What does Angel mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἄγγελος a messenger 45
מַלְאַ֣ךְ messenger 21
ἄγγελον a messenger 18
ἀγγέλου a messenger 14
מַלְאַךְ־ messenger 6
מַלְאַ֨ךְ messenger 6
מַלְאַ֥ךְ messenger 6
מַלְאַ֤ךְ messenger 6
הַמַּלְאָ֖ךְ messenger 5
הַמַּלְאָ֛ךְ messenger 4
כְּמַלְאַ֣ךְ messenger 3
מַלְאָךְ֙ messenger 3
מַלְאַ֧ךְ messenger 3
וּמַלְאַ֣ךְ messenger 3
וּמַלְאַ֤ךְ messenger 3
וּמַלְאַ֥ךְ messenger 2
מַלְאָ֔ךְ messenger 2
ἀγγέλῳ a messenger 2
הַמַּלְאָךְ֙ messenger 2
כְּמַלְאַ֥ךְ messenger 1
מַלְאָכ֤וֹ messenger 1
וּמַלְאָ֣ךְ messenger 1
הַמַּלְאָֽךְ messenger 1
הַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ messenger 1
וּמַלְאַ֖ךְ messenger 1
מַלְּאַ֣ךְ‪‬‪‬ messenger 1
מַלְאַךְ֩ messenger 1
מַלְאֲכֵהּ֙ angel. 1
הַמַּלְאָךְ֩ messenger 1
לַמַּלְאָ֞ךְ messenger 1
מַלְאָכוֹ֙ messenger 1
מַלְאָ֑ךְ messenger 1
מַלְאָכִ֖י messenger 1
מַלְאָכִי֮ messenger 1
הַמַּלְאָ֣ךְ ׀ messenger 1
הַמַּלְאָ֥ךְ ׀ messenger 1
וּמַלְאָ֡ךְ messenger 1
לַמַּלְאָ֔ךְ messenger 1
הַמַּלְאָ֔ךְ messenger 1
וּמַלְאַ֧ךְ messenger 1
לַמַּלְאָ֤ךְ messenger 1
מַלְאָ֥ךְ ׀ messenger 1
ἄγγελόν a messenger 1
〈ἄγγελος a messenger 1
ἄγγελός a messenger 1
מַלְאֲכֵ֗הּ angel. 1

Definitions Related to Angel

G32


   1 a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an Angel, a messenger from God.
   

H4397


   1 messenger, representative.
      1a messenger.
      1b Angel.
      1c the theophanic Angel.
      

H4398


   1 Angel.
   

Frequency of Angel (original languages)

Frequency of Angel (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Angel Fish
See under Angel.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dear Angel! Ever at my Side
Hymn written in the 19th century by Reverend F. W. Faber.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel, Thy Holy
Name applied to Our Lord in the Mass, in the third prayer after the Consecration.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Mount Angel College And Seminary
Saint Benedict, Oregon. Founded 1887. Conducted by the Benedictine Fathers; Preparatory school; college of arts and sciences; graduate school. See also the school web site.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Angel
A word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14 : 1 Samuel 11:3 ; Luke 7:24 ; 9:52 ), of prophets (Isaiah 42:19 ; Haggai 1:13 ), of priests (Malachi 2:7 ), and ministers of the New Testament (Revelation 1:20 ). It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2 Samuel 24:16,17 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ), the wind (Psalm 104:4 ).
But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre (Genesis 18:2,22 . Comp 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Genesis 32:24,30 ), to Joshua at Gilgal (Joshua 5:13,15 ), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.
The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Genesis 16:7,10,11 ; Judges 13:1-21 ; Matthew 28:2-5 ; Hebrews 1:4 , etc. These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. (Daniel 7:10 ; Matthew 26:53 ; Luke 2:13 ; Hebrews 12:22,23 ). They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power (Zechariah 1:9,11 ; Daniel 10:13 ; 12:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 ).
As to their nature, they are spirits (Hebrews 1:14 ), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" (Luke 20:36 ), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Genesis 18:2 ; 19:1,10 ; Luke 24:4 ; Acts 1:10 ), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6 ; 38:7 ; Daniel 3:25 ; Compare 28) and to men (Luke 3:38 ), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures (Job 4:18 ; Matthew 24:36 ; 1 Peter 1:12 ). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" (Matthew 25:41 ; Revelation 12:7,9 ), and that they are "reserved unto judgement" (2 Peter 2:4 ). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psalm 78:25 ). Angels never die (Luke 20:36 ). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power (Mark 13:32 ; 2 th 1:7 ; Psalm 103:20 ). They are called "holy" (Luke 9:26 ), "elect" (1 Timothy 5:21 ). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" (Luke 20:36 ). They are not to be worshipped (Colossians 2:18 ; Revelation 19:10 ).
Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence (Exodus 12:23 ; Psalm 104:4 ; Hebrews 11:28 ; 1 Corinthians 10:10 ; 2 Samuel 24:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:16 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ; Acts 12:23 ). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth (Genesis 18 ; 19 ; 24:7,40 ; 28:12 ; 32:1 ). They appear to rebuke idolatry (Judges 2:1-4 ), to call Gideon (Judges 6:11,12 ), and to consecrate Samson (13:3). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19:5 ; 2 Kings 6:17 ; Zechariah 1-6 ; Daniel 4:13,23 ; 10:10,13,20,21 ). The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent (Matthew 1:20 ; Luke 1:26-38 ), minister to him after his temptation and agony (Matthew 4:11 ; Luke 22:43 ), and declare his resurrection and ascension (Matthew 28:2-8 ; John 20:12,13 ; Acts 1:10,11 ). They are now ministering spirits to the people of God (Hebrews 1:14 ; Psalm 34:7 ; 91:11 ; Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 5:19 ; 8:26 ; 10:3 ; 12:7 ; 27:23 ). They rejoice over a penitent sinner (Luke 15:10 ). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise (Luke 16:22 ); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day (Matthew 13:39,41,49 ; 16:27 ; 24:31 ). The passages (Psalm 34:7 , Matthew 18:10 ) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples.
The "angel of his presence" (Isaiah 63:9 . Compare Exodus 23:20,21 ; 32:34 ; 33:2 ; Numbers 20:16 ) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel (Luke 1:19 ).
Webster's Dictionary - Angel
(1):
(n.) An appellation given to a person supposed to be of angelic goodness or loveliness; a darling.
(2):
(n.) A messenger.
(3):
(n.) A spiritual, celestial being, superior to man in power and intelligence. In the Scriptures the angels appear as God's messengers.
(4):
(n.) One of a class of "fallen angels;" an evil spirit; as, the devil and his angels.
(5):
(n.) A minister or pastor of a church, as in the Seven Asiatic churches.
(6):
(n.) Attendant spirit; genius; demon.
(7):
(n.) An ancient gold coin of England, bearing the figure of the archangel Michael. It varied in value from 6s. 8d. to 10s.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - o Christ, the Glory of the Angel Choirs
(O Christ, the Glory of Angel Choirs!) Hymn for Lauds on September 29, feast of the Dedication of the Church of Saint Michael the Archangel; and for Vespers on October 24, feast of Saint, Raphael the Archangel. It is attributed to Rabanus Maurus (776-856). There are 13 translations; the English title given is by Edward Caswall.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Angel of the Lord
(Heb. mal'ak yehwah) . Supernatural being who bears a message on behalf of God. In many passages in the Old Testament, the angel of the Lord is identified with God, while in other instances a distinction is made between the Lord and the angel. In general, however, the terms "the angel of the Lord, " "the Lord, " and "God" are interchangeable.
The angel of the Lord is the messenger of both good and evil. He comes to Hagar after she has fled from the abusive Sarai (Genesis 16:7-14 ) to assure her that God has heard about her misery and that her descendants will be too numerous to count. She names him "You are the God who sees me" (v. 13). The angel of the Lord pronounces a curse on the people of Meroz, because they refused to come to the help of the Lord (Judges 5:23 ).
The angel of the Lord executes judgment on behalf of the Lord. He puts to death 185,000 Assyrian soldiers in their camp, thereby saving Jerusalem from decimation (2 Kings 19:35 ).
The angel of the Lord both commissions and commends God's servants. The commander of the Lord's army commissions Joshua to undertake the Lord's battles for Canaan, just as Moses had been commissioned to confront Pharaoh (Joshua 5:13-15 ; cf. Exodus 3:5 ). The angel of the Lord appears to Abraham. He stops Abraham from sacrificing Isaac and commends him because he has not withheld his only son from God (Genesis 22:11-18 ). Abraham identifies the angel as God, calling the place "The Lord Will Provide."
The angel of the Lord carries out a ministry of reconciliation. He asks how long God will withhold mercy from Jerusalem and Judah (Zechariah 1:12 ).
The connection between the angel of the Lord and the preincarnate appearance of the Messiah cannot be denied. Manoah meets the angel of the Lord, and declares that he has seen God. The angel accepts worship from Manoah and his wife as no mere angel, and refers to himself as "Wonderful, " the same term applied to the coming deliverer in Isaiah 9:6 ( Judges 13:9-22 ). The functions of the angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person.
Louis Goldberg
See also Theophany
Bibliography . A. Bowling, TWOT, 1:464-65; G. B. Funderburk, ZPEB, 1:160-66; J. B. Payne, Theology of the Older Testament .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Angel
Superhuman or heavenly being who serves as God's messenger. Both the Hebrew malak [ 1 Kings 19:2 ; Haggai 1:13 ; Luke 7:24 ). "Angels" are mentioned almost three hundred times in Scripture, and are only noticeably absent from books such as Ruth, Nehemiah, Esther, the letters of John, and James.
The Old Testament From the beginning, angels were part of the divine hierarchy. They were created beings ( Psalm 148:2,5 ), and were exuberant witnesses when God brought the world into being (Job 38:7 ). By nature they were spiritual entities, and thus not subject to the limitations of human flesh. Although holy, angels could sometimes behave foolishly (Luke 2:13-14 ), and even prove to be untrustworthy (Job 15:15 ). Probably these qualities led to the "fall" of some angels, including Satan, but the Bible contains no description of that event. When angels appeared in human society they resembled normal males (Genesis 18:2,16 ; Ezekiel 9:2 ), and never came dressed as women.
In whatever form they occurred, however, their general purpose was to declare and promote God's will. On infrequent occasions they acted as agets of destruction (Genesis 19:13 ; 2 Samuel 24:16 ; 2 Kings 19:35 , ; etc. ). Sometimes angels addressed people in dreams, as with Jacob (Genesis 28:12 ; 31:11 ), and could be recognized by animals before human beings became aware of them, as with Balaam (Numbers 22:22 ). Collectively the divine messengers were described as the "angelic host" that surrounded God (1 Kings 22:19 ) and praised his majesty constantly (Psalm 103:21 ). The Lord, their commander, was known to the Hebrews as the "Lord of hosts." There appears to have been some sort of spiritual hierarchy among them. Thus the messenger who instructed Joshua was a self-described "commander of the Lord's army" (Joshua 5:14-15 ), although this designation could also mean that it was God himself who was speaking to Joshua.
In Daniel, two angels who interpreted visions were unnamed (7:16; 10:5), but other visions were explained to Daniel by the angel Gabriel, who was instructed by a "man's voice" to undertake this task (8:15-16). When a heavenly messenger appeared to Daniel beside the river Hiddekel (Tigris), he spoke of Michael as "one of the chief princes" (10:13,21). This mighty angel would preside over the fortunes of God's people in the latter time (12:1). Thereafter he was regarded by the Hebrews as their patron angel. In the postexilic period the term "messenger" described the teaching functions of the priest (Malachi 2:7 ), but most particularly the individual who was to prepare the way for the Lord's Messiah (Malachi 3:1 ).
Two other terms relating to spiritual beings were prominent at various times in Israel's history. The first was "cherubim, " a plural form, conceived of as winged creatures (Exodus 25:20 ), and mentioned first in connection with the expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden (Genesis 3:24 ). Apart from their functions as guardians, however, nothing is said about their character. When the wilderness tabernacle was being fashioned, God ordered two gold cherubim to be placed on top of the "mercy seat" or lid of the covenant ark to screen it. These came to be known as the "cherubim of the Glory" (Hebrews 9:5 ). Cherubim designs were also incorporated into the fabric of the inner curtain (Ezekiel 26:1 ) and the veil of the tabernacle (Exodus 26:31 ).
Solomon placed two wooden cherubim plated with gold leaf in the Most Holy Place of the temple, looking toward the Holy Place. They stood ten cubits (about fourteen feet) high and their wings were five cubits (about seven feet) long. Near Eastern archeological excavations have shown how popular the concept of winged creatures was in antiquity. The throne of Hiram at Byblos (ca. 1200 b.c.) was supported by a pair of creatures with human faces, lions' bodies, and large protective wings. It was above the cherubim that the Lord of hosts sat enthroned (1 Samuel 4:4 ).
The seraphim were also thought of as winged, and in Isaiah's vision they were stationed above the Lord's throne (6:1-2). They seemed to possess a human figure, and had voices, faces, and feet. According to the vision their task was to participate in singing God's praises antiphonally. They also acted in some unspecified manner as mediums of communication between heaven and earth (Isaiah 6:6 ). The living creatures of Ezekiel 1:5-14 were composites of human and animal parts, which was typically Mesopotamian in character, and they seem to have depicted the omnipotence and omniscience of God.
The Apocrypha In the late postexilic period angelology became a prominent feature of Jewish religion. The angel Michael was deemed to be Judaism's patron, and the apocryphal writings named three other archangels as leaders of the angelic hierarchy. Chief of these was Raphael, who was supposed to present the prayers of pious Jews to God (1Tobit 2:15). Uriel explained to Enoch many of his visions (1Enoch 21:5-10; 27:2-4), interpreted Ezra's vision of the celestial Jerusalem ( 2 Esdras 10:28-57 ), and explained the fate of the fallen angels who supposedly married human women (1Enoch 19:1-9; cf. Genesis 6:2 ). Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, and Uriel (1Enoch 40:3,6) reported to God about the depraved state of humanity, and received appropriate instructions. According to contemporary thought, Gabriel sat on God's left, while Michael sat on the right side (2Enoch 24:1). The primary concern of these two angels, however, was supposedly with missions on earth and affairs in heaven, respectively. In rabbinic Judaism they assumed a character which, while sometimes dramatic, had no factual basis in divine revelation.
The New Testament Against this background of belief in angels who were involved in human affairs, it was not surprising that the angel Gabriel should be chosen to visit Zechariah, the officiating priest in the temple, to inform him that he was to become a father, and that he had to name his son John ( Luke 1:11-20 ). Gabriel was not referred to here as an archangel, the Greek term archangelos [ Luke 1:26-33 ).
Nothing in Gabriel's behavior is inconsistent with Old Testament teachings about angels. It has been pointed out frequently that, just as they were active when the world began, so angels were correspondingly prominent when the new era of divine grace dawned with the birth of Jesus. On three occasions an angel visited Joseph in a vision concerning Jesus (Matthew 1:20 ; 2:13,19 ). On the first two occasions the celestial visitor is described as "the angel of the Lord, " which could possibly be a way of describing God himself. On the last visit the heavenly messenger was described simply as "an angel of the Lord." In the end, however, the celestial beings were most probably of the same order, and were fulfilling among humans those duties normally assigned to such angels as Gabriel (Luke 1:19 ).
There is nothing recorded about the actual form of the latter, but Zechariah appears to have recognized the angel immediately as a celestial being, and was terrified (Luke 1:12 ). His penalty for not having learned anything from his ancestor Abraham's experience (Luke 1:18 ; cf. Genesis 17:17 ) would only be removed when his son John was born (Luke 1:20 ). When Gabriel announced to Mary that she would bear Jesus (Luke 31 ), she seems to have been more disturbed by his message than his appearance. The birth of Jesus was announced to Bethlehem shepherds by the angel of the Lord, and since he was accompanied by the divine glory he may well have been the Lord himself. The message of joy having been proclaimed, the heavenly host of angels praised and glorified God (Job 4:18 ) for a short period, as they had done at the creation of the world (Job 38:7 ), after which they departed.
During his ministry, angels came and ministered to Jesus after he had resisted the devil's temptations (Matthew 4:11 ). Again, when Jesus was submitting himself to God's will in the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:40-44 ), an angel came from heaven to strengthen him. At the resurrection, the angel of the Lord rolled back the stone from Jesus' burial place (Matthew 28:2 ), and he was described as having a countenance like lightning and garments as white as snow (Matthew 28:3 ). Again, this celestial being performed a service of reassurance and love for Mary and Mary of Magdala, who subsequently reported seeing "a vision of angels" (Luke 24:23 ). In John's Gospel Mary Magdalene saw two angels in white clothing, sitting in the empty tomb, just before she met the risen Lord (John 20:12-16 ).
In Acts, the imprisoned apostles were released by an angel (5:19). Philip was ordered by an angel to meet an Ethiopian official (8:26-28), while another celestial being appeared to Cornelius (10:3). The angel of the Lord released Peter from prison (12:7-11), and subsequently afflicted Herod with a fatal illness (12:23). When Paul and his companions were about to be shipwrecked the apostle assured them of the presence of a guardian angel (27:23-24).
Paul referred subsequently to angelic hierarchies ("thrones, powers, rulers, or authorities") when proclaiming the cosmic supremacy of Jesus (Colossians 1:15-16 ; cf. 1 Peter 3:22 ), and prohibited the worship of angels in the Colossian church (Colossians 2:18 ) in an attempt to avoid unorthodox practices. His reference to "angels" in 1 Corinthians 11:10 may have been a warning that such things observe humans at worship, and thus the Corinthians should avoid improper conduct or breaches of decency.
The angelology of 2Peter and Jude reflects some of the intertestamental Jewish traditions concerning "wicked angels." In Revelation there are numerous symbolic allusions to angels, the worship of which is forbidden (22:8-9). The "angels of the seven churches" (1:20) are the specific spiritual representations or personifications of these Christian groups. A particularly sinister figure was Abaddon (Apollyon in Greek), the "angel of the bottomless pit" (9:11), who with his minions was involved in a fierce battle with Michael and his angels (12:7-9).
Jesus accepted as valid the Old Testament references to angels and their functions (Matthew 22:30 ), but spoke specifically of the "devil and his angels" (Matthew 25:41 ) as destined for destruction. He fostered the idea of angels ministering to believers (cf. Hebrews 1:14 ), and as being concerned for the welfare of children (Matthew 18:10 ). He described angels as holy creatures (Mark 8:38 ) who could rejoice when a sinner repented (Luke 15:10 ). Angels were devoid of sexual characteristics (Matthew 22:30 ), and although they were highly intelligent ministers of God's will they were not omniscient (Matthew 24:36 ).
Christ claimed at his arrest in Gethsemane that more than twelve legions of angels (numbering about 72,000) were available to deliver him, had he wanted to call upon them for assistance (Matthew 26:53 ). He taught that angels would be with him when he returned to earth at the second coming (Matthew 25:31 ), and that they would be involved significantly in the last judgment (Matthew 13:41,49 ). Finally, angels set a model of obedience to God's will in heaven to which the Christian church should aspire (cf. Matthew 6:10 ).
Some writers contrast the celestial beings with "fallen angels, " of which there are two varieties. The first consists of unimprisoned, evil beings working under Satan's leadership, and generally regarded as demons (Luke 4:35 ; 11:15 ; John 10:21 ). The second were imprisoned (2 Peter 2:4 ; Jude 6 ) spirits because they forsook their original positions in heaven. For New Testament writers they were particularly dangerous. The precise difference in function and character is not explained in Scripture, but some have thought that the latter were the "sons of God" who cohabited with mortal women (Genesis 6:1-2 ). This view, however, is strictly conjectural. Presumably the imprisoned angels are the ones who will be judged by the saints (1 Corinthians 6:3 ).
In a material world that is also populated by good and evil spirits, the Bible teaches that the heavenly angels set an example of enthusiastic and resolute fulfillment of God's will. They acknowledge Jesus as their superior, and worship him accordingly. Angels continue to perform ministering duties among humans, and this function has led to the concept of "guardian angels, " perhaps prompted by Christ's words in Matthew 18:10 . It is not entirely clear whether each individual has a specific angelic guardian, but there is certainly no reason for doubting that an angel might well be assigned to care for the destinies of groups of individuals such as families. These celestial ministries will be most effective when the intended recipients are receptive to the Lord's will for their lives.
R. K. Harrison
Bibliography . G. B. Caird, Principalities and Powers ; A. C. Gaebelein, The Angels of God ; B. Graham, Angels: God's Secret Agets ; H. Lockyer, The Mystery and Ministry of Angels ; A. Whyte, The Nature of Angels .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Angel of the Lord
(See ANGELS.)
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Guardian Angel
An angel who is assigned by God to watch over and care for a man during his life upon earth. The general doctrine that angels are thus deputed to protect men in their pathway through life is a matter of Catholic faith, clearly expressed in Scripture. Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual angel; and that this angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, pagan or Christian. The guardian angels are selected generally from the lowest choir of angels. A feast in their honor, kept locally in the 16th century, was extended to the Universal Church by Pope Paul V in 1608.
King James Dictionary - Angel
AN'GEL, n. Usually pronounced angel, but most anomalously. L. angelus Gr. a messenger, to tell or announce.
1. Literally, a messenger one employed to communicate news or information from one person to another at a distance. But appropriately, 2. A spirit, or a spiritual intelligent being employed by God to communicate his will to man. Hence angels are ministers of God, and ministring spirits. Hebrews 1 . 3. In a bad sense, an evil spirit as, the angel of the bottomless pit. Math. 25. 1 Corinthians 6 . Revelation 9 . 4. Christ, the mediator and head of the church. Revelation 10 . 5. A minister of the gospel, who is an embassador of God. Revelation 2,3 . 6. Any being whom God employs to execute his judgments. Revelation 16 . 7. In the style of love, a very beautiful person.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Angel
Genesis 16:7 (b) This heavenly person probably was the Holy Spirit of GOD because He is the Lord of the harvest. Some think that this person was the Lord JESUS. Since the Holy Spirit is the Lord of the harvest, it seems that this person must be the Spirit, because the passage refers to the harvest of lives that was to follow in Hagar's experience. It certainly is one of the Persons of the Godhead, because He said in verse10 "I will multiply thy seed." In Genesis 16:13 she calls Him Lord. This indicates clearly that He was one of the persons of the Trinity. The name that she gave to this Lord was EI-Shaddai which means "The God of the Breast," or "The God who is enough."
Genesis 22:11 (c) This person was probably a genuine angel out of Heaven. He lays no claim to deity, and does not affirm his authority to do anything. The message in verse Genesis 22:16 of this chapter evidently is a quotation of the GOD of Heaven, and is not a message from the angel. Some, however, think that the angel in verse Genesis 22:15 is one of the persons of the Godhead, and that He Himself was making the statement found in verse Genesis 22:16.
Genesis 24:40 (b) Here the angel is undoubtedly the Holy Spirit who leads the child of GOD in the ways of the Lord and brings about His desire in the world. This would seem to be confirmed by the statement in verse Genesis 24:7 of this chapter.
Genesis 48:16 (a) This portion brings before us the three Persons of the Trinity. The first mention of GOD in verse Genesis 48:15 refers to the Father. The second mention of GOD probably refers to the Holy Spirit. The third mention in which we read "The angel which redeemed" must be the Lord JESUS. The Jews in Old Testament days were Trinitarians. They all believed that there were three persons in the Godhead. Not until several centuries after CHRIST did the Jews become Unitarians. Most Jews have always believed that GOD had a Son who was to be the Messiah. They did not believe, however, that JESUS was that Son.
Judges 5:23 (b) This angel undoubtedly was the Holy Spirit. His message was in reference to the failure of the inhabitants of Meraz to come to the help of Barak when Israel was fighting the Canaanites. We must remember that the Holy Spirit curses as well as blesses. We find this truth in Isaiah 40:7, as well as in other places.
Acts 8:26 (b) This one was probably the Holy Spirit who directed Philip as to his new place of service. Philip had just conducted a great campaign which was most successful, but now the Spirit took him away from that work to deal with one man down on the road to Gaza. Verse Acts 8:29 indicates clearly that it was the Holy Spirit who was directing Philip in all his service and ministry. We would expect Him to do so because He is the Lord of the harvest.
Acts 10:7 (a) The angel who spoke to Cornelius was the Holy Spirit. Verse Acts 10:30 reveals that this one was in the form of a man, looked like a man, had the shape of a man, and wore the clothing of a man. The angel in verse7 who was the man in verse30 is identified in verse Acts 10:19 as the Holy Spirit. As the Lord of the harvest He told the seeking sinner Cornelius to send for the evangelist Peter. The Spirit came to Peter who wanted to be used of GOD and told him where to go to find a troubled soul. The Spirit said to Peter "Behold, three men seek thee; go down with them doubting nothing, for I sent them." The Holy Spirit Himself identifies the man in bright clothing as being Himself. The Spirit of GOD has a human form, as do the other two persons of the Trinity. He was seen plainly and rather frequently in both the days of the Old Testament and the New.
2 Corinthians 11:14 (a) The passage clearly states that Satan, the Devil, is an angel of light. He takes the place of being a very good and holy person. He is called a minister of righteousness. His business is to get people to be good in order to be saved. He leads men to devise and design many kinds of religion to keep sinners away from the Saviour. He leads women to invent religions of an aesthetic character which presents beautiful phraseology, and sweet, lovely ideas, all of which is intended to keep the hearts and lives of the people away from JESUS CHRIST and His saving power. He never suggests that anyone will be saved by getting drunk, or gambling, or living wickedly. He knows very well that this philosophy would not appeal to the human mind. He therefore sets about to arrange a religion of good works and self-righteousness as a substitute for the Person and work of the Lord JESUS. We should be on the watch for every religion that exalts man's goodness, and detracts from the personal glory of CHRIST JESUS.
Hebrews 13:2 (b) The angels referred to in this passage possibly may be the Lord JESUS and the Holy Spirit. They must have been the ones who came to visit Abraham and afterwards went to Sodom. They accepted the worship of Abraham and therefore they seemed to be two persons of the Trinity. It is not at all clear who the third person was. He might have been one of the archangels or another angel. Some think that all three Persons of the Trinity were there.
Revelation 1:20 (b) This word is probably the title given to the leader or the shepherd or the pastor of each of the seven churches mentioned in chapters 2,3. The messages were sent to these seven men who in turn were to instruct the church concerning GOD's Word. It seems as though the leader is held responsible to obtain special messages from GOD for the people that compose the flock.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia
IF James Durham had lived in Kirriemuir in Disruption days he would to a certainty have said that very much what Daniel Cormick was in the presbytery of Forfar, that the angel of Philadelphia was among the seven churches in Asia. No minister all round about had less strength of some kinds than Daniel Cormick: but, then, like the angel of Philadelphia, by universal consent, he was by far the holiest man of them all and by far the most successful minister of them all. Mr. Cormick used to say in his humility that had it not been for the liberality of Lady Fowlis he would never have got to College at all, and that had it not been for the leniency of some of his professors he would never have got the length of being a minister, Be that as it may, it will be to the everlasting salvation of many that Daniel Cormick was ever sent to College, was carried through his studies, and was ordained a minister. When I was a lad in Kirriemuir our minister's name was wide-spread and dear to multitudes, not so much for his pulpit gifts, as for his personal and pastoral graces. The delightful stories of Mr. Cormick's unworldliness of mind, simplicity of heart, and beauty of character, crowd in upon me at this moment till I can scarcely set them aside. And it was such things as these in Daniel Cormick that far more than made up for the fewness of the talents his Sovereign Master had seen good to commit to the stewardship of His servant. I see myself standing in the passage all through the forenoon and afternoon services, the church was so full. I see Dr. Mill in his crowded pew, a much-honoured man, who largely shared in his minister's saintliness. And there sits Mr. Brand, the banker and writer, whose walk and conversation, like the same things in Dr. Mill, influenced and edified the whole town and country round about. Mr. Brand's copy of Halyburton's Memoirs, with his name and my mother's name on it in his own handwriting, is always within reach of my chair, and I am sure I have read it at least as often as Dr. Jowett said to Lady Airlie he had read Boswell. And dear old heavenly-minded, if somewhat sad-hearted, Duncan Macpherson, the draper. A saint if ever I knew one; if, perhaps, a little too much after the type of Mr. Fearing and Mr. Weteyes. There never was a kirk-session in Kirriemuir or anywhere else like Daniel Cormick's kirk-session, and the pillars of it were almost all and almost wholly of their minister's own quarrying and hewing and polishing and setting up. When David White of Airlie became awakened to see what he was, and what a minister ought to be, he sought out Daniel Cormick for his counsellor. As Walter Marshall sought out Thomas Goodwin, and as Thomas Scott sought out John Newton, so did David White sit at Daniel Cormick's feet. The two ministers used to tryst to meet in the woods of Lindertis, where they strolled and knelt and spent hours and days together, till Mr. Cormick was honoured of God to lead one of the ablest men I ever knew into that grace in which he himself stood with such peace and such assurance of faith. To Mr. Cormick's kind and winning ways with children I can myself testify. Is James Laing: A Lily Gathered, still in circulation in Dundee? I well remember that red-letter day to me when Mr. Cormick took me to his lodgings with him and gave me that little book to take home with me. But I am wandering away from my proper subject before I have even begun it. I am taking up too much time with Daniel Cormick, deserving of it all as he is. The angel of the church in Philadelphia could not be more deserving. It was James Durham, in the way he speaks about "the little strength" of the angel of Philadelphia, that led me back to speak of Daniel Cormick with all this love and reverence and thankfulness.
If his Sovereign Master allowed to the minister of Philadelphia but little strength of intellect, as James Durham in his profound commentary holds it was, and but little learning; then, what he lacked on the mere mental side was more than made up to him on the moral and spiritual side. And that wisest by far of all the seven ministers in Asia soon found out where his true strength lay and threw himself with all his weakness upon his true strength. William Law complains with all his incomparable scorn that so many of the ministers of his day spent so much of their time and strength in the pulpit on such subjects as the seasons and the directions of the wind called Euroclydon, and on the times when the Gospels were writ. Now Daniel Cormick had not that temptation, for he possessed none of its literature, and even had he lived in our so-learned day and possessed all the learned apparatus of our day, he would not have given way to our temptations in his pulpit. "You, brethren," said Andrew Bonar in Daniel Cormick's funeral sermon, "are witnesses that in all his ministry your pastor ceased not to preach in public, and from house to house, repentance towards God, and faith towards our Lord Jesus Christ. His first sermon after his ordination was on this great text: 'Be ye reconciled to God.' And was not that commencement truly characteristic of Mr. Cormick's whole ministry among you? For, whatever subject he handled he failed not to arrive at sin and salvation before he left it. And such was the unction of his words that even when he was not exhibiting very intellectual views of the text, still his personal affection in setting forth the subject was always felt to be refreshing and quickening."-And this Epistle pays the same praise to the minister of Philadelphia for the way he preached his Master's name, and his Master's name only, in every sermon of his. I have myself, to my confusion of face I confess it, wasted many a precious hour in this pulpit on Euroclydon, and on the times when the Prophets, and the Psalms, and the Gospels, were writ. But I am beginning now to number my days, and I am, as you must witness, turning my own attention and yours far more to the name of Jesus Christ, in imitation of the minister of Philadelphia. Now, what is His name? and what is His Father's name? if you have begun to learn those great names from me and with me? For we ministers should preach the name of the Father and the name of the Son far more than we do. And you, our people, should read far more than you do read, both in your Bible and in other books, on those so foundation and so fruitful subjects. Just what a name is, what its root is, and when and where this and that name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost were first heard; these inquiries, as Clement says, breed great light in the souls both of preachers and hearers. To turn up and read continually the very chapter where God first gave His full and true name to Moses, and then to trace that name and see that once it was given to Israel there is little or nothing else in the whole of the Old Testament but that name. And then to see how the Father's name gives place to the Son's name in the New Testament,-all that breeds great light in the soul, as Clement says. Even with as little strength as there was in Philadelphia and Kirriemuir, a minister will win great praise, both from God and from God's people, if he keeps close to God's word and more and more holds up God's name.
Tentatio, meditatio, oratio, were Luther's three indispensable qualifications for a minister. Now we gather that the minister of Philadelphia had quite a special training in the school of temptation. We hold far too coarse ideas about temptation. We think of temptation as if it were for the most part to whoredom and wine. But the temptations that make a minister after Luther's own heart are as far as the poles asunder from such temptations as these. The holier and the more heavenly-minded a minister is, the more he lays himself open to a life of unspeakable temptation. With every new advance in holiness, with every new progress in the knowledge of God and of himself, with every deeper and deeper entrance of the exquisitely holy law and spirit of God into his heart and conscience, a minister's temptations multiply upon him, till he feels himself to be the most beset, behind and before, of all beset men that dwell upon the earth. And there is good reason for that. For if a minister is to be a real minister; if he is to know, as by the best and the latest science, all the diseases and all the pains in the souls of the saints who are in his ward, of necessity he must have been taken through all those spiritual experiences himself; of necessity they have all been made to meet in him. O, wretched man that he is! before he is fit to feel for and to prescribe to like wretched men with himself. And that is the reason why He who was Himself made perfect through temptation has specially promised that He will keep His ministers in the hour and power and crisis of their temptations, as He was kept in the hour and power and crisis of his own. Tentatio, meditatio, oratio. Oratio especially. Now, there was one special kind of prayer that Daniel Cormick was greatly noted for among those who were intimate with him. All ministers pray much and earnestly before preaching. And the reason is, they are so afraid that they may not do so well today. The minister of Sardis, who never prayed at any other time in all the week, to be called prayer, was always in real anxiety and earnestness before he entered the pulpit, because he had such a name for preaching to keep up. And so it is still with all who are like him. They are so afraid that they may forget or displace things, or in other ways disappoint your expectations, that they pray with all their heart till God, according to His promise, hears them and carries them through again without a stumble. The difference with Daniel Cormick was that he would get, now Robert M'Cheyne, and now Andrew Bonar, and now John Baxter, to pray both with him and for him after his preaching. As I remember Thomas Shepard also always did: and as, I feel sure, the angel of Philadelphia also did. The "honest weak ministers," that they all three were, as James Durham, that honest but not weak minister, in his incomparable commentary calls them.
"Behold, I come quickly: hold fast that thou hast, that no man take thy crown," said He that is holy, He that is true, to this minister of His. As if He had said, 'Hold fast by thy temptations, and thy meditations, and thy prayers both before and after preaching. And hold fast also by My name, and by all that is due to My name in thine office, as well as in thine own soul. Let no man take thy crown in that matter. Be suspicious, be jealous, of all men. Let no man invade on thy work. Give up not an atom of thy work thou canst by any possibility perform thyself. Never weary for one moment in thy well-doing. Let not thy hand for one moment become slack. Do not let thyself lie down to die till all thy work is fulfilled and finished. For if thou dost so die, then thy successor in Philadelphia will take thy crown which I had intended for thee.' As John Newton took Thomas Scott's crown as long as Scott neglected his dying parishioners till they sent for Newton. And as ministers' crowns are dropping off their heads in every parish all round about for any ambitions man to pick them up and put them on. Any one, that is, who will visit such and such a sick-bed, and read a Psalm there, and after it one of the Pilgrims' crossings of the Jordan. Hold fast, O all you ministers and elders and nurses and doctors! Hold fast as Dr. Mill held fast at so many deathbeds in and around Kirriemuir, till he stole some shining gems even out of Mr. Cormick's crown. Hold fast lest some aspiring man run off altogether with the crown your Master had at one time intended for you. If it took a man like Daniel Cormick all his might to keep his crown from being all stolen from him, what chance, think you, have the most of us ministers?
But look up! Who is that glorified saint shining as the brightness of the firmament, and as the stars for ever and ever? That is the angel of the Church that once was in Philadelphia. That is he, built in for ever as a "pillar" in the heavenly temple to go no more out. He was such a true pillar on earth that the whole of the seven Churches in Asia were strengthened and upheld by means of him. And now he is set in the very midst of the city of God which is new Jerusalem. And, behold, with the name of his God also written upon him, so that all men can read that name on him, as they pass by. Had the name of his God been strength of understanding, or depth and power of mind, or stores of learning, or an eloquent tongue; had it pleased God to save His people by dialectics, then that pillar had not borne as he now bears the name of his God. But God's nature is not like to ours. For we read in letters of gold God's glorious nature and name, and it is this,-the Lord; the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgressions and sins. And that name was taken up with such Paul-like determination, and was so preached in Philadelphia and nothing else was preached, till both the preacher and the people knew none other name. Like preacher, like people. That preacher of Philadelphia fed his people on the finest of the wheat till it became bone of their bone and flesh of their flesh, and till God's great name came out in letters of light all over their foreheads, and was written in works of love all over their lives. What a comfort to the most of us ministers! For the most of us ministers must always be far more like the minister of Philadelphia with his little strength than like the minister of Sardis with his great name. For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called. But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things that are mighty. That, according as it is written, He that glorieth. let him glory in the Lord.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Smyrna
IF Polycarp was indeed the angel of the Church of Smyrna, then we know some most interesting things about this angel over and above what we read in this Epistle addressed to him. All John Bunyan's readers have heard about Polycarp. "Then said Gaius, is this Christian's wife and are these his children? I knew your husband's father, yea, also, and his father's father. Many have been good of this stock. Stephen was the first of them who stood all trials for the sake of the truth. James was another of the same generation. To say nothing of Peter and Paul, there was Ignatius, who was cast to the lions. Romanus, also, whose flesh was cut by pieces from his bones. And Polycarp, that played the man in the fire." You possess Polycarp's whole history in a nutshell in that single sentence of John Bunyan about him. And if you but add that one sentence to this Epistle you will have a full-length and a perfect portrait of the angel of the Church of Smyrna.
Polycarp was born well on in the first century. And it must have been a matter of constant regret to Polycarp that he had not been born just a little earlier in that century so as to have seen his Lord with his own eyes and so as to have heard Him with his own ears. But as it was, Polycarp was happy enough to have been born, and born again, quite in time to enjoy the next best thing to seeing and hearing his Saviour for himself. For Polycarp was a disciple of the Apostle John, and he must have often heard the Fourth Gospel from John's lips long before it had as yet come from John's pen. And that was surely a high compensation to Polycarp for not having seen and heard the Divine Word Himself. And then we are very thankful to possess a circular-letter which the elders of the Church of Smyrna sent round to the Seven Churches telling the brethren everywhere how well their old minister had played the man in the fire. After narrating some remarkable incidents connected with Polycarp's apprehension the circular-epistle proceeds:-
'When Polycarp was brought to the tribunal the pro-consul asked him if he was Polycarp. Have pity on thy great age, said the humane Roman officer. Swear but once by the fortunes of Cæsar. Reproach this Christ of thine with but one word, and I will set you free. "Eighty-and-six years," answered Polycarp, "I have served Jesus Christ, and He has never once wronged or deceived me, how then can I reproach Him!" And then as some of the executioners were binding the aged saint, and others were lighting the fire, certain who stood by took down this prayer from his lips: "O Father of Thy well-beloved Son Jesus Christ. I bless Thee that Thou hast counted me worthy of this day and this hour. I thank Thee that I am permitted to put my lips to the cup of Christ. And I thank Thee for the sure hope of the resurrection and for the incorruptible life of heaven. I praise Thee, O Father, for all Thy soul-saving benefits. And I glorify Thee through our eternal High-Priest, Jesus Christ, through whom, and in the Holy Ghost, be glory to Thee, both now and ever, Amen." Eleven brethren from the Church of Philadelphia suffered with Polycarp, but he is famous above them all; the very heathen venerate his name. He was not only an eminent teacher and an illustrious martyr, but in all he did he did it out of a truly apostolical and evangelical spirit. Polycarp suffered his martyrdom on the great Sabbath, at the eighth hour of the day. I, Pionius, have transcribed and posted this letter to all the Churches round about. So may our Lord gather my soul among His elect, Amen.'
Apostolical, evangelical, and most illustrious, martyr, as Polycarp proved himself to be at the last, yet, when he began his ministry in Smyrna he was a man of like fears and flinchings of heart as we are ourselves. You may depend upon it, Polycarp was for a long time in as great bondage through fear of death as any of yourselves. And every syllable of this Epistle is the proof of that. His Master dictated every syllable of this Epistle with the most direct and the most pointed bearing on Polycarp and on his ministry in Smyrna. Every iota of this Epistle shows us that it was addressed to a minister who was at that time of a timid heart and one whose continual temptation it was to flinch and flee. The very name that Polycarp's Master here selects for Himself in writing to Polycarp spoke straight home to Polycarp's trembling heart. "These things saith He which was dead and is alive." Polycarp was in constant danger of death and in constant fear of death. But after this Epistle, and especially after that opening Name of His Master, Polycarp became another man and another minister. Till this was Polycarp's song every day till the day when he played the man in the fire-
Death! thou wast once an uncouth, hideous thing!But since my Master's deathHas put some blood into thy face,Thou hast grown sure a thing to be desiredAnd full of grace!We found the litotes device in the first of these Seven Epistles, and we find here the parenthesis device in the second of the Seven. When the Spirit speaks to the Seven Churches He does not despise to make use of the rhetorician's art. He recognises and sanctifies that ancient accomplishment by His repeated employment of it, and in His repeated employment of it He gives us so many lessons in our employment of it. "The parenthesis is the delight of all full minds and quick wits." Now though these exact words have never before been applied to Him whose Epistle to Polycarp we are now engaged upon; at any rate, we may surely go on to apply these so expressive words to His so-talented amanuensis. And this full-minded and quick-witted parenthesis comes in here in this way. Polycarp's poverty was one of his many trials and temptations as the minister of Smyrna. And just as the ever-present image of his Divine Master's death and resurrection nerved Polycarp to overcome all fear of his own death, so in like manner his poverty is here put to silence for ever by this parenthesis, ("but thou art rich"). And not only have we a parenthesis here, but a paradox as well. And both of these rhetorical devices are demanded here in order to give utterance to the fulness of the mind and the quickness of the wit both of the true Author of this Epistle and of the highly privileged amanuensis of it. So he was. Polycarp was both poor and at the same time rich. As many of his best successors in the ministry still are. They are almost as poor as he was as far as gold and silver go. But they are even richer than he was in many things that gold and silver cannot command. For one thing, they are far richer than Polycarp could possibly be in the riches of the mind. They are surpassingly rich in so far as they possess the talents and the trainings and the tastes of cultivated and refined Christian scholars. Money is greatly coveted because it gives its possessor the entrance into the best society of the day. But a well-educated and a well-read minister has entrance not only into the very best society of his own day, but of every day, and he will deign to enter no society of any day but the very best. He keeps company with the aristocracy only. Again, riches are to be desired for what they enable their possessor to be and to do and to enjoy. Riches enable their possessor to the true enjoyment of life, to the true use of life, to true power in life, and to the opportunity and the ability of attaining to the true end of life. Unchallengeably, riches in the right owner's hand immensely assist in the attainment of all these high ambitions. But sure I am, there is no class of men among us who are so rich in all these respects as just our well-educated, well-read, hard-working, absolutely-devoted, ministers. No doubt the parenthesist had in his eye Polycarp's riches toward God exclusively. But had he written in our day he would certainly have extended his arms to embrace a poor minister's few but fit books, and his select friendships, as well as many other things that go to alleviate and even to make affluent his remote and arduous life. Money brings troops of friends also, so long as it lasts. But when Polycarp was robing for presentation at Court, so Pionius tells us, his young men would not let him so much as touch his own shoe-latchet. Now you may have your shoes put on and taken off for money, but you cannot have them tied with heart-strings, as Polycarp's shoes were tied that day.
Malicious and abusive language was another of Polycarp's tribulations. I have not enough ancient Church History to be able to inform you just what outlets they had for their malice in that sub-apostolic day. We have Letters to the Editor among the resources of our civilisation. And neither do I know beyond a guess just what Polycarp did when he was again ill-used by the tongues and pens of his day. But if you will hear it I will tell you what Santa Teresa did. And it is because she did what I am to invite you to do, that I for one entirely, and with acclamation, acquiesce in her canonisation. "After my vow of perfection I spoke not ill of any creature, how little soever it might be. I scrupulously avoided all approaches to detraction. I had this rule ever present with me, that I was not to wish, nor assent to, nor say such things of any person whatsoever, that I would not have them say of me. Still, the devil sometimes fills me with such a harsh and cruel temper; such a spirit of anger and hostility at some people, that I could eat them up and annihilate them. At the same time, concerning things said of myself in detraction, and they are many, and are very prejudicial to me, I find myself much improved. It is a mark of the deepest and truest humility to see ourselves condemned without cause, and to be silent under it. Indeed, I never heard of any one speaking evil of me, but I immediately saw how far short he came of the full truth. For, if he was wrong or exaggerated in his particulars, I had offended God much more in other matters that my detractor knew nothing about. O my Lord, when I remember in how many ways Thou didst suffer detraction and misrepresentation, I know not where my senses are when I am in such haste to defend and excuse myself. What is it, O Lord? what do we imagine to get by pleasing worms like ourselves, or by being praised by them! What about being blamed by all men, if only we stand at last blameless before Thee." The slander of the synagogue of Satan in Smyrna was not met, I am sure, with a mind more acceptable to the First and the Last than that.
The last thing that He which was dead and is alive said to Polycarp was this mysterious utterance of His, "Thou shalt not be hurt of the second death." Did Polycarp fully understand that assurance, I wonder? Do you fully understand it? At any rate, you understand what the first death is. In our first death our souls will leave our bodies, and then corruption will so set in upon our dead bodies that those who loved us best will be the first to bury us out of their sight. Now, whatever else and whatever beyond that the second death is, it begins with God leaving our souls. God is the soul of our souls. He is the life, the strength, the support, the light, the peace, the fountain, of all kinds of life in soul and body. And when He leaves our souls that is the beginning of the second death. Only, God does not, properly speaking, leave the soul. He is driven out of the soul. In spite of all that God could do, in spite of all that love and grace and truth could do, the lost soul has banished God for ever out of itself. It has insulted and despised God in every way. It has trampled upon Him in every way. It has shut its door in His face ten thousand times, and has taken in and has held revels with His worst enemies. Had Polycarp feared death more than he feared Him who was now alive; had he feared the fires in the market-place of Smyrna more than the fires that are not quenched; had he deserted his post in Smyrna because of its difficulties; had his soul soured at God and man because of his poverty; when he was reviled, had he reviled back again; when he suffered, had he threatened; and had he reproached Christ when he was bribed with his life so to do,-Polycarp is here told plainly that he would have died the second death with all that it involves. But as it was, he died neither the first death nor the second. Polycarp was changed, rather than died. Polycarp had such a Master that He died both deaths for His servant. It was not for nothing that He said to Polycarp that He was once dead but is now alive. For He was dead with both deaths for Polycarp. It was when He was hurt of the second death for Polycarp that, under the soreness of the hurt, He cried out first in the garden, and then on the Cross. Have we not seen that in the second death the soul is forsaken of God? And was He not forsaken till Golgotha for the time was like Gehenna itself to Him? He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith to the Churches: He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death. I will ransom them from the power of the grave. I will redeem them from the fear of death. O death, I will be thy plague. O grave, I will be thy destruction.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Pergamos
IN his beautifully-written but somewhat superficial commentary, Archbishop Trench says that there is a strong attraction in these seven Epistles for those scholars who occupy themselves with pure exegesis. And that strong attraction arises, so the Archbishop says, from the fact that there are so many unsolved problems of interpretation in these seven Epistles. Now, I am no pure exegete and those unsolved problems of pure exegesis have little or no attraction for me. My irresistible attraction to these seven Epistles lies in this that they are so many looking-glasses, as James the Lord's brother would say, in which all ministers of churches everywhere to the end of time may see themselves, and may judge themselves, as their Master sees them and judges them. Another thing that greatly attracts our commentators to Pergamos is the intensely interesting and extraordinarily productive field of pagan antiquities that Pergamos has proved itself to be. Pergamos was the most illustrious city in all Asia. It was a perfect city of temples. Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Dionysus, Aphrodite, Æsculapius, were all among the gods of Pergamos, and all had magnificent shrines erected and administered to their honour. Here also Galen the famous physician was born. Pergamos possessed a library also that rivalled in size and in value the world-renowned library of Alexandria itself. Two hundred thousand volumes stood entered on the catalogue of the public library of Pergamos. Our well-known word 'parchment' is derived to us from the stationers' shops of Pergamos, and so on. Whether the minister of Pergamos found all that heathen environment as full of delight and edification to himself, and to his proselyte people, in his day as it is to us in our day, is another matter. But of the deep interest and the great delight that all these things have to us there can be no doubt. For the most of our expositors spend both their time and our time in little else but in telling and hearing about the antiquities of Pergamos. But with all those intellectual and artistic attractions filling every part of his parish, after the minister of Pergamos had this Epistle sent to him, all the rest of his days in Pergamos he would have neither time nor thought nor taste for anything else but for this, that Satan had his seat in Pergamos.
It was to bring home the discovery of this fearful fact to the minister of Pergamos that was the sole object of this startling Epistle to him; just as his receiving of this Epistle was the supreme epoch and the decisive crisis of his whole ministerial life. And no wonder. For to be told, and that on such absolute authority, that while Satan had his colonies and his dependencies and his outposts in Ephesus, and in Smyrna, and in Thyatira, yet that his very citadel and stronghold was in Pergamos,-that must have been an awful revelation to the responsible pastor of Pergamos. Pergamos is Satan's very capital, said this Epistle to the overwhelmed minister of Pergamos. It is the very metropolis of his infernal empire. All his power for evil, both against God and man, is concentrated and entrenched in Pergamos. "London is a dangerous and an ensnaring place," writes John Newton in his Cardiphonia. "I account myself happy that my lot is cast at a distance from it. London appears to me like a sea, wherein most are tossed by storms, and many suffer shipwreck. Political disputes, winds of doctrine, scandals of false professors, parties for and against particular ministers, fashionable amusements, and so on. I often think of the difference between London grace and country grace. By London grace, when genuine, I understand grace in a very advanced degree. The favoured few who are kept alive to God, simplehearted and spiritually-minded, in the midst of such deep snares and temptations, appear to me to be the first-rate Christians of the land. Not that we are without our trials here. The evil of our own hearts and the devices of Satan cut us out work enough. My own soul is kept alive, as it were, by miracle. The enemy thrusts sore at me that I may fall. In London I am in a crowd of temptations, but in the country there is a crowd of temptations in me. To what purpose do I boast of retirement, when I am myself possessed of Satan's legions in every place? My mind, even at Olney, is a perfect puppet-show, a Vanity Fair, an absolute Newgate itself."
John Newton is one of the three best commentators I have met with on this Epistle. John Newton, and James Durham, and Miss Rossetti. And what so greatly interests those three commentators in Pergamos is this, that they see from this Epistle to the minister of Pergamos that Satan really had his seat in that minister's own heart, just as that same seat is in their own heart. No other antiquity in Pergamos has any interest to James Durham at any rate, but that antique minister's heart in Pergamos. For Satan, if he is anything, is a spirit. And if he has a seat anywhere in this world it is in the spirits of men. Satan dwells not in temples made with hands, either in Pergamos, or in Olney, or in Edinburgh, but only in the spirits of men; and, most of all, in the spirits of ministers, as this Epistle teaches us, and as all the best commentators tell us it teaches us. And the reason of that so perilous pre-eminence of ministers is plain. Ministers, if they are real ministers, hold a kind of vicarious and representative position both before heaven and hell, and the swordsmen and archers of both heaven and hell specially strike at and sorely wound and grieve all such ministers. Satan is like the King of Syria at the battle of Ramoth-Gilead. For before that battle the King of Syria commanded his thirty-and-two captains that had rule over his chariots, saying, "Fight neither with small nor great save only with the King of Israel." And Satan is right. For let a minister but succeed in his own battle against Satan, let a minister but "overcome," as our Lord's word is in every one of these ministerial Epistles, and his whole congregation will soon begin to share in the spoils of their minister's victory.
Thus Satan trembles when he seesA minister upon his knees.O poor and much-to-be-pitied ministers! With Satan concentrating all his fiery darts upon you, with the deep-sunken pillars of his seat not yet dug out of your hearts, with all his thirty-two captains fighting day and night for the remnants of their master's power within you, and all the time, a far greater than Satan running you through and through with that terrible sword of His till there is not a sound spot in you-O most forlorn and afflicted of all men! O most bruised in your mind, and most broken in your heart, of all men! Pity your ministers, my brethren, and put up with much that you cannot as yet understand or sympathise with in them. And never for a day forget to pray for them in secret, and by name, and by the name of their inward battle-field. Do that, for your ministers have a far harder-beset life than you have any idea of; with both heaven and hell setting on them continually and to the last drop of their blood. May my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth before I say a single word to turn any young man away from the ministry, who is called of God to that awful work. At the same time, let all intending ministers count well the cost lest, haply, after they have laid the foundation and are not able to finish, both men and devils shall point at them and say, this minister began to build for himself and for his congregation, for eternity, but come and see the ruin he has left! Count well, I say again, whether or no you are able to finish.
A single word about "Antipas my faithful martyr" in Pergamos. "It is difficult," complains the commentator mentioned in opening, "to understand the silence of all ecclesiastical history respecting so famous a martyr as Antipas." But faithful martyrs are not surely such a rarity, either in ancient or in modern ecclesiastical history, that we need spend much regret that we are not told more about one out of such a multitude. At any rate, we have a pretty long roll of well-known names in our own evangelical martyrology, and the cloud of such witnesses is by no means closed in Scotland. Whether this Antipas was a martyred minister or no, I cannot tell. Only there are many martyred ministers in our own land and Church whose names are as little known as the bare name of Antipas. Only, the silence and the ignorance and the indifference of earth does not extend to heaven. The silence and the ignorance and the indifference of earth will only make the surprise, both of those ministers and of their persecutors, all the greater when the day of their recognition and reward comes. "Then shall the righteous man stand before the face of such as have afflicted him, and have made no account of his labours. When they see it they shall be troubled with terrible fear, and shall be amazed at the strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond all they had looked for. And they, repenting and groaning for anguish of spirit, shall say within themselves-This was he whom we had sometimes in derision, and made a proverb of reproach. We fools counted his life madness, and his end to be without honour. But now he is numbered among the children of God, and his lot is among the saints!" For then shall be fulfilled that which is written, To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna. And I will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.
This new name which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it is plain. This is no unsolved problem of interpretation. For, a name in Scripture is always just another word for a nature. That is to say, for the very innermost heart and soul of any person or any thing.
I named them as they passed, and understoodTheir nature; with such knowledge God enduedMy sudden apprehension, says Adam to the angel.And a new name is always given in Scripture when a new nature is imparted to any person or to any thing. And so will it be beyond Scripture when that day comes to which every scripture points and promises, and for which every holy heart yearns and pants and breaks. That day when He which hath the sharp sword with two edges shall make all His redeemed to be partakers of His own nature; whose nature and whose name is Love. And just as no man knoweth the misery of that heart in which Satan still has his seat but the miserable owner of that heart, so only God Himself will know with them the new name that He will give to His holy ones on that day. As every sin-possessed heart here knows its own bitterness, so will every such heart alone know its own unshared sweetness in heaven, and no neighbour saint nor serving angel will intermeddle with things that are beyond their depth. And ministers especially. When they have overcome by the blood of the Lamb; when their long campaign of sanctification for themselves and for their people has been fought out and won; a new name will be given to every such minister that he alone will know and understand, and that, as Adam said, by a sudden apprehension. When we are under our so specially severe sanctification here-
Not even the tenderest heart, and next our own,Knows half the reasons why we smile or sigh,and much more will it be so in the uninvaded inwardness and uniqueness of our glorification. No man knows the hardness and the blackness of a sinful heart but the unspeakably miserable owner of it, and no man knows the names he calls himself continually before God, but God who seeth and heareth in secret. And, as a consequence and for a recompense, no man shall see the whiteness of the stone, or hear the newness of the name written in that stone, saving he that receiveth it. For your shame ye shall have double; and for confusion they shall rejoice in their portion; therefore in their land they shall possess the double; everlasting joy shall be unto them. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, and unto the ministers of the churches.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Angel
Mal'âk (מַלְאָךְ, Strong's #4397), “messenger; angel.” In Ugaritic, Arabic, and Ethiopic, the verb le'ak means “to send.” Even though le'ak does not exist in the Hebrew Old Testament, it is possible to recognize its etymological relationship to mal'âk. In addition, the Old Testament uses the word “message” in Hag. 1:13; this word incorporates the meaning of the root le'ak “to send.” Another noun form of the root is mal'âk “work,” which appears 167 times. The name Malachi—literally, “my messenger”—is based on the noun mal'âk.The noun mal'âk appears 213 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. Its frequency is especially great in the historical books, where it usually means “messenger”: Judges (31 times), 2 Kings (20 times), 1 Samuel (19 times), and 2 Samuel (18 times). The prophetical works are very moderate in their usage of mal'âk with the outstanding exception of the Book of Zechariah, where the angel of the Lord communicates God’s message to Zechariah. For example: “Then I answered and said unto the angel that talked to me, ‘What are these, my lord?’ And the angel answered and said unto me, ‘These are the four spirits [1] of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth’” (Zech. 6:4-5).
The word mal'âk denotes someone sent over a great distance by an individual (Gen. 32:3) or by a community (Num. 21:21), in order to communicate a message. Often several messengers are sent together: “And Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber that was in Samaria, and was sick: and he sent messengers [1] and said unto them, Go, inquire of Baal-zebub the god of Ekron whether I shall recover of this disease” (2 Kings 1:2). The introductory formula of the message borne by the mal'âk often contains the phrase “Thus says … ,” or “This is what … says,” signifying the authority of the messenger in giving the message of his master: “Thus saith Jephthah, Israel took not away the land of Moab, nor the land of the children of Ammon” (Judg. 11:15).
As a representative of a king, the mal'âk might have performed the function of a diplomat. In 1 Kings 20:1ff., we read that Ben-hadad sent messengers with the terms of surrender: “He sent messengers to Ahab king of Israel into the city, and said unto him, Thus saith Benhadad …” (1 Kings 20:2).
These passages confirm the important place of the mal'âk. Honor to the messenger signified honor to the sender, and the opposite was also true. David took personally the insult of Nabal (1 Sam. 25:14ff.); and when Hanun, king of Ammon, humiliated David’s servants (2 Sam. 10:4ff.), David was quick to dispatch his forces against the Ammonites.
God also sent messengers. First, there are the prophetic messengers: “And the Lord God of their fathers sent to them by his messengers, rising up betimes, and sending; because he had compassion on his people, and on his dwelling place: But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against his people, till there was no remedy” (2 Chron. 36:15-16). Haggai called himself “the messenger of the Lord,” mal'âk Yahweh.
There were also angelic messengers. The English word angel is etymologically related to the Greek word angelos whose translation is similar to the Hebrew: “messenger” or “angel.” The angel is a supernatural messenger of the Lord sent with a particular message. Two angels came to Lot at Sodom: “And there came two angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground …” (Gen. 19:1). The angels were also commissioned to protect God’s people: “For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways” (Ps. 91:11).
Third, and most significant, are the phrases mal'âk Yahweh “the angel of the Lord,” and mal'âk 'elohim, “the angel of God.” The phrase is always used in the singular. It denotes an angel who had mainly a saving and protective function: “For mine angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off” (Exod. 23:23). He might also bring about destruction: “And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. Then David and the elders of Israel, who were clothed in sackcloth, fell upon their faces” (1 Chron. 21:16).
The relation between the Lord and the “angel of the Lord” is often so close that it is difficult to separate the two (Gen. 16:7ff.; 21:17ff.; 22:11ff.; 31:11ff.; Exod. 3:2ff.; Judg. 6:11ff.; 13:21f.). This identification has led some interpreters to conclude that the “angel of the Lord” was the pre-incarnate Christ.
In the Septuagint the word mal'âk is usually translated by angelos and the phrase “angel of the Lord” by angelos kuriou. The English versions follow this twofold distinction by translating mal'âk as simply “angel” or “messenger” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Thyatira
READ the first three chapters of Hosea and this Epistle to the angel of the Church in Thyatira together, and substitute the dura lectio, the hard reading, "thy wife," for the easy reading, "that woman" in the twentieth verse, and it will be seen at once that the angel of the Church in Thyatira is just the prophet Hosea over again. Very much the same scandal and portent that Hosea and his house were in Israel; nay, almost more of a scandal, has the house of the angel of the Church in Thyatira been in Christendom. Our classical scholars have a recognised canon of their own when they are engaged on their editorial work among old and disputed manuscripts; a canon of criticism to this effect that the more difficult to receive any offered reading is the more likely it is to be the true reading. Nay, the more impossible to receive the offered reading is the more certain it is to have stood in the original text. And this so paradoxical-sounding, but truly scientific, principle of our great scholars, has been taken up by some of our greatest expositors and preachers, and has been applied by them to the exegetical and homiletical treatment both of Hosea's household history in the Old Testament, and of this so similar household history in the New Testament. And, indeed, as if it were to forewarn us, and to prepare us for some impossible-to-be-believed disclosures in Thyatira, our Lord introduces Himself to the minister of Thyatira and to us under a name that He has not taken to Himself in the case of any of the other seven ministers of the Seven Churches. Only the very greatest and very grandest of the classical tragedies ever dared to introduce and endure the descent and the intervention of a god. Now Thyatira at this crisis in her history is a great and a grand tragedy like that. For our glorified Lord puts on His whole Godhead when He comes down to deal with this tragical minister in Thyatira and with his tragical wife and children. These things saith the Son of God, and He armed with all the power and clothed with all the grace of the Godhead. The Son of God who has His eyes like unto a flame of fire wherewith to search to the bottom all the depths of Satan that are in Thyatira. That is to say, to search to the bottom the reins and the heart of the minister of Thyatira, and the reins and the hearts of all his household, and of all his people. And then His feet are like fine brass wherewith to walk up and down in Thyatira, till He has given to the minister of Thyatira and to his house and to all the rest in Thyatira according to their works. Neither let a god interfere, unless a difficulty should happen worthy of a god descending to unravel; nor let a fourth person be forward to speak, is the advice of Horace to all his young dramatists.
It was not the schools of the prophets in Israel that made Hosea the great and original and evangelical prophet that he was. It was his life at home that did it. It was his married life that did it. It was his wife and her children that did it. We would never have heard so much as Hosea's name had it not been for his wife and her children. At any rate, his name would not have been worked down into our hearts as it is but for his awful heart-break at home. And so it was with the minister of Thyatira. We might have heard that there was a certain minister in that ancient city in the days of the Revelation, but this so terrible Epistle would never have been written to him or transmitted to us but for his household catastrophe-a catastrophe so awful that it cannot be so much as once named among us. His Divine Master would have known all the good works of His servant in Thyatira, but He would not have been able to say that the last of those good works of his were so much better than his first works, had it not been for that terrible overthrow in his house at home. The minister of Ephesus had left his first love to God and to God's work because he was so happy in the love of his wife and children. But his co-presbyter in Thyatira had never known what the love of God really was till all his household love had decayed, and had died, and had been buried, and had all turned to corruption and pollution. Both the prophet Hosea in the Old Testament and this apostolical minister in the New Testament had come to see that when any man is called of God to this work of God, all he is and all he has, all his talents, all his affections, all his possessions, all his enjoyments, his very wife and children, must all be held by him under this great covenant with God, that they are all to be possessed and enjoyed and used by him, in the most absolute subordination to his ministry. And all the true successors of those two typical men have at one time or other, and in one way or other, to make this same great discovery and have to submit themselves to this same sovereign necessity.
Marriage or celibacy, an helpmeet or an hindrance, children or childlessness, good children or bad, health or sickness, congregational prosperity or congregational adversity, and all else; absolutely and without any reserve everything must come under that great law for all men, but a thousand times more for all ministers; that great law which the greatest of ministers has thus enunciated:-"For we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to His purpose." Hosea learned at home, and all the week, that new sensibility to sin, that incomparable tenderness to sinners, and that holy passion as a preacher, with all of which he carried all Israel captive Sabbath after Sabbath, and so did his antitype in Thyatira. His antitype, the minister of Thyatira, was a fairly good preacher before he had a household, but he became an immeasurably better preacher as his household life went on and went down to such depths as it did. As many as had ears to hear in Thyatira they could measure quite well by the increasing depth of his preaching and his prayers the increasing depths of Satan through which their minister was wading all the week. We have never had deeper-wading preachers than Jonathan Edwards and Thomas Boston, and never since the garden of Eden has there been two ministers happier at home than they were. And it is very happy for those of us who are ministers to see also that the two happiest homes in all New England and in all old Scotland were also the homes of two such deep and holy and heavenly-minded and soul-winning preachers. But they were not without this same universal and indispensable training in sin and sorrow. Only they got their training in those things in other ways than in shipwrecked homes. With all their happiness in their wives and children, the author of the Religious Affections, and the author of the Crook in the Lot and the Autobiography, had not their sorrows to seek. Some of the sorrows that sanctified them and taught them to preach so masterfully all their readers see and know, while some of his most constant and most fruitful sorrows the closest students of Boston have been absolutely beat to find out. But it is enough for us to be sure that such noble sorrows were there though the deepest secrets of the manse of Ettrick then were, and still are, with the Lord. And thus it is that with two such enviable households as were the households of Edwards and Boston, those two ministers also in their own ways are another two outstanding illustrations of Luther's great pulpit principle-'Who are these so incomparable preachers, and from what divinity hall did they come up? These are they who climbed the Gospel pulpit out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.'
