What does Alpha And Omega mean in the Bible?


Holman Bible Dictionary - Alpha And Omega
are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet and are used in Revelation to describe God or Christ (Revelation 1:8 ,Revelation 1:8,1:17 ; Revelation 21:6 ; Revelation 22:13 .) “Alpha and omega” refers to God's sovereignty and eternal nature. God and Christ are “the beginning and the end, the first and last.” (Revelation 22:13 ). Thus they control all history and all humans of all generations.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alpha And Omega
The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Used by Saint John in the Apocalypse (1; 2; 22) to designate, once, the Eternal Father and, three times, Christ. In Exodus 3:14, God calls Himself "the beginning and the end," that is, the One by whom and for whom all things are made. Used of Our Lord, it clearly implies His Divinity. The letters are often found on early coins, rings, paintings in catacombs, in frescoes of ancient churches, and on corner-stones to designate Christ.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alpha And Omega
ALPHA AND OMEGA . A title of God in Revelation 1:8 ; Revelation 21:6 , of Jesus in Revelation 22:13 [1] is not Justified by the MSS]. Alpha was the first, and Omega the last letter of the Greek, as Aleph and Taw were the first and the last of the Hebrew alphabet. In the Talmud, ‘From Aleph to Taw’ meant ‘From first to last,’ including all between. Cf. Shabb . 51. 1 (on Ezekiel 9:6 ): ‘Do not read “My Sanctuary,” but “My saints,” who are the sons of men who have kept the whole Law from Aleph to Taw.’
This explains the title. In each instance St. John defines It. Revelation 1:8 ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, saith the Lord God, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty’ (AV [2] ‘the beginning and the ending’ is an interpolation from Revelation 21:6 , Revelation 22:13 ), i.e. the Eternal, the Contemporary of every generation. Revelation 21:6 ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end’; Revelation 22:13 ‘I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last (cf. Isaiah 44:6 ; Isaiah 48:12 ), the beginning and the end,’ i.e. He who comprehends and embraces all things, from whom all come and to whom all return, the fons et clausula , the starting-point and the goal of history (cf. Colossians 1:17 ). The ascription of this title to Jesus as well as to God in a writing so early as the Apocalypse strikingly attests the view of our Lord’s Person which prevailed in the primitive Church.
Aurelius Prudentius makes fine use of the title in his hymn on The Lord’s Nativity (‘Corde natus ex parentis’), thus rendered by Neale:
‘Of the Father’s love begotten
Ere the worlds began to be,
He is Alpha and Omega,
He the source, the ending He,
Of the things that are, that have been,
And that future years shall see,
Evermore and evermore.’
David Smith.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alpha And Omega (2)
ALPHA AND OMEGA.—A solemn designation of divinity, of Jewish origin, peculiar to the Book of Revelation. In Revelation 1:8 it is applied to Himself by ‘the Almighty,’ with obvious relation to Exodus 3:14 (cf. Exodus 3:4) and Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 44:6 (for the LXX Septuagint rendering of צִבָאוח יהוה by παντο by παντοκράτωρ, cf. Amos 3:13; Amos 4:13). In Hebrews 1:2-3 also the epithet is applied not to the Son but to the Father, as shown by the context (cf. Revelation 21:3 ‘a voice out of the throne,’ Revelation 21:5 ‘He spake that is seated on the throne,’ Revelation 21:7 ‘I will be his God and he shall be my son’). In Revelation 22:13 it is placed in a derived sense (i.e. ‘I, the primary object and ultimate fulfilment of God’s promise’) in the mouth of the glorified Jesus. This transfer of a Divine title to the Son furnishes a problem of great interest for the early development of Christology; for, as R. H. Charles points out (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible i. p. 70), ‘although in Revelation 1:8 [1] this title is used of God the Father, it seems to be confined to the Son in Patristic and subsequent literature.’
1. Origin and Significance.—(a) The simplest and most primary use of this figure, derived as it is from the first and last terms of the alphabet, which with Greeks and Hebrews were also those of numerical notation, is common to several languages. Thus in English we have the expression ‘from A to Z.’ Schoettgen (Hor. Heb. i. 1086) adduced from Jalkut Rubein, fol. 17. 4, ‘Adam transgressed the whole law from א to ח’; and 48. 4, ‘Abraham kept the law from א to ח.’ As Cremer shows (Theol. Worterbuch, p. 1), this has no bearing on the case except linguistically. In Rub. 128. 3, God is said to bless Israel from א to ח (because Leviticus 16:3; Leviticus 16:16 begins with א and ends with ח), but to curse only from ו to מ (because Leviticus 16:14-34 begins with ו and ends with מ). R. H. Charles (.c.) adds examples of this (general) use from Martial (v. 26 and ii. 57) and Theodoret (E [2] iv. 8).
