What does Alexandria mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἀλεξανδρεὺς a native or resident of Alexandria in Egypt. 1
ἀλεξανδρῖνον a native or resident of Alexandria in Egypt. 1

Definitions Related to Alexandria

G221


   1 a native or resident of Alexandria in Egypt.
   

G222


   1 a native or resident of Alexandria in Egypt.
   2 of Alexandria or belonging to Alexandria.
   

Frequency of Alexandria (original languages)

Frequency of Alexandria (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius of Alexandria, Saint
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
A celebrated city in Lower Egypt, situated between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake Mareotis, not far from the most westerly mouth of the Nile. It was founded by Alexander the Great, B. C. 332, and peopled by colonies of Greeks and Jews. Alexandria rose rapidly to a state of prosperity, becoming the center of commercial intercourse between the East and the West, and in process of time was, in point both magnitude and wealth, second only to Rome itself. The ancient city was about fifteen miles in circuit, peopled by 300,000 free citizens and as many slaves. From the gate of the sea ran one magnificent street, 2,000 feet broad, through the entire length of the city, to the gate of Canopus, affording a view of the shipping in the port, whether north in the Mediterranean, or south in the noble basin of the Mareotic lake. Another street of equal width intersected this at right angles, in a square half a league in circumference.
Upon the death of Alexander, whose body was deposited in this new city, Alexandria became the regal capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, and rose to its highest splendor. During the reign of the first three princes of this name, its glory was at the highest. The most celebrated philosophers from the East, as well as from Greece and Rome, resorted thither for instruction; and eminent men, in every department of knowledge, were found within its walls. Ptolemy Soter, the first of that line of kings, formed the museum, the library of 700,000 volumes, and several other splendid works. At the death of Cleopatra, B. C. 26, Alexandria passed into the hands of the Romans; and after having enjoyed the highest fame for upwards of a thousand years, it submitted to the arms of the caliph Pmar, A. D. 646.
The present Alexandria, or according to the pronunciation of the inhabitants, Skanderia, occupies only about the eighth part of the site of the ancient city. The splendid temples have been exchanged for wretched mosques and miserable churches, and the magnificent palaces for mean and ill-built dwellings. The city, which was of old so celebrated for its commerce and navigation, is now merely part of Cairo, a place where ships may touch, and where wares may be exchanged. The modern city is built with the ruins of the ancient. The streets are so narrow, that the inhabitants can lay mats of reeds from one roof to the opposite, to protect them from the scorching sun. The population consists of Turks, Arabs, Copts, Jews, and Armenians. Many Europeans have counting houses here, where the factors exchange European for oriental merchandise.
The Greek or Alexandrine version of the Scriptures was made here by learned Jews, seventy-two in number, and hence it is called the Septuagint, or version of the Seventy. The Jews established themselves in great numbers in this city very soon after it was founded. Josephus says that Alexander himself assigned to them a particular quarter of the city, and allowed them equal rights and privileges with the Greeks. Philo, who himself lived there in the time of Christ, affirms that, of five parts of the city, the Jews inhabit two. According to his statements, also, there dwelt in his time, in Alexandria and the other Egyptian cities, not less than a million Jews; but this would seem exaggerated.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Catherine of Alexandria, Saint
(305) Virgin, martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt. Of royal blood and great learning, she appeared at the age of 18 before the Emperor Maximinus, and endeavored to dissuade him from worship of false gods; her eloquence converted so many that she was condemned to die on the wheel but, at her touch, the instrument was miraculously destroyed. She was beheaded and an angel carried her body to Mount Sinai where a church and monastery were dedicated to her. Her cult was very popular in the Middle Ages and she is numbered among the Fourteen Holy Helpers. Patroness of philosophers, the arts, wheelwrights, wagonmakers, teachers, students, and jurists. Emblems: a wheel, lamb, and sword. Her name occurs in the Ambrosian Canon of the Mass. Relics in monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 25,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Catechetical School of Alexandria
Founded by the Church of Alexandria, in latter half of 2century. There were lectures to which pagans were admitted, but advanced teaching was given to Christians separately. Under the bishop's supervision, the school prepared young clerics for the priesthood, studies including philosophy, theology, and Christian apologetics. Pantrenus, c.180,was the first teacher to make the school famous. He was succeeded by his pupil Clement, followed by Origen. Of the succeeding teachers, Didymus the Blind (c.340-395) is the best known.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander, of Alexandria
Alexander , St., archbp. of Alexandria, appears to have come to that see in 313, after the short episcopate of Achillas. He was an elderly man, of a kindly and attractive disposition; "gentle and quiet," as Rufinus says (i. 1), but also capable of acting with vigour and persistency. Accusations were laid against him by the malcontent Meletian faction, "before the emperor," Constantine (Athan. Apol. c. Ar. 11; ad Ep. Aeg. 23), but apparently without result. He was involved in a controversy with one Crescentius as to the proper time for keeping Easter (Epiph. Haer. 70, 9). But in 319 he was called upon to confront a far more formidable adversary. [1] Arius was the parish priest, as he may be described, of the church of Baukalis, the oldest and the most important of the churches of Alexandria, situated "in the head of the mercantile part of the city" (Neale, Hist. Alex. i. 116), a man whose personal abilities enhanced the influence of his official position; he had been a possible successor at the last vacancy of the "Evangelical Throne," and may have consequently entertained unfriendly feelings towards its actual occupant. But it would be unreasonable to ascribe his opinions to private resentment. Doubtless the habits of his mind (Bright, Hist. Ch. p. 11) prepared him to adopt and carry out to their consequences, with a peculiar boldness of logic, such views as he now began to disseminate in Alexandrian society: that the Son of God could not be co-eternal with His Father; that He must be regarded as external to the Divine essence, and only a creature. The bishop tried at first to check this heresy by remonstrance at an interview, but with no real success. Agitation increasing, Alexander summoned a conference of his clergy; free discussion was allowed; and, according to Sozomen, Alexander seemed to waver between the Arian and anti-Arian positions. Ultimately he asserted in strong terms the co-equality of the Son; whereupon Arius criticized his language as savouring of the Sabellian error [2] which had "confounded the Persons." The movement increased, and Alexander himself was charged with irresolution or even with some inclination towards the new errors. It was then, apparently, that Colluthus, one of the city presbyters, went so far as to separate from his bishop's communion, and, on the plea of the necessities of the crisis, "ordained" some of his followers as clergy. (See Valesius on Theod, i. 4, and Neale, i. 116). Alexander's next step was to write to Arius and his supporters, including two bishops, five priests, and six deacons, exhorting them to renounce their "impiety"; and the majority of the clergy of Alexandria and the Mareotis, at his request, subscribed his letter. The exhortation failing, the archbishop brought the case formally before the synod of his suffragans, who numbered nearly 100. The Arians were summoned to appear: they stated their opinions; the Son, they held, was not eternal, but was created by the impersonal "Word," or Wisdom of the Father; foreign, therefore, to the Father's essence, imperfectly cognizant of Him, and, in fact, called into existence to be His instrument in the creation of man. "And can He then," asked one of the bishops, "change from good to evil, as Satan did?" They did not shrink from answering, "Since He is a creature, such a change is not impossible"; and the council instantly pronounced them to be "anathema." Such was the excommunication of Arius, apparently in 320. It was as far as possible from arresting the great movement of rationalistic thought (for this, in truth, was the character of Arianism) which had now so determinedly set in. The new opinions became extraordinarily popular; Alexandrian society was flooded with colloquial irreverence. But Arius ere long found that he could not maintain his position in the city when under the ban of the archbishop; it may be that Alexander had power actually to banish him; and he repaired to Palestine, where, as he expected, he found that his representations of the case made a favourable impression on several bishops, including Eusebius of Caesarea. Some wrote in his favour to Alexander, who, on his part, was most indefatigable in writing to various bishops in order to prevent them from being deceived by Arius; Epiphanius tells us that seventy such letters were preserved in his time ( Haer. 69. 4). Of these, some were sufficiently effectual in Palestine to constrain Arius to seek an abode at Nicomedia. He had secured the support of the bishop of the city, the able but unprincipled Eusebius (Theod. i. 5; Athan. de Syn. 17); and he now wrote (Athan. de Syn. 16) in the name of "the presbyters and deacons" who had been excommunicated, to Alexander, giving a statement of their views, and professing that they had been learned from Alexander himself; the fact being, probably, as Möhler thinks, that Alexander had formerly used vague language in an anti-Sabellian direction. Eusebius now repeatedly urged Alexander to readmit Arius to communion; and the other bishops of Bithynia, in synod (Soz. i. 15), authorized their chief to send circular letters in his favour to various prelates. A Cilician bishop, Athanasius of Anazarbus, wrote to Alexander, openly declaring that Christ was "one of the hundred sheep"; George, an Alexandrian presbyter, then staying at Antioch, had the boldness to write to his bishop to the effect that the Son once "was not," just as Isaiah "was not," before he was born to Amoz (Athan. de Syn. 17), for which he was deposed by Alexander from the priesthood. Arius now returned into Palestine, and three bishops of that country, one of whom was Eusebius of Caesarea, permitted him to hold religious assemblies within their dioceses. This permission naturally gave great offence to Alexander. He had hitherto written only to individual bishops, but he now drew up (perhaps with the help of his secretary and "archdeacon," Athanasius) his famous encyclic to all his fellow-ministers, i.e. to the whole Christian episcopate, giving an account of the opinions for which the Egyptian synod had excommunicated the original Arians, adducing Scriptural texts in refutation, and warning his brethren against the intrigues of Eusebius (Socr. i. 6). This letter, which he caused his clergy to sign, probably preceded the "Tome" or confession of faith which he referred to as having been signed by some bishops, when he wrote to Alexander, bp. of Byzantium, the long and elaborate letter preserved by Theod. i. 4; in which, while using some language which in strictness must be called inaccurate, he gives an exposition of texts which became watchwords of the orthodox in the struggle (A.D. 323).
Another correspondent now appears on the scene. Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had a strong influence over the emperor Constantine, persuaded the latter to write, or to adopt and sign, a letter to Alexander and Arius, in which the controversy was treated as a logomachy (Eus. Vit. Con. ii. 64 seq.; Socr. i. 7). The imperial epistle was entrusted to a prelate of very high position, Hosius of Cordova, who can have had but little sympathy with the tone assumed by the Emperor. The council held at Alexandria on his arrival decided one point very unequivocally: the ordinations performed by Colluthus were pronounced absolutely null (Athan. Apol. 76). Peace was impossible on the basis of indifferentism, and Constantine summoned a general assembly of bishops to meet at Nicaea, in June 325. [3] The Arians were condemned, and the Nicene Creed, in its original form, was drawn up.
The story told by Epiphanius, of severities used by Alexander towards the Meletians [4], and of a consequent petition addressed by them to Constantine, appears to be one of several misstatements which he adopted from some Meletian sources. Athanasius tells us expressly that Alexander died within five months after the reception of the Meletians into church communion in the council of Nicaea (Apol. c. Ari. 59), and this, if strictly reckoned from the close of the council, would place his death in Jan. 326. It cannot be dated later than April 18 in that year. See further, Athanasius.
Athanasius mentions a circumstance of Alexander's local administration which furnished a precedent, on one occasion, for himself. Alexander was building the church of St. Theonas at Alexandria, on a larger scale than any of the existing churches, and used it, for convenience' sake, before it was completed (Ap. ad Const. 15). He is also said by tradition to have never read the Gospels in a sitting posture, and to have never eaten on fast days while the sun was in the sky (Bolland. Act. SS. , Feb. 26). Two short fragments of a letter addressed by him to a bishop named Aeglon, against the Arians, are quoted in the works of Maximus the Confessor (in the Monothelite controversy), vol. ii. p. 152. A trans. of his extant writings is in the Ante-Nicene Lib. (T. & T. Clark).
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Easton's Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24 ). Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9 ), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. It was, however, not all translated at one time. It was begun B.C. 280, and finished about B.C. 200 or 150. (See VERSION .)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
Founded by Alexander the Great, 332 B.C., successively the Greek, Roman, and Christian capital of Lower Egypt. Its harbors, formed by the island Pharos and the headland Lochias, were suitable alike for commerce and war. It was a chief grain port of Rome, and the grain vessels were large and handsome; usually sailing direct to Puteoli, but from severity of weather at times, as the vessel that carried Paul, sailing under the coast of Asia Minor (Acts 27). At Myra in Lycia (Acts 27:5) the centurion found this Alexandrian. ship bound for Italy; in Acts 27:10 Paul speaks of the "lading," without stating what it was; but in Acts 27:38 it comes out casually. The tackling had been thrown out long before, but the cargo was kept until it could be kept no longer, and then first we learn it was wheat, the very freight which an Alexandrian vessel usually (as we know from secular authors) carried to Rome: an undesigned propriety, and so a mark of truth.
The population of Alexandria had three prominent elements, Jews, Greeks, Egyptians. The Jews enjoyed equal privileges with the Macedonians, so that they became fixed there, and while regarding Jerusalem as "the holy city," the metropolis of the Jews throughout the world, and having a synagogue there (Acts 6:9), they had their own Greek version of the Old Testament. the Septuagint, and their own temple at Leontopolis. At Alexandia the Hebrew divine Old Testament revelation was brought into contact with Grecian philosophy. Philo's doctrine of the word prepared men for receiving the teaching of John 1 as to the Word, the Son of God, distinct in one sense yet one with God; and his allegorizing prepared the way for appreciating similar teachings in the inspired writings (e.g. Galatians 4:22-31; Hebrew 7).
Hence Apollos, born at Alexandia, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, being instructed in the way of the Lord and fervent in the spirit, taught diligently (Greek accurately) the things of the Lord, though he knew only the baptism of John (Acts 18:25); i.e., his Alexandrine education would familiarize him with Philo's idea of the word as the mediating instrument of creation and providence; and John the Baptist's inspired announcement of the personal Messiah would enable him to "teach accurately the things of the Lord" up to that point, when Aquila's and Priscilla's teaching more perfectly informed him of the whole accomplished Christian way of salvation. Mark is said to have been the first who preached and founded a Christian church in Alexandia. Various forms of Gnostic and Arian error subsequently arose there. (See ALLEGORY.)
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Apollinaris, the Elder, of Alexandria
Apollinaris (or, according to Greek orthography, Apollinarius ) the Elder , of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the 4th cent. After teaching grammar for some time at Berytus in Phoenicea, he removed, A.D. 335, to Laodicea, of which church he was made presbyter. Here he married and had a son, afterwards the bp. of Laodicea. [1] Both father and son were on intimate terms with the heathen sophists Libanius and Epiphanius of Petra, frequenting the lecture-room of the latter, on which account they were admonished and, upon their venturing to sit out the recitation of a hymn to Bacchus, excommunicated by Theodotus, bp. of Laodicea, but restored upon their subsequent repentance (Socr. Eccl. Hist. iii. 16; Soz. vi. 25).
The elder Apollinaris is chiefly noted for his literary labours. When the edict of Julian, A.D. 362, forbade the Christians to read Greek literature, he undertook with the aid of his son to supply the void by reconstructing the Scriptures on the classical models. Thus the whole Biblical history down to Saul's accession was turned into 24 books of Homeric hexameters, each superscribed, like those of the Iliad, by a letter of the alphabet. Lyrics, tragedies, and comedies, after the manner of Pindar, Euripides, and Menander, followed. Even the Gospels and Epistles were adapted to the form of Socratic disputation. Two works alone remain as samples of their indomitable zeal: a tragedy entitled Christus Patiens, in 2601 lines, which has been edited among the works of Gregory Nazianzen; and a version of the Psalms, in Homeric hexameters. The most that can be said of this Psalter is that it is better than the tragedy, and that as a whole it fully bears out the reputation of the poet (Basil. Ep. 273, 406) that he was never at a loss for an expression. Socrates, who is more trustworthy than Sozomen (v. 18), ascribes the O.T. poems to the father (iii. 16), and adds that the son as the greater rhetorician devoted his energies to converting the Gospels and Epistles into Platonic dialogues. He likewise mentions a treatise on grammar compiled by the elder Apollinaris, χριστιανικῷ τύπῳ . For different opinions as to the authorship of father and son, cf. Vossius, de Hist. Graec. ii. 18; de Poet. Graec. c. 9; Duport, Praef. ad Metaph. Psalm. (Lond. 1674).
The Metaphrasis Psalmorum was published at Paris 1552; by Sylburg, at Heidelberg, 1596; and subsequently in various collections of the Fathers. The latest edition is that in Migne's Patr. Gk. xxiii.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria
Athanasius , St., archbp. of Alexandria. The life of Athanasius divides itself naturally into seven sections, respectively terminated by (1) his consecration; (2) his first exile; (3) his second exile; (4) his second return; (5) his third exile; (6) his fourth exile; (7) his death.
(1) He was born at Alexandria, and had but scanty private means (Apol. c. Ar. 51; Socr. iv. 13). We must date his birth c. 296; not earlier, because he had no personal remembrance of the persecution under Maximian in 303 ( Hist. Ar. 64), and was comparatively a young man when consecrated bishop, soon after the Nicene council; not later, because he received some theological instruction from persons who suffered in the persecution under Maximian II. in 311 ( de Incarn. 56), and the first two of his treatises appear to have been written before 319. There can be no reason to doubt that Athanasius became an inmate of bp. Alexander's house, as his companion and secretary (Soz. ii. 17). The position involved great advantages. The place held by Alexander as "successor of St. Mark," and occupant of "the Evangelical throne," was second in the Christian hierarchy: we may call the bps. of Alexandria in the 4th cent., for convenience' sake, archbishops or patriarchs, although the former name was then very rarely applied to them, and the latter not at all, and they were frequently designated, though not in contradistinction to all other prelates, by the title of Papas (pope), or "dear father." Their power throughout the churches of Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis was, by ancient custom, which the Nicene council afterwards confirmed, almost monarchical, extending over about a hundred bishops, who revered their judgments as the decisions of the see of Rome were revered in Italy. One experience of a different kind, most fruitful in its consequences, was Athanasius's acquaintance with the great hermit Anthony. He tells us, in his Life of Anthony , that he often saw him; and although that reading of the conclusion of the preface, which makes him say that "he himself for some time attended on him, and poured water on his hands," may be considered doubtful, yet we know that he was afterwards spoken of as "the ascetic," and that when, years later, he took shelter in the cells of the monks of Egypt, he found himself perfectly at home. He contracted an admiration for monasticism, which will not surprise those who remember that the spiritual intensity of the Christian life had found a most emphatic, though a one-sided expression, in the lives of men who fled, like Anthony, from a society at once tainted and brutalized beyond all modern conception. [1]
The two essays of Athanasius, Against the Gentiles and On the Incarnation , which form one complete work addressed to a convert from heathenism, cannot be dated later than the end of 318; for they make no reference to the Arian controversy which broke out in 319. Dorner, in his work On the Person of Christ , has given a résumé of their argument on the threefold subject of God, man, and the Incarnate Word; and Möhler calls the book on the Incarnation "the first attempt that had been made to present Christianity and the chief circumstances of the life of Jesus Christ under a scientific aspect. By the sure tact of his noble and Christian nature, everything is referred to the Person of the Redeemer: everything rests upon Him: He appears throughout." The young author seems to have been ordained deacon about this time, and placed in the position of chief among the Alexandrian deacons. Among the clergy who joined the archbishop in calling on Arius to retract, and who afterwards assented to his deposition, was the young archdeacon of Alexandria (see the Benedictine Athanasius , i. 396 seq.). In this spirit he attended Alexander to the Nicene council in 325.
In that assembly he is represented by Gregory of Nazianzum (Orat. 21) as "foremost among those who were in attendance on bishops," and as "doing his utmost to stay the plague." His writings may assure us of the argument which he would maintain: that the real Divinity of the Saviour was (i) asserted in many places of Scripture, (ii) involved in the notion of His unique Sonship, (iii) required by the Divine economy of redemption, and (iv) attested by the immemorial consciousness of the church. And although, as he himself informs us, the council would willingly have confined themselves to purely Scriptural terms ( de Decr. 19) if their legitimate sense could have been bonâ fide admitted; although too he was far from imagining that any form or expression of human thought would adequately represent a Divine mystery; yet his convictions went thoroughly with the adoption of the term "Homoousion" or "co-essential," explained, as it was, in a sense which made it simply equivalent to "truly Son of God," and proposed as a test of adherence to the Scriptural Christology. And if we are to understand his mind at the close of the council, we must say that he regarded its proceedings as something done, in fact, "for the rightful honour of Jesus." Nothing was to him more certain than that Jesus was, in the full force of the words, God Incarnate; that Arianism was essentially a denial, and the "Homoousion" the now authenticated symbol, of His claim on men's absolute devotion; and that it was infinitely worth while to go through any amount of work or suffering in defence of such a truth, and in the cause of such a Master.
More work was near at hand, and suffering was not far off. A solemn and touching incident of Alexander's last moments is connected with the history of Athanasius, who was then absent from Alexandria. The dying man, while his clergy stood around him, called for Athanasius. One of those present, also bearing that name, answered, but was not noticed by the archbishop, who again repeated the name, and added, "You think to escape—but it cannot be." Some time appears to have elapsed between his death and the assembling of the Egyptian bishops to consecrate a successor. An encyclical letter of these same Egyptian prelates proclaimed to all Christendom, some years later, that a majority of them had elected Athanasius in the presence, and amid the applause, of the whole Alexandrian laity, who for nights and days persevered in demanding him as "the good, pious, ascetic Christian," who would prove a "genuine bishop," and prayed aloud to Christ for the fulfilment of their desire ( Apol. c. Ar. 6). It was granted; and then, in the words of Gregory, "by the suffrages of the whole people, and not by those vile methods, afterwards prevalent, of force and bloodshed, but in a manner apostolic and spiritual, was Athanasius elevated to the throne of Mark," some time after the beginning of May in 326, and very probably on June 8.