Though you are not ministers you must know quite well how the same thing works out in yourselves. You are not ministers, and therefore it is not necessary that you should be plunged into such depths of experience as your ministers are plunged into continually if they are to be of any real use to you. But you are hearers, and good hearing is almost as scarce, and almost as costly to the hearer, as good preaching is to the preacher. To hear a really good sermon, as it ought to be heard, needs almost as much head and heart, and almost as much blood and tears, as it needs to preach a really good sermon.
A jest's prosperity lies in the earOf him that hears it, never in the tongueOf him who makes it.Yes; but a sermon's prosperity lies in both the tongue of the preacher and the ear of the hearer. And a sermon's true prosperity is purchased by both preacher and hearer at more or less of the same price.
There is still left one more of those cruxes of interpretation that had almost turned me away from this Epistle to the minister of Thyatira altogether. And it is this: "He that overcometh, and keepeth my works to the end, to him will I give power over the nations. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers; even as I received of my Father. And I will give him the morning star." What a strange promise to make to a minister,-a rod of iron! Yes, this is just one more of those scripture-passages of which Paul once said that the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth life. For the letter here had almost killed out all my hope in this passage till a gleam of the Spirit came to light me into it and to light me through it. "He that overcometh" is just that minister who meets all the temptations and trials of life, at home and abroad, with more and more charity, and with more and more faith, and with more and more patience, as long as there is a hard heart in his house at home or in his congregation abroad. It is just to the minister who so overcomes his own passions in his own heart first, that his Master will give power to break in shivers the same passions in all other men's hearts, as with a rod of iron. By his charity and by his patience, by these two rods of iron, especially, any minister will overcome as the angel of the Church in Thyatira at last overcame. All the iron rods in the world would not have broken men's hard hearts as that reed broke them, that our Lord took so meekly into His hand when the soldiers were mocking and maltreating Him. And if you just strike with all your might, and with that same rod, all the hard hearts that come near you, you will soon see how they will all go to shivers under it. Till for your reward your Master will give to you also the morning star. That is to say, when many other ministers that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt, they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans
THE Archippus who is so remonstrated with in the Epistle to the Colossians concerning his neglected ministry, may very well have lived on to be the lukewarm angel of the Church in Laodicea. As a matter of fact, there is both internal and external evidence that the angel of the Church in Laodicea was none other than this same inculpated Archippus now grown old in his unfulfilled ministry. And if the external evidence had only been half as strong as the internal the identity of those two unhappy men would have been proved to demonstration. It is much more than a working hypothesis then, the assumption that this angel now open before us is none other than young Archippus at last grown grey in neglect of his work and in ignorance of himself. Archippus was still to all intents and purposes a young minister when this message was sent to him from the aged Apostle, "Say to Archippus, take heed to the ministry which thou hast received in the Lord, that thou fulfil it." But instead of taking that timeous reproof to heart, Archippus had gone steadily down in his declension and decay till he had this last reproof addressed to him, and which has been a last reproof to so many ministers and their people since his day and down to our own day.
The English language has inherited one of its most contemptuous and denunciatory epithets from this Epistle to this lukewarm minister and his lukewarm church. We call a man a Laodicean. We have no other single word that so graphically describes a certain detestable type of human character. "I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot. I would thou wert cold or hot. So then because thou art neither cold nor hot, I will spue thee out of my mouth." That is plain-spoken enough and in few words. But ever since this so scornful Epistle was written, all that, and more than all that, has been collected up into this one supremely scornful word,-thou art a Laodicean! And thus it is that to all time the angel of the Church in Laodicea will stand forth as the spiritual father of all such spiritual sons. Archippus will stand at the head of a long apostolic succession that has descended from his ancient diocese into all the churches: Episcopal, Presbyterian, and Independent. And this Epistle now open before us is a divinely fashioned looking-glass, as James the Lord's brother would have called it, in which all Laodicean ministers and people are intended to see themselves.
"Because thou sayest, I am rich and increased with goods, and have need of nothing." But Archippus with all his stark stupidity could never by any possibility have said that. He was not such an absolute idiot as actually to say that. No, not in so many words. No minister ever, out of Bedlam, said that in so many words. No. But at the same time by the very Scriptures he read and expounded to his people, as well as by the Scriptures he did not read; by the very psalms and hymns and spiritual songs he sang, and did not sing; but especially by his prayers, Archippus all his days sealed down his people in the same deadly ignorance in which he lay sealed down himself. And indeed it is just of this deadly ignorance of himself that his Master here so scornfully speaks. "Thou knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and poor, and blind, and naked." On the margin of a copy of Thomas Adam' Private Thoughts now preserved among the treasures of the British Museum, Coleridge has written these pencilled lines: "For a great part of my life I did not know that I was poor, and naked, and blind, and miserable. And even after I did know that, I did not feel it aright. But I thank God I feel it now somewhat as it ought to be felt. Stand aside, my pride, and let me see that ugly sight, myself. I have been deceived all my life by sayings of philosophers, by scraps of poetry, but most of all by the pride of my own heart, into an opinion of self-power, which the Scriptures plainly tell me, and my repeated failures tell me, that I possess not. It is the design of the religion of Jesus Christ to change men's views, to change their lives, and to change their very tempers. Yes. But how? By the superior excellence of its precepts? By the weight of its exhortations, or by the promise of its rewards? No. But by convincing men of their wretchedness, and guilt, and blindness, and helplessness. By inculcating the necessity of the remission of sin, and the necessity of supernatural light and assistance, and by promising to the penitent sinner, and by actually conveying to him, these evangelical blessings." Well might Charles Lamb say, "Reader! lend thy books to S. T. C., for he will return them to thee with usury. He will enrich them with his annotations, and thus tripling their value. I have had experience, and I counsel thee. Shut not thy heart, nor thy library, against S. T. C."
Among all the terrible things here threatened against this miserable minister of Laodicea, his "nakedness," and "the shame of his nakedness," is surely the most terrible. There is nothing that is more terrible to the heart of man than shame. Shame and contempt, as a parallel passage in the Old Testament has it. Shame and contempt are far worse to face than death itself. When we speak of shame, in our shallow and superficial way we usually think of the shame of a naked body. But there is no real shame in that. When the Bible speaks of shame it is always of the infinitely more terrible shame of a naked soul. Take away the terrible shame of a naked soul and there is no shame at all in the nakedness of the body. But once strip a soul naked, and death is its only refuge and hell its only hiding-place. Take it home to yourselves and see. Suppose your innermost soul laid absolutely bare to us who are your friends and neighbours. Suppose your most secret thoughts about us told to us from the housetops. Suppose all your malicious thoughts about us told, and all your secret hatred of us, and all your envy of this man and that man, naming him, and for what. Suppose it, if you dare for one moment to suppose it, the whole bottomless pit of your evil heart laid bare. Now all that is the threatened case of this miserable creature here called an angel. Indeed his case is far worse than yours; unless, indeed, like him you are a minister. For he will have all the shame that you will have, and, over and above all that, being a minister he will have the special shame and the special contempt and the special revenge both of God and man to bear, and that, if the prophet is right, to everlasting. It is the awful forecast of all this to Archippus that makes his Master's heart to relent once more and to address to him this last-trumpet Epistle. "I counsel thee to buy of Me gold tried in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear; and anoint thine eyes with eyesalve, that thou mayest see." It was this same salvation offered to all such ministers as Archippus in the Old Testament, that made Micah exclaim at the end of his ministry. Who is a God like unto Thee!
And then there is this evangelical invitation to crown all. "Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If any man hear My voice, and open the door, I will come into him, and will sup with him, and he with Me." This, I feel quite sure, is a reminiscence of what had often happened to Him who here speaks. For He was often that He had not where to lay His head. He was often that He had to stand at the door and knock. The parable of the friend at midnight was not so much a parable after all. He must often have been that poor and importunate man Himself. For if He hungered on His way to the city, much more must He have hungered and thirsted and been nigh unto fainting, on His way out of the city. And at such times of temptation, Satan would say to Him-'If thou be the Son of God, command these stones to become bread, and command the wayside streams to run with wine and milk.' But He would say to Satan-'Neither have I gone back from the commandment of His lips: I have esteemed the words of His mouth more than my necessary food.' And so saying He entered a certain village, and knocked at the door. And the man from within answered, "Trouble me not; the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed, I cannot rise and let thee in." But in the next street there was a lamp still burning, and a voice from within answered, "Come in, Thou Blessed of the Lord." And they supped together that night. When you next think you hear His knock, rise off your seat, rise off your bed even, and open the door. Yes: go and actually open the door. Think to yourself that He is actually in the street, and is actually, and in the body, standing at your door. This is the sacrament night. And it will be a sacramental action to go and actually open your room door or your street door late and alone tonight. Imagine to yourself that you see Him dim in the darkness of the night. Put out your hand into the darkness. Lead Him in. Set a seat for Him. Ask Him when and where He broke His fast this morning. Ask Him where He has been all day, and going about and doing what good. Tell Him that you are sure He has not had time so much as to eat. And set the best in your house before Him, and He will come in and will sup with you, and you with Him. Believe and be sure that He is in this city tonight. Believe that and it will make you to be on the watch. Do not put off your coat, do not wash your feet, till you have opened the door to Him. Sit up for Him. Expect Him. Set your candle in your window. Have your door standing already ajar. And even if you should again and again be deceived and disappointed: even if again and again you should mistake some other sound in the street for His footstep, do not despair of His coming. Do not shut the door whatever you do. Far better a thousand such mistakes through overwatchfulness than to be dead asleep when at last He comes. And besides, who can tell, He may not have eaten a morsel or drunk a drop in all the city this day,-all these communion-tables notwithstanding. And would it not be wonderful if all the entertainment He is to get in this city this whole day still awaits Him in your house this night. And then there is this; whosoever or whatsoever you are, let nothing debar you from supping with Christ tonight. you may not have been at our table today. We lay down rules and restrictions as to who shall, and who shall not, sup with Him in this house. But, all the time, He is the Master, and He can lift off all our restrictions, even when they are quite right in us to lay them down, and He can and He will sup when and where and with whom He pleases. And these are His own undoubted words about this night that is yet before Him and before you and before us all. These words: "If any man hear My voice, and open the door,"-communicants, He means, or non-communicants; members or adherents; young or old; minister or elder; especially any minister. For as He stood that night at Archippus's door in Laodicea, so will He stand at all ministers' doors in Edinburgh this night. And, all the more, if they are all asleep, have you your lamp still burning on your window-sill for Him. And you will be able to tell us tomorrow how your heart burned as He supped with you and you with Him. For it was a proverb in Athens that they were always well in health, and full of all sweet affability all next day, who had supped last night with Plato.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Sardis
THEMISTOCLES, Plutarch tells us, could not get to sleep at night so loud was all Athens in the praises of Miltiades. And the ministers of the other six churches in Asia were like Themistocles in the matter of their sleep, so full were all their people's mouths of the name and the renown of the minister of Sardis. When he went to the communion-seasons at Ephesus and Smyrna and Pergamos and Thyatira, for years after the captivated people could tell you his texts and at every mention of his name they would break out about his preaching. His appearance, his voice, his delivery, his earnestness and impressiveness, and his memorable sayings, all contributed to make the name of the minister of Sardis absolutely a household word up and down the whole presbytery. Now it was after some great success of that pulpit kind; it was immediately on the back of some extravagant outburst of his popularity as a preacher, that his Master could keep silence no longer toward the minister of Sardis. In anger at him, as also at those who so puffed him up; both in anger and in love and in pity, his Master sent to His inflated servant this plain-spoken message and most solemn warning. 'Thou hast a great name among short-sighted men. Thou hast much praise before men, but not before God. All men think well of thee, but not God. All thy great sermons are so much sounding brass before God. And what is not already spiritually dead in thee is ready to die, and will soon be for ever dead, unless thou dost become a new manner of minister, not before men, but before God.'
"Of all men in the world," says James Durham, "ministers are most obnoxious to this tentation of vanity. And that because most of their appearances are before men, and that in the exercise of some gift of the mind which is supposed to hold forth the inward worth of a man more than any other gift. Now when this meeteth with applause, that applause has a great subtility in its pleasing and tickling of them, and is so ready to incline them to rest satisfied with that applause." Durham is right in that. For praise and popularity is the most dangerous of all drugs to a minister. Dose a minister sufficiently with praise, and you will soon drown his soul in perdition, if God does not interpose to save him. He is as happy as a king all that day after a sufficient draught of your soul-intoxicating praise. He is actually a sanctified and a holy man all the rest of that day. His face shines on all the men he meets all that day. He loves all the men he meets. He even walks with God all that day. But you must give him his dram again on his awaking tomorrow morning, else as soon as he has slept off his debauch he will be a worse man and more ill to live with than he was before. To him who lives on praise all the world is as dark as midnight and as cold as mid-winter to him when he cannot get his praise. The wings of an angel sprout in his soul as long as he gets enough praise, but he is as good as in his grave when he opens his mouth wide and you do not fill it. It is true that is a very weak mind which values itself according to the opinion and the applause of other men. But then it is well known that God chooses the weakest of men to make them His ministers. For many reasons He does that, some of which reasons of His all His ministers know, and some of which reasons the wisest of them have not yet found out. "It were vain," says one of the wisest of ministers, "to pretend that I do not feel in me that mean passion that can be elated by applause, and mortified by the contrary; but there is nothing under heaven that I more sincerely and totally despise, and nothing which ever makes me so emphatically despise myself. I feel it infinitely despicable at the very moment the passion for praise is excited, and I hope by degrees, as time goes on, to be substantially delivered from it. I have a thousand times been astonished that this mean passion of mine should not have been completely extirpated by the sincere and deliberate contempt I have long entertained for human opinion. Opinion, I do not mean, as regarding myself, but as regarding any other person, or any other book. To seek the praise that comes from God only, is the true nobleness of character; and if a due solicitude to obtain this praise were thoroughly established in the soul, all human notice would sink into insignificance, and would vanish from our regard." By the end of his ministry the angel of Sardis will subscribe to every syllable of John Foster. But he is a long way from that as yet, and he will need to have some plain words told him about himself, and about his ministry, before he comes to that.
For one thing, admitting and allowing for all the good work His servant did, I have found it far from perfect, his Lord says. But perfection in the work of the ministry at Sardis or anywhere else is quite impossible; and thus it is that when we look closer into our Lord's words we find that it was not so much absolute perfection that his Master demanded, as ordinary honesty, integrity, and fidelity. What He really said was this, 'I have not found thy work at all filled up on its secret and spiritual and God-ward side. On its intellectual and manward side I have nothing to complain about-but not before God.' You see the state of the case yourselves. No man can long command pulpit popularity without hard work. And it is not denied that this minister paid for his popularity with very hard work. He was a student. He took off his coat to his sermons. He wrote them over and over again till he got them polished to perfection. And his crowds of polished people were his reward. But while doing so much of that kind, and no man in all Asia doing it half so well, at the same time he left a whole world of other things not done. Milton did all his work from his youth up under his great Taskmaster's eye. And so did the minister of Sardis. Only his taskmaster was the great crowds that hung on his elaborated orations. Take away the eyes and the ears of those captivated crowds and this thrilling preacher was as good as dead. "Dead," indeed, is the very word that his Master here so bitterly charges home upon him. "Thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead." His preaching was all right. None of his neighbour ministers, not the most accepted of God and the most praised of God of them all, could preach half so well. His preaching was perfect; but his motives in it, his aims and his ends in it, the sources from which he drew his pulpit inspiration, his secret prayers both before his sermons were begun, and all the time they were under his hand, and while they were being delivered, and still more after they were delivered,-in all these things,-"thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead." 'Be watchful, and strengthen these things,' said his Master to him. 'It is good to study, only strengthen it with much faith and with much prayer before God. It is good to give thyself to reading, only read and write in the presence of God. It is good to bring up thy very choicest work to these great congregations of thine, only seek their salvation in every sentence of thy great sermons. It is good to take captive with thy wonderful eloquence the attention and the admiration of these crowds, only do so in order to take their hearts captive, not to thyself as heretofore, but to Me henceforth. Strengthen, I say unto thee, the things that remain and are ready to die. And above all else, and with a view to all else, and as a means to all else, strengthen thy closet-prayer before God. Strengthen it in the length of it, and in the breadth of it, and in the depth of it, and in the height of it. Strengthen it in the time you take to it, in the intensity you put into it, and in the way you work it up into your sermons, both in their composition, and in their delivery, and in the way you continue to wait and to pray after your sermons; to wait, that is, not for the applause of the hearers, but for their profit and My praise.'
And his heart-searching Master still proceeds with His pastoral counsels to this minister of His, very unwilling to give him over to the decay of soul into which he has fallen. "Remember how thou hast received, and heard, and hold fast, and repent." As if He were to say to some such minister among ourselves-'Remember thy conversion, and the spirit of truth and love that was instilled into thee, and that made thee turn into this ministry of Mine. Remember thy college days, and the high hopes and generous vows made to Me in those days. Remember also how I delivered thee when in thy deep distresses thou didst call on Me, and what communings and confidences used to go on between us. Remember thy ordination day, and the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, and the way thy heart swelled within thee as they pronounced and enrolled thee a minister of Mine.' Yes, even to call such things to remembrance, my brethren, will work together with the seven Spirits that are in Christ's right hand, and with many other things, to set a fallen-down minister on his feet again, and to give him a new start even after he is as good as dead and deposed in the sight of God. Ay, such remembering and such repenting will yet save this all but lost minister of Sardis, and it will save some ministers among ourselves who are quite as far gone as he was. And as he was saved through this Epistle, so will they; and like him they will yet receive the heavenly reward that is here held out to us all by Him who has the seven Spirits of God and the seven stars.
The last thing of the nature of a threat that is addressed to the minister of Sardis is this, "If therefore thou shalt not watch, I will come on thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee." There is a certain note of terror in that warning which is here addressed to all ministers, the most watchful, the most prayerful before God, and the best. And yet, no; for perfect love casteth out all such terror; perfect love to Christ, and to His work, and to His coming, delivers them who through fear of His coming have all their days been subject to terror. If I love you, you cannot come too soon to me. And the more unexpected your coming is to my door the more welcome will you be to me. If I am watching and counting and keeping the hours till you come, you cannot come on me as a thief. Christ could not come on Teresa as a thief as long as she clapped her hands for His coming every time her clock struck. He cannot come too soon for me if I am always saying to myself,-why tarry the wheels of His chariot? If my last thought before I sleep is about you I will be glad to see your face and hear your voice the first thing in the morning. When I awake I am still with Thee. The name of that chamber was Peace, and its window opened to the east. And every night after he received and read this Epistle, the minister of Sardis always slept in that chamber till the sun-rising.
And now that the tide is beginning to turn in this Epistle, and in this minister's heart and life, this so unexpected word of encouragement and comfort is spoken to him, "Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments: and they shall walk with Me in white: for they are worthy." It was with the minister of Sardis somewhat as it was with Thomas Scott when he was first awaking to his proper work. Scott in his youth had been ambitious to be an author, but he was now beginning to see that preaching was second to nothing on the face of God's earth; and that it had praise of God as nothing else had when it was well done. Scott's preaching was not yet well done by a long way, but it was far better than it once was. And one of the best proofs of its improvement was this, that his parishioners began to come to ask guidance from him in the things of their souls. But at that stage Scott had put all he know into his sermons and he had little to add as pastoral counsel to his inquiring parishioners. And it would be something like that in Sardis. Some of his people had somehow been kept in life all through their minister's declension and death. There is nothing more surprising and touching than to see how a tree will sometimes cling round a rock and will suck sap and strength out of a cairn of stones. "How do you manage to keep yourself alive, then?" I asked an old saint who is in a case not unlike those few names in Sardis. "O," she said, "I have an odd volume of Spurgeon's Sermons, and I have a son at the front." I did not ask her, but I suppose she meant that the thought of her son in his constant danger made her life of intercessory prayer in his behalf perfect before God, and all Spurgeon's readers will bear her out about his sermons. Even in Sardis, their sons in constant peril, and a volume of some first-century Spurgeon, kept alive those few names all those years that their minister was dead.
And then to put the copestone on this far-shining case of a minister's recovery, and to send him back to his work till, like his much-tried neighbour in Thyatira, his last years should be far better than his first, this splendid seal was set on his second conversion-"to him that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment: and I will not blot his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father and before His angels." It will be on that day to the minister of Sardis like that great day when Joshua stood before the angel of the Lord and Satan stood at his right hand to resist him. Satan will resist him and will tell to his face how he sought his own things in the early days of his ministry and not the things of his people or of his Master. How he swelled with vanity in the day of his vanity. How his own name was in every thought of his and nothing else but his own name. Only let his name be blazoned abroad, Satan will say, and he was happy and all about him were happy. And so on, till Christ will stop the accuser's mouth, and will confess His servant's name. The Lord rebuke thee, O Satan; even the Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem rebuke thee; is not this a brand plucked out of the fire? And he answered and spake unto those that stood before him, saying, Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment. And I said, Let them set a fair mitre upon his head. So they set a fair mitre upon his head, and clothed him with garments. And the angel of the Lord stood by.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church of Ephesus
YOU are not to think of an angel with six wings. This is neither a Michael nor a Gabriel. I cannot give you this man's name, but you may safely take it that he was simply one of the oldest of the office-bearers of Ephesus. No, he was no angel. He was just a chosen and faithful elder who had begun by being a deacon and who had purchased to himself a good degree, like any one of yourselves. Only, by reason of his great age and his spotless character and his outstanding services, he had by this time risen till he was now at the head of what we would call the kirk-session of Ephesus. By universal acclamation he was now the "president of their company, and the moderator of their actions," as Dr. John Rainoldes has it. This angel, so to call him, had grown grey in his eldership and he was beginning to feel that the day could not now be very far distant when he would be able to lay down his office for ever. At the same time, it looked to him but like yesterday when he had heard the prince of the apostles saying to him those never-to-be-forgotten words-"Take heed to thyself, and to all the flock over which the Holy Ghost hath made thee an overseer, to feed the flock of God, which He hath purchased with His own blood." And, with many mistakes, and with many shortcomings, this ruling and teaching elder of Ephesus has not been wholly unmindful of his ordination vows. In short, this so-called angel of the Church of Ephesus was no more an actual angel than I am. A real angel is an angel. And we cannot attain to a real angel's nature, or to his office, so as to describe such an angel aright. But we understand this Ephesus elder's nature and office quite well. We see his very same office every day among ourselves. For his office was just to feed the flock of God, as Paul has it. And again, as James has it, his office was just to visit the widows and orphans of Ephesus in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world of Ephesus. And he who has been elected of God to such an office as that in Ephesus, or in Edinburgh, or anywhere else, has no need to envy the most shining angel in all the seven heavens. For the most far-shining angel in the seventh heaven itself desires to look down into the pulpit and the pastorate of the humblest and obscurest minister in the Church of Christ. And that because he knows quite well that there is nothing for him to do in the whole of heaven for one moment to be compared with the daily round on this earth of a minister, or an elder, or a deacon, or a collector, or a Sabbath-school teacher.
Now, there is nothing so sweet, either among angels or among men, as to be appreciated and praised. To be appreciated and praised is the wine that maketh glad the heart of God and man. And the heart of the old minister of Ephesus was made so glad when he began to read this Epistle that he almost died with delight. And then as His all-seeing and all-rewarding way always is, His Lord descended to instances and particulars in His appreciation and praise of His servant. 'I know thy works. I chose thee. I gave thee all thy talents. I elected thee to thy charge in Ephesus. I ordained thee to that charge, and my right hand hath held thee up in it. Thou hast never been out of my mind or out of my eye or out of my hand for a moment. I have seen all thy work as thou wentest about doing it for me. It is all written before me in my book. All thy tears also are in my bottle.'
We have an old-fashioned English word that exactly sets forth what our Lord says next to the angel of Ephesus. 'I know all thy painfulness also,' He says. It is a most excellent expression for our Master's purpose. No other language has produced so many painful ministers as the English language, and no other language can so well describe them. For just what does this painfulness mean? It means all that is left behind for us to fill up of His own painful sufferings. It means all that tribulation through which every true minister of His goes up. It means cutting off now a right hand and plucking out now a right eye. It means taking up some ministerial cross every day. It means drinking every day the cup of the sinfulness of sin. It means to me old Thomas Shepard more than any other minister that I know. "Labour," as our bloodless version has it is a far too dry, a far too wooden, and a far too tearless, word, for our Lord to employ toward such servants of His. Depend upon it He will not content Himself with saying "labour" only. He will select and will distinguish His words on that day. And to all who among ourselves have preached and prayed and have examined themselves in and after their preaching and praying, as it would seem that this angel at one time did, and as Thomas Shepard always did, their Master will signalise and appreciate and praise their "painfulness" in their own so expressive old English, and they will appreciate and appropriate His so suitable word and will appreciate and praise Him back again for it.
His patience is another of the praises that his Master gives to this once happy minister. I do not suppose that the angel of Ephesus counted himself a specially happy man when, all unthought of to himself, he was laying up in heaven all this eulogium upon himself and upon his patience. But all the more, with such a suffering servant, his Master held Himself bound to take special knowledge of all that went on in the Church of Ephesus. And to this day and among all our so altered circumstances, patience continues to take a foremost place in the heart and in all the ministry of every successor of the true apostleship. Nay, patience was not only an apostolic grace, it was much more a Messianic grace. Patience was one of the most outstanding and far-shining graces of our Lord Himself as long as He was by far the most sorely tried of all His ministers. And He has all men and all things in His hands to this day that He may so order all men and all things as that all His ministers shall be put to this school all their days, as He was put all His days by His Father. The whole of every minister's lot and life is divinely ordained him so as to win for him his crown of patience, if he will only listen and believe it. "I know all thy patience," said our Lord to the angel of Ephesus.
I do not the least know who or what the Nicolaitans of Ephesus were, and no one that I have consulted is any wiser than I am, unless it is Pascal. And Pascal says that their name is equivocal. When that great genius and great saint comes upon the Nicolaitans in these Epistles, he has an original way of interpretation all his own. He always interprets this name, so he tells us, of his own bad passions. And not the Nicolaitans of Ephesus only; but the Egyptians, and the Babylonians, and as often as the name of any "enemy" occurs in the Old Testament, and it occurs in the Psalms continually, that so great and so original man interprets and translates them all into his own sinful thoughts and sinful feelings and sinful words and sinful actions. That is I fear a far too mystical and equivocal interpretation for the most of us as yet. To call the Nicolaitans of Ephesus our own wicked hearts, is far too Port-Royal and puritan for such literalists as we are. Only, as one can see, the minister of Ephesus would be swept into the deepest places, and into the most spiritual experiences, both of mysticism and of puritanism before their time, as often as he set himself, as he must surely have henceforth set himself every day of his life, to hate the deeds of the Nicolaitans, whoever they were, and at the same time to love the Nicolaitans themselves. To a neighbour minister in the same Synod our Lord sends a special message about the sharp sword with the two edges. And it would need all the sharpness of that sword and all its edges to divide asunder the deeds of the Nicolaitans from the Nicolaitans themselves in their minister's heart. To divide them, that is, so as to hate their evil deeds with a perfect hatred, and at the same time to love the doers of those deeds with a perfect love. The name Nicolaitan is equivocal, says Pascal.
A litotes is a rhetorical device by means of which far less is said than is intended to be understood. A true litotes has this intention and this result that while, in words, it diminishes what is actually said, in reality, it greatly increases the effect of what is said. What could be a more condemning charge against any minister of Christ than to tell him in plain words that he had left his first love to his Master and to his Master's work? And yet, just by the peculiar way in which that charge is here worded, a far more sudden blow is dealt to this minister's heart than if the charge had been made in the plainest and sternest terms. To say "nevertheless I have somewhat against thee" to say "somewhat," as if it were some very small matter, and scarcely worth mentioning, and then suddenly to say what it is, that, you may depend upon it, gave a shock of horror to that minister's heart that he did not soon get over. You would have thought such a minister impossible. Had you heard his praise so generously spread abroad at first both by God and man you would have felt absolutely sure of that minister's spiritual prosperity and praise to the very end. You would have felt as sure as sure could be that behind all that so immense activity and popularity there must lie hidden a heart as full as it could hold of the deepest and solidest peace with God; a peace, you would have felt sure, without a speck upon it, and with no controversy on Christ's part within a thousand miles of it. But the ministerial heart is deceitful above all other men's hearts. And these shocking revelations about this much-lauded minister have been recorded and preserved in order that all ministers may see themselves in them as in a glass. Now, there is not one moment's doubt about when and where all this terrible declension and decay began to set in. His Master does not say in as many words just when and where matters began to go wrong between them two. But that silence of His is just another of His rhetorical devices. He does not tell it from the housetops of Ephesus, as yet. But the minister of Ephesus knew quite well, both when and where his first love began to fail and he to fall away. He knew quite well without his Master's message about it, that all this declension and collapse began in the time and at the place of secret prayer. For, not this Ephesus minister only, but every minister everywhere continues to love his Master and his Master's work, ay, and his Master's enemies, exactly in the measure of his secret reading of Holy Scripture and his secret prayerfulness. Yes, without being told it in as many words I am as sure of it as if I had been that metropolitan minister myself. You may depend upon it; nay, you know it yourselves quite well, that it was his habitual and long-continued neglect of secret prayer. It was from that declension and decay that his ministry became so undermined and had come now so near a great catastrophe. 'With all my past praise of thee, I give thee this warning,' said that Voice which is as the sound of many waters, 'that unless thou returnest to thy first life of closet communion with Me, I will come to thee quickly and will remove thy candlestick out of its place. I gave thee that congregation when I might have given it to another. And I have upheld thee in it, and have delivered thee out of a thousand distresses of thine. But thou hast wearied of me. Thou hast given thy night watches to other things than a true minister's meditation and prayer for himself and for his people. And I will suffer it at thy hands no longer. Remember from whence thou hast fallen, and repent, and do the first works.'
And now with all that in closing take this as the secret prayer of the angel of Ephesus the very first night after this severe message was delivered to him. 'O Thou that holdest the stars in Thy right hand, and walkest in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks. Thou hast spoken in Thy mercy to me. And thou hast given me an ear to hear Thy merciful words toward me. Lord, I repent. At Thy call I repent. I repent of many things in my ministry in Ephesus. But of nothing so much as of my restraint of secret prayer. This has been my besetting sin. This has been the worm at the root of all my mistakes and misfortunes in my ministry. This has been my blame. O spare me according to Thy word. O suffer me a little longer that I may yet serve Thee. What profit is there in my blood? Shall the dead hold communion with Thee? Shall the grave of a castaway minister redound honour to Thee? Restore Thou my soul. Restore once more to me the joy of Thy salvation, then will I teach transgressors Thy ways, and sinners shall be converted to Thee. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, Thou wilt not despise. Do good in Thy good pleasure unto Zion; build Thou the walls of Jerusalem.'
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel-Guardians of Men, Spirits And Powers we Sing
(Angel-Guardians of Men, Spirits and Powers We Sing) Hymn for Vespers on October 2, feast of the Holy Guardian Angels. It is ascribed to Cardinal Bellarmine. (1542-1621). There are five translations. The English title given is by A. McDougall.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel
(Greek: angelos, messenger)
A pure spirit, created by God, called angel because some are employed by God as messengers to man. "Pure spirit" means that the angelic nature is entirely spiritual, that an angel has no body and is dependent in no way, either for its existence or its operations, on matter. The angels were created at or near the time when the material world came into existence, and were placed by God in a state of probation or trial. Many of them sinned by pride and were cast into Hell forever; these are called devils, demons, or fallen angels. Those who remained faithful were rewarded with eternal happiness in the vision of God; and the term "angel" used without modification is generally applied only to these.
From Scripture, we know that the angels constitute a vast multitude, beyond the power of man to imagine or conceive. They differ, too, in perfection of nature and of grace. According to this diversity of perfection, they are classified in three hierarchies, each hierarchy having three orders making, in all, nine choirs, in the following descending order:
Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones
Dominations, Virtues, Powers
Principalities, Archangels, Angels
It should be noted that the term "angel," while applicable to all, is also used as a distinctive name for the lowest choir, from which the guardian angels are usually selected.
Devotion to the angels can be traced to the earliest ages of the Church. We venerate their excellence and petition their ministrations. The month of October is specially dedicated to them and the feast of all the angels is celebrated in common, with that of Michael, September 29,. There are also feast-days for Raphael and Gabriel who, with Michael, are the only angels mentioned by name in Scripture.
As an emblem in art, an angel is associated with
Gabriel the Archangel Michael the Archangel Raphel the Archangel Saint Angelus of Jerusalem Carmelite with an angel bringing him three crowns
Saint Matthew the Evangelist man with an angel whispering in his ear as he writes
Saint Roch
man being healed by an angel
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel of Great Counsel
(Magni Consilii Angelus, in the Introit of the third Mass of Christmas)
A title of the Messias in the Greek Version of Isaias, 9:6, where we read according to the Hebrew text followed by the Latin Vulgate, "His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, Mighty God, a Father forever, Prince of Peace." Saint Jerome conjectures that the translators did not wish to apply such titles to the Messias and substituted this other title. Father Knabenbauer, S.J., in his commentary on Isaias expresses the view that the Hebrew text used by the Greek translators may have been already altered. No one thinks the Greek text right. The title it gives the future Messias is, however, quite appropriate. Its meaning may best be explained by the Hebrew text: the envoy of God is to be a wonderful counsellor.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel, Guardian
An angel who is assigned by God to watch over and care for a man during his life upon earth. The general doctrine that angels are thus deputed to protect men in their pathway through life is a matter of Catholic faith, clearly expressed in Scripture. Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual angel; and that this angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, pagan or Christian. The guardian angels are selected generally from the lowest choir of angels. A feast in their honor, kept locally in the 16th century, was extended to the Universal Church by Pope Paul V in 1608.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Angel
ANGEL
1. Old Testament . That in the OT the existence of angels is taken for granted, and that therefore no account of their origin is given, is to be explained by the fact that belief in them is based upon an earlier Animism, * [1] such as is common to all races in the pre-polytheistic stage of culture. The whole material for the development of Israelite angelology was at hand ready to be used. It must therefore not cause surprise if we find that in its earlier stages the differentiation between Jahweh and angels should be one of degree rather than of kind (see Angel of the Lord). This is clearly brought out in the earliest of the Biblical documents (J [2] ), e.g. in Genesis 18:1-33 ; here Jahweh is one of three who are represented as companions, Jahweh taking the leading position, though equal honour is shown to all; that the two men with Jahweh are angels is directly asserted in Genesis 19:1 , where we are told that they went to Sodom, after it had been said in Genesis 18:33 that Jahweh ‘went his way.’ Moreover, Jahweh’s original identity with an angel, according to the early Hebrew conception, is distinctly seen by comparing, for example, such a passage as Exodus 3:2 with Exodus 3:4 ; in the former it is the ‘angel of the Lord’ who appears in the burning bush, in the latter it is God; there is, furthermore, direct identification in Genesis 16:10 ; Genesis 16:13 ; Genesis 21:17 ff. In the earliest document in which angels are mentioned (J [2] ) they appear only by twos or threes, in the later document (E [4] ) they appear in greater numbers ( Genesis 28:12 ; Genesis 32:1-2 ); this is just what is to be expected, for J [2] , the earlier document, represents Jahweh in a less exalted form, who Himself comes down to earth, and personally carries out His purposes; by degrees, however, more exalted conceptions of Him obtain, especially as the conception of His characteristic of holiness becomes realized, so that His presence among men comes to appear incongruous and unfitting, and His activity is delegated to His messengers or angels (see Angel of the Lord).
( a ) The English word ‘angel’ is too specific for the Hebrew ( mal’akh ) for which it is the usual equivalent; for in the Hebrew it is used in reference to men ( e.g. Genesis 32:4 (3), Deuteronomy 2:26 , Judges 6:35 , Isaiah 33:7 , Malachi 1:1 ), as well as to superhuman beings. Besides the word mal’akh there are several other expressions used for what would come under the category of angels, viz.: ‘sons of God’ ( bene ’elohim ),* [6] Genesis 6:2 ; Genesis 6:4 ; ‘sons of the mighty’ ( bene ’elim ), Psalms 89:7 (8), Psalms 29:1 ; ‘mighty ones’ ( gibborim ), JL 4:11 ( Joel 3:11 EV [7] ); ‘the holy ones’ ( qedoshim ), Zechariah 14:5 ; ‘keepers’ ( shômerim ), Isaiah 62:6 ; ‘watchers’ ( ‘irim ), Daniel 4:14 (17). There are also the three expressions: ‘the host of Jahweh’ ( zeba’ Jahweh ), Joshua 5:14 ; ‘the host of the height’ ( zeba’ marom ), Isaiah 24:21 ; ‘the host of heaven’ ( zeba’ shamaim ), Deuteronomy 17:3 (see also Cherubim, Seraphim).
( b ) Angels are represented as appearing in human form, and as having many human characteristics: they speak like men ( 1 Kings 19:5 ); they eat ( Genesis 18:8 ); they fight ( Genesis 32:1 , JL 4:11, ( Joel 3:11 ), cf. 2 Samuel 5:24 ); they possess wisdom, with which that of men is compared ( 2 Samuel 14:17 ; 2 Samuel 14:20 ); they have imperfections ( Job 4:18 ). On the other hand, they can become Invisible ( 2 Kings 6:17 , Psalms 104:4 ), and they can fly, if, as appears to be the case, seraphim are to be included under the category of angels ( Revelation 22:8-9 ).
( c ) The functions of angels may be briefly summarized thus: they guide men, e.g. an angel guides the children of Israel on their way to the promised land ( Exodus 23:20 ff., see below), and it is by the guidance of an angel that Abraham’s servant goes in quest of a wife for Isaac ( Genesis 24:7 ; Genesis 24:40 ); in Job 33:23 an angel guides a man in what is right; † [8] they are more especially the guides of the prophets ( 1 Kings 13:18 ; 1 Kings 19:5 ff., 2 Kings 1:3 ; 2 Kings 1:15 , Zechariah 1:9 ); they bring evil and destruction upon men ( 2 Samuel 24:16-17 , 2 Kings 19:35 , Psalms 35:6 ; Psalms 78:49 , Job 33:22 ; in Proverbs 16:14 the wrath of a king is likened to angels of death); on the other hand, they are the protectors of men ( Psalms 34:8 , (7), Psalms 91:11 ), and save them from destruction ( Genesis 19:15 ff.); their power is superhuman ( 2 Kings 6:17 , ‡ [9] cf. Zechariah 12:8 ); they report to God what is going on upon the earth ( Job 1:6 ; Job 2:1 ), for which purpose they are represented as riding on horseback ( Zechariah 1:8-10 , cf. Psalms 18:11 (10), Isaiah 19:1 § [10] ); their chief duty above is that of praising God ( Genesis 28:12 , Psalms 103:20 ). Angelic beings seem to be referred to as ‘watchmen’ in Isaiah 62:6 and Daniel 4:14 (17). An early mythological element regarding angels is perhaps re-echoed in such passages as Judges 5:20 , Isaiah 40:25-26 , and elsewhere.
( d ) In Ezekiel , angels, under this designation, are never mentioned, though the angelology of this book ehows considerable development; other names are given to them, but their main function, viz. messengers of God, is the same as in the earlier books; for example, in Ezekiel 2:2 it is a ‘spirit,’ instead of an ‘angel,’ who acts as an intermediary being, see, too, Ezekiel 3:12 ff., Ezekiel 11:5 ff.; in Ezekiel 8:1 ff., Ezekiel 40:1 a vision is attributed to ‘the hand of the Lord’; in Ezekiel 40:3 ff., it is a ‘man’ of a supernatural kind who instructs the prophet; and again, in Ezekiel 9:5 ff., ‘men,’ though clearly not of human kind (see Ezekiel 9:11 ), destroy the wicked in Jerusalem. In Ezk ., as well as in Zec ., angels take up a very definite position of intermediate beings between God and man, one of their chief functions being that of interpreting visions which Divine action creates in the mind of men; in both these books angels are called ‘men,’ and in both the earlier idea of the ‘Angel of the Lord’ has its counterpart in the prominent position taken up by some particular angel who is the interpreter of visions. In Zec . different orders of angels are for the first time mentioned ( Ezekiel 2:3-4 , Ezekiel 3:1-6 , Ezekiel 4:1 ). In Daniel there is a further development; the angels are termed ‘watchers’ ( Daniel 4:13 ; Daniel 4:17 ), and ‘princes’ ( Daniel 10:13 ); they have names, e.g. Michael ( Daniel 10:13 , Ezekiel 12:1 ), Gabriel ( Daniel 8:16 ), and there are special angels (‘princes’) who fight for special nations ( Daniel 10:20-21 ). As in Zec . so in Daniel there are different orders among the angels, but in the latter book the different categories are more fully developed.
In the attitude taken up in these later books we may see the link between the earlier belief and its development in post-Biblical Jewish literature. The main factors which contributed to this development were, firstly, Babylon; during the Captivity, Babylonian influence upon the Jews asserted itself in this as well as in other respects; according to Jewish tradition the names of the angels came from Babylon. Secondly, Persian influence was of a marked character in post-exilic times; the Zoroastrian belief that Ormuzd had a host of pure angels of light who surrounded him and fulfilled his commands, was a ready-made development of the Jewish belief, handed down from much earlier times, that angels were the messengers of Jahweh. Later still, a certain amount of Greek influence was also exercised upon Jewish angelology.
2. The Apocrypha . Some of the characteristics of angels here are identical with some of those found in the OT, viz.: they appear in human form ( 2Es 1:40 ), they speak like men (To Esther 5:6 Esther 5:6 ff.), they guide men ( 2Es 5:21 ), they bring destruction upon men ( 1Ma 7:41-42 ); on the other hand, they heal men ( Tob 3:17 ), their power is superhuman ( Tob 12:19 , Bel 34ff., Three 26), and they praise God ( 2Es 8:21 , Three 37). The angelology of the Apocrypha is, however, far more closely allied to that of Ezk., Zec ., and Daniel than the angelology of these to that of the rest of the OT; this will be clearly seen by enumerating briefly the main characteristics of angels as portrayed in the Apocrypha.
In 2 Esdras an angel frequently appears as an instructor of heavenly things; thus in 2Es 10:28 an angel causes Esdras to fall into a trance in order to receive instruction in spiritual matters; in 2Es 2:42 , after an angel has instructed Esdras, the latter is commanded to tell others what he had learned; sometimes an angel is identified with God, e.g. in 2Es 5:40-41 , Esther 7:3 Esther 7:3 , but usually there is very distinct differentiation; sometimes the angel seems almost to be the alter ego of Esdras, arguing with himself (cf. 2Es 5:21-22 , 2Es 12:3 ff.). In Tob 12:6-15 there are some important details, here an angel instructs in manner of life, but more striking is the teaching that he brings to remembrance before God the prayers of the faithful, and that he superintends the burial of the dead;* [11] he has a name, Raphael ,† [6] and is one of the seven holy angels (‘ archangels ’) who present the prayers of the saints, and who go constantly in and out before the presence of God; that there are ranks among the angels is thus taught here more categorically than in the later Biblical books. Further, the idea of guardian-angels is characteristic of the Apocrypha; that individuals have their guardian-angels is clearly implied in To Tob 5:21 , that armies have such is taught in 2Ma 11:6 ; 2Ma 15:23 , while in 2Ma 3:25 ff. occurs a Jewish counterpart of the Roman legend of Castor and Pollux; there is possibly, in Sir 17:17 , an indication that nations also have their guardian-angels;* [9] if so, it would be the lineal descendant of the early Israelite belief in national gods. The dealings of angels with men are of a very varied character, for besides the details already enumerated, we have these further points: in Bar 6:3 ff. an angel is to be the means whereby the Israelites in Babylon shall be helped to withstand the temptation to worship the false gods of the land; in To Bar 6:7 ; Bar 6:16-17 an angel describes a method whereby an evil spirit may be driven away; in Bar 6:8 an angel gives a remedy for healing blindness; in Bel 34ff. an angel takes the prophet Habakkuk by the hair and carries him from Judah to Babylonia, in order that he may share his dinner with Daniel in the lion’s den; and, once more, in Three 26, 27 an angel smites the flame of the furnace into which the three heroes had been cast, and makes a cool wind to blow in its place (cf. Daniel 3:23 ff.).
It will thus be seen that the activities of angels are, according to the Apocrypha, of a very varied character. One further important fact remains to be noted: they are almost invariably the benefactors of man, their power far transcends that of man, sometimes an angel is identified with God, yet in spite of this, with one possible exception, 2Ma 4:10-13 , no worship is ever offered to them; this is true also of the OT, excepting when an angel is identified with Jahweh; in the NT there is at least one case of the worship of an angel, Isaiah 6:8 , cf. Colossians 2:18 . The angelology of the Apocrypha is expanded to an almost unlimited extent in later Jewish writings, more especially in the Book of Enoch , in the Targums , and in the Talmud ; but with these we are not concerned here.
3. New Testament . ( a ) In the Gospels it is necessary to differentiate between what is said by Christ Himself on the subject and what is narrated by the Evangelists. Christ’s teaching regarding angels may be summed up thus: Their dwelling-place is in heaven ( Matthew 18:10 , Luke 12:8-9 , John 1:51 ); they are superior to men, but in the world to come the righteous shall be on an equality with them ( Luke 20:36 ); they carry away the souls of the righteous to a place of rest ( Luke 16:22 ); they are (as seems to be implied) of neither sex (Angel of the Lord (Jahweh)
ANGEL OF THE LORD (JAHWEH) , called also the ‘Angel of God.’ He occupies a special and unique position; he is not merely one among the angels, albeit a great one, but one sui generis , in a special way Jahweh’s representative among men. He may be regarded as in some sense the guardian-angel of the nation of Israel, in that he appears to be the nation’s representative at important crises ( e.g. Genesis 22:11 ; Genesis 22:15 ff., Exodus 3:2 ; Exodus 14:19 ; Exodus 23:23 , Numbers 22:22 , Jdg 6:11 , 2 Kings 1:3 , Zechariah 1:9 ).
He appears in human form, and most of the characteristics of angels generally are his. The main difficulty with regard to him is that while in some passages he is identified with Jahweh Himself ( e.g. Genesis 48:15-16 , Judges 6:11-24 ), in others there is a distinct differentiation, ( e.g. Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 21:17 ; Genesis 24:7 ; in this last he is spoken of as having been sent from Jahweh); this differentiation becomes more and more marked in the later books ( e.g. Zechariah 1:12 ). The contradiction here presented can be adequately explained only on the supposition that the evolution of thought on the subject must have run somewhat on the following lines. From the earliest angelology of the Hebrews, itself the offspring of still earlier Animistic conceptions (see Angel), there emerged the figure of Jahweh; originally, i.e. long before the time of Moses, Jahweh must, in the popular mind, have been regarded as belonging to the angelic host, and by degrees He assumed a more and more exalted position; as subjective revelation increased, the more fully did the personality of Jahweh become realized, and His superiority to the angels recognized, though in the process it was inevitable that the differentiation should not always be complete. When ultimately, under the Mosaic dispensation, the holy character and the real nature of Jahweh began to be apprehended, the belief that He personally appeared among men necessarily became more and more untenable; hence, while Jahweh Himself receded further from men, His messenger, or angel, appeared in His stead, and became His representative in all His dealings with men. What must have been such a revolution in the time-honoured faith would meet with many retrograde movements before it finally triumphed, as is shown by such passages as Judges 6:19 ff. Some such process must be predicated in order to understand the otherwise unaccountable contradiction referred to above.
The angel of the Lord spoken of in the NT ( e.g. Matthew 1:20 , Luke 2:9 ) must not be confounded with the OT ‘Angel of Jahweh’; an OT parallel is to be found rather in such a passage as Zechariah 3:6-7 , where the angel is one of a kind, not the only one of his kind.
W. O. E. Oesterley.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Angel Lights
In architecture, small circular lights between subordinate arches of window tracery, belonging especially to the English Perpendicular style.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Angel
Angel means messenger. Angels are created (Psalms 148:2; Psa 148:5; Colossians 1:16), non-human, spirit beings (Hebrews 1:14). They are immortal (Luke 20:36), innumerable (Hebrews 12:22), invisible (Numbers 22:22-31), sexless (Matthew 22:30), and do the will of God (Psalms 103:20). These angels have a ministry to believers. They guide (Genesis 24:7; Gen 24:40), protect (Psalms 34:7), and comfort (Acts 27:2; Act 27:24).
There are good angels (Genesis 28:12; Psalms 91:11) and bad angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:1:6). The only angels mentioned by name are Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; Dan 9:21 ), Michael (Daniel 10:13,21; 112:1), and Lucifer (Luke 10:18). Michael is always mentioned in the context of battle (Daniel 10:13) and Gabriel as a messenger (Luke 1:26). Of course, Lucifer, who became Satan, is the one who opposes God.
Angels were originally created for the purpose of serving and carrying out the will of God. The fallen angels rebelled and became evil angels. Satan is such an angel (Isaiah 14:12-16; Ezekiel 28:12-15).
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Angel
A spiritual intelligent substance, the first in rank and dignity among created beings. The word angel is Greek, and signifies a messenger. The Hebrew word signifies the same. Angels, therefore in the proper signification of the word, do not import the nature of any being, but only the office to which they are appointed especially by way of message or intercourse between God and his creatures.
Hence the word is used differently in various parts of the scripture, and signifies,
1.Human messengers, or agents for other, 2 Samuel 2:5 . "David sent Messengers (Heb. angels) to Jabesh Gilead, Proverbs 13:17 . Mark 1:2 . James 2:25 .
2.Officers of the churches, whether prophets or ordinary ministers, Haggai 1:13 . Revelation 1:20 .
3.Jesus Christ, Malachi 3:1 . Isaiah 63:9 .
4.Some add the dispensations of God's providence, either beneficial or calamitous, Genesis 24:7 . Psalms 34:7 . Acts 12:23 . 1 Samuel 14:14 ; but I must confess, that, though I do not at all see the impropriety of considering the providences of God as his angels or messengers for good or for evil, yet the passages generally adduced under this head do not prove to me that the providences of God are meant in distinction from created angels.
5.Created intelligences, both good and bad, Hebrews 1:14 . Jude
6.the subject of the present article.
As to the time when the angels were created, much has been said by the learned. Some wonder that Moses, in his account of the creation, should pass over this in silence. Others suppose that he did this because of the proneness of the Gentile world, and even the Jews, to idolatry; but a better reason has been assigned by others, viz. that this first history was purposely and principally written for information concerning the visible world; the invisible, of which we know but in part, being reserved for a better life. Some think that the idea of God's not creating them before this world was made, is very contracted. To suppose, say they, that no creatures whatever, neither angels nor other worlds, had been created previous to the creation of our world, is to suppose that a Being of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, had remained totally inactive from all eternity, and had permitted the infinity of space to continue a perfect vacuum till within these 6000 years; that such an idea only tends to discredit revelation, instead of serving it.
On the other hand it is alleged, that they must have been created within the six days; because it is said, that within this space God made heaven and earth, and all things that are therein. It is, however, a needless speculation, and we dare not indulge a spirit of conjecture. It is our happiness to know that they are all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister to them who are heirs of salvation. As to the nature of these beings, we are told that they are spirits; but whether pure spirits divested of all matter, or united to some thin bodies, or corporeal vehicles, has been a controversy of long standing: the more general opinion is, that they are substances entirely spiritual, though they can at any time assume bodies, and appear in human shape, Genesis 18:19 : Genesis 32:1-32 : Matthew 28:1-20 : Luke 1:1-80 : &c. The scriptures represent them as endued with extraordinary wisdom and power, 2 Samuel 14:20 . Psalms 103:20 ; holy and regular in their inclinations; zealous in their employ, and completely happy in their minds, Job 38:7 . Hebrews 1:7 . Matthew 18:10 . Their number seems to be great, Psalms 68:17 . Hebrews 12:22 ; and perhaps have distinct orders, Colossians 1:16-17 . 1 Peter 3:22 . 1 Thessalonians 4:16 . Daniel 10:13 . They are delighted with the grand scheme of redemption, and the conversion of sinners to God, Luke 2:12 . 1 Peter 1:12 . Luke 15:10 .
They not only worship God, and execute his commands at large, but are attendant on the saints of God while here below, Psa 91:1-16;11:12. Hebrews 1:13 . Luke 16:22 . Some conjecture that every good man has his particular guardian angel, Matthew 18:10 . Acts 12:15 ; but this is easier to be supposed than to be proved; nor is it a matter on consequence to know. "What need we dispute, " says Henry, "whether every particular saint has a guardian angel, when we are sure he has a guard of angels about him?" They will gather the elect in the last day, attend the final judgment, Matthew 25:31 . Revelation 14:18 . Matthew 13:39 , and live for ever in the world of glory, Luke 20:36 . Although the angels were originally created perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, of the most blessed and glorious, became the most vile and miserable of all God's creatures. They were expelled the regions of light, and with heaven lost their heavenly disposition, and fell into a settled rancour against God, and malice against men. What their offence was is difficult to determine, the scripture being silent about it.
Some think envy, others unbelief; but most suppose it was pride. As to the time of their fall, we are certain it could not be before the sixth day of the creation, because on that day it is said, "God saw every thing that he had mad, and behold it was very good;" but that it was not long after, is very probable, as it must have preceded the fall of our first parents. The number of the fallen angels seems to be great, and, like the holy angels, perhaps have various orders among them, Matthew 12:24 . Ephesians 2:2 . Ephesians 6:12 . Colossians 2:15 . Revelation 12:7 . Their constant employ is not only doing evil themselves, but endeavoring by all arts to seduce and pervert mankind, 1 Peter 5:8 . Job 1:6 . It is supposed they will be restrained during the millennium, Revelation 20:2 , but afterwards again, for a short time, deceive the nations, Revelation 20:8 , and then be finally punished, Matthew 25:41 .
The authors who have written on this subject have been very numerous; we shall only refer to a few: Reynolds's Enquiry into the State and Economy of the Angelical World; Doddridge's Lect. p.10. lect. 210. to 214; Milton's Paradise Lost; Bp. Newton's Works, vol. 3: p. 538, 568; Shepherd of Angels; Gilpin on Temptations; Casmanni Angelographia; Gill and Ridgeley's Bodies of Divinity.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Angel
is a heavenly messenger who either delivers a message to humans, carries out God's will, praises God, or guards God's throne.
Bible Terms The term “angel” is derived from the Greek word angelos which means “messenger.” Angelos and the Hebrew equivalent, malak (which also means “messenger”), are the two most common terms used to describe this class of beings in the Bible. In general, in texts where an angel appears, his task is to convey the message or do the will of the God who sent him. Since the focus of the text is on the message, the messenger is rarely described in detail.
Another set of terms used to describe angels focuses not on angels as mediators between God and persons, but on God's heavenly entourage. Terms such as “sons of God,” “holy ones,” and “heavenly host” seem to focus on angels as celestial beings. As such, these variously worship God, attend God's throne, or comprise God's army. These terms are used typically in contexts emphasizing the grandeur, power, and/or acts of God.
A third category of heavenly beings is that of winged angels. Cherubim and seraphim make their most memorable appearances in the visions of Ezekiel (Ezekiel 1:4-28 ; Ezekiel 10:3-22 ) and Isaiah (Ezekiel 6:2-6 ). Cherubim function primarily as guards or attendants to the divine throne. Seraphim appear only in Isaiah's vision and there attend God's throne and voice praises. All three categories present us with heavenly beings in service to God. The text may focus on the service done or on the God served but rarely on the servants themselves. As a result we are left with a multitude of questions about the angelic host. Many of the most common questions asked about angels have no clear answers in Scripture. The nature of the angelic host is at best hinted at indirectly.
Angelic Hierarchy Some scholars suggest that a heavenly “host” (i.e. “army”) must have order and that references to archangels (1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ) and a special class of angels which has intimate fellowship with God such as the seraphim of Isaiah 6:2-6 , indicate that angels are organized in a rigidly fixed rank system. Some authors even attempt to list their ranks and duties.
Pseudo-Dionysius, a writer before A.D. 500 who claimed to be Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34 , produced a ranking of angels. His schema was later adopted by Thomas Aquinas and was not seriously challenged until the Protestant Reformation. According to Dionysius, the angels are arranged in three ranks, each rank having three groups. The highest rank (seraphim, cherubim, and “thrones”) is closest to the deity. The second rank is made up of “dominions,” “powers,” and “authorities.” The lowest rank has the most direct contact with humanity. They are “principalities,” archhyangels, and angels.
Dionysius' highly speculative schema (or any like it) is flawed in several ways. Some of the entities named (“powers,” “dominions,” “principalities”) are not clearly identified in the Bible as angels at all. Others (cherubim and archangels) are never compared to one another in terms of rank. Perhaps most importantly, a schema which envisions the better angels communing with God and the lesser ones ministering to humanity has no foundation in the Bible. Scripture presents ministry as one of the most blessed of activities and God himself directly involved with humanity. Any hierarchy which serves to separate God from humanity by interposing a series of lesser beings should be suspect.
Angelic Appearance The appearance of angels varies. Only cherubim and seraphim are represented with wings. Often in the Old Testament angels appear as ordinary men. Sometimes, however, their uniqueness is evident as they do things or appear in a fashion clearly non-human (Genesis 16:7-11 ; Exodus 3:2 ; Numbers 22:23 ; Judges 6:21 ; Judges 13:20 ; John 20:12 ). The brilliant white appearance common to the New Testament angel is not a feature of the Old Testament image.
Creation of Angels Angels are created beings. Only God is eternal. But when God created angels the Bible never reveals. If the “us” in Genesis 1:26 is a reference to God's angelic court, then the angels are simply present at the creation; their origin is not explained.
Guardian Angels Jesus' comment in Matthew 18:10 and some passages which assign protective roles to angels (for example, Michael, angelic prince over Israel, Daniel 12:1 ; angels of specific churches in Daniel 10:13 ; Acts 12:15 ; Revelation 1:20 ; Revelation 2-3 ) imply that a heavenly counterpart represents each person in heaven. This evidence is commonly used to assert that each individual has a “guardian” angel assigned to him or her by God. The term, “guardian angel,” however, is not biblical, and the idea is at best only implied in these passages.
The difficulty observable in answering these and many other common questions is obvious. The cause of the difficulty is the assumption that Scripture reveals a complete angelology and if all the passages concerning angels are pieced together the complete picture will be revealed. A careful survey of the biblical text, however, reveals that no such fully delineated angelology is present.
Old Testament Each of the various types of literature in the Old Testament has its own concerns, and angels appear in the texts in ways appropriate to each. Those books which narrate the great acts of God (Gen., Ex., Num., Judg., 1,2Sam. and 1,2Kings) contain numerous references to angels. In these books, especially at key points, God reveals Himself and acts on behalf of His people. Sometimes He does this directly, sometimes in the person of an angel. Often the distinction between God's action and the angel's is blurred to the point that they seem synonymous (Genesis 19:13 ,Genesis 19:13,19:24 ; Exodus 3:2 ,Exodus 3:2,3:4 ).
The angel's function as messenger or agent of God is acted out in terms of proclamation: revealing the will of God and/or announcing key events (Genesis 19:1-22 ; Exodus 3:2-6 ; Judges 2:1-5 ; Judges 13:2-23 ); protection: ensuring the well-being or survival of God's people (Exodus 14:19-20 ; 1 Kings 19:1-8 ); and punishment: enforcing the wrath of God on the wicked among the Jews and the Gentiles (Genesis 19:12-13 ; 2 Samuel 24:17 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ). In addition, some passages reflect popular ideas about angels (2Samuel 14:17,2 Samuel 14:20 ) which the text records but does not necessarily affirm.
In the books of the prophets, angels rarely are mentioned. The most prominent exceptions are the heavenly visions of Isaiah and Zechariah. The reason for the absence is most likely that God is conceived as acting directly in relation to His people, and the messengers of God in these books are the prophets themselves.
The books of poetry and wisdom are expressions directed from humanity toward God or from a person(s) to other persons. Thus it is not surprising that angels (who figure in God to humanity communication) play a very small role in these books.
New Testament Much of the pattern observed in the Old Testament is repeated in the New. The majority of references to angelic activity are in the narrative books (the Gospels and Acts). The epistles include only some brief references to angels; several books do not mention them specifically at all. Hebrews with its lengthy contrast between Jesus and the angels is exceptional (Hebrews 1:3-2:16 ). The Apocalypse of John in its visionary nature, apocalyptic style, and reference to angels is comparable to parts of Daniel, Zechariah, and Isaiah.
The basic tasks of proclamation, protection, and punishment are again the focus (Matthew 1:20-24 ; Matthew 4:11 ; Acts 12:7-11 ) while references to the nature of angels are very brief.
What is perhaps most remarkable is what the New Testament texts do not say about angels. The interbiblical period, under Persian and Greek influences, had seen an explosion of speculation about angels. Angels (or comparable spiritual beings) in detailed hierarchies came to be understood by many as necessary mediators between God and humanity. Knowing the names, ranks, and how to manipulate these lesser spiritual beings enabled one to gain blessings in this life and attain the level of the divine in the next.
The New Testament texts contain no developed angelic hierarchy and do not present angels as semi-independent lesser gods. Angels are not used to explain the existence of evil, nor are they needed as intermediaries or as agents of revelation. See Cherubim; Demons; Seraphim .
Mike Martin
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Angel
An order of beings with whom we are but little acquainted; and yet, in whose ministry the heirs of salvation are much concerned. (Hebrews 1:14) In Scripture we meet with many accounts of them. The Lord Jesus Christ himself is called the Angel or Messenger of the covenant. And his servants are called by the same name. But then, it should always be remembered, that these names, to both the Lord and his people, are wholly meant as messengers; for it is a sweet as well as an important truth, that Christ is no angel; "for verily he took not on him the nature of angels." (Hebrews 2:16) So that as God, he is no angel; neither as man. I conceive, that it is highly important always to keep the remembrance of this alive in the mind. And that his people are no angels, they need not be told, for they are sinners; and they know themselves to be redeemed sinners, redeemed from among men. In the upper, brighter world, it is said that they shall be as the angels: that is, in glory and in happiness. But still men, and not angels, united to their glorious Head as the members of his mystical body to all eternity. (Exodus 23:20; Zechariah 1:12; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 22:30 and Matthew 25:41; Revelation 2:1).
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Angel
a spiritual, intelligent substance, the first in rank and dignity among created beings The word angel, αγγελος , is not properly a denomination of nature but of office; denoting as much as nuncius, messenger, a person employed to carry one's orders, or declare his will. Thus it is St. Paul represents angels, Hebrews 1:14 , where he calls them "ministering spirits;" and yet custom has prevailed so much, that angel is now commonly taken for the denomination of a particular order of spiritual beings, of great understanding and power, superior to the souls or spirits of men. Some of these are spoken of in Scripture in such a manner as plainly to signify that they are real beings, of a spiritual nature, of high power, perfection, dignity, and happiness. Others of them are distinguished as not having kept their first station, Judges 1:6 . These are represented as evil spirits, enemies of God, and intent on mischief. The devil as the head of them, and they as his angels, are represented as the rulers of the darkness of this world, or spiritual wickednesses, or wicked spirits, τα πνευματικα της πονηριυς εν τοις επουρανιοις , Ephesians 6:12 ; which may not be unfitly rendered, "the spiritual managers of opposition to the kingdom of God."
The existence of angels is supposed in all religions, though it is incapable of being proved a priori. Indeed, the ancient Sadducees are represented as denying all spirits; and yet the Samaritans, and Caraites, who are reputed Sadducees, openly allowed them: witness Abusaid, the author of an Arabic version of the Pentateuch; and Aaron, a Caraite Jew, in his comment on the Pentateuch; both extant in manuscript in the king of France's library. In the Alcoran we find frequent mention of angels. The Mussulmen believe them of different orders or degrees, and to be destined for different employments both in heaven and on earth. They attribute exceedingly great power to the angel Gabriel, as that he is able to descend in the space of an hour from heaven to earth; to overturn a mountain with a single feather of his wing, &c. The angel Asrael, they suppose, is appointed to take the souls of such as die; and another angel, named Esraphil, they tell us, stands with a trumpet ready in his mouth to proclaim the day of judgment.