(b) In the later, more philosophical, period of Hebrew literature similar expressions are applied to God, as indicative of His omnipresence and eternal existence. God, as the Being from whom all things proceed and to whom they tend, is thus contrasted in Deutero-Isaiah with heathen divinities (Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 43:10 161839578056 Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 48:12). Here the best example is the Kabbalistic designation of the Shekinah as אח, according to Buxtorf = ‘principium et finis’ (. Chald. Talm. [4] et Rabb.).
But a threefold designation of God as the Eternal is also employed. The Jerusalem Targum on Exodus 3:14 so interprets the Divine name (‘qui fuit, est, et erit, dixit mundo’), and the Targ. [5] Jonathan on Deuteronomy 3:29 (‘ego ille est, qui est, et qui fuit, et qui erit’). So also, according to Bousset (ad Isaiah 41:26-276), Shemoth R. iii. f. 105. 2, Midrash Tillim 117. 2, Bereshith R. on Daniel 10:21 (the ‘writing of אמח—truth = the seal of God.’ See below). Thus in Hebrews 2:10 God is both end and means of all things (διʼ ὄν, διʼ οὖ τὰ πάντα); in Romans 11:36 ‘Of him, through him, and unto him are all things’; cf. Revelation 1:4.
Instances of expressions of like implication applied to the Deity (ὁ θεός), or to individual divinities, are naturally still more common in Greek philosophical literature, so that, as Justin says (ad Graecos, xxv.), ‘Plato, when mystically expressing the attributes of God’s eternity, said, “God is, as the old tradition runs, the end and the middle of all things”; plainly alluding to the Law of Moses.’ The tradition was indeed ‘old’ in Plato’s day, but there are many more probable sources than Exodus 3:14 for Plato. We need refer only to the song of the Peleiadae at Dodona: Ζεὺς ἧν, Ζεὺς ἔστιν, Ζεὺς ἔσσεται (Paus. x. 12. 5); and the Orphic saying, Ζεὺς πρῶτος γένετο, Ζεὑς ὕστατος ἀρχικέραυνος, Ζεὺς κεφαλή, Ζεὺς μέσσα, κ.τ.λ. (Lobeck, Aglaophamus, 521, 523, 530 f.). Similar attributes are applied to Athene and Asclepius in examples quoted by Wetstein. Notoriously the Jewish apologists had been beforehand with Justin Martyr in ascribing to Moses the larger and more philosophical conceptions of Deity enunciated by the philosophers; and from these writings of the period of Revelation and earlier it is possible to demonstrate the existence of a Jewish kerygma (formula of missionary propaganda) defining the true nature of the Deity and of right worship, wherein Isaiah 44:6 ff. with the expression borrowed in Revelation 21:6; Revelation 21:6, or its equivalent, is the central feature. Josephus (circa (about) Apion. ii. 190–198 [6]), contrasting the law of Moses on this subject with heathenism, calls it ‘our doctrine (λόγος) concerning God and His worship.’ What he designated ‘the first commandment’ is easily recognizable as part of such a kerygma, and seems to be derived from the same Jewish apologist pseudo-Hecataeus (circa (about) 60 b.c.) whom he quotes in circa (about) Apion. i. § 183–204, and ii. 43. It is traceable already in the diatribes against idolatry in the Ep. of Aristeas (132–141) and the Wisdom of Solomon (chapters 13–14). The Proœmium of the oldest Jewish Sibyl (Sib. Or. v. 7–8, 15) has: ‘There is one God Omnipotent, immeasurable, eternal, almighty, invisible, alone all-seeing, Himself unseen.… Worship Him, the alone existent, the Ruler of the world, who alone is from eternity to eternity.’ It appears again in Christian adaptation in Acts 17:24-31 (cf. 14:15–17, 1 Thessalonians 1:9-10, Romans 1:18-32, Wisdom of Solomon 11:23; Wisdom of Solomon 13:6; Wisdom of Solomon 13:10; Wisdom of Solomon 14:12; Wisdom of Solomon 14:22-27); in the fragment of the Kerygma Petri, quoted in Clem. Strom. vi. 5. 39–43 (Frags. 2 and 3 ap. Preuschen, Antileg. p. 52: εἰς θεός ἐστιν, ὃς ἁρχὴν πάντων ἐποίησεν καὶ τέλους ἐξουσίαν ἕχων, κ.τ.λ.): in the Apology of Aristides; Tatian’s Oration iv.; Athenagoras, Leg. xiii., and the Ep. to Diogn. iii. It begins in Josephus: ὅτι θεὸς ἔχει τὰ σύμπαντα παντελὴς καὶ μακάριος, αὐτὸς αὐτῷ καὶ πᾶσιν αὐτάρκης, ἀρχὴ καὶ μέσα καὶ τέλος οὗτος τῶν πάντων—‘He is the beginning and middle and end of all things’ (circa (about) Apion. ii. 190).