(2) From his Consecration (326) to his First Exile (336).—At the outset of his archiepiscopate is to be placed the organization of the church in Ethiopia or Abyssinia by his consecration of Frumentius as bp. of Axum. [2] Another event of these comparatively quiet times was Athanasius's visitation of the Thebaid, a region where much trouble was being caused by the Arians, and by the Meletians, who resisted his earnest efforts to repress their separatist tendency.
Now began the troubles from which the Arians never suffered Athanasius to rest till the last hour of his life. It was probably in 330 that he had his first severe experience of their hatred. After the Nicene council, Constantine had become a zealot for orthodoxy, and Eusebius of Nicomedia had been exiled. But Eusebius had procured his recall by orthodox professions; it may have been by his means that Arius himself was recalled, perhaps in Nov. 330. Eusebius now entered into a league with the Meletians of Egypt, of whom a bishop named John Arcaph was the head. "He bought them," says Athanasius, "by large promises, and arranged that they should help him on any emergency" by that machinery of false accusation which they had already employed against three archbishops. The charges were not to be theological: to attack Athanasius's teaching would be to declare against the Nicene doctrine, and this was a step on which Eusebius could not venture. He began by writing to Athanasius in behalf of Arius, and urging that, as a man whose opinions had been seriously misrepresented, he ought in justice to be received to church communion. Athanasius's answer shews the ground on which he took his stand. "It cannot be right to admit persons to communion who invented a heresy contrary to the truth, and were anathematized by the oecumenical council." It is probable that (as Fleury thinks, though Tillemont and Neander date it much later) we should refer to this period the visit of Anthony to Alexandria ( Vit. Ant. 69), when he confounded the Arians' report that he "agreed with them." This would be a great support to Athanasius. But Eusebius had recourse to Constantine, who thereupon wrote, commanding Athanasius to admit into the church "all who desired it," on pain of being removed from his see by sheer State power. This gave him an opportunity of laying before Constantine his own views of his duty. "There could be no fellowship," he wrote, "between the Catholic church of Christ and the heresy that was fighting against Him." Not long afterwards, in compliance with instructions from Eusebius, three Meletians, Ision, Eudaemon, and Callinicus, appeared before the emperor at Nicomedia with a charge against Athanasius that he had assumed the powers of the government by taxing Egypt to provide linen vestments for the church of Alexandria. But two of Athanasius's priests, happening to be at court, at once refuted this calumny; and Constantine wrote to Athanasius, condemning his accusers, and summoning him to Nicomedia. Eusebius, however, persuaded the accusers to meet him on his arrival with a bolder charge: "he had sent a purse of gold to Philumenus, a rebel." This, being easily overthrown, was at once followed up by the famous story of the broken chalice. A certain Ischyras, a layman pretending to the character of a presbyter, officiated at a little hamlet called "the Peace of Sacontarurum," in the Mareotis; Athanasius, being informed of this while on a visitation tour, sent a priest named Macarius, with the actual pastor of the district, to summon Ischyras before him, but found him ill. Ischyras, on recovering, attached himself to the Meletians, who, resolving to use him as a tool, made him declare that Macarius had found him in church "offering the oblations," had thrown down the holy table, broken the chalice, and burnt the church books; of which sacrilege Athanasius was to share the responsibility. But Athanasius was able to prove before Constantine at Nicomedia, early in 332, that, point by point, it was a falsehood. About mid-Lent he returned home with a letter from Constantine reprobating his enemies and praising him as "a man of God"; whereupon Ischyras came to him, asking to be received into the church, and piteously protesting that the Meletians had set him on to assert a falsehood. But he was not admitted to communion; and the story was ere long revived in an aggravated form—Athanasius himself being now called the perpetrator of the outrage ( Apol. 62, 64, 28, 74, 17, 65, 68).
A darker plot followed. John Arcaph persuaded a Meletian bishop, named Arsenius, to go into hiding. A rumour was then spread that he had been murdered, and dismembered for purposes of magic, by Athanasius, in proof of which the Meletians exhibited a dead man's hand (Apol. 63, 42; Socr. i. 27; Soz. ii. 25; Theod. i. 30). The emperor was persuaded to think it a case for inquiry. Athanasius received a summons to appear at Antioch and stand his trial. At first he disdained to take any steps, but afterwards sent a deacon to search for the missing Arsenius. The deacon ascertained that Arsenius was concealed in a monastery at Ptemencyrcis, on the eastern side of the Nile. Before he could arrive there the superior sent off Arsenius, but was himself arrested by the deacon, and obliged to confess "that Arsenius was alive." At Tyre Arsenius was discovered. Constantine stopped the proceedings at Antioch on hearing of this exposure, and sent Athanasius a letter, to be read frequently in public, in which the Meletians were warned that any fresh offences would be dealt with by the emperor in person, and according to the civil law ( Apol. 9, 68).
The slandered archbishop had now a breathing-time. Arcaph himself "came into the church," announced to Constantine his reconciliation with Athanasius, and received a gracious reply; while Arsenius sent to his "blessed pope" a formal renunciation of schism, and a promise of canonical obedience (Apol. 66, 17, 70, 69, 8, 27).
But the faction had not repented. Eusebius persuaded Constantine that such grave scandals as the recent charges ought to be examined in a council; and that Caesarea would be the fitting place. There a council met in 334 (see Tillemont, Ath. a. 15; cf. Festal. Epp. index, for A.D. 334). Athanasius, expecting no justice from a synod held under such circumstances, persisted, Sozomen says (ii. 25), "for thirty months" in his refusal to attend. Being at last peremptorily ordered by Constantine to attend a council which was to meet at Tyre, he obeyed, in the summer of 335 and was attended by about fifty of his suffragans. Athanasius saw at once that his enemies were dominant; the presiding bishop, Flacillus of Antioch, was one of an Arian succession. Some of the charges Athanasius at once confuted; as to others he demanded time. Incredible as it may seem, the dead man's hand was again exhibited. Athanasius led forward a man with downcast face, closely muffled; then, bidding him raise his head, looked round and asked, "Is not this Arsenius?" The identity was undeniable. He drew from behind the cloak first one hand, and then, after a pause, the other; and remarked with triumphant irony, "I suppose no one thinks that God has given to any man more hands than two." The case of the broken chalice now remained; it was resolved to send a commission of inquiry to the Mareotis. Ischyras accompanied the commissioners, as "a sharer in lodging, board, and wine-cup"; they opened their court in the Mareotis. It appeared in evidence that no books had been burned, and that Ischyras had been too ill to officiate on the day of the alleged sacrilege. An inquiry of such an ex parte character called forth indignant protests from the Alexandrian and Mareotic clergy, one of the documents bearing the date Sept. 7, 335. The commissioners, disregarding remonstrance, returned to Tyre ( Apol. 27, 73–76, 17, 15).
Athanasius, regarding the proceedings of the council of Tyre as already vitiated (Apol. 82), resolved, without waiting for the judgment of such an assembly, "to make a bold and dangerous experiment, whether the throne was inaccessible to the voice of truth." Attended by five of his suffragans, he took the first vessel for Constantinople, and suddenly presented himself in the middle of the road when the emperor was riding into the city. Constantine, on learning who he was, and what was his errand, tried to pass him by in silence; but Athanasius firmly stood his ground. "Either summon a lawful council, or give me opportunity of meeting my accusers in your presence." The request was conceded. The bishops of the council, after receiving their commissioners' report, had by a majority condemned Athanasius, and then pronounced Arius orthodox on the ground of a doctrinal statement made five years earlier, when they were startled by an imperial letter expressing suspicion of their motives, and summoning them to Constantinople. Many of them, in alarm, fled homewards; but the two Eusebii, Theognis, Patrophilus, Valens, and Ursacius repaired to court, and, saying nothing of "the chalice," or the report of the commission, presented a new charge, like the former quasi-political ones—that Athanasius had talked of distressing Constantinople by preventing the sailing of Alexandrian corn-ships. "How could I, a private person, and poor, do anything of the kind?" asked Athanasius. Eusebius of Nicomedia answered by affirming with an oath that Athanasius was rich and powerful, and able to do anything. The emperor cut short Athanasius's defence with a show of indignation; and, perhaps not from real belief in the charge, but by way of getting rid of the case and silencing the archbishop's enemies in his own interest, banished him to the distant city of Trier or Trèves, the seat of government of his eldest son Constantine, who received the exile with much kindness, in Feb. 336.
(3) From his First Exile (336) to his Second (340).—His life at Trèves, including nearly two years and a half, was an interval of rest, much needed and doubtless invigorating, between the storms of the past and those of the future. He had now to "stand and wait"—a new experience for him. He was "abundantly supplied with all necessaries" (Constantine II. in Apol. 87); he had the friendship of Maximin, the orthodox bp. of Trèves, afterwards canonized; he had with him some Egyptian "brethren," and kept up a correspondence with his friends at home, although at the risk of having his letters seized.
For more than a year Constantine's death produced no change in Athanasius's position; but at length, on June 17, 338, Constantine II., who in the partition of the empire had a certain precedency over his brothers Constantius and Constans, the sovereigns of the East and of Italy, wrote from Trèves to the Catholics of Alexandria, announcing that he had resolved, in fulfilment of an intention of his father, to send back Athanasius, of whose character he expressed high admiration (Apol. 87). In this he appears to have presumed his brother's consent, and to have then taken Athanasius with him to Viminacium, an important town of Moesia Superior, on the high-road to Constantinople. Here the three emperors had a meeting, and all concurred in the restoration of Athanasius, who, after passing through Constantinople, saw Constantius a second time, at a farther point on his homeward journey, at Caesarea in Cappadocia ( Apol. ad Const. 5; Hist. Ar. 8). His arrival at Alexandria, in Nov. 338, was hailed by popular rejoicing: the churches resounded with thanksgivings, and the clergy "thought it the happiest day of their lives." But his enemies bestirred themselves, and "did not shrink from long journeys" in order to press on the emperors new charges against him—that he had misappropriated the corn granted by the late emperor for charitable purposes in Egypt and Libya, and that the day of his return had been signalized by bloodshed. Constantius wrote to him in anger, assuming the truth of the former charge; but Athanasius was successful in disproving both. However, Constantius—who was so soon to be "his scourge and torment" (Hooker, v. 42, 2)—fell more and more under the influence of his great enemy Eusebius, now transferred from Nicomedia to the see of Constantinople, which had been forcibly vacated by the second expulsion of the orthodox Paul. The Eusebians now resumed a project which had been found impracticable while Constantine lived; this was to place on "the Evangelical throne" an Arian named Pistus, who had been a priest under Alexander, had been deposed by him for adhering to Arius, and had been consecrated, as it seems ( Apol. 24), by a notorious Arian bishop named Secundus. It was argued that Athanasius had offended against all ecclesiastical principles by resuming his see in defiance of the Tyrian sentence, and by virtue of mere secular authority. The charge did not come well from a party which had leaned so much on the court and the State; but it must be allowed that Athanasius's return had given some colour to the objection, although he doubtless held that the assembly at Tyre had forfeited all moral right to be respected as a council. By way of harassing Athanasius, the Eusebians, apparently about this time, made Ischyras a bishop, after obtaining an order in the name of the emperor that a church should be built for him—an order which failed to procure him a congregation ( Apol. 12, 85).
The Eusebians now applied to the West in behalf of their nominee Pistus. Three clergy appeared as their envoys before Julius, bp. of Rome; on the other hand, Athanasius sent to Rome presbyters to state his case, and an encyclic—the invaluable document which has furnished us with so much information—from "the holy synod assembled at Alexandria out of Egypt, Thebais, Libya, and Pentapolis," composed, says Athanasius, of nearly 100 prelates. At Rome his envoys gave such evidence respecting Pistus as to cause the senior of the Eusebian envoys to decamp by night in spite of an indisposition. His companions asked Julius to convoke a council, and to act, if he pleased, as judge. He accordingly invited both parties to a council, to be held where Athanasius should choose. Thus matters stood about the end of 339.
Early in 340 a new announcement disquieted the Alexandrian church. It was notified in a formal edict of the prefect that not Pistus, but a Cappadocian named Gregory, was coming from the court to be installed as bishop (Encycl. 2). This, says Athanasius, was considered an unheard-of wrong. The churches were more thronged than ever; the people, in great excitement, and with passionate outcries, called the magistrates and the whole city to witness that this attack on their legitimate bishop proceeded from the mere wantonness of Arian hatred. Gregory, they knew, was an Arian, and therefore acceptable to the Eusebian party: he was a fellow-countryman of Philagrius. Philagrius attacked the church of St. Quirinus, and encouraged a mob of the lowest townspeople and of savage peasants to perpetrate atrocious cruelties and profanations. Athanasius was residing in the precincts of the church of St. Theonas: he knew that he was specially aimed at, and, in hope of preventing further outrage, he withdrew from the city to a place of concealment in the neighbourhood, where he busied himself in preparing an encyclic to give an account of these horrors. This was on March 19. Four days later Gregory is said to have "entered the city as bishop." Athanasius, after hastily completing and dispatching his encyclic, sailed for Rome in the Easter season of 340, some weeks after Constantine II. had been slain during his invasion of Italy.
(4) From his Second Exile (340) to his Second Return (346).—After Julius had welcomed Athanasius, he sent two presbyters, Elpidius and Philoxenus, in the early summer of 340, to repeat his invitation to the Eusebian prelates, to fix definitely the next December as the time of the proposed council, and Rome as the place. Athanasius received much kindness from the emperor's aunt, Eutropion, and from many others ( Ap. ad Const. 417; cf. Fest. Ep. 13). He had with him two Egyptian monks. Their presence in the city, and Athanasius's enthusiasm for Anthony and other types of monastic saintliness, made a strong impression on the Roman church society, and abated the prejudices there existing against the very name of monk, and the disgust at a rude and strange exterior. In fact, Athanasius's three years (340–343) at Rome had two great historic results. ( a ) The Latin church, which became his "scholar" as well as his "loyal partisan," was confirmed by the spell of his master-mind "in its adhesion to orthodoxy, although it did not imbibe from him the theological spirit"; and (b ) when Gibbon says that "Athanasius introduced into Rome the knowledge and practice of the monastic life," he records the origination of a vast European movement, and represents the great Alexandrian exile as the spiritual ancestor of Benedict, of Bernard, and of the countless founders and reformers of "religious" communities in the West.
Meantime Elpidius and Philoxenus had discharged their errand. The Eusebians at Antioch, finding that Athanasius was at Rome, and that the council to which they were invited would be a free ecclesiastical assembly, detained the Roman legates beyond the time specified, and then dismissed them with the excuse that Constantius was occupied with his Persian war. At the same time they stimulated Philagrius and Gregory to new severities. Orthodox bishops were scourged and imprisoned; Potammon never recovered from his stripes; Sarapammon, another confessor-bishop, was exiled (Hist. Ar. 12). The letters of Alexandrians to Athanasius, consolatory as proofs of their affection, gave mournful accounts of torture and robbery, of hatred towards himself shewn in persecution of his aunt, of countenance shewn to Gregory by the "duke" Balacius; and some of these troubles were in his mind when, early in 341, he wrote "from Rome" his Festal Letter for the year. That year had begun without any such settlement of his case as had been hoped for at Rome. December had passed, and no council could be held, for the Eusebians had not arrived. January came, and at last the legates returned, the unwilling bearers of a letter so offensive that Julius "resolved to keep it to himself, in the hope that some Eusebians" would even yet arrive ( Apol. 24) and render the public reading of it unnecessary. No one came. On the contrary, the Eusebians resolved to take advantage of the approaching dedication of a new cathedral at Antioch, "the Golden Church," in order to hold a council there. Accordingly, ninety-seven bishops, many of whom were rather negatively than positively heterodox, assembled on this occasion, apparently in Aug. 341. Constantius was present. The sentence passed against Athanasius at Tyre was affirmed; several canons were passed; and three creeds were framed, in language partly vague and general, partly all but reaching the Nicene standard (cf. Newman, Arians , c. 4, s. 1; cf. Athan. Treatises , i. 105 seq.). This business necessarily lasted some time; and no information as to this council had reached Rome when, in Nov. 341, Athanasius having now been waiting at Rome for eighteen months (Apol. 29), Julius assembled the long-delayed council, consisting of more than fifty bishops, in the church of the presbyter Vito. Athanasius's case was fully examined; Athanasius was formally pronounced innocent; his right to brotherly treatment and church communion—admitted from the first by the Roman bishop—was solemnly recognized by the Italian council. The year 342 is not eventful in his history. Constans had shewn himself friendly to Athanasius, who at his request had sent him from Alexandria some bound copies of the Scriptures ( Ap. ad Const. 4). Narcissus, Maris, and two other prelates appeared before Constans at Trèves, spoke in support of the decisions against Athanasius, and presented a creed which might, at first sight, appear all but to confess the "Homoousion." But Constans, doubtless swayed by bp. Maximin, who would not admit the Eastern envoys to communion, dismissed them from his presence (Athan. de Syn. 25; Soz. iii 10; Hil. Fragm. iii. 27).
Athanasius remained at Rome until the summer of 343, when, "in the fourth year" from his arrival, he received a letter from Constans, by which he was ordered to meet him at Milan (Ap. ad Const. 3, 4). Surprised at the summons, he inquired as to its probable cause, and learned that some bishops had been urging Constans to propose to Constantius the assembling of a new council, at which East and West might be represented. On arriving at the great capital of Northern Italy, which was to be so memorably associated with the struggle between the church and Arianism, he was admitted, with Protasius, bp. of Milan, behind the veil of the audience-chamber, and received with "much kindness" by Constans, who told him that he had already written to his brother, "requesting that a council might be held." Athanasius left Milan immediately afterwards, being desired by Constans to come into Gaul, in order to meet Hosius, the venerated bp. of Cordova, and accompany him to the council, which both sovereigns had now agreed to assemble on the frontier line of their empires, at the Moesian city of Sardica. And there, about the end of 343, some 170 prelates met, a small majority being Westerns.
It soon appeared that united action was impossible. The majority, ignoring the councils of Tyre and Antioch, and treating the whole case as open, could not but regard Athanasius as innocent, or, at least, as not yet proved guilty; and he "joined them in celebrating the Divine mysteries" (Hil. Fragm. iii. 14). The Eusebian minority, on reaching Sardica, had simply announced their arrival, and then shut themselves up in the lodgings provided for them at the palace, and refused to join their brethren until the persons whom they denounced as convicted men should be deprived of seats in the council. The answer was, that the council was prepared to go into all the cases which could be submitted to it: each party would be free to implead the other. The Eusebian bishops, although urged to confront their adversaries, withdrew from Sardica and established themselves as a council at Philippopolis within the Eastern empire, renewed the sentences against Athanasius, put forth new ones against Julius, Hosius, and others, drew up an encyclic, and adopted a creed ( Apol. 36, 45, 48; Hist. Ar. 15, 16, 44; Hil. de Syn. 34; Fragm. 3). The prelates at Sardica proceeded with their inquiry, recognized the innocence of Athanasius, and excommunicated eleven Eusebian bishops, as men who "separated the Son from the Father, and so merited separation from the Catholic church." They enacted several canons, including the famous one providing for a reference, in certain circumstances, to "Julius, bp. of Rome," in "honour of Peter's memory," so that he might make arrangements for the rehearing of a prelate's cause. It need hardly be added that they would have no creed but the Nicene. They wrote letters of sympathy to the suffragans of Athanasius and the churchmen of Alexandria, urging the faithful "to contend earnestly for the sound faith and the innocence of Athanasius."
The bold line taken at Sardica provoked the advisers of Constantius to fresh severities; and the Alexandrian magistrates received orders to behead Athanasius, or certain of his clergy expressly named, if they should come near the city. Athanasius, still kept under the emperor's ban, had gone from Sardica to Naissus, and thence, at the invitation of Constans, to Aquileia. There, in company with the bp. Fortunatian, he was admitted to more than one audience; and whenever Constans mentioned Constantius, he replied in terms respectful towards the latter. Constans peremptorily, and even with a threat of civil war, urged his brother to reinstate Athanasius (Socr. ii. 22). The death of Gregory, about Feb. 345 (Hist. Ar. 21), gave Constantius an occasion for yielding the point. He therefore wrote to Athanasius, affecting to be solicitous of the Western emperor's assent to an act of his own free clemency. He wrote two other letters ( Apol. 51; Hist. Ar. 22), and employed six "counts" to write encouragingly to the exile; and Athanasius, after receiving these letters at Aquileia, made up his mind, at last, to act on those assurances; but not until Constantius could tell Constans that he had been "expecting Athanasius for a year." Invited by Constans to Trèves, Athanasius made a diversion on his journey in order to see Rome again; it was some six years since he had been cordially welcomed by Julius, who now poured forth his generous heart in a letter of congratulation for the Alexandrian church, one of the most beautiful documents in the whole Athanasian series. Julius dwelt on the well-tried worth of Athanasius, on his own happiness in gaining such a friend, on the steady faith which the Alexandrians had exhibited, on the rapture with which they would celebrate his return; and concluded by invoking for his "beloved brethren" the blessings "which eye had not seen, nor ear heard." Athanasius travelled northward about midsummer; visited Constans, passed through Hadrianople ( Hist. Ar.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria
Georgius (4), commonly called of Cappadocia (Athan. Ep. ad Episc. 7); Arian intruding bp. of Alexandria (356–361). He was born, according to Ammianus Marcellinus, at Epiphania in Cilicia (xxii. 11, 3), and, if so, must have been Cappadocian only by descent. Gregory Nazianzen describes him as not purely free-born ( Orat. xxi. 16), and as "unlearned," but he undoubtedly collected a library which Julian, no bad judge, describes as "very large and ample," richly stored with philosophical, rhetorical, and historical authors, and with various works of "Galilean" or Christian theology ( Epp. 9, 36). In Feb. 356, after Athanasius had retired from Alexandria in consequence of the attack on his church, which all but ended in his seizure, he heard that George was to be intruded into his throne, as Gregory had been 16 years previously. George arrived in Alexandria, escorted by soldiers, during Lent 356 ( de Fug. 6). His installation was a signal for new inflictions on Alexandrian church-people. "After Easter week," says Athanasius ( ib. ), "virgins were imprisoned, bishops led away in chains" (some 26 are named in Hist. Arian. 72) ; "attacks made on houses"; and on the first Sunday evening after Pentecost a number of people who had met for prayer in a secluded place were cruelly maltreated by the commander, Sebastian, a "pitiless Manichean," for refusing to communicate with George.