The Heathen philosophers and poets were also agreed as to the existence of intelligent beings, superior to man; as is shown by St. Cyprian in his treatise of the vanity of idols; from the testimonies of Plato, Socrates, Trismegistus, &c. They were acknowledged under different appellations; the Greeks calling them daemons, and the Romans genii, or lares. Epicurus seems to have been the only one among the old philosophers who absolutely rejected them.
Authors are not so unanimous about the nature as about the existence of angels. Clemens Alexandrinus believed they had bodies; which was also the opinion of Origen, Caesarius, Tertullian, and several others. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. Gregory Nicene, St. Cyril, St. Chrysostom, &c, held them to be mere spirits. It has been the more current opinion, especially in later times, that they are substances entirely spiritual, who can, at any time, assume bodies, and appear in human or other shapes. Ecclesiastical writers make a hierarchy of nine orders of angels. Others have distributed angels into nine orders, according to the names by which they are called in Scripture, and reduced these orders into three hierarchies; to the first of which belong seraphim, cherubim, and thrones; to the second, dominions, virtues, and powers; and to the third, principalities, archangels, and angels. The Jews reckon four orders or companies of angels, each headed by an archangel; the first order being that of Michael; the second, of Gabriel; the third, of Uriel; and the fourth, of Raphael. Following the Scripture account, we shall find mention made of different orders of these superior beings; for such a distinction of orders seems intimated in the names given to different classes. Thus we have thrones, dominions, principalities, or princedoms, powers, authorities, living ones, cherubim and seraphim. That some of these titles may indicate the same class of angels is probable; but that they all should be but different appellations of one common and equal order is improbable. We learn also from Scripture, that they dwell in the immediate presence of God; that they "excel in strength;" that they are immortal; and that they are the agents through which God very often accomplishes his special purposes of judgment and mercy. Nothing is more frequent in Scripture than the missions and appearances of good and bad angels, whom God employed to declare his will; to correct, teach, reprove, and comfort. God gave the law to Moses, and appeared to the old patriarchs, by the mediation of angels, who represented him, and spoke in his name, Acts 7:30 ; Acts 7:35 ; Galatians 3:19 ; Hebrews 13:2 .
Though the Jews, in general, believed the existence of angels, there was a sect among them, namely, the Sadducees, who denied the existence of all spirits whatever, God only excepted, Acts 23:8 . Before the Babylonish captivity, the Hebrews seem not to have known the names of any angel. The Talmudists say they brought the names of angels from Babylon. Tobit, who is thought to have resided in Nineveh some time before the captivity, mentions the angel Raphael, Tob_3:17 ; Tob_11:2 ; Tob_11:7 ; and Daniel, who lived at Babylon some time after Tobit, has taught us the names of Michael and Gabriel, Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Daniel 10:21 . In the New Testament, we find only the two latter mentioned by name.
There are various opinions as to the time when the angels were created. Some think this took place when our heavens and the earth were made. For this opinion, however, there is no just foundation in the Mosaic account. Others think that angels existed long before the formation of our solar system; and Scripture seems to favour this opinion, Job 38:4 ; Job 38:7 , where God says, "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?— and all the sons of God shouted for joy." Though it be a universal opinion that angels are of a spiritual and incorporeal nature, yet some of the fathers, misled by a passage in Genesis 6:2 , where it is said, "The sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose," imagined them to be corporeal, and capable of sensual pleasures. But, without noticing all the wild reveries which have been propagated by bold or ignorant persons, let it suffice to observe, that by "the sons of God" we are evidently to understand the descendants of Seth, who, for the great piety wherein they continued for some time, were so called; and that "the daughters of men" were the progeny of wicked Cain As to the doctrine of tutelary or guarding angels, presiding over the affairs of empires, nations, provinces, and particular persons, though received by the later Jews, it appears to be wholly Pagan in its origin, and to have no countenance in the Scriptures. The passages in Daniel brought to favour this notion are capable of a much better explanation; and when our Lord declares that the "angels" of little children "do always behold the face of God," he either speaks of children as being the objects of the general ministry of angels, or, still more probably, by angels he there means the disembodied spirits of children; for that the Jews called disembodied spirits by the name of angels, appears from Acts 12:15 .
On this question of guardian angels, Bishop Horsley observes: "That the holy angels are often employed by God in his government of this sublunary world, is indeed to be clearly proved by holy writ. That they have power over the matter of the universe, analogous to the powers over it which men possess, greater in extent, but still limited, is a thing which might reasonably be supposed, if it were not declared. But it seems to be confirmed by many passages of holy writ; from which it seems also evident that they are occasionally, for certain specific purposes, commissioned to exercise those powers to a prescribed extent. What the evil angels possessed before their fall the like powers, which they are still occasionally permitted to exercise for the punishment of wicked nations, seems also evident. That they have a power over the human sensory, which they are occasionally permitted to exercise, and by means of which they may inflict diseases, suggest evil thoughts, and be the instruments of temptation, must also be admitted. But all this amounts not to any thing of a discretional authority placed in the hands of tutelar angels, or to an authority to advise the Lord God with respect to the measures of his government. Confidently I deny that a single text is to be found in holy writ, which, rightly understood, gives the least countenance to the abominable doctrine of such a participation of the holy angels in God's government of the world. In what manner then, it may be asked, are the holy angels made at all subservient to the purposes of God's government? This question is answered by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Hebrews, in the last verse of the first chapter; and this is the only passage in the whole Bible in which we have any thing explicit upon the office and employment of angels: ‘Are they not all,' saith he, ‘ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them that shall be heirs of salvation?' They are all, however high in rank and order, nothing more than ‘ministering spirits,' or, literally, ‘serving spirits;' not invested with authority of their own, but ‘sent forth,' occasionally sent forth, to do such service as may be required of them, ‘for them that shall be heirs of salvation.'"
The exact number of angels is no where mentioned in Scripture; but it is always represented as very great. Daniel 7:10 , says of the Ancient of Days, "A fiery stream came from before him; thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him." Jesus Christ says, that his heavenly Father could have given him more than twelve legions of angels, that is, more than seventy-two thousand, Matthew 26:53 ; and the Psalmist declares, that the chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels, Psalms 68:17 . These are all intended not to express any exact number, but indefinitely a very large one.
Though all the angels were created alike good, yet Jude informs us, verse Judges 1:6 , that some of them "kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation," and these God hath "reserved in everlasting chains under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day." Speculations on the cause and occasion of their fall are all vain and trifling. Milton is to be read on this subject, as on others, not as a divine, but as a poet. All we know, is, that they are not in their first "estate," or in their original place; that this was their own fault, for "they left their own habitation;" that they are in chains, yet with liberty to tempt; and that they are reserved to the general judgment.
Dr. Prideaux observes, that the minister of the synagogue, who officiated in offering the public prayers, being the mouth of the congregation, delegated by them, as their representative, messenger, or angel, to address God in prayer for them, was in Hebrew called sheliack-zibbor, that is, the angel of the church; and that from hence the chief ministers of the seven churches of Asia are in the Revelation, by a name borrowed from the synagogue, called angels of those churches.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - the Angel of the Lord
or the Angel Jehovah, a title given to Christ in his different appearances to the patriarchs and others in the Old Testament.
When the Angel of the Lord found Hagar in the wilderness, "she called the name of JEHOVAH that spake to her, Thou God seest me."—JEHOVAH appeared unto Abraham in the plains of Mamre. Abraham lifted up his eyes, and three men, three persons in human form, "stood by him." One of the three is called Jehovah. And J
EHOVAH said, "Shall I hide from Abraham the thing that I do?" Appearances of the same personage occur to Isaac and to Jacob under the name of "the God of Abraham, and of Isaac." After one of these manifestations, Jacob says, "I have seen God face to face;"
and at another, "Surely the Lord (JEHOVAH) is in this place." The same Jehovah was made visible to Moses, and gave him his commission; and God said, "I AM THAT I AM; thou shalt say to the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." The same JEHOVAH went before the Israelites by day in a pillar of cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire; and by Him the law was given amidst terrible displays of power and majesty from mount Sinai. "I am the Lord (JEHOVAH) thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage: Thou shalt have no other gods before me," &c. The collation of a few passages, or of the different parts of the same passages, of Scripture, will show that Jehovah, and "the Angel of the Lord," when used in this eminent sense, are the same person. Jacob says of Bethel, where he had exclaimed, "Surely Jehovah is in this place;" "The Angel of God appeared to me in a dream, saying, I am the God of Bethel." Upon his death bed he gives the names of God and Angel to this same person: "The God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads." So in Hosea 12:2 ; Hosea 12:5 , it is said, "By his strength he had power with God; yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed." "We found him in Bethel, and there he spake with us, even the Lord God of Hosts; the Lord is his memorial." Here the same person has the names, God, Angel, and Lord God of Hosts. "The Angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, (JEHOVAH,) that since thou hast done this thing, in blessing will I bless thee." The Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in a flame of fire; but this same Angel "called to him out of the bush, and said, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God." To omit many other passages, St. Stephen, in alluding to this part of the history of Moses, in his speech before the council, says, "There appeared to Moses in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, an Angel of the Lord in a flame of fire," showing that that phraseology was in use among the Jews in his day, and that this Angel and Jehovah were regarded as the same being; for he adds, "Moses was in the church in the wilderness with the Angel which spoke unto him in Mount Sinai." There is one part of the history of the Jews in the wilderness, which so fully shows that they distinguished this Angel of Jehovah from all created angels, as to deserve particular attention. In Exodus 23:20 , God makes this promise to Moses and the Israelites: "Behold, I send an Angel before thee to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. Beware of him, and obey his voice; provoke him not; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in him." Of this Angel let it be observed, that he is here represented as the guide and protector of the Israelites; to him they were to owe their conquests and their settlement in the promised land, which are in other places often attributed to the immediate agency of God; that they are cautioned to "beware of him," to reverence and stand in dread of him; that the pardoning of transgressions belongs to him; finally, "that the name of God was in him." This name must be understood of God's own peculiar name, JEHOVAH, I AM, which he assumed as his distinctive appellation at his first appearing to Moses; and as the names of God are indicative of his nature, he who had a right to bear the peculiar name of God, must also have his essence. This view is put beyond all doubt by the fact, that Moses and the Jews so understood the matter; for afterward when their sins had provoked God to threaten not to go up with them himself, but to commit them to "an angel who should drive out the Canaanite," &c, the people mourned over this as a great calamity, and Moses betook himself to special intercession, and rested not until he obtained the repeal of the threat, and the renewed promise, "My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest." Nothing, therefore, can be more clear than that Moses and the Israelites considered the promise of the Angel, in whom was "the name of God," as a promise that God himself would go with them. With this uncreated Angel, this presence of the Lord, they were satisfied, but not with "an angel" indefinitely, who was by nature of that order of beings usually so called, and therefore a created being; for at the news of God's determination not to go up with them, Moses hastens to the tabernacle to make his intercessions, and refuses an inferior conductor:—"If thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence."
The Jews held this Word, or Angel of the Lord, to be the future Messiah, as appears from the writings of their older rabbins. So that he appears as the Jehovah of all the three dispensations, and yet is invariably described as a separate person from the unseen Jehovah who sends him. He was then the Word to be made flesh, and to dwell for a time among us, to open the way to God by his sacrifice, and to rescue the race, whose nature he should assume, from sin and death. This he has now actually effected; and the Patriarchal, Mosaic, and Christian religions are thus founded upon the same great principles,—the fall and misery of mankind, and their deliverance by a Divine Redeemer.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Angel
1: ἄγγελος (Strong's #32 — Noun Masculine — angelos — ang'-el-os ) "a messenger" (from angello, "to deliver a message"), sent whether by God or by man or by Satan, "is also used of a guardian or representative in Revelation 1:20 , cp. Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 12:15 (where it is better understood as = 'ghost'), superior to man, Hebrews 2:7 ; Psalm 8:5 , belonging to Heaven, Matthew 24:36 ; Mark 12:25 , and to God, Luke 12:8 , and engaged in His service, Psalm 103:20 . "Angels" are spirits, Hebrews 1:14 , i.e., they have not material bodies as men have; they are either human in form, or can assume the human form when necessary, cp. Luke 24:4 , with Luke 24:23 , Acts 10:3 with Acts 10:30 .
"They are called 'holy' in Mark 8:38 , and 'elect,' 1 Timothy 5:21 , in contrast with some of their original number, Matthew 25:41 , who 'sinned,' 2 Peter 2:4 , 'left their proper habitation,' Jude 1:6 , oiketerion, a word which occurs again, in the NT, only in 2 Corinthians 5:2 . Angels are always spoken of in the masculine gender, the feminine form of the word does not occur."* [1]
Note: Isangelos, "equal to the angels," occurs in Luke 20:36 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Angel
Angel. Genesis 24:7. The word for angel, both in the Greek and Hebrew languages, signifies a messenger, and in this sense is often applied to men. 2 Samuel 2:5; Luke 7:24; Luke 9:52. When the term is used, as it denotes the office they sustain as the agents by whom God makes known his will and executes his government. Our knowledge of such beings is derived wholly from revelation, and that rather incidentally. We know, from their residence and employment, that they must possess knowledge and purity far beyond our present conceptions, and the titles applied to them denote the exalted place they hold among created intelligences. Christ did not come to the rescue of angels, but of men. Comp. Hebrews 2:16. The angels are represented as ministering spirits sent forth to do service to the heirs or salvation. Hebrews 1:14 They appear at every important stage in the history of revelation, especially at the birth of Christ, Luke 2:9-13; in his agony in Gethsemane, Luke 22:43; at his resurrection, Matthew 28:2; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4, and at the final judgment, Matthew 13:41. Of their appearance and employment we may form some idea from the following passages, viz., Genesis 16:7-11. Compare Genesis 18:2; Genesis 19:1, with Hebrews 13:2; Judges 13:6; Ezekiel 10:1-22; Daniel 3:28; Daniel 6:22; Acts 7:30-3272; Matthew 18:10; Matthew 28:2-7; Luke 1:19; Luke 16:22; Luke 22:43; Acts 6:15; Acts 12:7; Hebrews 1:14; Hebrews 2:16; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Revelation 10:1-2; Revelation 10:6. Of their number some idea may be inferred from 1 Kings 22:19; Psalms 68:17; Daniel 7:10; Matthew 26:53; Luke 2:9-14; 1 Corinthians 4:9; Hebrews 12:22. Of their strength we may judge from Psalms 103:20; 2 Peter 2:11; Revelation 5:2; Revelation 18:21; Revelation 19:17. And we learn their inconceivable activity from Judges 13:20; Isaiah 6:2-6; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 26:53; Acts 27:23; Revelation 8:12-13; but the R. V. reads "eagle" in verse 13. There is also an order of evil spirits ministering to the will of the prince of darkness, and both active and powerful in their opposition to God. Matthew 25:41. Though Scripture does not warrant us to affirm that each individual has his particular guardian angel, it teaches very explicitly that angels minister to every Christian. Matthew 18:10; Psalms 91:11-12; Luke 15:10; Acts 12:15; Hebrews 1:14. They are the companions of the saved. Hebrews 12:22-23; Revelation 5:11. They are to sustain an important office in the future and final administration of God's government on earth. Matthew 13:39; Matthew 25:31-33; 1 Thessalonians 4:16. But they are not proper objects of adoration. Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10. Angel of his Presence, Isaiah 63:9, by some is supposed to denote the highest angel in heaven, as Gabriel, who stands "in the presence of God," Luke 1:19; but others believe it refers to the incarnate Word-Angel of the Lord, Genesis 16:7, is considered, by some, one of the common titles of Christ in the Old Testament. Exodus 23:20. Compare 1618419813_8; Acts 7:37-38. Angel of the church. Revelation 2:1. The only true interpretation of this phrase is the one which makes the angels the rulers and teachers of the congregation, so called because they were the ambassadors of God to the churches, and on them devolved the pastoral care and government.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Thy Holy Angel
Name applied to Our Lord in the Mass, in the third prayer after the Consecration.

Sentence search

Angel of the Lord - In many passages in the Old Testament, the Angel of the Lord is identified with God, while in other instances a distinction is made between the Lord and the Angel. In general, however, the terms "the Angel of the Lord, " "the Lord, " and "God" are interchangeable. ...
The Angel of the Lord is the messenger of both good and evil. The Angel of the Lord pronounces a curse on the people of Meroz, because they refused to come to the help of the Lord (Judges 5:23 ). ...
The Angel of the Lord executes judgment on behalf of the Lord. ...
The Angel of the Lord both commissions and commends God's servants. The Angel of the Lord appears to Abraham. Abraham identifies the Angel as God, calling the place "The Lord Will Provide. "...
The Angel of the Lord carries out a ministry of reconciliation. ...
The connection between the Angel of the Lord and the preincarnate appearance of the Messiah cannot be denied. Manoah meets the Angel of the Lord, and declares that he has seen God. The Angel accepts worship from Manoah and his wife as no mere Angel, and refers to himself as "Wonderful, " the same term applied to the coming deliverer in Isaiah 9:6 ( Judges 13:9-22 ). The functions of the Angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the Angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person
Abaddon, or Apollyon - He is called the Angel of death, or the destroying Angel
Gid hanasheh - (sciatic nerve): Consumption of the sciatic nerve is biblically forbidden, to commemorate Jacob�s victory over an Angel after they wrestled all night. The Angel dislodged Jacob�s sciatic nerve
R. abraham - "the Angel": Son and disciple of Rabbi DovBer of Mezeritch and study partner of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi; born in 1740; passed away at age 36 in 1776; known as "the Angel" for his saintliness and ascetism
Archangel - See Angel ...
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Cherub, Cherubim - See Angel ...
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Seraph, Seraphim - See Angel ...
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Archangel - See Angel
Archangel - See Angel
Apollyon - " He is the Angel of the Abyss, "They have as king over them, the Angel of the abyss; his name in Hebrew is Abaddon, and in the Greek he has the name Apollyon," (Revelation 9:11 )
Archangel - An Angel of the highest order an Angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestiai hierarchy
Angel Fish - See under Angel
Archangel - ARCHANGEL . See Angel
Abaddon - He is the same as the "angel of the abyss," that is, the Angel of death, or the destroying Angel
Angelically - ) Like an Angel
Eudaemon - ) A good Angel
Malachi - My messenger; my Angel
Angellike - ) Resembling an Angel
Theophany - God has appeared in dreams (Genesis 20:3-7; Genesis 28:12-17), visions (Genesis 15:1-21; Isaiah 6:1-13), as an Angel (Genesis 16:7-13; Gen 18:1-33), etc. ...
There is a manifestation known as the Angel of the Lord (Judges 6:20f. Such characteristics as having the name of God, being worshiped, and recognized as God has led many scholars to conclude that the Angel of the Lord is really Jesus manifested in the Old Testament. This does not mean that Jesus is an Angel. The word "angel" means messenger
Christophany - See Angel of the Lord ; Theophany ...
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Archangel - (Greek: ruling Angel) ...
In its wider meaning, any Angel of higher rank, thus all the higher orders of Angels. Saint Michael, therefore, is called Archangel although he is the prince of the Seraphim. In its more restricted sense, the archangels are those blessed spirits who compose the second choir of the lowest order in the Angelic hierarchy (see Angel). As distinct from the guardian Angels, the archangels are God's messengers to man in matters of graver moment, e. , Gabriel to the Virgin Mary, Raphael to Tobias; and to the archangels God entrusts the care of persons of exalted rank or sanctity
Angelophany - ) The actual appearance of an Angel to man
Angelhood - ) The state of being an Angel; Angelic nature
Angelify - ) To make like an Angel; to Angelize
Gabriel - An Angel specially charged with the message to Zacharias respecting the birth of John, and to Mary respecting the birth of Christ. See Angel
Monkfish - ) The Angel fish (Squatina)
Angelet - ) A small gold coin formerly current in England; a half Angel
Abbey, Saint Benedict's, Oregon - Abbey and seminary at Mount Angel, Oregon
Saint Benedict's Abbey, Oregon - Abbey and seminary at Mount Angel, Oregon
Angel - (Greek: Angelos, messenger) ...
A pure spirit, created by God, called Angel because some are employed by God as messengers to man. "Pure spirit" means that the Angelic nature is entirely spiritual, that an Angel has no body and is dependent in no way, either for its existence or its operations, on matter. The Angels were created at or near the time when the material world came into existence, and were placed by God in a state of probation or trial. Many of them sinned by pride and were cast into Hell forever; these are called devils, demons, or fallen Angels. Those who remained faithful were rewarded with eternal happiness in the vision of God; and the term "angel" used without modification is generally applied only to these. ...
From Scripture, we know that the Angels constitute a vast multitude, beyond the power of man to imagine or conceive. According to this diversity of perfection, they are classified in three hierarchies, each hierarchy having three orders making, in all, nine choirs, in the following descending order: ...
Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones ...
Dominations, Virtues, Powers ...
Principalities, Archangels, Angels ...
It should be noted that the term "angel," while applicable to all, is also used as a distinctive name for the lowest choir, from which the guardian Angels are usually selected. ...
Devotion to the Angels can be traced to the earliest ages of the Church. The month of October is specially dedicated to them and the feast of all the Angels is celebrated in common, with that of Michael, September 29,. There are also feast-days for Raphael and Gabriel who, with Michael, are the only Angels mentioned by name in Scripture. ...
As an emblem in art, an Angel is associated with ...
Gabriel the Archangel Michael the Archangel Raphel the Archangel Saint Angelus of Jerusalem Carmelite with an Angel bringing him three crowns...
Saint Matthew the Evangelist man with an Angel whispering in his ear as he writes...
Saint Roch...
man being healed by an Angel...
Angels in Art - They are seldom represented before Constantine's time; the oldest fresco in which an Angel appears is a 2nd-century "Annunciation. " The winged Angel does not appear until the 4th century. At first Angels were not represented unless historically necessary but after the 5th century they become favorite subjects, and were painted as attendants on the principal figures of a picture
Angelize - ) To raise to the state of an Angel; to render Angelic
Manoah - An Angel had appeared to his wife and announced the birth of Samson, and Manoah besought God that 'the man of God' might be sent again. God listened to him, and the Angel came, to whom Manoah spoke of the promised son. He offered a kid as a burnt offering and the Angel ascended in the flame of the altar
the Angel of the Lord - or the Angel Jehovah, a title given to Christ in his different appearances to the patriarchs and others in the Old Testament. ...
When the Angel of the Lord found Hagar in the wilderness, "she called the name of JEHOVAH that spake to her, Thou God seest me. The collation of a few passages, or of the different parts of the same passages, of Scripture, will show that Jehovah, and "the Angel of the Lord," when used in this eminent sense, are the same person. Jacob says of Bethel, where he had exclaimed, "Surely Jehovah is in this place;" "The Angel of God appeared to me in a dream, saying, I am the God of Bethel. " Upon his death bed he gives the names of God and Angel to this same person: "The God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lads. " So in Hosea 12:2 ; Hosea 12:5 , it is said, "By his strength he had power with God; yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed. " Here the same person has the names, God, Angel, and Lord God of Hosts. "The Angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, (JEHOVAH,) that since thou hast done this thing, in blessing will I bless thee. " The Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in a flame of fire; but this same Angel "called to him out of the bush, and said, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God. Stephen, in alluding to this part of the history of Moses, in his speech before the council, says, "There appeared to Moses in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, an Angel of the Lord in a flame of fire," showing that that phraseology was in use among the Jews in his day, and that this Angel and Jehovah were regarded as the same being; for he adds, "Moses was in the church in the wilderness with the Angel which spoke unto him in Mount Sinai. " There is one part of the history of the Jews in the wilderness, which so fully shows that they distinguished this Angel of Jehovah from all created Angels, as to deserve particular attention. In Exodus 23:20 , God makes this promise to Moses and the Israelites: "Behold, I send an Angel before thee to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. " Of this Angel let it be observed, that he is here represented as the guide and protector of the Israelites; to him they were to owe their conquests and their settlement in the promised land, which are in other places often attributed to the immediate agency of God; that they are cautioned to "beware of him," to reverence and stand in dread of him; that the pardoning of transgressions belongs to him; finally, "that the name of God was in him. This view is put beyond all doubt by the fact, that Moses and the Jews so understood the matter; for afterward when their sins had provoked God to threaten not to go up with them himself, but to commit them to "an Angel who should drive out the Canaanite," &c, the people mourned over this as a great calamity, and Moses betook himself to special intercession, and rested not until he obtained the repeal of the threat, and the renewed promise, "My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest. " Nothing, therefore, can be more clear than that Moses and the Israelites considered the promise of the Angel, in whom was "the name of God," as a promise that God himself would go with them. With this uncreated Angel, this presence of the Lord, they were satisfied, but not with "an Angel" indefinitely, who was by nature of that order of beings usually so called, and therefore a created being; for at the news of God's determination not to go up with them, Moses hastens to the tabernacle to make his intercessions, and refuses an inferior conductor:—"If thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence. "...
The Jews held this Word, or Angel of the Lord, to be the future Messiah, as appears from the writings of their older rabbins
Jehovah Shalom - ) Gideon so-called his altar of thanksgiving (not sacrifice) in Ophrah, to commemorate the Angel of Jehovah's salutation, "Peace be unto thee"; where rather judgment for national backslidings was to have been expected, and when he himself had feared death, as having seen the Angel of Jehovah
u'ri-el - (the fire of God ), an Angel named only in u'ri-el - (the fire of God ), an Angel named only in Guardian Angel - An Angel who is assigned by God to watch over and care for a man during his life upon earth. The general doctrine that Angels are thus deputed to protect men in their pathway through life is a matter of Catholic faith, clearly expressed in Scripture. Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual Angel; and that this Angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, pagan or Christian. The guardian Angels are selected generally from the lowest choir of Angels
Angel, Guardian - An Angel who is assigned by God to watch over and care for a man during his life upon earth. The general doctrine that Angels are thus deputed to protect men in their pathway through life is a matter of Catholic faith, clearly expressed in Scripture. Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual Angel; and that this Angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, pagan or Christian. The guardian Angels are selected generally from the lowest choir of Angels
Angelical - ) Belonging to, or proceeding from, Angels; resembling, characteristic of, or partaking of the nature of, an Angel; heavenly; divine
Bochim - Weepings, a place near Gilgal, where the Angel of the Lord reproved Israel for their remissness, Judges 2:1-5
Apollyon - The Greek equivalent in Revelation 9:11 of Abaddon , the Angel of the bottomless pit, who was also the king of the locusts (see Abaddon). As an Angel Apollyon seems to have been regarded as equivalent to Asmodæus, king of demons, in Judaistic mythology; but our data are too few to warrant precise statements
Erasmus, Saint - Tradition holds that he was transported by an Angel from Mount Lebanon whence he had fled from the persecution, to Lake Lucrino in Italy, but was seized there and taken to Campania, where he was tortured and put to death. Represented with an Angel
Angel - Mal'âk (מַלְאָךְ, Strong's #4397), “messenger; Angel. The prophetical works are very moderate in their usage of mal'âk with the outstanding exception of the Book of Zechariah, where the Angel of the Lord communicates God’s message to Zechariah. For example: “Then I answered and said unto the Angel that talked to me, ‘What are these, my lord?’ And the Angel answered and said unto me, ‘These are the four spirits
There were also Angelic messengers. The English word Angel is etymologically related to the Greek word Angelos whose translation is similar to the Hebrew: “messenger” or “angel. ” The Angel is a supernatural messenger of the Lord sent with a particular message. Two Angels came to Lot at Sodom: “And there came two Angels to Sodom at even; and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom: and Lot seeing them rose up to meet them; and he bowed himself with his face toward the ground …” ( Angels were also commissioned to protect God’s people: “For he shall give his Angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways” ( Angel of the Lord,” and mal'âk 'elohim, “the Angel of God. It denotes an Angel who had mainly a saving and protective function: “For mine Angel shall go before thee, and bring thee in unto the Amorites, and the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites: and I will cut them off” ( Angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem. ...
The relation between the Lord and the “angel of the Lord” is often so close that it is difficult to separate the two (
Angelos and the phrase “angel of the Lord” by Angelos kuriou. The English versions follow this twofold distinction by translating mal'âk as simply “angel” or “messenger” (KJV, RSV, NASB, NIV)...
Apollyon - 11) for the Angel of the bottomless pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon
Abaddon - " Abaddon is the satanic Angel of the Abyss (Revelation 9:11 )
Angelic Salutation - Part of the greeting of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin repeated in the prayer beginning Hail Mary (Latin: Ave Maria)
Abaddon - ) The destroyer, or Angel of the bottomless pit; - the same as Apollyon and Asmodeus
Salutation, Angelic - Part of the greeting of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed Virgin repeated in the prayer beginning Hail Mary (Latin: Ave Maria)
Apol'Lyon - or, as it is literally in the margin of the Authorized Version of (Revelation 9:11 ) "a destroyer," is the rendering of the Hebrew word ABADDON , "the Angel of the bottomless pit. " From the occurrence of the word in (Psalm 88:11 ) the rabbins have made Abaddon the nethermost of the two regions into which they divide the lower world; but that in (Revelation 9:11 ) Abaddon is the Angel and not the abyss is perfectly evident in the Greek
Beer-Lahai-Roi - Wells of him living, and seeing me, on the southwest border of Canaan, where Hagar was visited by an Angel, Genesis 16:14
Bochim - "The (Hebrew) Angel of the Lord (the Second Person in the Trinity, "the Lord," Exodus 23:20) came up from Gilgal to Bochim, and said, I made you go up out of Egypt," etc. He identifies Himself with Jehovah, as no created Angel would do. Their sacrificing to the Lord at Bochim, where there was no sanctuary, implies that the Angel was Jehovah Himself, whose appearing at any place justified the offering of sacrifices there (Judges 6:20; Judges 6:26; Judges 6:28; 2 Samuel 24:25). The Angel Prince of Jehovah's host announced to Joshua at Gilgal the fall of Jericho, directly after their rolling away the reproach of Egypt by circumcision, whence the place got its name (Gilgal "rolling") (Joshua 5:2-15). ...
As there they entered into covenant with the Lord with the ritual act of self consecration, and so were assured of victory from the Lord, so here at Bochim (unknown geographically) the divine Angel makes known to them that by their making peace with the Canaanites, instead of rooting them out, they have broken the covenant and so must pay the penalty. It is implied that the same Angel who was Israel's champion at Gilgal is now manifesting Himself as Israel's punisher, by means of those very Canaanites whose residence permitted among them was their sin
Apollyon - ...
The destroyer a name used Revelation 9:11 , for the Angel of the bottomless pit, answering to the Hebrew Abaddon
Impudent - ...
When we behold an Angel, not to fear ...
Is to be impudent
Rhoda - A name ever-memorable from Peter's history, in the Angel delivering him from prison
Bochim - It was given in consequence of the message of an Angel which caused the people to weep. Some make the Word the plural of Baca, or Bocha, mulberry-tree; and so it might be a place of mulberries, and called Bochim, where the people received tidings from the Angel, and wept
Archangel - ) A chief Angel; one high in the celestial hierarchy. ) A term applied to several different species of plants (Angelica archangelica, Lamium album, etc
Jehovah-Shalom - Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the Angel appeared to him (Judges 6:24 )
Heaven: None Admitted But Those Like Jesus - At heaven's gate there stands an Angel with charge to admit none but those who in their countenances bear the same features as the Lord of the place. The Angel pays him no respect, but reminds him that the diadems of earth have no value in heaven. A man of renown cometh up heralded by fame, and preceded by the admiring clamour of mankind; but the Angel saith, 'Such applause may please the sons of men, but thou hast no right to enter here. Poor they may have been; illiterate they may have been; but the Angel as he looks at them smiles a welcome as he says, 'It is Christ again; a transcript of the holy child Jesus
Abaddon - The destroyer, or Angel of the bottomless pit
Manoah - The Angel of Jehovah appeared unto his wife, announcing that a son should be born to her, to be reared as a Nazarite. " God graciously granted his wish, and he asked the Angel, "how shall we order the child, and how shall we do unto him?" So parents ought to seek God's direction, how to rear their children for God. The Angel directed him and all parents: "of all that I said . The divine Angel told him (as Manoah thought He was a man and knew not He was the Angel of Jehovah, and He being jealous for God's honor would not accept it as man; compare Mark 10:18) he must offer his burnt offering to Jehovah. The Angel replied, "it is secret" ("wonderful," margin; Isaiah 9:6); compare Genesis 32:29; Exodus 34:5-7; it is a secret known to God's children (Psalms 25:14; Revelation 2:17; Revelation 3:12)
Angel of the Lord (Jahweh) - Angel OF THE LORD (JAHWEH) , called also the ‘Angel of God. ’ He occupies a special and unique position; he is not merely one among the Angels, albeit a great one, but one sui generis , in a special way Jahweh’s representative among men. He may be regarded as in some sense the guardian-angel of the nation of Israel, in that he appears to be the nation’s representative at important crises ( e. ...
He appears in human form, and most of the characteristics of Angels generally are his. From the earliest Angelology of the Hebrews, itself the offspring of still earlier Animistic conceptions (see Angel), there emerged the figure of Jahweh; originally, i. long before the time of Moses, Jahweh must, in the popular mind, have been regarded as belonging to the Angelic host, and by degrees He assumed a more and more exalted position; as subjective revelation increased, the more fully did the personality of Jahweh become realized, and His superiority to the Angels recognized, though in the process it was inevitable that the differentiation should not always be complete. When ultimately, under the Mosaic dispensation, the holy character and the real nature of Jahweh began to be apprehended, the belief that He personally appeared among men necessarily became more and more untenable; hence, while Jahweh Himself receded further from men, His messenger, or Angel, appeared in His stead, and became His representative in all His dealings with men. ...
The Angel of the Lord spoken of in the NT ( e. Matthew 1:20 , Luke 2:9 ) must not be confounded with the OT ‘Angel of Jahweh’; an OT parallel is to be found rather in such a passage as Zechariah 3:6-7 , where the Angel is one of a kind, not the only one of his kind
Archangel - I cannot find in all the Bible, the name archangel but twice; once in 1 Thessalonians 4:16; and once in Jude 1:1:9. And as for archangels, as if there were more than one, or many, the very name itself implies that it is an error. For arch-angel signifies the first, or prince of the order of Angels, consequently, there cannot be many firsts, without making it necessary to altar the term. So that, what is said of Angels and archangels, together in hymns of praise, seems to be founded in a misapprehension of Scripture in relation to one arch-angel only, for the word of God speaks of no more, and the name is not plural. ...
The question is, who is this archangel, twice, and but twice only, noticed as such in Scripture? if the reader will consult both places, he will find that of whomsoever it be spoken of it is only spoken of him in office. " In the passage of the apostle Jude's Epistle, he saith,"Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses. In one he is called prince, in the other, archangel. For my own part, I do not hesitate to believe that it is Christ himself, which is meant by the name archangel in Scripture; and of whom it is said, in relation to his coming at the last day, that "he shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty Angels. (Matthew 25:31; Zechariah 14:5; Matthew 16:27) And whether this appearing of Christ hath respect to his coming in his thousand years' reign upon earth, or to the universal judgment, the sense of the words (in reference to the subject of the archangel we are now considering) is the same. Some have thought that the archangel spoken of by Jude cannot mean Christ, because it is there said, that he durst not bring against Satan a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee. " Hence, therefore, it is plain from this passage, that the Angel before whom Joshua, as a type of the church, stood, was Christ, who is elsewhere called the Angel of the covenant; (Malachi 3:1) the same as Jacob spake of. (Genesis 48:16) So that both the Angel of the covenant and the archangel are one and the same; and both spoken of in the nature of the office and character of Christ, for Christ "took not on him the nature of Angels, but the seed of Abraham. " (Hebrews 2:16)...
From the whole view of this subject, I venture to believe, that, as Scripture speaks but of one arch-angel, and that officially, that archangel is Christ. For on the supposition, that it be not so, it becomes a matter of greater difficulty to say, who this arch-angel can be. If it be not Christ, it must be some created Angel. And is there a created Angel higher than Christ. If, while Jesus is called the Angel of the covenant, is there an archangel also, above this Angel of the covenant? I leave these questions with any one, not satisfied with my former observations, that the Lord Jesus Christ is the person spoken of twice in Scripture as the arch-angel
Jabbok - A brook on the other side Jordan, rendered memorable from being near the spot where Jacob wrestled with the Angel, (Genesis 32:22-24) The name signifies to make empty
Abaddon - 1) Hebrew word meaning ruin, place of destruction, realm of the dead (Job 31) ...
2) A prince of Hell, evil Angel of death and disaster (Apocalypse 9); same as Apollyon, Destroyer
Jesus - ) The Savior; the name of the Son of God as announced by the Angel to his parents; the personal name of Our Lord, in distinction from Christ, his official appellation
Malachi - So little is known of this man, either of his person or connections, and tribe, or family, that some have doubted whether his name means any more than what the word itself expresses, my Angel or messenger, from Malach, Angel, or messenger. So that Malach, a messenger or Angel, is the common term made use of in reference to all under this character. And such views of the name tend, in my humble opinion, to confirm what I have before remarked in the former part of this Concordance, under the word Archangel, (which see) that Christ, the glorious Angel of the covenant, is the only archangel of Scripture. For to admit the supposition of any other as archangel, while Christ is expressly called the Angel of the covenant, must imply some inferiority in Christ: a thing impossible. And as we well know that Jesus Christ is the all in all of the covenant, both the Angel or messenger of it; the fulfiller of it; the sum and substance of it; the administrator of it; in all present and everlasting concerns; we do no violence to the expression, when we express Christ's personal offices in the great work of redemption, by all and every term of character that can tend to bring home the Lord Jesus to our affections, in the most endeared and endearing manner. ...
See Archangel
Rhoda - Peter came there on his release from prison by the Angel ( Acts 12:13 )
Messenger - Angelos), an Angel, a messenger who runs on foot, the bearer of despatches (Job 1:14 ; 1 Samuel 11:7 ; 2 Chronicles 36:22 ); swift of foot (2 Kings 9:18 )
Devil - Calumniator, or slanderer; a fallen Angel, especially the chief of them. ...
Angel of the bottomless pit, Revelation 9:11
Raphael the Archangel - (Hebrew: God has healed) ...
Archangel and saint. One of the three Angels mentioned by name in Holy Scripture (see also Gabriel and Michael). According to his own words he is of the seven Angels who stand before the Lord (Tobias 12; Apocalypse 8). Hence with Saint Michael and Saint Gabriel, he is ranked in the choir of Seraphim and the name archangel when applied to these three has the generic meaning of an Angel of high rank. Some identify Raphael as the Angel who stirred the waters at the Probatic pool (John 5:4)
Destroyer - (Exodus 12:23 ), the agent employed in the killing of the first-born; the destroying Angel or messenger of God
Worship - Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26 ) and by an Angel (Revelation 22:8,9 )
Jeremiel - The archangel who in 2Es 4:36 answers the questions of the righteous dead. ]'>[1] has Uriel , the Angel sent to instruct Esdras ( 2E Esther 4:1 ; 2Es 5:20 ; 2Es 10:28 )
Annunciation - The tidings brought by the Angel Gabriel to the virgin Mary of the incarnation of Christ
Uriel - The Angel who rebukes the presumption of Esdras in questioning the ways of God ( Esther 4:1 Esther 4:1 ; 2Es 5:20 ff; 2Es 10:28 ), and converses with him at length. 1 Uriel, or Urjan, is one of the four archangels, but in 40. 2 he is one of the ‘watchers,’ ‘the Angel over the world and Tartarus’; and in 21, 27 he explains the fate of the fallen Angels (cf. In the lost ‘Prayer of Joseph’ he is the Angel with whom Jacob wrestled, the eighth in rank from God, Jacob being the first
Jehovah-Shalom - Jehovah of peace, or prosperity, the name given by Gideon to an altar which he built in the place where the Angel-Jehovah had appeared to him, and saluted him by saying "Peace be unto thee," Judges 6:24
Angel-Guardians of Men, Spirits And Powers we Sing - (Angel-Guardians of Men, Spirits and Powers We Sing) Hymn for Vespers on October 2, feast of the Holy Guardian Angels
Archangel - According to some divines, means an Angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestial hierarchy; but others, not without reason, reckon it a title only applicable to our Saviour
ga'Briel - (man of God ), an Angel sent by God to announce to Zacharias the birth of John the Baptist, and to Mary the birth of Christ
Jeho'Vah-Sha'Lom - " The altar erected by Gideon in Orphrah was so called in memory of the salutation addressed to him by the Angel of Jehovah, "Peace be unto thee
Myrtle - In Zechariah 1:8,10,11 a man (that is, an Angel of Jehovah) was seen standing among the myrtle trees, when all the earth was sitting still and was at rest — emblem of the blessing of Jerusalem, for which the Angel was interceding
Savior - Is a term applied preeminently to our Lord Jesus Christ, because, as the Angel expressed it, he came to "save his people from their sins," Matthew 1:21
Jeho'Vah-ji'Reh - (Jehovah will see or provide ), the name given by Abraham to the place on which he had been commanded to offer Isaac, to commemorate the interposition of the Angel of Jehovah, who appeared to prevent the sacrifice, ( Genesis 22:14 ) and provided another victim
Demon - A fallen Angel that assists Satan in the opposition of God
Zacharias - As he was burning incense in the Temple as part of his duties, the Angel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias and announced that he and his elderly wife, Elisabeth, would have a son. Because of his lack of faith, the Angel struck him dumb
Angel - Usually pronounced Angel, but most anomalously. Angelus Gr. Hence Angels are ministers of God, and ministring spirits. In a bad sense, an evil spirit as, the Angel of the bottomless pit
Destroyer - An invading army (Isaiah 49:17 ; Jeremiah 22:7 ) or a supernatural agent of God's judgment (Exodus 12:23 ; Hebrews 11:28 ), often termed an Angel (2 Samuel 24:15-16 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ; Psalm 78:49 )
Malachias - (Hebrew: Malakhi, My Angel) ...
Last of the Minor Prophets. Septuagint reads: "My Angel" and Targum Jonathan paraphrases: "My Angel (messenger) whose name is Esdras
Angel - The Lord Jesus Christ himself is called the Angel or Messenger of the covenant. But then, it should always be remembered, that these names, to both the Lord and his people, are wholly meant as messengers; for it is a sweet as well as an important truth, that Christ is no Angel; "for verily he took not on him the nature of Angels. " (Hebrews 2:16) So that as God, he is no Angel; neither as man. And that his people are no Angels, they need not be told, for they are sinners; and they know themselves to be redeemed sinners, redeemed from among men. In the upper, brighter world, it is said that they shall be as the Angels: that is, in glory and in happiness. But still men, and not Angels, united to their glorious Head as the members of his mystical body to all eternity
Angel - Angel...
1. That in the OT the existence of Angels is taken for granted, and that therefore no account of their origin is given, is to be explained by the fact that belief in them is based upon an earlier Animism, * [2] , the earlier document, represents Jahweh in a less exalted form, who Himself comes down to earth, and personally carries out His purposes; by degrees, however, more exalted conceptions of Him obtain, especially as the conception of His characteristic of holiness becomes realized, so that His presence among men comes to appear incongruous and unfitting, and His activity is delegated to His messengers or Angels (see Angel of the Lord). ...
( a ) The English word ‘angel’ is too specific for the Hebrew ( mal’akh ) for which it is the usual equivalent; for in the Hebrew it is used in reference to men ( e. Besides the word mal’akh there are several other expressions used for what would come under the category of Angels, viz. ...
( b ) Angels are represented as appearing in human form, and as having many human characteristics: they speak like men ( 1 Kings 19:5 ); they eat ( Genesis 18:8 ); they fight ( Genesis 32:1 , JL 4:11, ( Joel 3:11 ), cf. On the other hand, they can become Invisible ( 2 Kings 6:17 , Psalms 104:4 ), and they can fly, if, as appears to be the case, seraphim are to be included under the category of Angels ( Isaiah 6:8 ). ...
( c ) The functions of Angels may be briefly summarized thus: they guide men, e. an Angel guides the children of Israel on their way to the promised land ( Exodus 23:20 ff. , see below), and it is by the guidance of an Angel that Abraham’s servant goes in quest of a wife for Isaac ( Genesis 24:7 ; Genesis 24:40 ); in Job 33:23 an Angel guides a man in what is right; †
( d ) In Ezekiel , Angels, under this designation, are never mentioned, though the Angelology of this book ehows considerable development; other names are given to them, but their main function, viz. messengers of God, is the same as in the earlier books; for example, in Ezekiel 2:2 it is a ‘spirit,’ instead of an ‘angel,’ who acts as an intermediary being, see, too, Ezekiel 3:12 ff. , Angels take up a very definite position of intermediate beings between God and man, one of their chief functions being that of interpreting visions which Divine action creates in the mind of men; in both these books Angels are called ‘men,’ and in both the earlier idea of the ‘Angel of the Lord’ has its counterpart in the prominent position taken up by some particular Angel who is the interpreter of visions. different orders of Angels are for the first time mentioned ( Ezekiel 2:3-4 , Ezekiel 3:1-6 , Ezekiel 4:1 ). In Daniel there is a further development; the Angels are termed ‘watchers’ ( Daniel 4:13 ; Daniel 4:17 ), and ‘princes’ ( Daniel 10:13 ); they have names, e. Michael ( Daniel 10:13 , Ezekiel 12:1 ), Gabriel ( Daniel 8:16 ), and there are special Angels (‘princes’) who fight for special nations ( Daniel 10:20-21 ). so in Daniel there are different orders among the Angels, but in the latter book the different categories are more fully developed. The main factors which contributed to this development were, firstly, Babylon; during the Captivity, Babylonian influence upon the Jews asserted itself in this as well as in other respects; according to Jewish tradition the names of the Angels came from Babylon. Secondly, Persian influence was of a marked character in post-exilic times; the Zoroastrian belief that Ormuzd had a host of pure Angels of light who surrounded him and fulfilled his commands, was a ready-made development of the Jewish belief, handed down from much earlier times, that Angels were the messengers of Jahweh. Later still, a certain amount of Greek influence was also exercised upon Jewish Angelology. Some of the characteristics of Angels here are identical with some of those found in the OT, viz. The Angelology of the Apocrypha is, however, far more closely allied to that of Ezk. , and Daniel than the Angelology of these to that of the rest of the OT; this will be clearly seen by enumerating briefly the main characteristics of Angels as portrayed in the Apocrypha. ...
In 2 Esdras an Angel frequently appears as an instructor of heavenly things; thus in 2Es 10:28 an Angel causes Esdras to fall into a trance in order to receive instruction in spiritual matters; in 2Es 2:42 , after an Angel has instructed Esdras, the latter is commanded to tell others what he had learned; sometimes an Angel is identified with God, e. in 2Es 5:40-41 , Esther 7:3 Esther 7:3 , but usually there is very distinct differentiation; sometimes the Angel seems almost to be the alter ego of Esdras, arguing with himself (cf. In 1 Kings 19:5 there are some important details, here an Angel instructs in manner of life, but more striking is the teaching that he brings to remembrance before God the prayers of the faithful, and that he superintends the burial of the dead;* [11] he has a name, Raphael ,† [12] and is one of the seven holy Angels (‘ archangels ’) who present the prayers of the saints, and who go constantly in and out before the presence of God; that there are ranks among the Angels is thus taught here more categorically than in the later Biblical books. Further, the idea of guardian-angels is characteristic of the Apocrypha; that individuals have their guardian-angels is clearly implied in To Tob 5:21 , that armies have such is taught in 2Ma 11:6 ; 2Ma 15:23 , while in 2Ma 3:25 ff. occurs a Jewish counterpart of the Roman legend of Castor and Pollux; there is possibly, in Sir 17:17 , an indication that nations also have their guardian-angels;*
It will thus be seen that the activities of Angels are, according to the Apocrypha, of a very varied character. One further important fact remains to be noted: they are almost invariably the benefactors of man, their power far transcends that of man, sometimes an Angel is identified with God, yet in spite of this, with one possible exception, 2Ma 4:10-13 , no worship is ever offered to them; this is true also of the OT, excepting when an Angel is identified with Jahweh; in the NT there is at least one case of the worship of an Angel, Revelation 22:8-9 , cf. The Angelology of the Apocrypha is expanded to an almost unlimited extent in later Jewish writings, more especially in the Book of Enoch , in the Targums , and in the Talmud ; but with these we are not concerned here. ( a ) In the Gospels it is necessary to differentiate between what is said by Christ Himself on the subject and what is narrated by the Evangelists. Christ’s teaching regarding Angels may be summed up thus: Their dwelling-place is in heaven ( Matthew 18:10 , Luke 12:8-9 , John 1:51 ); they are superior to men, but in the world to come the righteous shall be on an equality with them ( Luke 20:36 ); they carry away the souls of the righteous to a place of rest ( Luke 16:22 ); they are (as seems to be implied) of neither sex ( Manoah - It is certain, as far as we can judge, that both Manoah and his wife regarded their heavenly visitor but as a created Angel, until that when in the flame of the sacrifice he ascended with it. The man knew by this that it was JEHOVAH the Son, and not a created Angel; and as such, he said, "We shall surely die, because we have seen God," agreeably to the Lord's own declaration, "Thou canst not see my face and live?" (Exodus 33:20)...
There is one beauty more in this transaction, and which serves to confirm this blessed doctrine, that this supposed Angel was Christ; and that is, that when Manoah asked his name, the Angel of the Lord said unto him, "Why askest thou my after name seeing it is secret?" In the margin of the Bible it is rendered, "seeing it is wonderful
Gabriel - A principal Angel
Angels - (See HOLY AngelS. ) It is also to be noted that the term"Angels" is used in the New Testament for the Bishops of the Church,as in the Epistles to the seven Churches of Asia (Rev. 2 and 3)which are addressed, "unto the Angel of the Church of———",i
Archangel - The English term archangel is based on a Greek term archangelos which means “chief, or first Angel. ” Angelos is a Greek term translating the Hebrew mal'ak or “messenger. ”...
The thrust of the term “angel” in the Hebrew Bible is that of a messenger sent from God. Its primary significance has to do with the function of this agent of God, rather than expressing concerns of the nature or being of an Angel. However, a clear distinction between God and the messenger/angel is not easily determined. For example, Hagar encountered an Angel, but she referred to the Lord who spoke to her (Genesis 16:7 ,Genesis 16:7,16:13 ; Genesis 21:17 ). God commanded Abraham to sacrifice Isaac, but eventually Abraham is addressed by “the Angel of the Lord” (Genesis 22:1 ,Genesis 22:1,22:11 ,Genesis 22:11,22:15 ). ...
The general circumstances for Angel references have to do with a messenger or envoy who is sent to perform specific tasks and speak for God. They include declaring edicts of God to a specific audience (Genesis 22:11-13 ), announcing special events (Genesis 16:7-12 ), protecting the faithful (individuals and groups; Exodus 14:19-20 ; Exodus 23:20 ; Psalm 91:11 ), and Angels also serve as envoys of punishment against the wicked and unfaithful (Psalm 35:5-6 ). ...
In religious texts dating from the post-exilic period, there appears to be substantial change in perception of Angels. Hierarchies emerge in the literature that stressed particular groupings headed by archangels [1] who were counted among number designations such as seven (Tobit 12:15 ; 4 Ezra 5:20 ), four (Enoch 4; 87:2-3; 88:1), three (Enoch 90:31). The archangels Michael (Daniel 10:13 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Enoch 9:1; 10:11), Gabriel (Daniel 8:16 ; Enoch 9:1; 20:7; 40:9), Raphael (Tobit 3:17 ; Tobit 12:15 ; Enoch 10:4; 40:9) and Uriel (Enoch 9:1; 19:1; 20:2) gain particular hero status. These special archangels function as mediators between God and humans, and frequently there is a perceptible character that stands in contrast (but not necessarily in opposition) to the messenger function. The archangels are interpreters of the message. Although Angels generally represented a “guardian role,” common to the ancient near eastern world, archangels seem to be of a superior category. ...
The New Testament continues the idea of Angels as messengers of God. Among the numerous references, an Angel advises Joseph of Jesus' birth (Matthew 1:20 ), and warns of the advisability of the flight into Egypt (Matthew 2:13 ,Matthew 2:13,2:19 ). The archangel, Gabriel, is the messenger who speaks of the birth of John in Luke 1:11 , Luke 1:19 , and tells Mary of the birth of Jesus (Luke 1:26 ). The Book of Revelation appears to reflect tradition of archangels found in Enoch (although the term archangelos is found only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 ) that have holy creatures waiting on the throne of God, presiding over the corners of the earth, and are part of the cosmic reordering at the end of time (Revelation 1:4 ; Revelation 4:5 ; Revelation 7:1 ; Revelation 12:7 ; Enoch 9:1; 10:1; 40:2; 90:21)
Bochim - Weepers, a place where the Angel of the Lord reproved the Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the land
Annunciation - , in memory of the Angel's announcement, on that day; Lady Day. ) The announcement of the incarnation, made by the Angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary
Abaddon - As such, it is given to the apostate Angel of the bottomless pit, and very properly suits him
Angel - Angel. The word for Angel, both in the Greek and Hebrew languages, signifies a messenger, and in this sense is often applied to men. Christ did not come to the rescue of Angels, but of men. The Angels are represented as ministering spirits sent forth to do service to the heirs or salvation. Though Scripture does not warrant us to affirm that each individual has his particular guardian Angel, it teaches very explicitly that Angels minister to every Christian. Angel of his Presence, Isaiah 63:9, by some is supposed to denote the highest Angel in heaven, as Gabriel, who stands "in the presence of God," Luke 1:19; but others believe it refers to the incarnate Word-Angel of the Lord, Genesis 16:7, is considered, by some, one of the common titles of Christ in the Old Testament. Angel of the church. The only true interpretation of this phrase is the one which makes the Angels the rulers and teachers of the congregation, so called because they were the ambassadors of God to the churches, and on them devolved the pastoral care and government
Christe, Sanctorum Decus Angelorum - (O Christ, the Glory of Angel Choirs!) Hymn for Lauds on September 29, feast of the Dedication of the Church of Saint Michael the Archangel; and for Vespers on October 24, feast of Saint, Raphael the Archangel
o Christ, the Glory of the Angel Choirs - (O Christ, the Glory of Angel Choirs!) Hymn for Lauds on September 29, feast of the Dedication of the Church of Saint Michael the Archangel; and for Vespers on October 24, feast of Saint, Raphael the Archangel
Meroz - A place which the Angel of Jahweh bids men curse, together with its inhabitants, because they did not come to fight Jahweh’s battle against Sisera
Israel - Who prevails with God, a name given to Jacob, after having wrestled with the Angel-Jehovah at Penuel
Meroz - ) Judges 5:23, "curse ye Meroz, said the Angel of the Lord curse ye bitterly the inhabitants thereof; because they came not to the help of the Lord against the mighty" (rather among Israel's mighty ones). The Angel of Jehovah who fought for Israel at Megiddo pronounces, through Deborah, Meroz' curse
Messenger - 1: ἄγγελος (Strong's #32 — Noun Masculine — Angelos — ang'-el-os ) "a messenger, an Angel, one sent," is translated "messenger," of John the Baptist, Matthew 11:10 ; Mark 1:2 ; Luke 7:27 ; in the plural, of John's "messengers," Luke 7:24 ; of those whom Christ sent before Him when on His journey to Jerusalem, Luke 9:52 ; of Paul's "thorn in the flesh," "a messenger of Satan," 2 Corinthians 12:7 ; of the spies as received by Rahab, James 2:25 . See Angel
Raphael - RAPHAEL (‘God has healed’) is the good Angel of Tobit. Tobit despatches them with the parting ‘May [1] Angel go with you’ ( Tob 5:16 , cf. (1) He is one of the seven ‘angels of the presence’ ( Luke 1:13 , Revelation 8:2 [2], Enoch 90). 3 he is one of the ‘watchers,’ the ‘angel of the spirits of men. See Angels. (3) He is also a guardian Angel, being present at Tobit’s good deeds, and the companion of Tobias. 7, where he is ordered to bind Azazel (so 54), and heal the earth which the Angels have defiled; and 40
Lintel - The people of Israel were to sprinkle the blood of the sacrificial lamb on the lintel and the doorposts as a sign to the death Angel
Anthony, Sister - She became a Sister of Charity in 1835, and during the Civil War in America was called "Ministering Angel of the Army of the Tennessee
Sister Anthony - She became a Sister of Charity in 1835, and during the Civil War in America was called "Ministering Angel of the Army of the Tennessee
Angels - "The Angel of God" spake unto Jacob saying, "I am the God of Bethel. " "The Angel of Jehovah" spake to Hagar and said, "I will multiply thy seed exceedingly that it shall not be numbered for multitude. "The Angel of Jehovah" spake to Abraham saying, "By myself have I sworn," etc. One said Sarah should have a son: at which Sarah laughed, and Jehovah said, "Wherefore did Sarah laugh?" Two of the three left, and were called 'angels' at the gate of Sodom, while Jehovah, the third, talked with Abraham. Jacob, in blessing the sons of Joseph, said, "The Angel which redeemed me from all evil bless the lads. It is no doubt the same who is called 'the mighty Angel' in Revelation 10:1-3 . We know little of their nature: "of the Angels he saith, Who maketh his Angels spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire," Hebrews 1:7 ; and man is described as being a little inferior to the Angels. Twice we meet with 'archangel:' an archangel's voice will accompany the rapture of the church, 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; and 'Michael the archangel' contended with Satan about the body of Moses. He with his Angels will fight with the dragon and his Angels and cast them out of heaven. Gabriel is the only other name of an Angel revealed to us: he appeared to Daniel, to Zacharias, and to Mary: he said that he stood in the presence of God. ...
Though we are unconscious of the presence of Angels we know that they are ministering spirits sent forth to minister for them who shall inherit salvation, Hebrews 1:14 : cf. There are 'myriads' of these Angels, Matthew 26:53 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 5:11 ; and they are described as 'mighty,' 'holy,' 'elect,' 2 Thessalonians 1:7 ; Mark 8:38 ; 1 Timothy 5:21 : they do not marry, Mark 12:25 . Angels are not the depositaries of the revelation and counsels of God. The world to come is not to be put in subjection to them, but to man in the person of the Son of man, Hebrews 2:5-8 ; and the saints will judge Angels. It is therefore only a false humility that would teach the worshipping of Angels. When John fell down to worship the Angel in the Revelation, being overpowered by reason of the stupendous things revealed, he was on two occasions restrained from worshipping his 'fellow servant,' as in Revelation 19:10 ; Revelation 22:9 . ...
In Psalm 8:5 the word is elohim, 'God:' the name of God being given to the Angels as His representatives: cf. FALLEN AngelS. We read of Angels who kept not their first estate,' but left their own habitation, and are kept in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgement of the great day. God spared not the Angels who sinned. Besides the above which are kept in chains we read of Angels connected with Satan. The great dragon and his Angels will be subdued by Michael and his Angels, and be cast out of heaven. The lake of fire, or Gehenna, has been specially prepared for the devil and his Angels, though, alas, man will also be cast therein. Abaddon or Apollyon is the name of 'the Angel of the bottomless pit,' Revelation 9:11 , that is, 'the abyss,' not hell, which, as seen above, is the place of punishment. Isaiah 14:12-16 and Ezekiel 28:14-19 , may throw somelight on the fallof Satan, but whether the fall of those called 'his Angels' was brought about by the same cause and at the same time is not revealed. The term 'angel' is used metaphorically for a mystical representative. When Peter was delivered from prison, and knocked at the door, those who had been praying for his release said, "It is his Angel. In Revelation 2,3 , the addresses to the seven churches are made to the Angel of each
Agar - The unfortunate woman determined to abandon the boy to death in the wilderness but hearkened to the Angel who foretold his people as the progenitor of a great people, the Ismaelites
Bochim - This signifies 'weepers:' it was the place near Gilgal where an Angel of the Lord charged the Israelites with having disobeyed God in making leagues with the inhabitants of the land, and in not throwing down their altars; and told them the results
Annunciation, the - The supposed time of the visit of the Angel Gabriel to Mary when he announced God's purpose of grace towards her
Archangel - Archangel, a chief Angel, only twice used in the Bible. In this last passage it is applied to Michael, who, in Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1, is described as "one of the chief princes," having a special charge of the Jewish nation, and in Revelation 12:7-9 as the leader of an Angelic army
Peniel or Penuel - It received its name, the face of God, from Jacob's they're wrestling with the Angel Jehovah face to face, Genesis 32:30
Israel - (Hebrew: yisräël, he that striveth with God) ...
The name given to Jacob after wrestling with the Angel (Genesis 32)
Flight Into Egypt - After the departure of the wise men, the Angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2). Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck
Sixth - 1: ἕκτος (Strong's #1623 — Adjective — hektos — hek'-tos ) is used (a) of a month, Luke 1:26,36 ; (b) an hour, Matthew 20:5 ; 27:45 and parallel passages; John 4:6 ; (c) an Angel, Revelation 9:13,14 ; 16:12 ; (d) a seal of a roll, in vision, Revelation 6:12 ; (e) of the "sixth" precious stone, the sardius, in the foundations of the wall of the heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:20
Sennacherib - King Hezekiah prayed for deliverance, and that night all the Assyrian soldiers – hundreds of thousands of them – were killed by an Angel of G-d
Egypt, Flight Into - After the departure of the wise men, the Angel of the Lord told Joseph to fiy into Egypt with the Infant Jesus and His mother, as Herod had evil designs against them; there they remained until the death of Herod (Matthew 2). Among the many masters who have painted this subject in art are: Corneille the Elder, Durer, Ferrari, Fra Angelico, Murillo, Patinir, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck
Medals, Benemerenti - The military medal bears on one side the image of Gregory XVI and on the other an Angel bearing a scroll with the word Benemerenti beneath the papal emblems
Benemerenti Medals - The military medal bears on one side the image of Gregory XVI and on the other an Angel bearing a scroll with the word Benemerenti beneath the papal emblems
Reaper - Matthew 13:30 (a) The Lord tells us plainly in this passage that "the reapers are the Angels. " In the day when GOD will judge the earth, He evidently will send forth His Angels and will separate the Christians, genuine believers, real born-again saints, from the great multitude of the unsaved, the ungodly, religious hypocrites. No one could do this but an Angel
Agony of Christ - The incident is narrated also in Matthew and Mark, but only Luke mentions the sweat of blood and the visitation of the Angel
Jabbok - Stream on the east of the Jordan, near to which the Angel wrestled with Jacob
Beerlahairoi - It was here that Hagar, when she fled from Sarai, was met by the Angel of the Lord: her exclamation on that occasion, "Thou God seest me," gave to the well its name
Abaddon - , destroyer) of "the Angel of the bottomless pit" (Revelation 9:11 )
Sardine (Stone) - Ezekiel 28:13 (b) Probably the Lord is telling us that all the beauty of Heaven's adornments as represented by the different colors of stones was given to this great arch-angel who later fell and became Satan
Angel - "...
Genesis 22:11 (c) This person was probably a genuine Angel out of Heaven. The message in verse Genesis 22:16 of this chapter evidently is a quotation of the GOD of Heaven, and is not a message from the Angel. Some, however, think that the Angel in verse Genesis 22:15 is one of the persons of the Godhead, and that He Himself was making the statement found in verse Genesis 22:16. ...
Genesis 24:40 (b) Here the Angel is undoubtedly the Holy Spirit who leads the child of GOD in the ways of the Lord and brings about His desire in the world. The third mention in which we read "The Angel which redeemed" must be the Lord JESUS. ...
Judges 5:23 (b) This Angel undoubtedly was the Holy Spirit. ...
Acts 10:7 (a) The Angel who spoke to Cornelius was the Holy Spirit. The Angel in verse7 who was the man in verse30 is identified in verse Acts 10:19 as the Holy Spirit. As the Lord of the harvest He told the seeking sinner Cornelius to send for the evangelist Peter. ...
2 Corinthians 11:14 (a) The passage clearly states that Satan, the Devil, is an Angel of light. ...
Hebrews 13:2 (b) The Angels referred to in this passage possibly may be the Lord JESUS and the Holy Spirit. He might have been one of the archangels or another Angel
Angel - Angel means messenger. Angels are created (Psalms 148:2; Psa 148:5; Colossians 1:16), non-human, spirit beings (Hebrews 1:14). These Angels have a ministry to believers. ...
There are good Angels (Genesis 28:12; Genesis 24:7) and bad Angels (2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:1:6). The only Angels mentioned by name are Gabriel (Daniel 8:16; Dan 9:21 ), Michael (Daniel 10:13,21; 112:1), and Lucifer (Luke 10:18). ...
