he is in Smyrna, whence he writes to the Romans, Ephesians, Magnesians, and Trallians. ) are at peace, and in Troas he learns that peace is restored to the church in Antioch. Of the local causes of this Antiochene persecution we are ignorant, but it is not in the least difficult to credit. All now recognize that, according to the testimony of the letters, Ignatius has been condemned in Antioch to death, and journeys with death by exposure to the beasts as the settled fate before him. Thus the Colbertine Martyrdom, which makes Trajan the judge at Antioch, contradicts the epistles no less than the Vatican which puts off the process to Rome. The ordinary way from Antioch to Ephesus was by land, and Ignatius calls the messenger to be sent by the Smyrnaeans to Antioch θεοδρόμος ( Pol. That of Ephesus he treats with special respect, and Anticipates writing a second letter (ad Eph. The news of the cessation of persecution in Antioch stirs him to urge Polycarp to take an interest in that church. He does not deny that his request that messengers should be sent to Antioch is an unusual one, but dwells upon the great benefit which will result ( Pol. The Philippians immediately after wrote to Polycarp, and forwarded a message to the Antiochenes, expecting to be in time to catch the messenger for Antioch before his departure. He speaks of the death of Ignatius, knowing that the sentence in Antioch made it certain; probably knowing also the date of the games at which he was to die. No provision appears for episcopal rule over country congregations whose pastors are not in the "presbytery"—an uncommon expression in Antiquity, but used 13 times by Ignatius