The intruding bishop was a man of resolution and action (Soz. iii. 7). Gregory of Nazianzus, who disparages his abilities, admits that he was like a "hand" to the Arians, while he employed an eloquent prelate—probably Acacius—as a "tongue." He belonged to the Acacian section of the party, and was consequently obnoxious to the semi-Arians, who "deposed him" in the council of Seleucia. He allowed the notorious adventurer Aetius, founder of the Anomoeans or ultra-Arians, to officiate as deacon at Alexandria, after having been ordained, as Athanasius tells us (de Synod. 38), by Leontius of Antioch, although he afterwards "compelled" the Arian bishops of Egypt to sign the decree of the Acacian synod of Constantinople of 360 against Aetius (Philost. iii. 2). He induced Theodore, bp. of Oxyrynchus, to submit to degradation from the ministry and to be reordained by him as an Arian bishop ( Lib. Marcell. et Faustini , Sirmond. i. 135). He managed to keep the confidence of Constantius, who congratulated the Alexandrians on having abandoned such "grovelling teachers" as Athanasius and entrusted their "heavenward aspirations" to the guidance of "the most venerable George" (Athan. Apol. to Const. 30, 31). But George was far from recommending his form of Christianity either to the orthodox or to the pagans of Alexandria. "He was severe," says Sozomen, "to the adherents of Athanasius," not only forbidding the exercise of their worship, but "inflicting imprisonment and scourges on men and women after the fashion of a tyrant"; while, towards all alike, "he wielded his authority with more violence than belonged to the episcopal rank and character." He was "hated by the magistrates for his supercilious demeanour, by the people for his tyranny" (Soz. iv. 10, 30). He stood well with Constantius, who was guided theologically by the Acacians; and it was easy for the "pope" of Alexandria to embitter his sovereign (as Julian says he did, Ep. 10) against the Alexandrian community, to name several of its members as disobedient subjects, and to suggest that its grand public buildings ought by rights to pay tax to the treasury (Ammian. etc.). He shewed himself a keen man of business, "buying up the nitre-works, the marshes of papyrus and reed, and the salt lakes" (Epiph. Haer. lxxvi.). He manifested his anti-pagan zeal by arbitrary acts and insulting speeches, procured the banishment of Zeno, a prominent pagan physician (Julian, Ep. 45), prevented the pagans from offering sacrifices and celebrating their national feasts (Soz. iv. 30), brought Artemius, "duke" of Egypt, much given to the destruction of idols (Theod. iii. 18), with an armed force into the superb temple of Serapis at Alexandria, which was forthwith stripped of images, votive offerings, and ornaments (Julian, l.c. ; Soz. l.c. ). On Aug. 29, 358, the people broke into the church of St. Dionysius, where George was then residing, and the soldiers rescued him from their hands with difficulty and after hard fighting. On Oct. 2 he was obliged to leave the city; and the "Athanasians" occupied the churches from Oct. 11 to Dec. 24, when they were again ejected by Sebastian. Probably George returned soon after he had quitted the Seleucian council, i.e. in Nov. 359. The news of Julian's accession arrived at Alexandria Nov. 30, 361. George was in the height of his pride and power: he had persecuted and mocked the pagans (Socr. iii. 2; Maff. Frag.; Ammian.), who now, being officially informed that there was an emperor who worshipped the gods, felt that the gods could at last be avenged. The shout arose, "Away with George!" and "in a moment," says the Fragmentist, they threw him into prison, with Diodorus and Dracontius, the master of the mint, who had overthrown a pagan altar which he found standing there (Ammian.). The captives were kept in irons until the morning of Dec. 24. Then the pagan mob again assembled, dragged them forth with "horrible shouts" of triumph, and kicked them to death. They flung the mangled body of George on a camel, which they led through every part of the city, dragging the two other corpses along with ropes, and eventually burned the remains on the shore, casting the ashes into the sea.
The Arians, of course, regarded George as a martyr; and Gibbon took an evident pleasure in representing "the renowned St. George of England" as the Alexandrian usurper "transformed "into a heroic soldier-saint; but bp. Milner (Hist. Inquiry into the Existence and Character of St. George , 1792) and others have shewn that this assumption of identity is manifestly false, the St. George who is patron saint of England being of an earlier date, though of that saint's life, country, or date we have no certain information, such traditions as we possess being given in the next art.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria
Heraclas, patriarch of Alexandria, a.d. 233–249; brother of the martyr Plutarch, one of Origen's converts (Eus. H. E. vi. 3). From being a pupil he became an assistant in teaching to Origen, who left the school to him when he retired from Alexandria to Caesarea ( ib. 15, 26). Heraclas retained the school but a short time, for on the death of Demetrius he was elected to the archiepiscopal throne. Heraclas did not adopt any of his teacher's peculiar views, but voted for his deprivation both from his office as teacher and from his orders and for his excommunication at the two synods held by Demetrius, nor when elected bishop did he attempt to rescind these sentences. Eusebius ( ib. 31) narrates a visit paid to Heraclas by Africanus the annalist on hearing of his great learning, and ( ib. vii. 7), on the authority of his successor Dionysius, gives his rule respecting the treatment of heretics. Le Quien, Oriens Christ. ii. 392; Phot. Cod. 118; Acta SS. Boll. Jul. 3. 645–647.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Hierocles of Alexandria, a Philosopher
Hierocles (2) , a philosopher, generally classed among the neo-Platonists, who lived at Alexandria in the first half of 5th cent., and delivered lectures of considerable merit. His character is spoken of by Damascius (quoted by Suidas) in high terms. When sojourning at Constantinople he came into collision with the government (or, as Kuster interprets it, with the Christian authorities) and was severely beaten in the court of justice, possibly (as Zeller conjectures) for his adherence to the old religion. He was then banished, and retired to Alexandria. His teacher in philosophy was Plutarch the neo-Platonist; Theosebius is mentioned as his disciple.
His principal extant work is a commentary on the Golden Verses attributed to Pythagoras. His entire remains have been ed. by bp. Pearson, P. Needham (Camb. 1709), Gaisford (1850), and Mullach (1853). See the last vol. of Zeller's Greek Philosophy , pp. 681–687.
Hierocles appears to have been a reconciler between the old and the new. Doubtless a sincere adherent of the heathen religion, its distinctive features melt away in his hands and his soft and tender tone recalls the accents of Christian piety, e.g. in the following passages from his commentary on the Golden Verses : "No proper cause is assignable for God to have created the world but His essential goodness. He is good by nature; and the good envies none in anything" (p. 20, ed. Needham). "What offering can you make to God, out of material things, that shall be likened unto or suitable to Him? . . . For, as the Pythagoreans say, God has no place in the world more fitted for Him than a pure soul" (p. 24). "'Strength dwells near necessity.' Our author adds this to shew that we must not measure our ability to tolerate our friend by mere choice, but by our real strength, which is discovered only by actual necessity. We have all in time of need more strength than we commonly think" (p. 52). "We must love the unworthy for the sake of their partnership in the same nature with us" (p. 56). "We must be gentle to those who speak falsely, knowing from what evils we ourselves have been cleansed. . . . And gentleness is much aided by the confidence which comes from real knowledge" (p. 110). "Let us unite prayer with work. We must pray for the end for which we work, and work for the end for which we pray; to teach us this our author says, 'Go to your work, having prayed the gods to accomplish it'" (p. 172).
The reasons adduced by Hierocles for belief in a future state are strictly moral, and quite remote from subtlety: "Except some part of us subsists after death, capable of receiving the ornaments of truth and goodness (and the rational soul has beyond doubt this capability), there cannot exist in us the pure desire for honourable actions. The suspicion that we may suffer annihilation destroys our concern for such matters" (p. 76).
Not less noteworthy are his views respecting Providence. God, he says, is the sole eternal author of all things; those Platonists who say that God could only make the universe by the aid of eternal matter are in error (p. 246, from the treatise περὶ προνοίας ). Man has free will; but since the thoughts of man vacillate and sometimes forget God, man is liable to sin: what we call fate is the just and necessary retribution made by God, or by those powers who do God's will, for man's actions, whether for merit or demerit (p. 256; cf. p. 92). Hence the inequality in the lots of men. Pain is the result of antecedent sin; those who know this know the remedy, for they will henceforward avoid wrongdoing and will not accuse God as if He were the essential cause of their suffering (pp. 92, 94).
The approximation of heathen philosophy to Christianity is the most interesting point to be noticed in connexion with Hierocles. He never, in his extant works, directly mentions Christianity; what degree of tacit opposition is implied in his philosophy is a difficult question. His philosophy has points more specially characteristic of Platonism and neo-Platonism, e.g. his belief in the pre-existence of man and in the transmigration of souls. With Porphyry and Jamblichus, however, he denied that the souls of men could migrate into the bodies of animals.
We conclude by quoting a passage on Marriage; shewing the singularly modern and Christian type of his mind. "Marriage is expedient, first, because it produces a truly divine fruit, namely children, our helpers alike when we are young and strong, and when we are old and worn. . . . But even apart from this, wedded life is a happy lot. A wife by her tender offices refreshes those who are wearied with external toil; she makes her husband forget those troubles which are never so active and aggressive as in the midst of a solitary and unfriended life; sometimes questioning him on his business pursuits, or referring some domestic matter to his judgment, and taking counsel with him upon it: giving a savour and pleasure to life by her unstrained cheerfulness and alacrity. Then again in the united exercise of religious sacrifice, in her conduct as mistress of the house in the absence of her husband, when the family has to be held in order not without a certain ruling spirit, in her care for her servants, in her careful tending of the sick, in these and other things too many to be; recounted, her influence is notable. . . . Splendid dwellings, marbles and precious stones and myrtle groves are but poor ornaments to a family. But the heaven-blessed union of a husband and wife, who have all, even their bodies and souls, in common, who rule their house and bring up their children well, is a more noble and excellent ornament; as indeed Homer said. . . . Nothing is so burdensome but that a husband and wife can easily bear it when they are in harmony together, and willing to give their common strength to the task."
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Holman Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
(al ehx an' dri uh) The capital of Egypt from 330 B.C., founded by Alexander the Great as an outstanding Greek cultural and academic center.
Alexandria bears the name of its founder, Alexander the Great, who planted the city about 332 B.C. When Ptolemy inherited Alexander's Egyptian empire, he made Alexandria its capital. The historian Strabo purports that Alexander was later buried here.
Alexandria was designed to act as the principal port of Egypt located on the western edge of the Nile delta. Built on a peninsula, it separated the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis. A causeway (Heptastadion, or “seven stadia”) connected the peninsula with Pharos Island and divided the harbor. The Pharos lighthouse was visible for miles at a height of over 400 feet and is remembered today as one of the seven wonders of the world.
The city was divided into sections with a substantial Jewish quarter, the Royal area, the Neapolis, and a necropolis to the far west. The city was known for its cultural and academic pursuits. The finest library in the ancient world with over 500,000 volumes attracted many scholars. The Mouseion (Museum) complimented the library as the center of worship for the Muses, goddesses of “music,” dancing, and letters. It became the most important center of Judaism outside of Jerusalem. Jewish rabbis gathered in Alexandria to produce the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament. Greek philosophers and mathematicians such as Euclid, Aristarchus, and Eratosthenes worked here. Octavian incorporated it into the Roman empire about 30 B.C. It quickly became second in importance to Rome. Its importance declined about 100 A.D.
The educated Jews of Alexandria contended with Stephen (Acts 6:9 ). Apollos, the great Christian orator, came from Alexandria (Acts 18:24 ), and Paul rode the ships of that port (Acts 27:6 ; Acts 28:11 ). Although the Christians suffered persecution there, they produced a school with such notables as Clement and Origen in leadership. The school was noted for its allegorical approach to Scripture.
Gary C. Huckabay
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alexandria
ALEXANDRIA was founded (b.c. 332) by Alexander the Great after his conquest of Egypt. Recognizing the inconvenience caused by the want of a harbour for 600 miles along the shore, he selected as the site of a new port the village of Rhacotis, lying on a strip of land between Lake Mareotis and the sea. This he united to the little island of Pharos by a huge mole about a mile long, and thus he formed two splendid havens, which speedily became the commercial meeting-place of Africa, Asia, and Europe. The city was laid out in shape like the outspread cloak of a Macedonian soldier; in circumference about 15 miles: and it was divided into quarters by a magnificent street nearly 5 miles long, and 100 feet wide, running from E. to W., and crossed by another of somewhat lesser dimensions from N. to S. One of these quarters ( Soma , ‘the body’) received the corpse of Alexander, and preserved it embalmed in the Royal Mausoleum. The Ptolemys, who succeeded to the Egyptian portion of Alexander’s divided empire, made Alexandria their capital, and by their extensive building operations rendered the city famous for the magnificence and beauty of its public edifices. Besides the Royal Palace, the Royal Mausoleum, the Temple of Neptune, the Great Theatre, the Gymnasium, and the vast Necropolis, Alexandria possessed three other structures for which it was celebrated. (1) The Museum , which was not a place where collections were laid out for instruction, but a spot where the fine arts, science, and literature were studied. The Museum of Alexandria became in course of time practically the centre of the intellectual life of the world. It answered very largely to what we associate with the idea of a great modern university. It had its staff of State-paid professors, its professorial dining-hall, its shaded cloisters, where eager students from all parts of the world walked to and fro, listening to lectures from men like Euclid, Eratosthenes, and Hipparchus. (2) The Library , which was the greatest treasure of the city, was founded by the first Ptolemy. His successors increased the number of volumes till the collection embraced upwards of 700,000 MSS, in which were inscribed the intellectual efforts of Greece, Rome, Asia Minor, Palestine, and even India. The value of this unrivalled collection was immense. The Library was in two portions; and, in the siege of Alexandria by Julius Cæsar, the part stored in the Museum was burned; a loss, however, which was largely made up by the presentation to Cleopatra, by Mark Antony, of the Royal Library of Pergamum. The other portion was stored in the Serapeum, which in 1895 was discovered to have been situated where ‘Pompey’s Pillar’ now stands. History is undecided as to whether this celebrated Library was destroyed in a.d. 391 by Bishop Theophilus or by the Caliph Omar in a.d. 641. (3) The third structure which attracted the attention of the world to Alexandria was the Pharos (Lighthouse), erected by Ptol. II. Philadelphus, on the island which had been joined to the mainland by Alexander. Rising in storeys of decreasing dimensions to a height of 450 490 ft., adorned with white marble columns, balustrades, and statues, it was justly reckoned one of the ‘Seven Wonders of the World.’ Though it was destroyed by an earthquake in a.d. 1303, it has nevertheless exercised a permanent influence on mankind. The idea of humanity to the mariner which it embodied was accepted by almost every civilized nation, and the thousands of lighthouses throughout the world to-day can all be traced to the gracious thoughtfulness which was displayed in the costly erection of this first Pharos.
In its times of greatest prosperity, Alexandria had a population of between 800,000 and 1,000,000. Trade, amusement, and learning attracted to it inhabitants from every quarter. It was an amalgam of East and West. The alertness and versatility of the Greek were here united with the gravity, conservativeness, and dreaminess of the Oriental. Alexandria became, next to Rome, the largest and most splendid city in the world. Amongst its polyglot community, the Jews formed no inconsiderable portion. Jewish colonists had settled in Egypt in large numbers after the destruction of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 42:14 ), and during the Persian period their numbers greatly increased. The Ptolemys, with one exception, favoured them, and assigned a special quarter of the city to them. More than an eighth of the population of Egypt was Jewish. Their business instincts brought to them the bulk of the trade of the country. They practically controlled the vast export of wheat. Some had great ships with which they traded over all the Mediterranean. St. Paul twice sailed in a ship of Alexandria ( Acts 27:6 ; Acts 28:11 ). The Jews were under their own governor or ‘Alabarch,’ and observed their own domestic and religious customs. Their great central synagogue was an immense and most imposing structure, where all the trade guilds sat together, and the 70 elders were accommodated in 70 splendidly bejewelled chairs of state.
It was in Alexandria that one of the most important events in the history of religion took place, when the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into the Greek tongue. The legendary tales narrated by Josephus regarding the accomplishment of this task may be dismissed as baseless. But it is undisputed that during the reigns of the earlier Lagidæ (somewhere between b.c. 250 and 132) the ‘Septuagint’ made its appearance. It is certainly not the product of a syndicate of translators working harmoniously, as Jewish tradition asserted. The work is of very unequal merit, the Pentateuch being the best done, while some of the later books are wretchedly translated. The translation was regarded by the Jews with mingled feelings, execrated by one section as the grossest desecration of the holy oracles, extolled by another section as the means by which the beauties of the Law and the Prophets could be appreciated for the first time by the Greek-speaking Gentile world. The LXX [1] became, under God’s providence, a most valuable preparation for the truths of Christianity. It familiarized the heathen nations with the God of righteousness as He had been revealed to the Jewish race. It paved the way for the gospel. It formed the Bible of the early Church. In the Eastern Church to-day it is the only orthodox text of the OT.
The wars of the Ptolemys with the Seleucidæ at Antioch are described in Daniel 11:1-45 . Ptolemy II. Philadelphus left his mark on Palestine in the cities of Philadelphia (= Rabbath-ammon, Deuteronomy 3:11 ), Ptolemais ( Acts 21:7 = Acco, Judges 1:31 ), Philoteria, etc. Under Ptolemy III. Euergetes I. (b.c. 247 222) the famous ‘stele of Canopus’ was inscribed. With Ptolemy IV. Philopator the dynasty began to decline, and his oppressions of the Jews (largely mythical) are narrated in 3 Maccabees. Under Ptolemy V. Epiphanes the Alexandrian supremacy over Palestine was exchanged for that of Antiochus III. the Great ( Daniel 11:14-17 ). In his reign the celebrated ‘Rosetta stone’ was erected. The ten succeeding Ptolemys were distinguished for almost nothing but their effeminacy, folly, luxury, and cruelty. The city increased in wealth, but sank more and more in political power. Julius Cæsar stormed Alexandria in b.c. 47, and after a brief spell of false splendour under Cleopatra, it fell after the battle of Actium into the hands of the Romans, and its fortunes were henceforth merged with those of the Empire.
But while its political power was thus passing away, it was developing an intellectual greatness destined to exercise a profound influence through succeeding centuries. Among its Jewish population there had arisen a new school which sought to amalgamate Hebrew tradition and Greek philosophy, and to make the OT yield up Platonic and Stoic doctrines. This attempted fusion of Hebraism and Hellenism was begun by Aristobulus, and reached its climax in Philo, a contemporary of Jesus Christ. The Jews found in the Gentile writings many beautiful and excellent thoughts. They could logically defend their own proud claim to be the sole depositaries and custodians of Divine truth only by asserting that every rich and luminous Greek expression was borrowed from their Scriptures. Plato and Pythagoras, they declared, were deeply in debt to Moses. The Greeks were merely reproducers of Hebrew ethics, and Hebrew religious and moral conceptions. The next step was to re-write their own Scriptures in terms of Greek philosophy, and the most simple way of doing this was by an elaborate system of allegory. Philo carried the allegorizing of the OT to such an extent that he was able to deduce all the spurious philosophy he required from the most matter-of-fact narratives of the patriarchs and their wives. But it was a false issue. It was based on a logical figment, and Philo’s voluminous works, gifted and learned though he was, merely reveal that there was no hope either for Greek philosophy or for Hebrew religious development along these lines. The results of the allegorical method of interpretation, however, were seen in Christian Church history. We read of a ‘synagogue of the Alexandrians’ in Jerusalem, furiously hostile to St. Stephen with his plain declaration of facts (Acts 6:9 ). Apollos of Alexandria ( Acts 18:24-28 ) needed to be ‘more accurately instructed’ in Christian doctrine, though we have no direct evidence that he was a disciple of Philo. The Ep. to the Hebrews shows traces of Alexandrian influence, and there are evidences that St. Paul was not unfamiliar with Alexandrian hermeneutics and terminology (cf. Galatians 4:24-31 ). But there is no proof that St. Paul ever visited Alexandria. He seems to have refrained from going thither because the gospel had already reached the city (cf. Romans 15:20 ). Eusebius credits St. Mark with the introduction of Christianity into Egypt. In the 2nd and 3rd cents. Alexandria was the intellectual capital of Christendom. The Alexandrian school of theology was made lustrous by the names of Pantænus, Clement, and especially Origen, who, while continuing the allegorical tradition, strove to show that Christian doctrine enshrined and realized the dreams and yearnings of Greek philosophy. The evil tendencies of the method found expression in the teachings of the Alexandrian heretics, Basilides and Valentinian. Alexandria became more and more the stronghold of the Christian faith. Here Athanasius defended contra mundum the true Divinity of Christ in the Nicene controversy, and the city’s influence on Christian theology has been profound. In a.d. 641, Alexandria fell before Amrou; in the 7th cent. it began to decline. The creation of Cairo was another blow, and the discovery in 1497 of the new route to the East via the Cape of Good Hope almost destroyed its trade. At the beginning of the 19th cent. Alexandria was a mere village. To-day it is again a large and flourishing city, with a rapidly increasing population of over 200,000, and its port is one of the busiest on the Mediterranean shore.