Angels were originally created for the purpose of serving and carrying out the will of God. The fallen Angels rebelled and became evil Angels. Satan is such an Angel (1618419813_57; Ezekiel 28:12-15)
Magnificat, the - One of the three "evangelical canticles," it is included in the Roman Breviary for Vespers daily throughout the year and is often sung on solemn occasions. It was recited by the Blessed Virgin on her visit to Elizabeth after the Angel Gabriel had announced that Mary was to become the mother of Christ (Luke 1)
Canticle of the Blessed Virgin Mary - One of the three "evangelical canticles," it is included in the Roman Breviary for Vespers daily throughout the year and is often sung on solemn occasions. It was recited by the Blessed Virgin on her visit to Elizabeth after the Angel Gabriel had announced that Mary was to become the mother of Christ (Luke 1)
Gabriel - Champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the Angel who was sent to (Daniel 8:16 ) to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the seventy weeks (Daniel 9:21-27 )
Bochim - ” Place where Angel of God announced judgment on Israel at beginning of the period of Judges because they had not destroyed pagan altars but had made covenant treaties with the native inhabitants
Hail Mary - Most familiar prayer used by the Church in honor of the Mother of God, made up of the salutation of Angel Gabriel, the greeting of Saint Elizabeth (Luke 1), and a petition framed by the Church
Jacob - His name signifies a supplanter; but after the memorable scene at Jabbock, when Jacob wrestled with the Angel and pevailed, the Lord himself changed his name to Israel, a prince
Manoah - In the prediction of his son's birth and achievements, we see the Angel of the covenant, who appeared to Abraham, Gideon, etc
Felix of Nola, Saint - Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the persecution of Decius, but was set free by an Angel
Margaret of Cortona, Saint - Represented in art, following a dog to the corpse of her lover, holding a cross in her hand, and receiving a visit from Bon Angel
Nola, Felix of, Saint - Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the persecution of Decius, but was set free by an Angel
Azarias - Name assumed by the Angel Raphael ( Tob 5:12 ; Tob 6:5 ; Tob 6:13 ; Tob 7:8 ; Tob 9:2 )
Theophany - By the “Angel of the Lord” This is the most usual form of theophany, called the “Angel of the Lord” or “Angel of God. ” Observe it is not an “Angel of God,” which could include any of the Angelic hosts created by God. The “Angel of the Lord” is identified in the accounts with Yahweh Himself. The encounter of the Angel of the Lord with Hagar is of significance in this connection (Genesis 16:7-13 ). See Angels
Angel - "Angels" are mentioned almost three hundred times in Scripture, and are only noticeably absent from books such as Ruth, Nehemiah, Esther, the letters of John, and James. ...
The Old Testament From the beginning, Angels were part of the divine hierarchy. Although holy, Angels could sometimes behave foolishly (Job 4:18 ), and even prove to be untrustworthy (Job 15:15 ). Probably these qualities led to the "fall" of some Angels, including Satan, but the Bible contains no description of that event. When Angels appeared in human society they resembled normal males (Genesis 18:2,16 ; Ezekiel 9:2 ), and never came dressed as women. Sometimes Angels addressed people in dreams, as with Jacob (Genesis 28:12 ; 31:11 ), and could be recognized by animals before human beings became aware of them, as with Balaam (Numbers 22:22 ). Collectively the divine messengers were described as the "angelic host" that surrounded God (1 Kings 22:19 ) and praised his majesty constantly (Psalm 103:21 ). ...
In Daniel, two Angels who interpreted visions were unnamed (7:16; 10:5), but other visions were explained to Daniel by the Angel Gabriel, who was instructed by a "man's voice" to undertake this task (8:15-16). This mighty Angel would preside over the fortunes of God's people in the latter time (12:1). Thereafter he was regarded by the Hebrews as their patron Angel. ...
The Apocrypha In the late postexilic period Angelology became a prominent feature of Jewish religion. The Angel Michael was deemed to be Judaism's patron, and the apocryphal writings named three other archangels as leaders of the Angelic hierarchy. Uriel explained to Enoch many of his visions (1Enoch 21:5-10; 27:2-4), interpreted Ezra's vision of the celestial Jerusalem ( 2 Esdras 10:28-57 ), and explained the fate of the fallen Angels who supposedly married human women (1Enoch 19:1-9; cf. The primary concern of these two Angels, however, was supposedly with missions on earth and affairs in heaven, respectively. ...
The New Testament Against this background of belief in Angels who were involved in human affairs, it was not surprising that the Angel Gabriel should be chosen to visit Zechariah, the officiating priest in the temple, to inform him that he was to become a father, and that he had to name his son John ( Luke 1:11-20 ). Gabriel was not referred to here as an archangel, the Greek term archangelos [ Luke 1:26-33 ). ...
Nothing in Gabriel's behavior is inconsistent with Old Testament teachings about Angels. It has been pointed out frequently that, just as they were active when the world began, so Angels were correspondingly prominent when the new era of divine grace dawned with the birth of Jesus. On three occasions an Angel visited Joseph in a vision concerning Jesus (Matthew 1:20 ; 2:13,19 ). On the first two occasions the celestial visitor is described as "the Angel of the Lord, " which could possibly be a way of describing God himself. On the last visit the heavenly messenger was described simply as "an Angel of the Lord. " In the end, however, the celestial beings were most probably of the same order, and were fulfilling among humans those duties normally assigned to such Angels as Gabriel (Luke 1:19 ). ...
There is nothing recorded about the actual form of the latter, but Zechariah appears to have recognized the Angel immediately as a celestial being, and was terrified (Luke 1:12 ). The birth of Jesus was announced to Bethlehem shepherds by the Angel of the Lord, and since he was accompanied by the divine glory he may well have been the Lord himself. The message of joy having been proclaimed, the heavenly host of Angels praised and glorified God (Luke 2:13-14 ) for a short period, as they had done at the creation of the world (Job 38:7 ), after which they departed. ...
During his ministry, Angels came and ministered to Jesus after he had resisted the devil's temptations (Matthew 4:11 ). Again, when Jesus was submitting himself to God's will in the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:40-44 ), an Angel came from heaven to strengthen him. At the resurrection, the Angel of the Lord rolled back the stone from Jesus' burial place (Matthew 28:2 ), and he was described as having a countenance like lightning and garments as white as snow (Matthew 28:3 ). Again, this celestial being performed a service of reassurance and love for Mary and Mary of Magdala, who subsequently reported seeing "a vision of Angels" (Luke 24:23 ). In John's Gospel Mary Magdalene saw two Angels in white clothing, sitting in the empty tomb, just before she met the risen Lord (John 20:12-16 ). ...
In Acts, the imprisoned apostles were released by an Angel (5:19). Philip was ordered by an Angel to meet an Ethiopian official (8:26-28), while another celestial being appeared to Cornelius (10:3). The Angel of the Lord released Peter from prison (12:7-11), and subsequently afflicted Herod with a fatal illness (12:23). When Paul and his companions were about to be shipwrecked the apostle assured them of the presence of a guardian Angel (27:23-24). ...
Paul referred subsequently to Angelic hierarchies ("thrones, powers, rulers, or authorities") when proclaiming the cosmic supremacy of Jesus (Colossians 1:15-16 ; cf. 1 Peter 3:22 ), and prohibited the worship of Angels in the Colossian church (Colossians 2:18 ) in an attempt to avoid unorthodox practices. His reference to "angels" in 1 Corinthians 11:10 may have been a warning that such things observe humans at worship, and thus the Corinthians should avoid improper conduct or breaches of decency. ...
The Angelology of 2Peter and Jude reflects some of the intertestamental Jewish traditions concerning "wicked Angels. " In Revelation there are numerous symbolic allusions to Angels, the worship of which is forbidden (22:8-9). The "angels of the seven churches" (1:20) are the specific spiritual representations or personifications of these Christian groups. A particularly sinister figure was Abaddon (Apollyon in Greek), the "angel of the bottomless pit" (9:11), who with his minions was involved in a fierce battle with Michael and his Angels (12:7-9). ...
Jesus accepted as valid the Old Testament references to Angels and their functions (Matthew 22:30 ), but spoke specifically of the "devil and his Angels" (Matthew 25:41 ) as destined for destruction. He fostered the idea of Angels ministering to believers (cf. He described Angels as holy creatures (Mark 8:38 ) who could rejoice when a sinner repented (Luke 15:10 ). Angels were devoid of sexual characteristics (Matthew 22:30 ), and although they were highly intelligent ministers of God's will they were not omniscient (Matthew 24:36 ). ...
Christ claimed at his arrest in Gethsemane that more than twelve legions of Angels (numbering about 72,000) were available to deliver him, had he wanted to call upon them for assistance (Matthew 26:53 ). He taught that Angels would be with him when he returned to earth at the second coming (Matthew 25:31 ), and that they would be involved significantly in the last judgment (Matthew 13:41,49 ). Finally, Angels set a model of obedience to God's will in heaven to which the Christian church should aspire (cf. ...
Some writers contrast the celestial beings with "fallen Angels, " of which there are two varieties. Presumably the imprisoned Angels are the ones who will be judged by the saints (1 Corinthians 6:3 ). ...
In a material world that is also populated by good and evil spirits, the Bible teaches that the heavenly Angels set an example of enthusiastic and resolute fulfillment of God's will. Angels continue to perform ministering duties among humans, and this function has led to the concept of "guardian Angels, " perhaps prompted by Christ's words in Matthew 18:10 . It is not entirely clear whether each individual has a specific Angelic guardian, but there is certainly no reason for doubting that an Angel might well be assigned to care for the destinies of groups of individuals such as families. Gaebelein, The Angels of God ; B. Graham, Angels: God's Secret Agets ; H. Lockyer, The Mystery and Ministry of Angels ; A. Whyte, The Nature of Angels
Air - The fifth Angel of Revelation opens the bottomless pit, which is so dominated by fire that its smoke thus released darkened the sun and the air (Revelation 9:2 ). The seventh Angel poured destruction into the air, thus on earth, from his vial (Revelation 16:17 )
Theophany - Some would also include in this term Christophanies (preincarnate appearances of Christ) and Angelophanies (appearances of Angels). In the latter category are found the appearances of the Angel of the Lord, which some have taken to be Christophanies, reasoning that since the Angel of the Lord speaks for God in the first person (Genesis 16:10 ) and the human addressed often attributes the experience to God directly (Genesis 16:13 ), the Angel must therefore be the Lord or the preincarnate Christ. Yet, though the Angel is clearly identified with the Lord, he is distinguished from him (he is called "angel, " meaning "messenger" similar patterns of identification and distinction can be seen in Genesis 19:1,21 ; 31:11,13 ; Exodus 3:2,4 ; Judges 2:1-5 ; 6:11-12,14 ; 13:3,6 , 8-11,13 , 15-17,20-23 ; Zechariah 3:1-6 ; 12:8 ). There seems, therefore, no necessity to posit a theophany for the Angel of the Lord. Angels were sent on missions of this kind (Judges 6:11 ; 13:3 ), and some were identified as captains over heavenly armies (Daniel 10:5,20 ; 12:1 ). Williams...
See also Angel of the Lord ...
Bibliography
Michael - The ARCHANGEL (Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1; 2 Peter 2:11; Revelation 12:7). Certainly the Angel of Jehovah, or Jehovah the Second Person, in pleading for Joshua the high priest representing the Jewish church, uses the same rebuke to Satan as Michael does in Judges 1:9; Zechariah 3:1-5. " This language suits an archangel rather than the divine Son. The Angel in Daniel 10:13 says that Michael (apparently distinct from the divine Son described Daniel 10:5-6; Revelation 1:13-15) as patron of Israel before God "helped" him, while "he was detained with the (angel of the) kings of Persia. "...
Gesenius translates notartiy "I gained the ascendancy," namely, against the adverse Angel of Persia, so as to influence the Persian kings to permit the Jews' return to Jerusalem. Daniel 10:21, "none holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince," means that Michael alone, with the Angelic speaker, had the office of protecting Israel, the world powers were all against Israel. In the captivity, during the withholding of God's regular manifestations to Israel, those visions of Angels come precisely when most needed. When the world powers seemed to have overwhelmed the kingdom of God so utterly, Israel needed to have her faith in God's promises of restoration reinvigorated by a glimpse into the background of history in the world of spirits, and to see there the mighty Angelic champions who are on her side under the Son of God (2 Kings 6:17)
Passover - A solemn festival of the Jews, instituted in commemoration of their coming out of Egypt; because, the night before their departure, the destroying Angel, who put to death the first-born of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews, without entering therein; because they were marked with the blood of the lamb, which was killed the evening before, and which for this reason was called the paschal lamb
Dominus Vobis Cum - (Latin: The Lord be with you) ...
A blessing found in Ruth 2:4, and occurring trequently in Scripture with slight variation, notably in the salutation of the Angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary (Luke 1:28)
Hen (2) - ) So Jehovah "passed over", or sprang forward to overshadow Israel from the destroying Angel (Exodus 12:13)
Beer-Lahairoi - After Sarai had Abraham put Hagar out of the house, an Angel appeared to her announcing the birth of a son
Manoah - The man ascended in the smoke of the fire, revealing his identity as God's Angel
Devil - In the Christian theology, an evil spirit or being a fallen Angel, expelled from heaven for rebellion against God the chief of the apostate Angels the implacable enemy and tempter of the human race
Abaddon - (uh bad' duhn; to perish ) In the KJV Abaddon appears only in Revelation 9:11 as the Hebrew name of the Angel of the bottomless pit, whose Greek name was Apollyon
Israel - This is the name which the Angel gave Jacob, after having wrestled with him all night at Mahanaim, or Peniel, Genesis 32:1-2 ; Genesis 32:28-30 ; Hosea 12:4
Gabriel - one of the principal Angels of heaven. The same Angel was sent to Zechariah, to declare to him the future birth of John the Baptist, Luke 1:11 , &c
Discernment of Spirits - A judgment whereby to discern whether an impulse in the soul comes from the good spirit (God or Angel), or from the evil one; a free gift of God and infallibly certain, when resting on a special supernatural illumination; an act of prudence, more or less perfect, when based on reflection and experience
Incense - According to Luke 1:8-20 , Zacharias was burning incense in the Temple when he was visited by the Angel Gabriel
Prince - The Angel Micheal is called (Daniel 12:1 ) a "prince" (Heb
Gabriel - The Angel who was sent to Daniel to explain the vision he had seen of the ram and the he-goat, and to reveal to him the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks
Devil - Abaddon, and the Angel of the bottomless pit, (Revelation 9:11
Abaddon - In Revelation 9:11 this name is shown to be the same as Apollyon, 'the destroyer,' who is described as 'the Angel of the bottomless pit
Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ - Christ is represented as his Father's messenger, or Angel, being distinct from his Father, sent by his Father long before his incarnation, to perform actions which seem to be too low for the dignity of pure Godhead. The appearances of Christ is to the patriarchs are described like the appearances of an Angel, or man really distinct from God; yet such a one, in whom God, or Jehovah, had a peculiar indwelling, or with whom the divine nature had a personal union. Christ is the Angel to whom God was in a peculiar manner united, and who in this union made all the divine appearances related in the Old Testament. Sometimes the great and blessed God appeared in the form of a man or Angel. It is evident that the true God resided in this man or Angel; because on account of this union to proper deity, the Angel calls himself God, the Lord God. He is properly styled the Angel of God's presence. ...
The (messenger or) Angel of the covenant, Isa 72: 1. The same Angel of the Lord was the particular God and King of the Israelites. The Angels who have appeared since our blessed Saviour became incarnate, have never assumed the names, titles, characters, or worship, belonging to God. Hence we may infer that the Angel who, under the Old Testament, assumed divine titles, and accepted religious worship, was that peculiar Angel of God's presence, in whom God resided, or who was united to the Godhead in a peculiar manner; even the pre-existent soul of Christ, who afterwards took flesh and blood upon him, and was called Jesus Christ on earth. Such are those places in the Old Testament, where the Angel who appeared to the ancients is called God, the Almighty God, Jehovah, the Lord of Hosts, I am that I am, &c. The pre-existent intelligence supposed in this doctrine, is so confounded with those other intelligences called Angels, that there is great danger of mistaking this human soul for an Angel, and so of making the person of Christ to consist of three natures
Abednego - Their virtue, wisdom, and piety secured their promotion at court, Daniel 1:3-19 2:17,49 ; and their steadfastness in witnessing for God among idolaters, with their deliverance from the fiery furnace by the Angel-Jehovah, led many to acknowledge the true God, and rendered these pious youth for ever illustrious as monuments of the excellence and safety of faith in Him, Daniel 3:1-30 Hebrews 11:34
Lidwina, Saint - Represented, receiving a branch of roses and a flowering rod from an Angel
Lijdwine, Saint - Represented, receiving a branch of roses and a flowering rod from an Angel
Lydwid, Saint - Represented, receiving a branch of roses and a flowering rod from an Angel
Ephesus - Acts 20:16-28; the Angel of the church of Ephesus is named in Revelation 2:1-7
Samson - Before his birth an Angel predicted that he should be the deliverer of Israel and commanded that his hair should not be cut
Element - ’ It should be observed also that the later Jewish Angelology conceived these different elements and all the heavenly bodies as animated by living spirits, so that there were Angels of the waters, the winds, the clouds, the hail, the frost, and the various seasons of the year. Thus we read in the NT Apocalypse of the four Angels of the four winds, the Angel that has power over fire, the Angel of the waters, and an Angel standing in the sun. And so every element and every star had its controlling spirit or Angel, and this concept of the animism of nature has been widespread among the nations (see Angel). ( a ) Not a few interpreters, both ancient and modern, understand the ‘elements’ mentioned in these passages to refer to the physical elements possessed and presided over by Angels or demons. It is argued that the context in both these Epistles favours this opinion, and the express statement that the Galatians ‘were in bondage to them that by nature are no gods,’ and the admonition in Colossians against ‘philosophy, vain deceit, and worshipping of the Angels,’ show that the Apostle had in mind a current superstitious belief in cosmic spiritual beings, and a worshipping of them as princes of the powers of the air and world-rulers of darkness
Abaddon - They have a ruler over them, called a king (basileia [1]), the Angel of the abyss, whose name is given in both Hebrew and Greek. ...
The Angel of the abyss is called Destruction or Destroyer because his task is to oversee the devastation of the inhabitants of the earth, although it is curious that his minions are allowed only to torture and not to kill
Womb - For when the Angel announced to the Virgin Mary the miraculous incarnation, and when to the seeming impossibilities of the thing itself, as it appeared to her, the Angel explained how it should be accomplished by the miraculous impregnation of the Holy Ghost, Mary at once consented to the deed—Be it unto me according to thy word—and immediately the work was wrought· (Luke 1:31, etc,) And to this agrees the prophecy of the psalmist, (Psalms 139:13) "Thou hast covered me in my mother's womb
ha'Gar - By the fountain in the way to Shur the Angel of the Lord found her, charged her to return and submit herself under the hands of her mistress, and delivered the remarkable prophecy respecting her unborn child recorded in vs. She again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an Angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her
Irvingites - " Irving attempted to restore the Primitive Church as he interpreted it, and established an elaborate ministry, consisting of apostles, prophets, evangelists and pastors; each congregation is in charge of an "angel" who ranks as a pastor, assisted by 24 priests and 7 deacons
Cherub/Cherubim - A type of Angel usually involved in sacred work before God
Penuel - " Here Jacob wrestled (Genesis 32:24-32 ) "with a man" ("the Angel", Hosea 12:4
Spirit - It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is distinguished ( Acts 7:59 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 6:20 ; 7:34 ), and the soul in its separate state (Hebrews 12:23 ), and hence also an apparition (Job 4:15 ; Luke 24:37,39 ), an Angel (Hebrews 1:14 ), and a demon (Luke 4:36 ; 10:20 )
Adversary - Being found guilty, the Lord JESUS hands this wicked sinner over to one of His Angels who is the officer. The Angel takes the lost sinner to hell, which is GOD's prison house
Man of od - ...
We shall see this in the list that follows:...
Moses, the Model of Intercession Jeremiah 15:1...
The Angel of the Lord, Model of Sufficiency Judges 13:6...
The Pre-existent CHRIST, Model of Justice1Sa2:27...
Samuel, Model of Understanding1Sa9:6...
Shemaiah, Model of Counsel1Ki12:22...
Elijah, Model of Faithfulness1Ki17:18...
Elisha, Model of Kindness2Ki4:7...
Ahijah, Model of Severity2Ki23:16...
David, Model of Praise2Ch8:14...
Isaiah, Model of Spirituality2Ch25:7...
Igdaliah, Model of Consecration Jeremiah 35:4...
Timothy, Model of Holiness1Ti6:11...
You, the Saint of GOD, Model of Godliness2Ti3:17...
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Also known as Annunciation of the Lord...
Feast of the Incarnation ...
Memorial March 25, ...
Profile The annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary by the Angel Gabriel that she was to be the Mother of God (Luke 1), the Word being made flesh through the power of the Holy Spirit. The Annunciation is represented in art by many masters, among them Fra Angelico, Hubert Van Eyck, Jan Van Eyck, Ghirlandajo, Holbein the Elder, Lippi, Pinturicchio, and Del Sarto
Elizabeth, Saint - She had reached an advanced age, but still remained childless, when the Angel Gabriel announced that she would bear a son and that he would be called John
Jabbok - Penuel, where Jacob wrestled with the Angel, was a fording-place of the Jabbok, Genesis 32:32
Hagar - Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distinguished by the name of Beer-lahai-roi ("the well of the visible God"), where the Angel of the Lord appeared to her. Hagar "lifted up her voice and wept," and the Angel of the Lord, as before, appeared unto her, and she was comforted and delivered out of her distresses (Genesis 21:18,19 )
Minister - The rabbins say he was the same as the Angel of the church or overseer. Lightfoot says, Baal Aruch expounds the chazan, or minister of the congregation, by sheliach hatzibbor, or Angel of the congregation; and from this common platform and constitution of the synagogue, we may observe the Apostle's expression of some elders ruling and labouring in word and doctrine, others in the general affairs of the synagogue. Ministers were servants, yet servants not menial, but honourable; those who explain the word, and conduct the service of God; those who dispense the laws and promote the welfare of the community; the holy Angels who in obedience to the divine commands protect, preserve, succour, and benefit the godly, are all ministers, beneficial ministers, to those who are under their charge, Hebrews 8:2 ; Exodus 30:10 ; Leviticus 16:15 ; 1 Corinthians 4:1 ; Romans 13:6 ; Psalms 104:4
Most Blessed Trinity, Scapular of the - Said to have originated in a vision vouchsafed to Pope Innocent II in 1198 in which an Angel garbed in these colors appeared to him and directed him to approve the Order of the Most Blessed Trinity for the redemption of captives
Deacon, Philip the, Saint - He converted many who "received the Holy Ghost" (Acts 8) and, commanded by an Angel, travelled from Jerusalem to Gaza, on the way converting and baptizing the eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia (Acts 8)
Kedar - " Warriors and archers, among the marauding "children" or "men of the East," Bent Kedem; loving strife, true sons of Ishmael, of whom the Angel of Jehovah said "he will be a wild man, his hand will be against every man and every man's hand against him" (Genesis 16:12)
Reed - The New Jerusalem was measured by an Angel who had for a measure a golden reed (Revelation 21:15-16)
Sinai - Stephen (Acts 7:30) recalls how an Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses ‘in the wilderness of mount Sinai, in a flame of fire in a bush
Archangel, Gabriel the - (Hebrew: hero of God) ...
One of the seven Angels who "stand before God. The Jews venerated Gabriel as the Angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the Angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
Gabriel the Archangel - (Hebrew: hero of God) ...
One of the seven Angels who "stand before God. The Jews venerated Gabriel as the Angel of judgment and placed him after Michael; Christian tradition holds that it was he who appeared to Saint Joseph and the Angels, and who strengthened Our Lord in the garden at Gethsemane
God - A prince a ruler a magistrate or judge an Angel
Hagar - Hagar again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an Angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her
Evangelist, Philip the, Saint - He converted many who "received the Holy Ghost" (Acts 8) and, commanded by an Angel, travelled from Jerusalem to Gaza, on the way converting and baptizing the eunuch of Candace, Queen of Ethiopia (Acts 8)
Scapular of the Most Blessed Trinity - Said to have originated in a vision vouchsafed to Pope Innocent II in 1198 in which an Angel garbed in these colors appeared to him and directed him to approve the Order of the Most Blessed Trinity for the redemption of captives
Hyperbole - " So we read of "angels' food," Psalms 6:6 ; Psalms 119:136 ; Psalms 78:25 ; the "face of an Angel," Acts 6:15 ; and the "tongue of an Angel," 1 Corinthians 13:1
the Angel of the Church of Ephesus - YOU are not to think of an Angel with six wings. No, he was no Angel. This Angel, so to call him, had grown grey in his eldership and he was beginning to feel that the day could not now be very far distant when he would be able to lay down his office for ever. In short, this so-called Angel of the Church of Ephesus was no more an actual Angel than I am. A real Angel is an Angel. And we cannot attain to a real Angel's nature, or to his office, so as to describe such an Angel aright. And he who has been elected of God to such an office as that in Ephesus, or in Edinburgh, or anywhere else, has no need to envy the most shining Angel in all the seven heavens. For the most far-shining Angel in the seventh heaven itself desires to look down into the pulpit and the pastorate of the humblest and obscurest minister in the Church of Christ. ...
Now, there is nothing so sweet, either among Angels or among men, as to be appreciated and praised. '...
We have an old-fashioned English word that exactly sets forth what our Lord says next to the Angel of Ephesus. And to all who among ourselves have preached and prayed and have examined themselves in and after their preaching and praying, as it would seem that this Angel at one time did, and as Thomas Shepard always did, their Master will signalise and appreciate and praise their "painfulness" in their own so expressive old English, and they will appreciate and appropriate His so suitable word and will appreciate and praise Him back again for it. I do not suppose that the Angel of Ephesus counted himself a specially happy man when, all unthought of to himself, he was laying up in heaven all this eulogium upon himself and upon his patience. "I know all thy patience," said our Lord to the Angel of Ephesus. '...
And now with all that in closing take this as the secret prayer of the Angel of Ephesus the very first night after this severe message was delivered to him
Devil - ...
2 Corinthians 11:14 (a) (Angel of Light). In this character he is contrasted with the Angel of light in2Co 11:14. The Angel of light character may be seen emanating from Mrs
Hagar - Thence she was sent back by ‘the Angel of the Lord’; and soon after her return she gave birth to Ishmael. Again ‘the Angel of God’ cheered her; and she found her way southwards to the wilderness of Paran ( Genesis 21:21 ), where her son settled. The Divine guidance in Jewish history is emphasized by the double action of the Angel in the unfolding of Hagar’s career. Further interest attaches to the narrative as containing the earliest reference in Scripture to ‘the Angel of Jehovah’ (Genesis 16:7 ), and as being the first of a series (Tamar, Rahab, Ruth, Naaman) in which the regard of God is represented as singling out for blessing persons outside Israel, and thus as preparing for the universal mission of Christ
Cornelius - After an Angel appeared to this pious soldier, he sent to Joppa for Simon Peter, who came to him with the message of forgiveness of sins through faith in the crucified and risen Christ
Jean Besse - (1851-1920) Monastic historian, born Saint Angel, Correze, France; died Chevetogne, Namur, Belgium
Araunah - The destroying Angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount Moriah
Nicoletta, Saint - Represented in art delivering a soul from purgatory, and being carried to heaven by an Angel
Pestilence - Old Testament writers understood pestilence to be sent by God (Exodus 9:15 ; Jeremiah 15:2 ; Habakkuk 3:5 ; Amos 4:10 ), sometimes by means of a destroying Angel (2 Samuel 24:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:15 )
Messenger - The Hebrew and Greek terms for messenger are frequently rendered “angel,” the heavenly messengers of God. See Angels
Hermas - Each man, according to it, has a bad and a good Angel, who endeavour to influence him for evil and good respectively
Michael - A chief Angel, who is represented as the patron of the Hebrews before God. , placed under the divine protection, and invested with sovereign power—Michael and his Angels are represented as waging war with Satan and his Angels in the upper regions; from which the latter ate cast down upon the earth
Countenance - ...
Matthew 28:3 (b) This refers to the unusual brightness which surrounded and covered the face of this Angel from GOD
Israel - The name given to Jacob after his wrestling with the Angel at Peniel
Communion - It was originally instituted by Jesus (Matthew 26:26-29) on the night of the Passover meal which was an annual occurrence celebrating the "passing over" of the Angel of death that claimed the firstborn of every house in Egypt (Exodus 12:1-51)
Anathema - " In Galatians it is said that if any person or even an Angel from heaven preached any other gospel than that which they had received, let him be accursed
is'Rael -
The name given, (Genesis 32:28 ) to Jacob after his wrestling with the Angel, (Hosea 12:4 ) at Peniel
Warn - Cornelius--was warned from God by an holy Angel to send for thee
Paulicianism - Originally they held the following: ...
the God of the material universe and the God of the spirItual world are distinct ...
all matter is evil ...
the Old Testament is to be rejected ...
Christ was not incarnate but was an Angel whose mother was the heavenly Jerusalem ...
Baptism and the Eucharist consist in hearing the Word of God ...
there are no other sacraments ...
They were also Iconoclasts
Order of Servants of Mary - She held in her hand the black habit, and a nearby Angel bore a scroll reading Servants of Mary Mary told them, ...
You will found a new order, and you will be my witnesses throughout the world
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - She was beheaded and an Angel carried her body to Mount Sinai where a church and monastery were dedicated to her
Rainbow - , "iris," the flower, describes the "rainbow" seen in the heavenly vision, "round about the throne, like an emerald to look upon," Revelation 4:3 , emblematic of the fact that, in the exercise of God's absolute sovereignty and perfect counsels, He will remember His covenant concerning the earth (Genesis 9:9-17 ); in Revelation 10:1 , "the rainbow," RV, the definite article suggests a connection with the scene in Revelation 4:3 ; here it rests upon the head of an Angel who declares that "there shall be delay no longer" (ver
Worms - Herod Agrippa, being smitten by an Angel, was literally 'eaten of worms
Oracle - ) One who communicates a divine command; an Angel; a prophet
Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint - She was beheaded and an Angel carried her body to Mount Sinai where a church and monastery were dedicated to her
Servant Friars - She held in her hand the black habit, and a nearby Angel bore a scroll reading Servants of Mary Mary told them, ...
You will found a new order, and you will be my witnesses throughout the world
Servites - She held in her hand the black habit, and a nearby Angel bore a scroll reading Servants of Mary Mary told them, ...
You will found a new order, and you will be my witnesses throughout the world
Roch, Saint - Emblems: Angel, dog, bread
Thigh - Jacob's thigh was disabled by the Angel, to show the patriarch that his prevalence was through his faith and prayer, not through force, Genesis 32:25-31
Annunciation, the - A Feast of the Church held on March 25th, tocommemorate the visit of the Angel Gabriel to the Blessed VirginMary, to announce to her the Incarnation of the Son of God, hismessage to her being, "Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favorwith God
Ophrah - This was the place where Gideon saw the Angel, erected an altar, and where he was buried
Nabuchodonosor ii - He commanded that Sidrach, Misach, and Abdenago be placed in the fiery furnace, from which they were rescued by an Angel of the Lord (Daniel 3)
Jabbok - The Jabbok is famous for all time on account of the striking incident of Jacob’s wrestling there with the Angel ( Genesis 32:24 f
Zacharias - His friends proposed the same name for his son; but he objected, and the babe was named John, as directed by the Angel
Salem - Hence when Gideon was visited by the Angel under the oak at Ophrah, at the close of the interview he built an altar unto the Lord, and called it Jehovah Shalom—that is, as the margin of the Bible renders it, the Lord send peace
the Altar of Incense - It was by the side of this altar that the Angel appeared to Zacharias when he announced the conception and birth of John the Baptist
Annunciation - The name is given the announcement to Mary by the Angel Gabriel that she would give birth to a son who was to be named Jesus (Luke 1:26-38 )
Sadducees - " Acts (23), "For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither Angel nor spirit: but the Pharisees confess both
Rages - In Tobit ( Tob 1:14 ; Tob 4:1 ; Tob 4:20 ; Tob 5:5 ; Tob 6:13 ; Tob 9:2 ) it was visited by the Angel Raphael, and there he recovered for Tobias the deposit of silver which his father had placed there
Pillar - versions seems preferable; (b) figuratively in Revelation 3:12 , indicating a firm and permanent position in the spiritual, heavenly and eternal Temple of God; (c) illustratively, of the feet of the Angel in the vision in Revelation 10:1 , seen as flames rising like columns of fire indicative of holiness and consuming power, and thus reflecting the glory of Christ as depicted in Revelation 1:15 ; cp
Archippus - Archippus with some reason is supposed to be the Angel of Laodicea, whom the Lord, like Paul, reproves (Revelation 3:14-21)
Betrothment - Mary, the mother of the Lord Jesus, was betrothed to Joseph, and he contemplated putting her away privately, but was instructed as to the truth of her condition by the Angel of the Lord
Archangel - 1: ἀρχάγγελος (Strong's #743 — Noun Masculine — archangelos — ar-khang'-el-os ) "is not found in the OT, and in the NT only in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 and Jude 1:9 , where it is used of Michael, who in Daniel is called 'one of the chief princes,' and 'the great prince' (Sept. , 'the great Angel'), 10:13,21; 12:1. also Romans 8:38 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 , where the word translated 'principalities' is arche, the prefix in archangel. ]'>[1] In 1 Thessalonians 4:16 the meaning seems to be that the voice of the Lord Jesus will be of the character of an "archangelic" shout
Balaam - He then suddenly became aware of the presence of an Angel who warned him not to disobey God
Frankincense - The Angel does not provide the incense; it is "given" to him by Christ, whose meritorious obedience and death and intercession are the incense rendering the saints' prayers well pleasing to God. They do not pray to the Angel; he is but the king's messenger, and did not dare to appropriate what, is the king's alone (Malachi 1:11)
Angels of the Seven Churches - AngelS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES ( Revelation 1:20 ; Revelation 1:2-3 ). According to one set of opinions, these Angels were men, and the majority of writers have held them to be (1) the presiding presbyters or bishops of their respective churches. Human officials could hardly be made responsible for their churches as these Angels are. A bishop might be called an Angel, i. Haggai 1:13 , Malachi 2:7 , 2 Corinthians 5:20 ), but would he be called ‘the Angel of the church’? Above all, it is certain that at the early date to which the Apocalypse is now generally assigned a settled episcopate was unknown. (2) Others have supposed that the Angels were congregational representatives , church messengers or deputies (which would be in harmony with the proper meaning of the word ‘angel’), or even the person who acted as ‘Reader’ to the assembled church (notice ‘he that readeth’ in Revelation 1:3 ). But if the responsibility put upon the Angels is too great for bishops, it is much too great for any lesser functionaries. A good many have held that ‘angels’ is to be understood in its ordinary Scriptural application, not to men, but to celestial beings . word, which is of very frequent occurrence, is invariably used in this sense; (2) our Lord’s utterance in Matthew 18:10 , which suggests a doctrine of Angelic guardianship; (3) the fact that in Daniel, to which the Apocalypse is so closely related, the guardianship of Angels is extended to nations ( Daniel 12:1 ). No definite Scriptural teaching can be adduced in favour of the idea that churches have their guardian-angels. Moreover, it is scarcely conceivable that such beings would be identified with particular churches in all their infidelities and shortcomings and transgressions, as these Angels are (see, e. The most probable view, accordingly, is that the Angels are personifications of their churches not actual persons either on earth or in heaven, but ideal representatives. Revelation 1:11 , where there is no mention of the Angels). The idea of Angels was suggested, no doubt, by the later Jewish beliefs on the subject, but it is used in a figurative manner which suits the whole figurative treatment, where the glorified Jesus walks among the golden candlesticks, and sends to the churches messages that are couched in highly metaphorical language. It might seem to be against this ideal view that the seven churches, as candlesticks, are definitely distinguished from the seven Angels, as stars ( Revelation 1:12 ; Revelation 1:16 ; Revelation 1:20 )
Tree (2) - As he lay a dying, it was said, Adam sent his son Seth to the Angel that guarded Paradise, to crave a bough from the tree of life. The Angel gave it, and Seth carried it to his father, but found him dead. Long afterwards the Jews took it and cast it into a stagnant pool, which derived a miraculous virtue from its presence: an Angel descended from time to time and troubled the water, and the first that stepped in after the troubling was healed (cf. ’ In Evangel
Cloud - "The Angel of God which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went from before their face, and stood behind them,"...
Exodus 14:19 . Here we may observe, that the Angel and the cloud made the same motion, as it would seem, in company. The Angel descended in the cloud, and thence spoke to Moses, without being seen by the people, Exodus 16:10 ; Numbers 11:25 ; Numbers 16:5
Devil - (Greek: diabolos, slanderer, accuser, or traducer) ...
The word is used as a name for a fallen Angel or evil spirit, especially for the chief of the rebellious Angels, Lucifer or Satan (Matthew 25)
Anne, Saint - No records of her life are found outside of the apocryphal literature, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Protoevangelium of James. From these we learn that Anne and Joachim had reached old age and still remained childless; their prayers were answered, an Angel of the Lord announcing to Anne that the fruit of her womb would be blessed by all the world
Feast of Our Lady of Guadalupe - The picture, which is on coarsely woven Indian cloth, is assumed to represent the Immaculate Conception, being the figure of a maiden with the sun, moon, and stars, and an Angel under the crescent
Malachi - Messenger or Angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Malachi 4:4,5,6 )
Bethesda - The references to the pool being stirred by Angels (John 5:3-4 ) are not found in either the oldest or the majority of manuscripts. However, regardless of the disagreement among manuscripts on the name of the pool or the Angel passage, the pool did exist
Holy Place - It was in the holy place that the Angel appeared to Zachary and told of the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1)
Iron - Peter and the Angel of its own accord (αὐτομάτη, Acts 12:10); cf
Guadalupe, Feast of Our Lady of - The picture, which is on coarsely woven Indian cloth, is assumed to represent the Immaculate Conception, being the figure of a maiden with the sun, moon, and stars, and an Angel under the crescent
Harvest - Our Lord refers to the end of the world under the term of harvest, Matthew 13:39, whose reapers will be the Angels. The Angel is represented figuratively as at that time thrusting in his sickle, "for the harvest of the earth is ripe
Bow - " (Revelation 4:3) And the mighty Angel he saw "clothed with a cloud, had a rainbow upon his head
Michael the Archangel - ' He went to the assistance of one (probably an Angel) who had been sent with a message to Daniel, but who had been detained twenty-one days by the prince of the kingdom of Persia (doubtless Satan, or one of Satan's Angels, who was acting for the kingdom of Persia, as Michael was prince for the children of Israel). " Michael and his Angels will however fight with Satan and his Angels, and will prevail, and Satan will be cast out of that portion of heaven to which he now has access
Blessed Virgin Mary - The title which the Church has always givento the Mother of our Lord, and by which all devout churchmen speakof her of whom the Angel declared, "Blessed art thou among women
Censer - In Revelation 8:3-4 the "angel" is not Christ, who always has His own title in Revelation, but a ministering spirit. Christ's meritorious obedience and death, is given to the Angel that he may give it to (so the Greek) the prayers of all saints, to render them a sweet smelling savor to God. How the Angels' ministry exactly is exercised we know not, but we do know they are not to be prayed to (Revelation 19:10)
Captain - ) the Angel of the covenant. (See Angel
Gid'Eon - When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons, (Judges 6:11 ; 8:20 ) and from the apostrophe of the Angel, ch. When the Angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the wine-press, to conceal it from the predatory tyrants
Michael - the patron or guardian Angel of Israel, in antithesis to the ‘prince’ of Persia and the ‘prince’ of Greece (Daniel 10:20). These are the only references supplied by the OT, but they exercised a powerful influence upon the Jewish tradition that grew up regarding Michael (in which he further appears as one of the seven archangels and the chief of the four great archangels), and through this upon NT conceptions. In the NT he is twice mentioned by name (Judges 1:9, where he is described as ‘the archangel,’ and Revelation 12:7), and in both cases discharges functions that are in keeping with the position assigned him in Daniel. ), there is war in heaven, and Michael and his Angels go forth to war with the great red dragon (otherwise described as ‘the old serpent, he that is called the Devil and Satan,’ Daniel 12:9) and his Angels, with the result that the latter are overthrown and cast down to the earth. (1) In Acts 7:38 he is probably to be identified with the Angel who spoke to Moses in Mount Sinai. According to Galatians 3:19 the Law was ‘ordained by Angels,’ and in Hebrews 2:2 ‘the word’ is described as ‘spoken by Angels’ (cf. 1, however, it is the Angel of the presence who instructs Moses and delivers to him the tables of the Law, and in what was probably the original Assumption of Moses (preserved only in Greek fragments) ‘Michael the archangel’ is expressly said to have taught Moses at the giving of the Law. (2) In 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ‘the voice of the archangel and the trump of God’ suggests another reference to the Michael of Jewish tradition. This is the only place in the NT besides Judges 1:9 where the word ‘archangel’ occurs, and though the archangel in this case is not named, it is natural to suppose that the great archangel is meant. ‘The voice of the archangel’ and ‘the trump of God’ are evidently to be taken as parallel expressions (cf. Matthew 24:31, ‘He shall send his Angels with a great sound of a trumpet’), and it is a common feature of the later Jewish tradition of the Day of Judgment that the trumpet is blown by Michael the archangel (see Bousset, op
Peniel - "He took his brother by the heel (said Hosea, speaking of Jacob) in the womb, and by his strength he had power with God; yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed. Now it is remarkable, that he whom the prophet Hosea, in the passage just quoted, in one verse calls the Angel, in another he calls "the Lord God of hosts," and saith that "the Lord is his memorial. " And observe the prophet doth not say an Angel, but the Angel, thus particularizing and defining one identical person; and we well know that Christ is often called the "angel of the covenant," (Malachi 3:1; Acts 7:30-31) Indeed the patriarch Jacob himself, in another period of his life, called him by this name
Gideon - ]'>[1] ...
The call of Gideon , Judges 6:11-14 : The ‘Angel of the Lord’ appears to Gideon and tells him that the Lord is with him, and that he is to free Israel from the Midianite invasion. Gideon requires a sign: he brings an offering of a kid and unleavened cakes, the Angel touches these with his staff, whereupon fire issues from the rock on which the offering lies and consumes it. Gideon is now convinced that it was the ‘Angel of the Lord’ who had been speaking to him, and at Jahweh’s † Rainbow - Later, Revelation 10:1 pictures a descending Angel with the rainbow shining upon his head and having a face as the sun
Sadducees - Antigonus having often, in his lectures, inculcated to his scholars that they ought not to serve God in a servile manner, but only out of filial love and fear, two of his scholars, Sadoc, and Baithus, thence inferred that there were no rewards at all after this life; and, therefore, separating from the school of their master, they thought there was no resurrection nor future state, neither Angel nor spirit
Nazareth - Hither, before their marriage, was the Angel Gabriel sent to announce the coming birth of Christ ( Luke 1:26-38 ), and hither the Holy Family retired after the flight to Egypt ( Matthew 2:23 )
Sadducees - These were a sect among the Jews, but possessing nothing of the principles of Abraham, but rather a class of Epicureans: They were rigid to a degree for the law, because, denying any future state of reward or punishment, Angel or spirit, they made the chief good to consist in an attention to the observance of order in this life
Scripture - This word occurs but once in the Old Testament, where an Angel speaks of 'the scripture of truth
Macedonia - Paul was invited by an Angel of the Lord, who appeared to him at Troas, to come and preach the Gospel in Macedonia, Acts 16:9
Token - The blood of the paschal lamb, sprinkled on the doors of the Hebrews, was a token to the destroying Angel of God's will that he should pass by those houses
Zachari'as - John was born to them in their old age, and the promise of this son was communicated to Zacharias by an Angel while he was offering incense and praying in the temple
Angel - a spiritual, intelligent substance, the first in rank and dignity among created beings The word Angel, αγγελος , is not properly a denomination of nature but of office; denoting as much as nuncius, messenger, a person employed to carry one's orders, or declare his will. Paul represents Angels, Hebrews 1:14 , where he calls them "ministering spirits;" and yet custom has prevailed so much, that Angel is now commonly taken for the denomination of a particular order of spiritual beings, of great understanding and power, superior to the souls or spirits of men. The devil as the head of them, and they as his Angels, are represented as the rulers of the darkness of this world, or spiritual wickednesses, or wicked spirits, τα πνευματικα της πονηριυς εν τοις επουρανιοις , Ephesians 6:12 ; which may not be unfitly rendered, "the spiritual managers of opposition to the kingdom of God. "...
The existence of Angels is supposed in all religions, though it is incapable of being proved a priori. In the Alcoran we find frequent mention of Angels. They attribute exceedingly great power to the Angel Gabriel, as that he is able to descend in the space of an hour from heaven to earth; to overturn a mountain with a single feather of his wing, &c. The Angel Asrael, they suppose, is appointed to take the souls of such as die; and another Angel, named Esraphil, they tell us, stands with a trumpet ready in his mouth to proclaim the day of judgment. ...
Authors are not so unanimous about the nature as about the existence of Angels. Ecclesiastical writers make a hierarchy of nine orders of Angels. Others have distributed Angels into nine orders, according to the names by which they are called in Scripture, and reduced these orders into three hierarchies; to the first of which belong seraphim, cherubim, and thrones; to the second, dominions, virtues, and powers; and to the third, principalities, archangels, and Angels. The Jews reckon four orders or companies of Angels, each headed by an archangel; the first order being that of Michael; the second, of Gabriel; the third, of Uriel; and the fourth, of Raphael. That some of these titles may indicate the same class of Angels is probable; but that they all should be but different appellations of one common and equal order is improbable. Nothing is more frequent in Scripture than the missions and appearances of good and bad Angels, whom God employed to declare his will; to correct, teach, reprove, and comfort. God gave the law to Moses, and appeared to the old patriarchs, by the mediation of Angels, who represented him, and spoke in his name, Acts 7:30 ; Acts 7:35 ; Galatians 3:19 ; Hebrews 13:2 . ...
Though the Jews, in general, believed the existence of Angels, there was a sect among them, namely, the Sadducees, who denied the existence of all spirits whatever, God only excepted, Acts 23:8 . Before the Babylonish captivity, the Hebrews seem not to have known the names of any Angel. The Talmudists say they brought the names of Angels from Babylon. Tobit, who is thought to have resided in Nineveh some time before the captivity, mentions the Angel Raphael, Tob_3:17 ; Tob_11:2 ; Tob_11:7 ; and Daniel, who lived at Babylon some time after Tobit, has taught us the names of Michael and Gabriel, Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Daniel 10:21 . ...
There are various opinions as to the time when the Angels were created. Others think that Angels existed long before the formation of our solar system; and Scripture seems to favour this opinion, Job 38:4 ; Job 38:7 , where God says, "Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?— and all the sons of God shouted for joy. " Though it be a universal opinion that Angels are of a spiritual and incorporeal nature, yet some of the fathers, misled by a passage in Genesis 6:2 , where it is said, "The sons of God saw the daughters of men, that they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose," imagined them to be corporeal, and capable of sensual pleasures. But, without noticing all the wild reveries which have been propagated by bold or ignorant persons, let it suffice to observe, that by "the sons of God" we are evidently to understand the descendants of Seth, who, for the great piety wherein they continued for some time, were so called; and that "the daughters of men" were the progeny of wicked Cain As to the doctrine of tutelary or guarding Angels, presiding over the affairs of empires, nations, provinces, and particular persons, though received by the later Jews, it appears to be wholly Pagan in its origin, and to have no countenance in the Scriptures. The passages in Daniel brought to favour this notion are capable of a much better explanation; and when our Lord declares that the "angels" of little children "do always behold the face of God," he either speaks of children as being the objects of the general ministry of Angels, or, still more probably, by Angels he there means the disembodied spirits of children; for that the Jews called disembodied spirits by the name of Angels, appears from Acts 12:15 . ...
On this question of guardian Angels, Bishop Horsley observes: "That the holy Angels are often employed by God in his government of this sublunary world, is indeed to be clearly proved by holy writ. What the evil Angels possessed before their fall the like powers, which they are still occasionally permitted to exercise for the punishment of wicked nations, seems also evident. But all this amounts not to any thing of a discretional authority placed in the hands of tutelar Angels, or to an authority to advise the Lord God with respect to the measures of his government. Confidently I deny that a single text is to be found in holy writ, which, rightly understood, gives the least countenance to the abominable doctrine of such a participation of the holy Angels in God's government of the world. In what manner then, it may be asked, are the holy Angels made at all subservient to the purposes of God's government? This question is answered by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Hebrews, in the last verse of the first chapter; and this is the only passage in the whole Bible in which we have any thing explicit upon the office and employment of Angels: ‘Are they not all,' saith he, ‘ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them that shall be heirs of salvation?' They are all, however high in rank and order, nothing more than ‘ministering spirits,' or, literally, ‘serving spirits;' not invested with authority of their own, but ‘sent forth,' occasionally sent forth, to do such service as may be required of them, ‘for them that shall be heirs of salvation. '"...
The exact number of Angels is no where mentioned in Scripture; but it is always represented as very great. " Jesus Christ says, that his heavenly Father could have given him more than twelve legions of Angels, that is, more than seventy-two thousand, Matthew 26:53 ; and the Psalmist declares, that the chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of Angels, Psalms 68:17 . ...
Though all the Angels were created alike good, yet Jude informs us, verse Judges 1:6 , that some of them "kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation," and these God hath "reserved in everlasting chains under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day. Prideaux observes, that the minister of the synagogue, who officiated in offering the public prayers, being the mouth of the congregation, delegated by them, as their representative, messenger, or Angel, to address God in prayer for them, was in Hebrew called sheliack-zibbor, that is, the Angel of the church; and that from hence the chief ministers of the seven churches of Asia are in the Revelation, by a name borrowed from the synagogue, called Angels of those churches
Moriah - The Angel of Jehovah had stood by Araunah's threshing floor; there David saw Him, and Araunah (Ornan) also, subsequently on turning back, saw Him and hid himself. So thenceforth David sacrificed there, and no longer on the altar at Gibeon where the tabernacle was, separate from the ark, which was at Zion; for he could not go to Gibeon on account of the sword of the Angel, i
Messenger - The reader will have a better apprehension of the title when he is told that the same word translated messenger is also translated Angel. This in Malachi 3:1 it might be read, the Angel of the covenant
Theophilus - " Theophilus then defends his position from the conduct of Abraham towards the Angel whom he worshipped at the oak of Mamre and from the Psalms. " Simon replies that the virgin was the daughter of Jerusalem whom Isaiah represents as despising Shalmanezer while the Angel who smote the Assyrians is the fulfilment of the prophecy contained in the name Emmanuel since he was for them indeed "Nobiscum Deus
Bishop - But the presidents over the presbyters and deacons, while still continuing of the same order as the presbyters, have succeeded virtually, by whatever name designated, Angel, bishop, moderator, to a superintendency analogous to that exercised by the apostles, and evidently derived from the synagogue; see Vitringa, Synag. ...
The superintending pastor of each of the seven churches is in Revelation called its "angel," (the abuse of the term "apostle" by pretenders led to its restriction to the twelve and Paul, Revelation 2:2) just as in Old Testament the prophet Haggai (Haggai 1:13) is termed "the Lord's messenger (angel) in the Lord's message. " In the larger churches, as Ephesus and Smyrna, there were many presbyters, but only one Angel under the one "chief Shepherd and Bishop of Souls," the term "bishop" thus being applicable to the highest pastoral superintendence (1 Peter 2:25; 1 Peter 5:4). The enigmatic symbolism of Revelation transfers the term of office, Angel, from Jehovah's heavenly to His earthly ministers; reminding them that, like Angels above, they should do God's will lovingly and perfectly. ...
The "legate (angel) of the church" (sheliach tsibbur ) recited the prayers in the name of the assembled worshippers in the synagogue; the apostles, as Jews, naturally followed this pattern, under God's providential sanction: compare James 2:2, "assembly," Greek synagogue," 2 Corinthians 8:23. ...
The "apostle" and evangelist" preached to the pagan, but the bishop-presbyter's office was pastoral (Titus 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:12), including ministration to the sick (James 5:14)
Ascension of Isaiah - It is thus of considerable importance in the light which it throws upon the views held in certain circles of the Christian Church of the apostolic period with regard to the doctrines of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection, the Seven Heavens, the Antichrist, Angels and demons. The Son descends through each heaven in turn, assuming in each the form of the Angels who dwell in them, and finally passes through the firmament and then the air to the earth. ’ It describes, briefly stringing together various details in the manner of an epitome, the coming and death of the Beloved; the descent of the Angel of the Christian Church; the ascension; the falling away of the Church, and the prevalence of error, impurity, strife, and covetousness; the coming of Beliar in the likeness of a lawless king, a matricide, who claims to be God, and demands Divine worship, and persecutes the saints for three years, seven months, and twenty-seven days. ’ He is, however, really crucified, and descends to the Angel of Sheol (11:19, 20; Angels of the firmament and the Satans see Him and worship Him (11:23; Angels of the world until the final judgment (10:12). ...
The significance of the crucifixion is nowhere noticed, but
in 9:16 the ‘plundering of the Angel of death’ (cf. 3:13b-4:18) His work includes the founding of the Church (‘the descent of the Angel of the Christian Church,’ 3:15), and, after coming forth from the tomb on the shoulders of Gabriel and Michael, the sending out of the Twelve. The Third Person is spoken of as an Angel, the Angel of the Spirit (4:21; 9:39, 40; 10:4; 11:4) or the Angel of the Holy Spirit (3:16; 7:23; 9:36; 11:33). The Angel of the Holy Spirit in 3:16 must be regarded as Gabriel, and in 11:4 He performs the part of Gabriel in the Annunciation. 2:4 Beliar is the Angel of lawlessness, and makes Manasseh strong in apostatizing and lawlessness ( Angels. -While there is no reference to the functions of good Angels as mediators or intercessors, spiritual powers are conceived of as the true cause of all action. Angels, authorities, and powers rule in this world under Beliar their prince (1:3; cf. The Angel of the Christian Church (cf. The Holy Spirit and the Angel of the Holy Spirit (see under ‘Trinity’) are identical, except perhaps in 3:16 and 11:4 There is an Angel of death (9:16; 10:14), and an Angel of Sheol (11:19). Each heaven has its Angels, with the superior ones to the right of the throne. The sun and the moon also have each an Angel (cf. The judgment of the Angels is referred to in 1:5; 4:18; 10:12. The sixth is not under any subordinate Angel or ‘throne,’ but is ruled by the Great Glory in the seventh. There is an Angel over the praise-giving of the sixth heaven, however, who challenges Isaiah when proceeding to the seventh (9:1, 4). In the seventh are the Patriarchs, the righteous, the crowns and thrones and garments of the righteous, the Great Glory, the Beloved, and the Angel of the Holy Spirit. -The Angel of the Christian Church which is in the heavens will be summoned by God in the last days (3:15)
Sennacherib - ...
We are told that in the Lord's delivering the church from the threatenings and slaughter of this man, the "angel of the Lord went out that night, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred, four-score, and five thousand; and when they arose in the morning, behold they were all dead corpses. " (2 Kings 19:35) By the Angel of the Lord we may suppose is meant the messenger of the Lord, for so the word is. It is not necessary to connect the meaning of the passage, as if it was one of those beings of light which are called Angels. And the slaughter of such an army in one night carried with it the fullest and most decided testimony that it was indeed effected by the messenger, the Angel of the Lord. ...
I have introduced this observation of the Lord's judgment on Sennacherib's army by way of introducing another; namely, what safety are the people of the Lord brought into when all the creation of God waits as ministering servants to execute the divine judgments on their enemies! "Winds and storms fulfilling his word," sickness and the word, Angels and messengers, all wait to execute the Lord's commands
Second, Secondarily, Secondly - , Matthew 22:26,39 ; 2 Corinthians 1:15 ; Revelation 2:11 ; in Revelation 14:8 , RV only ("a second Angel"); it is used in the neuter, deuteron, adverbially, signifying a "second" time, e
Rainbow - ...
Revelation 10:1 (a) Since the rainbow appears around the head of this mighty Angel just before the judgments begin, it is to tell us that grace always appears before wrath, and GOD's goodness provides a remedy from the dire results of rebellion
Amminadab - His chariots are His glorious Angel escort
John - His birth, name, and work were foretold by the Angel Gabriel
Balaam - The Angel of Jehovah withstood him, and he was rebuked by his ass, yet he was allowed to go on his way
Greek Language - The name and character of the Angel of the bottomless pit was also proclaimed in Hebrew and Greek
Ambassador, Ambassage - The ambassador of Jeremiah 49:14 (= Obadiah 1:1 ) is probably an Angel
Gideon - He had sons, Judges 6:11; Judges 8:22; and was called by an Angel to be a deliverer of Israel
Abraham - An Angel stays
Bright, Brightness - ...
A — 2: λαμπρός (Strong's #2986 — Adjective — lampros — lam-pros' ) "shining, brilliant, bright," is used of the clothing of an Angel, Acts 10:30 ; Revelation 15:6 ; symbolically, of the clothing of the saints in glory, Revelation 19:8 , RV, in the best texts (AV, "white"); of Christ as the Morning Star, Revelation 22:16 ; of the water of life, Revelation 22:1 , AV, "clear
John - His birth, name, and work were foretold by the Angel Gabriel
Thyatira - ) Some self-styled prophetess, or collection of prophets (the feminine in Hebrew idiom expressing a multitude), closely attached to and influencing the Thyatira church and its presiding bishop or "angel" (the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus manuscripts read "thy wife" for "that woman") as Jezebel did her weak husband Ahab. ...
The presiding Angel ought to have exercised his authority over the prophetess or prophets so-called, who seduced many into the libertinism of the Balaamites and Nicolaitans of Thyatira's more powerful neighbour Pergamos (Revelation 2:6; Revelation 2:14; Revelation 2:16)
Rainbow - And moreover, when I call to mind, what the beloved apostle John saw when heaven was opened to his view, "the rainbow round about the throne," (Revelation 4:3) and also that mighty, Angel whom he saw with a "rainbow upon his head," (Revelation 10:1) I confess I feel great delight. For I cannot but conclude, that the bow JEHOVAH set in the cloud after the deluge, and the rainbow John saw in heaven round about the throne, and encircling or covering the head of the mighty Angel, were all to the same purport, and all representing Christ
Abyss - And they had a king over them, which is the Angel of the bottomless pit,"...
Revelation 9:1-2 ; Revelation 9:11 . John says, "I saw an Angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand
Magi - In short, Zoroaster held that there was one supreme independent Being, and under him two principles, or Angels; one the Angel of light or good, and the other the Angel of evil or darkness; that there is a perpetual struggle between them, which shall last to the end of the world; that then the Angel of darkness and his disciples shall go into a world of their own, where they shall be punished in everlasting darkness; and the Angel of light and his disciples shall also go into a world of their own, where they shall be rewarded in everlasting light
Angels (2) - ANGELS. —The statements as to Angels which meet us in the Gospels are in most respects the same as are found in the Jewish literature of the period, both Biblical and extra-Biblical. In the main, Christ and His Apostles appropriated the Angelology of current Judaism—but not without critical selection. It would be difficult to point to a time when the Jews, as a people, did not believe in Angels; yet there were exceptions. At all events, it is a fact that the portion of the OT known to criticism as the Priests’ Code is silent on the subject of Angels; and it is also noteworthy that the Sadducees, who were the descendants of the high-priestly families, protested in the time of our Lord against some, if not all, of the popular notions respecting Angels (Acts 23:8). ...
It is probable that belief in Angels is originally a corollary from the conception of God as King. And inasmuch as the recognition of God as King is the earliest and most prevalent of Israel’s conceptions of God, we naturally expect the belief in Angels, as God’s court, serving Him in His palace and discharging the function of messengers, to be ancient and pervasive. We have then, doubtless, a very primitive conception of Angels in the words of Micaiah to Ahab, in 1 Kings 22:19 ‘I saw Jahweh sitting on his throne, and all the host of heaven standing by him, on his right hand and on his left. ’ A second and quite distinct feature of the Angelology of the OT is found in the appearances of one who is called ‘the Angel of Jahweh’—who is described as undistinguishable from man in appearance, and yet claims to speak and act in the name of Jahweh Himself (Genesis 18:2; Genesis 18:16-17; Genesis 32:24; Genesis 32:30, Judges 13:3; Judges 13:6; Judges 13:22). ]'>[1] is silent as to Angels, so the appearances of an Angel as a manlike manifestation of God and not a mere messenger, are confined to those portions of the OT which, on quite other grounds, are assigned to JE
We wish now, with the help of Jewish literature, more or less contemporary, to make a systematic presentation of those beliefs as to Angels which are found in the discourses and narratives of the four Gospels. It might be supposed that we should find it helpful to keep apart the utterances of our Lord from the descriptions of the Evangelists; but, in fact, there is such complete unity of conception underlying both discourses and narratives, that no useful purpose can be served by treating them separately. Angels in Heaven. Luke 2:13 ‘There was with the Angel (who appeared to the shepherds) a multitude of the heavenly host’ (στρατιά). Our Lord carries the military metaphor even further when He speaks of ‘more than 12 legions of Angels’ (Matthew 26:53). Revelation 5:11 speaks of ‘myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands’; and Hebrews 12:22 speaks of ‘the myriads of Angels’—both in probable allusion to Daniel 7:10. ]'>[1]1 to Exodus 12:12 tells of 90,000 myriads of destroying Angels; and in Deuteronomy 34:5 the same Targum speaks of the glory of the Shekinah being revealed to the dying Moses, with 2000 myriads of Angels and 42,000 chariots; as 2 Kings 6:17 tells of a ‘mountain full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha. The Angels, as courtiers, stand in vast multitudes before the throne (Revelation 5:11; Revelation 7:11). Paul who speaks most explicitly of ‘the principalities and powers in the heavenly places’ (Ephesians 3:10), and of Christ’s being ‘exalted far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion’ (Ephesians 1:21); and ‘evidently Paul regarded them as actually existent and intelligent forces’ (Robinson, in loco); but the same conception presents itself in the Gospels in the reference to archangels, who were four, or in some authors seven, in number: Gabriel, Raphael, Michael, and Uriel being those most frequently mentioned. In Luke 1:19 the Angel who appears to Zacharias says: ‘I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God’; as in Tobit 12:15 the Angel says to Tobit: ‘I am Raphael, one of the seven holy Angels, which present the prayers of the saints and go in before the glory of the Holy One. ’ Even in the OT the Angels are spoken of as forming ‘a council’: e. To the same circle of ideas belong the words of the Lord Jesus: ‘Every one that shall confess me before men, him will the Son of Man confess before the Angels of God; but he that denieth me in the presence of men shall be denied in the presence of the Angels of God’ (Luke 12:8-9). Evidently the Angels are interested spectators of men’s behaviour, responsive to their victories and defeats, their sins and struggles; and we are here taught that to be denied before such a vast responsive assembly intensifies the remorse of the apostate, as to be confessed before them intensifies the joy of those who are ‘faithful unto death. Not only do we read in Slavonic Enoch 19:5 of ‘angels who are over the souls of men, and who write down all their works and their lives before the face of the Lord’; and in the Apocalypse of John, where symbolism abounds, of ‘books’ being ‘opened,’ and of the ‘dead’ being ‘judged according to what was written in the books’: but even in an Epistle of St. In extra-Biblical literature the veil is often mentioned, concealing the abode of God in the Most Holy Place, within which the archangels are permitted to enter (Tobit 12:12; Tob_12:15, Enoch 40:2). The only reference in the Gospels under this head is the song of the Angels, described in Luke 2:13 f. ’ In this respect the saints who are raised again are ‘equal to the Angels’ (Luke 20:36). ’ Hence we find that they are frequently described as ‘holy’ (Matthew 25:31, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26, Job 5:1; Job 15:15, Daniel 8:13), and by implication we learn that Angels obey God’s will in heaven, since we are taught by our Lord to pray that God’s holy will may be done on earth as it is in heaven (Matthew 6:10, cf. This is taught in Matthew 22:30 ‘In the resurrection they neither marry [8] nor are given in marriage [9], but are as the Angels of God in heaven. Not being mortal, they are not dependent on food for nourishment, nor have they, by nature, sensuous appetites, but are ἰσάγγελοι (‘equal to the Angels’). While answering their objection against the resurrection, He affirms that ‘those who are accounted worthy to attain to that αἰών, and the resurrection from the dead … are equal to the Angels’—thus plainly disclosing His belief in Angels and setting it over against their disbelief. As to the spiritual nature of Angels, Philo speaks of them as ἀσώματοι καὶ εὐδαίμονες ψυχαί (‘incorporeal and happy souls’); and again, as ‘bodiless souls, not mixtures of rational and irrational natures as ours are, but having the irrational nature cut out, wholly intelligent throughout, pure-thoughts (λογισμοί, elsewhere λόγοι) like a monad (Drummond’s Philo, 145–147; cf. The Rabbis interpreted Daniel 7:10 to teach that the nature of the Angels is fire. The Jewish legends which interpret Genesis 6:4 as teaching a commingling of Angels with women, so as to produce ‘mighty men, men of renown,’ seem at variance with the above belief as to the immunity of celestial intelligences from all passion. It is true that Judges 1:6 and Enoch 15:3–7 both speak of the Angels as having first ‘left their habitation’ in heaven; but the fact that they were deemed capable of sexual intercourse implies a much coarser conception of the Angelic nature than is taught in the words of our Lord, of Philo, and of the Talmud. This is clearly taught in one utterance of Christ’s, recorded in Matthew 24:36 || Mark 13:32 ‘Of that day and hour knoweth no man, not even the Angels of heaven. ’ The implications clearly are (1) that Angels know most things, far better than men; but (2) that there are some things, including the day of the Second Advent, which they do not know. There are numerous intimations of the scientific skill of the Angels, their acquaintance with the events of human lives, and their prescience of future events. The Book of Jubilees, a pre-Christian work extensively read, affirms (Jubilees 1:27) that Moses was taught by Gabriel concerning Creation and the things narrated in Genesis; that Angels taught Noah herbal remedies (Jubilees 10:12), and brought to Jacob seven tablets recording the history of his posterity (Jubilees 32:21). In Tobit 12:12 the Angel assures Tobit that he was familiar with all the events of his troublous days: as in 2 Samuel 14:17; 2 Samuel 14:20 the woman of Tekoa flatters Joah that he was ‘as wise as an Angel of God to know all things that are in the earth. Angels were supposed to understand no language but Hebrew (Chagigah, 16a). In 2 Esdras 4:52, in revealing eschatological events, the Angel gives the tokens of the coming end, but confesses his ignorance as to whether Esdras will be alive at the time. The Midrash on Psalms 25:14 affirms that ‘nothing is hidden from the Angels’; but according to Sanhedrin, 99a, and other Talmudic passages, ‘they know not the time of Israel’s redemption. ’ In 1 Peter 1:12 we are told that ‘the Angels desire’ (but in vain) ‘to look into’ some of the NT mysteries; and in Slav. Enoch 24:3, 40:2, Enoch tells his children that not even the Angels know the secrets which he discloses to them. We gather this from the evident joy with which Angels announced the advent of the Messiah to the shepherds at Bethlehem. The Angel who brought the ‘tidings of great joy’ (Luke 2:10) clearly felt the joy himself; and the song which the heavenly host sang in praise to God was the outcome of joyous hearts. Even more explicitly is this taught in Luke 15:10 ‘There is joy in the presence of the Angels of God over one sinner that repenteth. ’ Even if the joy intended be ‘the joy of God, which breaks forth in presence of the Angels’ (Godet, in loco), still the implication would be that the heart of the Angelic throng is en rapport with the heart of ‘the happy God. ’ On this point the words of the Angel are instructive which are recorded in Revelation 22:10 ‘I am a fellow-servant with thee and with thy brethren the prophets, and with them that keep the words of this book. ’ The interpreting Angel confesses to unity of service with the Church, and in so doing implies a oneness of sympathy and love with the saints. So also when, in 1 Peter 1:12, we read that ‘the Angels desire to look into’ the marvels of redemption, there is, as Dr. Hort says, ‘a glimpse of the fellowship of Angels with prophets and evangelists, and implicitly with the suffering Christians to whom St
Angels of the Seven Churches - The general practice of NT writers points to the conclusion that the word ‘angels,’ used in this connexion, is employed to denote superhuman and celestial personalities. The fact that in the Apocalypse these ‘angels’ are to such a degree the recipients of praise and blame would seem to put both these simple interpretations out of court. ...