On the other hand, the apologetic and eschatological literature, which Rabbinic Judaism after the rise of Christian speculation more and more excluded from canonical use, shows a marked tendency to offset these heathen demiurgic ascriptions by similar ones applied not directly to God but to a hypostatized creative Wisdom (Proverbs 8:22-36, Wisdom of Solomon 7:21; Wisdom of Solomon 8:1; Wisdom of Solomon 9:4; Wisdom of Solomon 9:9, Sirach 24:9; Sirach 24:28, Baruch 3:9-37), or to an angelic Being endowed with the same demiurgic attributes (2 Esdras 5:56 to 2 Esdras 6:6).
The statement of Rabbi Kohler (Jewish Encycl. i. p. 438) is therefore correct regarding the phrase in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6 if not in 22:13: ‘This is not simply a paraphrase of Isaiah 44:6 “I am the first and the last”, but the Hellenized form of a well-known Rabbinical dictum, “The seal of God is Emet, which means Truth, and is derived from the letters א מ ח, the first, the middle, and the last letters of the Hebrew alphabet, the beginning, the middle, and the end of all things.” ’ In other words, we must realize the metaphysical development of Jewish theology which had taken place between Deutero-Isaiah and Revelation. The passages adduced by Kohler from 69 and . 64, and in particular Jerus. [7] Jeb. 12:13a, Gen. [4]0 R [9] . lxxxi., show the early prevalence of this interpretation of Daniel 10:21 ‘I shall show thee what is marked upon the writing of truth (בכחב אמת), as the signum of God; for, says Simon hen Lakish, “א is the first, מ the middle, and ח the last letter of the alphabet.” ’ This being the name of God according to Isaiah 44:6, explained Jerus. [7] Sanh. i. 18a, ‘I am the first [11]; I am the middle, there being none who shares the kingdom with me; [12], there being none to whom I shall hand the kingdom of the world.’ It would seem probable, however, considering the connexion with Isaiah 44:6 (‘first and last,’ the passage is a commonplace of early Christian-Jewish polemic), that the Kabbalistic form אח is the earlier, the middle term having perhaps been inserted in opposition to Jewish angelological and Christian cosmological speculation. Cf. Revelation 11:17; Revelation 16:5 with Revelation 1:4; Revelation 4:8; and 2 Esdras 6:1-6 (where Uriel, speaking in the name of the Creator, says, ‘In the beginning, when the earth was made … then did I design these things, and they all were through me alone, and through none other: as by me also they shall be ended, and by none other’) with Hebrews 2:10.
In 1 Corinthians 8:6 we have a significant addition to the two-term ascription, ‘One God, the Father, of (ἑξ) whom are all things, and we unto (εἰς) him.’ St. Paul (or his Corinthian converts) adds, ‘And one Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through him.’ This addition marks the parting of the ways for Jewish and Christian theology, implying a mediating hypostasis identified with Christ, that is, a Wisdom-Logos doctrine. That in Revelation 1:6; Revelation 21:6 the phrase is still applied in the purely Jewish sense to God the Father alone, is placed beyond all doubt by the connected ascriptions, especially ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος (not = ἐσόμενος) connecting Revelation 1:8 with Revelation 1:4.
Why, and in what sense, the term Α–Ω is applied in Revelation 22:12 by the glorified Christ to Himself, is the problem remaining; and this independently of the question of composite authorship; for to the final redactor, whose date can scarcely be later than a.d. 95, there was no incompatibility.
(c) Besides the metaphysical or cosmological development, which we have traced in connexion with the Divine title Α–Ω from Deutero-Isaiah through Wisdom and pseudo-Aristeas to its bifurcation in Jewish and Christian theology contemporary with the Book of Revelation, we have a parallel development of eschatological character. Jehovah is contrasted with the gods of the heathen in 1618395780_90; Isaiah 42:9; Isaiah 43:9-10; Isaiah 44:6-7; Isaiah 44:26; Isaiah 45:21; Isaiah 46:9-10; Isaiah 48:3; Isaiah 48:5; Isaiah 48:12, also, and indeed primarily, as ‘first and last’ in the sense of director of all things to the fulfilment of His predeclared purpose, i.c. confirmer and fulfiller of His promise of redemption (Isaiah 44:7). And I manifestly the development of this idea of Jehovah as ‘first and last’ in the redemptive or soteriological sense, would be more congenial to Hebrew thought than the metaphysical, although cosmology plays a great and increasing part in apocalyptic literature. In the substitution of ὁ ἐρχόμενος for the anticipated ὁ ἐσόμενος in Revelation 1:4; Revelation 4:8 (cf. Revelation 11:17, Revelation 16:5) recalling Matthew 11:3 and Hebrews 10:37, we have evidence of the apocalyptic tendency to conceive of God by preference soteriologically.