G. A. Frank Knight.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Ambrosius of Alexandria
Ambrosius (1) ( Ἀμβρόσιος ) of Alexandria, a deacon according to Jerome (de Vir. Ill. 56), the disciple and friend of Origen, died c. 250.
It is not certain whether Ambrose was a Christian by birth; but he was of a noble and wealthy family (Orig. Exhort. ad. Mart. 14 f. 49; Hieron. l.c. ), and probably occupied some office under the Imperial Government (Epiph. Haer. 64, 3: cf. Orig. ib. c. 36). Endowed with an active and critical mind, he at first neglected the simple teaching of the Gospel for the more philosophic systems of heresy (Orig. in Johann. tom. v.). However, when he met Origen he recognized his true teacher, and embraced the orthodox faith (Epiph. l.c. ). From that time to his death Ambrose devoted his whole energy to encouraging his great master in his labours on Holy Scripture, and used his fortune to further them (Eus. H. E. vi. 23).
Ambrose left no writings of his own except some letters, but it is evident that he exercised a powerful influence upon Origen, who called him his "taskmaster," ἐργοδιώκτης ( in Johann. tom. v.), and it may have been through his zeal in "collation" (Orig. Ephesians 1 .) that Origen undertook his critical labours. Through mistaken devotion, Ambrose indiscreetly permitted the publication of some unrevised treatises of Origen which were intended only for his own use (Hieron. Ep. 84, 10).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Hypatia, Lady in Alexandria
Hypatia (1). Socrates ( H. E. vii. 15) says: "There was a lady in Alexandria, by name Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon. She advanced to such a point of mental culture as to surpass all the philosophers of her age and to receive the office of lecturer in the Platonic school, of which Plotinus had been the founder, and there expound all philosophic learning to any desirous of it. Students of philosophy came from all quarters to hear her. The dignified freedom of speech, which her training had implanted in her, enabled her to appear even before the public magistrates with entire modesty; none could feel ashamed to see her take her station in the midst of men. She was reverenced and admired even the more for it, by reason of the noble temperance of her disposition. This then was the woman upon whom malicious envy now made its attack. She was wont to have frequent communications with Orestes [1]; this aroused enmity against her in the church community. The charge was that it was through her that Orestes was prevented from entering upon friendly relations with the bishop [2]. Accordingly some passionate fanatics, led by Peter the Reader, conspired together and watched her as she was returning home from some journey, tore her from her chariot, and dragged her to the church called Caesarium; there they stripped her and killed her with oyster shells, and, having torn her in pieces, gathered together the limbs to a place called Cinaron, and consumed them with fire. This deed occasioned no small blame to Cyril and the Alexandrian church; for murders, fightings, and the like are wholly alien to those who are minded to follow the things of Christ. This event happened in the fourth year of the episcopate of Cyril, in the consulships of Honorius (for the tenth time) and Theodosius (for the sixth time) in the month of March, at the season of the fast"c ( i.e. Mar 415). Little can be added to this. Synesius of Cyrene (afterwards bp. of Ptolemais) was a devoted disciple of hers. According to Suidas, she married Isidorus. No trustworthy account connects Cyril directly with her murder.
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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint
(305) Virgin, martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt. Of royal blood and great learning, she appeared at the age of 18 before the Emperor Maximinus, and endeavored to dissuade him from worship of false gods; her eloquence converted so many that she was condemned to die on the wheel but, at her touch, the instrument was miraculously destroyed. She was beheaded and an angel carried her body to Mount Sinai where a church and monastery were dedicated to her. Her cult was very popular in the Middle Ages and she is numbered among the Fourteen Holy Helpers. Patroness of philosophers, the arts, wheelwrights, wagonmakers, teachers, students, and jurists. Emblems: a wheel, lamb, and sword. Her name occurs in the Ambrosian Canon of the Mass. Relics in monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 25,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Dionysius of
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Armenian Rite)
A see of the Armenian Rite, comprising Egypt, with residence at Cairo.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Clement of
Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. He was honored as a saint until the 17th century, when his name was dropped from the Clementine revision of the Martyrology, owing to the uncertainty surrounding his life, teaching, and cult. His writings, lacking technical precision and order, were easily misjudged, and he was censured by Pope Gelasius and Photius; however, his rule of faith was sound. In opposition to the rationalizing Gnostics, then a force in Alexandria, he made faith the basis of his speculations, but interpreted Scripture in too allegorical a manner.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Louisiana, Diocese of
Comprises northern Louisiana above 31 degrees north latitude; area, 22,212 square miles; suffragan of New Orleans. Early missionaries, Fathers Antonio Margil, Guzman, Maximin, O'Brien, and Timon, later bishop of Buffalo. See also
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
diocese of Alexandria
patron saints index
Google Map
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Cyril of, Saint
Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Bishop of Alexandria; born Alexandria, Egypt, 376; died there, 444. A nephew of Theophilus, the patriarch, Cyril was brought up in an atmosphere of asceticism. In 412 he was elevated to the See of Alexandria. He incurred the enmity of Orestes, prefect of Egypt, by expelling the Jews and suppressing the Novatians. Cyril's chief fame arises from his defense of Catholic teaching against Nestorius. He presided over the General Council at Ephesus, at which Nestorius was condemned. He left many exegetical treatises, and wrote a book against Julian the Apostate. Emblems: the Blessed Virgin holding in her arms the Child Jesus, and a pen. Relics at Alexandria. Feast, Roman Calendar, February 9,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Catechetical School of
Founded by the Church of Alexandria, in latter half of 2century. There were lectures to which pagans were admitted, but advanced teaching was given to Christians separately. Under the bishop's supervision, the school prepared young clerics for the priesthood, studies including philosophy, theology, and Christian apologetics. Pantrenus, c.180,was the first teacher to make the school famous. He was succeeded by his pupil Clement, followed by Origen. Of the succeeding teachers, Didymus the Blind (c.340-395) is the best known.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Patriarchate of
Founded in Egypt by Saint Mark the Evangelist. Notable among its early patriarchs were Saints Athanasius and Cyril. In the Coptic Rite, Hermopolis and Thebes are suffragan sees; patriarchal residence, Cairo; present administrator Apostolic, Bishop Mark Kouzam of Thebes. Churches, 21; priests, 11; seminary, 1; high schools, 9; primary schools, 19; Catholics of city, 5500. In the Latin Rite, the patriarchate is titular only.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Peter of, Saint
Martyr. Bishop of Alexandria. He suffered in the Decian persecution and was at one time head of the famous catechetical school at Alexandria. He probably initiated the reaction there against extreme Origenism. When during the Diocletian persecution Peter left Alexandria for concealment, the Meletian schism broke out among his own clergy, and he had this to contend with at a time when it was all he could do to comfort and guide the captive Christians. He was probably the first to discover the heresy of Arius. On his return to Alexandria he convened a synod of bishops against Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis, who had usurped his authority. Soon after this he was martyred at Alexandria in 311 at the command of Maximinus Daja, and was buried in the cemetery for martyrs. Most of his relics were enshrined in a church at Grasse, France. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 26,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, City of
Seaport city, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. It was the world's intellectual and commercial center under the ptolemies. Left to Cleopatra by Julius Caesar, 46 B.C., Augustus included it in a Roman province. Passing to the Byzantines and abandoned to the Arabs, its ruin was furthered by the Turks, 1517. It is now restored to commercial importance, and has a varied population of mixed creeds. Christianity was introduced by Saint Mark, and it became illustrious as a seat of learned doctors, Pantrenus, Clement, Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril. Under Dioscurus (444-454), successor to Saint Cyril, the Eutychian or Monophysite heresy arose. It spread rapidly and eventually effected a severance from Rome and the Church of Alexandria's ruin. Its tenet of one nature in Christ was a reaction against Nestorianism teaching two distinct natures in Christ. Eutychianism minimized the completeness of the Humanity and exaggerated the effects upon it of its union with the Divinity, thus denying the reality of the human nature. It finally divided into two communions: the native Copts, bound to error; and the foreign Greeks, faithful to schismatic orthodoxy.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Latin Rite)
The diocese of Alexandria was one of the earliest. It was suppressed following the Islamic invasion. The Vicariate Apostolic of Egypt of re-established on May 18, 1839. Its name was changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Alexandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951. Notable bishops through the years include
Saint Athanasius (c.328)
See also
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
Google Map
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
The city which Alexander the Great built with the object of its being the capital of the western empire. It was founded in B.C. 332, and was completed by the Ptolemies, who added to its wealth and splendour. It became very populous and a place of great commerce. Learning was cultivated and a famous library was collected. It was there that the translation of the LXX was made which supplied the many Jews who resided there with the O.T. in Greek, a language with which most of them were familiar. The city is identified with the modern well-known city of the same name, on the Mediterranean. It is only alluded to in the N.T. as being the birthplace of Apollos, who became companion of Paul, Acts 18:24 ; and as the city to which certain ships belonged or from whence they sailed. Acts 27:6 ; Acts 28:11 . Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria. The church there occupied an important position in after years, but not always to its credit.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alexandria
(Ἀλεξάνδρια)
The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great’s dream of ‘a city surpassing anything previously existing’ (Plutarch, Alex. xxvi.). Planned by Dinocrates under the king’s supervision, and built on a neck of land two miles wide interposed between the Mediterranean Sea and Lake Mareotis (Mariut), about 14 miles from the Canopic mouth of the Nile, it became successively the capital of Hellenic, Roman, and Christian Egypt, ‘the greatest mart in the world’ (μέγιστον ἐμπόριον τῆς οἰκουμένης, Strabo, xvii. i. 13), and next to Rome the most splendid city in the Empire. About 4 miles long from E. to W., nearly a mile wide, and about 15 miles in circumference, it was quartered-like so many of the Hellenic cities of the period-by two colonnaded thoroughfares crossing each other at a great central square, terminating in the four principal gates, and determining the line of the other streets, so that the whole city was laid out in parallelograms. The three regions into which it was divided-the Regio Judœorum, Brucheium, and Rhacôtis-corresponded generally with the three classes of the population-Jews, Greeks, and Egyptians-while representatives of nearly all other nations commingled in its streets (Dio Chrys. Orat. 32). Diodorus Siculus, who visited it about 58 b.c., estimates (xvii. 52) its free citizens at 300,000, and it probably had at least an equal number of slaves.
‘Its fine air,’ says Strabo, ‘is worthy of remark: this results from the city being on two sides surrounded by water, and from the favourable effects of the rise of the Nile,’ one canal joining the great river to the lake, and another the lake to the sea. ‘The Nile, being full, fills the lake also, and leaves no marshy matter which is likely to cause exhalations’ (xvii. i. 7).
The name of the city does not occur in the NT, but ‘Alexandrian,’ as noun and adj. (Ἀλεξανδρεύς, Ἀλεξανδρινός), is found 4 times in Acts. There was a synagogue of Alexandrians in Jerusalem (Acts 6:9), fanatical defenders of the Mosaic faith, roused to indignation by the heresies of Stephen. Apollos was ‘an Alexandrian by race, a learned man (ἀνὴρ λόγιος; Authorized Version and Revised Version margin, ‘eloquent’), mighty in the scriptures’ (Acts 18:24). In one Alexandrian ship St. Paul was wrecked at Melita (Acts 27:6), and in another he continued his voyage to Puteoli (Acts 28:11). Here are references to the three most striking aspects of the life of Alexandria-her religion, culture, and commerce. We invert the order.
1. Commerce.-Alexandria was built on a site uniquely adapted for maritime trade. Served on her northern side by the Great Harbour and the Haven of Happy Return* [1] (εὔνοστος), which were, formed by a mole seven stadia in length-the Hepta-stadium-flung across to the island of Pharos,† [2] and on her southern side by the wharves of Mareotis, Alexandria entered into the heritage of both Tyre and Carthage, and drew to herself the commerce of three continents. Under the Ptolemys Egypt largely took the place of the lands around the Euxine as a grain-producing country, and ‘corn in Egypt’ became as proverbial as it had been in the days of the Pharaohs.
‘The corn which was sent from thence to Italy was conveyed in ships of very great size. From the dimensions given of one of them by Lucian, they appear to have been quite as large as the largest class of merchant ships of modern times’ (Smith, Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul4, 1880, p. 71f.).
The cruisers and coasters of Alexandria traded with every part of the Mediterranean, and it was an ordinary occurrence to find vessels bound for Italy in the harbours of Myra and Malta (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11). Seneca gives a vivid picture of the arrival of the Alexandrian fleet of merchantmen at Puteoli (Ep. 77). The trade which came to Lake Mareotis from the Nile and the Red Sea was equally important.
‘Large fleets,’ says Strabo (xvii. i. 13), ‘are dispatched as far as India and the extremities of Ethiopia, from which places the most valuable freights are brought to Egypt, and are thence exported to other places, so that a doable amount of custom is collected, arising from imports on the one hand, and from exports on the other.’
2. Culture.-It was the great ambition of the Ptolemys to make their capital not only the commercial but the intellectual centre of the world. Alexandria really succeeded in winning for herself the crown of science, and was for centuries the foster-mother of an international Hellenic culture. The proofs of her devotion to letters were seen in the Brucheium, or central quarter of the city, which contained not only the mausoleum* [3] of Alexander, the palaces of the Egyptian kings, the Temple of Poseidon, and, at a later date, the Caesarium† [4] in which divine honours were paid to the Roman emperors, but the Museum, which in many ways resembled a modern university, with lecture halls and State-paid professors, and the Library, in which were accumulated the books of Greece, Rome, Egypt, and India, to the number (according to Josephus, Ant. xii. ii. 1) of more than half a million. In this home of endowed research the exact sciences flourished; Alexandria had on her roll of fame the names of Euclid in geometry, Hipparchus in astronomy, Eratosthenes in geography; and her physicians were the most celebrated in the world. For literature her savants did a noble work in collecting, revising, and classifying the records of the past. On the whole, however, her literary school was imitative rather than creative; her poets trusted more to learning than to imagination, and the muses rarely visited the Museum. The artificial atmosphere of literary criticism, which was the breath of life to grammarians, philologists, and dialecticians, chilled rather than fostered original genius. Alexandria’s most brilliant scholars, detached from the realities of life, immured in academic cloisters, were, connoisseurs, not writers, of classics.
In the Roman period ‘numerous and respectable labours of erudition, particularly philological and physical, proceeded from the circle of the savants “of the Museum,” as they entitled themselves, like the Parisians “of the Institute”; but … it was here very clearly apparent that the main matter was not pensions and rewards, but the contact … of great political and great scientific work’ (Mommsen, Provinces2, ii. 271f.).
3. Religion.-While the eclecticism of Alexandrian religion was represented in its pagan aspect by the cultus of the Serapeum, the most famous of the city’s temples, in which the attempt was made to blend the creeds of Greece and Egypt, the grafting of Judaism on Hellenism flowered into a system which had far more influence upon the permanent thought of the world. The migration of the Jews to Egypt, which began at the time of the downfall of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 42:14), increased rapidly under the Ptolemys, who welcomed them as colonists, giving them equal civic rights with the Macedonians and Greeks-rights which both Julius Caesar and Augustus contirmed to them. Occupying their own quarter of the city-the north-eastern-and forming, under their ethnarch or ‘alabarch,’ a community within a community, they were yet profoundly influenced by their environment, and developed not only a genius for trade but a passion for learning. In the beginning of our era they amounted to an eighth part of the population, and nowhere else was the scattered race so wealthy, so cultured, or so influential. Alexandria became the greatest of Jewish cities, the centre of Semitism as well as of Hellenism (q.v. [5] ). Naturalized in a foreign city and inevitably breathing its spirit, the Jews showed themselves at once pliant and stubborn. Glorying in the retention of their monotheistic faith, they yet dropped their sacred Hebrew language. Their Scriptures, translated into Greek‡ [6] for their own use, came into the hands of their Hellenic neighbours, who gave them in exchange the classics of Athens. Alexandria thus became the meeting-place of Eastern and Western ideals. Both races were sensitive to impressions: while the Jews felt the subtle influence of a rich civilization and a lofty philosophy, the Greeks were attracted by a strange note of assurance regarding God. In an eclectic age and city, the endeavour was consequently made to harmonize the religion of Moses with that of Plato. Mommsen remarks, that they were the clearest heads and the most gifted thinkers who sought admission either as Hellenes into the Jewish, or as Jews into the Hellenic, system (Provinces2, ii. 167). With perfect sincerity, if by faulty exegesis, the Jewish men of culture made their Scriptures yield up the doctrines of the Academy and the Stoa. The literary exponent of this spiritual rapprochement is Philo (q.v. [5] ), who probably did little more than give expression to the current opinions of his countrymen in the time of our Lord. While not a little of his Neo-Judaism must, on account of his persistent allegorizing, be regarded as pseudo-Judaism, he had the supreme merit of combining the highest Eastern with the highest Western view of the universe; of identifying the Hebrew ‘wisdom’ with the Greek ‘reason’; of developing Plato’s conception of the World as the θεῖον γεννητόν, the εἰκὼν τοῦ ποιητοῦ, the μονογενής (the Divine Child, the Image of its Maker, the Only-begotten) into that of the κόσμος νοητός or λόγος, which is the Invisible God’s πρωτόγονος or πρωτότοκος, His ἀπαύγασμα or χαρακτήρ; and of thus facilitating that fusion of Hellenism and Hebraism out of which so much Christian theology has sprung. Alexandrian thought provided the categories-in themselves cold and speculative-into which Christianity, as represented by the writers of Colossians, Hebrews, and the Fourth Gospel, poured the warm life-blood of a historic and humane faith. And if the Alexandrian exegetical method was often unscientific-as when it made Moses identify Abraham with understanding, Sarah with virtue, Noah with righteousness, the four streams of Paradise with the four cardinal virtues-yet the writer of Hebrews could scarcely have built a bridge between Judaism and Christianity unless he had been trained in a school which taught its disciples to pass from symbols to ultimate realities. Apollos (q.v. [5] ), the learned and eloquent (λόγιος, δυνατὸς ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), was a true Alexandrian, not impossibly ‘of the Museum’; and Luther was happily inspired in suggesting that he may have been the writer who used the Hebrew-Hellenic theology of Egypt to interpret the manger of Bethlehem. See also the following article.
Literature.-Article ‘Alexandria’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Hastings’ Single-vol. Dictionary of the Bible , Encyclopaedia Biblica , and in Pauly-Wissowa [9] ; H. Kiepert, Zur Topog. des alten Alexandria, Berlin, 1872; J. P. Mahaffy, Alexander’s Empire, London, 1888, and The Silver Age of the Greek World, do. 1906; T. Mommsen, Prov. of Rom. Emp.2, 2 vols., do. 1909; J. Drummond, Philo-Judaeus, 2 vols., do. 1888; cf. also W. M. Ramsay’s article ‘Roads and Travel (in NT)’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , v. 375ff.
James Strahan.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria
Catharine ( Catharina, Catherine, etc.), St., virgin and martyr of Alexandria. Tillemont writes, in the 17th cent., that it would be hard to find a saint more generally reverenced, or one of whom so little was known on credible authority, and adds that no single fact about her is certain ( Mém. eccl. vii. pp. 447, 761; cf. Papebrocius, as quoted in Baron. Ann. Eccl. ed. Theiner, iii. ad ann. 307).
The earliest mention of St. Catharine in the Eastern church (v. Menology of Basil ) under the name of Ηἱκαθαρίνα (possibly a corruption of ἡ καθαρίνη , dim. of καθαρός , pure), is about the end of 9th cent. (Tillem. u.s. ; Baillet, Vies des Saints, tom. viii. Nov. 25); in 13th cent. she appears in the Latin Martyrologies (Baillet, ib. ), the crusaders having brought her fame to Europe among other marvels from the East. Some time in the 8th or 9th cent. the monks on Mount Sinai disinterred the body, as they were eager to believe, of one of those Christian martyrs whose memory they cherished. Eusebius relates how a lady of Alexandria—he omits her name—was one of the victims of Maximinus early in 4th cent. (H. E. xiii. 14). It was easy to identify the corpse as that of the anonymous sufferer, to invent a name for it, and to bridge over the distance between Alexandria and Mount Sinai. Simeon Metaphrastes, a legendist of Constantinople in 10th cent., gives a long account of St. Catharine's martyrdom, with horrible details of her tortures, an exact report of her dispute in public with the philosophers of the city and of the learned oration by which she converted them and the empress Faustina and many of the court, and how her corpse was transported to Mount Sinai by angels (Martin, Vies des Saints, tom. iii. pp. 1841, seq.). But the whole story is plainly unhistorical, even apart from the significant fact that there is no external testimony to its authenticity. For in Eusebius the emperor's exasperation is provoked, not, as in the legend, by a refusal to abjure Christianity and to sacrifice to his gods, but by a refusal to gratify his guilty passion; and the punishment inflicted is merely exile, not torture and death. Even Baronius, who suggests emendations to make the legend more probable, hesitates to accept it as historical, while his commentator, with Tillemont and Baillet, abandons altogether the hopeless attempt to reconcile Simeon Metaphrastes with Eusebius.