In supporting the contention that by the ‘angels’ of the Churches are meant the bishops, the strange conclusion has been maintained that in the words τὴν γυναῖκα [1] Ἰεζάβελ (Revelation 2:20) the author is referring to the Thyatiran bishop’s wife (see Grotius, Annotationes in Apoc. 23) describes Serapion as ‘the Angel of the church of the Thmuitae’ (cf. There is, indeed, no valid reason to suppose that the author, even in a work as highly symbolical as this is, attaches an essentially different idea to the word when he speaks of ‘the Angels of the Seven Churches. 15, there is a remarkable parallel: ‘the descent of the Angel of the Christian Church, which is in the heavens, whom He will summon in the last days. ’ Even on the supposition that the Ethiopic version, supported by some Greek Manuscripts , is a correct translation of the original, and the simple word ‘Church’ is substituted for ‘angel of the Christian Church,’ we are confronted by the primitive identification of the Church and its Angel (see Charles, Asc. ...
Perhaps the most curious feature of the letters to the Asian Churches is the way in which the writer expresses himself in terms of stern reproof or of encouragement to their ‘angels. ’ The objection to this difficulty is considered by Origen, who finds cause for marvel at the care shown by God for men: ‘forasmuch as He suffers His Angels to be blamed and rebuked on our behalf’ (hom. ...
As we have already seen, however, it is difficult to suppose that the writer intended the words to be understood as referring literally to Angels who presided over the Churches. A similar belief with respect to the guardianship of individuals is referred to incidentally as held by Jesus (Matthew 18:10), and we need not be surprised to find it applied to Churches in their corporate capacity by a writer whose teaching on the activity and functions of Angels is so advanced. Whatever the connexion between Persian and Jewish Angelology-and it is not necessary to insist on a direct borrowing-it seems to be certain that, in the period immediately subsequent to the Captivity, Parsi influence shaped, at least indirectly and remotely, the development of Hebrew thought. It is enough to say that the ‘angel’ is the personified embodiment of the spiritual character and ethos of the Church
Angel - ...
Bible Terms The term “angel” is derived from the Greek word Angelos which means “messenger. ” Angelos and the Hebrew equivalent, malak (which also means “messenger”), are the two most common terms used to describe this class of beings in the Bible. In general, in texts where an Angel appears, his task is to convey the message or do the will of the God who sent him. ...
Another set of terms used to describe Angels focuses not on Angels as mediators between God and persons, but on God's heavenly entourage. Terms such as “sons of God,” “holy ones,” and “heavenly host” seem to focus on Angels as celestial beings. ...
A third category of heavenly beings is that of winged Angels. As a result we are left with a multitude of questions about the Angelic host. Many of the most common questions asked about Angels have no clear answers in Scripture. The nature of the Angelic host is at best hinted at indirectly. ...
Angelic Hierarchy Some scholars suggest that a heavenly “host” (i. “army”) must have order and that references to archangels (1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ) and a special class of Angels which has intimate fellowship with God such as the seraphim of Isaiah 6:2-6 , indicate that Angels are organized in a rigidly fixed rank system. 500 who claimed to be Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34 , produced a ranking of Angels. According to Dionysius, the Angels are arranged in three ranks, each rank having three groups. They are “principalities,” archhyangels, and Angels. Some of the entities named (“powers,” “dominions,” “principalities”) are not clearly identified in the Bible as Angels at all. Others (cherubim and archangels) are never compared to one another in terms of rank. Perhaps most importantly, a schema which envisions the better Angels communing with God and the lesser ones ministering to humanity has no foundation in the Bible. ...
Angelic Appearance The appearance of Angels varies. Often in the Old Testament Angels appear as ordinary men. The brilliant white appearance common to the New Testament Angel is not a feature of the Old Testament image. ...
Creation of Angels Angels are created beings. But when God created Angels the Bible never reveals. If the “us” in Genesis 1:26 is a reference to God's Angelic court, then the Angels are simply present at the creation; their origin is not explained. ...
Guardian Angels Jesus' comment in Matthew 18:10 and some passages which assign protective roles to Angels (for example, Michael, Angelic prince over Israel, Matthew 1:20-242 ; Angels of specific churches in Daniel 10:13 ; Acts 12:15 ; Revelation 1:20 ; Revelation 2-3 ) imply that a heavenly counterpart represents each person in heaven. This evidence is commonly used to assert that each individual has a “guardian” Angel assigned to him or her by God. The term, “guardian Angel,” however, is not biblical, and the idea is at best only implied in these passages. The cause of the difficulty is the assumption that Scripture reveals a complete Angelology and if all the passages concerning Angels are pieced together the complete picture will be revealed. A careful survey of the biblical text, however, reveals that no such fully delineated Angelology is present. ...
Old Testament Each of the various types of literature in the Old Testament has its own concerns, and Angels appear in the texts in ways appropriate to each. and 1,2Kings) contain numerous references to Angels. Sometimes He does this directly, sometimes in the person of an Angel. Often the distinction between God's action and the Angel's is blurred to the point that they seem synonymous (Genesis 19:13 ,Genesis 19:13,19:24 ; Exodus 3:2 ,Exodus 3:2,3:4 ). ...
The Angel's function as messenger or agent of God is acted out in terms of proclamation: revealing the will of God and/or announcing key events (Genesis 19:1-22 ; Exodus 3:2-6 ; Judges 2:1-5 ; Judges 13:2-23 ); protection: ensuring the well-being or survival of God's people (Exodus 14:19-20 ; 1 Kings 19:1-8 ); and punishment: enforcing the wrath of God on the wicked among the Jews and the Gentiles (Genesis 19:12-13 ; 2 Samuel 24:17 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ). In addition, some passages reflect popular ideas about Angels (2Samuel 14:17,2 Samuel 14:20 ) which the text records but does not necessarily affirm. ...
In the books of the prophets, Angels rarely are mentioned. Thus it is not surprising that Angels (who figure in God to humanity communication) play a very small role in these books. The majority of references to Angelic activity are in the narrative books (the Gospels and Acts). The epistles include only some brief references to Angels; several books do not mention them specifically at all. Hebrews with its lengthy contrast between Jesus and the Angels is exceptional (Hebrews 1:3-2:16 ). The Apocalypse of John in its visionary nature, apocalyptic style, and reference to Angels is comparable to parts of Daniel, Zechariah, and Isaiah. ...
The basic tasks of proclamation, protection, and punishment are again the focus (1618419814_27 ; Matthew 4:11 ; Acts 12:7-11 ) while references to the nature of Angels are very brief. ...
What is perhaps most remarkable is what the New Testament texts do not say about Angels. The interbiblical period, under Persian and Greek influences, had seen an explosion of speculation about Angels. Angels (or comparable spiritual beings) in detailed hierarchies came to be understood by many as necessary mediators between God and humanity. ...
The New Testament texts contain no developed Angelic hierarchy and do not present Angels as semi-independent lesser gods. Angels are not used to explain the existence of evil, nor are they needed as intermediaries or as agents of revelation
Joseph (2) - Before the marriage ceremony Mary was ‘found with child of the Holy Ghost,’ but the Angelic annunciation to her was not made known to Joseph. An Angel, however, appeared to him in a dream, telling him not to fear to marry Mary, as the conception was of the Holy Ghost, and also that she would bring forth a son, whom he was to name Jesus (Matthew 1:20 f. § [4] In Bethlehem Jesus was born; and there the shepherds, to whom the Angel had announced the birth of the Saviour, found Mary and Joseph and ‘the babe lying in a manger’ (Luke 2:16). In Bethlehem the Wise Men who had come from the East saw Mary and ‘the young child’ and worshipped Him; and after their departure the Angel of the Lord appeared again to Joseph, bidding him take Mary and the child and flee into Egypt on account of Herod, who would seek to destroy Him (Matthew 2:13). In Egypt they were to remain till the Angel brought word to Joseph (Matthew 2:13); and there they dwelt, possibly two or even three years, till the death of Herod, when the Angel again appeared in a dream to Joseph. The Angel commanded him to take the young child and His mother and go into the land of Israel. Again the Angel appeared in a dream, and after a warning Joseph proceeded to Nazareth, which was not under the rule of Archelaus, who had an evil reputation, but under that of the milder Antipas (1618419814_10)
Nazarites - Hannah promised the Lord that no razor should touch the head of her child if the Lord would give her one, 1 Samuel 1:11, and the Angel predicted to Zacharias that John would abstain entirely from wine and strong drink
Mohammed - In 610 after receiving a call, as he alleged, from the Angel Gabriel, he entered upon an active career as a self-constituted apostle and prophet of Allah, the true God
Angelus - It takes its name from the opening word of the Latin form, "Angelus Domini nuntiavit Marire" (The Angel of the Lord declared unto Mary). The evening Angelus probably owes its origin to the "curfew bell" (French: couvre-feu, cover the fire), a signal for bedtime and evening prayer. The noon Angelus, originally used only on Fridays, was extended to other days by Pope Callistus III in 1456. An indulgence of 100 days is gained when the Angelus with three Hail Marys is said, and a plenary indulgence, conditional upon confession, communion, and prayer for the usual intentions, once a month for those who say it habitually
Joseph, Saint - The Gospel relates that he was espoused to Mary and that he was thinking of putting her away when an Angel revealed to him the Mystery of the Incarnation (Matthew 1)
Saying - 7:36,40; 8:51,52; 10:19; 14:24; 15:20; 18:9,32; 19:13; (c) by an Angel, Luke 1:29 ; (d) by OT prophets, John 12:38 (RV, "word") Romans 13:9 (ditto); 1 Corinthians 15:54 ; (e) by the Apostle Paul in the Pastoral Epp
Michael - Archangel who served as the guardian of the national of Israel (Daniel 10:13 ,Daniel 10:13,10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 ). Together with Gabriel, Michael fought for Israel against the prince (angelic patron) of Persia. This Angelic Michael figures in much extra-biblical literature in the intertestamental period. See Angel
Sennacherib - But an Angel of God destroyed the Assyrian army
Salvation - This is illustrated by the destruction of the firstborn (the strength) of Egypt when the destroying Angel passed through the land
Ancient of Days - ...
Disliking the anthropomorphic picture of God in Daniel 7:1 , Jephet, an 11th century Qaraite Jew, identified the Ancient of days as an Angel like other Angels in the Book of Daniel. In fact, Ibn Ezra singled out the archangel Michael as the Ancient of days
Melchizedek - He has been variously supposed to be the Holy Spirit, the Son of God, an Angel, Enoch and Shem
Firstborn - ...
After the destroying Angel had slain the firstborn of the Egyptians, God ordained that all the Jewish firstborn, both of men and of beasts for service, should be consecrated to him; but the male children only were subject to this law
Malachi - The last of the minor prophets, and of all the Old Testament writers; so little known, that it is doubted by some, though without sufficient reason, whether his name be a proper name, or only a generical one, signifying the Angel of the Lord that is, a messenger, a prophet, Haggai 1:13 ; Malachi 3:1
ba'Laam - He yielded to the temptations of riches and honor which Balak set before him; but God's anger was kindled at this manifestation of determined self-will, and the Angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him
Dead Sea Scrolls - historian Josephus, but, strangely, unmentioned in the New Testament. They had an interest in Angels, astrology, and prophetic prediction. Peculiar to Qumran was a dualistic view of the world in which God had appointed an Angel of light (one of his names being Melchizedek; see Genesis 14:1 ; Hebrews 7:1 ) and an Angel of darkness to govern the world, all persons being assigned to the realm of one or the other. They also avoided the Temple and developed distinctive liturgical beliefs and practices based on a communion between earthly and Angelic worship
Euphrates - In Revelation 9:14 the sixth Angel is ordered to release the four Angels who were bound at the river Euphrates, and in Revelation 16:12 the sixth Angel dries up the Euphrates for the coming of the kings of the East
Face - Thus for example;—when JEHOVAH promiseth to send his Angel before the people, and commandeth them to obey his voice, he adds, "for my name is in him. " What word could this be but the uncreated Word, which was, in the after ages of the church, "made flesh, and dwelt among us?" (John 1:1-4) Surely, in these and numberless other instances, spoken of in the Old Testament Scripture, of JEHOVAH'S appearance, sometimes in the form of a man, and sometimes of an Angel, the Lord Jesus is all along intended to be represented
Pre-Existence of Jesus Christ - Christ is represented as his Father's messenger, or Angel, being distinct from his Father, sent by his Father, long before his incarnation, to perform actions which seem to be too low for the dignity of pure Godhead. The appearances of Christ to the patriarchs are described like the appearance of an Angel, or man really distinct from God; yet one, in whom God, or Jehovah, had a peculiar indwelling, or with whom the divine nature had a personal union,...
2. This preexistent intelligence, supposed in this doctrine, is so confounded with those other intelligences called Angels, that there is great danger of mistaking this human soul for an Angel, and so of making the person of Christ to consist of three natures
Nazarene - As this name was given to our Lord Jesus Christ, and we are told by the evangelist, that his residence in Nazareth was on this account, that he might be so called, it will certainly merit particular attention. ...
And first, then, I request to remark on the expression of the evangelist Matthew, (Matthew 2:23) "And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets—he should be called a Nazarene?"...
The question is, what prophets are there who so spake concerning Christ? To which I answer, all the writers of the Old Testament are generally called prophets, because many of their sayings are really and truly prophesies. ...
The third step to which I beg the reader to follow me, in this most interesting subject concerning our glorious Nazarite, and justly called so, is in the writings of the evangelist St. ...
Thus the Holy Ghost, by the evangelist, states the circumstances of the conception, of Christ, (Luke 1:26, etc. ) "And in the sixth month, the Angel Gabriel was sent from God, unto a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin espoused to a man, whose name was Joseph, of the house of David, and the virgin's name was Mary. And the Angel came in unto her, and said, Hail! thou that are highly favoured, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women. And the Angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found favour with God; and behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name Jesus. The miraculous power of the Holy Ghost is no sooner announced, and Mary's consent obtained, than the impregnation takes place; so that "that Holy thing," or the man of the unction, as Christ is declared by the Angel to be, is immediately conceived, and the Nazarite from the womb is formed in the city of Nazareth, as the prophet had foretold. The birth of Samson was announced precisely in the same manner, by the ministry of an Angel. The message the Angel brought to Manoah's wife, and to the Virgin Mary, were (as far as the similarity of circumstances would admit) so much alike, that one might be led to conclude that the messenger was the same, and the one ministered but to the other. And lastly, and above all, as the Angel concerning Samson declared, that he should be a Nazarite to God from the womb, and should begin to deliver Israel out of the hand of the Philistines, so eminently did the Angel announce to the Virgin Mary concerning the Lord Jesus Christ, that he should be that Holy Thing, and be called the Son of the Highest, and should deliver "his people from their sins. " (John 19:19) Still farther, the Angels which attended the Lord's sepulchre, when he arose from the dead, announced to the pious women the resurrection of Christ by the same name, "Ye seek Jesus of Nazareth, which was crucified; he is risen, he is not here; behold the place where the Lord lay
Angels - " The "Angel of God" often means the Divide Word, "the Image of the invisible God," God Himself manifested (Colossians 1:15; Genesis 22:11-12; Genesis 16:7; Genesis 16:13; Genesis 31:11; Genesis 31:13; Genesis 48:15-16; Genesis 33:14; compare Isaiah 63:9; Exodus 3:2; Exodus 3:6; Exodus 3:14; Exodus 23:20-22; Acts 27:23-24, compare Acts 23:11; Numbers 22:22-32-35); accepting as His due the worship which Angels reject as mere creatures (Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9); this manifestation was as man, an anticipation of the incarnation (John 1:18; Genesis 18:2; Genesis 18:22; Genesis 19:1; Genesis 32:24; Genesis 32:30; Joshua 5:13; Joshua 5:15). ...
"Angel," "Son of God," "Gods" (Εlohim ), "Holy One," in the fullest sense, are names of the divine Word alone. His incarnation is the center by reference to which all Angelic ministration is best understood. Compare John 1:51, Greek (aparti ), "from this time forth ye shall see heaven open" (heretofore shut, against man by sin: Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:19-20) "and the Angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man," as the antitypical Jacob's ladder, the center of communication between men and God, the redeemed and the Angelic world; Jesus' miracles, of which mention immediately follows (John 2), are firstfruit of this newly opened communion of earth and heaven (Genesis 28:12-17). Secondarily, God's created messengers; as Israel (Isaiah 42:19), Haggai (Haggai 1:13), John (Malachi 3:1; Malachi 2:7), the priesthood, ministers (Ecclesiastes 5:6), the rulers or Angels of the Christian churches (Revelation 1:20), as Εlohim , "gods" is applied to judges (Psalms 82:6); compare Jesus' application, John 10:34-37. ...
As to the nature of "angels" in the limited sense, they are "spirits" (Hebrews 1:7; Revelation 1:14-162), of wind-like velocity, subtle nature, capable of close communion with God; sharers in His truth, purity, and love, since they ever behold His face (Matthew 18:10), even as the redeemed shall (1 John 3:2); not necessarily incorporeal; Luke 20:36 (compare Philippians 3:21), 1 Corinthians 15:44, seemingly but not certainly imply their having bodies. Close kindred of nature between Angels and men is implied in both being alike called "sons of God" (Job 1:6; Job 38:7; Daniel 3:25; Daniel 3:28) and "gods" (Εlohim ) (Psalms 8:5; Hebrew Εlohim "angels," Psalms 97:7; Luke 3:38). "The elect Angels" fell not; they take part, by act and sympathy, in our affairs, and shall witness the Judgment (Luke 15:10; 1 Corinthians 4:9). The probation of the elect Angels is over; their crown is won, they are the "holy ones" now (Daniel 8:13), under the blessed necessity of sinning no more. Bad Angels are permitted to try believers now, as Job; good Angels are God's ministers of vengeance on the bad (Revelation 12:8-9; Revelation 20:1-2). Such shall the saints be at last, "equal to the Angels," holy, made perfect, judges of Angels and the world, ministering mediators of blessing to subject creatures (Hebrews 12:23; 1 Corinthians 6:2-3; Revelation 5:10). ...
In the natural world Angels minister, as in directing wind and flame (according to one translation of Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 1:7): "the Angel of Jehovah" wrought in the plague on the Egyptian firstborn (Exodus 12:23; Hebrews 11:28), and on the rebels in the wilderness (1 Corinthians 10:10), on Israel under David (2 Samuel 24:16; 1 Chronicles 21:16), on Sennacherib's army (2 Kings 19:35), on Herod (Acts 12:23). An Angel troubled the pool of Bethesda (the Alex. " In the spiritual world too: by their ministration the Sinaitic law was given, "ordained by Angels" (Galatians 3:19), "spoken" by them (Hebrews 2:2), by their "disposition" or appointment (Acts 7:53; compare Deuteronomy 33:2; Psalms 68:17). When man fell by evil Angels, with beautiful propriety it was ordered that other Angels, holy and unfallen, should minister for God in His reparation of the evil caused to man by their fallen fellow spirits. "Manna" is called "angels' food," "the grain of heaven"; not that Angels eat it, but it came from above whence Angels come, and through their ministry (Psalms 78:25). By God's Angel Daniel was saved in the lions' den (Daniel 6:22); compare Daniel 3:28 as to the fiery furnace. Daniel 10 unfolds the mysterious truth that there are Angel princes in the spirit world, answering to the God-opposed leaders of kingdoms in the political world, the prince of Persia and the prince of Grecia standing in antagonism to Michael. Compare Genesis 24:7; Genesis 24:40 (the Angelic guidance of Abraham's servant in choosing a wife for Isaac, and encouraging Jacob in his loneliness at Bethel on first leaving home, Genesis 28) with Judges 6:21-22; Judges 13:16; Judges 13:22. ...
When the Lord of Angels became flesh, they ministered before and at His birth (Luke 1; 2; Matthew 1:20), after the temptation (Matthew 4:11), in the agony of Gethsemane (Luke 22:43), at His resurrection and ascension (Matthew 28:2; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Acts 1:10-11). (In Acts 12, the remark, "it is his Peter's Angel," receives no countenance from Peter or the inspired writer of Acts, Luke; but is the uninspired guess of those in Mary's house. Their number is counted by myriad's (Hebrews 12:22; Greek "to myriads, namely the festal assembly of Angels") (Deuteronomy 33:2; Psalms 68:17; Daniel 7:10; Judges 1:14). ...
There are various ranks, thrones, principalities, powers in the Angelic kingdom of light, as there are also in Satan's kingdom of darkness (Ephesians 1:22; Ephesians 6:12; Colossians 1:16; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1; Romans 8:38). ) Some conjecture that Angels had originally natural bodies, which have been developed into spiritual bodies, as the saints' bodies shall (1 Corinthians 15:40-46); for they in Scripture accept material food (Genesis 18) and appear in human form, and never dwell in men's bodies as the demons, who, naked and homeless, seek human bodies as their habitation (see Luke 20:36, "equal unto the Angels": Philippians 3:20-21). Doubtless, besides the material instruments and visible agents, the invisible Angels work in a marvelous way, under God's providence, guiding events at the crisis so as to carry out the foreordained end. The saints (the living creatures and 24 elders) occupy the inner circle, the Angels the outer circle, round the throne of the Lamb (Revelation 5:11)
Nazareth - The Franciscans built their church so that fifteen steps led down to the ancient Chapel of the Angel, and two to the grotto with its altar of the Annunciation
Appear - ...
The Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of the bush
Alms - The Angel carries the gift up to Heaven, presents it before the Lord, and before the rest of the heavenly group so that all will know that the money placed in the collection and the money sent to missions and the money given to assist otherwise in GOD's work represents your interest in it
Beware - Behold, I send an Angel before thee--beware of him, and obey his voice
Hail - This word is sometimes used as a noun as, the Angel hail bestowed
Depart - Nâsa‛ is used to describe the “movement” of the Angel of God and the pillar of cloud as they came between Israel and the pursuing Egyptians at the Sea of Reeds ( Spirit - The term spirit is also often used for an Angel, a demon, and a ghost, or soul separate from the body. It is said, in Acts 23:8 , that the Sadducees denied the existence of Angels and spirits. Paul calls the good Angels "ministering spirits,"...
Hebrews 1:14
Evangelists - The word is derived from the Greek, ευαγτελιον , formed of ευ , bene, "well," and αγτελος , Angel, messenger. The name of evangelists is said by some to have been given in the ancient church to such as preached the Gospel without being attached to any particular church, being either commissioned by the Apostles to instruct the nations, or, of their own accord, abandoning every worldly attachment, consecrated themselves to the sacred office of preaching the Gospel. Philip, who was one of the seven deacons, is called "the evangelist" in Acts 21:8 ; and that St. Paul, writing to Timothy, bids him do the work of an evangelist, 2 Timothy 4:5 . It is, however, to be remarked, that the office in which the evangelists chiefly present themselves to our notice in the New Testament, is that of assistants to the Apostles; or, as they might be termed, vice apostles, who acted under their authority and direction. As they were directed to ordain pastors or bishops in the churches, but had no authority given them to ordain successors to themselves in their particular office as evangelists, whatever it might be, they must be considered as but temporary officers in the church, like the Apostles and prophets. The term evangelist is, at present, confined to the writers of the four Gospels
Trouble - ...
An Angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water
Gospel - The word "Gospel" is derived from the Anglo-SaxonGodspell, signifying "good news"; founded originally on certainwords used by the Angel in announcing the Saviour's Birth, viz. Such was the "good tidings"announced by the Angelic choir, such is the purpose of the NewTestament Scriptures, and that Gospel religion or Gospel preachingwhich brings these sublime facts to bear on the hearts and livesof men, as living realities and guiding motives, alone can beScriptural and truly Gospel
Abaddon - ...
In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is not merely personified in the free poetic manner of Job 28:22, but is used as the personal designation in Hebrew of a fallen Angel described as the king of the locusts and ‘the Angel of the abyss,’ whose name in the Greek tongue is said to be Apollyon
River - In the first (Revelation 8:10), when the third Angel sounds, there falls from heaven a great star, burning as a torch, upon the third part of the ‘rivers’ and upon the fountains of waters. In the second passage (Revelation 16:4), the third Angel pours out his bowl into the ‘rivers’ and fountains of waters, and they become blood. In the first (Revelation 9:14), the sixth Angel with the trumpet is bidden to loose the four Angels that are bound at ‘the great river Euphrates,’ that they may lead forth a mighty army to the sad disaster of Rome. In a parallel passage (Revelation 16:12) the sixth Angel pours out his bowl on the Euphrates, and its waters are dried up that the way may be ready for the kings (of Parthia) to cross over (cf
Hagar - The Angel of Jehovah reminded her that as "Sarai's maid" she owed her submission, and promised that her son Ishmael should be father of a numerous nation. )...
The lad's own cry, still more than the mother's, brought "the Angel of God" (here only in Gen. , usually "angel of JEHOVAH"), i
Send - ...
The most frequent use of shâlach suggests the sending of someone or something as a messenger to a particular place: “… He shall send his Angel before thee, and thou shalt take a wife unto my son from thence” ( Angel (messenger) will be sent to Nahor to prepare things for the successful accomplishment of the servant’s task. The Angel with whom Jacob wrestled said: “Let me go, for the day breaketh” ( Angels - Angels are God’s servants and messengers in the heavenly and spiritual realm, where they find true satisfaction in the unceasing worship and service of God. ...
Good and bad Angels...
At some time before the creation of humans, some of the Angels, under the leadership of one who became known as Satan, rebelled against God and so fell from their original sinless state (2 Peter 2:4; Judges 1:6). As a result there are good Angels and evil Angels. Christ has Angels and so has Satan (Job 4:18; Matthew 25:31; Revelation 12:7-97; Judges 1:9; 2 Samuel 24:164). ...
Both good and bad Angels are under God’s sovereign rule, the difference between them being that the good Angels are obedient and the evil Angels rebellious. Even the chief of the evil Angels, Satan, is no more than a created being under the authority of God. Satan and the evil Angels who follow him can do their evil work only within the limits that God allows (Job 1:12; Job 2:6; see SATAN). ...
Because of the high position that Angels have as God’s heavenly servants, the Bible speaks of them as holy ones, as stars, and even as sons of God. Again these expressions may apply to good Angels and bad Angels (Job 1:6; Job 2:1; Job 5:1; Job 15:15; Job 38:7; Psalms 89:5; Psalms 89:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 12:3-4; Revelation 12:9). (The remainder of this article will be concerned only with good Angels. For further discussion on evil Angels see DEMONS. )...
Dealings with humankind...
Angels have many functions in relation to humankind, but above all they are God’s messengers (Genesis 19:1; Genesis 28:12; Exodus 3:2; Numbers 22:22; Judges 2:1-4; Judges 6:11; 1618419814_3; 1 Kings 13:18; Ezekiel 1:4-146; Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 13:41; Matthew 16:27; Luke 1:26-31; Acts 10:3-4; Galatians 3:19; e. In many of the earlier Old Testament references, the Angel (or messenger) of God appears to be almost the same as God himself. This is possibly because the Angel is so closely identified with God as his messenger that when he speaks God speaks. The Angel’s temporary physical appearance is God’s temporary physical appearance (cf. ...
To the godly, an Angel may be a guide (Genesis 24:7; Genesis 24:40; Exodus 14:19; Acts 8:26; Acts 27:23), a protector (Psalms 34:7; Psalms 91:11; Daniel 6:22; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Matthew 18:10), a deliverer (Isaiah 63:9; Daniel 3:28; Matthew 26:53; Acts 5:19), an interpreter of visions (Daniel 8:16; Zechariah 1:8-14; Revelation 1:1; Revelation 22:6) and, in fact, a sympathetic helper in all circumstances (Hebrews 1:13-14; Luke 22:43; Luke 15:10). Yet to the ungodly, Angels may be God’s messengers of judgment (Matthew 13:39; Matthew 13:41; Matthew 25:31-32; Acts 12:23; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-8). ...
There are various categories of Angels (Genesis 3:24; Isaiah 6:2; Ezekiel 10:3; Colossians 1:16; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; Judges 1:9; see MICHAEL). Angels themselves do not have a physical form and do not reproduce their kind as humans do (Matthew 22:30). ...
Cherubim are spirit beings of one of the higher Angelic orders. ...
Great though Angelic beings are, human beings should not worship them (Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8-9). Jesus Christ is the one whom people should worship; for he is God, and therefore far above Angels (Hebrews 1:5-13; Ephesians 1:20-21; Colossians 2:10; Revelation 5:11-14). Those who through faith are united with Christ will thereby share Christ’s dominion in the age to come, and this will involve them in judgment of Angels (Hebrews 2:5-9; 1 Corinthians 6:3)
Herod Agrippa i. - ' But in the midst of this idolatrous ostentation an Angel of God suddenly smote him
Bethesda - John 5:4, as to the Angel troubling the water, is omitted in the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus manuscripts, but is found in the Alexandrinus, and John 5:7 favors it. The Angels, in a way unknown to us, doubtless act as God's ministers in the world of nature. God maketh His Angelic messengers the directing powers, acting by the winds and flaming lightning. ...
The Angelic actings, limited and fitful, attested at that time that God was visiting His people, throwing into the brighter prominence at the same time the actings of the divine Son (compare Hebrew 1), who healed not merely one exceptionally but all who came to Him, whatever might be their disease, and instantaneously
Melchizedek - Another tradition, equally old, but not so widely accepted, considers him to be an Angel, the Son of God in human form, the Messiah
Calf - The four living creatures remind us of certain of the signs of the zodiac (bull, Angel, lion, eagle), and possibly they have some connexion with that source (so Moffatt and Gunkel), Irenaeus (iii. 8) associate the living creatures with the four evangelists, and holds that the ‘calf,’ signifying the priestly and sacrificial character of Jesus, is the symbol of St
Key - ...
Revelation 9:1 (a) The key in this passage represents the divine right and power given by GOD to the Angel to open and close the pit of hell in order that the purposes of GOD might be performed
Jesus - He is not, as some cults teach, an Angel who became a man (Jehovah's Witnesses) or the brother of the devil (Mormonism)
Censer - The Angel in the Apocalypse is represented with a golden censer (Revelation 8:3,5 )
Penuel - The strange aspect of the place harmonizes with the name given after Jacob's wrestling with the Angel of Jehovah, "the Face of God
Hagar - When she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes, and on being harshly dealt with, she absconded; but the Angel of the Lord bade her return
Jabbok - Near this brook the Angel wrestled with Jacob, Genesis 32:22
Caesarea - ...
It is noted in gospel history as the residence of Philip the evangelist, Acts 8:40 21:8 ; and of Cornelius the centurion, the first fruits from the Gentiles, Acts 10:1-48 11:1-18 Here Herod Agrippa was smitten by the Angel of God, Acts 12:20-23
Smite - 1: πατάσσω (Strong's #3960 — Verb — patasso — pat-as'-so ) "to strike, smite," is used (I) literally, of giving a blow with the hand, or fist or a weapon, Matthew 26:51 , RV, "smote" (AV, "struck"); Luke 22:49,50 ; Acts 7:24 ; 12:7 ; (II) metaphorically, (a) of judgment meted out to Christ, Matthew 26:31 ; Mark 14:27 ; (b) of the infliction of disease, by an Angel, Acts 12:23 ; of plagues to be inflicted upon men by two Divinely appointed witnesses, Revelation 11:6 ; (c) of judgment to be executed by Christ upon the nations, Revelation 19:15 , the instrument being His Word, described as a sword. ...
5: πλήσσω (Strong's #4141 — Verb — plesso — place'-so ) akin to plege, "a plague, stripe, wound," is used figuratively of the effect upon sun, moon and stars, after the sounding of the trumpet by the fourth Angel, in the series of Divine judgments upon the world hereafter, Revelation 8:12
Saints - Thus when spoken of Angels, or beings of higher intellect than man, there is a peculiar degree of holiness annexed to the word saint in those instances. And with respect to the holiness of men or Angels it is possible, yea more than possible, even highly probable, that when a sinner is washed from all his sins in Christ's blood, he is holier than an Angel which never sinned; and eminently on this account—the holiness of the sinner in his renewed nature is the holiness of God our Saviour, from a life received from Jesus and union with Jesus: whereas the holiness of the Angel is but the holiness of the creature, a created holiness, and not derived from any life-union with Christ. The holy Angels are said by JEHOVAH (Job 4:18) to have no trust put in them, yea,"he chargeth them with folly, or weakness—that is, with a possibility of falling. Angels have fallen, and therefore Angels may fall
Samson - His birth had been pre-announced by an Angel to his mother, who had long been childless. The Angel told his parents that he was to be a Nazarite (that is, a separated one) from his birth
Targum - And the Angel of the Lord called him from the heavens and said, Abraham, Abraham. The eyes of Abraham were intent upon the eyes of Isaac; and the eyes of Isaac were intent upon the Angels on high. The Angels on high answered, Come, behold how these are alone in the world; the one slays the other; he who slays delays not; he that is slain reaches forth his neck. And the Angel of the Lord called him from the heavens, and said to him, Abraham, Abraham
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - On returning to his spouse, wearing the white robe of a neophyte, he found her praying in her chamber, and an Angel of God at her side. In answer to Valerian's prayer, the Angel promised that his brother, Tiburtius, should become a Christian, and foretold that both brothers should receive the crown of martyrdom. We may certainly believe that Dryden's "drew an Angel down" had its origin in a misunderstanding of pictures. The Acts relate that on her wedding night she told Valerianus that she was under the protection of an Angel who would punish him if he did not respect her chastity, and whom he could see for himself if he would be baptized. This no doubt is the Angel who appears in pictures of St. Caecilia, and there is no ground for the idea that the Angel came down to listen to her music
Egypt - The record, moreover, is confined to the first of the Evangelists, and is by him associated with the fulfilment of prophecy, as one of the links which drew together the ancient Hebrew Scriptures and the life of our Lord. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an Angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f. The return to Palestine, again at the bidding of an Angel of the Lord in a dream, is described (Matthew 2:19 ff. ); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. ...
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. ), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an Angel making their home at Nazareth. A palm-tree bends down its boughs that Mary may pluck the fruit; and as a reward a branch of it is carried by an Angel to Paradise. The Angel directs Mary to return, and she goes with the child to Nazareth. Matthew; and for the Apocryphal additions to the history, Tischendorf’s Evangelia Apocrypha, Leipzig, 1853
Egypt - The record, moreover, is confined to the first of the Evangelists, and is by him associated with the fulfilment of prophecy, as one of the links which drew together the ancient Hebrew Scriptures and the life of our Lord. Matthew relates that Joseph, in obedience to the command of God, conveyed by an Angel in a dream, took refuge in Egypt with the child and His mother from the murderous intentions of Herod the king (Matthew 2:13 f. The return to Palestine, again at the bidding of an Angel of the Lord in a dream, is described (Matthew 2:19 ff. ); the Evangelist sees history repeating itself in a new exodus, which, like the earlier departure from Egypt, signalizes the beginning of a new national life, and is the promise and pledge of Divine favour. ...
The narrative of the Evangelist is absolutely simple and unadorned, and amounts to little more than a mention of the journey into Egypt made under Divine direction. ), where they see the Pharaoh, and remain three years, during which period Jesus works many miracles; returning at the end of the three years to Palestine, and by direction of an Angel making their home at Nazareth. A palm-tree bends down its boughs that Mary may pluck the fruit; and as a reward a branch of it is carried by an Angel to Paradise. The Angel directs Mary to return, and she goes with the child to Nazareth. Matthew; and for the Apocryphal additions to the history, Tischendorf’s Evangelia Apocrypha, Leipzig, 1853
Hail - The seventh Angel having poured his bowl upon the air, ‘great hail, every stone about a talent in weight, cometh down out of heaven upon men’ (Revelation 16:21)
Abaddon - that is, Destroyer, is represented, Revelation 9:11 : as king of the locusts, and the Angel of the bottomless pit
Smyrna - On these hills lie the scanty remains of the ancient city; among which is the ground-plot of the stadium, where is said to have occurred the martyrdom of Polycarp-the pupil of the apostle John, and very probably "the Angel of the church in Ephesus," Revelation 2:8
Balaam - ...
But the Angel of the Lord stood in a path in the vineyard, a wall being on this side and a wall on that side. And when the ass saw the Angel of the Lord she thrust herself into the wall, and crushed Balaam's foot against the wall. And, besides, the prevaricating Angel practised upon the prophet, and perplexed the prophet's intellect and judgment, till he did not know what to do. We would never have taken that Angel for an Angel of the Lord had he not been so named of the sacred writer. For it is surely not usual with such Angels at once to oppose a man and to push him on. I pity Balaam-what with his ass; what with that Angel of the Lord; what with his crushed foot; and then with all his other bones out of joint, since his ass fell down under him. If it displease thee, said the so pious and so perplexed prophet to the two-faced Angel-if it displease thee for me to go on, then I will turn and get me back again. By no means, said the Angel. And Balaam mounted his ass with the help of the Angel and came to Balak. And, as the Lord liveth, all His Angels, with all their irony and all their evil help, shall not sophisticate me out of my soul tonight. I shall not ask any Angel, from heaven or from hell, whether it displeases him or no. ...
But, Balaam,-ass, and Angel, and crushed foot, and Almighty God Himself notwithstanding, he would have the wages of unrighteousness
Melchisedech - In Jewish tradition Melchisedech is commonly identified with Sem; Origen and Didymus held him to have been an Angel; some even thought that he Wall an incarnation of the Holy Spirit or the Son of God
Melchizedek - In Jewish tradition Melchisedech is commonly identified with Sem; Origen and Didymus held him to have been an Angel; some even thought that he Wall an incarnation of the Holy Spirit or the Son of God
Abednego - One like unto the Son of God, or a Divine person, probably the Angel of the Divine presence himself, appeared in the midst of them; and they came out of the furnace, which had been heated seven times hotter than usual, so completely preserved from the power of the flames, that not even "the smell of fire had passed upon them
Prison - The Angel conducted Peter through the first and second guard to the outer iron gate that led into the city. ...
Fallen Angels are said to be kept in 'everlasting chains,' Jude 6 ; and there are spirits which are kept in prison
Horeb - That this was Christ, the Angel of the Covenant, who manifested himself to the man of God, there can be no question, by comparing the account of this solemn interview, as it is related in Exodus, chap
Philip - Philip was, probably, at Samaria, when an Angel commanded him to go on the road that leads from Jerusalem to old Gaza
Tables of the Law - The words which intimate that the tables were written by the finger of God, some understand simply and literally; others, of the ministry of an Angel; and others explain them merely to signify an order of God to Moses to write them
Wake - The Angel that talked with me, came again and waked me
Laodicea - ...
The Angel of the Laodicean church is supposed to be Archippus whom Paul 30 years before had warned to be diligent in fulfilling his ministry (Colossians 4:17). He endured a sore conflict, striving in anxious prayer in behalf of the churches of Ephesus and Laodicea that they might be delivered from Judaizing teachers, who blended Eastern theosophy and Angel worship with Jewish asceticism and observance of new moons and sabbaths, professing a deeper insight into the world of spirits and a nearer approach to heavenly purity and intelligence than the simple gospel afforded (Colossians 2:8-9; Colossians 2:16-23)
Zacharias - ) at the Angel' s announcement of John's birth was retributively punished by dumbness (contrast Psalms 116:10; 2 Corinthians 4:13), a warning to Israel whose representative he was of the consequences of unbelief if the nation should reject the gospel just coming; just as Mary on the contrary was an example of the blessedness which would flow if they believed (Luke 1:45; Luke 1:38). ...
Faith (dictating the name for his son given by the Angel: Luke 1:13; Luke 1:63-64) opened his mouth, as faith shall cause Israel in the last days to confess her Lord, and the veil on her heart shall be taken away (2 Corinthians 3:15-16)
Angel - Comp 19:1), to Jacob at Peniel (Genesis 32:24,30 ), to Joshua at Gilgal (Joshua 5:13,15 ), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God. ...
...
The existence and orders of Angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Such expressions as "like the Angels" (Luke 20:36 ), and the fact that whenever Angels appeared to man it was always in a human form (Genesis 18:2 ; 19:1,10 ; Luke 24:4 ; Acts 1:10 ), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6 ; 38:7 ; Daniel 3:25 ; Compare 28) and to men (Luke 3:38 ), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen Angels. When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence (Psalm 78:25 ). Angels never die (Luke 20:36 ). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the Angels" (Luke 20:36 ). There is no notice of Angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the Angels appear only in their behalf (1 Kings 19:5 ; 2 Kings 6:17 ; Zechariah 1-6 ; Daniel 4:13,23 ; 10:10,13,20,21 ). The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of Angels. The passages (Psalm 34:7 , Matthew 18:10 ) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian Angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of Angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the Angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples. ...
The "angel of his presence" (Isaiah 63:9
Bethesda - It was the pool which the evangelist John speaks of, John 5:2. But had they attended to what the Holy Ghost hath recorded, by his servant John, in the history of the Bethesda, they would have observed, that the peculiar miraculous quality the pool possessed, was only at a certain season, and from the descent of an Angel into the pool; and the miracle expressly limited also to one person. ...
Some have raised questions of doubt concerning the reality of the pool itself, because it is not noticed by any of the evangelists but John. But this, if admitted as an argument of doubt, would go farther than the objectors perhaps intend; since the same cause of objection would equally hold good against the pool of Siloam, the resurrection of Lazarus, several of the sweet and precious discourses of Christ, his miracle of Cana, at Galilee, and very many other blessed relations concerning the Lord Jesus, which are mentioned by none of the other evangelists. But as then, it was the descent of an Angel into the pool which gave efficacy to the waters, so now, it is by the coming of our Lord Jesus, the almighty Angel of the covenant, into our midst, that any saving effect can be derived from the purest ordinances, or forms of worship
Angels - -The passages in the apostolic writings in which Angels are mentioned or referred to will be examined; some of them are ambiguous and have been interpreted in various ways. The doctrine of the OT and of the apocryphal period on the subject has been so fully dealt with in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) that it is unnecessary to do more than refer incidentally to it here; and the Angelology of the Gospels has been treated at length in Dict. Of these the Apocalypse, as might be expected from the subject, calls for special attention; no book of the OT or the NT is so full of references to the Angels, and it is the more remarkable that the other Johannine writings have so few. The Fourth Gospel refers to Angels only thrice (John 1:51; John 12:29; John 20:12; John 5:4 is a gloss [1]), and the three Epistles not at all. The Angels as heavenly beings. -From the earliest times the Israelites had been taught to believe in Angels, but after the Captivity the doctrine greatly developed. Yet some of the Jews rejected all belief in them, and this sharply divided the Pharisees from the Sadducees, who said ‘that there is no resurrection, neither Angel, nor spirit’; the Pharisees confessed both (Acts 23:8). ...
Angels are creatures, as the Jews had always taught (Thackeray, Relation of St. ); the worship of Angels was one of the grave errors at Colossae (Colossians 2:18). ...
Much emphasis is laid, lest it should be thought that Angels were of the some degree as our Lord, on the fact that Jesus is immeasurably higher than they; as in Hebrews 1:4 ff. (no Angel is called ‘the Son’; Angels worship the Firstborn), Hebrews 1:13 (no Angel set at the right hand of God), Hebrews 2:5 (the world to come is not made subject to Angels, but to man-v. shows that the Representative Man is meant, who condescended to be, in His Incarnation, made a little lower than the Angels). In 1 Peter 3:22 ‘angels and authorities and powers’ are made subject to the ascended Christ; and so in Ephesians 1:21. Here the evil Angels are spoken of. ...
Angels are spirits (Hebrews 1:7; Hebrews 1:14); cf. they seem to be differentiated from ‘spirits’ (‘no resurrection, neither Angel, nor spirit … what if a spirit hath spoken to him or an Angel?’). The ‘angel’ is the species, the ‘spirit’ the genus (Alford). All Angels are spirits, though all spirits are not Angels. both the resurrection and Angel-spirits; only two categories are intended. ...
But, though they are spirits, Angels are not omnipresent or omniscient, for these are attributes of Deity. Ephesians 3:10 (whether good or bad Angels are there spoken of); it is implied in 1 Peter 1:12 (the Angels desire to look into the mysteries of the gospel) and in 1 Corinthians 2:6 ff. , if ‘rulers of this world’ are the evil Angels (see Demon). The limitation of the Angels’ knowledge is also stated in Ethiopic Enoch, xvi. ?), where the Angels who fell in Genesis 6:2 (so ‘sons of God’ are interpreted) are said not to have had the hidden things yet revealed to them, though they knew worthless mysteries, which they recounted to the women (ed. ?), God says that He had not told His secrets even to His Angels. ...
The good Angels are Angels of light, as opposed to the powers of darkness (2 Corinthians 11:14; contrast Ephesians 6:12); so, when the Angel came to St. ...
They neither marry nor are given in marriage; and so in the resurrection life there is no marrying, for men will be ‘as Angels in heaven’ (Matthew 22:30, Mark 12:25), ‘equal to Angels’ (ἰσάγγελοι, Luke 20:36). ...
The unfallen Angels are holy (Revelation 14:10, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26, and some Manuscripts of Matthew 25:31; so perhaps 1 Thessalonians 3:13, Judges 1:14 [5]; cf. This is the meaning of ‘elect’ Angels in 1 Timothy 5:21 -not Angels chosen to guard the Ephesian Church; they are mentioned here because they will accompany our Lord to judgment or (Grimm) because they are chosen by God to rule. Ranks of the Angels. -There was a great tendency in later Jewish writings to elaborate the Angelic hierarchy. Ezekiel 1:15), Angels of power, Angels of principalities, are mentioned (cf. 7); in the Secrets of Enoch (20) we read of archangels, incorporeal powers, lordships, principalities, powers, cherubim, seraphim, ‘ten troops. Paul shows some impatience at the Colossian fondness for elaborating these divisions; yet in the NT we find traces of ranks of Angels. In Judges 1:9 the archangel (Michael) is mentioned; so in 1 Thessalonians 4:16, where Michael is doubtless meant. In Romans, Colossians, and Ephesians no organized hierarchy is mentioned; and sometimes the reference seems to be to the whole Angelic band, sometimes to the evil Angels, when principalities, powers, dominions, thrones are referred to (Colossians 1:16 θρόνοι, κυριότητες, ἀρχαί, ἐξουσίαι; Colossians 2:10; Colossians 2:15 ἀρχή, ἐξουσία; Ephesians 1:21 ἀρχή, ἐξουσία, δύναμις, κυριότης; Ephesians 3:10; Ephesians 6:12 ἀρχαί, ἐξουσίαι; Romans 8:38 ἄγγελοι, ἀρχαί, δυνάμεις; 1 Corinthians 15:24 ἀρχή, ἐξουσία, δύναμις). Paul takes the ideas current in Asia Minor as to the ranks of the Angels, but does not himself enunciate any doctrine; indeed, in Ephesians 1:21 he adds, ‘and every name that is named
The Christian Fathers and the heretical teachers greatly elaborated the Angelic hierarchy; of these perhaps the writer who had most influence was pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (de Cœl. 500), who divided the heavenly host into three divisions, with three subdivisions in each: (1) thrones, cherubim, seraphim; (2) powers (ἐξουσίαι), lordships (κυριότητες), mights (δυνάμεις); (3) Angels, archangels, principalities (ἀρχαί). For other divisions of Angels in post-apostolic times see Lightfoot’s note on Colossians 1:16. ...
Very few names of Angels occur in the NT. Of the holy Angels only Gabriel (Luke 1:19; Luke 1:26) and Michael (Judges 1:9, Revelation 12:7) are named (from Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1). Function of the Angels. -The NT represents the Angels as having a double activity, towards God and towards man. -The Angels are ‘liturgic spirits’ (λειτουργικὰ πνεύματα, Hebrews 1:14; cf. OT]'>[11] for יְשַׁמְּשׁוּנֵהּ, ‘ministered unto him’; the Chigi Septuagint has ἐθεράπευον αὐτόν); their ministry is an ordered one, before the throne of God: ‘the whole host of His Angels … minister (λειτουργοῦσιν) unto His will, standing by Him’ (Clem. ); they worship the Firstborn when He is brought into the world (Hebrews 1:6), and are witnesses of the Incarnation (1 Timothy 3:16 ‘seen of Angels’-but Grimm interprets ἀγγέλοις here as the apostles, witnesses of the risen Christ, and Swete thinks the reference is to the Agony in Gethsemane [13] Angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven’; and in Luke 1:19 (see above). The words in Jude are certainly to be understood of the Angels, and this makes the similar interpretation of 1 Thessalonians 3:13 more likely. The attendance of the Angels on the Great Judge is mentioned in all four Gospels (Matthew 13:41; Matthew 16:27; Matthew 24:31; Matthew 25:31, Mark 8:38; Mark 13:27, Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8 f. -The Angels do service (διακονία) to man as heirs of salvation (Hebrews 1:14). In Matthew 26:53 Jesus says that Angels would have ministered to Him, had He so willed, when Judas betrayed Him. ...
The Angels are spectators of our lives: 1 Corinthians 4:9 ‘a spectacle (θέατρον) to Angels’; 1 Timothy 5:21 ‘in the sight of God and Christ Jesus and the elect Angels’; 1 Peter 1:12, the Angels ‘look into’-‘glance at,’ or perhaps ‘pore over’ (see Bigg, Com. This is the office of Angels which is most prominent in the NT; see Acts 7:35; Acts 7:38 (Moses) Acts 8:26 (Philip) Acts 10:3; Acts 10:7; Acts 10:22; Acts 10:30 (Peter, Cornelius) Acts 11:13 (Peter) Acts 12:7-11 (Peter in prison) Acts 23:9 (Paul) Acts 27:23 (Paul on his voyage), Hebrews 13:2 (reference to Abraham, Genesis 18), and frequently in Rev. Paul alludes to this work of the Angels in Galatians 1:8, which suggests that they must be proved, as spirits must be (1 Corinthians 12:10, 1 John 4:1, etc. ; see Demon, § 2), to see whether they are true or false, and in Galatians 4:14, where there is a climax: ‘as an Angel of God, nay, as one who is higher than the Angels, as Christ Jesus himself
the Disobedient Prophet - ...
Where Angels down the lucid stairCame hovering to our sainted sires,Now, in the twilight glareThe heathen's wizard fires. 'But I am a prophet also as thou art,' said the old Bethelite; 'and an Angel bade me bring thee back. Well, then, if that was the case with the man of God from Judah,-here is the forbidden fruit of Bethel back and at his open mouth this moment; 'I am a prophet as thou art, and an Angel spake unto me by the word of the Lord, saying: Bring him back to eat and to drink. ...
...
And then this-follow your conscience to the end, let men and Angels say what they will, A man is but a man: an Angel is but an Angel: and false prophets have come out into the world. My conscience, accordingly, is more to me than all prophets and apostles and preachers, and very Angels themselves. If that had been Paul sitting under that oak, and had the old Bethelite deceiver come riding on his ass, with his certificate of office, and with his story about an Angel to Paul, we have Paul's answer to him in the Galatians: 'If an Angel from heaven bids me go against God in my conscience, let him be accursed. ...
At the same time, to be slain by a lion on the way home was surely much too sharp a punishment for taking one's supper with a prophet and an Angel; uneasy conscience and all. For, it was surely a little sin, if ever there was a little sin, to sup that Sabbath night at an old prophet's table, and that, too, on the invitation of an Angel
Joseph And Mary - SAINT MATTHEW and Saint Luke, the first and the third Evangelists, tell us all that we are told of Mary. What a call it was, and what a prospect it opened up! No sooner was Mary left alone of the Angel than she began to realise something of what had been appointed her, and what she must now prepare herself to pass through. On a thousand sacred canvases throughout Christendom we are shown the Angel of the annunciation presenting Mary with a branch of lily as an emblem of her beauty and as a seal of her purity. But why has no spiritual artist stained the whiteness of the lily with the red blood of a broken heart? For no sooner had the transfiguring light of the Angel's presence faded from her sight than a deep and awful darkness began to fall upon Joseph's espoused wife. Hail, thou that art highly favoured of the Lord, the Angel had said to her. And as we read that Evangelist's particular account of that time, we see how sharp that sword was which pierced Joseph's soul also. Only two, out of God, knew the truth about Mary; an Angel in heaven, and her own heart on earth. The spirit of Christian prophecy moved her to utter it, but the noblest and fullest prophecy concerning Christ fell far short of the evangelical fulfilment. Mary's sweet presence had often made the holy place still more holy to him, and her voice in the Psalms had been to him as when an Angel sings. If he did, the two Angel-chastened men must have had their own thoughts and counsels together even as the two chosen women had. But all this, and all that they had passed through since the Angel came to Zacharias at the altar, only made the re-betrothal of Joseph and Mary the sweeter and the holier, with the aged priest acting more than the part of a father, and Elizabeth acting more than the part of a mother. At the Angel's salutation she did not swoon nor cry out. And yet again, when another twelve years have passed by, we find the same Evangelist still pointing out the same distinguishing feature of Mary's saintly character, "They understood not the saying which Jesus spake unto them; but His mother kept all these sayings in her heart
Zacharias - While Zacharias ministered at the golden altar of incense in the holy place, it was announced to him by the Angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth, who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would give birth to a son who was to be called John, and that he would be the forerunner of the long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17 )
Nazareth - At Nazareth the Angel appeared to Mary: the home of Joseph, Luke 1:26; Luke 2:39, and to that place Joseph and Mary returned after their flight into Egypt
Numbering of the People - ), where the destroying Angel was arrested in his progress, David erected an altar, and there offered up sacrifies to God (2 Chronicles 3:1 )
Satan - , Satan), "an adversary," is used (a) of an Angel of Jehovah in Numbers 22:22 (the first occurrence of the Word in the OT); (b) of men, e
Minister - An Angel a messenger of God. Who maketh his Angels spirits, his ministers a flaming fire
Shalamite - Mahanaim was where the Angels met Jacob (Genesis 32), the scene of his victorious wrestling in prayer with the Angel of the covenant
Son, the; Son of God - ...
When the Angel appeared to Mary, foretelling the birth of Jesus, he said, "That holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God
Sarah, Sarai, Sara - Sarah then dealt harshly with her and she ran away; but the Angel of the Lord sent her back, and Ishmael was born
Caesarea - Philip the evangelist resided here with his four daughters (21:8). appeared among the people in great pomp, and in the midst of the idolatrous homage paid to him was suddenly smitten by an Angel, and carried out a dying man
Destroy - 2:30, RSV) and the “destroying Angel” ( Balaam - Balak afterwards sent other deputies, whom Balaam finally accompanied without the approval of God, who sent an Angel to meet and warn him in the way
World: Vanity of Pursuit of - Would you take the offer, verbally made by the death Angel? Would the meanest among us take it, think you? Yet practically and verily we grasp at it, every one of us, in a measure; many of us grasp at it in its fullness of horror
Jesus - The name as borneby our Lord means "God our Saviour," as the Angel declared, "for Heshall save His people from their sins
Unrighteousness - 2): ‘There are two Angels with a man-one of righteousness, and the other of iniquity. … It is good to follow the Angel of righteousness, but to bid farewell to the Angel of iniquity’ (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, vol. 18-20), where both the two ways and the two Angels occur in association: ‘There are two ways of doctrine and authority, the one of light, and the other of darkness … over one are stationed the light-bringing Angels of God, but over the other the Angels of Satan
Malachi - (mal' uh ki) Personal name or common noun meaning, “my messenger,” or “my Angel” and name of the last book in the English Old Testament. Some people in ancient Israel believed that an Angel wrote this book because of the name
Ishmael - Before he was born, when Hagar ran away because of the severity of her mistress, the Angel of the Lord appeared to her, and told her to return to her mistress: her seed should be numberless, and she was to call her son's name Ishmael, which signifies 'El shall hear. The Angel of God called to her, showed her a well, and the child was saved
Exorcism - A more complicated method is prescribed by the Angel Raphael ( Tob 6:16 f. The vital part of the procedure was the invocation of a name (or a series of names, of a deity or an Angel, at the mention of which the evil spirit was supposed to recognize the presence of a superior power and to decline a combat, as though a spell had been put upon him
Body - " Hence, therefore, the Son of God passed by the nature of Angels, for an Angel's nature would not have suited his purpose, nor ours. ) But how was the Son of God to assume this body? The Holy Ghost takes up the blessed subject, and by his servant the Evangelist Luke, records the whole particular's of a conference which took place between an Angel and a Virgin Called Mary, whose womb, by his miraculous impregnation, and without the intervention of a human father, was to bring forth this glorious Holy One, as the great Saviour of his people. The Holy Ghost (said the Angel to Mary,)"shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, also that Holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God. The Son of God as God, assuming this holy thing, so expressly called by the Angel, underived from our fallen nature, and as to any shadow of imperfection, unconnected with it; becomes a suited Saviour for all the purposes of redemption, and being by this sacred and mysterious union, God and man in one person, formed one Christ: he, and he only, becomes the proper Redeemer and Mediator, the God-man Christ Jesus
Angel - The word Angel is Greek, and signifies a messenger. Angels, therefore in the proper signification of the word, do not import the nature of any being, but only the office to which they are appointed especially by way of message or intercourse between God and his creatures. Angels) to Jabesh Gilead, Proverbs 13:17 . 1 Samuel 14:14 ; but I must confess, that, though I do not at all see the impropriety of considering the providences of God as his Angels or messengers for good or for evil, yet the passages generally adduced under this head do not prove to me that the providences of God are meant in distinction from created Angels. ...
As to the time when the Angels were created, much has been said by the learned. To suppose, say they, that no creatures whatever, neither Angels nor other worlds, had been created previous to the creation of our world, is to suppose that a Being of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, had remained totally inactive from all eternity, and had permitted the infinity of space to continue a perfect vacuum till within these 6000 years; that such an idea only tends to discredit revelation, instead of serving it. Some conjecture that every good man has his particular guardian Angel, Matthew 18:10 . "What need we dispute, " says Henry, "whether every particular saint has a guardian Angel, when we are sure he has a guard of Angels about him?" They will gather the elect in the last day, attend the final judgment, Matthew 25:31 . Although the Angels were originally created perfect, yet they were mutable: some of them sinned, and kept not their first estate; and so, of the most blessed and glorious, became the most vile and miserable of all God's creatures. The number of the fallen Angels seems to be great, and, like the holy Angels, perhaps have various orders among them, Matthew 12:24 . ...
The authors who have written on this subject have been very numerous; we shall only refer to a few: Reynolds's Enquiry into the State and Economy of the Angelical World; Doddridge's Lect. 538, 568; Shepherd of Angels; Gilpin on Temptations; Casmanni Angelographia; Gill and Ridgeley's Bodies of Divinity
Illinois - , established the Mission of the Angel Guardian on the site of Chicago
Abyss - Their ruler is "the Angel of the abyss, " whose name is Destruction (Heb
Nazareth, Nazarene - ...
The Angel went to Nazareth to announce to Mary and Joseph the coming birth of Jesus (Luke 1:26-28 )
Judah the Kingdom of - Tiglath-pileser distressed Judah during the reign of Ahaz, 2 Chronicles 28:20; Sennacherib's host of 185,000 men was destroyed by the Angel of the Lord in Hezekiah's reign, 2 Chronicles 32:21; 2 Kings 19:35; Manasseh was carried away captive into Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11 : Jehoiachin was also made captive; Zedekiah rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, and was defeated, his sons slain before his eyes, and he made captive; Jerusalem was taken in b
Ishmael - Previous to his birth Hagar was informed by an Angel what would be the character of her son, and that his posterity would be innumerable
Grace - In its strict and ordinary sense, however, grace is a supernatural gift of God's beneficence, gratuitously bestowed upon a rational creature (angel or man), for the ultimate purpose of fitting the recipient for life eternal. Before the fall Adam received grace directly from God, without reference to the Saviour of mankind; and so did the Angels whilst they were oh probation
Philip - He is also called 'Philip the evangelist. Then Philip was directed by an Angel of the Lord to meet the eunuch of Ethiopia in the desert towards Gaza
Abstinence - ) The Jews also abstained from the sinew which is upon the hollow of the thigh, Genesis 32:25 ; because of the shrinking of the sinew of Jacob's thigh when touched by the Angel, as though by that the part had been made sacred
Stephen - Stephen appeared in the midst of this assembly, with a countenance like that of an Angel; and the high priest asking him what he had to answer, in his defence, he rapidly traced the history of the Jews, showing that they had always opposed themselves to God and his prophets; faithfully upbraided them with the hardness of their hearts, with their putting the prophets to death, and, lastly, with slaying Christ himself
Mount Paran - Here it was that Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, fled from her mistress, and here the Angel of the Lord visited her
Messiah or Messias - ...
That Jesus Christ was the true MESSIAH of the Old Testament, the "Shiloh" of Jacob, the "Redeemer" of Job, the "Angel of the Covenant," is abundantly clear
Passover - The passover was a solemn festival of the Jews, instituted in commemoration of their coming out of Egypt; because the night before their departure the destroying Angel that slew the first-born of the Egyptians passed over the houses of the Hebrews without entering them, because they were marked with the blood of the lamb, which, for this reason, was called the paschal lamb. With the blood of the lamb they sprinkled the door posts and lintel of every house, that the destroying Angel at the sight of the blood might pass over them
Zachariah, Zacharias - Husband of Elisabeth, and father of John the Baptist, a priest of the course of Abijah ( Luke 1:5 ) this was one of the twenty-four courses of priests, but clearly not the high priest, as the Apocryphal Gospel called Protevangelion makes him (§ 8). As he was ministering in his turn in the Temple, the Angel Gabriel appeared to him and predicted the birth and future work of his son. It is more likely to be due to the Evangelist, or, still more, to a scribe, who perhaps was misled by the mention by Josephus of a ‘Zacharias son of Baruch,’ murdered in the Temple by the Zealots ( BJ IV
Zechariah - One day, while Zechariah was on duty in the temple, an Angel from God told him that in answer to their prayers, God was about to give them a son
Abstinence - "The children of Israel eat not of the sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, unto this day, because the Angel touched the hollow of Jacob's thigh in the sinew that shrank" (Genesis 32:32); modern Jews, therefore, abstain from the whole hind quarter
Stephen - They suborned evil men to falsely accuse him, and he was dragged before the Jewish council, to whom his face appeared like that of an Angel
Hind - " (Song of Song of Solomon 2:17) And who shall speak of the earnestness of the Lord Jesus to come over the mountains of sin, and hills of corruption, in our nature, when he came to seek and save that which was lost? Who shall describe those numberless anticipations which we find in the Old Testament of Jesus, in appearing sometimes as an Angel, and sometimes in an human from? as if to say, how much he longed for the time to come, when he should openly appear, in the substance of our flesh, as "the hind of the morning!"...