But the final redemptive intervention of Jehovah is necessarily conceived as through some personal, human, or at least angelic (Malachi 3:1, 2 Esdras 5:56) agency, even when creative and cosmological functions are still attributed to Jehovah directly, without any, or with no more than an impersonal, intermediate agency. Hence, while in Revelation 1:8 as in Revelation 1:4 and Revelation 21:6 Jehovah Himself, ‘the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end,’ is also ὁ ἐρχόμενος, there is no escape for any believer in Jesus from transferring the title in this soteriological sense to Him as Messiah. This will be the case whether his cosmology requires a Logos-doctrine for demiurgic functions, as with St. Paul, the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the Fourth Evangelist, or not. (The only trace of a true Logos-doctrine is the very superficial touch Revelation 19:13 b). Thus in Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8 the Isaian title ‘the first and the last’ is applied to Christ, and in Revelation 3:14 He is called ‘the Amen … the beginning of the creation of God.’ The titles are combined in Revelation 22:13, where we should perhaps render (Benson, Apocalypse, 1900, p. 26), ‘I, the Alpha and the Omega (am coming), the first and the last, the beginning and the end.’ As Hengstenberg maintained (on Song of Solomon 7:21), ‘In this declaration the Omega is to be regarded as emphatic. It is equivalent to saying, As I am the Alpha, so am I also the Omega. The beginning is surety for the end’ (cf. Philippians 1:6). For this reason it is perhaps also better to connect the words Ναί, Ἀμήν of Revelation 1:7 with Revelation 1:8 ‘Verily, verily, I am the Alpha and the Omega’ (Terry, Bibl. Apocalyptics, 1898, p. 281).
The true sense, and at the same time the origin and explanation of this application of the Divine title, is to be found, as before, in the Epistles of St. Paul. In 2 Corinthians 1:20 the promises of God, howsoever many they be, are said all to have their Yea in Christ. And, because this is so, it is further declared, ‘the Amen is also through him.’ The conception that Christ is the Amen or fulfilment of all the promises of God, as ‘heir of all things’ and we ‘joint heirs with him’ (Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17, 1 Corinthians 3:22, Hebrews 1:2, Revelation 21:7), is comparatively familiar to us. It represents the significance of the term Ω in the eschatological application. We are much less familiar with the idea expressed in the A, though it is equally well attested in primitive Christian and contemporary Jewish thought. In Pauline language it represents that the people of Messiah were ‘blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, inasmuch as God chose them in his person before the foundation of the world … and foreordained them to be an adoption of sons,’ Ephesians 1:4-5; cf. Isaiah 44:1-2; Isaiah 44:7, Wisdom of Solomon 18:13, Hebrews 2:5-10, Revelation 21:7, and the doctrine of the apocalyptic writers, Jewish and Christian, that ‘the world was created for the sake of man’—resp. ‘Israel,’ ‘the righteous,’ ‘the Church’ (Assump. Mos. 1:12–14: 2 Esdras 6:55-59; 2 Esdras 7:10-11; Song of Solomon 14:12; Hermas, Vis. ii. 4:1 etc. The doctrine rests on Genesis 1:26 f., Psalms 8:4-8, Exodus 4:22 etc.). Harnack has shown (History of Dogma, vol. i. Appendix 1, ‘The Conception of Pre-existence’) how pre-existence is for the Jewish mind in some sense involved in that of ultimate persistence. The heir ‘for whom’ all things were created was in a more or less real sense (according to the disposition of the thinker) conceived as present to the mind of the Creator before all things. Thus in Rabbinic phrase Messiah is one of the ‘seven pre-existent things,’ or His ‘soul is laid up in Paradise before the foundation of the world.’ Apocalyptic eschatology demanded a representative ‘Son,’ the ‘Beloved,’ chosen ‘in the beginning’ to be head of the ‘Beloved’ people of ‘sons’ in the end, with at least as much logical urgency as speculative cosmology demanded an agent of the creation itself. It is this which is meant when St. Paul says that ‘however many be the promises of God, they are in Christ Yea.’ This is ‘the mystery which from all ages hath been hid in God who created all things … according to the eternal purpose which he purposed in Christ Jesus.’ In Pauline language, Christ ‘the Beloved,’ the ‘Son of his love,’ is the Yea and the Amen of the promises of God. Cosmologically, He is the precreative Wisdom, ‘the firstborn of all creation, in whom all things were created’ (cf. Revelation 3:14, Proverbs 8:22). But it is not only that ‘he is before all things, and in him all things consist’ (cf. Sirach 24:9, Wisdom of Solomon 1:7), not only that ‘all things have been created through him,’ but also eschatologically ‘unto him’ (Colossians 1:15-17; cf. Revelation 1:8 and Wisdom of Solomon 7:22-27), logically subsequent to Him because made for His sake. In Revelation we have only the latter. The cosmological ‘through’ Him practically disappears. It is only in the eschatological sense that Christ becomes the original object and the ultimate fulfilment of the Divine purpose and promises, ‘the Yea, the Amen,’ ‘the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.’