The martyrdom of St. Catharine is commemorated in the Latin and Greek calendars on Nov. 25; the discovery ("invention") of her body on Mount Sinai on May 13 in the French Martyrology (Baillet, u.s. ). In England her festival was promoted from the 2nd class (on which field labour, though no other servile work, was permitted) to the 1st class of holy-days in 13th cent. (Conc. Oxon. a.d. 1222, c. 8; Conc. Vigorn. a.d. 1240, c. 54), and retained as a black-letter day at the Reformation. It was left untouched in Germany at the retrenchment of holidays in a.d. 1540. In France it was gradually abolished as a holiday, although the office was retained in 17th cent. (Baillet, u.s. ). In Europe during the middle ages her name was held in great reverence. Louis IX. of France erected in Paris a costly church in her name; and the famous Maid of Orleans claimed her special favour and tutelage (Martin, u.s. ). The head of St. Catharine was alleged to be preserved in her church in the Piazza of St. Peter's at Rome. She was regarded generally as the patron saint of schools, probably from the tradition of her learned controversy with the philosophers at Alexandria. A semi-monastic order, the Knights of Mount Sinai or of Jerusalem, instituted in Europe a.d. 1063 in honour of St. Catharine, under the rule of St. Basil, bound themselves by vows to chastity, though not to celibacy (castità conjugale ), to entertain pilgrims, and in rotation, each for two years, to guard the holy relics. Their dress was a white tunic, and embroidered on it a broken wheel, armed with spikes, in memory of the jagged wheel on which, according to the legend, the saint was racked, and which was miraculously shattered by divine interposition. The order became extinct after the fall of Constantinople; but in the 17th cent. the Basilian monks at Paris gave the badge of the order to any candidates who would take the vow of chastity and of obedience to the rule of St. Basil (Moroni, Dizion. Eccles. Reference to Giustiniani, Hist. Chronol. d. Ordini Equestri, p. 121; Bonami, Catalogo d. Ord. Equest. p. 21).
See Tillem. Mém. eccl. ; Baronius (Caesar), Annales Ecclesiastici (Barri Ducis, 1864, 4to, tom. iii.); Bollandus Joannes, Les Actes des saints, etc. (Lyons, Besançon, 1865, 8vo, Nov. 25); Life of St. Catharine, with its Latin original from the Cotton MSS., ed. with Intro., etc., by E. Einenkel (Lond. 1884); Life and Martyrdom of St. Cath. of Alex. (Roxburghe Club, No. 90, Lond. 1884).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria. i. Life. —His full name, Titus Flavius Clemens, is given by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 13) and Photius ( Cod. 111) in the title of the Stromateis ( Τίτου Φλανίου Κλήμεντος [1] τῶν κατὰ τὴν ἀληθῆ φιλοσοφίαν γνωστικῶν ὑπομνημάτων στρωματεῖς ). The remarkable coincidence of the name with that of the nephew of Vespasian and consul in 95 cannot have been accidental, but we have no direct evidence of Clement's connexion with the imperial Flavian family. Perhaps he was descended from a freedman of the consul; his wide and varied learning indicates that he had received a liberal education, and so far suggests that his parents occupied a good social position. The place of his birth is not certainly known. Epiphanius, the earliest authority on the question, observes that two opinions were held in his time, "some saying that he was an Alexandrian, others that he was an Athenian" (ὅν φασί τινες Ἀλεξανδρέα ἕτεροι δὲ Ἀθηναῖον , Haer. xxxii. 6). Alexandria was the principal scene of his labours; but there was no apparent reason for connecting him with Athens by mere conjecture. The statement that he was an Athenian must therefore have rested upon some direct tradition. Moreover, in recounting his wanderings he makes Greece the starting-point and Alexandria the goal of his search ( Strom. 1, § 11, p. 322); and in the 2nd cent. Athens was still the centre of the literary and spiritual life of Greece. We may then with reasonable probability conclude that Clement was an Athenian by training if not by origin, and the fact that he was at the head of the catechetical school of Alexandria towards the close of the century fixes the date of his birth c. a.d. 150–160. Nothing is recorded of his parentage; but his own language seems to imply that he embraced Christianity by a personal act, as in some sense a convert ( Paed. i. § 1, p. 97, τὰς παλαιὰς ἀπομνύμενοι δόξας ; cf. Paed. ii. § 62, p. 206, δάκρυά ἐσμεν . . . οἱ εἰς αὐτὸν πεπιστευκότες ), and this is directly affirmed by Eusebius (Praep. Ev. ii. 2 f.), though perhaps simply by inference from Clement's words. Such a conversion would not be irreconcilable with the belief that Clement, like Augustine, was of Christian parentage at least on one side; but whether Clement's parents were Christians or heathens it is evident that heathenism attracted him for a time; and though he soon overcame its attractions, his inquisitive spirit did not at once find rest in Christianity. He enumerates six illustrious teachers under whom he studied the "true tradition of the blessed doctrine of the holy apostles." His first teacher in Greece was an Ionian (Athenagoras?); others he heard in Magna Graecia; others in the East; and at last he found in Egypt the true master for whom he had sought ( Strom. i, § 11, p. 322). There can be no doubt that this master was Pantaenus, to whom he is said to have expressed his obligations in his Hypotyposes (Eus. H. E. vi. 13, v. 11). Pantaenus was then chief of the catechetical school, and though the accounts of Eusebius and Jerome (Eus. H. E. v. 10; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 36, 38) are irreconcilable in their details and chronology, it is certain that on the death or retirement of Pantaenus, Clement succeeded to his office, and it is not unlikely that he had acted as his colleague before. The period during which Clement presided over the catechetical school ( c. a.d. 190–203) seems to have been the season of his greatest literary activity. He was now a presbyter of the church ( Paed. i. § 37, p. 120) and had the glory of reckoning Origen among his scholars. On the outbreak of the persecution under Severus (a.d. 202, 203) in which Leonidas, the father of Origen, perished, Clement retired from Alexandria (Eus. H. E. vi. 3), never, as it seems, to return. Nothing is directly stated as to the place of his withdrawal. There are some indications of a visit to Syria (Eus. H. E. vi. 11, ὃν ἴστε ); and, later, we find him in the company of an old pupil, Alexander, afterwards bp. of Jerusalem, and at that time a bp. of Cappadocia, who was in prison for the faith. If therefore Clement had before withdrawn from danger, it was through wisdom and not through fear. Alexander regarded his presence as due to "a special providence" (cf. Eus. H. E. vi. 14), and charged him, in most honourable terms, with a letter of congratulation to the church of Antioch on the appointment of Asclepiades to the bishopric of that city, a.d. 311 (Eus. H. E. vi. 11). This is the last mention of Clement which has been preserved. The time and the place of his death are alike unknown. Popular opinion reckoned him among the saints of the church; and he was commemorated in the early Western martyrologies on Dec. 4. His name, however, was omitted in the martyrology issued by Clement VIII. after the corrections of Baronius; and Benedict XIV. elaborately defended the omission in a letter to John V. of Portugal, dated 1748. Benedict argued that the teaching of Clement was at least open to suspicion, and that private usage would not entitle him to a place in the calendar (Benedicti XIV. Opera , vi. pp. 119 ff. ed. 1842, where the evidence is given in detail; cf. Cognat, Clément d’Alexandrie , pp. 451 ff.).
ii. Works. —Eusebius, whom Jerome follows closely with some mistakes (de Vir. Ill. 38) has given a list of the works of Clement ( H. E. vi. 13): (1) Στρωματεῖς , libb. viii.; (2) Ὑποτυπώσεις , libb. viii.; (3) Πρὸς Ἕλληνας λόγος προτρεπτικός ( adversus Gentes , Jerome); (4) Παιδαγωγός , libb. iii.; (5) Τίς ὁ σωζόμενος πλούασιος ; (6) Περὶ τοῦ πάσχα ; (7) Διαλέξεις περὶ νηστείας ; (8) Περὶ καταλαλίας ; (9) Προτρεπτικὸς εἰς ὑπομονήν ἢ πρὸς τοὺς νεωστὶ βεβαπτισμένους (omitted by Jerome); (10) Κανὼν ἐκκλησιαστικὸς ἢ πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαΐ ζοντας ( de Canonibus Ecclesiasticis et adversum eos qui Judaeorum sequuntur errorem, Jerome). Photius ( Bibl. Codd. 109–111) mentions that he read the first five works on the list, and knew by report 6, 7, 8 ( περὶ κακολογίας ); 10 (περὶ κανόνων ἐκκλησιαστικῶν ); from the variations in the titles and the omission of 9, it is evident that he derived his knowledge of these simply from the secondary Greek version of Jerome's list. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5 are still preserved almost entire. Of 2 considerable fragments remain; and of 6, 8, 10 a few fragments are preserved in express quotations.
Quotations are also found from a treatise περὶ προνοίας , and from another περὶ ψυχῆς , to which Clement himself refers (Strom. iii. 13, p. 516; v. 88, p. 699). Elsewhere Clement speaks of his intention to write On First Principles ( περὶ ἀρχῶν , Strom. iii. 13, p. 516 ; id. 21, p. 520; cf. iv. 2, p. 564); On Prophecy ( Strom. v. 88, p. 699; id. iv. 93, p. 605); Against Heresies ( Strom. iv. 92, p. 604); On the Resurrection ( Paed. i. 6, p. 125); On Marriage ( Paed. iii. 8, p. 278). But the references may be partly to sections of his greater works, and partly to designs never carried out (cf. Strom. iv. 1–3, pp. 563 f.). No doubt has been raised as to the genuineness of the Address, the Tutor, and the Miscellanies. Internal evidence shews them all the work of one writer (cf. Reinkens, de Clemente, cap. ii. § 4), and they have been quoted as Clement's by a continuous succession of Fathers even from the time of Origen ( Comm. in Joh. ii. 3, p. 52 B; Strom. ; anonymous). These three principal extant works form a connected series. The first is an exhortation to the heathen to embrace Christianity, based on an exposition of the comparative character of heathenism and Christianity; the second offers a system of training for the new convert, with a view to the regulation of his conduct as a Christian; the third is an introduction to Christian philosophy. The series was further continued in the lost Outlines ( ὑποτυπώσεις ), in which Clement laid the foundation of his philosophic structure in an investigation of the canonical writings. The mutual relations of these writings shew that Clement intended them as a complete system of Christian teaching, corresponding with the "whole economy of the gracious Word, Who first addresses, then trains, and then teaches" (Paed. i. 1), bringing to man in due succession conviction, discipline, wisdom. The first three books correspond in a remarkable degree, as has frequently been remarked (Potter, ad Protrept. i.), with the stages of the neo-Platonic course, the Purification ( ἀποκάθαρσις ), the Initiation ( μύησις ), and the Vision ( ἐποπτεία ). The fourth book was probably designed to give a solid basis to the truths which were fleeting and unreal in systems of philosophy. Though his style is generally deficient in terseness and elegance, his method desultory, his learning undigested; yet we can still thankfully admire his richness of information, his breadth of reading, his largeness of sympathy, his lofty aspirations, his noble conception of the office and capacities of the Faith.
I. The Address to the Greeks ( Λόγος προτρεπτικὸ;ς πρὸς Ἕλληνας : Cf. Strom. vii. § 22, p. 421, ἐν τῷ προτρεπτικῷ ἐπιγραφομένῳ ἡμῖν λόγῳ ).—The works of Clement were composed in the order in which they have been mentioned. The Tutor contains a reference to the Address in the first section ( ὁ λόγος ὁπηνίκα μὲν ἐπὶ σωτηρίαν παρεκάλει, προτρεπτικὸς ὄνομα οὐτῷ ἦν : cf. Strom. vii. § 22; Pott. p. 841); and, if we can trust the assertion of Eusebius ( H. E. v. 28), some of Clement's works were composed before the accession of Victor (a.d. 192). Putting these two facts together, we may reasonably suppose the Address written c . a.d. 190. It was addressed to Greeks and not to Gentiles generally, as Jerome understood the word ("adversus gentes," de Vir. Ill. 38). It deals almost exclusively with Greek mythology and Greek speculation.
Its general aim is to prove the superiority of Christianity to the religions and the philosophies of heathendom, while it satisfies the cravings of humanity to which they bore witness. The gospel is, as Clement shews with consummate eloquence, the New Song more powerful than that of Orpheus or Arion, new and yet older than the creation (c. 1), pure and spiritual as contrasted with the sensuality and idolatry of the pagan rites, clear and substantial as compared with the vague hopes of poets and philosophers (2–9). In such a case, he argues, custom cannot be pleaded against the duty of conversion. Man is born for God, and is bound to obey the call of God, Who through the Word is waiting to make him like unto Himself. The choice is between judgment and grace, between destruction and life: can the issue then be doubtful (10–12)?
It is not difficult to point out errors in taste, fact, and argument throughout Clement's appeal; but it would be perhaps impossible to shew in any earlier work passages equal to those in which he describes the mission of the Word, the Light of men (p. 88), and pictures the true destiny of man (pp. 92 ff.).
II. The Tutor (ὁ Παιδαγωγός; cf. Hos_5:2 quoted in Paed. i. 7 p. 129).—The Tutor was written before the Miscellanies in which the Tutor is described generally (Strom. vi. § 1 p. 736)—i.e. c. a.d. 190–195. The writer's design was "to prepare from early years that is from the beginning of elementary instruction (ἐκ κατηχήσεως) a rule of life growing with the increase of faith and fitting the souls of those just on the verge of manhood with virtue so as to enable them to receive the higher knowledge of philosophy" (εἰς ἐπιστήμης γνωστικῆς παραδοχήν Strom. l.c.).
The main scope of the Tutor is therefore practical: the aim is action and not knowledge; but still action as preparatory to knowledge, and resting upon conviction. It is divided into three books. The first gives a general description of the Tutor, Who is the Word Himself (1–3); of the "children" whom He trains, Christian men and women alike (4–6); and of His general method, using both chastisements and love (7–12). The second and third books deal with special precepts designed to meet the actual difficulties of contemporary life and not to offer a theory of morals. It would not be easy to find elsewhere, even in the Roman satirists, an equally vivid and detailed picture of heathen manners. The second book contains general directions as to eating and drinking (1 f.), furniture (3), entertainments (4–8), sleep (9), the relations of men and women (10), the use of jewellery (11 f.). The third book opens with an inquiry into the nature of true beauty (c. 1). This leads to a condemnation of extravagance in dress both in men and in women (2 ff.), of luxurious establishments (4 f.), of the misuse of wealth (6 f.). Frugality and exercise are recommended (8–10); and many minute directions are added—often curiously suggestive in the present times—as to dress and behaviour (11 f.). General instructions from Holy Scripture as to the various duties and offices of life lead up to the prayer to the Tutor—the Word—with which the work closes. Immediately after the Tutor are printed in the editions of Clement two short poems, which have been attributed to him. The first, written in an anapaestic measure, is A Hymn of the Saviour Christ ( ὕμνος τοῦ Σωτῆρος Χριστοῦ ), and the second, written in trimeter iambics, is addressed To the Tutor ( εἱς τὸν Παιδαγωγόν ). The first is said to be "Saint Clement's" (τοῦ ἁγίου Κλήμεντος ) in those MSS. which contain it; but it may be a work of primitive date, like the Morning Hymn which has been preserved in our Communion office as the Gloria in Excelsis. If it were Clement's, and designed to occupy its present place, it is scarcely possible that it would have been omitted in any MS.; while it makes an appropriate and natural addition if taken from some other source. There is no evidence to shew that the second is Clement's work; it is doubtless an effusion of some pious scholar of a later date.
III. The Miscellanies ( Στρωματεῖς ). —The title, patchwork (or rather bags for holding the bedclothes, like στρωματόδεσμοι ), suggests a true idea of the character of the work. It is designedly unmethodical, a kind of meadow, as Clement describes it, or rather a wooded mountain (vii. § 111), studded irregularly with various growths, and so fitted to exercise the ingenuity and labour of those likely to profit by it (vi. § 2, p. 736, Pott.). But yet the book is inspired by one thought. It is an endeavour to claim for the gospel the power of fulfilling all the desires of men and of raising to a supreme unity all the objects of knowledge, in the soul of the true gnostic—the perfect Christian philosopher. The first book, which is mutilated at the beginning, treats in the main of the office and the origin of Greek philosophy in relation to Christianity and Judaism. Clement shews that Greek philosophy was part of the Divine education of men, subordinate to the training of the law and the prophets, but yet really from God (§§ 1–58; 91–100). In his anxiety to establish this cardinal proposition he is not content with shewing that the books of O.T. are older than those of the philosophers (59–65; 101–164; 180–182); but endeavours to prove also that the philosophers borrowed from the Jews (66–90; 165 f.). After this he vindicates the character and explains the general scope of the law—"the philosophy of Moses" (167–179). The main object of the second book lies in the more detailed exposition of the originality and superiority of the moral teaching of revelation as compared with that of Greek philosophy which was in part derived from it (§§ 1 ff.; 20–24; 78–96). The argument includes an examination of the nature of faith (4–19; 25–31), resting on a godly fear and perfected by love (32–55); and of repentance (56–71). He discusses the sense in which human affections are ascribed to God (72–75); and shews that the conception of the ideal Christian is that of a man made like to God (97–126), in accordance with the noblest aspirations of philosophy (127–136). The book closes with a preliminary discussion of marriage. The third book investigates the true doctrine of marriage (§§ 57–60) as against those who indulged in every license on the ground that bodily actions are indifferent (1–11; 25–44); and, on the other hand, those who abstained from marriage from hatred of the Creator (12–24; 45–46). Various passages of Scripture wrongly interpreted by heretics are examined (61–101); and the two main errors are shewn to be inconsistent with Christianity (102–110). The fourth book opens with a very interesting outline of the whole plan of the comprehensive apology for Christianity on which he had entered (§§ 1–3). The work evidently grew under his hands, and he implies that he could hardly expect to accomplish the complete design. He then adds fresh traits to his portrait of the true "gnostic." Self-sacrifice, martyrdom, lie at the root of his nature (8–56; 72–77), virtues within the reach of all states and of both sexes (57–71), though even this required to be guarded against fanaticism and misunderstanding (78–96). Other virtues, as love and endurance, are touched upon (97–119); and then Clement gives a picture of a godly woman (120–131), and of the gnostic, who rises above fear and hope to that perfection which rests in the knowledge and love of God (132–174). In the fifth book Clement, following the outline laid down (iv. 1), discusses faith and hope (§§ 1–18), and then passes to the principle of enigmatic teaching. This, he argues, was followed by heathen and Jewish masters alike (19–26); by Pythagoras (27–31); by Moses, in the ordinances of the tabernacle (32–41); by the Aegyptians (42–44); and by many others (45–56). The principle itself is, he maintains, defensible on intelligible grounds (57–60), and supported by the authority of the apostles (61–67). For in fact the knowledge of God can be gained only through serious effort and by divine help (68–89). This review of the character and sources of the highest knowledge leads Clement back to his characteristic proposition that the Greeks borrowed from the Jews the noblest truths of their own philosophy. The sixth and seventh books are designed, as Clement states (vi. § 1) to shew the character of the Christian philosopher (the gnostic), and so to make it clear that he alone is the true worshipper of God. By way of prelude Clement repeats and enforces (§§ 4–38) what he had said on Greek plagiarisms, yet admitting that the Greeks had some true knowledge of God (39–43), and affirming that the gospel was preached in Hades to those of them who had lived according to their light (44–53), though that was feeble compared with the glory of the gospel (54–70). He then sketches the lineaments of the Christian philosopher, who attains to a perfectly passionless state (71–79) and masters for the service of the faith all forms of knowledge, including various mysteries open to him only (80–114). The reward of this true philosopher is proportioned to his attainments (115–148). These are practically unlimited in range, for Greek philosophy, though a gift of God for the training of the nations, is only a recreation for the Christian philosopher in comparison with the serious objects of his study (149–168). In the seventh book Clement regards the Christian philosopher as the one true worshipper of God (§§ 1–5), striving to become like the Son of God (5–21), even as the heathen conversely made their gods like themselves (22–27). The soul is his temple; prayers and thanksgivings, his sacrifice; truth, the law of his life (28–54). Other traits are added to the portraiture of "the gnostic" (55–88); and Clement then meets the general objection urged against Christianity from the conflict of rival sects (89–92). Heresy, he replies, can be detected by two tests. It is opposed to the testimony of Scripture (93–105); and it is of recent origin (106–108). At the close of the seventh book Clement remarks that he "shall proceed with his argument from a fresh beginning" (τῶν ἑξῆς ἀπ ἄλλης ἀρχῆς ποιησόμεθα τὸν λόγον ). The phrase may mean that he proposes to enter upon a new division of the Miscellanies , or that he will now pass to another portion of the great system of writings sketched out in Strom. iv. 1–3. In favour of the first opinion it may be urged that Eusebius ( H. E. vi. 13) and Photius ( Cod. 109) expressly mention eight books of the Miscellanies ; while on the other hand the words themselves, taken in connexion with vii. 1, point rather to the commencement of a new book. The fragment which bears the title of the eighth book in the one remaining MS. is in fact a piece of a treatise on logic. It may naturally have served as an introduction to the examination of the opinions of Greek philosophers, the interpretation of Scripture, and the refutation of heresies which were the general topics of the second principal member of Clement's plan (iv. 2); but it is not easy to see how it could have formed the close of the Miscellanies . It is "a fresh beginning" and nothing more. In the time of Photius (c. a.d. 850) the present fragment was reckoned as the eighth book in some copies, and in others the tract, On the Rich Man that is Saved ( Bibl. 111). Still further confusion is indicated by the fact that passages from the Extracts from the Prophetical Writings are quoted from "the eighth book of the Miscellanies " (Bunsen, Anal. Ante-Nic. i. 288 f.), and also from "the eighth book of the Outlines " (id. 285); while the discussion of prophecy was postponed from the Miscellanies to some later opportunity ( Strom. vii. 1, cf. iv. 2). Perhaps the simplest solution is to suppose that at a very early date the logical introduction to the Outlines was separated from the remainder of the work, and added to MSS. of the Miscellanies . In this way the opinion would arise that there were 8 books of the Miscellanies , and scribes supplied the place of bk. viii. according to their pleasure.