And there is another beautiful resemblance in the hind, or roe, to Christ, in the loveliness as well as swiftness of this beautiful creature
Dreams - He showed Jacob the mysterious ladder in a dream, Genesis 28:12-13 ; and in a dream an Angel suggested to him a means of multiplying his flocks, Genesis 31:11-12 , &c
Daniel (2) - The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles, Hebrews 11:33-34, its predictions, Matthew 24:15, and its appearance of the Angel Gabriel, Luke 1:19; Luke 1:26
Mediator - As the Angel of the covenant, Christ was the channel of all communications between heaven and earth in Old Testament days; and as the Mediator of the new covenant, he does all that is needful to provide for a perfect reconciliation between God and man
Penuel - of Jordan, and near the Jabbok, at which Jacob wrestled with the Angel ( Genesis 32:24 ff
Dan - Lastly, Dan is omitted from the list of those who were sealed by the Angel in the vision of St
Palm (of Hand) - ” Gideon complained to the Angel of the Lord that “now the Lord hath forsaken us, and delivered us into the hands [1] of the Midianites” ( Angel of the Lord]'>[2] saw that he prevailed not against him [3], he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was out of joint, as he wrestled with him” ( Archangel - according to some, means an Angel occupying the eighth rank in the celestial order or hierarchy; but others reckon it a title only applicable to our Saviour; Judges 1:9 ; Daniel 12:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 . On this point Bishop Horsley has the following observations:—"It has been for a long time a fashion in the church to speak very frequently and familiarly of archangels as beings of an order with which we are perfectly well acquainted. Upon what solid ground that assertion stands, I know not; but this I know, the word ‘archangel' is not to be found in any one passage of the Old Testament: in the New Testament it occurs twice, and only twice. One of the two passages is in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians; where the Apostle, among the circumstances of the pomp of our Lord's descent from heaven to the final judgment, mentions ‘the voice of the archangel;' the other passage is in the Epistle of St. Jude, where the title of archangel is coupled with the name of ‘Michael the archangel. ' This passage is so remarkably obscure that I shall not attempt to draw any conclusion from it but this, which manifestly follows, be the particular sense of the passage what it may: since this is one of the two texts in which alone the word ‘archangel' is found in the whole Bible; since in this one text only the title of archangel is coupled with any name; and since the name with which it is here coupled is Michael; it follows undeniably that the archangel Michael is the only archangel of whom we know any thing from holy writ. It cannot be proved from holy writ, and, if not from holy writ, it cannot be proved at all, that any archangel exists but the one archangel Michael, and this one archangel Michael is unquestionably the Michael of the book of Daniel. ...
"I must observe by the way, with respect to the import of the title of archangel, that the word, by etymology, clearly implies a superiority of rank and authority in the person to whom it is applied. It implies a command over Angels; and this is all that the word of necessity implies. But it follows not, by any sound rule of argument, that, because no other superiority than that of rank and authority is implied in the title, no other belongs to the person distinguished by the title, and that he is in all other respects a mere...
Angel. Since we admit various orders of intelligent beings, it is evident that a being highly above the Angelic order may command Angels. ...
"To ascertain, if we can, to what order of beings the archangel Michael may belong, let us see how he is described by the Prophet Daniel, who never mentions him by that title; and what action is attributed to him in the book of Daniel and in another book, in which he bears a principal part. "...
To this opinion there is nothing irreconcilable in the "voice of the archangel" mentioned in 1 Thessalonians 4:16 : since the "shout," the "voice," the "trump of God," may all be the majestic summons of the Judge himself. At the same time we must feel that the reasoning of Bishop Horsley, though ingenious, is far from being conclusive against the existence of one or more archangels
Hermas Shepherd of - ...
The main part of the third Vision is the revelation by the lady of the Church under the image of a tower being built by Angels upon the waters of baptism. This is a type of the impending tribulation, but it does not harm Hermas, for the Angel Segri has shut its mouth. The shepherd, the Angel of repentance, now appears for the first time, glorious in visage, with sheepskin wallet and staff. He has been sent by the most holy Angel to dwell with Hermas for the rest of his life. Contrasts are drawn between the two ways (and the two Angels) of righteousness and wickedness, between the fear of God and the fear of the devil, and between temperance as to what is evil, and indulgence in what is good. The former is the Angel of self-indulgence and deceit, the latter the Angel of punishment. A few days later Hermas is afflicted by this Angel of punishment, and in the seventh Parable he is taught that this is because of the sins of his household. A glorious Angel (Michael) cuts rods from the tree and gives them to the people, who in due course return them in great variety of condition-withered, grub-eaten, cracked, green, some with shoots, and some with a kind of fruit. The remainder are left to the care of the Shepherd, who, as the Angel of repentance, plants the rods in the earth, and deals with the owners according to the results. Upon the rock a tower (the Church) is being built by Angels, of stones that are brought through the gate. ‘When then the man who hath the divine Spirit cometh into an assembly (συναγωγή) of righteous men, who have faith in a divine Spirit, and intercession is made to God by the gathering of those men, then the Angel of the prophetic spirit who is attached to him, filleth the man, and the man, being filled with the Holy Spirit, speaketh to the multitude, according as the Lord willeth’ (Mand. In the fifth Vision there is an apparent reference to the belief in guardian Angels. 3), and Segri, the name of the Angel who shuts the monster’s month in Vis
Gideon - Fifth of the judges of Israel, called by the Angel of the Lord to deliver Israel from the seven years' yoke of the Midianite hosts, which like swarming locusts consumed all their produce except what they could hide in caves and holes (Judges 6:2; Judges 6:5-6; Judges 6:11). Next the Angel of Jehovah came. "Angel of Jehovah," but manifested as JEHOVAH) replied, "Go in this thy might (the might now given thee by ME, Isaiah 40:29), and thou shalt save Israel from the hand of the Midianites; have not I sent thee?" Then followed the requested "sign," the Angel of the Lord with the end of the staff in His hand consuming with fire Gideon's "offering" (minchah ), not a strict sacrifice but a sacrificial gift), the kid and unleavened cakes (compare Genesis 18, the theophany to Abraham very similar). Compare and contrast the conduct of the Angel and the acceptance of Manoah's sacrifice in Judges 13:20
the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans - THE Archippus who is so remonstrated with in the Epistle to the Colossians concerning his neglected ministry, may very well have lived on to be the lukewarm Angel of the Church in Laodicea. As a matter of fact, there is both internal and external evidence that the Angel of the Church in Laodicea was none other than this same inculpated Archippus now grown old in his unfulfilled ministry. It is much more than a working hypothesis then, the assumption that this Angel now open before us is none other than young Archippus at last grown grey in neglect of his work and in ignorance of himself. But ever since this so scornful Epistle was written, all that, and more than all that, has been collected up into this one supremely scornful word,-thou art a Laodicean! And thus it is that to all time the Angel of the Church in Laodicea will stand forth as the spiritual father of all such spiritual sons. By inculcating the necessity of the remission of sin, and the necessity of supernatural light and assistance, and by promising to the penitent sinner, and by actually conveying to him, these evangelical blessings. Now all that is the threatened case of this miserable creature here called an Angel. Who is a God like unto Thee!...
And then there is this evangelical invitation to crown all
Sweat - ]'>[1] admit, ‘a mere comparison of the parallel narratives of the Evangelists would suffice to suggest to him the reference. These verses and the first sentence of Luke 23:34 may be safely called the most precious among the remains of this Evangelic tradition which were rescued from oblivion by the scribes of the 2nd century. It would appear, therefore, as if they stood very much in the same position as does the Pericope Adulterœ; that is, as an early story of the Evangelic tradition that had not found its way into all the copies of the canonical Gospels. Harnack in the same discussion draws attention to the passage in John 12:27; John 12:30, which he regards as that Evangelist’s account of the same incident. speaks of an Angel succouring Jesus, the passage in the Fourth Gospel tells of a voice from heaven that answered His prayer, which voice was regarded by some of the people as that of an Angel. Harnack also reminds us that there are two points in the Lukan story that would offend orthodox readers, first, the mention of an Angel as strengthening our Lord, which might be a strong support to those who exaggerated the importance of Angel ministry; and, second, the fact that the agony was the result of an inward struggle, which might be taken as pointing to too great human weakness in our Lord’s Person to be consonant with the full maintenance of His Divine nature
the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia - IF James Durham had lived in Kirriemuir in Disruption days he would to a certainty have said that very much what Daniel Cormick was in the presbytery of Forfar, that the Angel of Philadelphia was among the seven churches in Asia. No minister all round about had less strength of some kinds than Daniel Cormick: but, then, like the Angel of Philadelphia, by universal consent, he was by far the holiest man of them all and by far the most successful minister of them all. The Angel of the church in Philadelphia could not be more deserving. It was James Durham, in the way he speaks about "the little strength" of the Angel of Philadelphia, that led me back to speak of Daniel Cormick with all this love and reverence and thankfulness. As I remember Thomas Shepard also always did: and as, I feel sure, the Angel of Philadelphia also did. If it took a man like Daniel Cormick all his might to keep his crown from being all stolen from him, what chance, think you, have the most of us ministers?...
...
But look up! Who is that glorified saint shining as the brightness of the firmament, and as the stars for ever and ever? That is the Angel of the Church that once was in Philadelphia
Hezekiah - Hezekiah prayed to God, and "that night the Angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians 185,000 men
Satan - Is a Hebrew word, and signifies an adversary, or enemy, and is commonly applied in Scripture to the devil, or the chief of the fallen Angels. "By collecting the passages, " says Cruden, "where Satan, or the devil, is mentioned, it may be observed, that he fell from heaven with all his company; that God cast him down from thence for the punishment of his pride; that, by his envy and malice, sin, death, and all other evils, came into the world; that, by the permission of God, he exercises a sort of government in the world over his subordinates, over apostate Angels like himself; that God makes use of him to prove good men and chastise bad ones; that he is a lying spirit in the mouth of false prophets, seducers, and heretics; that it is he, or some of his, that torment or possess men; that inspire them with evil designs, as he did David, when he suggested to him to number his people; to Judas, to betray his Lord and Master; and to Ananias and Sapphira, to conceal the price of their field. " ...
See articles Angel, DEVIL, TEMPTATION
Deuterocanonical - Mark; the bloody sweat; and the appearance of the Angel related in St
Lots - Zechariah, the father of John the Baptist, was burning incense in the holy place when the Angel spoke to him
Innocents - Adopting the language of Jeremiah 31:15, the Evangelist represents Rachel, the ancestral mother of the people of Israel, as weeping over the cruel death of her children. Joseph, warned in a dream by the Angel, took Mary and the young child hastily down to Egypt, where they could calmly await the death of the tyrant
Tower - For in this gospel day to which the whole refers; he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David, and the house of David shall be as God, as the Angel of the Lord before them, (Isaiah 22:22-25; Zechariah 12:8) It is very blessed to behold Jesus using such strong and beautiful figures to shew his people's union and oneness with him, and their everlasting safety and security in him
Red Sea - " The Angel of God and the pillar of the cloud went between the Israelites and the Egyptians
Galatia - At his first visit he was sick; yet they received him "as an Angel of God," and most heartily embraced the gospel
Resurrection of the Dead - "The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither Angel, nor spirit," Acts 23:8
na'Bal - (1 Samuel 25:17 ) To his wife, as to the good Angel of the household, one of the shepherds told the state of affairs
Justinus - Of her, Elohim becomes enamoured, and from their intercourse spring 24 Angels—12 paternal, who co-operate with their father and do his will, and 12 maternal, who do the mother's will. The principal part is played by the third paternal Angel, Baruch, the chief minister of good, and the third maternal, Naas, or the serpent, the chief author of evil
Names of Our Lord - These are given below as found in the Old Testament, used by Himself, by the Apostles and Evangelists, and by others, particularly in the liturgy. ...
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Genesis 49:26
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Isaiah 45:8
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
USED BY HIMSELF ...
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
USED BY THE APOSTLES and EVANGELISTS ...
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, John 1:41 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Mark 12:86
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
USED BY OTHERS ...
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Satan - When the prophet persisted, God disciplined him: “And God’s anger was kindled because he went: and the Angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him” ( Angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him” (literally, “be his adversary”; Angels of God, but “the adversary” was not all-powerful and was subject to rebuke by God Himself A general usage of śâṭân (“adversary”) appears in 1 Kings 5:4: “But now the Lord my God hath given me rest on every side, so that there is neither adversary or evil occurrent
Easter Day - White hangings for the Altar and White vestments have always beenused at Easter in reference to the Angel who brought the tidingsof the Resurrection, who appeared in "garments white as snow" and"his countenance was as lightning
Mill-Stone - In Revelation 18:21 it is a strong Angel that is described as casting such a stone
Devil - He is called the Angel of the bottomless pit, Abaddon, in Hebrew; Apollyon, in Greek; that is, destroyer, Revelation 9:11; adversary, 1 Peter 5:8; accuser, Revelation 12:10; Belial, Judges 19:23; 2 Corinthians 6:15; deceiver, Revelation 12:9, R
Jesus - It was given to the Son of God in Incarnation as His personal name, in obedience to the command of an Angel to Joseph, the husband of His Mother, Mary, shortly before He was born, Matthew 1:21
Simon Peter - After his deliverance from prison by an Angel he left Jerusalem and began his Apostolic journeys
God - The name is never applied to a false god, nor to any other being except one, the Angel-JEHOVAH who is thereby marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as "God manifested in the flesh
Ark - Strangely enough, there is no further mention of the ark in the historical books. ]'>[1] which, as a fuller manifestation of the Deity than even the ‘angel of J″ Magi - Under him there are two Angels; one the Angel of light, the author and director of all good; and the other the Angel of darkness, who in the author and director of all evil. These two, probably speaking figuratively, out of the mixture of light and darkness, made all things that are; and they are in a state of perpetual conflict; so that where the Angel of light prevails, there the most is good; and where the Angel of darkness prevails, there the most is evil. This struggle shall continue to the end of the world; and then there shall be a general resurrection, and a day of judgment: after which, the Angel of darkness and his disciples shall go into a world of their own, where they shall suffer in everlasting darkness the punishment of their evil deeds; and the Angel of light and his disciples shall go into a world of their own, where they shall receive in everlasting light the reward due unto their good deeds; and henceforward they shall for ever remain separate. Jones, "reformed the old religion by the addition of genii or Angels, of new ceremonies in the veneration shown to fire, of a new work which he pretended to have received from heaven, and, above all, by establishing the actual adoration, of the supreme Being;" and he farther adds, "The reformed religion of Persia continued in force till that country was conquered by the Musselmans; and, without studying the Zend, we have ample information concerning it in the modern Persian writings of several who profess it. This prophecy, so strangely fulfilled, would give mighty force to the doctrine connected with it, and which it proclaims with so much majesty:—...
"I am JEHOVAH, and none else, Forming LIGHT, and creating DARKNESS, ...
Making PEACE, and creating EVIL; ...
I JEHOVAH am the author of all these things
the Angel of the Church in Thyatira - READ the first three chapters of Hosea and this Epistle to the Angel of the Church in Thyatira together, and substitute the dura lectio, the hard reading, "thy wife," for the easy reading, "that woman" in the twentieth verse, and it will be seen at once that the Angel of the Church in Thyatira is just the prophet Hosea over again. Very much the same scandal and portent that Hosea and his house were in Israel; nay, almost more of a scandal, has the house of the Angel of the Church in Thyatira been in Christendom. ...
It was not the schools of the prophets in Israel that made Hosea the great and original and evangelical prophet that he was. By his charity and by his patience, by these two rods of iron, especially, any minister will overcome as the Angel of the Church in Thyatira at last overcame
Heavens, New - See Angel ; Creation ; Eschatology ; Heaven ; Hell ; Kingdom; New Jerusalem
Hospitality - The word is not used in the Old Testament, but its elements are recognizable: Abraham and the three visitors (Genesis 18:1-8 ), Lot and the two Angels (Genesis 19:1-8 ), Abraham's servant at Nahor (Genesis 24:17-33 ), Reuel and Moses (Exodus 2:20 ), Manoah and the Angel (Judges 13:15 ), Elijah and the widow of Zarephath (1 Kings 17:10-11 ), and Elisha and the Shunammite woman (2 Kings 4:8-11 ). It was a...
natural expression of brotherly love (Hebrews 13:1-2 ; 1 Peter 4:8-9 ) and a necessary tool of evangelism. Furthermore, one might even entertain Angels or the Lord unawares (Hebrews 13:2 ; Matthew 25:31-46 )
Personal Effort: Needed For Success - , who are but a handful, to fight every battle, how can you expect that great things should be done?' So each man resolved to put on his helmet and his armor once again, and hasten to the battle, and lo, the Angel of victory returned
Fravitta, Bishop of Constantinople - On one was written a prayer that God would send an Angel to inscribe on the blank sheet the name of him whom He wished to be the patriarch
Abaddon - In Revelation 9:11 personified as the destroyer, Greek, apolluon , "the Angel of the bottomless pit," Satan is meant; for he is described in Revelation 9:1 as "a star fallen from heaven unto earth, to whom was given the key of the bottomless pit"; and Revelation 12:8-9,12: "Woe to the inhabiters of the earth, for the devil is come down
Dragon - But what is characteristic is that the figure and functions of the dragon are turned to Christian uses, so that they have a bearing upon Christ’s earthly birth and heavenly glory (Revelation 12:5), upon the present conflict of Christianity with the world’s evil powers and its victory over them by ‘the blood of the Lamb’ and ‘the testimony of Jesus Christ’ (Revelation 12:11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and above all upon the assurance of Christian faith that God will destroy the dragon’s present power to accuse His people and persecute them even unto death (Revelation 12:10-11; Revelation 12:13; Revelation 12:17), and will at the appointed time send forth His Angel to subdue him utterly (Revelation 20:1-3)
Heaven - This area, high above the ground but below the stars and heavenly bodies, is often the locus of visions: “And David lifted up his eyes, and saw the Angel of the Lord stand between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his hand stretched out over Jerusalem” ( Hagar - When Hagar conceived, she despised her mistress, who dealt hardly with her, Abram giving her up to his wife's discretion; so that she fled toward Egypt from the face of her mistress, but was stopped in her flight by the Angel of the Lord, who foretold that she should bear a son called Ishmael, because the Lord heard her affliction, and that his race should be numerous, warlike, and unconquered; a prediction, as seen under the article Arabia, remarkably fulfilled to the present day
Bread - 13:15-16: “And Manoah said unto the Angel of the Lord, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee. And the Angel of the Lord said unto Manoah, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread
Cherubim - Some have considered them as representing Angels. But there seems, in the first view of the subject, a total contradiction to this, because, no one reason upon earth can be shown, why Angels should be represented with four faces. Neither could there be any necessity for any other representation of an Angel, but as an Angel. We meet with continued instances of Angels appearing, in the word of God, to God's people without any danger of JEHOVAH himself only can it be said, "Thou canst not see my face and live. Now, to have this set forth before Angels would have been contrary to the whole sense of Scripture. (See Exodus 37:9; Leviticus 16:14 compared with Hebrews 9:7; Heb 9:12) Evidently, therefore, the cherubim could not be intended to prefigure Angels. And though I do not presume, on a subject so mysterious and sublime, to speak decidedly, yet I cannot but think, that the cherubim of Scripture, are intended to represent the glorious persons of the GODHEAD, with the human nature united to the person of the Son of God, and by no means intended to represent Angels
Passover - Hebrew PESACH, Greek PASCHA, a passing over, a name given to the festival established and to the victim offered in commemoration of he coming forth out of Egypt, Exodus 12:1-51 ; because the night before their departure, the destroying Angel, who slew the firstborn of the Egyptians, passed over the houses of the Hebrews without entering them, they being marked with the blood of the lamb, which for this reason was called he Passover, Mark 14:12,14 1 Corinthians 5:7 , or the paschal lamb. The paschal lamb, which the Jews killed, tore to pieces, and ate, and whose blood preserved them from the destroying Angel, was a type, and figure of our Savior's death and passion, and of his blood shed for the salvation of the world
Devil - Diabolus, an evil Angel. Campbell observes, that, though the word is sometimes, both in the Old Testament and the New, applied to men and women, as traducers, it is, by way of eminence, employed to denote that apostate Angel, who is exhibited to us, particularly in the New Testament, as the great enemy of God and man. When the plural is used, the context always shows that it refers to human beings, and not to fallen Angels. That there are Angels and spirits, good and bad, says an eminent writer; that at the head of these last, there is one more considerable and malignant than the rest, who, in the form, or under the name, of a serpent, was deeply, concerned in the fall of man, and whose head, in the language of prophecy, the Son of Man was one day to bruise; that this evil spirit, though that prophecy be in part fulfilled, has not yet received his death's wound, but is still permitted, for ends to us unsearchable, and in ways which we cannot particularly explain, to have a certain degree of power in this world hostile to its virtue and happiness,—all this is so clear from Scripture, that no believer, unless he be previously "spoiled by philosophy and vain deceit," can possibly entertain a doubt of it. We are also taught that this grand adversary of God and man has a numerous band of fallen spirits under his control; and that both he and they are reserved under a sentence of condemnation unto the judgment of the great day, Judges 1:6 ; and that "everlasting fire," or perpetual torment, "is prepared for the devil and his Angels," Matthew 25:41 . Paul tells us, that in his day there were "false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ; and no wonder," says he, "for Satan himself is transformed into an Angel of light," 2 Corinthians 11:13-14 . They say that it is just as improper for men to take a part in the dispute between God and a fallen Angel, as for a peasant to ridicule and curse a servant of the pacha who has fallen into disgrace; that God did not require our assistance to punish Satan for his disobedience; it might happen that he might receive him into favour again; and then we must be ashamed before the judgment seat of God, if we had, uncalled for, abused one of his Angels: it was therefore the best not to trouble one's self about the devil; but endeavour not to incur God's displeasure ourselves
Persia - ...
He condemns the notion of two independent eternal principles, good and evil, and makes the supreme God Creator of both (and that under Him the Angel of light and the Angel of darkness are in perpetual conflict) as Isaiah teaches, and in connection with the prophecy of Cyrus the Jews' deliverer from Babylon: "thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, Cyrus . " Zoroaster taught that God created the good Angel alone, and that the evil followed by the defect of good
Fear - Thy Angel becomes a fear
John the Baptist - His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an Angel
Strong, Stronger - ...
A — 2: ἰσχυρός (Strong's #2478 — Adjective — ischuros — is-khoo-ros' ) "strong, mighty," is used of (a) persons: (1) God, Revelation 18:8 ; (2) Angels, Revelation 5:2 ; 10:1 ; 18:21 ; (3) men, Matthew 12:29 (twice) and parallel passages; Hebrews 11:34 , AV, "valiant" (RV, "mighty"); Revelation 6:15 (in the best texts; some have No. ), "boisterous;" (2) famine, Luke 15:14 ; (3) things in the mere human estimate, 1 Corinthians 1:27 ; (4) Paul's letters, 2 Corinthians 10:10 ; (5) the Lord's crying and tears, Hebrews 5:7 ; (6) consolation, Hebrews 6:18 ; (7) the voice of an Angel, Revelation 18:2 (in the best texts; some have megas, "great"); (8) Babylon, Revelation 18:10 ; (9) thunderings, Revelation 19:6
Son of God - In the Old Testament, certain men and Angels (Genesis 6:1-4 ; Psalm 29:1 ; Psalm 82:6 ; Psalm 89:6 ) are called “sons of God” (note text notes in modern translations). He was identified as Son of God by an Angel prior to His birth (Luke 1:32 ,Luke 1:32,1:35 ); by Satan at His temptation (Matthew 4:3 ,Matthew 4:3,4:6 ); by John the Baptist (John 1:34 ); by the centurion at the crucifixion (Matthew 27:54 )
Harvest - Judgment is the focus again in the words of the Angel in Revelation 14:15
Gibeon - David, seeing an Angel of the Lord at Araunah's threshing floor, was so terrified that he had not time or strength to go so far as Gibeon to offer sacrifice; but Solomon, being seated on the throne, went to sacrifice at Gibeon, 1 Kings 3:4
Devil - A fallen Angel; and particularly the chief of them, the devil, or Satan. He exerts himself, especially with his Angels, to draw away the souls of men from embracing salvation through Jesus Christ. He is ceaselessly active in his efforts to destroy souls, and uses innumerable devices and wiles to adapt his temptations to the varying characters and conditions of men, enticing wicked men, and even good men at times, as well as his own Angels, to aid in his work. Christ shall bruise the serpent's head; shall dispossess him for the world, as he has done from individuals, and at length confine him for ever in the place prepared for him and his Angels, Matthew 25:41 . " The Bible applies the other word only to Satan-"the devil", and his Angels, who are like their leader in nature and in actions
Hezeki'ah - ( 2 Kings 19:6,7 ) Accordingly that night "the Angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand
Colosse - The Angel worship noticed in Colossians 2:18 is mentioned by Theodoret as existing in his days. ...
A legend connected with an inundation was the ground of erecting a church to the archangel Michael near a chasm, probably the one noticed by Herodotus. In the 4th century the council of Laodicea (in the same region) in its 35th canon prohibited calling upon Angels. Object: to counteract the Jewish false teaching there, of which Paul had heard from Epaphras (Colossians 4:12), by setting before them their standing in CHRIST ALONE, exclusive of Angels. sabbath days") is that of Judaizing Christians, mixed up with eastern theosophy, Angel worship, and the asceticism of the Essenes (Colossians 2:8-9; Colossians 2:16-23). Some Alexandrian Jews may have visited Colosse and taught Philo's Greek philosophy, combined with the rabbinical Angelology and mysticism, afterward embodied in the Cabbala
Passover - It was appointed to commemorate the "passing over" of the families of the Israelites when the destroying Angel smote the first-born of Egypt, and also their departure from the land of bondage
Succoth - A place first mentioned in Genesis 33:17 , where it is said to have been so called because Jacob, on his return from Haran to Canaan, halting at it after his wrestling with the Angel at Penuel, built there ‘booths’ (Heb
Sennacherib - "In that night" the Angel of the Lord went forth and smote the camp of the Assyrians
Fratricelli - Francis was the evangelical rule observed by Jesus Christ and his apostles. Francis was the Angel mentioned in Revelation 14:6
Nazareth - It was the home of Joseph and Mary ( Luke 2:39 ), and here the Angel announced to the Virgin the birth of the Messiah (1:26-28)
Negeb, - The Negeb was often the scene of Abraham’s wanderings ( Genesis 12:9 ; Genesis 13:1 ; Genesis 13:8 ; Genesis 20:1 ); here Hagar was succoured by the Angel ( Genesis 16:7 ; Genesis 16:14 ); Isaac ( Genesis 24:62 ) and Jacob ( Genesis 37:1 ; Genesis 46:5 ) both dwelt there; through this district passed the spies ( Numbers 13:17 ; Numbers 13:22 )
Agony - Luke alone records the bloody sweat and the appearance of all Angel from heaven strengthening Him, Matthew and Mark the change in His countenance and manner, and His complaint of overwhelming soul sorrows even unto death, and His repetition of the same prayer
Smyrna - 168, 86 years after conversion, was its bishop, probably "the Angel of the church in Smyrna
Course - The direction of motion line of advancing point of compass, in which motion is directed as, what course shall the pilot steer? In technical language, the Angel contained between the nearest meridian and that point of compass on which a ship sails in any direction
Archippus - More probably, however, the expression refers to the general fellowship of the two men in evangelistic work (cf. ...
Archippus may have been a presbyter bishop, a leading deacon, an evangelist, or a prominent teacher at the time when St. ) to imply a rebuke, as if Archippus had been remiss or unfaithful in the discharge of official duty; and Lightfoot, believing that Archippus held office at Laodicea, compares the admonition to him with the censure on account of lukewarmness administered in Revelation 3 to the Angel and church of the Laodiceans
Belial, Beliar - 2), Beliar is ‘the great Angel, the king of this world
Beer-la-Hai-Roi - (Genesis 16:1-14) It was Hagar, the handmaid of Sarai, which gave this name to the well, when she fled from her mistress, and was found by the Angel of the Lord near a fountain of water in the wilderness of Shur
Fear - In this sense, the word may imply submission to a proper ethical relationship to God; the Angel of the Lord told Abraham: “… I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from me” ( Abyss - The Ethiopian Book of Enoch is especially suggestive for the development of the eschatological conceptions that appear in pre-Christian Judaism; und in the earliest part of that book the fallen Angels and demons are represented as cast after the final judgment into a gulf (χάος) of fire (10:13, 14), while in 21:7 the chasm (διακοπή) filled with fire (cf. Apparently the abyss was conceived of as the proper home of the devil and his Angels, in the centre of which was a lake of fire reserved as the place of their final punishment. The abyss has an Angel of its own whose name is Abaddon (q
Can, May - 44:22, NIV)...
When yâkôl is used without another verb, the sense is “to prevail” or “to overcome,” as in the words of the Angel to Jacob: “Your name will no longer be Jacob, but Israel, because you have struggled with God, and with men and have overcome” ( Jezebel - the wife of the presiding bishop or "angel
Abyss - The Ethiopian Book of Enoch is especially suggestive for the development of the eschatological conceptions that appear in pre-Christian Judaism; und in the earliest part of that book the fallen Angels and demons are represented as cast after the final judgment into a gulf (χάος) of fire (10:13, 14), while in 21:7 the chasm (διακοπή) filled with fire (cf. Apparently the abyss was conceived of as the proper home of the devil and his Angels, in the centre of which was a lake of fire reserved as the place of their final punishment. The abyss has an Angel of its own whose name is Abaddon (q
Bethesda - They left an opening for getting down to the water; and further, as the crowning proof that they regarded the pool as Bethesda, they painted on the wall of the crypt a fresco representing the Angel troubling the water of the pool. ...
The last clause of John 5:3 and the whole of John 5:4, containing the account of the troubling of the water by an Angel and the miraculous healing that followed, are relegated to the margin in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, on the ground of their omission by the ancient manuscripts א BD, and the exceptional number of variants in the other MSS Mary - Mary being espoused to Joseph, the Angel Gabriel appeared to her, to announce to her that she should be the mother of the Messiah, Luke 1:26-27 , &c. Angels made this event known to shepherds, who were in the fields near Bethlehem, and these came in the night to Joseph and Mary and saw the child laying in the manger, and paid him their adoration. Peter, the faithful assembled in this house, and were praying there when Peter, delivered by the ministry of an Angel, knocked at the door of the house, Acts 12:12 . John gives her the name of Mary of Cleophas; and the other evangelists, the name of Mary, mother of James. But going to his tomb very early on the Sunday morning, with other women, they there learned from the mouth of an Angel, that he was risen; of which they carried the news to the Apostles, Luke 24:1-5 ; Matthew 28:9 . Mary Magdalene, is mentioned by the evangelists as being one of those women that followed our Saviour to minister to him according to the custom of the Jews
Mission - The first records in biblical history of God's sending is his banishment of Adam and Even from the garden and the Angelic mission to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 3:23 ; 19:13 ). In securing a bride for Isaac and thus keeping the hope of the covenant promise alive for another generation, God sends his Angel before Abraham's chief household servant to give him success on his journey (Genesis 24:7,40 ). ...
At other points redemption from Egypt is a commissioned Angel's work (Numbers 20:16 ). And an Angel, which could well be a Christophany, is sent by God to protect the people in their wilderness wanderings and powerfully fight on their behalf in the conquest of Canaan (Exodus 23:20-33 ; 33:2 ). God sent Angels to announce to the parents or to the judge himself his role as divinely sent deliverer and to commission him to that task (Judges 6:11-12,14 ; 13:8 ). ...
When the prophets did speak of a hope for future deliverance "in the last days, " they refer to a mission for God's messenger or Elijah whom God sends to prepare his way (Malachi 3:1 ); of the Servant-Messiah, anointed to preach good news to the oppressed, whom the Lord sends to bring deliverance (Isaiah 61:1 ); and of a remnant of survivors who are sent to evangelize the nations: "They will proclaim my glory among the nations" (Isaiah 66:19 ). So significant is the redemptive mission of the Messiah, the Son of God, that God sends an Angel not only to announce his birth (Luke 1:26 ), but to announce the birth of John the Baptist, the messenger who will be sent to prepare his way and introduce him (1:19; Matthew 11:10 ; cf. ...
Finally, Jesus speaks of sending Angels on mission. Not only does the exalted Lord Jesus send his Angel to reveal to John what shall occur at the end (Revelation 22:16 ), but, as the glorious, returning Son of Man, he will send Angels both to gather the elect to himself (Matthew 24:31 ; Mark 13:27 ) and to gather out of his kingdom "everything that causes sin and all who do evil" and cast them into eternal punishment (Matthew 13:41-42 ). ...
Angels, too, are sent
Annunciation, the - Luke (Luke 1:26-38) tells us that this announcement was made to Mary by the Angel Gabriel at Nazareth six months after the same Angel had told Zacharias in the Temple at Jerusalem that his wife Elisabeth should bear him a son, who was to be called John. Luke is our sole authority for this announcement by the Angel to Mary. ...
It is well to remember that there are stories, more or less analogous to what is told by the two Evangelists, in heathen mythologies. By frequent transmission from mouth to mouth details about the Angel’s outward appearance, his beauty and brightness, and about Mary’s attitude and employment, would have crept in, and the conversation would have been expanded; all of which corruptions are found in the Apocryphal Gospels. Luke did not get his information direct from Mary herself, the person who passed on the mysterious story from her to the Evangelist was almost certainly a woman. ...
That the Fourth Evangelist knew the Synoptic Gospels, and sometimes silently corrects them, is certain; but he does not correct the story of the virgin birth. It is indeed urged that this Evangelist’s beliefs about the Christ are such, that he must have stated the virgin birth, if he believed it. And the whole of his Gospel shows that he is reserved about the Virgin Mother, whose name he alone among the Evangelists never mentions. Luke should be the Evangelist to receive this womanly story of women is not surprising. No other Evangelist gives us so many types of women. ...
Doubt has been thrown upon the two narratives, because in the First Gospel the revelations are made by the Angel of the Lord in dreams, whereas in the Third they are made by Angels to persons in their waking moments. Matthew mentions the ministry of Angels (Matthew 4:11), and communications made by means of them (Matthew 28:5-7); and St. The εἰσελθών is against the later tradition that she was at the fountain drawing water (Protevangelium of James, 11; Gospel of pseudo-Matthew , 9). The Angelic message is given ‘in three little pieces of trimeter poetry, which have become somewhat obscured by the Greek translation’ (Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels, p. ...
By the first words of the Angel, Mary was greatly disturbed (διεταράχθη) both in mind and heart: then her perplexity and emotion gave place to thought (διελογίζετο). Another wonderful birth is about to take place, and by the mention of ‘the sixth month’ the Angel assures Mary that all is known to him. ...
Mary’s final response to the Angel is not a prayer that what he has promised may be fulfilled, but an expression of absolute submission
Send - , Acts 10:8,17,20 ; 15:27 ; evangelists, Romans 10:15 ; Angels, e. , Acts 10:5,32,33 ; 15:22,25 ; 2 Corinthians 9:3 ; Ephesians 6:22 ; Philippians 2:19,23,25 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:2,5 ; Titus 3:12 ; a prisoner, Acts 25:25,27 ; potentates, by God, 1 Peter 2:14 ; an Angel, Revelation 22:16 ; demons, Mark 5:12 ; (b) of things, Acts 11:29 ; Philippians 4:16 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:11 ; Revelation 1:11 ; 11:10 ; 14:15,18 , RV, "send forth" (AV, "thrust in"). 1); an Angel, Acts 12:11 ; the ancestors of Israel, Acts 7:12 ; Paul to the Gentiles, Acts 22:21 ; of the word of salvation, Acts 13:26 (some mss
Nazareth - They are supposed to occupy the very places where the Angel and the virgin stood at the precise moment of the annunciation. We were assured that it was separated in this manner when the Angel announced to the virgin the tidings of her conception. "Induced, by the words of the Gospel, to examine the place more attentively than we should otherwise have done, we went, as it is written, out of the city, ‘to the brow of the hill whereon the city is built,' and came to a precipice corresponding to the words of the evangelist
Zechariah, the Book of - " Like Ezekiel and Daniel, Zechariah delights in symbols, allegories, and visions of Angels ministering before Jehovah and executing His commands on earth. ...
In the second part, the interpretation of the visions is given by the Angel who knows Jehovah's will, intercedes with Jehovah for Israel, and by whom Jehovah speaks (Zechariah 1:9), "the Angel that talked with me," or "in me"; compare 1 Peter 1:11, "the Spirit of Christ which was in the prophets. " The Angel of Jehovah the Man upon the red horse among the myrtle trees, is apparently identical with the interpreting Angel through whom Jehovah communicates with His servants (Zechariah 9:11-17; Zechariah 1:10-11; Zechariah 1:12). The Angel of Jehovah is the Second Person in the Godhead. ...
The first vision represents Jehovah' s messengers announcing that after walking to and fro through the earth they found it at rest (in contrast to and counterworking Satan who "walks to and fro upon the earth" to hurt the saints, Job 1:7); this secure rest of the pagan earth is the interceding Angel's plea for the desolate temple and Judah, and elicits Jehovah's great jealousy for Zion, so that He returns to her with mercies and with judgments on the pagan oppressor (Haggai 2:20-23). ...
The "seven eyes upon the one stone" are carved on it; not so much the eyes of the Father (the eye symbolizing providence, seven perfection) and of Angels and saints ever fixed on Him (Zechariah 4:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; John 3:14-15; John 12:32; John 8:66), as His own sevenfold fullness of grace, and of the Spirit's gifts put "UPON Him" by God, so that "He shall not judge after the sight of His eyes" (Isaiah 11:2-3; Isaiah 42:1; John 1:16; John 3:34; Colossians 1:19; Colossians 2:9); He is the living stone who not only attracts the eyes of His people, but emits from Himself all illumination
Chicago, Illinois - In 1696 Father Peter Pinet established the Miami mission of the Angel Guardian at Chicago, which then consisted of two villages with about 300 cabins
Fear - Examples of the latter are Israel's fear of the Lord following the exodus deliverance (Exodus 14:31 ) and the fear of Zechariah, father of John the Baptist, when he saw the Angel of the Lord (Luke 1:12 )
Pardon - The author or cause of pardon is not any creature, Angel, or man; but God
Immanuel - When the Angel appeared to Joseph in a dream, he learned that his fianc Mary was "with child through the Holy Spirit" and would give birth to a son named "Immanuel" (Matthew 1:18,23 )
Towel - John the Evangelist, with his usual simplicity of narration, describes the Redeemer as arising from supper and laying aside his garments, taking a towel and girding himself. In like manner when Peter was in prison, (Acts 12:8) the Angel commanded him to cast his garments (that is this hyke) about him, for he was with his tunic only before
Sennacherib - It was at his second expedition that the overthrow of his host by Jehovah's Angel took place (2 Kings 18:17-37; 2 Kings 18:2 Kings 19)
Come - ” God “comes” through an Angel ( Power - And so we may speak of the power of God, or of man, or of Angel, or of demon, or of powers inherent in things inanimate. (3) Both good and evil Angels are designated by the terms ‘ principalities and powers ’ in such passages as Ephesians 1:21 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; Ephesians 6:12 , Colossians 1:16 ; Colossians 2:10 ; Col 2:15 , 1 Peter 3:22 . The context of each passage must show whether the reference is to Angels or demons
Mary, the Virgin - Some time after their betrothal, which came generally among the Jews a year before the marriage, the Angel Gabriel was sent from God to Nazareth to tell her of One who was to be born of her, and who should ‘be called holy, the Son of God’ (Luke 1:35). The words of the Angel forbid any such idea. Yet, on the other hand, we need not suppose that the full meaning of the Angel’s words was at once grasped. ’ Soon after (‘in these days,’ Luke 1:39) the departure of the Angel, Mary set out to pay the visit to her kinswoman, which his words would naturally suggest to her. Rather, as it has been said, ‘the first but the ever-deepening desire in the heart of Mary, when the Angel left her, must have been to be away from Nazareth, and for the relief of opening her heart to a woman, in all things like-minded, who perhaps might speak blessed words to her’ (Edersheim, Life and Times, i. , which records Joseph’s intention to put Mary away privily when her condition became known to him, and speaks of his subsequent marriage with her in obedience to the Angelic messages. Mary did not yet understand all the meaning of the Angel’s words to her regarding the Child that was to be born
the Angel of the Church in Sardis - The wings of an Angel sprout in his soul as long as he gets enough praise, but he is as good as in his grave when he opens his mouth wide and you do not fill it. " By the end of his ministry the Angel of Sardis will subscribe to every syllable of John Foster. ...
And then to put the copestone on this far-shining case of a minister's recovery, and to send him back to his work till, like his much-tried neighbour in Thyatira, his last years should be far better than his first, this splendid seal was set on his second conversion-"to him that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white raiment: and I will not blot his name out of the book of life, but I will confess his name before my Father and before His Angels. " It will be on that day to the minister of Sardis like that great day when Joshua stood before the Angel of the Lord and Satan stood at his right hand to resist him. And the Angel of the Lord stood by
Sea - Pausing in the process of unrolling judgment and consolation, the Seer beholds a strong Angel standing like a colossus astride the earth and sea, holding in his hand an open book (Revelation 10:2; Revelation 10:5; Revelation 10:8). When the second Angel sounds, one third of the creatures which are in the sea die (Revelation 8:8-9); when the same Angel pours out his bowl into the sea, it becomes blood and every living thing dies (Revelation 16:3)
Mary - Then turn to the evangelist Luke, (Luke 1:35) where we find, at the visit of the Angel to Mary, to inform her of the miraculous conception, when Mary expressed her astonishment at the salutation, and modestly intimated the impossibility of the thing, the Angel made this remarkable answer: "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore, also, that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God. " So again—, "For verily he took not on him the nature of Angels, but he took on him the seed of Abraham. An Angel's nature would not have suited the purpose of redemption: it was human nature that had sinned, and broken the divine law; it must be human nature that shall make amends, by obedience and death. " Hence, therefore, observe the beauty and the order in the divine government, for which the Lord Jesus took not on him the nature of Angels but the seed of Abraham. We see the blessedness and propriety that the Redeemer should be man, and not an Angel;—the next enquiry is, how this manhood shall be united with the GODHEAD in the most suitable and becoming manner, agreeably to the purposes of the divine counsel and will, so as to answer all the great ends of redemption
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - ...
The pillar of cloud motif-set forth in the exodus account and expanded in the prophetic announcements of a new exodus after the Babylonian exile-encompasses a rich complex of theological meanings and functions: guidance/leading (of Israel out of Egypt and through the wilderness to Canaan, Exodus 13:21 ; Numbers 14:14 ; Nehemiah 9:12 ; Psalm 78:14 ); a signal for movement (breaking and setting up camp, Exodus 40:36-37 ; 1618419814_46 ); protection from danger (as a barrier of darkness between Israel and the Egyptians, Exodus 14:19-20 ); the sustained, immediate, personal presence of Yahweh/the Angel of the Lord (Exodus 13:22 ; 14:19,24 ; 40:38 ; Numbers 9:15-16 ); an agency of summons (to battle, Numbers 10:34-35 ; and to worship, Exodus 33:10 ); both a concealment and manifestation of divine glory (Exodus 16:10 ; 19:9,16 ; 20:21 ; 24:15-18 ; 34:5 ; Deuteronomy 4:11 ; 5:22 ); the place of propositional revelation (as an oracular cloud, Exodus 33:9 ; Psalm 99:7 ); the dwelling place/throne of divinity (over the tabernacle, Numbers 9:18,22 ; 10:11 ; and in particular, over the mercy seat, Leviticus 16:2 ); the locus of cultic theophany (for the investiture of the seventy elders and Joshua, Numbers 11:25 ; Deuteronomy 31:15 ; for the inauguration of the tabernacle, Exodus 40:34-35 ); shade/protection from the sun or storm (Numbers 10:34 ; Psalm 105:39 ; Isaiah 4:5 ); illumination (as a pillar of fire by night, Exodus 14:20 ; Numbers 9:15 ); and an agency of legal investigation and/or executive judgment (against Israel's enemies, Exodus 14:24 ; and against rebels within Israel, Numbers 12:5,10 ; 16:42 ). The remaining twenty-two New Testament occurrences of the word "cloud" appear in the context of theophany, and encompass six theologically crucial, eschatologically related events or visionary scenes in salvation history: (1) the pillar of cloud at the exodus, viewed as a type of Christian baptism in the time of eschatological fulfillment (1 Corinthians 10:1-2 ); (2) Jesus' transfiguration, as a foretaste of the kingdom of God, during which the Father appears and speaks in a cloud (Matthew 17:5 ; Mark 9:7 ; Luke 9:34 ); (3) Jesus' ascension, explained by the Angels as a paradigm for his return (Acts 1:9 ); (4) the "mighty Angel" descending from heaven wrapped in a cloud, announcing (against the eschatological backdrop of Daniel 12:7 ) that time should be no longer (Revelation 10:1 ); (5) the two resurrected witnesses ascending to heaven in a cloud, described in the context of the eschatological measuring of the temple of God (Revelation 11:12 ); and (6) Jesus' parousia, against the backdrop of Daniel 7:13 , as the Son of Man coming with/on/in a cloud/the clouds/the clouds of heaven (Matthew 24:30 ; 26:64 ; Mark 13:26 ; 14:62 ; Luke 12:54 ; 21:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; Revelation 1:7 ; 14:14-16 )
Magi - When in Matthew 18:10 Jesus declares that the Angels of the little ones are in heaven nearest to the Throne, the easiest interpretation is that which recognizes these Angels as a part of the personality, dwelling in heaven, but sharing the fortunes of the counterpart on earth. This gives a clear reason why the Angels of the children should be perpetually in the Presence they represent those who have not yet sinned. So again in Acts 12:18 Peter’s ‘angel’ is presumably his heavenly ‘double. ’ The conception was apparently extended to include the heavenly representatives of communities, as the ‘princes’ of Israel, Greece, and Persia in Daniel 10:1-21 ; Daniel 12:1-13 , and the ‘angels’ of the churches of Asia in Revelation 2:1-29 ; Revelation 3:1-22 . If this doctrine really owed anything to the stimulus of Magianism, it is in line with other features of later Jewish Angelology. It is only the naming and ranking of Angels, and the symmetrical framing of corresponding powers of evil, that remind us of Parsi doctrine: the Jews always had both Angels and demons, and all that is claimed is a possible encouragement from Parsi theology, which developed what was latent already. The ‘Wise Lord,’ Ahura Mazda (later Ormazd ), reigned alone without equal or second; but Zoroaster surrounded Him with personified attributes, six in number, called Amesha Spenta ( Amshaspands ), ‘Immortal Holy Ones,’ who were the archangels of the heavenly court. Unhappily, with the prophet’s death the old polytheism returned, under the guise of Angel-worship, and the Magi were ere long enslaving the religion to a dull and mechanical ritual
Zacharias - Suddenly there stood in front of him, on the right side of the altar of incense (Luke 1:11), where no mortal man should be, an Angel of the Lord. In the presence of the supernatural, Zacharias feared and trembled; but the Angel reassured him, told him that his prayer was heard, that his wife Elisabeth should bear him a son, whom he should live to see, and name John (= ‘the grace of Jehovah’), which would be no barren title, but describe his character and mission: ‘he shall be great in the sight of the Lord’ (cf
Manes, Called Also Mani - At 12 years old an Angel announced to him that when older he should abandon that sect. At 24 the same Angel summoned him to found Manicheism in these words: "Hail, Manes, from me and from the Lord which has sent me to thee and chosen thee for his work
Abraham - Here, too, occurred the visit of the three Angels, and the memorable intercession with the Angel-Jehovah for the inhabitants of Sodom, Genesis 18:1-33
Church: Her Glory in Tribulation - When we read in the first verse of the tenth chapter of Revelation,' I saw another mighty Angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud: and a rainbow was upon his head,' it greatly assists the imagination to conceive of a many-colored circlet, rather than a semicircle
Vision - In the report given to our Lord by the two disciples on their way to Emmaus of the vision of Angels seen by the women, the word ὀπτασία is used (Luke 24:23). On the other hand, when he doubted the actuality of the presence of the Angel (Acts 12:9), and the deliverance which had been wrought, he thought he had seen a vision (ὄραμα)
Yoke - He was, not the Angel (Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:16), but the man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5); and He did the perfect will of the Father under this yoke, frail but firm—the body of His humiliation
Face - ‘angel (s) of the face or presence,’ Isaiah 63:9 , Tob 12:15 , Revelation 8:2 , and often in apocalyptic literature)
Gaza - ...
Gaza is mentioned once in the NT (Acts 8:26): ‘Arise,’ said the Angel of the Lord to Philip, ‘and go toward the south (marg. The guiding Angel’s words may refer merely to the solitariness of the road, being spoken ‘to bring out Philip’s trustful obedience, where he could not foresee the end in view’ (J
Oath - So the Angel, Revelation 10:6
Evil Spirits - In this sense He has ‘a band of Angels of evil’ ( Psalms 78:49 ), who may yet he called ‘angels of the Lord’ ( 2 Kings 19:35 , Isaiah 37:36 ), as carrying out His purposes. ...
An evil spirit, therefore, wherever the phrase occurs in a personal sense in the earlier historical books of the OT, must be thought of simply as an Angel or messenger of God, sent for the punishment of evil (cf
Dream - In the NT, the only instances given are those of the appearance of the Angel to Joseph (Matthew 1:20-23; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19-20), the dream of the Magi (Matthew 2:12), and the notable dream of Pilate’s wife (Matthew 27:19)
Philip the Evangelist - By the direction of the Angel of the Lord Philip went down from Jerusalem to Gaza by the less frequented way, which was the usual one for chariots. His title now was "evangelist" besides being "of the seven. Here Philip, who had preached to the schismatic Samaritans, the dark African, and the hostile Philistine, would hail the apostle of the Gentiles who was carrying out to its world wide consequences the work initiated by the evangelist deacon
Galatia - "And though we, or an Angel from heaven, preach any other gospel unto you than that which we have preached unto you, let him be accursed
Zechariah, Book of - In the first ( Zechariah 1:7-17 ) the prophet aees at night, in a myrtle-shaded glen, four horsemen whom the Angel that talks with him designates as the messengers of Jehovah. The Angel calls upon Jehovah: ‘How long wilt thou not have mercy on Jerusalem and on the cities of Judah, against which thou hast had indignation these threescore and ten years?’ In response, assurance comes that Jehovah is displeased with the nations which are at ease, He is returned to Jerusalem, His house shall be built, His cities shall overflow with prosperity, Zion be comforted, Jerusalem chosen. 3, Joshua, the high priest, is seen standing before Jehovah’s Angel, clad in filthy garments and accused by the Satan. In the visions, the machinery of apocalypse, Introduced by Ezekiel, has been somewhat developed in its feature of Angelic intermediaries
Balaam - The donkey turned aside at the sight of the Angel; but Balaam, after God had said "thou shalt not go," persevered in wishing to go for gain. The donkey indirectly, the Angel directly, rebuked his worse than asinine obstinacy. The "seer" lacks the spiritual eye to discern the Angel of the Lord, because it was blinded by lust of riches and honor
Mary, the Virgin - ) Mary was living at Nazareth, by this time betrothed to Joseph, when the Angel Gabriel came from God to her in the sixth month of Elisabeth's pregnancy. When in "fear she cast in her mind what might the meaning of the salutation be," the Angel reassured her by the promise, "behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb and bring forth a son, and shalt call His name Jesus. " She asked, not incredulously as Zacharias (Luke 1:18), but in the simplicity of faith which sought instruction, taking for granted it shall be, only asking as to the manner, "how shall this be, seeing I know not a man?"...
The Angel therefore explained, "the Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee (as with a cloud, denoting the mildest, gentlest operation of the divine power, coveting, quickening, but not consuming: Mark 9:7), therefore also that Holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God" (from whence our creed saith, "He was conceived by the Holy Spirit," etc. The shepherds' account of the Angels caused wonder to others, "but Mary kept all these things and pondered them in her heart"; so again Luke 2:51, not superficial, but reflective and thoughtfully devout
the Bidden to the Reat Marriage Supper And Some of Their Excuses - Is it to be the same excuse and answer tonight again? It is as if an Angel had come straight from heaven to you with an invitation addressed to you in his hand. Wait one moment, then, O impatient Angel: wait, just wait one moment! And then speed up with your answer to your Lord. Say, at any rate, to God's Angel that your minister is not to blame
Redemption (2) - It is noteworthy, however, that in two passages redemption is attributed to the ‘angel’ of Jehovah—that mysterious personality, one with Jehovah, yet again distinct from Him, who figures so prominently, particularly in the earlier stages of revelation. ‘The Angel which hath redeemed me from all evil,’ says Jacob, in the earliest instance of the use of the word נָּאֵל, in Genesis 48:16; and again in Isaiah 63:9 we have, with the use of the same word, the like idea: ‘In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the Angel of his presence saved them; in his love and in his pity he redeemed them,’ etc. That is, Jehovah’s interposition in redemption is by means of His Angel (cf. Malachi brings to a close the long preparation of the OT with his prediction of the Angel of the Covenant soon to come to His temple, whose work would be at once judging and saving (Malachi 3:4)
Appear, Appearance - ...
God makes his appearances in various forms, most typically through an Angel (who can look very human [2]), in visions, and in dreams. Reference to the appearance of God (in the form of an Angel) occurs primarily in the birth and resurrection narratives of the Gospels (Matthew 1:20-21 ; 28:2-7 ; Mark 16:5 ; Luke 1:11 ; 22:43 )
Timothy - The office at Ephesus and Crete (Titus 1:5) became permanent on the removal of the apostles by death; "angel" (Revelation 1:20) was the transition stage between "apostle" and our "bishop. ...
Possibly (Calmet) Timothy was "the Angel of the church at Ephesus" (Revelation 2). Paul, influenced by his own inclination (Acts 16:3) and the prophets' intimations respecting him (1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6; compare Paul's own ease, Acts 13:1), with his own hands, accompanied with the presbytery's laying on of hands, ordained him "evangelist" (2 Timothy 4:5)
Malachi, Theology of - ...
Throughout the Scriptures the Lord is portrayed again and again as a God of justice and righteousness, but strangely, here at the end of the Old Testament his justice is questioned (2:17). " Since "messenger" (malak [1]) can also be translated "angel, " the reference to "covenant" could be to the Angel of the Lord and his involvement in the Mosaic covenant
Abraham - Abraham obeyed, and, but for the intervention of the Angel of the Lord, would have killed his son, believing "that God was able to raise him up even from the dead. He was so careful that Isaac should not marry one of the daughters of the Canaanites that he sent his servant (Eliezer perhaps) to his own kindred to seek a bride for Isaac, being convinced that God would send His Angel and prosper the mission, which resulted in Rebecca being the wife of Isaac
Anathema - That such teaching reflected also on himself would be a matter of little consequence; but Christ was sacred to him, and the preacher of another gospel, whether one of his own colleagues or even ‘an Angel from heaven,’ was not to be tolerated. But the reference to ‘an Angel from heaven’ is sufficient to prove that ecclesiastical censure, carrying finality with it, was not the main thought
Nicolaitans - John says in his Revelation, to the Angel of the church of Ephesus, "But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate," Revelation 2:6 ; and again, to the Angel of the church of Pergamos: "So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate," Revelation 2:15
Wages - The next instance is Tobit’s engagement of the Angel Raphael as his son’s travelling-companion for a drachm a day and all found ( Tob 5:14 )
Ahaziah - Ahaziah sent to Baalzebub (lord of flies), god of Ekron, to inquire, should he recover? Elijah, by direction of the Angel of the Lord, met the messengers, and reproving their having repaired to the idol of Ekron as if there were no God in Israel, announced that Ahaziah should die
Altar - It was at this altar Zacharias ministered when an Angel appeared to him (Luke 1:11 )
Magnificat - But no Evangelist of the NT could have failed to speak of Christ by His human name, writing after His Death and Resurrection. She who bad answered the Angel so humbly and bravely ( Luke 1:38 ) would surely speak when thus addressed by a near relation
Sad'Ducees - In connection with the disbelief of a resurrection by the Sadducees, they likewise denied there was "angel or spirit," ( Acts 23:8 ) and also the doctrines of future punishment and future rewards
Trump Trumpet - Paul had in his thought the Jewish tradition of archangelic music (cf. In two of these it is used as a figure of speech to define the voice of the Angel (Revelation 1:10), just as ‘the sound of many waters’ describes the speech of ‘one like unto the Son of man’ (Revelation 1:15). In Revelation 8:2; Revelation 8:6; Revelation 8:13; Revelation 9:14 we read of the seven Angels who sounded their seven trumpets to the discomfiture of the earth. The imagery of the Apocalypse is in keeping with Jewish tradition, which saw in the trumpet-call the music appropriate to Angels
Shepherd - 25, the name ‘shepherd’ is given to the 70 Angels ruling the 70 nations of the earth (see R. ), also to the Angel in Hermas, Mand
Gideon - An Angel of the Lord appeared to him while he was threshing wheat to hide it from the Midianites, and said, "The Lord is with thee, thou mighty man of valour
Ark - Peter (himself like a spirit in prison during those three days), unhappy children of the unlawful union between Angels and the daughters of men, condemned rebels who in vain sought the intervention of Enoch on their behalf in that time of Divine long-suffering when Noah was preparing the ark in which he saved himself and his family (see R. The thought of that emptiness oppressed the minds both of devout Jews and of Jewish Christians, and in Revelation 11:19, when the seventh Angel has sounded, and the temple of God in heaven is opened, the ark of the covenant is there
Peter - We find him afterwards denouncing the judgment of God on a guilty couple who had dared to lie to the Holy Ghost, Acts 5:1-11 ; visiting Samaria, and rebuking Simon the magician, Acts 8:5-24 ; healing Eneas and raising Dorcas to life at Lydda, Acts 9:32-43 ; seeing at Joppa a vision which prepared him to preach the gospel to the gentile Cornelius, Acts 10:1-48 ; imprisoned by Herod Agrippa, and delivered by an Angel, Acts 12:3-19 ; and taking a part in the council at Jerusalem, Acts 15:7-11
Paradise (2) - The strangely mingled life man lives, half in, half out of the spiritual world, will not suffer a system which ignores so large a portion of his consciousness. But in Revelation the spiritual meaning shines through the thin veil of the pietorial promise to the Ephesian ‘angel
Joy (2) - Luke, who has been called the ‘most profound psychologist among the Evangelists. word for ‘gospel’ (εὐαγγέλιον) means ‘good tidings,’ or, as it is described in Luke 2:10, in the message of the Angel to the shepherds, ‘good tidings of great joy’ (εὐαγγελίζομαι ὑμῖν χαρὰν μεγάλην). In the case of the Angel messenger to Zacharias, the two words are combined in his greeting. ‘Thou shalt,’ says the Angel, ‘have joy and gladness (χαρὰ καὶ ἀγαλλίασις), and many shall rejoice (χαρήσονται) at his birth’ (Luke 1:14). Whether we are to think that the Fourth Evangelist had carried back the conception of his Lord’s ministry into the prophetic description of it given by His forerunner or not, it is difficult to decide. This is the true and evangelical temper of a proper reception of the gospel message. Joy, says our Lord, in the two former cases, fills all heaven, even increasing the gladness of the Angels in sympathy with their King; while the exuberant picture of the joy of the household at the prodigal’s return gives a still more tender and touching picture of the Divine Fatherhood. The joy thus foretold and interceded for is noted by the Evangelist as a possession of the disciples immediately after the resurrection
the Angel of the Church in Smyrna - IF Polycarp was indeed the Angel of the Church of Smyrna, then we know some most interesting things about this Angel over and above what we read in this Epistle addressed to him. And if you but add that one sentence to this Epistle you will have a full-length and a perfect portrait of the Angel of the Church of Smyrna. He was not only an eminent teacher and an illustrious martyr, but in all he did he did it out of a truly apostolical and evangelical spirit. '...
Apostolical, evangelical, and most illustrious, martyr, as Polycarp proved himself to be at the last, yet, when he began his ministry in Smyrna he was a man of like fears and flinchings of heart as we are ourselves
Apocrypha - In reality he was the Angel Raphael. It introduces the concept of a guardian Angel. In the first three, Ezra seeks answers from an Angel about human sin and the situation of Israel
Elements - The special meanings or στοιχεῖα are: (a) the letters or the alphabet; (b) the physical elements or constituents of the universe; (c) the heavenly bodies; (d) the rudiments or principia of a subject; (e) the elementary spirits, Angels, genii, or demons of the cosmos. ) Many recent expositors therefore maintain that the στοιχεῖα are the Angels or personal elemental spirits which were supposed to animate all things. ) speaks of the Angels of the stars keeping watch, the leaders dividing the seasons, the taxiarchs the months, and the chiliarchs the days. ) refers to the creation of the Angels of the face (or presence), and the Angels who cry ‘holy,’ the Angels of the spirit of wind and of hail, of thunder and of lightning, of heat and of cold, of each of the seasons, of dawn and of evening, etc. The four winds have their four Angels (Revelation 7:1-2), and the fire has its Angel (Revelation 14:18). Each of the Seven Churches has its Angel (Revelation 2:3). Angels take the form of winds and fire (Hebrews 1:7 || Psalms 104:4). The inferiority of the law to the gospel is due to its administration by Angels (Galatians 3:19). 594), Schœttgen quotes the Rabbinical words: ‘No choir of Angels sings God’s praises twice, for each day God creates new hosts which sing His praises and then vanish into the stream of fire from under the throne of His glory whence they came
Galatians, Epistle to the - We learn from Galatians 4:13-15 that he had preached the gospel to them, and that they had received him as an Angel and would have plucked out their eyes for him. But he reminds them of their former affection for him, and how they had received him as an Angel of God
Litany of the Holy Name of Jesus - ...
Jesus, Angel of the great council, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, joy of Angels, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, teacher of the evangelists, have mercy on us
Litany of the Holy Name - ...
Jesus, Angel of the great council, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, joy of Angels, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, teacher of the evangelists, have mercy on us
Slaughter - In this case the sacrificial lamb provided the main food for the passover meal, and its blood was sprinkled on the doorposts of the Israelite homes as a sign to the death Angel
Holy Name, Litany of the - ...
Jesus, Angel of the great council, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, joy of Angels, have mercy on us. ...
Jesus, teacher of the evangelists, have mercy on us
Jezebel - It probably reflects some copyist’s view that the ‘angel’ of the Church was its bishop
Locusts - But the locusts John describes, are said to have a king over them, which is "the Angel of the bottomless pit
David - In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the Angel of Jehovah before them. ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42)
Lamp - ...
Revelation 8:10 (a) The lamp which fell from Heaven was either an Angel or a superman
Cease - ” Thus, Sarah’s capacity for childbearing had long since “ceased” before an Angel informed her that she was to have a son ( Behmenists - How and what Angels and men were in their creation; that they are in and from God, his real offspring; that their life begun in and from this divine fire, which is the Father of Light, generating a birth of light in their souls; from both which proceeds the Holy Spirit, or breath of divine love, in the triune creature, as it does in the triune Creator. How some Angels, and all men, are fallen from God, and their first state of a divine triune life in him; what they are in their fallen state, and the difference between the fall of Angels and that of man. How the earth, stars, and elements were created in consequence of the fall of Angels. How and why sin and misery shall only reign for a time, until God shall, in a supernatural way, make fallen man rise to the glory of Angels, and this material system shake off its curse, and enter into an everlasting union with that heaven from whence it fell. That immortal spark of life, which is common to Angels and devils. That divine life of the light and Spirit of God, which makes the essential difference between an Angel and a devil; and,...