2. The Later History.—It is doubtless from Revelation that the use of the term in Patristic literature and Christian epigraphy is mainly derived, though its popularity may well have been partly due to oral currency in Jewish-Christian circles before the publication of Revelation. The eschatological interest is still apparent in the hymn of Prudentius (Cathem. ix. 10–12), wherein the first line contains a reference to Psalms 45:1 Vulgate (‘Eructavit cor meum Verbum bonum’), treated as Messianic by the Fathers—
‘Corde natus ex Parentis
Ante mundi exordium
Alpha et Ω cognominatus
Ipse fons et clausula
Omnium quae sunt, fuerunt
Quaeque post futura sunt.’
But in Clem. Alex. [13] (Strom. iv. 25 and vi. 16) and Tertullian (de Monog. 5) the cosmological predominates. Ambrose (Expositio in VII visiones, i. 8) presents a different interpretation. In Gnostic circles speculative and cosmological interpretations are unbridled. Thus Marcus (ap. Irenaeus, Haer. i. xiv. 6, xv. 1) maintained that Christ designated Himself Α Ω to set forth His own descent as the Holy Ghost on Jesus at His baptism, because by Gematria Α Ω (= 800 +1) and περιστερά (= 80+5+100+10+200+300+5+100+1) are equivalent.
Literature.—For the great mass of later epigraphic material the reader is referred to N. Muller in Herzog-Hauck’s Realencykl. i. pp. 1–12, and the article ‘Monogram’ in Smith and Cheetham’s Dict. of Christian Antiquities. Besides the works already cited, articles on Α and Ω may be found in the various Bible Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias. Its use in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:13 should be studied in the critical commentaries. On Divine epithets and the doctrine of hypostases see Bousset, Religion des Judenthums
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alpha And Omega
These are the first and last letters of the Gr. alphabet; cf. Heb. ‘Aleph to Tau’; Eng. ‘A to Z.’ The title is applied to God the Father in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:5, and to Christ in Revelation 22:13 (cf. Revelation 2:8). The ancient Heb. name for God, יהוה, has been very variously derived, but its most probable meaning is the ‘Eternal’ One-‘I am that I am’ (Exodus 3:14). This idea of the Deity, further emphasized in Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 43:10; Isaiah 44:6, is expressed in the language of the Apocalypse by the Greek phrase ‘Α and Ω,’ which corresponds to a common Heb. expression ‘Aleph to Tau,’ of which the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings furnish many examples. R. H. Charles adduces similar phrases in Latin (Martial, v. 26) and Greek (Theodoret, HE [1] iv. 8) to express completeness. To those who believe in a Jewish original for the NT Apocalypse, its presence there will cause no surprise, and its application to Christ will constitute an instance of the Christian remodelling which that book has undergone. Moreover, Jewish writers (e.g. Kohler) have given another explanation of its use as a title for God, calling it the hellenized form of a well-known saying, ‘The Seal of God is Emeth (אֱמֶת = ‘truth’), a word containing first, middle, and last letters of the Heb, alphabet (cf. Gen. Rab. lxxxi.; Jerus. Sanh. i. 18a; Sanh, 64a; Yoma 69b). Josephus (c. Apion.) probably refers to this saying (cf. also Daniel 10:21 בִּכְתִב אֱמֶח, ‘the writing of truth’). Similar is the use of Justin (Address to Greeks, xxv.). Whatever may be the origin of the phrase, its chief significance for Christians lies in its constant application to Christ, of which this passage in the Apocalypse supplies the first of countless instances. Charles and Müller agree that Patristic commentators invariably referred all these passages to the Son, and in so doing they plainly claimed the Divine privilege of eternity for the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ, and established the claim set forth in the later creeds that the Word of God was equal with God.’