IV. The Outlines ( Ὑποτυπώσεις ) probably grew out of the Miscellanies . Several express quotations from the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th books of the Outlines have been preserved; but the fragments are too few and Clement's method too desultory to allow these to furnish a certain plan of the arrangement of the work. They agree, however, fairly with the summary description of Photius, and probably books i.–iii. contained the general introduction, with notes on the O.T. ("Genesis, Exodus, and the Psalms"); books iv.-vi., notes on the Epp. of St. Paul; books vii. vii i., on the Catholic Epp.
In addition to the detached quotations, there can be no reasonable doubt that the three series of extracts, (a) The summaries from the expositions of Theodotus and the so-called Western school , (b) The selections from the comments on the prophets , and (c) The outlines on the Catholic Epistles , were taken from the Outlines . But partly from the method of compilation, partly from the manner in which they have been preserved in a single MS., these fragments, though of the deepest interest, are at present only imperfectly intelligible.
(a ) The summaries from Theodotus ( ἐκ τῶν Θεοδότου καὶ τῆς ἀνατολικῆς καλουμένης διδασκαλίας κατὰ τοὺς Οὐαλεντίνου χρόνους ἐπιτομαί ) are at once the most corrupt and the most intrinsically difficult of the extracts. It appears as if the compiler set down hastily the passages which contained the interpretations of the school which he wished to collect, without regard to the context, and often in an imperfect form. Sometimes he adds the criticism of Clement (ἡμεῖς δέ , § 8; Ἐμοὶ δέ , § 17; ὁ ἡμέτερος [2], § 33); but generally the Valentinian comment is given without remark (οἱ ἀπὸ Οὐαλεντίνου , §§ 2, 6, 16, 23, 25; οἱ Ουαλεντινιανοί , §§ 21, 24, 37; ὥς φησιν ὁ Θεόδοτος , §§ 22, 26, 30; φησί , §§ 41, 67; φασί , §§ 33, 35; λέγουσιν , § 43). It follows that in some cases it is uncertain whether Clement quotes a Valentinian author by way of exposition, or adopts the opinion which he quotes. The same ambiguity appears to have existed in the original work; and it is easy to see how Photius, rapidly perusing the treatise, may have attributed to Clement doctrines which he simply recited without approval and without examination. Thus, in the fragments which remain, occasion might be given to charge Clement with false opinions on the nature of the Son (§ 19), on the creation of Eve (§ 21), on the two Words (§§ 6, 7, 19), on Fate (§§ 75 ff.), on the Incarnation (§ 1). There is no perceptible order or connexion in the series of extracts. The beginning and end are equally corrupt. Some sections are quite detached (e.g. §§ 9, 18, 21, 28, 66, etc.); others give a more or less continuous exposition of some mystery: e.g. §§ 10–16 (the nature of spiritual existences); 39–65 (the relations of wisdom, Jesus, the Christ, the demiurge; the material, the animal, the spiritual); 67–86 (birth, fate, baptism).
(b ) The prophetic selections ( ἐκ τῶν προφητικῶν ἐκλογαί ) are for the most part scarcely less desultory and disconnected than the Summaries , but far simpler in style and substance. They commence with remarks on the symbolism of the elements, and mainly of water (§§ 1–8). Then follow fragmentary reflections on discipline (9–11), on knowledge, faith, creation, the new creation (12–24), fire (25 f.), on writing and preaching (27), on traits of the true gnostic (28–37). A long and miscellaneous series of observations, some of them physiological, succeeds (38–50), and the collection closes with a fairly continuous exposition of Psalms 18 (19 ).
Manuscript. —The summaries from Theodotus and the prophetic selections are at present found only in Cod. Flor. (L.). The text given in the edd. of Clement is most corrupt. The conjectural emendations and Latin trans. of J. Bernays, given by Bunsen in his ed. of the fragments of The Outlines ( Anal. Ante-Nic. i.), are by far our most valuable help for the understanding of the text. Dindorf, in his ed., has overlooked these.
(c) The third important fragment of the Outlines consists of a Latin version of notes on detached verses of I. Peter Jude and I. II. John with several insertions probably due in some cases to transpositions in the MS. (e.g. 1 hae namque primitivae virtutes—audita est Pott. p. 1009 stands properly in connexion with the line of speculation on Jud_1:9; and in others to a marginal illustration drawn from some other part of the work (e.g. Jud_1:24 cum dicit Daniel—confusus est). Cassiodorus says (Inst. Div. Litt. 8) that Clement wrote some remarks on I. Peter i. II. John and James which were generally subtle but at times rash; and that he himself translated them into Latin with such revision as rendered their teaching more safe. It has generally been supposed in spite of the difference of range (James for Jude) that these Latin notes are the version of Cassiodorus. It seems however more probable that the printed notes are mere glosses taken from a Catena and not a substantial work. The Adumbrationes were published by de la Bigne in his Bibliotheca Patrum Par. 1575 (and in later editions); but he gives no account of the MS. or MSS. from which the text was taken. Ph. Labbe however states (de Scriptt. Eccles. 1660 i. p. 230) that he saw an ancient parchment MS. "qui fuit olim Coenobii S. Mariae Montis Dei," which contained these Adumbrationes under that title together with Didymus's commentary on the Catholic Epistles. De la Bigne then probably found the notes of Clement in the "very ancient but somewhat illegible MS." from which he took his text of Didymus which follows the Adumbrationes (Bibl. vi. p. 676 n.).
V. The remaining extant work of Clement Who is the Rich Man that is Saved? (τίς ὁ σωζόμενος πλούσιος;) is apparently a popular address based upon Mar_10:17-31. The teaching is simple eloquent and just; and the tract closes with the exquisite "story which is no story" of St. John and the young robber which Eusebius relates in his History (iii. 23).
iii. Clements' Position and Influence as a Christian Teacher.—In order to understand Clement rightly it is necessary to bear in mind that he laboured in a crisis of transition. This gives his writings their peculiar interest in all times of change. The transition was threefold affecting doctrine thought and life. Doctrine was passing from the stage of oral tradition to written definition (1). Thought was passing from the immediate circle of the Christian revelation to the whole domain of human experience (2). Life in its fulness was coming to be apprehended as the object of Christian discipline (3). A few suggestions will be offered upon the first two of these heads. (1) Clement repeatedly affirms that even when he sets forth the deepest mysteries he is simply reproducing an original unwritten tradition. This had been committed by the Lord to the apostles Peter James John and Paul and handed down from father to son till at length he set forth accurately in writing what had been delivered in word (Strom. i. § 11 p. 322; cf. vi. 68 p. 774; and fragm. ap. Eus. H. E. ii. 1). But this tradition was as he held it not an independent source of doctrine but a guide to the apprehension of doctrine. It was not co-ordinate with Scripture but interpretative of Scripture (Strom. vi. 124 f. pp 802 f.; de Div. Sal. § 5 p. 938). It was the help to the training of the Christian philosopher (ὁ γνωστικός) and not part of the heritage of the simple believer. Tradition in this aspect preserved the clue to the right understanding of the hidden sense the underlying harmonies the manifold unity of revelation. More particularly the philosopher was able to obtain through tradition the general principles of interpreting the records of revelation and significant illustrations of their application. In this way the true "gnostic" was saved from the errors of the false "gnostic" or heretic who interpreted Scripture without regard to "the ecclesiastical rule" (Strom. vi. 125 p. 803 κανὼν ἐκκλησιαστικός: ὁ ἐκκλ. κ. ib. vi. 165 p. 826; vii. 41 p. 855; cf. ὁ κανὼν τῆς ἀληθείας ib. vi. 124 p. 802; 131 p. 806; vii. 94 p. 890; ὁ κανὼν τῆς ἐκκλησίας ib. i. 96 p. 375; vii. 105 p. 897). The examples of spiritual interpretation which Clement gives in accordance with this traditional "rule" are frequently visionary and puerile (e.g. Strom. vi. 13
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysia, Martyr at Alexandria
Dionysia (2) , at Alexandria, a.d. 251, mother of many children, who, loving her Lord more than her children, died by the sword, along with the venerable lady Mercuria, without being tried by torture, as the prefect had succeeded so ill with Ammonarion that he was ashamed to go on torturing and being defeated by women (Dion. Alex. ad Fab. ap. Eus. H. E. vi. 41).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius of Alexandria
Dionysius (6) of Alexandria. This "great bishop of Alexandria" (Eus. H. E. vi. Praef. ) and "teacher of the catholic church" (Athan. de Sent. Dion. 6), was born, apparently, of a wealthy and honourable family (Eus. H. E. vii. 11, and Valesius ad loc. ). He was an old man in a.d. 265 (Eus. H. E. vii. 27), and a presbyter in a.d. 233 (Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 69). His parents were Gentiles, and he was led to examine the claims of Christianity by private study ( Ep. Dion. ap. Eus. H. E. vii. 7). His conversion cost him the sacrifice of "worldly glory" (Eus. H. E. vii. 11); but he found in Origen an able teacher ( ib. vi. 29); and Dionysius remained faithful to his master to the last. In the persecutions of Decius he addressed a letter to him On Persecution ( ib. vi. 46), doubtless as an expression of sympathy with his sufferings ( c. A.D. 259), and on the death of Origen (a.d. 253) wrote to Theotecnus bp. of Caesarea in his praise (Steph. Gob. ap. Phot. Cod. 232). Dionysius, then a presbyter, succeeded Heraclas as head of the Catechetical School, at the time, as the words of Eusebius imply, when Heraclas was made bp. of Alexandria, a.d. 232-233 (Eus. l.c. ). He held this office till he was raised to the bishopric, on the death of Heraclas, a.d. 247-248, and perhaps retained it till his death, a.d. 265. His episcopate was in troubled times. A popular outbreak at Alexandria (a.d. 248-249) anticipated by about a year (Eus. H. E. vi. 41) the persecution under Decius (a.d. 249-251). Dionysius fled from Alexandria, and, being afterwards taken by some soldiers, was rescued by a friend, escaping in an obscure retirement from further attacks. In the persecution of Valerian, a.d. 257, he was banished, but continued to direct and animate the Alexandrian church from the successive places of his exile. His conduct on these occasions exposed him to ungenerous criticism, and Eusebius has preserved several interesting passages of a letter ( c. a.d. 258-259), in which he defends himself with great spirit against the accusations of a bp. Germanus ( ib. vi. 40, vii. 11). On the accession of Gallienus, a.d. 260, Dionysius was allowed to return to Alexandria ( ib. vii. 13, 21), where he had to face war, famine, and pestilence ( ib. vii. 22). In a.d. 264-265 he was invited to the synod at Antioch which met to consider the opinions of Paul of Samosata. His age and infirmities did not allow him to go, and he died shortly afterwards (a.d. 265) ( ib. vii. 27, 28; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 69).
Dionysius was active in controversy, but always bore himself with prudence. In this spirit he was anxious to deal gently with the "lapsed" (Eus. H. E. vi. 42); he pressed upon Novatian the duty of self-restraint, for the sake of the peace of the church, a.d. 251 ( ib. vii. 45; Hieron. l.c. ); and with better results counselled moderation in dealing with the rebaptism of heretics, in a correspondence with popes Stephen and Sixtus (a.d. 256-257) (Eus. H. E. vii. 5, 7, 9). His last letter (or letters) regarding Paul of Samosata seem to have been written in a similar strain. He charged the assembled bishops to do their duty, but did not shrink from appealing to Paul also, as still fairly within the reach of honest argument (Theod. Haer. Fab. ii. 8). In one instance Dionysius met with immediate success. In a discussion with a party of Chiliasts he brought his opponents to abandon their error (Eus. H. E. vii. 24.). His own orthodoxy, however, did not always remain unimpeached. When controverting the false teaching of Sabellius, the charge of tritheism was brought against him by some Sabellian adversaries, and entertained at first by his namesake Dionysius of Rome. Discussion shewed that one ground of the misunderstanding was the ambiguity of the words used to describe "essence" and "person," which the two bishops took in different senses. Dionysius of Rome regarded ὑπόστασις as expressing the essence of the divine nature; Dionysius of Alexandria as expressing the essence of each divine person. The former therefore affirmed that to divide the ὑπόστασις was to make separate gods; the latter affirmed with equal justice that there could be no Trinity unless each ὑπόστασις was distinct. The Alexandrine bishop had, however, used other phrases, which were claimed by Arians at a later time as favouring their views. Basil, on hearsay, as it has been supposed (Lumper, Hist. Patrum, xiii. 86 f.), admitted that Dionysius sowed the seeds of the Anomoean heresy ( Ep. i. 9), but Athanasius with fuller knowledge vindicated his perfect orthodoxy. Dionysius has been represented as recognizing the supremacy of Rome in the defence which he made. But the fragments of his answer to his namesake (Athan. de Sent. Dionysii, ἐπέστειλε Διονυσίῳ δηλῶσαι . . . for the use of ἐπιστέλλω see Eus. H. E. vi. 46, etc.) shew the most complete and resolute independence; and there is nothing in the narrative of Athanasius which implies that the Alexandrine bishop recognized, or that the Roman bishop claimed, any dogmatic authority as belonging to the imperial see. To say that a synod was held upon the subject at Rome is an incorrect interpretation of the facts.
Dionysius was a prolific writer. Jerome (l.c. ) has preserved a long but not exhaustive catalogue of his books. Some important fragments remain of his treatises On Nature (Eus. Praep. Ev. xiv. 23 ff.), and On the Promises, in refutation of the Chiliastic views of Nepos (Eus. H. E. iii. 28, vii. 24, 25); of his Refutation and Defence, addressed to Dionysius of Rome, in reply to the accusation of false teaching on the Holy Trinity (Athan. de Sent. Dionysii ; de Synodis, c. 44; de Decr. Syn. Nic. c. 25); of his Commentaries on Ecclesiastes and on St. Luke, and of his books Against Sabellius (Eus. Praep. Ev. vii. 19).
The fragments of his letters are, however, the most interesting extant memorials of his work and character and of his time; and Eusebius, with a true historical instinct, has made them the basis of the sixth and seventh books of his history. The following will shew the wide ground covered:
a.d. 251.—To Domitius and Didymus. Personal experiences during persecution (Eus. H. E. vii. 11).
a.d. 251-252.—To Novatian, to the Roman Confessors, to Cornelius of Rome, Fabius of Antioch, Conon of Hermopolis; and to Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, Laodicaea, Armenia, on discipline and repentance, with pictures from contemporary history (ib. vi. 41, and vii. 45).
a.d. 253-257.—To Stephen of Rome, the Roman presbyters Dionysius and Philemon, Sixtus II. of Rome on Rebaptism (ib. vii. 4, 5, 7, 9).
a.d. 258-263.—To Germanus: incidents in persecution. Against Sabellians. A series of festal letters, with pictures of contemporary history (ib. vii. 11, 22 ff., 26).
a.d. 264.—To Paul of Samosata (vi. 40).
To these, of some of which only the titles remain, must be added an important canonical letter to Basilides, of uncertain date, discussing various questions of discipline, and especially points connected with the Lenten fast (cf. Dittrich, pp. 46 ff.). All the fragments repay careful study. They are uniformly inspired by sympathy and large-heartedness. His criticism on the style of the Apocalypse is perhaps unique among early writings for clearness and scholarly precision (Eus. H. E. vii. 25).
The most accessible and complete collection of his remains is in Migne's Patr. Gk. x. pp. 1233 ff., 1575 ff., to which must be added Pitra, Spicil. Solesm. i. 15 ff. A full monograph on Dionysius by Dittrich (Freiburg, 1867) supplements the arts. in Tillemont, Maréchal, Lumper, Moehler. An Eng. trans. of his works is in the Ante-Nicene Lib., and his Letters, etc., have been ed. by Dr. Feltoe for the Camb. Patristic Texts (1904).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria
Dioscorus (1) , patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded Cyril about midsummer 444, receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. 603), from two bishops only. He had served as Cyril's archdeacon. Liberatus says that he had never been married. It is difficult to harmonize the accounts of his character. Theodoret, whose testimony in his favour cannot be suspected, declared in a letter to Dioscorus, soon after his consecration, that the fame of his virtues, and particularly of his modesty and humility, was widely spread (Ep. 60); on the other hand, after he had involved himself in the Monophysite heresy, he was accused of having gravely misconducted himself in the first years of his episcopate (Mansi, vi. 1008). According to a deacon, Ischyrion, Dioscorus had laid waste property, inflicted fines and exile, bought up and sold at a high price the wheat sent by the government to Libya, appropriated and grossly misspent money left by a lady named Peristeria for religious and charitable purposes, received women of notorious character into his house, persecuted Ischyrion as a favourite of Cyril's, ruined the little estate which was his only support, sent a "phalanx of ecclesiastics, or rather of ruffians," to put him to death, and, after his escape, again sought to murder him in a hospital; in proof, Ischyrion appealed to six persons, one of whom was bath-keeper to Dioscorus ( ib. 1012). According to a priest named Athanasius, Cyril's nephew, Dioscorus, from the outset of his episcopate ("which he obtained one knows not how," says the petitioner), harassed him and his brother by using influence with the court, so that the brother died of distress, and Athanasius, with his aunts, sister-in-law, and nephews, were bereft of their homes by the patriarch's malignity. He himself was deposed, without any trial, from the priesthood, and became, perforce, a wanderer for years. According to a layman named Sophronius, Dioscorus hindered the execution of an imperial order which Sophronius had obtained for the redress of a grievous wrong. "The country," he said, "belonged to him rather than to the sovereigns" ( τῶν κρατούντων ). Sophronius averred that legal evidence was forthcoming to prove that Dioscorus had usurped, in Egypt, the authority belonging to the emperor. He added that Dioscorus had taken away his clothes and property, and compelled him to flee for his life; and he charged him, further, with adultery and blasphemy (ib. 1029). Such accusations were then so readily made—as the life of St. Athanasius himself shews—that some deduction must be made from charges brought against Dioscorus in the hour of his adversity; and wrongs done by his agents may have been in some cases unfairly called his acts. Still, it is but too likely that there was sufficient truth in them to demonstrate the evil effects on his character of elevation to a post of almost absolute power; for such, in those days, was the great "evangelical throne." We find him, before the end of his first year, in correspondence with pope Leo the Great, who gave directions, as from the see of St. Peter, to the new successor of St. Mark; writing, on June 21, 445, that "it would be shocking ( nefas ) to believe that St. Mark formed his rules for Alexandria otherwise than on the Petrine model " (Ep. 11). In 447 Dioscorus appears among those who expressed suspicion of the theological character of Theodoret, who had been much mixed up with the party of Nestorius. It was rumoured that, preaching at Antioch, he had practically taught Nestorianism; and Dioscorus, hearing this, wrote to Domnus, bp. of Antioch, Theodoret's patriarch; whereupon Theodoret wrote a denial ( Ep. 83) ending with an anathema against all who should deny the holy Virgin to be Theotokos, call Jesus a mere man, or divide the one Son into two. Dioscorus still assumed the truth of the charge (Theod. Ep. 86), allowed Theodoret to be anathematized in church, and even rose from his throne to echo the malediction, and sent some bishops to Constantinople to support him against Theodoret.
Then, in Nov. 448, the aged Eutyches, archimandrite of Constantinople and a vehement enemy of Nestorianizers, was accused by Eusebius, bp. of Dorylaeum, before a council of which Flavian was president, with an opposite error. He clung tenaciously to the phrase, "one incarnate nature of God the Word," which Cyril had used on the authority of St. Athanasius; but neglected the qualifications and explanations by which Cyril had guarded his meaning. Thus, by refusing to admit that Christ, as incarnate, had "two natures," Eutyches appeared to his judges to have revived, in effect, the Apollinarian heresy—to have denied the distinctness and verity of Christ's manhood; and he was deprived of his priestly office, and excommunicated. His patron, the chamberlain Chrysaphius, applied to Dioscorus for aid, promising to support him in all his designs if he would take up the cause of Eutyches against Flavian (Niceph. xiv. 47). Eutyches himself wrote to Dioscorus, asking him "to examine his cause" (Liberat. c. 12), and Dioscorus, zealous against all anti-Cyrilline tendencies in theology, wrote to the emperor, urging him to call a general council to review Flavian's judgment. Theodosius, influenced by his wife and his chamberlain, issued letters (Mar 30, 449), ordering the chief prelates (patriarchs, as we may call them, and exarchs) to repair, with some of their bishops, to Ephesus by Aug. 1, 449 (Mansi, vi. 587).