3
Mary - The mother of Mark the Evangelist. Hither Peter, when delivered from prison by the Angel, came and knocked at the gate, Acts 12:12
John the Baptist - The conception was foretold by the Angel Gabriel, who announced that John was to be a Nazarite, and should be filled with the Holy Ghost from his birth
David - In the period after the return from Babylon, the author of the last section of Zechariah (Zechariah 12:7 to Zechariah 13:1) describes the glories of the coming time in connexion with the Davidic dynasty: ‘The house of David shall be as God, as the Angel of Jehovah before them. ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42)
Joshua, Book of - The appearance of the Angel of the Lord further demonstrated that the entire operation was divinely directed (3:1-5:15; see also JOSHUA THE SON OF NUN)
Dream (2) - 138), the Angel visitants address waking hearers, the inspiration of the Spirit of God renews veritable prophecy, ‘it is a living world, conscious of itself, that appears before us’; in this, on the contrary, ‘the form of communication from on high is the dream,—the form the least perfect, the least elevated, the least reassuring. Thus, for example, we are told that, like the Magi of the East and the wife of Pilate, Joseph ‘was thought worthy of communion with the unseen world and of communications from God’s messenger only when in an unconscious state,’ seeing that he was not ripe for the manifestation of the Angel to him, as to Zacharias and Mary, when awake (Nebe, Kindheitsgeschichte, 212, cf. In three of the instances we are merely told that ‘an Angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph,’ and in the other two that he or the Magi were ‘warned of God’ in a dream, i. The term employed for ‘appearing’ (φαίνω) marks the phenomenal objectivity of the object: Joseph did not see in his dream-image something which he merely interpreted to stand for an Angel, but an Angel in his proper phenomenal presentation (see Grimm-Thayer, s. also Spanheim, Dubia Evangelica, 2nd pt
Revelation, the - Christ has seven stars in His right hand, and the stars are the Angels of the seven churches, that is, representative, as if the spirit of each church were personified. The Angels declare the worthiness of the Lamb, without mentioning redemption. It is noticeable that in the first six seals no allusion is made to Angels. The prayers of the saints, presented by an Angel distinct from those having the seven trumpets, while fragrant before God, bring, as their consequence, judgements on the earth. A great eagle (as is now read by the editors, instead of 'angel'), cries, "Woe, woe, woe" on those who make the earth their home. A mighty Angel, probably Christ from the description, plants his feet upon (that is, claims) the sea and earth, and cries with a great voice to which the thunders respond. There is then a succession of Angels, one of whom flies in mid heaven, having the everlasting gospel for all nations, crying, "Fear God, and give glory to him:" for the hour of judgement has come. The vintage of the earth is gathered by another Angel, and the winepress trodden, blood coming from it reaching to sixteen hundred furlongs, the extent of Palestine. It presents also the coming out of the seven Angels from the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony, having the seven vials, or bowls, of the wrath of God. A vision concerning the great harlot, which may be identified with Jezebel (in the address to Thyatira) and from the description given, may be recognised as the Romish Papal system, is brought under the notice of John by one of the Angels of the seven last plagues. The bride is shown to John (as had been the harlot) by one of the Angels that had the seven last plagues, in the glories that distinguish her as the seat of heavenly light and rule. The Angel declares the truth of the prophecies
Jacob - ...
When sent forth by his parents to escape Esau, and to get a wife in Padan Aram, he for the first time is presented before us as enjoying God's manifestations at Bethel in his vision of the ladder set up on earth, and the top reaching heaven, with "Jehovah standing above, and the Angels of God ascending and descending (not descending and ascending, for the earth is presupposed as already the scene of their activity) on it," typifying God's providence and grace arranging all things for His people's good through the ministry of "angels" (Genesis 28; Hebrews 1:14). ...
Still more typifying Messiah, through whom heaven is opened and also joined to earth, and Angels minister with ceaseless activity to Him first, then to His people (John 14:6; Revelation 4:1; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:19-20). The most characteristic scene of Jacob's higher life was his wrestling until break of day (compare Luke 6:12) with the Angel of Jehovah, in human form, for a blessing. "By his strength he had power with God, yea he had power over the Angel and prevailed, he wept and made supplication unto Him" (Hosea 12:3-4). The vision of the two encampments of Angels on either side of him prepared him for the vision of the Lord of Angels. The catalog of ills includes his sufferings:...
(1) from Esau,...
(2) Laban,...
(3) maiming by the Angel,...
(4) Dinah's violation and Simeon and Levi's cruelty,...
(5) loss of Joseph,...
(6) Simeon's imprisonment,...
(7) Benjamin's departure,...
(8) Rachel's death,...
(9) Reuben's incest. His true grandeur and sublimity burst forth at his latter end; his triumphant and grateful review of life," God, before whom my fathers did walk, the God which fed me all my life long unto this day, the Angel which redeemed me from all evil, bless the lad!" His blessing Joseph's sons was an act of "faith" (Hebrews 11:21), "leaning upon the top of his staff," an additional fact brought out by Paul (adopting Septuagint), as he worshipped on his bed (Genesis 47:31; Genesis 48:2); the staff symbolized his "pilgrim" spirit seeking the heavenly city (Genesis 32:10)
Temptation, Trial - The Angel of the church in Ephesus ‘tried’ or ‘tempted’ them which called themselves apostles and were not, and found them false (Revelation 2:2). The Angel of the church in Smyrna is warned that some of them will be cast into prison that they may be ‘tried’ (Revelation 2:10)
Church - The synagogue officers consisted of a "ruler of the synagogue," the "legate of the church" (sheliach tsibbur ), corresponding to the Angel of the church (Revelation 1-3), a college of elders or presbyters, and subordinate ministers (chazzan ), answering to our deacons, to take care of the sacred books. )...
The steps were apostle; then vicar apostolic or apostolic delegate, as Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete, temporarily (1 Timothy 1:3; 2 Timothy 4:21; Titus 3:12; Titus 1:5), then Angel, then bishop in the present sense
Synagogue - The officiating minister was delegate (sheliach , answering to the term apostle, "sent") of the congregation, the forerunner of "the Angel (messenger sent) of the church" (Revelation 1:20; Revelation 2:1). Three were archisunagogai , "chiefs of the synagogue"; then also the "angel" or "bishop" who prayed publicly and caused the law to be read and sometimes preached; and three deacons for alms; the interpreter of the old Hebrew Testament, who paraphrased it; also the theological schoolmaster and his interpreter (Lightfoot, Sadducees - This is not improbable in itself, but it is difficult to explain away the agreement on this point between Josephus and Acts 23:8, ‘The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither Angel, nor spirit. ’ Cesterley very properly connects this usage of ‘angel’ with Acts 12:15, ‘It is his Angel. ’ And he argues that what is meant is that Sadducees did not believe that the departed become Angels or spirits (op
Lord (2) - It is found in quotations from the OT, as ‘Thou shalt not tempt (the) Lord thy God’ (Matthew 4:7); and in phrases of OT origin, as ‘the Angel of (the) Lord’ (Matthew 1:20 || Luke 1:11); ‘the law of (the) Lord’ (Luke 2:23); ‘the power of (the) Lord’ (Luke 5:17). (d) It is also found in the words of the Angel to the shepherds, ‘Unto you is born this day … a Saviour, who is Christ (the) Lord’ (Luke 2:11). We agree with him in regarding κύριος (Lord) as a word added by the Evangelist to interpret the Jewish title Messiah (χριστός) to his Gentile readers. ‘Lord’ is an addition by the Evangelist, to interpret ‘Christ’ to Gentile Christians. In phrases of OT origin like ‘the Angel of (the) Lord,’ the name of God was entirely omitted or merely hinted at
Zechariah, Prophecy of - A man, the Angel of Jehovah, on a red horse (the horse is a symbol of the energy of God's providential government in the earth) stands in the shade among the myrtle trees, and there were other horses, red, speckled, and white, as symbols of God's agency in the government of the earth: cf. If the 'red' horse signifies Persia (having the same colour as the horse of the Angel, possibly because Persia was at that time ruling and was favouring God's people), doubtless the 'speckled' and the 'white' point to the two nations that were to succeed — the Greek and the Roman. They are represented in Joshua the high priest standing before the Angel of Jehovah, Satan standing to resist him
Exodus, Book of - God said He would send an Angel, and not go Himself with Israel, for they were a stiff-necked people
Ass - It turned aside at the sight of the Angel; but he, after God's express prohibition, wished to go for gain, a dumb beast forbidding an inspired prophet! The brute's instinctive obedience rebukes the gifted seer's self willed disobedience
Voice - The formula ‘I heard a voice’ or ‘a great voice’ or ‘the voice that I heard’ (Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 5:11; Revelation 6:6-7; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 10:4; Revelation 10:8; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:2; Revelation 14:13; Revelation 16:1; Revelation 18:4; Revelation 19:1; Revelation 21:3) applies to the voice of God, or of the Lamb, or of the Angel of Christ, or of one of the Angels of the Presence or of the whole concourse of Angels
Virgin, Virgin Birth - An Angel appeared to her while she was still a virgin betrothed to Joseph
Harp - In Revelation 18:22 the Angel who doomed the great city of Babylon declared that it would hear no more the voice of harpers (cf
Blessedness (2) - Selby, The Imperfect Angel, 25
Blessedness - Selby, The Imperfect Angel, 1888, p
Stretch Out - 22:23, where it means “to go off the way”: “And the ass saw the Angel of the Lord standing in the way … , and the ass turned aside out of the way
Raise - The Angel smote Peter on the side and raised him up
Call - The Angel of God called to Hagar
Sennacherib - Hezekiah entreated the Lord, who sent a destroying Angel against the Assyrian army, and slew in one night 185,000 men
Mourning (2) - ’ Immediately on a death, all water in the house and in three houses on either side was emptied out, because of the belief that the Angel of Death procured death by means of a knife which be washed in water close at hand
Suffering - ‘Suffer hardship, do the work of an evangelist’ (2 Timothy 4:5). in the description of the Vision of the Christ, ‘His countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength’ (Acts 1:16), and in the description of an Angel, ‘His face was as the sun’ (Acts 10:1). ...
Lastly, in Revelation 19:17 the Angel who is entrusted with the overthrow of the Beast and the false prophet is represented as ‘standing in the sun’-probably that he may be able from his position in mid-heaven to summon the great birds of prey to feed on the flesh of the king’s enemies lying on the battle-field
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - (2) The Angel inseparably attached to that chair apparently the power of conferring spiritual gifts which resides in the centre of episcopal unity. This chair with whose exclusive claim for respect the little Donatist community can in no way compete carries with it necessarily the "angel" ("ducit ad se Angelum") unless the Donatists have this gift enclosed for their own use in a narrow space and excluding the seven Angels of St
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - He believes in the Resurrection and in Angels, and lays great stress on prayer, almsgiving, and fasting. -He tells how strong and fearless he was, yet he was jealous of Joseph and plotted his death, because the prince of deceit sent forth the spirit of jealousy and blinded his mind; but God’s Angel delivered Joseph, as Simeon was away when Joseph came. The Angel who intercedes (so β) for Israel brings him back to earth, and arms him, and bids him execute vengeance on Shechem (v. He describes his second vision; seven Angels consecrate him and put on him the high-priestly robes; they foretell his descendants’ three-fold offices (i. He bids his sons draw near to God and the Angel that intercedes for them, ‘for he is a mediator between God and man. The Lord will transform Israel into an obedient nation, superior to the Angels (vi. The peaceful soul at death is met by the Angel of peace, the troubled by the evil spirit it has served (vi. His will is guided by the Angel of peace; he desires nothing overmuch, riches, pleasure, or honour; and is sincere and single-minded (vi
Koran - ...
Mahomet, according to the authors of the Keschaf, having begged of the Angel Gabriel a more ample explication of this passage, received it in the following terms: "...
Seek him who turns thee out, give to him who takes from thee, pardon him who injures thee; for God will have you plant in your souls the roots of his chief perfections. It is the common opinion, that Mahomet, assisted by one Sergius, a monk, composed this book; but the Mussulmans believe it as an article of their faith, that the prophet, who, they say, was an illiterate man, had no concern in inditing it; but that it was given him by God, who, to that end, made use of the ministry of the Angel Gabriel; that, however, it was communicated to him by little and little, a verse at a time, and in different places, during the course of 23 years. These 23 years which the Angel employed in conveying the Alcoran to Mahomet, are of wonderful service to his followers; inasmuch as they furnish them with an answer to such as tax them with those glaring contradictions of which the book is full, and which they piously father upon God himself; alleging that, in the course of so long a time, he repealed and altered several doctrines and precepts which the prophet had before received of him. It is the general belief among the Mahometans that the Koran is of divine original; nay, that it is eternal and uncreated; remaining, as some express it, in the very essence of God: and the first transcript has been from everlasting, by God's throne, written on a table of vast bigness, called the preserved table, in which are also recorded the divine decrees, past and future; that a copy from this table, in one volume upon paper, was by the ministry of the Angel Gabriel sent down to the lowest heaven, in the month of Ramadan, on the night of power, from whence Gabriel revealed it to Mahomet in parcels, some at Mecca, and some at Medina, at different times, during the space of twenty-three years, as the exigency of affairs required; giving him, however, the consolation to show him the whole (which they tell us was bound in silk, and adorned with gold and precious stones of paradise) once a year; but in the last year of his life he had the favour to see it twice. They say, that only ten chapters were delivered entire, the rest being revealed piecemeal, and written down from time to time by the prophet's amanuensis, in such a part of such and such a chapter, till they were completed, according to the directions of the Angel. Though in the prophetical and evangelical writings, the joys that shall attend us in a divine state, are often mentioned with ardent admiration, they are expressed rather by allusion than by similitude; rather by indefinite and figurative terms, than by any thing fixed and determinate
Holy Spirit - Similarly, the Angel Gabriel visited Mary with the news that “The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest will overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee will be called the Son of God” (Luke 1:35 )
Deborah - ...
Meroz might have intercepted the retreating foe and Sisera, but is "cursed by the Angel of Jehovah" for not doing so; and Jael is blessed" for her zeal, though mixed with earthly alloy
Backsliding - Accordingly, the Angel of the church in Ephesus warns those who have forsaken their first love: "Remember the height from which you have fallen! Repent and do the things you did at first" (Revelation 2:5 )
Egypt - After the death of Herod, an Angel tells Joseph to return to the land of Israel
Presence of God - Many people who encountered God or his Angel feared for their lives (Judges 13:22 ; Luke 1:11-12 ; 2:9 ). Angels stand in God's presence and act on his authority as he directs them (Luke 1:19 )
Hieracas, an Egyptian Teacher - In it Isaiah is represented as seeing in the seventh Heaven, on the right and left hand of God respectively, two Beings like each other, one being the Son, the other the Angel of the Holy Spirit Who spake by the prophets
Supper - In Egypt, for every house of the children of Israel, a lamb was slain upon that night, when the Almighty punished the cruelty and obstinacy of the Egyptians by killing their first- born, but charged the destroying Angel to pass over the houses upon which the blood of the lamb was sprinkled
Witness - 2); 3 John 1:3,6,12 (2nd part); (h) of the Apostle Paul concerning Israel, Romans 10:2 ; (i) of an Angel, to the churches, Revelation 22:16 ; (j) of unbelievers concerning themselves, Matthew 23:31 ; concerning Christ, John 18:23 ; concerning others, John 2:25 ; Acts 22:5 ; 26:5 ; (II) "to give a good report, to approve of," Acts 6:3 ; 10:22 ; 16:2 ; 22:12 ; 1 Timothy 5:10 ; 3 John 1:12 (1st part); some would put Luke 4:22 here
Samson - Some evangelical preachers, again, have gone out to the opposite extreme, and have displayed Samson to us solely as a type and pattern of Jesus Christ. '...
What more could God, or man, or Angel of God have done for Samson that was not done? Every man must work out his own salvation with his own hands, or not at all; but, short of doing for Samson what neither God nor man could do, what more could God or man have done that was not done? From his birth, and for long before his birth, the gifts of God were simply showered on Samson. She may not eat of anything that cometh of the vine, neither let her drink wine nor strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing: all that I commanded her let her observe,' said the Angel of the Lord a second time to Manoah. A common man, over whose birth no Angel did wondrously, will often at the end of the day far outstrip his brilliant neighbour who started with all heaven and all earth looking on with applause and expectation
Light And Darkness - ’ When we read in 2 Corinthians 11:14, ‘Even Satan fashioneth himself into an Angel of light,’ the evident suggestion is that Satan’s true form is that of a prince of darkness, not an Angel of light
Behmenists - How and what Angels and men were in their creation; that they are in and from God, his real offspring; that their life begun in and from this divine fire which is the Father of light, generating a birth of light in the Holy Spirit, or breath of divine love in the triune creature, as it does in the triune Creator. How some Angels, and all men, are fallen from God, and their first state of a divine triune life in him; what they are in their fallen state, and the difference between the fall of Angels and that of Man. How the earth, stars, and elements, were created in consequence of the fallen Angels. How and why sin and misery, wrath, and death, shall only reign for a time, till the love, the wisdom, and the power of God shall in a supernatural way (the mystery of God made man) triumph over sin, misery, and death; and make fallen man rise to the glory of Angels, and this material system shake off its curse, and enter into an everlasting union with that heaven from whence it fell. ...
The year after he wrote his Three Principles, by which are to be understood the dark world, or hell, in which the devils live; the light world, or heaven, in which the Angels live; the external or visible world, which has proceeded from the internal and spiritual worlds, in which man, as to his bodily life, lives; ...
Behmen produced this Three fold Life of Man, according to the Three Principles. That he has that immortal spark of life which is common to Angels and devils. That divine life of the light and Spirit of God, which makes the essential difference between an Angel and a devil, the last having extinguished this divine life in himself; but that man can only attain unto this heavenly life of the second principle through the new birth in Christ Jesus
Witness - Modern preaching has not yet fully recovered this note, but there is an increasing sense of the need of it, and the results of evangelistic work, especially in the foreign mission field, are daily illustrating its meaning in the life of the Church. The first woe is the plague of tormenting locusts; the second is the slaughter wrought by the fiery horses and their Angel riders; the last is apparently the final overthrow of Satan and the completed destruction of the wicked in the drama of 12-20
Samuel, Second Book of - " A pestilence swept off 70,000 men, but when the destroying Angel came to Jerusalem his hand was stayed
Shewbread - Similar is the phrase "the Angel of His presence" (Isaiah 63:9; Exodus 33:14-15; Exodus 23:20; Deuteronomy 4:37, "in His sight"
Elkesai, Elkesaites - A book bearing the name of Elkesai and purporting to contain Angelic revelations, was, at the end of the 2nd cent. Hippolytus states that the book, according to its own account, had been obtained from Seres, in Parthia, by a righteous man named Elkesai; that its contents had been revealed by an Angel 96 miles high, accompanied by a female of corresponding size; that the male was Son of God, and the female was called Holy Spirit. It is taught that Christ is but a created being, but the greatest of creatures, being Lord over Angels as well as over every other created thing
Synagogue - ...
The service of the synagogue was as follows: The people being seated, the "angel of the synagogue" ascended the pulpit, and offered up the public prayers, the people rising from their seats, and standing in a posture of deep devotion, Matthew 6:5 Mark 11:25 Luke 18:11,13
Judges, Book of - The Angel of the Lord was at Gilgal during the book of Joshua (to which place the Israelites should in spirit have constantly returned: it is the place of circumcision, that is, for the Christian, thorough separation from the first man); but now He came to Bochim, and reminded them that He had delivered them from Egypt, and had declared that He would never break His covenant with Israel; they were to make no league with the people of the land, but they had not obeyed His voice
Sarah - But if Paul had only been led to take up our text of tonight, and to treat Sarah and her childlessness as an allegory, what an evangelical argument, and what a fruitful and far-reaching application both the Galatian Church and all the churches ever after would have got! For, out of this little, parenthetical, hidden-away verse the whole of the succeeding eleven epoch-making chapters of Genesis immediately spring. You may try to do it, but the Angel of the Lord will bring Hagar and Ishmael hack again upon you. Not only to the good and gentle, but also to the froward,' said the Angel at the well. Thou hast been led of His Angel in coming here
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - 2 Peter 2:4-5); two Angels, Assael and Shemachsai, loved the daughters of men, and, forsaking their allegiance to God, descended from heaven to earth; one of these Angels returned to heaven and did not sin, but the other accomplished his desire, and his offspring became demons. As the Angel of death, he is identical with Sammael, who is known also as ‘the head of all the Satans. ) consists of himself, as head, and an innumerable horde of Angels or messengers (מַלאָבים) who do his will;* [46] —God is the only ultimate protector against demons; but He sends His Angels to counteract their deeds, and to help men to withstand their attacks (cf
Ishmael - The Angel of Jehovah described Ishmael in a prophecy which history is continually verifying, "he will be a wild man," Hebrew a wild donkey man, i. , fulfilling the prediction of the Angel of Jehovah to Hagar (see above), Ishmael died, his nomad descendants stretching from Havilah S
Woman (2) - From the beginning, even before His birth, her mind had often been occupied with that revelation from the spiritual world in which the Angel had spoken of a ‘throne’ and a ‘kingdom’ (Luke 1:32-33). From this it is clear that whilst He gave her, who was blessed indeed amongst women in being His mother, full opportunities for the development of her mind and spirit, never checking during those thirty years those natural desires to know all that He would tell her of the Kingdom of which the Angel had spoken to her, yet He chiefly valued in her the growth of those spiritual graces which had led to her being selected for the high position she held
Messiah - Another messianic representation in the days of the patriarchs and Moses was the Angel of the Lord, who appeared in theophanic form as the preincarnate Christ. The Angel of the Lord phenomenon particularly gave emphasis to the divine character of the Messiah. ...
The New Testament writers, evangelists, and apostles give no reason to doubt that Jesus is the Messiah, or in New Testament language, the Christ. The evangelists record that Jesus was anointed by the Spirit when he was baptized
Peter - During his abode in Joppa, the Roman centurion, Cornelius, directed by an Angel, sent for him to come and preach to him. But an Angel brought him out; after which he concealed himself in the city, or in some neighbouring town, till Herod's death, which happened about the end of the year
Victory - the Angel of the Lord's similar words to Gideon in Judges 6:12 ). " The Lord will grant to the one who overcomes the following: eating of the tree of life, in the paradise of God (2:7); immunity to the second death (2:11); receipt of the "hidden manna, " a white stone with a new name inscribed on it, known only to the person himself (2:17); power over the nations, to rule over them with a rod of iron (2:26-27); being clad in white garments, name not being blotted out of the book of life, and the confession of his name before the Father and the Angels (3:5); made a pillar in the temple of God; and three new names: the name of God, the name of the city of God, the new Jerusalem, and the Lord's own new name (3:12); and sitting on the Lord's throne with him (3:21)
Burial - )...
Mary stooped to look in, because the door was low; the Angel sat on the stone rolled aside into its recess, as the women drew near (Matthew 28:2; John 20:11; compare Isaiah 22:16; Luke 23:53)
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - The Angel who rolled away the stone covering the tomb entrance told the women that Jesus was risen. ...
Luke 24:1 records the visit of three women to the tomb where two Angels said that He was risen. The Angels reminded the women of Jesus' teachings about His death and resurrection. When the disciples asked questions about the kingdom, He said it was a question beyond their comprehension, repeated His missionary commission, and ascended as they watched and were assured by Angels of His return
Fire - In both cases Yahweh is present in the person of the Angel who touches the altar, causing the sacrifices to erupt in flame
Tim'Othy - Paul to the same conclusion, (Acts 16:3 ) and he was solemnly set apart to do the work and possibly to bear the title of evangelist. They and Silvanus, and probably Luke also, journeyed to Philippi, (Acts 16:12 ) and there the young evangelist was conspicuous at once for his filial devotion and his zeal. If he continued, according to the received tradition, to be bishop of Ephesus, then he, and no other, must have been the "angel" of the church of Ephesus to whom the message of (Revelation 2:1-7 ) was addressed
sa'Tan - He is spoken of as a "spirit" in ( Ephesians 2:2 ) as the prince or ruler of the "demons" in (Matthew 12:24-26 ) and as having "angels" subject to him in (Matthew 25:41 ; Revelation 12:7,9 ) The whole description of his power implies spiritual nature and spiritual influence. We conclude therefore that he was of Angelic nature, a rational and spiritual creature, superhuman in power, wisdom and energy; and not only so, but an archangel, one of the "princes" of heaven. We can only conjecture, therefore, that Satan is a fallen Angel, who once had a time of probation, but whose condemnation is now irrevocably fixed. Besides this direct influence, we learn from Scripture that Satan is the leader of a host of evil spirits or Angels who share his evil work, and for whom the "everlasting fire is prepared
Water - When Christ confirms His forerunner’s distinction between baptism in water and baptism in the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:5), He certainly regards the latter not as a blast of judgment but as the supreme gift of Divine grace; and Peter, who ‘remembered the word of the Lord,’ and no doubt the tone in which He uttered it, quotes it not as a menace but as an evangelical promise (Acts 11:16). Per contra, he imagines ‘the Angel of the waters’ turning Rome’s rivers and fountains of water into blood (Revelation 16:4); for, as she has shed the blood of saints like water, it is but just that she should have to drink blood-a grim species of poetic justice
Jacob - The ladder reaching to heaven, and the Angels ascending and descending on it, showed that he on earth was the object of heaven's care. ...
Immediately afterwards the Angels of God met Jacob, and he recognised them as 'God's host. When he was alone God took him in hand: a 'man' (called 'the Angel' in Hosea 12:4 ) wrestled with him
Cainites - Whenever any sin or vile action was performed by them, they assorted that an Angel was present whom they invoked, claiming that they were fulfilling his operation
Sadducees - In Acts 23:8 "the Sadducees" are said to disbelieve in "angel or spirit"; but Angels are often introduced in the Pentateuch, which the Sadducees admitted (Genesis 16:7; Genesis 19:1; Genesis 22:11; Genesis 28:12; Exodus 23:20; Numbers 22:23); and Josephus and the Mishna do not mention their disbelief of Angels. ...
Probably it is only their disbelief of Angelic communications to men in their time, such as the Pharisees suggested (Acts 23:9) may have been made to Paul, that the Sadducees denied
Isaacus, Egyptian Solitary - When he would have entered his cell, an Angel stood in the way
a'Braham - " (Hebrews 11:19 ) The sacrifice was stayed by the Angel of Jehovah, the promise of spiritual blessing made for the first time, and Abraham with his son returned to Beersheba, and for a time dwelt there
Jacob - The ladder reaching to heaven, and the Angels ascending and descending on it, showed that he on earth was the object of heaven's care. ...
Immediately afterwards the Angels of God met Jacob, and he recognised them as 'God's host. When he was alone God took him in hand: a 'man' (called 'the Angel' in Hosea 12:4 ) wrestled with him
Agrippa - " Instead of rejecting these impious flatteries, Agrippa received them with an air of complacency; and the Angel of the Lord smote him because he did not give God the glory
Isaac - His name which signifies laughter, was given him by his mother, because when it was told her by an Angel that she should have a son, and that at a time of life when, according to the course of nature, she was past child-bearing, she privately laughed, Genesis 18:10-12
Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier - , Matthew 25:15 , "ability;" Acts 3:12 , "power;" 2 Thessalonians 1:7 , RV, "(angels) of His power" (AV, "mighty"); Hebrews 11:11 , RV, "power" (AV, "strength"); see ABILITY; (b) used absolutely, denotes (1) "power to work, to carry something into effect," e. 2), of the voice of an Angel
Appear, Appearing - " ...
It is used of the "appearance" of Christ to the disciples, Mark 16:9 ; of His future "appearing" in glory as the Son of Man, spoken of as a sign to the world, Matthew 24:30 ; there the genitive is subjective, the sign being the "appearing" of Christ Himself; of Christ as the light, John 1:5 ; of John the Baptist, 5:35; of the "appearing" of an Angel of the Lord, either visibly, Matthew 1:20 , or in a dream, Matthew 2:13 ; of a star, Matthew 2:7 ; of men who make an outward show, Matthew 23:27-283 ; 6:18 (see the RV); 1618419814_60 ; 2 Corinthians 13:7 ; of tares, Matthew 13:26 ; of a vapor, James 4:14 ; of things physical in general, Hebrews 11:3 ; used impersonally in Matthew 9:33 , "it was never so seen;" also of what appears to the mind, and so in the sense of to think, Mark 14:64 , or to seem, Luke 24:11 (RV, "appeared")
Job, Book of - --
One question could be raised by envy: may not the goodness which secures such direct and tangible rewards be a refined form of selfishness? Satan, the accusing Angel, suggests the doubt, "Doth Job fear God for nought ?" and asserts boldly that if those external blessings were withdrawn, Job would cast off his allegiance" he will curse thee to thy face
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - " "Creeping" at night to the cells of certain ignorant monks, he called to each by name, and on being asked who he was, replied, "I am an Angel, sent to warn you to break off communion with Proterius, and to choose Timotheus as bishop" (Theod
Dead Sea Scrolls - Worship was an important aspect of communal life; the sect understood itself as participating in the Angelic worship of God. God has created for people Two Spirits in which to walk until the End: the Prince of Light/Angel of Truth/ Spirit of Truth and the Angel of Darkness/Spirit of Falsehood (cf. Those who walk according to the Prince of Light will receive everlasting life; those who follow the Angel of Darkness, eternal torment. To connect the rationale for this exclusion with the presence of Angels is similar to one aspect of Paul's argument concerning a woman's head covering in 1 Corinthians 11:10 . The Sons of Light are under the dominion of the Prince of Light, apparently identified as the archangel Michael (cf. The songs seem to follow a certain progression over the thirteen-week cycle: songs 1-5 focus on the earthly worshiping community; songs 6-8 shift the attention to the heavenly worship, highlighting the number seven, which is developed elaborately in Song of Solomon 7 in seven calls to praise directed to the seven Angelic priesthoods; and songs 9-13 center on the features of the heavenly sanctuary and the participants in the heavenly worship. The songs may have been intended to lead the worshiper into an experience of Angelic worship and thereby reinforce the community's understanding of itself as God's faithful and legitimate priesthood
the Thorn in Paul's Flesh - The Fathers and the Middle-age men for the most part took Paul's thorn to be something sensual, while the great body of Protestant and evangelical commentators hold that it must have been something wholly spiritual and experimental. Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the Angel. And the Angel of the Lord stood by
Mary Magdalene - But Mary Magdalene was not a woman; she was an Angel. She was the Angel who strengthened Him. And now that He has ascended to His Father's house, He is saying to His saints and to His Angels to this very day the very same words that He said in Simon's house-"This woman since I came in hath not ceased to kiss my feet
Elijah - An Angel touched him, and he arose, and saw a cake baked on the coals, and a cruse of water; and he ate and drank, and slept again. The Angel again awakened him, and said, "Rise and eat, for the journey is too great for thee;" and he ate and drank, and went in the strength of that meat forty days and forty nights, unto Horeb, the mount of God
Principality Principalities - The RV_ appears to use ‘principality’ only where the reference to Angelic beings is undoubted; it gives ‘rulers’ in Titus 3:1, and ‘rule’ in 1 Corinthians 15:24 and Ephesians 1:21, where earthly powers may be included (T. ’...
For the term as used of Angels compare certain passages in Daniel (Daniel 10:13; Daniel 10:21; Daniel 12:1), where Michael is called the ‘prince’ of the Jews (LXX_ ἄρχων), and there is also a hostile Angel, ‘the prince of the kingdom of Persia. ’...
It is convenient to consider in this article the various special terms applied to Angels in the Epistles, viz. ...
Romans 8:38 -‘angels, principalities, powers. ’...
1 Peter 3:22 -‘angels, authorities, powers. ’...
The contexts show that in some of the above passages all possible kinds of power, spiritual and earthly, are included; in some the reference is limited to good Angels, and in others to evil Angels, as Ephesians 6:12. It may be noted that Milton uses these titles for unfallen and fallen Angels alike (Paradise Lost, ii. And Beet (on Colossians 1:16) states that ‘in this verse … the existence of Angelic powers is not absolutely assumed. , where a tendency to Angel worship had to be met, this might be admitted, but similar terms are found in Eph. Paul accepted the doctrine of various orders of Angels, Lightfoot’s remark (on Colossians 1:16) that a spirit of impatience is shown cannot be maintained, nor is there any polemical reference in Ephesians 1:21’; and Moule’s opinion is that ‘St. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Levi, 3) arranges the Angels in seven heavens, placing powers (δυνάμεις τῶν παρεμβολῶν) in the third, and thrones and authorities in the fourth. 1) says that in the seventh heaven ‘Enoch saw … all the fiery hosts of great archangels, and incorporeal powers, and lordships, and principalities, and powers; cherubim and seraphim, thrones and the watchfulness of many eyes’ (quoted in Peake, Colossians). ...
Turning to Christian writings, we find that various systems of Angelology were put forward, but it is difficult to say how far they are independent of St. 4) we learn that instruction as to the positions of Angels (τοποθεσίας τὰς ἀγγελικάς) was regarded as teaching for the more perfect. 270) arranges them in three classes: (1) gods, thrones, dominions; (2) archangels, principalities, authorities; (3) Angels, powers, cherubim, seraphim. 31) mentions Angels, archangels, thrones, dominions, principalities, authorities, splendours, ascents, intellectual powers or intelligences. The pseudo-Dionysius gives (1) thrones, cherubim, seraphim; (2) authorities, dominions, powers; (3) Angels, archangels, principalities. in Ezekiel 34:7) has the following classes-angels, archangels, powers, authorities, principalities, dominions, thrones, cherubim, and seraphim. ’ Meyer’s conclusion is that for Christian faith there remains and suffices the testimony as to different and distinctively designated stages and categories in the Angelic world (cf. It might apply to good or bad Angels, according to the context. If, with the RV_, we take it in the natural middle meaning, the next questions are-What was put off? and Who is the subject? Many of the Greek Fathers and others say that the evil Angels were put off, that the Lord by His death stripped away all the opposing powers of evil which sought to win a victory over Him in His human nature. ’ (2) It necessitates a change of subject, of which the context gives no intimation; in Colossians 2:12-14 the subject is God the Father, and no one would think of changing it but for the difficulty of otherwise giving to ‘principalities and powers’ the meaning of evil Angels. ...
But it is possible to keep the middle meaning of ἀπεκδυσάμενος, and the same subject throughout, if ‘principalities and powers’ are good Angels. It is consistent with Colossians 2:10; Colossians 1:16, where good Angels are meant, and there is no allusion in the Epistle to hostile Angels. Peirce’s paraphrase is, ‘and having taken from the good Angels their authority, He subjected them to Christ, and proposed them publicly as an example of cheerful obedience to Him (i. ’ What was this authority? In Galatians 3:19, Hebrews 2:2, Acts 7:53 Angels are described as the medium through which God revealed Himself at the Lawgiving, and in this sense they might be called His robe or veil. But when Christ came the veil was laid aside and the Angels took an inferior position (cf. ‘He has put off and laid aside the garb of Angelic mediation in which, under the Law, He was wont to hold intercourse with men’ (Findlay). The chief objection lies in the word ‘triumphing,’ which, if taken in the Roman sense of ‘captives led in triumph by a victorious general,’ seems to require that the principalities and powers should be hostile Angels. ...
In Romans 8:38-39 : ‘I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor Angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers … shall be able to separate us from the love of God’ (RV_), the same question arises as in Colossians 2:15. As the other influences are in pairs of opposites, some find here also a contrast, ‘angels’ being heavenly beings and ‘principalities’ earthly; or ‘angels’ being good spirits and ‘principalities’ evil. Others think that both terms mean evil Angels, arguing that the good would not try to separate us from the love of God
Synagogue - The legatus of the synagogues appears in the Angel , ( Revelation 1:20 ; 2:1 ) perhaps also in the apostle of the Christian Church
Habakkuk - The apocryphal work Bel and the Dragon (Bel and the Dragon 1:33-39) tells a story about Habakkuk being taken to Babylon by an Angel to feed Daniel while he was in the lions den
Mary - While she resided at Nazareth with her parents, before she became the wife of Joseph, the Angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah (Luke 1:35 ). They found the sepulchre empty, but saw the "vision of Angels" (Matthew 28:5 )
Elijah - As he slept an Angel touched him, and said unto him, "Arise and eat; because the journey is too great for thee
Supper - But out of it grows another picture of very different hue: (b) Revelation 19:17-18, ‘And I saw an Angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in mid heaven, Come and be gathered together unto the great supper of God; that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit thereon, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, and small and great
Incense - In Revelation 8:3-4 the incense is distinct from, yet offered with, their prayers, the Angel presenting them before God
Light - Although Satan can disguise himself as "an Angel of light, " Christians live in the true light of salvation, laying aside the deeds of darkness and putting on the protective "armor of light" (Romans 13:12 )
Satan - The Hebrew word satan [ 1 Samuel 29:4 ), Rezon of Damascus (1 Kings 11:23,25 ), and the Angel of the Lord (Numbers 22:22,32 ). In Revelation, amid a war in heaven, Satan was "hurled to the earth" along with his Angels/demons (12:9)
Philosophy - Two examples are given: "worship of Angels" and "dwelling on visions. " Hebrews 1 also addresses the problem of the worship of Angels (Christ was erroneously thought to be an Angel)
Jealousy (2) - (‘Though we or an Angel from heaven should preach unto you any other gospel,’ etc
Formalism - The typical formalist is the Angel of the church in Sardis, of whom it is written: ‘Thou hast a name that thou livest, and thou art dead’ (Revelation 3:1)
Way - 16:7, the word represents a pathway, road, or route: “And the Angel of the Lord found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - Finally, he maintains that no revelation of the Supreme Being can be made; but that, if it could be made, it must be of universal and compelling efficacy; that, however, all that is possible is revelation by an Angel or demon, and even that he denies to Judaism or Christianity
Cerinthians - He was certainly a Gnostic in his notion of the creation of the world, which he conceived to have been formed by Angels; and his attachment to that philosophy may explain what otherwise seems inconsistent, that he retained some of the Mosaic ceremonies, such as the observance of Sabbaths and circumcision; though, like other Gnostics, he ascribed the law and the prophets to the Angel who created the world
Mount Mountain - The same Seer, when the second Angel sounded, beheld a great burning mountain cast into the sea (Revelation 8:8)
Clothing, Cloths, Clothes, Cloke, Coat - In the NT it is similarly used of John the Baptist's raiment, Matthew 3:4 ; of raiment in general, Matthew 6:25,28 ; Luke 12:23 ; metaphorically, of sheep's clothing, Matthew 7:15 ; of a wedding garment, 22:11,12; of the raiment of the Angel at the tomb of the Lord after His resurrection, 28:3
Mount Mountain - The same Seer, when the second Angel sounded, beheld a great burning mountain cast into the sea (Revelation 8:8)
Covenant - In the Malachi-passage the coming of the ‘angel’ or ‘messenger of the covenant’ is predicted. This ‘angel of the covenant’ is not identical with the Lord, but as a distinct person he accompanies the coming of the Lord to His temple. He is called ‘the Angel of the covenant,’ either because he realizes the covenant, or because his coming is in virtue of the existing covenant. 6–10; Johannes Weiss, Das älteste Evangelium, pp
Enoch Book of - Judgment is mediated now by Angels of punishment, now by the archangels, or the sword of the righteous or internecine strife, or by the Son of Man, or exercised immediately by God Himself. There is a highly developed Angelology, in keeping with the general conception of God’s transcendence, and an equally developed demonology, which is connected with the interest of the various authors in the problem of the seat and origin of evil. The power of prayer-whether that of the Angels, the departed holy ones, or the righteous on earth-is recognized, especially in the bringing in of judgment. -Fall of certain Angels, through union with women (vi. Knowledge of arts, magic, and astronomy imparted by fallen Angels (viii. 3, 10) heard by the four archangels, who bring their cause before God (ix. 1) and is sent to the fallen Angels (‘Watchers’) with the message: ‘no peace nor forgiveness’ (xii. 20), whom no Angel can behold. Here stand the fallen Angels, whose spirits seduce men to idolatry (xix. -The seven archangels-Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Saraqael, Gabriel, Remiel-and their functions (xx. 1-7), which is the final prison of the fallen Angels (xxi. ), past fragrant trees and mountains, over the Erythraean Sea and the Angel Zotiel (xxxii. 3-14); an innumerable multitude, and four presences (=archangels)-Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, and Phanuel-and their functions (xl. ‘In those days’ the prayer of the righteous united with Angelic intercession was heard (xlvii. Next he sees a deep valley with open months, and Angels of punishment preparing instruments of Satan to destroy the kings and the mighty (liii. 1, 2), and iron chains made for Azazel’s hosts, whom four archangels will cast into the burning furnace on that great day (liv. 3-6), after judgment by the Elect One (Leviticus 3, 4); Angels of punishment with scourged are seen proceeding to cast the Watchers’ children into the abyss (lvi. -The Angels are to stir up the Parthians and Medes to tread upon the land of God’s elect, but ‘the city of my righteous’ shall hinder their horses; they shall slay one another, and Sheol shall devour them in presence of the elect. -The Angels are seen with long cords; they go to measure Paradise (lxx. 1-5); the Lord of Spirits places the Elect One on the throne of glory to judge (lxi 6-9); all the heavenly hosts, Cherubim, Seraphim, and Ophannim, Angels of power and of principalities, the Elect One, the powers on earth and over water, the elect who dwell in the garden of life, and all flesh shall join in praising God (lxi. 1-6) and adore the Son of Man; but are delivered to the Angels for punishment (lxii. ); vision of fallen Angels in Prison (lxiv. -‘After this’ he is translated in spirit; he sees the sons of God, the secrets of heaven, the crystal house, and countless Angels and the four archangels, the Head of Days, the Son of Man, who brings in endless peace for the righteous. ); stars (= Angels) fall from heaven, and unite with cattle (lxxxvi. Israel is entrusted to the Seventy Shepherds (=angelic rulers) from the Captivity to the Maccabaean revolt (lxxxix. 10th: great eternal judgment on Angels; new heaven; thereafter weeks without number for ever (xciii. ); the righteous are to raise prayers and place them before the Angels, who are to place the sin of sinners for a memorial before the Most High (xcix. 1-3); Angels descend into secret places and gather all who brought down sin (i. fallen Angels); the righteous and holy receive guardians till an end is made of sin; though the righteous sleep long, they have nothing to fear; Angels, sun, moon, and stars will witness to the sins of sinners (c. 9-15); yet in heaven the Angels remember them for good, and their names are written; they shall shine as lights of heaven (civ. -Lamech has a wondrous son; Methuselah inquires of Enoch at the ends of the earth about him; Enoch replies that a Deluge is to come because of sin introduced by the fallen Angels; this son shall alone be saved-sin will arise again after him till the final annihilation of evil. , and has ‘the Angel who went with me’ as Enoch’s interpreter; the other deals with ‘the Elect One’-xxxviii-xxxix. l, and has the ‘angel of peace’ as interpreter of the vision (so Charles, Enoch, p. ‘Lord of Spirits’ as a Divine title; Phanuel replaces Uriel as the fourth archangel. The Angelology is more developed: besides Cherubim, we have Seraphim, Ophannim, Angels of power and of principalities. The problem is the continued depression of Israel after the Return, which is attributed to the neglect of its seventy Angelic guardians
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - The Liberian papal catalogue (probably here, as elsewhere, following the catalogue of Hippolytus) states that under the episcopate of Pius his brother Ermas wrote a book in which the commands and precepts were contained which the Angel gave him when he came to him in the habit of a shepherd. Yet, while refusing to assign the book to apostolic times, it makes no doubt of the reality of the Angelic appearance to Hermas. At the end of the first part he has the vision in which he sees a man dressed like a shepherd, who tells him that he is the Angel of repentance and the guardian to whose care he had been entrusted. These details might be fictitious, as the Angels, the towers, and the beasts of the visions. " If the authorities of the church regarded it merely as a novel, would they have appointed it for public reading? At the end of the century Clement and others shew no doubt of the reality of the visions Were the men of a couple of generations earlier likely to have been more severe in their judgments, and would an Angelic appearance seem to them so incredible that one who related it would be regarded as the narrator of a fiction that he did not intend to be believed? The book itself contains directions to the rulers of the Roman church to send the volume to foreign churches. Finally he comes to believe himself to be under the constant guardianship of the shepherd Angel of repentance, and he ascribes all the lessons he desires to teach to the inspiration of this heavenly monitor. Michael is not the guardian Angel of the nation, but of the Christian church
Birth of Christ - ]'>[4] But a word may here be said upon the most recent attempt to trace this alleged influence, in Indische Einflüsse auf evangelische Erzählungen, by G. Let us suppose for a moment that this is so; and if so we cannot but contrast the language with that of the Protevangelium Jacobi, with its fantastic and prurient details, or even with that portion of the Ascension of Isaiah, viz. Mary is entirely in the foreground: to her the Angel addresses himself; the prophecy of Zechariah has to do with her; she speaks to the child found in the Temple; Joseph says nothing; he keeps in the background. 1900), it is difficult to believe that the words ‘the lowliness of his handmaiden,’ are not most naturally connected with the words of Mary to the Angel, ‘Behold, the handmaid of the Lord’ (" translation="">Luke 1:48), and that the words ‘shall call me blessed’ are not best referred to the words spoken by Elisabeth to Mary (" translation="">Luke 2:42; " translation="">Luke 2:45). We cannot forget the Evangelist’s claim to have traced the course of all things accurately from the first (Luke 1:2), and he would scarcely have neglected the opportunities of information which were open to him in Jerusalem and afterwards in Caesarea. ]'>[8] an inference which might equally seem to follow from the passage before us, unless we remember that the Evangelist is presupposing that his readers would be well aware of the true descent of Jesus and the actual place of His birth (see this point admirably put by Ramsay, Was Christ born at Bethlehem? p. Undoubtedly both OT prediction and Rabbinic teaching pointed to Bethlehem, yet the prophecy was fulfilled according to the Gospel story by the introduction of a set of circumstances which were strangely alien to Jewish national thought and prestige: ‘a counting of the people, or census, and that census taken at the bidding of a heathen emperor, and executed by one so universally hated as Herod, would represent the ne plus ultra of all that was most repugnant to Jewish feeling’ (Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i. If it is urged that the story of the Nativity was bound in any case to bring Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem, the city of David, it would have been easier and more significant to have adopted the theory of Strauss, to the effect that the parents were led to go to Bethlehem by the appearance of an Angel, especially when we remember that the frequent introduction of Angelic visitors is described as one of the special characteristics of the writings of St
Fire - In answer to the prayers of suffering saints, the Angel fills the censer with fire from the altar, and casts the burning contents on the earth, as a sign that the Divine vengeance is about to descend upon it (Revelation 8:5; cf. In Revelation 14:18 it is the Angel who has power over the fire-in this instance the symbol of Divine wrath-that brings the Angel with the sickle the message that the vintage is to begin, because the world is ripe for judgment. ), where it is said that ‘the valley of the Angels burned continually under the earth. ’ The expression does not occur in the apocalyptic writings, but in the Book of Enoch ‘the abyss or fire’ is the doom in store for the fallen Angels in the Day of Judgment (x
Fire - In answer to the prayers of suffering saints, the Angel fills the censer with fire from the altar, and casts the burning contents on the earth, as a sign that the Divine vengeance is about to descend upon it (Revelation 8:5; cf. In Revelation 14:18 it is the Angel who has power over the fire-in this instance the symbol of Divine wrath-that brings the Angel with the sickle the message that the vintage is to begin, because the world is ripe for judgment. ), where it is said that ‘the valley of the Angels burned continually under the earth. ’ The expression does not occur in the apocalyptic writings, but in the Book of Enoch ‘the abyss or fire’ is the doom in store for the fallen Angels in the Day of Judgment (x
Demon - An Angel is delayed twenty-one days in bringing an answer to Daniel's prayer by a prince of Persia, giving an indication of some organizational structure or ranking among demons (Daniel 10:13 ). This also gives us one of the few glimpses behind the curtains of history into engagements between demons and Angels. Though there can be no certainty as to how this buffeting was manifested, we do know that an "angel of Satan" caused it and that Paul could not remove it through prayer. In the West evangelicals have been preoccupied with the question of whether a true Christian can be demon-possessed. They are Angelic entities who oppose God's sovereign control. Carr, Angels and Principalities (1981); C. Dickason, Angels: Elect and Evil: idem, Demon Possession and the Christian ; J
Tombs - The Angel at the head and the Angel at the foot could only have been in a loculus , not a koka tomb. 16:7, section 1) Herod attempted to plunder David's tomb, but being strangely interrupted built a white stone monument in atonement at the mouth of the tomb
Matthew, the Gospel of - The Angel affirmed Jesus' divine nature to Joseph. The Angel had told Joseph that Jesus would “save his people from their sins” (Matthew 1:21 )
Apocrypha - An Angel leads him to Ecbatana, where he romantically marries a widow who was still a virgin though she had had seven husbands. On the inspiration of the Angel, Tobias marries the widow, and, by burning the inner parts of a fish, puts the spirit to flight by the offensive smoke
Devil - (2) It covered such of the Angels as were thought to have been once attendants upon the true God, but to have fallen ( 2 Peter 2:4 , Judges 1:6 , Ethiop. , the demon of pestilence is the destroying Angel or even ‘the Angel of the Lord’ ( 2 Samuel 24:16 , 2 Kings 19:35 , Isaiah 37:36 , Psalms 78:49 ). ‘the evil one’ of Matthew 13:19 ); and for him and his Angels an appropriate destiny is prepared ( Matthew 25:41 ). And the tradition of a revolt and fall of Angels has this in its favour, that it fits in with the belief in devils and the devil, and provides a partially intelligible account of circumstances under which such a belief might take shape
Judges, the Book of - The Angel of Jehovah, the Son of God, at the call of Moses appeared to him, then the Spirit of Jehovah qualified him (Exodus 3:1-6; Exodus 13:21). So the divine Angel four times appears, the Spirit following to qualify the judge for delivering Israel:...
(1) Judges 2:1-5; Judges 3:10;...
(2) Judges 6:11; Judges 6:34;...
(3) Judges 10:10-16, compare Isaiah 63:8-9; Judges 11:29;...
(4) Judges 13:3-25
Malachi - ...
(4) In answer to their cavil, "where is the God of judgment?" Messiah's forerunner, followed by the sudden coming of Jehovah Himself the Angel of the covenant (which they had despised) to His temple, is foretold (Malachi 2:17-4:6)
Creation - Of these spiritual beings, called Angels, we have express intimation in Scripture (see the article Angel
Son of Man - Scholars are divided over whether the Son of man of Daniel's vision should be seen as an Angel, as the Messiah, or as all of Israel. The Son of man will come in glory with His Angels and take His seat on His throne (Matthew 25:31 )
Games - The false teacher, as a self constituted umpire, would "defraud you of your prize" (katabrabeueto ), by drawing you away from Christ to Angel worship (Colossians 2:18)
Book of Life - ]'>[4], There the seer inquires about two Angels whom he sees, and is told by his Angel guide: ‘These are the Angels of the Lord Almighty who inscribe all the good works of the righteous in His scrolls, sitting at the gate of heaven
Apocalyptic - The first sentence of the Book of Revelation is noteworthy in this connection: “The Revelation of Jesus Christ , which God gave to him , to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass ; and he sent and signified it by his Angel unto his servant John : who bare record of all things that he saw . they “sign-ify,” employing pictorial language which is also parabolic; an Angelic intermediary commonly explains to the prophet the meaning of the message conveyed to him; and the prophet makes known to others his visions (“all that he saw”). Dualism is the dominant characteristic and is expressed in two ways: (1) in a dual spacial order—powers of heaven and powers of hell, hence Angels and demons in abundance, spirits of good and spirits of evil, a holy Spirit and an evil prince of this world; (2) in a historical dualism—the present age is ruled by the evil powers and is wholly wicked, but it will be succeeded by the age to come, which will be ruled by God and therefore will be good
Altar - In Revelation 14:18 the prophet sees an Angel come out from the altar, the spirit or genius of fire, an Iranian conception; and in Revelation 16:7 he personifies the altar itself and makes it proclaim the truth and justice of God
Lord, Lordship - Isaiah 26:13 ; (e) as a title of respect addressed to a father, Matthew 21:30 , a husband, 1 Peter 3:6 , a master, Matthew 13:27 ; Luke 13:8 , a ruler, Matthew 27:63 , an Angel, Acts 10:4 ; Revelation 7:14 ; (f) as a title of courtesy addressed to a stranger, John 12:21 ; 20:15 ; Acts 16:30 ; from the outset of His ministry this was a common form of address to the Lord Jesus, alike by the people, Matthew 8:2 ; John 4:11 , and by His disciples, Matthew 8:25 ; Luke 5:8 ; John 6:68 ; (g) kurios is the Sept. ...
"Though John does not use 'Lord' in his Epistles, and though, like the other Evangelists, he ordinarily uses the personal Name in his narrative, yet he occasionally speaks of Him as 'the Lord,' John 4:1 ; 6:23 ; 11:2 ; 20:20 ; 21:12
Altar - In Revelation 14:18 the prophet sees an Angel come out from the altar, the spirit or genius of fire, an Iranian conception; and in Revelation 16:7 he personifies the altar itself and makes it proclaim the truth and justice of God
Jesus Christ - John's father, the priest Zechariah, was told by the Angel Gabriel that his aged wife Elizabeth would bear a son in her old age. Mary was told by the same Angel, Gabriel, that she would bear a son, though a virgin. ...
A census decreed by Caesar Augustus sent Mary and Joseph to Bethlehem where, during the last years of Herod the Great, Jesus was born to the acclaim of Angels and shepherds. Early on Sunday morning, when the women went to visit the tomb, they were startled to see that the tomb was empty and an Angel announced the good news: "He has risen! He is not here" (Mark 16:6 )
Colossians, Epistle to the - In opposition to the position accorded to Angelic beings, he breaks into a paean in honour of the Son (a) as sole Redeemer (Colossians 1:14); (b) as the visible Representative of the invisible God (Colossians 1:15); (c) as prior to and supreme over all creation, including these very Angelic powers; as the present stay, and ultimate consummation, of creation (Colossians 1:15-17); (d) as the supreme Head of the Church in virtue of His Resurrection (Colossians 1:18); (e) as One in whom abide completely all the perfections of the Godhead (Colossians 1:19); (f) as One whose death has made atonement not only for human sin but also for all the disorder that exists in heavenly places, so that not only are the Angels unable to ‘make peace,’ but they themselves need the mediation of the Son (Colossians 1:20-23). He warns his readers against esoteric cults which have dealings with the Angel world, Instead of with Christ, the supreme Head of all (Colossians 2:6-10). ), the term ‘philosophy’ might easily have been used of esoteric lore about Angels, or even, though this usage is a later one, of an ascetic ethical cult, features which both appear at Colossae. ...
(4) Some sort of worship of Angels seems to have been practised, and possibly, if the reading is correct, emphasis was laid upon visions communicated by them (Colossians 2:18). That there was Angelolatry of some sort is certain, though the language in which it is described cannot be pressed too closely, since St. Paul may be using the language of his own Angelology to describe the view of his opponents. the Council of Laodicea found it necessary to condemn Angel-worship. Theodoret says that the archangel Michael was worshipped in the district, and this worship continued for several centuries (see Zahn, op. The Angels who were the objects of the Colossian cult were powers who if not propitiated might be hostile to man, who must therefore guard himself by mortifying his material body. Here we find both the emphasis on Judaism, though the Jewish Angels have taken the position later occupied by the Gnostic aeons, and the reduced Christology in which the Christ is supposed to have descended upon the man Jesus at His baptism. And, further, the Angelic powers could still be regarded as objects of worship. (b) The Essenes jealously guarded the names of the Angels (Jos. The one surprising point is the worship of Angels. In the later Jewish view all God’s activity in Nature was mediated by Angels, and, though Angel-worship among the Jews is not known at this date, it certainly sprang up within a short time, being alluded to in the Evangelium Petri, by Celsus, and several times in the Talmud
Mahometanism - He entrusted his beloved wife, Raphsa, the daughter of Omar, with the keeping of the chest of his apostleship, in which were laid up all the originals of the revelations he pretended to have received by the ministration of the Angel Gabriel, and out of which the Koran, consisting of one hundred and fourteen surats, or chapters, of very unequal length, was composed after his death. He constantly pretended to have received these stupendous secrets by the ministry of the Angel Gabriel, from that eternal book in which the divine decrees have been written by the finger of the Almighty from the foundation of the world; but the learned inquirer will discover a more accessible, and a far more probable, source whence they might be derived, partly in the wild and fanciful opinions of the ancient Arabs, and chiefly in those exhaustless stores of marvellous and improbable fiction, the works of the rabbins. Hence, that romantic fable of the Angel of death, whose peculiar office it is, at the destined hour, to dissolve the union between soul and body, and to free the departing spirit from its prison of flesh. Again: our Saviour expressly tells us, that, at the resurrection, "they will neither marry nor be given in marriage; but be like the Angels of God in heaven. In the Koran are advanced the following assertions, among others already noticed: That both Jews and Christians are idolaters; that the patriarchs and Apostles were Mohammedans; that the Angels worshipped Adam, and that the fallen Angels were driven from heaven for not doing so; that our blessed Saviour was neither God, nor the Son of God; and that he assured Mohammed of this in a conference with the Almighty and him; yet that he was both the word and Spirit of God: not to mention numberless absurdities concerning the creation, the deluge, the end of the world, the resurrection, the day of judgment, too gross to be received by any except the most debased understandings
Mahometanism - Having, therefore, retired with his family, as he had done several times before, to a cave in mount Hara, he there opened the secret of his mission to his wife Khadijah; and acquainted her, that the Angel Gabriel had just before appeared to him, and told him that he was appointed the apostle of God: he also repeated to her a passage which he pretended had been revealed to him by the ministry of the Angel, with those other circumstances of this first appearance which are related by the Mahometan writers. ...
Khadijah received the news with great joy, swearing by Him in whose hands her soul was, that she trusted he would be the prophet of his nation; and immediately communicated what she had heard to her cousin Warakah Ebn Nawfal, who, being a Christian, could write in the Hebrew character, and was tolerably well versed in the Scriptures; and he readily came into her opinion, assuring her that the same Angel who had formerly appeared unto Moses was now sent to Mahomet. ...
This conspiracy was scarce formed, when, by some means or other, it came to Mahomet's knowledge; and he gave out that it was revealed to him by the Angel Gabriel, who had now ordered him to retire to Medina. The Mahometans divide their religion into two general parts, faith and practice, of which the first is divided into six distinct branches: Belief in God, in his Angels, in his Scriptures, in his prophets, in the resurrection and final judgment, and in God's absolute Decrees. The existence of Angels and their purity, are absolutely required to be believed in the Koran; and he is reckoned an infidel who denies there are such beings, or hates any of them, or asserts any distinction of sexes among them
Incarnation - ...
The Humanity of Jesus The Angel of the Lord, in a prophecy of Jesus' birth, plainly stated the purpose of the incarnation: “[2] shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins” (Matthew 1:21 ; compare Luke 19:10 ; John 3:17 ; 1 Timothy 1:15 )
Fear - God invites His people not to be afraid of Him (Genesis 15:1 ; Genesis 26:24 ); the Angel of the Lord seeks to calm an individual before a divine message is communicated (Daniel 10:12 ,Daniel 10:12,10:19 ; Luke 1:13 ,Luke 1:13,1:30 ); a person acting as a mediator of God invites the people to trust in God (Moses, Deuteronomy 31:6 ; Joshua, Joshua 10:25 )
Manasseh - ’ He thus brings it into relation with the story of Jacob’s wrestling with the Angel ( Genesis 32:1-32 )
Holy Spirit, the - ...
At the opening of New Testament it is written respecting our Lord's body "that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit" (Matthew 1:20); and to Mary herself the Angel said, "the Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee" (Luke 1:35)
American Martyrology -
Angel Miranda, O. , killed by his own flock in EI Pope revolt at Puebla de Los Angeles, August 10, 1680
Satan - The war, said to be in heaven between Michael and his Angels, and the Dragon and his Angels, (Revelation 12:7) hath been thought by some very able and learned divines to say as much. ) "And I saw an Angel come down from heaven having the key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand; and he laid hold of the dragon, that old serpent, which is the Devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the bottomless pit, and shut him up, and set a seal upon him, that he should deceive the nations no more till the thousand years should be fulfilled; and after that he must be loosed a little season. "...
To this succeeds the accounts of the final and everlasting triumph, of the Lord Jesus Christ over Satan, when bringing this infernal spirit to open trial before the whole world of Angels and of men at the last day, the day of judgment. At the close of which follows the everlasting and eternal, destraction of the devil and his Angels in hell forever
Satan - "Prince of the demons" (Greek), at the head of an organized "kingdom" (Matthew 12:24-26), with "his (subject) Angels. Again "God spared not the Angels, but cast them into hell (Τartarus , the bottomless pit: Luke 8:31; Revelation 9:11), and delivered them to chains of darkness" (2 Peter 2:4). " Satan seeks to "get an advantage of" believers (2 Corinthians 2:11); he has "devices" (noeemata ) and "wiles" (methodeias , "methodical stratagems") (Ephesians 6:11), and "snares" (1 Timothy 3:7), "transforming himself (Greek) into an Angel of light," though "prince of darkness" (2 Corinthians 11:14; Luke 22:53; Ephesians 6:12)
Simeon - All went well for the first six chapters of the evangelical prophet. But at midnight an Angel appeared to Simeon, and said to him: 'Simeon, I am Gabriel that stand in the presence of God. 'My son'-one of Simeon's sacred colleagues used to say to his scholars-'My son, the first thing that you will be examined upon at the day of judgment will be this: What was the salvation that you pursued after? What salvation did you study, and teach, and preach, and yourself seek after when you were still in time and upon the earth?' How happy will it be with old Simeon on that terrible day when he hears this read out over him before men and Angels: "The same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Ghost was upon him
Millennium - Of these passages, that upon which the greatest stress has been laid we believe to be the following:...
"And I saw an Angel come down from heaven, having the key of the bottomless pit, and a great chain in his hand
John - These two sentences out of John contain far more philosophy; far more grace, and truth, and beauty, and love; than all the rest that has ever been written by pen of man, or spoken by tongue of man or Angel
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - Suddenly, an Angel descending from heaven, commanded that the tree should be cut down, but that the root should be preserved in the earth, Daniel 4
Priest - ...
The Lord having reserved to himself the firstborn of Israel because he had preserved them from the hand of the destroying Angel in Egypt, by way of exchange and compensation, he accepted the tribe of Levi for the service of his tabernacle, Numbers 3:41
Philaster, Bishop of Brixia - Thus those are set down as heretics who imagined as many excellent Fathers did that the giants of Gen_6:2 were the offspring of Angels (c. 115) or imagined that there are fixed stars being ignorant that the stars are brought every evening out of God's secret treasure-houses and as soon as they have fulfilled their daily task are conducted back thither again by the Angel who directs their course (c
New Jerusalem - 29: ‘And the Angel of the presence who went before the camp of Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years … from the day of the [1] creation when the heavens and the earth shall be renewed and all their creation according to the powers of the heaven, … until the sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in Jerusalem on Mount Zion. The Seer represents himself as being shown ‘the holy city’ from a high mountain by one of the seven Angels (Revelation 21:9-10). ‘Her light was like unto a jasper stone, clear as crystal: having a wall great and high; having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve Angels; and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: on the east were three gates; and on the north three gates; and on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. The heavenly city is measured by the Angel with a golden measuring rod (Revelation 21:15). And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an Angel’ (Revelation 21:16 f. Moffatt translates: ‘he measured fifteen hundred miles with his rod for the City, for its breadth and length and height alike; he made the measure of the wall seventy-two yards, by human, that is, by Angelic reckoning’ (The New Testament: A New Translation, London, 1913)
War, Holy War - In Hezekiah's time, the Assyrian siege is ended by the Angel of death ( 2 Kings 19:35 ). In Zechariah 1:12-13 even the Angel of the Lord loses patience at this slowness and must be comforted
Inspiration of Scripture - Matthew wrote, “He had resolved on this, when an Angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, and said, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take Mary home with you to be your wife'“ ( Matthew 1:20 REB)
Devil - An Angel or messenger of God can serve as a satan (Numbers 22:22 ). ...
Satan abides in hell, which was expressly prepared—apparently by God—for Satan and his Angels (Matthew 25:41 ). It does talk of “angels that sinned” (2 Peter 2:4 ) and “angels which kept not their first estate” (Jude 1:6 ). Revelation 12:1 connects the birth of Jesus with a heavenly battle in which Satan and his Angels were cast from heaven “into the earth” ( Revelation 12:9 ). In the end Satan and his Angels will be completely overcome, for Jesus came into the world to “destroy the works of the devil” (1 John 3:8 ). Knowledge about Satan and evil Angels alerts Christians to the danger and sublety of satanic temptation
Devil - The mixture of some elements of primitive truth in paganism accords with Satan's practice of foiling the kingdom of light by transforming himself at times into an "angel of light. ...