Not only was this the universal opinion of the earliest commentators, as of the Christian author or editor of the Apocalypse; it was an opinion deeply rooted in the convictions of the Christian congregations. We hear of no attempt to dispute it; and, relying on this as an established fact, the Gnostic teachers sought to deduce by various means and numerical quibbles the essential identity of all the Persona of the Trinity (cf. Iven. adv. Hœr, I. xiv. 6, xv. 1). Among others, Tertullian (Monog. v.), Cyprian (Testimon. ii, 1, 6), Clem. Alex. (Strom. iv. 25, vi. 16), Ambrose (Exp. [2] in septem Vis. i. 8), emphasized this view of the matter; and, before the last persecution of Diocletian was over, many inscriptions had been put up on tombstones, walls of catacombs, etc., in which these two letters stood for the name of Christ, At a subsequent period the practice became universal all over the Christian world, and countless examples are still extant to prove the general popularity of this custom.
In most cases the letters are accompanied by other symbols and titles of the Master, e.g. ⳩; in a few examples they stand alone as a reverent way of representing the presence of the Redeemer. Most numerous in the period from a.d. 300-500, they decline in number and importance during the early Middle Ages, and are rare, at least in the West, after the 7th and 8th centuries. It is significant to note that in none of those hundreds of examples do the letters (often rudely scrawled by poor peasants) refer to any one but Jesus Christ. It is hard to conceive of any fact more suited to emphasize the deep-rooted belief of the early Christians in the true Divinity of their Lord and Master, who had created the world, existed from the beginning, and was still alive and ready to succour His faithful followers.
Literature.-R. H. Charles, article in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ; B. W. Bacon, article In Dict. of Christ and the Gospels ; K. Kohler, article in Jewish Encyclopedia ; W. Müller in Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche 3 (full account of extant inscriptions); C. Schoettgen, Hor. Heb., Leipzig, 1733.
L. St. Alban Wells.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Alpha And Omega
The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet.They are used of our Lord to set forth His eternal and divineNature, as in Revelation I:II, "I am Alpha and Omega, the Firstand the Last." In their Greek form these letters are used inthe symbolism and decoration of the Church, either separately oras a monogram.

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First And Last - See Alpha And Omega
Beginning And End - See Alpha And Omega
First And Last - See Alpha And Omega
Beginning And End - See Alpha And Omega
First And Last - See Alpha And Omega
Omega - See Alpha And Omega
Omega - See Alpha And Omega
Omega - Hence in Scripture, Alpha And Omega denotes the first and last, the beginning and the ending
Alpha - Hence Alpha And Omega is a title which Christ appropriates to himself, Revelation 1:8 ; Revelation 21:6 ; Revelation 22:13 ; as signifying the beginning and the end, the first and the last, and thus properly denoting his perfection and eternity
Alpha - ...
I am Alpha And Omega
Alpha And Omega - They are used of our Lord to set forth His eternal and divineNature, as in Revelation I:II, "I am Alpha And Omega, the Firstand the Last
Alpha And Omega - ) “Alpha and omega” refers to God's sovereignty and eternal nature
Alpha - And, as Omega is the last Greek letter, our Lord calls himself Alpha And Omega, the first and the last, implying his divine eternity
Alpha - "I am Alpha And Omega, the beginning and the end," or "the first and the last;" which is similar to a passage in Isaiah 41:4 : "I Jehovah, the first, and with the last; I am he
A - So our Lord says, "I am Alpha And Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last;" thus declaring his eternity and that he is the cause and end of all things, Revelation 1:8,11 21:6 22:13 Isaiah 44:6 48:12 Colossians 1:15-18
Alpha - Jesus is, indeed, the Alpha And Omega, the first and the last, the Author and Finisher of salvation, It should seem that the Lord intended by this name, and adding to it Omega also, to imply the comprehensiveness of his nature, and being, both the first and the last, to intimate his eternity
Alpha And Omega - Alpha And Omega . ...
Aurelius Prudentius makes fine use of the title in his hymn on The Lord’s Nativity (‘Corde natus ex parentis’), thus rendered by Neale:...
‘Of the Father’s love begotten...
Ere the worlds began to be,...
He is Alpha And Omega,...
He the source, the ending He,...
Of the things that are, that have been,...
And that future years shall see,...
Evermore and evermore
Cross - , the first two Greek letters of his name, X and P (chi and rho), with the Alpha And Omega
Foundation - CHRIST is the beginning, the author, the first and the last, the Alpha And Omega, and the hope of GOD's people
Almighty - the name Lord Almighty occurs in 2 Corinthians 6:18 in a quotation from Jeremiah, and a few times in the Revelation, but only once as 'the Almighty' in Revelation 1:8 : "I am Alpha And Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty
A - ...