This council of evil memory—on which Leo afterwards fastened the name of "Latrocinium," or gang of robbers—met on Aug. 8, 449, in St. Mary's church at Ephesus, the scene of the third general council's meeting in 431; 150 bishops being present. Dioscorus presided, and next to him Julian, or Julius, the representative of the "most holy bishop of the Roman church," then Juvenal of Jerusalem, Domnus of Antioch, and—his lowered position indicating what was to come—Flavian of Constantinople (ib. 607). The archbp. of Alexandria shewed himself a partisan throughout. He did indeed propose the acceptance of Leo's letter to the council, a letter written at the same time as, and expressly referring to, the famous "Tome"; but it was only handed in, not read, Juvenal moving that another imperial letter should be read and recorded. The president then intimated that the council's business was not to frame a new doctrinal formulary, but to inquire whether what had lately appeared—meaning, the statements of Flavian and bp. Eusebius on the one hand, those of Eutyches on the other—were accordant with the decisions of the councils of Nicaea and Ephesus—"two councils in name," said he, "but one in faith" ( ib. 628). Eutyches was then introduced, and made his statement, beginning, "I commend myself to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and the true verdict of your justice." After he had finished his address, Flavian desired that Eusebius, who had been his accuser, should be called in and heard. Elpidius, the imperial commissioner, vetoed this proposal on the ground that the judges of Eutyches were now to be judged, and that his accuser had already fulfilled his task, "and, as he thought, successfully": to let him speak now would be a cause of mere disturbance ( ib. 645). This unjudicial view of the case was supported by Dioscorus. Flavian was baffled, and the council resolved to hear the acts of the synod of Constantinople which had condemned Eutyches. The episcopal deputy of Leo, with his companion the deacon Hilarus, urged that "the pope's letter" (probably including the "Tome" in this proposal) should be read first, but this was overruled; Dioscorus moved that the "acts" should be first read, and then the letter of the bp. of Rome. The reading began ( ib. 649). When the passage was reached in which Basil of Seleucia and Seleucus of Amasia had said that the one Christ was in two natures after the incarnation, a storm of wrath broke out. "Let no one call the Lord 'two' after the union! Do not divide the undivided! Seleucus was not bp. of Amasia! This is Nestorianism." "Be quiet for a little," said Dioscorus; "let us hear some more blasphemies. Why are we to blame Nestorius only? There are many Nestoriuses" ( ib. 685). The reading proceeded as far as Eusebius's question to Eutyches, "Do you own two natures after the incarnation?" Then arose another storm: "The holy synod exclaimed, 'Away with Eusebius, burn him, let him be burnt alive! Let him be cut in two—be divided, even as he divided!'" "Can you endure," asked Dioscorus, "to hear of two natures after the incarnation?" "Anathema to him that says it!" was the reply. "I have need of your voices and your hands too," rejoined Dioscorus; "if any one cannot shout, let him stretch out his hand." Another anathema rang out ( ib. 737). Another passage, containing a statement of belief by Eutyches, was heard with applause. "We accept this statement," said Dioscorus. "This is the faith of the Fathers," exclaimed the bishops. "of what faith do you say this?" asked Dioscorus. "of Eutyches's: for Eusebius is impious" ( ἀσεβής , ib. 740). Similar approbation was given to another passage containing the characteristic formula of Eutychianism: "I confess that our Lord was of two natures before the incarnation; but after the incarnation [1] I confess one nature." "We all agree to this," said Dioscorus. "We agree," said the council ( ib. 744). Presently came a sentence in which Basil of Seleucia had denounced the denial of two natures after the incarnation as equivalent to the assertion of a commixture and a fusion. This aroused once more the zealots of the Alexandrian party; one bishop sprang forward, shouting, "This upsets the whole church!" The Egyptians and the monks, led by Barsumas, cried out, "Cut him in two, who says two natures! He is a Nestorian!" Basil's nerves gave way; he lost, as he afterwards said, his perceptions, bodily and mental ( ib. 636). He began to say that he did not remember whether he had uttered the obnoxious words, but that he had meant to say, "If you do not add the word 'incarnate' to 'nature,' as Cyril did, the phrase 'one nature' implies a fusion." Juvenal asked whether his words had been wrongly reported; he answered helplessly, "I do not recollect" ( ib. 748). He seems to have been coerced into a formal retractation of the phrase "two natures"; but he added "hypostases" as explanatory of "natures," and professed to "adore the one nature of the Godhead of the Only-begotten, who was made man and incarnate" ( ib. 828). Eutyches declared that the acts of the Constantinopolitan synod had been tampered with. "It is false," said Flavian. "If Flavian," said Dioscorus, "knows anything which supports his opinion, let him put it in writing . . . No one hinders you, and the council knows it." Flavian then said that the acts had been scrutinized, and no falsification had been found in them; that, for himself, he had always glorified God by holding what he then held. Dioscorus called on the bishops to give their verdict as to the theological statements of Eutyches. They acquitted him of all unsoundness, as faithful to Nicene and Ephesian teaching. Domnus expressed regret for having mistakenly condemned him ( ib. 836). Basil of Seleucia spoke like the rest. Flavian, of course, was silent. Dioscorus spoke last, affirming the judgments of the council, and "adding his own opinion." Eutyches was "restored" to his presbyterial rank and his abbatial dignity ( ib. 861). His monks were then released from the excommunication incurred at Constantinople. The doctrinal decisions of the Ephesian council of 431, in its first and sixth sessions, were then read. Dioscorus proposed that these decisions, with those of Nicaea, should be recognized as an unalterable standard of orthodoxy; that whoever should say or think otherwise, or should unsettle them, should be put under censure. "Let each one of you speak his mind on this. "Several bishops assented. Hilarus, the Roman deacon, testified that the apostolic see reverenced those decisions, and that its letter, if read, would prove this. Dioscorus called in some secretaries, who brought forward a draft sentence of deposition against Flavian and Eusebius, on the ground that the Ephesian council had enacted severe penalties against any who should frame or propose any other creed than the Nicene. Flavian and Eusebius were declared to have constructively committed this offence by "unsettling almost everything, and causing scandal and confusion throughout the churches." Their deposition was decided upon ( ib. 907). Onesiphorus, bp. of Iconium, with some others, went up to Dioscorus, clasped his feet and knees, and passionately entreated him not to go to such extremities. "He has done nothing worthy of deposition . . . . if he deserves condemnation, let him be condemned." "It must be," said Dioscorus in answer; "if my tongue were to be cut out for it, I would still say so. "They persisted, and he, starting from his throne, stood up on the footstool and exclaimed, "Are you getting up a sedition? Where are the counts?" Military officers, soldiers with swords and sticks, even the proconsul with chains, entered at his call. He peremptorily commanded the bishops to sign the sentence, and with a fierce gesture of the hand exclaimed, "He that does not choose to sign must reckon with me ." A scene of terrorism followed. Those prelates who were reluctant to take part in the deposition were threatened with exile, beaten by the soldiers, denounced as heretics by the partisans of Dioscorus, and by the crowd of fanatical monks (ib. vii. 68) who accompanied Barsumas, until they put their names to a blank paper on which the sentence was to be written (ib. vi. 601 seq. 625, 637, 988). They afterwards protested that they had signed under compulsion. Basil of Seleucia declared that he had given way because he was "given over to the judgment of 120 or 130 bishops; had he been dealing with magistrates, he would have suffered martyrdom." "The Egyptians," says Tillemont, "who signed willingly enough, did so after the others had been made to sign" (xv. 571; cf. Mansi, vi. 601).
Flavian's own fate was the special tragedy of the Latrocinium. He had lodged in the hands of the Roman delegates a formal appeal to the pope and the Western bishops (not to the pope alone; see Leo, Ep. 43, Tillemont, xv. 374). It was nearly his last act. He was brutally treated, kicked, and beaten by the agents of Dioscorus, and even, we are told, by Dioscorus himself (see Evagr. i. 1; Niceph. xiv. 47). He was then imprisoned, and soon exiled, but died in the hands of his guards, from the effect of his injuries, three days after his deposition (Liberatus, Brev. 19), Aug. 11, 449 He was regarded as a martyr for the doctrine of "the two natures in the one person" of Christ. Anatolius, who had been the agent ( apocrisiarius ) of Dioscorus at Constantinople, was appointed his successor.
Dioscorus and his council—as we may well call it—proceeded to depose Theodoret and several other bishops; "many," says Leo, "were expelled from their sees, and banished, because they would not accept heresy" (Ep. 93). Theodoret was put under a special ban. "They ordered me," he writes ( Ep. 140), "to be excluded from shelter, from water, from everything."
Confusion now pervaded the Eastern churches. It was impossible to acquiesce in the proceedings of the "Latrocinium." Leo bestirred himself to get a new oecumenical council held in Italy: the imperial family in the West supported this, but Theodosius II. persisted in upholding the late council. In the spring of 450 Dioscorus took a new and exceptionally audacious step. At Nicaea, on his way to the court, he caused ten bishops whom he had brought from Egypt to sign a document excommunicating pope Leo (Mansi, vi. 1009, 1148; vii. 104), doubtless on the ground that Leo was endeavouring to quash the canonical decisions of a legitimate council. His cause, however, was ruined when the orthodox Pulcheria succeeded to the empire, and gave her hand to Marcian, this event leading to a new council at Chalcedon on Oct. 8, 451, which Dioscorus attended. The deputies of Leo come first, then Anatolius, Dioscorus, Maximus, Juvenal. At first Dioscorus sat among those bishops who were on the right of the chancel (ib. vi. 580). The Roman deputies on the opposite side desired, in the name of Leo, that Dioscorus should not sit in the council. The magistrates, who acted as imperial commissioners (and were the effective presidents), asked what was charged against him? Paschasinus, the chief Roman delegate, answered, "When he comes in" ( i.e. after having first gone out) "it will be necessary to state objections against him." The magistrates desired again to hear the charge. Lucentius, another delegate, said, "He has presumed to hold a synod without leave of the apostolic see, which has never been done." (Rome did not recognize the "second general council" of 381; which, in fact, was not then owned as general.) "We cannot," said Paschasinus, "transgress the apostolic pope's orders." "We cannot," added Lucentius, "allow such a wrong as that this man should sit in the council, who is come to be judged." "If you claim to judge," replied the magistrates sharply, "do not be accuser too." They bade Dioscorus sit in the middle by himself, and the Roman deputies sat down and said no more. Eusebius of Dorylaeum asked to be heard against Dioscorus. "I have been injured by him; the faith has been injured; Flavian was killed, after he and I had been unjustly deposed by Dioscorus. Command my petition to the emperors to be read." It was read by Beronicianus, the secretary of the imperial consistory, and stated that "at the recent council at Ephesus, this good ( χρηστός ) Dioscorus, disregarding justice, and supporting Eutyches in heresy—having also gained power by bribes, and assembled a disorderly multitude—did all he could to ruin the Catholic faith, and to establish the heresy of Eutyches, and condemned us: I desire, therefore, that he be called to account, and that the records of his proceedings against us be examined." Dioscorus, preserving his self-possession, answered, "The synod was held by the emperor's order; I too desire that its acts against Flavian may be read"; but added, "I beg that the doctrinal question be first considered." "No," said the magistrates, "the charge against you must first be met; wait until the acts have been read, as you yourself desired." The letter of Theodosius, convoking the late council, was read. The magistrates then ordered that Theodoret should be brought in, because Leo had "restored to him his episcopate," and the emperor had ordered him to attend the council. He entered accordingly. The Egyptians and some other bishops shouted, "Turn out the teacher of Nestorius!" Others rejoined, "We signed a blank paper; we were beaten, and so made to sign. Turn out the enemies of Flavian and of the faith!" "Why," asked Dioscorus, "should Cyril be ejected?" (i.e. virtually, by the admission of Theodoret). His adversaries turned fiercely upon him: "Turn out Dioscorus the homicide!" Ultimately the magistrates ruled that Theodoret should sit down, but in the middle of the assembly, and that his admission should not prejudice any charge against him ( ib. 592). The reading went on; at the letter giving Dioscorus the presidency, he remarked that Juvenal, and Thalassius of Caesarea, were associated with him, that the synod had gone with him, and that Theodosius had confirmed its decrees. Forthwith, a cry arose from the bishops whom he had intimidated at Ephesus. "Not one of us signed voluntarily. We were overawed by soldiers." Dioscorus coolly said that if the bishops had not understood the merits of the case, they ought not to have signed. The reading was resumed. Flavian being named, his friends asked why he had been degraded to the fifth place? The next interruption was in reference to the suppression, at the Latrocinium, of Leo's letter. Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, said it had not even been "received." "But," said Dioscorus, "the acts shew that I proposed that it should be read. Let others say why it was not read." "What others?" "Juvenal and Thalassius." Juvenal, on being questioned, said, "The chief notary told us that he had an imperial letter; I answered that it ought to come first; no one afterwards said that he had in his hands a letter from Leo." Thalassius (evidently a weak man, though holding the great see of St. Basil) said that he had not power, of himself, to order the reading of the letter ( ib. 617). At another point the "Orientals," the opponents of Dioscorus, objected that the acts of Ephesus misrepresented their words. Dioscorus replied, "Each bishop had his own secretaries . . . taking down the speeches." Stephen of Ephesus then narrated the violence done to his secretaries: Acacias of Arianathia described the coercion scene. When the reader came to Dioscorus's words, "I examine the decrees of the Fathers" (councils), Eusebius said, "See, he said, 'I examine'; and I do the same." Dioscorus caught him up: "I said 'examine,' not 'innovate.' Our Saviour bade us examine the Scriptures; that is not innovating." "He said, Seek, and ye shall find," retorted Eusebius ( ib. 629). One bishop objected to the record of "Guardian of the faith" as an acclamation in honour of Dioscorus, "No one said that." "They want to deny all that is confessed to be the fact," said Dioscorus; "let them next say they were not there." At the words of Eutyches, "I have observed the definitions of the council," i.e. the Ephesian decree against adding to the Nicene faith, Eusebius broke in, "He lied! There is no such definition, no canon prescribing this." "There are four copies," said Dioscorus calmly, "which contain it. What bishops have defined, is it not a definition? It is not a canon: a canon is a different thing." The bp. of Cyzicus referred to the additions made in the council of 381 to the original Nicene creed ( e.g. "of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary"). The Egyptians disclaimed all such additions. (Cyril, in fact, had never acknowledged that revised version of the Nicene formulary.) There was some further criticism of the profession of faith made by Eutyches; whereupon Dioscorus said, "If Eutyches has any heterodox opinion, he deserves not only to be punished, but to be burnt! My only object is to preserve the Catholic faith, not that of any man. I look to God, and not to any individual; I care for nothing but my own soul and the right faith" ( ib. 633). Basil of Seleucia described what had taken place as regarded his own statements. "If you taught in such a Catholic tone," said the magistrates, "why did you sign the deposition of Flavian?" Basil pleaded the compulsory authority of a council of bishops. "On your own shewing," said Dioscorus, "you betrayed the faith for fear of men." Others who had given way with Basil cried, "We all sinned; we all ask pardon." "But," said the magistrates, "you said at first that you had been forced to sign a blank paper." The "peccavimus" was reiterated ( ib. 639). When the reader came to the failure of Flavian's attempt to get Eusebius a hearing, Dioscorus threw the responsibility on Elpidius; so did Juvenal. Thalassius only said, "It was not my doing." "Such a defence," said the magistrates, "is no defence when the faith is concerned." "If," said Dioscorus, "you blame me for obeying Elpidius, were no rules broken when Theodoret was brought in?" "He came in as accuser." "Why then does he now sit in the rank of a bishop?" "He and Eusebius sit as accusers," was the answer; "and you sit as accused" ( ib. 649). Afterwards the magistrates recurred to this topic: "Eusebius, at Constantinople, when accusing Eutyches, himself asked that Eutyches should be present. Why was not a like course taken at Ephesus?" No one answered ( ib. 656). Cyril's letter to John of Antioch, "Laetentur coeli," was read as part of the acts of Ephesus. Theodoret, by way of clearing himself, anathematized the assertion of "two Sons." All the bishops—so the acts of Chalcedon say expressly—cried out, "We believe as did Cyril; we did so believe, and we do . Anathema to whoever does not so believe." The opponents of Dioscorus then claimed Flavian as in fact of one mind with Cyril, as clear of Nestorianism. The "Easterns" added, "Leo believes so, Anatolius believes so." There was universal protestation of agreement with Cyril, including even the magistrates, who answered, as it were, for Marcian and Pulcheria. Then came a fierce outcry against Dioscorus. "out with the murderer of Flavian—the parricide!" The magistrates asked, "Why did you receive to communion Eutyches, who holds the opposite to this belief? Why condemn Flavian and Eusebius who agree with it?" "The records," answered Dioscorus, "will shew the truth." Presently, in regard to some words of Eustathius of Berytus, adopting Cyril's phrase, "one incarnate nature," as Athanasian, the Easterns cried, "Eutyches thinks thus, so does Dioscorus." Dioscorus shewed that he was careful to disclaim, even with anathema, all notions of a "confusion, or commixture," of Godhead and manhood in Christ. The magistrates asked whether the canonical letters of Cyril, recently read (i.e. his second letter to Nestorius, Mansi, vi. 660, and his letter to John, ib. 665, not including the third letter to Nestorius, to which the 12 anathemas were annexed) bore out the language as cited from Eustathius. Eustathius held up the book from which he had taken Cyril's language. "If I spoke amiss, here is the manuscript: let it be anathematized with me!" He repeated Cyril's letter to Acacius by heart, and then explained: "One nature" did not exclude the flesh of Christ, which was co-essential with us; and "two natures" was a heterodox phrase if ( i.e. only if) it was used for a "division" of His person. "Why then did you depose Flavian?" "I erred" ( ib. v. 677). Flavian's own statement, that Christ was of two natures after the incarnation, in one hypostasis and one person, etc., was then considered; several bishops, in turn, approved of it, including Paschasinus, Anatolius, Maximus, Thalassius, Eustathius. The Easterns called "archbp. Flavian" a martyr. "Let his next words be read," said Dioscorus; "you will find that he is inconsistent with himself." Juvenal, who had been sitting on the right, now went over to the left, and the Easterns welcomed him. Peter of Corinth, a young bishop, did the same, owning that Flavian held with Cyril; the Easterns exclaimed, "Peter thinks as does" (St.) "Peter." Other bishops spoke similarly. Dioscorus, still undaunted, said, "The reason why Flavian was condemned was plainly this, that he asserted two natures after the incarnation. I have passages from the Fathers, Athanasius, Gregory, Cyril, to the effect that after the incarnation there were not two natures, but one incarnate nature of the Word. If I am to be expelled, the Fathers will be expelled with me. I am defending their doctrine; I do not deviate from them at all; I have not got these extracts carelessly, I have verified them" ( ib. vi. 684; see note in Oxf. ed. of Fleury, vol. iii. p. 348). After more reading, he said, "I accept the phrase 'of two natures,' but I do not accept 'two'" ( i.e. he would not say, "Christ has now two natures"). "I am obliged to speak boldly ( ἀναισχυντεῖν ); I am speaking for my own soul." "Was Flavian," asked Paschasinus, "allowed such freedom of speech as this man takes?" "No," said the magistrates significantly; "but then this council is being carried on with justice" ( ib. 692). Some time later the Easterns denied that the whole council at Ephesus had assented to Eutyches's language; it was the language of "that Pharaoh, Dioscorus the homicide." Eustathius, wishing, he said, to promote a good understanding, asked whether "two natures" meant "two divided natures." "No," said Basil, "neither divided nor confused" ( ib. 744) Basil afterwards, with Onesiphorus, described the coercion used as to the signatures ( ib. 827). The reading went on until it was necessary to light the candles ( ib. 901). At last they came to the signatures; then the magistrates proposed that as the deposition had been proved unjust, Dioscorus, Juvenal, Thalassius, Eusebius of Ancyra, Eustathius, and Basil, as leaders in the late synod, should be deposed; but this, it appears ( ib. 976, 1041), was a provisional sentence, to be further considered by the council. It was received with applause, "A just sentence! Christ has deposed Dioscorus! God has vindicated the martyrs!" The magistrates desired that each bishop should give in a carefully framed statement of belief conformable to the Nicene "exposition," to that of the 150 Fathers (of Constantinople, in 381), to the canonical epistles and expositions of the Fathers, Gregory, Basil, Athanasius, Hilary, Ambrose, and Cyril's two canonical epistles published and confirmed in the first Ephesian council, adding that Leo had written a letter to Flavian against Eutyches. So ended the first session ( ib. 935).