Demons are "his Angels" (Matthew 25:41; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 12:9). The Bible-asserted existence of evil among Angels affords no greater difficulty than its manifest existence among men. The Spirit of God in the evangelists would never have sanctioned such distinction, or left people under a superstitious error, not merely connived at but endorsed, if the belief were really false. The possessed man lost the power of individual will and reason, his personal consciousness becoming strangely confused with that of the demon in him, so as to produce a twofold will, such as we have in some dreams. All we know of his original state as an archangel of light is that he lost it through pride and restless ambition, and that he had some special connection, possibly as God's vicegerent over this earth and the animal kingdom; thereby we can understand his connection and that of his subordinate fallen Angels with this earth throughout Scripture, commencing with his temptation of man to his characteristic sin, ambition to be "as gods knowing good and evil;" only his ambition seems to have been that of power, man's that of knowledge. He and his Angels range through the air and the earth during this period (Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 6:12). " Though judicially "cast down to hell" with his sinning Angels, "and delivered into chains of darkness to be reserved unto judgment" (2 Peter 2:4), he is still free on earth to roam to the length of his chain, like a chained dog, but no further
Timothy, the First Epistle to - The intermediate phase appears in epistle to Colossians (Colossians 2), namely, that which superadded ascetical will worship and Angel worship to Judaism
Herod - According to Josephus, the occasion of Agrippa’s display at Caesarea was a series of games in honour of Claudius; no Angel of the Lord smote him, but an owl appeared as a portent before the fatal seizure; he was carried to his palace, and lingered in agony for five days
Bible, - ...
As to the text of the NEW TESTAMENTthere is no particular copy that claims any authority, though the Received Text (Elzevir, 1624) was for a long time treated 'as if an Angel had compiled it,' as one expressed it
Assyria - Hezekiah humbled himself before God, and the Angel of the Lord smote of the Assyrians 185,000
Exodus - but the people, protected by an Angel, cross when Moses lifts his rod ( Exodus 14:15 b, Exodus 14:16 a, Exodus 14:19 a, Exodus 14:20 a, Exodus 14:25 a, Exodus 14:29 )
Providence - The preparations made for the gospel of our Saviour indicate a providence (Galatians 4:4), the distinctness of prophecy waxing greater and greater as the time for the evangelization of the Gentiles approached (Luke 2:32). ...
(VII) Belief in providence is the basis of religion, especially of revealed religion: "the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever He will" (Daniel 4:32), So minute is His providential care that "the very hairs of our head are all numbered" (Matthew 10:30; Acts 27:34; Luke 21:18; Daniel 3:27); nor is the smallest saint forgotten amidst countless multitudes: "Thou art as much His care as if beside Not man nor Angel lived in heaven and earth; Thus sunbeams pour alike a glorious tide, To light up worlds or wake an insect's mirth
Diseases - The Hebrews, also, every where attribute it to the agency either of God himself, or of that legate or Angel, whom they denominate מלאכּ?
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - 129), and to have introduced others in praise of himself, which were sung in full church on Easter Day by a choir of women, causing the hearts of the faithful to shudder at the impious language which extolled Paul as an Angel from heaven
Revelation of John, the - 171), one of the seven churches whose Angel was reproved (Revelation 3:1), is said by Eusebius (H. 195), a hearer of Polycarp (John's disciple, probably the Angel of the Smyrnean church, Usher), quotes repeatedly Revelation as the apostle John's writing (Haer. 10), but ascribes it to a different John from the evangelist, on the ground of its different style and its naming John, whereas his name is kept back in the Gospel, also as the epistle does not allude to Revelation nor Revelation to the epistle; moreover the style abounds in solecisms. ...
Moreover, it accords with the writer's being an inspired apostle that he addresses the Angels or presidents of the churches as a superior inferiors. "The fellow servant of Angels and brother of prophets" (Revelation 22:9) is more likely to be the celebrated apostle John than any less known person bearing the name. Again, the loosing of the four winds by the four Angels standing on the four corners of the earth, under the sixth seal (Revelation 7:1), answers to the loosing of the four Angels at the Euphrates under the sixth trumpet (Revelati
Old Testament - By the Τemurah) ("change") process new words were obtained, by anagram (or transposition of letters; whereby they supposed, for instance, that Michael must be the Angel meant in Exodus 23:23, because it has the same letters as "my Angel" in Hebrew by transposition) or by the Atbash alphabet where the last letter of the alphabet represented 'Αleph ( א ), the last but one Βet[1] ( ב ), and so on; thus Sheshach would mean Babel or Babylon
Descent Into Hades - we have: ‘when he hath plundered the Angel of death, he will ascend Satan - ’ Here Satan appears as a member of the celestial council of Angelic beings who have access to the presence of God. In the later (apocryphal) literature of pre-Christian Judaism the dualistic tendency becomes more pronounced a tendency powerfully affected by Persian influence, it would seem, which is also apparent in the development of an elaborate Jewish Angelology and demonology. 180, the origin of the demons is traced to the fall of the Angelic watchers, the ‘sons of God’ who corrupted themselves with the ‘daughters of men’ ( Genesis 6:1 f. In this last character they are technically called “angels of punishment” (53. The chief of the Satans is Sammael, who is often referred to as ‘the Angel of death’: and in the Secrets of Enoch he is prince of the demons and a magician. ’ In the earlier literature his great opponent is the archangel Michael. The ‘angels which kept not their first estate’ (Judges 1:6 , 2 Peter 2:4 ) are the Angelic watchers whose fall through lust is described in Enoch 6 16. Matthew 12:26 , Luke 11:13 ‘if Satan cast out Satan, how shall his kingdom stand?’); he led astray Angels ( Revelation 12:4 ) and men ( 2 Corinthians 11:3 ); his functions are to tempt ( Matthew 4:1-12 , Luke 22:31 ), to accuse ( Revelation 12:10 ), and to punish ( 1 Corinthians 5:5 : impenitent sinners delivered over to Satan for destruction of the flesh). Paul shared the contemporary belief that Angelic beings inhabited the higher (heavenly) regions, and that Satan also with his retinue dwelt not beneath the earth, but in the lower atmospheric region; cf
Ark of the Covenant - In the thorn of man's curse appeared the Angel of the covenant to Moses, to bless man; and out of its wood was formed the ark of the covenant, the typical source of his blessing
Daniel - ...
Personal purity and selfrestraint amidst the world's corrupting luxuries (Daniel 1:8-16; compare Moses, Hebrews 11:25; Joseph, Genesis 39:9); faithfulness to God at all costs, and fearless witnessing for God before great men (Daniel 5:17-23), unbribed by lucre and unawed by threats (Daniel 6:10-11); the holiest and most single-minded patriotism which with burning prayers interceded for his chastened countrymen (Daniel 9); intimate communion with God, so that, like the beloved disciple and apocalyptic seer of the New Testament, John, Daniel also is called" a man greatly beloved," and this twice, by the Angel of the Lord (Daniel 9:23; Daniel 10:11), and received the exact disclosure of the date of Messiah's advent, the 70 weeks of years, and the successive events down to the Lord's final advent for the deliverance of His people: these are all prominent characteristics of this man of God
Temple - A second arrest of apostles followed, but the report has it that the Angel who released them bade them go and speak in the Temple all the words of this life (Acts 5:17-20), and accordingly they are again found standing there and teaching the people (Acts 5:25). For him, as for every other Jewish Christian in Jerusalem, the Law, without distinction of moral and ceremonial precepts, was ‘ordained of Angels’; in his view the nation’s treatment of its prophets and its Messiah was the supreme proof that the Law had not been kept; and the burden of his preaching was a call to Jerusalem not to close her Temple and abolish her ritual, but to take the lead in a national repentance for a broken Law
Blood - When the Angel passed through, destroying the firstborn in Egypt, he would pass by the houses in Israel's part of Egypt that were marked in this fashion
Abraham - One of the three visitants was none other than the Lord, and the other two were Angels in the guise of men. The two Angels went on toward Sodom; while the Lord tarried behind and talked with Abraham, making known to him the destruction that was about to fall on that guilty city. He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the Angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead
Image - The cult was enforced with all the resources that could be devised, and to counteract it an Angel utters fearful judgment on all who worship the monster and his statue (Revelation 14:9-11)
Hospitality - When the Angels journeyed to Sodom and Gomorrah in search of a righteous man, only Lot and his family were set apart to be saved. God or the Angel of the Lord at times unexpectedly appeared in the person of the stranger (Genesis 18:1,10 ; 19:1 ; Judges 6:11-24 ; 13:2-23 )
Mediator, Mediation - ...
Innocent mediation, with no connotation that the mediation is necessary because of sin, takes place between God and his people in Scripture through Angels, through "Wisdom, " and through ordinary people whom God uses for the purpose. The Angel of the Lord frequently appears in Scripture as God's messenger and spokesperson, one who graciously extends God's help to those in need and delivers important instructions for the execution of God's saving purposes in history
Hearing - The Evangelist John, speaking of Jesus, says, similarly, ‘What he hath seen and heard, of that he beareth witness’ (John 3:32). To the Jews, Jesus is reported by the Evangelist John as having said, ‘Ye do the things which ye heard from your father’ (John 8:38), and later on in the same chapter (v. To Zacharias the Angel Gabriel is reported as having said, ‘Fear not, because thy supplication is heard’ (Luke 1:13)
Stephen - His judges looking steadfastly on him "saw his face as it had been the face of an Angel," like that of Moses after talking with God on the mountain (Exodus 34:29-35; 2 Corinthians 3:18; Ecclesiastes 8:1)
Gnosticism - 2 Jewish elements of scrupulousness in the observance of days, and of asceticism in the distinction of meats, together with Greek or other purely Gnostic elements in theosophic speculation, shadowy mysticism, and the interposition of Angels between God and man. He says that Angel-worship was already prevalent quite apart from philosophy, and that there is no need to look beyond Judaism for what is found here
Feasting - From his mention of Angel-worship and στοιχεῖα it seems clear that the demonic influences referred to above were believed in by the errorists of Colossae
Redeem - 48:16: “The Angel which redeemed me [1] from all evil …” (KJV), means as in the NIV, “delivered me from all harm
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - Caius the Presbyter can only assert against him that he pretended to Angelic revelations (Eus. He therefore conceived the material world to have been formed not by "the First God," but by Angelic Beings of an inferior grade of Emanation (Epiph. He preferred to identify him with the Angel who delivered the Law (Epiph. His notions of eschatology are radically Jewish: they may have originated, but do not contain, the Valentinian notion of a spiritual marriage between the souls of the elect and the Angels of the Pleroma. He had learned at Alexandria to distinguish between the different degrees of inspiration and attributed to different Angels the dictation severally of the words of Moses and of the Prophets; in this agreeing with Saturninus and the Ophites
Assyria - The catastrophe is related with awful brevity: "Then the Angel of the Lord went forth, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred and four score and five thousand; and, when they arose early in the morning, behold they were all dead corpses
Pass'Over, - --This feast was instituted by God to commemorate the deliverance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage and the sparing of their firstborn when the destroying Angel smote the first-born of the Egyptians
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - Though some scholars suggest that the "name" is somehow a being separate from the Lord who is present in the Angel of the Lord (Exodus 23:20-21 ) or in the temple (1 Kings 8:14-30 ), such a conclusion was contradicted by the monotheistic history of Israel. The apocalyptic literature of the period tends to focus on the meaning of the names of saints and Angels, not God. In a spiritual sense, he is called firstborn to differentiate him from the Angels (Hebrews 1:6 ). Finally, in the letter to the Angel presiding over the church at Philadelphia, Jesus is him who is holy and true, who holds the key of David" (Revelation 3:7 )
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - He attributed the change of sentiment to "the Divine Logos, the Angel of the counsel of God, and the common Saviour of all. "My guardian Angel" (says he) "on our arrival at Caesarea handed us over to the care and tuition of Origen," and the brothers, abandoning their journey, remained there under the personal spell of the teacher for five years. " He seems to have followed (strangely enough) the order of the sciences in Comte's classification of the branches of human knowledge
Passover - Lowth, "leap forward to defend the house against the destroying Angel, interposing His own person. " David interceding is the type (2 Samuel 24:16); Jehovah is distiller from the destroying Angel, and interposes between him and the people while David intercedes
Moses - ...
Suddenly the Angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush (Exodus 3 ), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage
Peter - Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an Angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary
Episcopacy - Some have argued from the mention of Angels, 1:e. as they understand it, of diocesan bishops, in the seven churches of Asia, particularly the Angel of Ephesus, though there were many ministers employed in it long before the date of that epistle, Acts 20:17 ; Acts 18:1-28 :...
4. It also appears, from other places in which the journeys of Timothy and Titus are mentioned, that they were a kind of itinerant officers, called evangelists, who were assistants to the apostles; for there is great reason to believe the first epistle to Timothy was written prior to those from Rome in the time of Paul's imprisonment, as some think the second was also. As to the Angels of the seven churches in Asia, it is certain that, for any thing which appears in our Lord's epistles to them (Revelation 2:3 :) they might be no more than the pastors of single congregations with their proper assistants
Ascension of Jesus Christ - While the Old Testament contains stories of ascension that take place in dreams or visions ( Deuteronomy 30:11-1288 ), straightforward narratives like that of the Angel of the Lord ascending in the flame of the altar while Manoah and his wife look on (Judges 13:20 ), and particularly of Elijah ascending to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11-12 ), although not related directly in the New Testament to the ascension of Jesus, are rightly seen as fundamental to the New Testament understanding that Jesus physically came down from heaven and returned there. Peter, too, emphasizes the power that is now Christ's because of the ascension: " [1] has gone into heaven and is at God's right hand—with Angels, authorities and powers in submission to him" (1 Peter 3:21-22 )
Daemoniac - Those who are unwilling to allow that Angels or devils have ever intermeddled with the concerns of human life, urge a number of specious arguments. Among the evils to which mankind have been subjected, why might not their being liable to daemoniacal possession be one? While the Supreme Being retains the sovereignty of the universe, he may employ whatever agents he thinks proper in the execution of his purposes; he may either commission an Angel, or let loose a devil; as well as bend the human will, or communicate any particular impulse to matter
Language of Christ - It follows that the Greek words recorded by the Evangelists are not the actual words Christ spoke. Perhaps (to take another, and, as some think, crucial instance), the Angel could not have saluted Mary in the native dialect with the famous alliteration Chaire kecharitômenç ; and yet the Evangelist may have recorded the ‘ Hail! highly favoured ’ in that form, influenced by the style of OT diction, in which play on words is a marked feature. All we can safely infer is that the Evangelists, when writing in Greek, employed a version which had acquired considerable authority by usage, to express the quotations they recorded
Preach, Proclaim - "Proclaim" is complementary to the more specific term "evangelize" (euangelizomai ) or the phrase "announce the good news, " which contains within its meaning the object that is announced or proclaimed—the good news. Luke (4:43) uses the synonym "proclaim the good news" (euangelizomai ). Further, Luke here distinctively combines "proclaim" (kerysso [1]) and "proclaim the good news" (euangelizomai ), showing that the two terms complement each other, with the latter making the content more explicit. At this point Luke (9:6) uses "proclaim the gospel" (euangelizomai ), but in 9:2 Luke uses "proclaim" (kerysso [10:7), as Luke does. He tells of a mighty Angel asking the urgent question about who is worthy to open the scroll. Farrell...
See also Evangelize, Evangelism ; Gospel ; Kerygma ...
Bibliography
Imitation - This more exacting life is praised as making men resemble the Angels. Christ had described the Angels as unwedded (Matthew 22:30 ||); an age, preoccupied with problems of sex, fastened upon this as the leading truth in regard to those exalted beings. But it is in point of fact a mere external—and therefore, of course, it is imitable! The essential thing is, that Angels ‘fulfil God’s word’ (Psalms 103:20). And, when we think of that truth, we see that our proper pattern is not the Angels, but the Son. About Angels we know little, if anything, that is certain. This reinterpretation—imitation of Christ rather than of Angels—took place within Catholic ethics, with a great gain in the direction of living Christian truth. Francis of Assisi (1182–1226), ‘that child of nature and child of God, half Angel and half nightingale’ (C
King (2) - Evangelien, Einleit. in die drei ersten Evangelien (1905), 89 ff. ; Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimniss in der Evangelien, 1901. ...
The prophecy regarding Jesus uttered by the Angel Gabriel: ‘The Lord shall give unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end’ (Luke 1:32 f. Notwithstanding the obvious tendency of the writer of the Fourth Gospel, we must grant that in this instance his narrative, equally with those of the earlier Evangelists, is essentially faithful to fact
Stone - In the other, He is tempted to leap from a pinnacle of the Temple by the reminder that it is written (Psalms 91:11-12) that God’s child shall be upheld by Angels, and so preserved from dashing his foot against a stone (Matthew 4:5-7, Luke 4:9; Luke 4:12). For whenever Christian men think of the Lord’s sepulchre, they always see that great stone rolled back from the door, and the Angel of the Resurrection sitting upon it (Matthew 28:2 ||)
Arrest - ‘The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? Dost thou suppose that I cannot appeal to my Father, and he will even now send to my support more than twelve legions of Angels (i. ]'>[10] finds here an allusion to the destruction of Sennacherib’s army (2 Kings 19:35): If a single Angel smote that host of 185,000 armed men, what could this rabble do against 72,000 Angels?...
Anxious to avert attention still further from the Eleven, Jesus addressed Himself to the Jewish rulers who with their officers had accompanied the soldiers. A solitary figure (εἷς τις) strangely attired had been hovering near during the rencontre—‘a young man arrayed in a linen sheet‡ [5]1 ...
Who was he? and why should the Evangelist have recorded an incident which seems merely to introduce an incongruous element of comedy into the tragic narrative? Of all the conjectures which have been offered,|| Ave Maria - —This well-known devotion of the Latin Church is based upon the salutations addressed to the Virgin Mary by the Angel Gabriel and by Elisabeth the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:28; Luke 1:42). ...
Nevertheless, there is nothing more evident in the story of the Evangelists than the fact that a permanent and increasing mystery, passing into reverence and awe, accompanied that familiar acquaintance. ’ And so, while the Fourth Gospel, like the ancient epics, begins with the introduction of its principal theme, namely, ‘The Word became flesh, and dwelt among us’ (John 1:14), the Evangelist could add that even through that obscuring medium Christ’s disciples were enabled to behold His glory (ib
Benedictus - But with all this, they lack the characteristic elements of evangelical prophecy. The Benedictus is thus emphatically a ‘Hymn of the Incarnation’—‘Canticum de Evangelio,’ as the Antiphonary of Bangor styles it. The opening words remind us of the opening of Melchizedek’s address to Abram (Genesis 14); ‘visited and redeemed,’ of Israel’s deliverance from Egypt (Exodus 4:31; Exodus 6:6); the ‘Horn of Salvation,’ of Hannah’s Song at the beginning of the story of the kings (1 Samuel 2:10); ‘in the house of David’ is from 1 Chronicles 17:4; in ‘from the beginning of the world,’ ἀπʼ αἱῶνος, we have possibly an allusion to the Protevangelium (Genesis 3:15); in ‘in holiness’ we may see reference to Psalms 110:3; while the Baptist’s mission is described by quotation from Isaiah 40:3. The name of John had been fixed by the Angel (Isaiah 40:13); Zacharias knew that it must be significant, and it means ‘the grace or mercy of God,’ ἕλεος
Abram - The sacrifice was stayed by the Angel of Jehovah, the promises were again confirmed to him, the spiritual blessings in them being prominently exhibited; and, with gratitude which even the sacred historian does not attempt to describe, Abraham returned to Beer-sheba
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - 3) there are several references—...
‘Remember when the Angel said: “O Mary, Verily, God announceth to thee the Word from Him. ” And He will teach him the Book and the Wisdom and the Law and the Evangel, and he shall be an apostle to the people of Israel’ (vv. ...
The phrase ‘son of Mary’ had become so fixed in Mohammed’s mind that he puts it into the mouth of the Angel, even when he is addressing Mary herself. 57)—...
‘We gave him the Evangel,* Herod - disbelief of Angel or spirit or resurrection. And immediately the Angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten of worms and gave up the ghost
Esther - Do not talk what thou wouldst be sure to do if thou wast an Angel, but think what thou canst do as a man. What a magnificent and unparalleled opportunity-you dare not deny it-is yours, for your self-control, for the reducing of your pride, for the extermination of your temper, for your humility and your patience, for the forgiving of your injuries, and for hiding your hungry, broken, bleeding heart with God I And what more would you have? Yours is a circle with opportunities in it that an elect Angel might well envy. There is no circle anywhere under heaven for individual interest; for all kinds of influence, the most immediate and the most lasting; and for the ever-deepening discipline of your own mind, and heart, and life, like the evangelical pulpit
Nebuchadnezzar - ...
Angel "watchers" demand that every mortal be humbled whosoever would obscure God's glory
Israel, Israelite - ‘the Angel of Jahweh or of God,’ i
Apocalyptic - The revelation is communicated through Angels or other heavenly figures. In both books a particular Angel Acts as a guide and instructor (Daniel 9:21 ; Revelation 17:1 ; 22:8 ). There are heavenly counterparts of earthly realities, like the "angels of the seven churches" (Revelation 1:20 ), and the four living creatures by the throne (Revelation 4:6 ), and the "son of man" of Daniel 7:13 , who to some extent represents God's people in heaven (Daniel 7:18 ). This appears vividly in the compelling vision of uNIVersal worship in Revelation 5 , where John sees (and hears) the worship spreading from the throne in concentric circles outward, from the living creatures to the twenty-four elders, then to the myriads of Angels (v. He holds their "angels" in his hand
Elijah - Instead of granting his request, God sends an Angel who ministers to the prophet’s physical needs
Feasts - ...
(1) The Passover commemorated the deliverance out of Egypt when Jehovah passed over Israel, protecting them from the destroying Angel and sparing them, and so achieving for them the first step of independent national life as God's covenant people
Carpocrates, Philospher - Carpocrates taught that from the one unknown unspeakable God different Angels and powers had emanated, and that of these the lowest in the series, far below the unbegotten Father, had been the makers of the world. " The "adversary" (whom, Epiphanius tells us, they named Abolus, a corruption, doubtless, from the Diabolus of Irenaeus) was one of the world-making Angels, whose office it was to conduct the soul to the principal of these Angels, "the judge. " If he found that there were acts left undone, he delivered it to another Angel, "the officer," to shut it up "in prison"—i. he emphasizes the Carpocratian doctrine of the unity of the first principle, tells of emanations from that principle of Angels and powers, gives a different version of the excellence of Jesus, and says that Carpocrates denied the resurrection of the body
Cabbala - They derive the mysteries contained in it from Adam; and assert, that whilst the first man was in paradise, the Angel Raphael brought him a book from heaven, which contained the doctrines of heavenly wisdom; and that when Adam received this book, Angels came down from heaven to learn its contents; but that he refused to admit them to the knowledge of sacred things, intrusted to himself alone: that, after the fall, this book was taken back into heaven; that, after many prayers and tears, God restored it to Adam; and that it passed from Adam to Seth
Patriarchs, the - Whatever his own misgivings, Abraham obeyed God's instructions, and at the last moment a sacrificial ram was provided, while God's Angel praised Abraham for his obedience and faith
Plagues, the Ten, - Nay, the Angel of death was held and loosed by his hand alone
Judges (1) - 13) tells of the wonderful experiences of the parents of the hero prior to his birth; how an Angel foretold that he was to be born, and that he was to be a Nazirite; and how the Angel ascended in a flame from the altar on which Manoah had offered a sacrifice to Jahweh; Judges 13:24-25 record his birth and hie growth to manhood, the spirit of Jahweh being upon him
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - Later in this same chapter we are told that, "When the Angel stretched out his hand to destroy Jerusalem, the Lord was grieved because of the calamity and said to the Angel who was afflicting the people, Enough! Withdraw your hand'" (v
Grace - After he disappears, Gideon realizes that he has seen the "angel of the Lord" and, interestingly, makes reference to the fact that he has seen him "face to face, " recalling the passage in Exodus. God shows his grace one more time by assuring Gideon that although he is afraid since he has seen the Angel of the Lord face to face, he is not going to die (Judges 6:23 ). He is the last of the judges and is the transitional figure between the period of the judges and the period of the kings in Israel's history, as John the Baptist is in the New Testament between the Old Testament prophets and the New Testament evangelists
Galatia - It is difficult, however, to believe that the mission in which the Apostle was welcomed ‘as an Angel from heaven, as Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 4:14), and the thrilling experiences which must have filled his mind and heart at the moment when he joined St. Paul had already evangelized in his first tour. (4) It is possible to make too much of the parallel between Galatians 4:14, ‘ye received me as an Angel of God, as Christ Jesus,’ and the account of the Apostle’s remarkable experience at Lystra, where the people regarded him and Barnabas as gods (Acts 14:11-14). ’ The pagans who acclaimed the coming of Jupiter and Mercury would be likely enough, when partially Christianized, to think themselves recipients of a visit of Angels. Paul was able to carry out his purpose of going westward to evangelize Spain, he might be supposed to have visited Southern Gaul en route, and Crescens might afterwards have gone to this region
Apocalyptic Literature - Angelology. ...
(a) The first section is concerned with Angelology (6–36), beginning with the report of the fall of two hundred Angels who were enticed by the beauty of the daughters of men, and left heaven in order to take them for wives. The fallen Angels, moreover, taught men all manner of secrets whereby they were led into sin. Ringleaders of the Angels are Azazel and Semjâzâ (6–9). Through the intercession of the four archangels, Michael, Uriel, Raphael, and Gabriel, God is moved to arrest bloodshed upon earth. He commands Gabriel to rouse the giants against each other; and, finally, he commands Michael to announce to Semjâzâ the sentence of punishment, which is, that the fallen Angels shall be kept enchained and imprisoned under the hills of the earth, waiting the last judgment, when they shall be cast into the fire (10). The sentence upon the fallen Angels is communicated to Enoch (12), and he reveals it to them; but, at their urgent request, he composes a petition on their behalf, that they might obtain forgiveness; while rehearsing this, preparatory to presenting it, he falls asleep and is informed in a dream that their request for forgiveness will not be granted, and once more makes known to the Angels their impending doom (13–16). Enoch tells of a journey in which he learned of the places where thunders and lightnings originate, and saw the stream of Hades, the corner-stone and the pillars of the world, the seven mountains of precious stones, and the places of punishment of the disobedient Angels, i. He gives the names and functions of the six (seven) archangels (20). He once more visits the place of punishment of the condemned Angels, and the nether world (21), consisting of four parts (22). Enoch is carried by storm-clouds to the end of heaven, and there beholds the pre-existing Kingdom of God, the dwellings of the righteous and the elect, and of Angels and archangels (39, 40). An Angel explains the vision (47, the Son of Man will overthrow and judge the kings and mighty ones of the ungodly). The Angels of punishment go forth to do their work. The judgment of the Son of Man over the Angels in heaven, and the sentence of kings by Him, followed by vain pleas on their part for mercy, are given next (61–64). Then comes the revelation to Noah of the fall of the Angels, the Flood, his own preservation, the punishment of the Angels, and the judgment of men by the Son of Man (65–69). ’ It contains a revelation given by the Angel Uriel on all sorts of astronomical and geographical matters, among others on the convulsions that will occur during the period of the wicked upon earth. The chosen people were delivered into the hands of lions, tigers, wolves, and jackals (the Assyrians and Babylonians); then they were put under the care of seventy shepherds (angels). Enoch then warns his children of his impending absence from them for a time (2); he is taken by two Angels up to the first heaven (3), where he sees 200 Angels who guard the treasuries of the snow, the dew, and the oil (4–6). He is next taken up into the second heaven, and beholds and converses with the fallen Angels (7)
Peter - Paul quite as important as-perhaps in some respects more important than-his own specific task of Gentile evangelization. Paul being especially commissioned to carry on this temporary enterprise of evangelizing the Gentiles, but the original and fundamental task was still Peter’s. Hence it is not strange that he should cite the Jewish churches as models (1 Thessalonians 2:14), that he should refer with manifest satisfaction to their approval of his initial missionary activities (Galatians 1:24), that he should reckon his own evangelizing activity as formally beginning at Jerusalem (Romans 15:19), that he should take occasion to pay Peter a two weeks’ visit in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18), or that he should in all sincerity seek the approval of the Jerusalem Church upon his Gentile work (Galatians 2:1 ff. Paul’s controversy with the legalists really meant any conscious effort on his part to oppose or to supplant Peter, whose unique position in the early community and whose leadership in the work of evangelizing the Jews are clearly attested and highly esteemed by St. These scanty particulars do not permit of any very extended interpretation, yet they do make it clear that Peter was prominent in the counsels of the mother Church, that he continued to prosecute his work as an evangelist, and that his fame had reached even to Asia Minor and Greece early in the fifties. Paul, it is not at all surprising that the evangelists, in selecting gospel tradition and giving it written form, should mention Peter frequently and assign him a position second only to that of Jesus. Matthew omits the paragraph in which ‘Simon and those with him’ seek Jesus to tell Him that the people of Capernaum desire His return to the city (Mark 1:36), nothing is said of Peter’s accompanying Jesus when the latter raised the daughter of Jairus (Mark 5:37), and Peter’s name is expunged from the instructions given to the women by the Angel at the tomb of Jesus (Mark 16:7). But from what source the First Evangelist derived his information, and whether the words were actually spoken by Jesus, are much-debated problems. Nor does Luke report the special message of the Angel to Peter, telling him that he will see the Risen Lord in Galilee (Luke 24:7; cf. He is next seen in Samaria, where he represents the Jerusalem Church in supervising and bringing to completion the evangelistic work of Philip (Acts 8:14-25)
David - He is himself divine (Psalm 45:6 ); like the Angel of the Lord, he is both God and distinct from God
John - The Angel Gabriel announced John's birth, while Zechariah was burning incense in the Temple. ...
Jesus was baptized by John, a fact that all the evangelists except Mark attempted to explain
Medicine - There are also various figurative expressions for disease, and in some places it is described as inflicted by the Angel of God, e
Lord - That occurs above all in quotations from the Old Testament and in translating terms such as “angel,” “way,” “word,” “day,” “name,” or “hand” of the Lord
Salvation - In Matthew's Gospel the Angel tells Joseph that Mary's child is conceived of the Holy Spirit, and that he is "to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins" (1:21-23)
King, Kingship - In the words of the Angel who spoke to Mary: "He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High
Magnificat - Mary, who answered so freely and so bravely, yet so humbly, to the Angel, have been silent at such a moment when addressed by one whom she knew so well?’ (Wordsworth)
Death - He makes no use of the conception of ‘the Angel of death,’ so characteristic of the latter, and traceable perhaps in language such as that of 1 Corinthians 15:26 , Hebrews 2:14 , and Revelation 20:13-14
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - At any rate, we have a pretty long roll of well-known names in our own evangelical martyrology, and the cloud of such witnesses is by no means closed in Scotland. ...
I named them as they passed, and understoodTheir nature; with such knowledge God enduedMy sudden apprehension, says Adam to the Angel. As every sin-possessed heart here knows its own bitterness, so will every such heart alone know its own unshared sweetness in heaven, and no neighbour saint nor serving Angel will intermeddle with things that are beyond their depth
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - At the time of the battle of Mursa Constantius came much under the influence of Valens, the temporizing bishop of the place, who pretended that the victory was revealed to him by an Angel, and from this time he appears more distinctly as a persecutor of the Nicene faith, which he endeavoured to crush in the West
Elijah - Yes; we all have passions enough to make us not Elijahs and Ahabs only, but Angels in heaven, or devils in hell. Esau wrestled with wild beasts with all his passions, but Jacob wrestled with the Angel
David - The pestilence broke forth, and 70,000 men fell, and as the Angel was about to smite Jerusalem, Jehovah stayed his hand; and David erected an altar on the spot, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - ...
Martin must be regarded as the great evangelizer of the rural districts of Gaul, especially in the considerable and not very defined diocese of Tours. It seemed to him that an Angel appeared and told him that his compunction was right, but that he had had no choice
Targums - And he lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three Angels in the resemblance of men were standing before him; Angels who had been sent from the necessity of three things because it is not possible for a ministering Angel to be sent for more than one purpose at a time one, then, had come to make known to him that Sarah should bear a man-child; one had come to deliver Lot; and one to overthrow Sodom and Gomorrah. It is said of this Jonathan that when he sat down and occupied himself with the study of the Law, every bird that happened to fly over his head was burned; the reason of this was that so many Angels gathered around him in order to hear the words of the Law from his mouth ( Succah , 28 a Luke, the Gospel According to - Luke (Luke 22:43) records the appearance of an Angel unto Jesus during His agony; as no one else is mentioned as having seen the vision, (indeed the disciples were sleeping for sorrow), it must have been especially revealed by the Lord after His resurrection. " Possibly during Paul's three months' sojourn there (Acts 20:3) Luke was sent to Corinth, and it is to his evangelistic labours the reference is. Luke either by his written Gospel or by his evangelistic labours was one "whose praise in the Gospel was throughout the churches. ...
Alford rejects ancient testimony that Paul's teaching constitutes the substance of Luke's Gospel, on the grounds that the evangelist asserts that his Gospel is drawn from those who "from the beginning" were eye witnesses of Christ's ministry, among whom Paul cannot be reckoned. "To evangelize" or "preach the gospel" is frequent in Luke, once in Matthew, not at all in Mark and John. "...
Luke is fullest of the evangelists in describing our Lord's private prayers. ...
The portion Luke 9:51-18;Luke 9:15 is vague as to dates, and probably is designed by the Holy Spirit to supplement what the other evangelists had not recorded
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - Justin Martyr quotes its authority for applying the titles "apostle" and "angel" to the Son of God. - The superiority of the gospel over Judaism is shown in its introduction by the Son of God, infinitely higher than the Angels, or Moses through whom the Hebrew received the law
Genesis, Theology of - Abraham obeys, only he is prevented from carrying out the sacrifice by the Angel of the Lord and sacrifices a ram instead
Last Day(s), Latter Days, Last Times - Before Jesus was born the Angel told Mary that the child she was to bear "will reign over the house of Jacob forever; his kingdom will never end" (Luke 1:33 )
Esdras, the Second Book of - 3-10) the Angel Uriel appears, to resolve the doubts of the seer, and comfort him with the hope of God’s speedy intervention
Assyria, History And Religion of - The Bible mentions the approach of the Egyptian army (2 Kings 19:9 ) and tells of a miraculous defeat of the Assyrians by the Angel of the Lord (2 Kings 19:35-36 )
the Slothful Servant Who Hid His Lord's Money - Do not talk what thou wouldst do if thou wert an Angel, but consider what thou canst do as thou art a man
the Importunate Widow - My matter is, shall He find such prayer in me? Shall He find me in my bed, or on my knees? Shall I be reading this parable of His for the ten thousandth time to keep my heart from fainting? Shall, Avenge me of mine adversary, be on my lips at the moment when the judgment-angel puts the last trump to his lips? And shall I be found of him on my knees, and with my finger on this scripture, when the trumpet shall sound, and I shall be changed?...
Prayer - Jacob's wrestling with the divine Angel and prayer, in Genesis 32, is the first full description of prayer; compare the inspired continent on it, Hosea 12:3-6
John the Baptist - ...
John the Baptist, like some much more evangelical men, was well-nigh smothered out of life in the slough of despond. The most envious-minded man in all the world does not envy a lion, or an eagle, or an Angel
Lazarus - The very evangelists pass over Lazarus as if he were a worm and no man. This evangelist, that bare record according as he saw, had seen his Master's love to Martha and Mary many a time; but it was only now and then that he had the opportunity of seeing either Lazarus's love to his Lord, or his Lord's love to Lazarus. "...
And thus it was that scarcely had Lazarus sat down in his Father's house: he had not got his harp of gold well into his hand: he had not got the Hallelujah that they were preparing against the Ascension of their Lord well into his mouth, when the Angel Gabriel came up to where he sat, all rapture through and through, and said to him: 'Hail! Lazarus: highly honoured among the glorified from among men. The evangelist to whom we owe Lazarus had not room within his limits to tell us any more about Lazarus
Priest - God having reserved to himself the first-born of all Israel, because he had preserved them from the hand of the destroying Angel in Egypt, by way of exchange or compensation accepted of the tribe of Levi for the service of the tabernacle, Numbers 3:41
Mediator - Hence the importance of that doctrine respecting the person of Christ; that all the communications which the Almighty condescended to hold with the human race were carried on from the beginning by this person; that it is he who spake to the patriarchs, who gave the law by Moses, and who is called in the Old Testament, "the Angel of the covenant
Simon Maccabaeus - By another mental process, in which this first idea was a partner, he produced the Angels, and they created the world. This then was the doctrine of Simon: the supreme God, by a mental process, produced different orders of Angels, and they created the world. But when later writers had said that he actually proclaimed himself as God, it followed that it was he, who, by an operation of his own mind, produced the Angels. Hence we find him embracing the opinion, that the world was created by Angels, who were themselves produced from God. Plato imagined that the ideas which were in the mind of the Deity created intellectual beings: Simon taught that the supreme God by an operation of his own mind produced the Angels. The first intelligences of Plato were employed by God to create the world: Simon also taught that the Angels, or aeons, created the world; but in one respect the Gnostics had totally changed the philosophy of Plato; for they taught that the Angel, or Angels, who created the world, acted contrary to the wishes of the Supreme God
Synagogue - A person likewise was denominated the messenger, or Angel, αγγελλος , της αγγελλος εκκλησιας , &c, who was selected by the assembly to recite for them the prayers; the same that is called by the Jews of modern times the synagogue singer, or cantilator, Revelation 2:1 ; Revelation 2:8 ; Revelation 2:12 ; Revelation 2:18 ; Revelation 3:1 ; Revelation 3:7 ; Revelation 3:14
Jesus Christ - It is not necessary here to narrate the history of our Saviour's life, which can no where be read with advantage except in the writings of the four evangelists; but there are several general views which require to be noticed under this article. That all these predictions were fulfilled in Jesus Christ; that he was of that country, tribe, and family, of the house and lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, we have the fullest evidence in the testimony of all the evangelists; in two distinct accounts of the genealogies, by natural and legal succession, which, according to the custom of the Jews, were carefully preserved; in the acquiescence of the enemies of Christ in the truth of the fact, against which there is not a single surmise in history; and in the appeal made by some of the earliest Christian writers to the unquestionable testimony of the records of the census, taken at the very time of our Saviour's birth by order of Caesar. In the very first promise of redemption, his superiority to that great and malignant spirit who destroyed the innocence of man, and blighted the fair creation of God, is unquestionably implied; while the Angel of the Divine Presence, the Angel of the Covenant, who appears so prominent in the patriarchal times, and the early periods of Jewish history, and was understood by the early Jews as the future Messiah, is seen at once as a being distinct from Jehovah and yet Jehovah himself; bearing that incommunicable name; and performing acts, and possessing qualities of unquestionable divinity. " Thus the prophetic testimony describes him, as entitled to the appellation of "Wonderful," since he should be, in a sense peculiar to himself, the Son of God, Psalms 2:7 ; Isaiah 9:6 ; as existing and acting during the patriarchal and the Jewish ages, and even from eternity, Psalms 40:7-9 ; Micah 5:2 ; as the guardian and protector of his people, Isaiah 40:9-11 ; as the proper object of the various affections of piety, of devotional confidence for obtaining the most important blessings, and of religious homage from Angels and men, Psalms 2:12 ; Psalms 97:7 ; and, finally, declares him to be the eternal and immutable Being, the Creator, God, the Mighty God, Adonai, Elohim, Jehovah. How, for instance, is it that he is arrayed in the attributes of divinity, and yet is capable of being raised to a kingdom and glory?—that he is addressed, "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever," and yet that it should follow "God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows?"—that he should be God, and yet, by a human birth, "God with us?"—that he should say, "I and my Father are one," and, "My Father is greater than I?"—that he is supreme, and yet a servant?—that he is equal and yet subordinate?—that he, a man, should require and receive worship and trust?—that he should be greater than Angels, and yet "made lower than the Angels?"—that he should be "made flesh," and yet be the Creator of all things?—that he should raise himself from the dead, and yet be raised by the power of the Father? These and many other declarations respecting him, all accord with the orthodox view of his person; and are intelligible so far as they state the facts respecting him; but are wholly beyond the power of interpretation into any rational meaning on any theory which denies to him a real humanity on the one hand, or a real and personal divinity on the other
Neology - " Jacob wrestled with the Angel "in a dream;" and a rheumatic pain in his thigh during sleep suggested the incident, in his dream of the Angel touching the sinew of his thigh. "After the evangelic church," he says, in an energetic comparison of the evils which reigned in the beginning of this period with those which had occasioned the yoke of Rome to be broken, "after the evangelic church had thrown off the yoke of human inventions, they should have bowed their neck under the easy yoke of the Lord. "...
With several happy exceptions, and the raising up of a few pious people in some places, and a partial revival of evangelical doctrines, which, however, often ran at length into mysticism and antinomianism, the evil, both doctrinally and morally, continued to increase to our own day; for if any ask what has been the moral effect of the appalling apostasy of the teachers of religion, above described, upon the people of Germany, the answer may be given from one of these rationalizing divines themselves, whose statement is not therefore likely to be too highly coloured
James - ...
When Peter was delivered by the Angel, A
Satan (2) - In this sense it is used in Numbers 22:22 even of the Angel of the Lord, who is said to go forth to be a Satan to Balaam. It has been supposed that upon those popular beliefs of early Semitie religion there was grafted, from Persian sources, the conception of a Prince of Darkness whose agency is similar to that which, in the religion of Zoroaster, is ascribed to the demon-god Ahriman, and that the belief in Satan and his Angels as fallen spirits was thus introduced into Hebrew theology. Matthew tells us that when the devil left Him, Angels came and ministered unto Him. Thus, so far from discouraging the popular belief which ascribed to Satan and his Angels power over soul and body, Jesus distinctly acknowledged it. Accused by the Pharisees, representatives of those to whose speculations in Angelology and demonology that popular belief has been traced, of casting out demons through Beelzebub the prince of demons, Jesus, so far from controverting or throwing doubt upon the current opinions of the time, repels the charge by the argument that if Satan should cast out Satan, he would only be defeating his own ends and destroying his own work. ...
Once more, in Christ’s discourse on the Last Judgment, it is expressly stated that the everlasting punishment to which the unfaithful are condemned was ‘prepared for the devil and his Angels’ (Matthew 25:41), a passage which well illustrates the manner in which, in the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus is consistently represented as alluding to Satan and his power and kingdom
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - It is "new" (kainos [ Haggai 2:6 ; Hebrews 12:6 ; see also Hebrews 1:10 ; 2 Peter 3:7,10 , 12 ) have been affected by sin inasmuch as they are the place of the activity of evil Angels and forces (Matthew 24:29 ; Ephesians 6:12 ). ...
The Angels, Satan, and Heaven . "The host of heaven" can refer to the stars (Nehemiah 9:6 ; Isaiah 24:21 ; 34:4 ; Matthew 24:29 ), but more frequently in Scripture it denotes Angels (1 Kings 22:19 ; Luke 2:13 ). God warns against worshiping the celestial host (2 Kings 23:5 ; Jeremiah 19:13 ; Acts 7:42 ) as well as the Angelic host (Colossians 2:18 ). When referring to the Angels the term carries a military connotation (Joshua 5:14-15 ; Daniel 4:35 ). God at times employs Angels from heaven to do his bidding. Who can say to what extent Angels are active today on earth? The truth might be found in Jacob's vision of a ladder extending from earth to heaven on which the Angels of God ascended and descended (Genesis 28:12 ). Nevertheless, the dwelling-place of Angels is heaven (Mark 12:25 ; 13:32 ; Luke 2:15 ), where they worship God (Matthew 8:10 ). ...
Satan is a fallen Angel who apparently had access to the presence of God in heavenly places (1618419814_88 ). If Revelation 12:7-12 looks back to the ministry of Christ, the "casting out" of Satan and his evil Angels from heaven occurred when Christ entered heavenly glory (see Luke 10:17-20 )
Hebrews, Theology of - He is superior to the Angelic hosts because no Angel can boast of being the Son of God, fully divine (1:4-14), and yet fully human (2:5-18). In establishing Jesus' superiority to the Angelic hosts his deity is clearly affirmed (1:1-4). Jesus' superiority to Angels also provides the ground for affirming the completeness of his humanity (2:5-18)
Gestures - One cannot, indeed, always conclude that He did not use any outward gesture, such as touching, merely because an Evangelist is silent on the matter (e. ), the first two Evangelists speaking of prostration, the third of kneeling. John before the Angel (Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:8). ...
To speak generally, it may be noted that the Fourth Evangelist is more chary of chronicling our Lord’s gestures than the Synoptists. Genesis 29:11; Genesis 33:4; Genesis 45:15, Exodus 18:7, 1 Samuel 20:41, 2 Samuel 15:5; 2 Samuel 19:39; 2 Samuel 20:9, many of which passages speak of kisses of greeting like that of Judas, to which Joab’s is indeed strangely similar
Christ - " And who was it that the apostle saith, in this same chapter, was anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows? Whom are the Angels commanded to worship, when JEHOVAH brings in this first begotten into the world? Not surely, the Son of God as God only, neither the Son of man as man only; for of either, separately, these things could never be spoken. And now having accomplished redemption by his blood, he is, and ever will be, the One glorious object of adoration, love, and praise, to all the creation of God, Angels, and men, to all eternity. ...
The Angel of the Covenant, Malachi 3:1
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - To these are added by Sixtus Senensis and others: On the Properties and Orders of Angels; The Legal Hierarchy . The members of the Heavenly Hierarchy are the nine orders of Angels—the term Angel being sometimes used alike of all the orders and sometimes in a more proper and restricted sense of the lowest of the nine. The names of the nine orders appear to be obtained by combining with the more obvious Seraphim Cherubim Archangels and Angels five deduced from two passages of St. Principalities, Archangels, Angels. Many points are discussed in what to some would appear a strangely neologic spirit
Matthias the Successor to Judas Iscariot - You might have the Angel who rolled away the stone and sat on it for your other candidate, but he should have no vote of mine
Nabal - 'A devil at home' is one of the sure marks of Thomas Shepard's 'evangelical hypocrite. He shines like an Angel in the church
Jeroboam - An old prophet at Bethel, where, Lot like, he dwelt, risking the corrupting influences of bad association (1 Corinthians 15:33; 2 Corinthians 6:14-18), jealous that any should be faithful where he himself was not, and desiring to drag down the man of God to his own low level (Psalms 62:4), overtook him, and by a lie, saying "an Angel of God spoke unto me, Bring him back that he may eat," overcame his constancy
Joshua - ...
Joshua took the command at Shittim, sent spies to Jericho, crossed Jordan, fortified his camp at Gilgal, circumcised the people (for Israel's work was a spiritual one, and men still having the badge of fleshliness were not fit agents for the Lord's work: Joshua 10:40; Judges 5:31), kept the Passover, (after which on their eating the old grain of the land the manna ceased,) and received the assurance of Jericho's fall and God's fighting against Israel's foes from the uncreated Angel of Jehovah (Joshua 5:13-15; Joshua 6:2-5), the Captain of Jehovah's host (Matthew 26:53; Exodus 23:20-23; Revelation 19:11-14)
Night (2) - To the Israelites the thought of night would always bring the memory of visions and revelations of God, given to their seers, beginning from the nights when Jacob saw the ladder, and wrestled with the Angel. Dawson, The Evangelistic Note, 133; W
Trinity - ( a ) The references to the ‘ Angel of Jehovah ’ prepare the way for the Christian doctrine of a distinction in the Godhead ( Genesis 18:2 ; Genesis 18:16 ; Genesis 17:22 with Genesis 19:1 , Joshua 5:13-15 with Joshua 6:1 , Judges 13:8-21 , Zechariah 13:7 )
Lot - But as Lot's guardian Angel would have it, one of Lot's herdmen escaped; and how his heart would sink as he came near Abraham's encampment at Hebron! But to whom else could he go? His own conscience of the past bitterly upbraided him as he told Abraham the disaster; but Abraham had something else to do than to trample on a fallen man. In that terrible day may His Angels be near to lay hold of us!...
Exodus, the Book of - ...
The most appropriate way to effect this was not to send strange terrors but to show, by intensifying and controlling at will the visitations ordinarily felt in Egypt and falsely attributed by them to particular idols, that all these visitations are at Jehovah's absolute disposal to inflict, increase, or wholly withdraw, subserving His purposes of wrath to His adversaries, of mercy to His people, and of the setting forth of His own glory to the whole world (Exodus 9:16); compare Psalms 78:43-49, "sending evil Angels among them"; the plagues are figuratively His messengers ("angels") in the hands of heavenly Angels, of whom the destroying Angel was in closest communion with Jehovah (Psalms 78:51); compare Exodus 12:18; Exodus 12:23; Exodus 12:29; Hebrews 11:28, for God sends good Angels to punish the bad, and bad Angels to chastise the good
the Pharisee - Every finished Pharisee, he tells us, had not the tongue of a man only, but the tongue of an Angel
the Man Which Sowed Good Seed in His Field But His Enemy Came And Sowed Tares Among the Wheat - For, what that husbandman knew not about his field when he bore himself so wisely beside it, he will know when the harvest is the end of the world, and when the reapers are the Angels. You would need to be an Angel to say in your paper about him and about his book, what you would like him to say in his paper about you and about your book. And, indeed, considering what this world is, and what the human heart is, there is far more of such Angelic saintliness abroad in it than you would expect to see, unless you were actually on the out-look for it. And then the Son of Man shall send forth His Angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend
Amen (2) - If a consideration of the phenomena connected with the composition of the Fourth Gospel leads to the conclusion that in the form in which the utterances of Jesus are there presented we have not His ipsissima verba, we may most naturally regard the repetition of ἀμήν as a peculiarity due to the Evangelist, and (taking the evidence of the Synoptists into account) not necessarily a form actually used by Jesus. Among certain of the Gnostics ἈΜήΝ figured as the name of an Angel (Hippolytus, Philosophumena, ccxviii
Heman - The Second Evangelist was a remarkable seer in all the matters of our Lord. He saw things in our Lord that no other Evangelist had the eyes to see: and he writes about our Lord in words that no other Evangelist can command. If I were you I would let no man, not even an Angel of light, cheat me out of my soul with any of his antinomianisms about the divine sovereignty
Demoniac - According to the sense and discernment of men, the miracle is useful in itself, but we cannot be sure whether it may not have been performed by one of the rebellious Angels "who kept not their first estate. Hence he considers the Egyptian magicians as jugglers; the witch of Endor, as a ventriloquist; and, completing the system, he has written an elaborate dissertation to prove, that when Christ was "tempted of the devil," as the Evangelist Matthew expresses it, that apostate Angel was not really present; and that the whole transaction took place in a vision or a dream. It is evident that the devil and his Angels, according to all that we can learn of them in the sacred books, are real beings; that the demons of the New Testament are malignant spirits; and that they act upon the same principles, and even under the authority of Satan himself, who is otherwise called Beelzebub, and the prince of the devils, Nay, in these very cases of possession, the chief of the apostate Angels is clearly set forth as acting either in his own person, or by means of his infernal agents. "The Pharisees heard it," observes the Evangelist, "and they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils but by Beelzebub, the prince of the devils
Bride - This is the reason that the Angel addressed Joseph, the betrothed husband of Mary, in these terms: "Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. " The Evangelist Luke gives her the same title: "And Joseph also went up from Galilee unto Bethlehem, to be taxed, with Mary his espoused wife," Luke 2:4-5
Presence (2) - also uses ἐνώπιον, which, with the exception of John 20:30, is not in the vocabulary of the other three Evangelists. The ‘angel of Jehovah,’ so frequently mentioned in the OT, was simply ‘the messenger’ (מַלִאָךְ), so did all intermediaries dwindle in the blaze of the only God. ‘There were to be no more finite mediators between God and man; no temple of Jerusalem, where alone men must worship; no necessity for interposing Angels to interpret between the Divine and the human. John Wesley, too, coming from his earlier devotion to Mysticism to his doctrine of assurance, repeated the experience of Luther, and, by means of an evangelical theology, helped men to see that humanity is the proper organ of the Divine presence
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - (53 223) money passing from hand to hand—"usu ipso multiplicatur unde dicitur usura ab usu," or (7 53) where an explanation is suggested why at the call of the apostles Peter and his brother are described as "mittentes retia," John and his brother "retia componentes," "quia Petrus praedicavit evangelium et non composuit sed Marcus ab eo praedicata composuit; Joannes autem et praedicavit evangelium et ipse composuit. Probably the same book told him that Joseph was not present when the Angel appeared to Mary and related how our Lord conferred His own baptism on John the Baptist. (4 43) in Psa_8:4 "The heavens the work of Thy fingers" mean the Holy Scriptures; (5 37) on Psa_90:11 the remark "Portatur non quasi infirmus sed propter honorem potestatis" verbally agrees with Augustine's "Obsequium Angelorum non ad infirmitatem domini pertinet sed ad illorum honorificentiam
Temple - ’...
The remarkable persistence of sacred sites in the East is a phenomenon familiar to all students of religion, and there can be little doubt that the Chronicler is right in identifying the site of ‘the altar of burnt-offering for Israel’ (1 Chronicles 22:1 ) with the spot ‘by the threshing-floor of Oman [3] the Jehusite,’ where the Angel of the plague stayed his hand, and on which David by Divine command erected his altar of commemoration (see, further, § 6 ( b ))
Ethics - He is preached ‘as Lord’ ( 2 Corinthians 4:5 ), and the homage which neither man ( Acts 10:25-26 ) nor Angel ( Revelation 22:8-9 ) can receive He deems it proper to accept ( John 13:13 )
Eucharist - Its interpretation must, therefore, begin from the great Hebrew festival, in which it finds its origin, and which was regarded as a corporate communion of the Covenant People beneath the shelter of the sprinkled blood, an extension of that first sacred meal eaten when the destroying Angel was passing over and working redemption for Israel (see Schultz, OT Theol
Philippians, Theology of - ...
Although "Jesus" was the name given to this special person by an Angel (Matthew 1:21 ), and used so frequently in the Gospels, Paul is not inclined to use it, at least by itself
Hebrews, Epistle to the - In this respect He inherits a more excellent name than the Angels. He is set at the right hand of God where no Angel is ever placed. Jesus is the 'Son of man,' made indeed a little lower than the Angels for the suffering of death, but now crowned with glory and honour. He has taken up, not the cause of Angels, but the seed of Abraham
Dress (2) - stola—is used for the long garments of the scribes, translation ‘long clothing’ Mark 12:38, ‘long robes’ Luke 20:46; for the ‘best robe’ of the Prodigal Son, John 20:5-70; for the ‘long garment’ of the Resurrection Angel, Mark 16:5—in the parallel passage ἐσθησις, ‘garment’ is used, Luke 24:4
Inspiration - I think, for example, that the evangelists could not have written the history of Christ if they had not enjoyed miraculous aid. With the faculties of an Angel we could not discover the purposes of the divine mind. God revealed himself to them not only by suggestion, but by dreams, visions, voices, and the ministry of Angels
Jephthah And His Daughter - That was their terrible way sometimes in those twilight, uncivilised, and unevangelical ages. No doubt, had God sent an Angel and provided a ram, Jephthah and his daughter would have returned home together willingly enough
Christ, Christology - Often it was God Himself who was expected to visit the nation in deliverance; sometimes it was His Angel or messenger who would herald the onset of the new age (Malachi 3:1-2 ; Malachi 4:5-6 )
Manicheans - But an Angel of light, or Christ Himself, the Spirit of the Sun, counteracted their artifices in the shape of the serpent, the parts of the Biblical narrative being thus reversed, God's share being ascribed to the devil and vice versa
Idol - The black pyramidal stone in Juggernaut's temple, that of Cybele at Pessinus in Galatia, the black stone in the Kaaba at Mecca reported to have been brought from heaven by the Angel Gabriel, all illustrate the wide diffusion of this form of idolatry
Hezekiah - His faith received an immediate answer of peace; 185,000 were slain by the Angel of the Lord in the "night," perhaps by "the plague that, walketh in darkness" (2 Kings 19:35, with which Isaiah 37:36 undesignedly accords, "when they arose early in the morning"
Restoration - The Evangelists, the Apostles, and even our Lord Himself in His earthly life, were required to vindicate to themselves the Divine purpose in this mortal career without having all the future destiny of mankind revealed to them. 407–408) says: ‘If we are to see here the conception of a final reconciliation between God and His creatures, a blotting out of evil in the sense that it shall be transformed into good, a complete harmonizing of the universe so that neither Angel nor man shall be found to set himself against the Divine ethical order, then we must hold this view to spring out of a philosophical thought which does not find support elsewhere in the NT, and which did not afterward meet with wide approval in the Church. ’ And though this may be conceded, and though we must not be blind to the fact that the issues thus gloriously expressed were not fully thought out by the Apostle or applied to the question of Restoration, yet, based as they are upon the Person of Christ and supplemented by the principles of His teaching and revelation, they may be taken to express a sober and restrained hopefulness for the ultimate issue, which shall never for a moment be suffered to lessen the evangelic urgency that ‘Now is the accepted time; now is the day of salvation’ (2 Corinthians 6:2)
Lord's Supper. (i.) - They could not see that a glorious light was shining on His back, that He was in reality an Angel of blessing. It would appear that, according to contemporary Jewish practice, Passover, the 14th Nisan, was spoken of as the beginning of the feast Maẓẓoth, though originally Unleavened Bread began on 15th Nisan (Wellhausen, Evangelium Marci, 115; Schürer, ThLZ Abraham - The women of Galilee who ministered to Him of their substance will be brought forward; Martha will be brought forward, and the woman at the well; the owner of the ass's colt, and the owner of the upper room, and the owner of Gethsemane; Simon the Cyrenian also, who helped Him to carry His cross; the soldier also who gave Him some of his vinegar to drink; and Joseph of Arimathea, and Nicodemus, and the women with their spices, and the Angel who rolled away the stone. If there is a famine of bread and water where corn and wine had been promised and expected; or if the laughters and the shouts of baptized children are silent where they would have been as the voices of God's Angels to you,-what then? Then thy God will descend into thine heart, and He will ask: Am I not more to thee than sons and daughters? Is My love not better to thee than corn and wine? Am I, and My salvation, and that city of Mine which hath foundations, not more to be desired by thee than all else that I could give thee? Till you will find it in your bereaved and broken heart to say to Him henceforth and continually, Whom have I in heaven but Thee? And there is none upon earth that I desire beside Thee
Serpent - Here the pristine glory and majesty of Satan, before the lineaments of celestial beauty were defaced by his rebellious apostasy, seem not obscurely to be alluded to; while the craft and malevolence, which mark his character as a fallen Angel, are depicted with sufficient accuracy
John the Baptist - His birth was foretold by an Angel, sent purposely to deliver this joyful message, when his mother Elizabeth was barren, and both his parents far advanced in years. " His ministry stands as a type of the true character of evangelical repentance: it goes before Christ and prepares his way; it is humbling, but not despairing; for it points to "the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world. ...
JOHN THE EVANGELIST was a native of Bethsaida, in Galilee, son of Zebedee and Salome, by profession a fisherman. These points had been scarcely touched upon by the other evangelists; though they had faithfully recorded all the leading facts of our Saviour's life, and his admirable precepts for the regulation of our conduct. Other evangelists, who deposited their works in the place of their residence, personally superintended them, and delivered them personally; consequently they did not require a written document to accompany them
Heaven - The righteous in heaven are made like to the Angels (Apoc. 2 Corinthians 12:2 : the third heaven, or Paradise, regarded as God’s dwelling-place; Philippians 2:10 : the division of the universe into things heavenly, earthly, and infernal; Galatians 1:8 : an Angel from heaven; Romans 1:18 : God’s wrath revealed from heaven, etc. ‘Ye have come,’ he says, implying that the city exists already, and that it contains the myriads of Angels, the assembly of first-begotten ones whose names were enrolled in heaven (Luke 10:20), the spirits of righteous men who have been ‘perfected,’ and finally Jesus Himself, the Leader and Completer of the faith. In heaven is the throne of God; His will is done in heaven; Christ is there; the Angels, and the OT symbols of the power and presence of God in Creation, are seen in heaven
Revelation, the Book of - ...
An Angel announces the eternal gospel and warns the earth of coming judgment (Revelation 14:6-7 )
Wisdom of Solomon - In 18:16 the Almighty Word which slew the first-born of the Egyptians is said to have ‘touched heaven, while standing upon the earth,’ καὶ οὐρανοῦ μὲν ἥπτετο, βεβήκει δʼ ἐπὶ γῆς; the original of the phrase seems to be found in 1 Chronicles 21:16, where the destroying Angel ‘stands between heaven and earth’; yet the Greek of Wisdom may be influenced by the description of Strife in Il
Type - All through the Epistle there runs a series of contrasts between Judaism as preparatory and typical and Christianity as antitypical and perfect, (a) In the opening verses the fragmentary and varying revelation ‘of old time’ by the prophets is set over against God’s speech unto us in His Son (Hebrews 1:1-2), and this is immediately followed by the contrast of Angels as ministering spirits sent forth to do service for the heirs of salvation (Hebrews 1:14) with Him who was made a little lower than the Angels that He might bring many sons unto glory (Hebrews 2:9-10), (b) Next comes (Hebrews 3:1 to Hebrews 4:13) a contrast between Moses, a faithful servant in God’s house, and Christ, a Son set over it (Hebrews 3:5 f. From the actual churches in Asia he leads his readers to the great vision of the Church that is to be, saying to them in the words of the Angel, ‘Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the wife of the Lamb’ (Revelation 21:9). ) reappear in the Angels of the celestial temple ‘arrayed with precious stone, pure and bright, and girt a
Transfiguration (2) - The spiritualization of the natural body is not to be looked for in an astral or Angel-body, but in the gesture, dignity, and noble mien that make the body of the civilized man the outward image of his soul
Galatians Epistle to the - The nature of his malady was such as made him painful to behold (Galatians 4:14), but in spite of it the Galatians welcomed him ‘as an Angel from heaven,’ and listened eagerly while he proclaimed to them Christ crucified as the only way of salvation (Galatians 3:1). The promise was spoken directly by God; the Law was issued through mediators, human and Angelic (Galatians 3:14)
Money (2) - (A passage which may be quoted in confirmation is To 5:14, where the disguised Angel is promised by Tobit a drachm a day—at that time a little less than a denarius—for acting as companion to his son
Sin (2) - And the Fourth Evangelist only interprets the mind of the Master when he speaks of Jesus as dying for the nation, and destined to gather together into one the scattered children of God (John 11:51-52). Luke 4:6) over the nations, manifesting his rule in the mystic Babylon (Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:1-6), and the kingdom of the beast (13 passim), until He who is the Alpha and Omega, having by His Angel sealed the servants of God (Revelation 7:2-3), brings in the final salvation, the Kingdom of God and the authority of His Christ (Revelation 12:10)
Barnabas, Epistle of - The first was never intended by God; they who satisfy themselves with it are rather deceived by "an evil Angel
Assumption of Moses - Then God’s kingdom shall appear, and Satan shall be no more, and the Angel who has been appointed chief (Michael) shall avenge them of their enemies. -We read in Judges 1:9 : ‘But Michael the archangel, when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke thee. ...
There is also the well-known reference to the lost ‘Assumption’ In Judges 1:9 generalized in 2 Peter 2:10-11)-‘Yet Michael the archangel,’ etc
Bethlehem - These two Evangelists are joined in their testimony by the author of the Fourth Gospel, who assumes acquaintance on the part of his readers with the story of the birth of Christ at Bethlehem, the Bethlehem associated with David and his royal line. ...
There is one particular handed down by early Christian tradition which may be regarded not as a variation from, but an addition to, the Evangelic narrative,—the statement made by Justin Martyr (a. Those Apocryphal Gospels which deal with the infancy, notably the Protevangelium Jacobi and the pseudo-Matthaeus, make mention of the cave. 13) says, ‘The Angel commanded the beast to stop, for her time to bear had come; and he directed the Blessed Mary to come down from the animal and to enter a cave below a cavern in which there was never any light, but always darkness, because it could not receive the light of day. … And then she brought forth a male child, whom Angels instantly surrounded at His birth, and whom, when born and standing at once upon His feet, they adored, saying, Glory to God on high, and on earth peace to men of good will. ’ The Protevangelium relates the story with curious imagery (ch. ’...
The Protevangelium Jacobi is generally recognized as belonging to the 2nd cent. Few scholars, if any, will agree in assigning it the place of importance attributed to it recently by the fantastic theory of Conrady (Die Quelle der kanonischen Kindheitsgeschichten Jesu, Göttingen, 1900), who regarda the Protevangelium as the source of the Gospel narrative a of the Infancy. In concert with the priests of Isis and Serapis, he aided with his inventive pen the appropriation of this sacred site by the Church, and it was from the Protevangelium that the writers of the First and Third Gospels drew their separate narratives of the Infancy. The Germans have built an Evangelical Church, which was dedicated in 1893