Alpha And Omega, the first and last letters of the Greek Alphabet, are used in Scripture for the beginning and end - representative of Christ
Symbol - Of this class were the sculptured emblems of the early Christians in the catacombs of Rome, such as the palm, dove, anchor, ship, fish, Alpha And Omega
Names of Our Lord - ...
Almighty Word, Wisdom of Solomon 18:15
Brightness of Eternal Light, Wisdom of Solomon 7:26
Child, Isaiah 9:6
Counsellor, Isaiah 9:6
Desire of Eternal Hills, Genesis 49:26
Desired of all nations, Aggeus 2:8
Emmanuel, Isaiah 7:14
Expectation of nations, Genesis
Father of World to Come, Isaiah
God the Mighty, Isaiah 9:6
Holy One of Israel, Isaiah 43:3
Holy One, Psalms 15:10
Just Branch, Jeremiah 23:5
Just, Isaiah 45:8
King of Glory, Psalms 23:7
Lord of Hosts, Isaiah 9:7
Lord Our Just One, Jeremiah 23:6
Man of Sorrows, Isaiah 53:3
Man, Michah 5:5
My Just One, Isaiah 41:10
Orient, Zachariah 6:12
Prince of Peace, Isaiah 9:6
Root of Jesse, Isaiah 11:10
Ruler of the Earth, Isaiah 16:1
Sun of Justice, Malachi 4:2
Wonderful, Isaiah 9:6
Bread of Life, John 6:35
Door, John 10:9
Good Shepherd, John 10:11
Life, John 11:25
Light of the World, John 9:5
Lord, John 13:13
Master, John 13:13
Resurrection and Life, John 11:25
Son of Man, Matthew 8:2O
Son, John 5:22
Vine, John 15:1
Way, Truth, and Life, John 14:6
Advocate, 1 John 2:1
Almighty, Apocalypse 1:8
Alpha and Omega, Apocalypse 1:8
Amen, Apocalypse 3:14
Author and Finisher of Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Author of Life, Acts 3:15
Beginning and End, Apocalypse 1:8
Blessed God, Mark 14:61
Child Jesus, Luke 2:43
Christ Jesus, 1 Timothy 1:1
Christ, Matthrew 1:18
Corner-Stone, Epheisans 2:21
Day Star, 2 Peter 1:19
Faith, Hebrews 12:2
Faithful Witness, Apocalypse 1:5
First and Last, Apocalypse 1:17
First Born from the Dead, Apocalypse 1:5
Galitean, Matthew 26:69
God of the Jews, Romans 3:29
Great Pastor, Hebrews 13:20
He that is to come, Hebrews 10:37
Head, Ephesians 4:15
High Priest, Hebrews 2:17
Jesus Christ the Just, 1 John 2:1
Jesus, Matthew 27:17
Key of David, Apocalypse 3:7
King of Kings, Apocalypse 19:16
Lamb of God, John 1:29
Life Eternal, 1 John 1:2
Lion of the Tribe of Juda, Apocalypse 5:5
Living Stone, 1 Peter 2:4
Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 10:48
Lord of All, Galatians 4:1
Lord of Lords, Apocalypse 19:16
Lord Our God, Apocalypse 4:11
Mediator, Hebrews 9:15
Messias, John 1:41 (passim)
Only Begotten of the Father, John 1:14
Our Lord Jesus Ghrist, Romans 1:4
Pascha Nostrum, 1 Corinthians 5:7
Power of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Priest, Hebrews 8:4
Prince of the kings of the earth, Apocalypse 1:5
Rabbi, John 1:18
Rock of Scandal, Romans 9:33
Root of David, Apocalypse 5:6
Saviour of the world, John 4:42
Saviour, Luke 2:11
Son of David, Mark 12:86
Son of God, Matthew 8:29
Son of Joseph, Luke 3:23
Son of the Living God, Matthew 16:16
Star of the morning, Apocalypse 2:23
Stone of stumbling, 1 Peter 2:8
Stone, Matthew 21:42
Teacher, John 3:2
That which was from the beginning, 1 John 1:1
Victim, Ephesians 5:2
Wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians 1:24
Word, John 1:1
Word of God, Apocalypse 19:13
Word of Life, 1 John 1:1
Adonai, O Antiphons
Angel in the liturgy of the Mass
Captain of our salvation, Ephiphany, Matins
Captain of the Martyrs, Octain of Saint Stephen, Matins
Carpenter's Son, Matthew 13:55
Christ our King, First Wednesday in Advent, Matins
Christ the Lord, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Eagle, Saint Maximus, Homily 42
Eternal, Christmas Day, Lauds
Eternal Word of God made Flesh, Ember Saturday in Advent, Martins
Glory of Thy people Israel, Luke 2:32
God of God, title in Gloria
God our Saviour, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
God the Son, Saturday within Octave of Christmas, Matins
Great Prophet, First Sunday in Advent, Lauds
Heavenly Bridegroom, Epiphany, Lauds
Holy, Luke 1:35
Holy One of God, Luke 4
King of all the earth, Second Monday in Advent, Vespers
King of Angel Hosts above, Circumcision, Matins
King of Heaven, Christmas Day, Matins
King of Israel, Mark 15:32
King of Righteousness, Third Thursday in Advent, Matins
King of the Gentiles, O Antiphons
King of the Jews, Matthew 2:2
King Peaceful, Christmas Day, Vespers (I)
Light to the revelation of the Gentiles, Luke 2:32
Light of Light, title in Gloria
Lord of Angels, Eve of Epiphany, Matins
Lord Our King, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Lawgiver, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord our Saviour, Circumcision, Matins
Lord that shall rule, Fourth set of antiphons
Lord the King, Ephiphany, Matins
Lord the Ruler, Second Sunday in Advent, Matins
Cross - ...
After Constantine's vision of the cross in the air and the inscription, "Under this standard thou shalt conquer," a new standard was adopted, the Labarum, with a pendent cross and embroidered monogram of Christ, the first two Greek letters of His name, and Alpha And Omega (Revelation 1:8)
Veil - Oh, how little do the best-taught ministers of Christ know of their people's sorrows, and of Jesus's all-suitableness and all-sufficiency! But to take away the believer's Radid, her marriage vail, her wedding garment, her nuptial band, in Christ, oh! what a wounding, what smiting, of a poor sin-sick soul must this be! And it is possible yea, more than possible, that Christ own ministers may but too often fall into this error, when, instead of making Christ what God the Father had made him, the Alpha And Omega of his church, they are directing their people to somewhat besides Jesus for comfort and consolation
Firstborn - As if (and which in reality is the case), JEHOVAH would have every thing shadow forth and bring forward somewhat either by allusion, or by direct type, concerning him who is the Alpha And Omega, the first and the last, and sum and substance of all things, in the ordinance of God for salvation
Alpha And Omega (2) - ALPHA AND OMEGA. Hence, while in Revelation 1:8 as in Revelation 1:4 and Revelation 21:6 Jehovah Himself, ‘the Alpha And Omega, the beginning and the end,’ is also ὁ ἐρχόμενος, there is no escape for any believer in Jesus from transferring the title in this soteriological sense to Him as Messiah
Christian - ’ His person, life, and work are the key-stone of the arch, the Alpha And Omega of the gospel
Time - He too is properly called "the Alpha And Omega, the First and Last, the Beginning and End" (Revelation 22:13 )
Salt - Where Christ is not, there is no savour; it is his blood which gives a fragrancy and a perfume to our most holy things, And if Jesus be the salt of the covenant of our God, and with all our offerings he be first and last presented, both the Alpha And Omega, in our view, as he is in the view of God our Father, then is that Scripture blessedly fulfilled which the Lord delivered by the prophet: "For in mine holy mountain in the mountain of the height of Israel, saith the Lord God, there shall all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, serve me
God - The last chapter of the Bible describes God as the “Alpha and Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end” (Revelation 22:13 NRSV)
God - He is ‘the living God’ (Revelation 7:2), ‘that liveth for ever and ever’ (Revelation 10:6); and therefore is eternal, the ‘Alpha and Omega, which is and which was and which is to come’ (ὁ ὢν καὶ ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος), ‘the beginning and the end’ (Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6; cf
Christ - ...
He is the Alpha And Omega, Revelation 1:8; Rev 1:11
Preaching - Lechler, ‘appears in primitive Christian preaching as the fundamental fact, the Alpha And Omega of apostolic announcement’ (Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times, Eng
Sin (2) - Luke 4:6) over the nations, manifesting his rule in the mystic Babylon (Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:1-6), and the kingdom of the beast (13 passim), until He who is the Alpha And Omega, having by His angel sealed the servants of God (Revelation 7:2-3), brings in the final salvation, the Kingdom of God and the authority of His Christ (Revelation 12:10)
Christ in Art - —The Alpha And Omega naturally appear early (though not in monogrammatic or interwoven form) because of Revelation 1:8; the first instance in the Catacomb of St
God - In Scripture God is defined by, "I am that I am, Alpha And Omega; the Beginning and End of all things