The second session was held Oct. 10 (ib. 937); Dioscorus was absent. After some discussion as to making an exposition of faith, which led to the reading of the creed in its two forms—both of which were accepted—and of Cyril's "two canonical epistles," and of Leo's letter to Flavian (the Tome), which was greeted with "Peter has spoken by Leo; Cyril taught thus; Leo and Cyril have taught alike," but to parts of which some objection was taken by one bishop, and time given for consideration, the usual exclamations were made, among which we find that of the Illyrians, "Restore Dioscorus to the synod, to the churches! We have all offended, let all be forgiven!" while the enemies of Dioscorus called for his banishment, and the clerics of Constantinople said that he who communicated with him was a Jew ( ib. 976). In the third session, Sat. Oct. 13, the magistrates not being present, a memorial to the council from Eusebius of Dorylaeum, setting forth charges against Dioscorus, was read ( ib. 985). It then appeared that Dioscorus had been summoned, like other bishops, to the session, and intimated his willingness to come; but his guards prevented him. Two priests, sent to search for him, could not find him in the precincts of the church. Three bishops, sent with a notary, found him, and said, "The holy council begs your Holiness to attend its meeting." "I am under guard," said he; "I am hindered by the officers" ( magistriani, the subordinates of the "master of the offices," or "supreme magistrate of the palace," see Gibbon, ii. 326); and, after two other summonses, positively and finally refused to come. He had nothing more to say than he had said to former envoys. They begged him to reconsider it. "If your Holiness knows that you are falsely accused, the council is not far off; do take the trouble to come and refute the falsehood." "What I have said, I have said; it is enough." They desisted, and reported their failure. "Do you order that we proceed to ecclesiastical penalties against him?" asked Paschasinus, addressing the council. "Yes, we agree." One bishop said bitterly, "When he murdered holy Flavian, he did not adduce canons, nor proceed by church forms." The Roman delegates proposed a sentence, to this effect: "Dioscorus has received Eutyches, though duly condemned by Flavian, into communion. The apostolic see excuses those who were coerced by Dioscorus at Ephesus, but who are obedient to archbp. Leo" (as president) "and the council; but this man glories in his crime. He prevented Leo's letter to Flavian" (the acts of Ephesus say the letter to the council, v. supra ) "from being read. He has presumed to excommunicate Leo. He has thrice refused to come and answer to charges. Therefore Leo, by us and the council, together with St. Peter, the rock of the church, deprives him of episcopal and sacerdotal dignity" (ib. 1045). A lett
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Eusebius of Alexandria, a Writer of Sermons
Eusebius (5) , of Alexandria, a writer of sermons, about whom Galland says "all is uncertain; nothing can be affirmed on good grounds as to his age or as to his bishopric" (Bibl. Patr. viii. p. xxiii.). It is uncertain whether he belongs to the 5th or the 6th cent. A complete list of sermons is given by Mai, as follows: 1. On Fasting. 2. On Love. 3. On the Incarnation and its Causes. 4. On Thankfulness in Sickness. 5. On Imparting Grace to him that Lacks it. 6. On Sudden Death, or, Those that Die by Snares. 7. On New Moon, Sabbath, and on not Observing the Voices of Birds. 8. On Commemoration of Saints. 9. On Meals, at such festivals. 10. On the Nativity. 11. On the Baptism of Christ. 12. On "Art thou He that should come?" 13. On the Coming of John into Hades, and on the Devil. 14. On the Treason of Judas. 15. On the Devil and Hades. 16. On the Lord's Day. 17. On the Passion, for the Preparation Day. 18. On the Resurrection. 19. On the Ascension. 20. On the Second Advent. 21. On "Astronomers." 22. On Almsgiving, and on the Rich Man and Lazarus. He adheres to the Catholic doctrines of the Trinity and the Incarnation. He uses the ordinary Eastern phrase, "Christ our God," speaks of Him as Maker of the world, as Master of the creation, as present from the beginning with the prophets, and as the Lord of Isaiah's vision. He calls the Holy Spirit consubstantial with the Father and the Son; in the sermon on Almsgiving he calls the Virgin Mother "Ever-Virgin," "Theotokos," and "our undefiled Lady.", He insists on free will and responsibility. "God . . . saith, 'If you do not choose to hear Me, I do not compel you.' God could make thee good against thy will, but what is involuntary is unrewarded. . . . If He wrote it down that I was to commit sin, and I do commit it, why does He judge me?" If a man means to please God, "God holds out a hand to him straightway," etc. Before a man renounces the world (by a monastic vow), let him try himself, know his own soul. He who fasts must fast with "tongue, eyes, hands, feet"; his whole "body, soul, and spirit" must be restrained from all sinful indulgence. "Fast, as the Lord said, in cheerfulness, with sincere love to all men. But when you have done all this, do not think you are better than A. or B. Say you are unprofitable servants." People are not to blame wine, but those who drink it to excess; nor riches, but the man who administers them ill. Abraham had riches, but they harmed him not, etc. Some sentences shew a true spiritual insight: "What sort of righteousness exceeds the rest? Love, for without it no good comes of any other. What sin is worst? All sin is dreadful, but none is worse than covetousness and remembrance of injuries" (Serm. On Love ). He has humour, too, which must have told: "on Sundays the herald calls people to church; everybody says he is sleepy, or unwell. Hark! a sound of harp or pipe, a noise of dancing: all hasten that way as if on wings" (Hom. on the Lord's Day , Galland. viii. 253). He depicts vividly the extravagance of Alexandrian wealth; the splendid houses glistening with marble, beds and carpets wrought with gold and pearls, horses with golden bridles and saddles, the crowds of servants of various classes—some to attend the great man when he rides out, some to manage his lands or his house, building, or his kitchen, some to fan him at his meals, to keep the house quiet during his slumber:—the varieties of white bread, the pheasants, geese, peacocks, hares, etc., served up at his table. The Christian should look forward to Sunday, not simply as a day of rest from labour, but as a day of prayer and Communion. Let him come in early morning to church for the Eucharistic service (the features of it are enumerated: the psalmody, the reading of Prophets, of St. Paul, of the Gospels, the Angelic and Seraphic hymns, the ceaseless Alleluia, the exhortations of bishops and presbyters, the presence of Christ "on the sacred table," the "coming" of the Spirit). "If thy conscience is clear, approach, and receive the Body and Blood of the Lord. If it condemns thee in regard to wicked deeds, decline the Communion until thou hast corrected it by repentance, but stay through the prayers [1], and do not go out of the church unless thou art dismissed"; or again, "before the dismissal." He severely blames a layman who tastes food before the Liturgy is over, whether he communicates or not; but denounces those who communicate after eating (as many do on Easter Day itself) as if guilty of a heinous sin. (In this case, as in regard to premature departure from church, he does not scruple to refer to Judas.) He blames those who do not communicate when a priest, known to be of bad life, is the celebrant; for "God turneth not away, and the bread becomes the Body." He reproves those who are disorderly at the vigil services of a saint's festival, and at daybreak rise and cause great disturbances. "Inside the church, the priest is presenting the supplication . . . having set forth ( προτεθεικώς ) the Body and the Blood . . . for the salvation of the world: while, outside, amusements go on." He refers to the different functions of priest, deacon, reader, chanter, and subdeacon (ὐπηρέτης ). He encourages invocation of saints.
Mai calls him a writer delightful from his "ingenuitas," his "Christian ac pastoralis simplicitas," and his "nativum dicendi genus" (Patrum Nov. Biblioth. ii. 499).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria
Euthalius (5) , a deacon of Alexandria, afterwards bp. of Sulca; fl. a.d. 459. This date is confirmed by the fact that his works are dedicated to Athanasius the Younger, who was bp. of Alexandria about that time. Euthalius appears to have been then a deacon, devoted to the study of the N.T. text. He is now best known as the author of the Euthalian Sections.
The books of N.T. were written without any division into chapters verses or words. The first steps towards such a convenient division seem to have proceeded from the wish for easy reference to parallel passages. This was done by what are known as the Ammonian Sections together with the Eusebian Canons.
[1] Ammonius of Alexandria in the 3rd cent. is generally credited with dividing the gospels into sections but the principle had not been applied to other books of N.T. Euthalius introduced a system of division into all those not yet divided except the Apocalypse which spread rapidly over the whole Greek church and has become by its presence or absence a valuable test of the antiquity of a MS. In the Epp. of St. Paul Euthalius tells us he adopted the scheme of a certain "father," whose name is nowhere given. But by his other labours and the further critical apparatus which he supplied Euthalius procured for it the acceptance it soon obtained. In Romans there were 19 capitula; in Galatians 12; in Ephesians 10; in I. Thessalonians 7; in II. Thessalonians 6; in Hebrews 22; in Phm_1:2; and so on.
Three points in connexion with the text especially occupied Euthalius.
(1) The Larger Sections or Lessons. Fixed lessons for public worship no doubt passed from the synagogue into the Christian church, at least as soon as the canon was settled. But there seems to have been little or no uniformity in them. Individual churches had divisions of their own. The scheme proposed by Euthalius, however, speedily became general in all Greek-speaking churches. The whole N.T., except the Gospels and Apocalypse, was divided into 57 portions of very varying length (in Acts there were 16; in the Pauline Epp. 31; 5 in Romans 5 in I. Cor. ; 4 in II. Cor. ; in the Catholic Epp. 10; 2 in James 2 in I. Pe. ; 1 in II. Pe., etc.) Of these, 53 were for Sundays, which seem alone to have been provided for in the Alexandrian Synaxes, and Mill supposes that the other 4 were for Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and Epiphany (Proleg. in N.T. p. 90).
(2) The smaller divisions were the well known στίχοι—i.e. "lines" (Lat. versus) each containing either a few words complete in themselves or as much as it was possible to read without effort at one breath. Like that of the capitula formerly spoken of the plan of these "verses" was not introduced by Euthalius. It had already been adopted in some of the poetical books and in poetical parts of the prose books of the O.T. The LXX had occasionally employed it. It had been sanctioned by Origen. The Vulgate had used it and it is found in the psalms of the Vatican and Sinaitic MSS. It had been partially applied to N.T. for Origen speaks of the 100 στίχοι of II. and III. John. of a few in St. Paul's Epistles and very few in I. John; while Eustathius of Antioch in the 4th cent. is said to reckon 135 from Joh_8:59 to Joh_10:31 (Scrivener Intro. to Codex D p. 17). But these figures shew that many of these divisions cannot have been στίχοι in the strict sense but of very unequal length and generally much larger. What was before partially and imperfectly done Euthalius extended upon better principles and with greater care. In Rom. he made 920 such στίχοι; in Gal. 293; in Eph. 312; in I. Thess. 193; in II. Thess. 106; in Heb. 703; in Philemon 37; and so on.
(3) The third part of his labour was an enumeration of all the quotations from O.T., and even from profane writers, found in those books of N.T. of which he treated. These he numbered in one catalogue; assigned to the various books whence they were taken in a second; and quoted at length in a third. If we may look upon the Argumenta as really the work of Euthalius, and not, as Zacagnius argues ( Praef. p. 60), as the production of a later hand, he went also into the substance and meaning of the books edited by him, as the Argumenta contain short and excellent summaries of them. Euthalius also wrote a short Life of St. Paul, prefixed to his work on the 14 epistles of that apostle, but it is bald and meagre. It has been said that he also wrote comments on Acts and Luke; and that in an ancient catena on Romans there were fragments of his writings; but these statements seem to be incorrect ( ib. p. 71).
In later life he became a bishop, and was known as Episcopus Sulcensis. Scrivener suggests Sulci in Sardinia as the only see of that name (Intr. p. 53, n. 1), but so distant a place is unlikely. Zacagnius thinks that Sulca may represent Psilca, a city of the Thebaid near Syene; but Galland throws doubt on this, and the point must be left unsolved.
His works remained long unknown, but in 1698 they were ed. and pub. at Rome by Laurentius Alexander Zacagnius, praefect of the Vatican Library, in vol. i. of his Collectanea Monumentorum Veterum Ecclesiae Graecae ac Latinae, in the long preface of which different questions relating to Euthalius are discussed with much care. This ed. has been printed in Galland ( Biblioth. Pat. x. 197) and in Migne ( Patr. Gk. lxxxv. 621). Notices of Euthalius may be found in the Prolegomena of N. T. of Wetstein and Mill, and in Scrivener's Intro. to the Criticism of N.T. But much light has recently been thrown on Euthalius by Dean Armitage Robinson in his "Euthaliana" ( Texts and Stud. iii. 3), and in an article "Recent Work on Euthalius" in the Journ. of Theol. Stud. vol. vi. p. 87, Oct. 1904. In the latter art. the recent work on the subject by Von Soden and Zahn is noticed.
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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Alexandria
a famous city of Egypt, and, during the reign of the Ptolemies, the regal capital of that kingdom. It was founded by Alexander the Great: who being struck with the advantageous situation of the spot where the city afterward stood, ordered its immediate erection; drew the plan of the city himself, and peopled it with colonies of Greeks and Jews: to which latter people, in particular, he gave great encouragement. They were, in fact, made free citizens, and had all the privileges of Macedonians granted to them; which liberal policy contributed much to the rise and prosperity of the new city; for this enterprising and commercial people knew much better than either the Greeks or the Egyptians how to turn the happy situation of Alexandria to the best account. The fall of Tyre happening about the same time, the trade of that city was soon drawn to Alexandria, which became the centre of commercial intercourse between the east and the west; and in process of time grew to such an extent, in magnitude and wealth, as to be second in point of population and magnificence to none but Rome itself.
Alexandria owed much of its celebrity as well as its population to the Ptolemies. Ptolemy Soter, one of Alexander's captains, who, after the death of this monarch, was first governor of Egypt, and afterward assumed the title of king, made this city the place of his residence, about B.C. 304. This prince founded an academy, called the Museum, in which a society of learned men devoted themselves to philosophical studies, and the improvement of all the other sciences; and he also gave them a library, which was prodigiously increased by his successors. He likewise induced the merchants of Syria and Greece to reside in this city, and to make it a principal mart of their commerce. His son and successor, Ptolemy Philadelphus, pursued the designs of his father.
In the hands of the Romans, the successors of the Macedonians in the government of Egypt, the trade of Alexandria continued to flourish, until luxury and licentiousness paved the way, as in every similar instance, for its overthrow.
Alexandria, together with the rest of Egypt, passed from the dominion of the Romans to that of the Saracens. With this event, the sun of Alexandria may be said to have set: the blighting hand of Islamism was laid on it; and although the genius and the resources of such a city could not be immediately destroyed, it continued to languish until the passage by the Cape of Good Hope, in the fifteenth century, gave a new channel to the trade which for so many centuries had been its support; and at this day, Alexandria, like most eastern cities, presents a mixed spectacle of ruins and wretchedness,—of fallen greatness and enslaved human beings.
Some idea may be formed of the extent and grandeur of Alexandria, by the boast made by Amrou: "I have taken," said he, "the great city of the west. It is impossible for me to enumerate the variety of its riches and beauty. I shall content myself with observing, that it contains four thousand palaces, four thousand baths, four hundred theatres or places of amusement, twelve thousand shops for the sale of vegetable foods, and forty thousand tributary Jews."
It was in Alexandria chiefly that the Grecian philosophy was engrafted upon the stock of ancient oriental wisdom. The Egyptian method of teaching by allegory was peculiarly favourable to such a union: and we may well suppose that when Alexander, in order to preserve by the arts of peace that extensive empire which he had obtained by the force of arms, endeavoured to incorporate the customs of the Greeks with those of the Persian, Indian, and other eastern nations, the opinions as well as the manners of this feeble and obsequious race would, in a great measure, be accommodated to those of their conquerors. This influence of the Grecian upon the oriental philosophy continued long after the time of Alexander, and was one principal occasion of the confusion of opinions which occurs in the history of the Alexandrian and Christian schools. Alexander, when he built the city of Alexandria, with a determination to make it the seat of his empire, and peopled it with emigrants from various countries, opened a new mart of philosophy, which emulated the fame of Athens itself. A general indulgence was granted to the promiscuous crowd assembled in this rising city, whether Egyptians, Grecians, Jews, or others, to profess their respective systems of philosophy without molestation. The consequence was, that Egypt was soon filled with religious and philosophical sectaries of every kind; and particularly, that almost every Grecian sect found an advocate and professor in Alexandria. The family of the Ptolemies, as we have seen, who after Alexander obtained the government of Egypt, from motives of policy encouraged this new establishment. Ptolemy Lagus, who had obtained the crown of Egypt by usurpation, was particularly careful to secure the interest of the Greeks in his favour, and with this view invited people from every part of Greece to settle in Egypt, and removed the schools of Athens to Alexandria. This enlightened prince spared no pains to raise the literary, as well as the civil, military, and commercial credit of his country. Under the patronage first of the Egyptian princes, and afterward of the Roman emperors, Alexandria long continued to enjoy great celebrity as the seat of learning, and to send forth eminent philosophers of every sect to distant countries. It remained a school of learning, as well as a commercial emporium, till it was taken, and plundered of its literary treasures by the Saracens. Philosophy, during this period, suffered a grievous corruption from the attempt which was made by philosophers of different sects and countries, Grecian, Egyptian, and oriental, who were assembled in Alexandria, to frame, from their different tenets, one general system of opinions. The respect which had long been universally paid to the schools of Greece, and the honours with which they were now adorned by the Egyptian princes, induced other wise men, and even the Egyptian priests and philosophers themselves, to submit to this innovation. Hence arose a heterogeneous mass of opinions, under the name of the Eclectic philosophy, and which was the foundation of endless confusion, error, and absurdity, not only in the Alexandrian school, but among Jews and Christians; producing among the former that specious kind of philosophy, which they called their Cabala, and among the latter innumerable corruptions of the Christian faith.
At Alexandria there was, in a very early period of the Christian aera, a Christian school of considerable eminence. St. Jerome says, the school at Alexandria had been in being from the time of St. Mark. Pantaenus, placed by Lardner at the year 192, presided in it. St. Clement of Alexandria succeeded Pantaenus in this school about the year 190; and he was succeeded by Origen. The extensive commerce of Alexandria, and its proximity to Palestine, gave an easy entrance to the new religion, and when Adrian visited Egypt, he found a church composed of Jews and Greeks, sufficiently important to attract the notice of that inquisitive prince. The theological system of Plato was introduced into both the philosophical and Christian schools of Alexandria; and of course many of his sentiments and expressions were blended with the opinions and language of the professors and teachers of Christianity.
Alexandria was the source, and for some time the principal stronghold, of Arianism; which had its name from its founder, Arius, a presbyter of the church of this city, about the year 315. His doctrines were condemned by a council held here in the year 320; and afterward by a general council of three hundred and eighty fathers, held at Nice, by order of Constantine, in 325. These doctrines, however, which suited the reigning taste for disputative theology, and the pride and self-sufficiency of nominal Christians, better than the unsophisticated simplicity of the Gospel, spread widely and rapidly notwithstanding. Arius was steadfastly opposed by the celebrated Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the intrepid champion of the catholic faith, who was raised to the archiepiscopal throne of Alexandria in 326.
This city was, in 415, distinguished by a fierce persecution of the Jews by the patriarch Cyril. They who had enjoyed the rights of citizens, and the freedom of religious worship, for seven hundred years, ever since the foundation of the city, incurred the hatred of this ecclesiastic; who, in his zeal for the extermination of heretics of every kind, pulled down their synagogues, plundered their property, and expelled them, to the number of forty thousand, from the city.
It was in a ship belonging to the port of Alexandria, that St. Paul sailed from Myra, a city of Lycia, on his way to Rome, Acts 27:5-6 . Alexandria was also the native place of Apollos.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Alexandria
Alexandria (ăl-egz-ăn'dri-a). The Grecian capital of Egypt, founded by and named after Alexander the Great, b.c. 332. It was a noted seaport of Lower Egypt, and was situated on a low, narrow tract of land which divides Lake Mareotis from the Mediterranean, and near the western mouth of the Nile, about 120 miles from the present city of Cairo. Soon after its foundation by Alexander, it became the capital of the Ptolemies and the Grecian kings reigning in Egypt, and one of the most populous and prosperous cities of the East. Its harbor could accommodate vast navies, fitting it to become the commercial metropolis of the entire Eastern world. In front of the city, on the island of Pharos, stood a famous lighthouse, named after the island and noted as one of the seven wonders of the world. Alexandria numbered, in the days of its ancient prosperity, 800,000 inhabitants, half of them slaves, and ranked next to Athens in literature. It had the greatest library of ancient times, which contained upward of 700,000 rolls or volumes. The portion in the museum, consisting of 400,000 volumes, was burnt in b.c. 47. The additional or "new library" in the Serapeum, afterward increased to about 500,000 volumes, including the original 300,000 volumes, was destroyed by the fanatical vandalism of the Saracens in a.d. 640. At Alexandria the Old Testament was translated into the Greek by 70 learned Jews—hence called the "Septuagint"—in the third century before the Christian era. The Alexandrian Greek dialect, known as Hellenistic Greek, was the language used by the early Christian fathers, and is still the study of the biblical scholar In the pages of the New Testament. Alexandria was the birthplace of Apollos, Acts 18:24, and in the apostle Paul's time it carried on an extensive commerce with the countries on the Mediterranean. Acts 6:9; Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11. In Alexandria originated the Arian heresy denying that Jesus Christ was divine, and there Athanasius, the "father of orthodoxy," firmly opposed the false and defended the true doctrine of the deity of our Lord. From a.d. 300 to 600 the city was second only to Rome in size and importance, and was the chief seat of Christian theology. It was conquered by the Saracens under Caliph Omar about a.d. 640, when it began to decline. The rising importance of Constantinople, and the discovery of an ocean passage to India by way of Cape Good Hope, contributed to its further ruin, until it was reduced from a prosperous city of 500,000 to a poor village of only 5000 to 6000 inhabitants. It is now an important city of 240,000 inhabitants—including 50,000 Franks—and is connected with Cairo by a railway, and also with Suez, on the Red Sea. Among the ancient monuments to be seen are the Catacombs, the Column of Diocletian, 94 feet high and named "Pompey's Pillar"—not from the famous Pompey, but from a Roman prefect who erected the column in honor of the emperor Diocletian—and one of the two obelisks or "Needles of Cleopatra," which, however, belong to the time of the Pharaohs and were brought from Heliopolis. The obelisk on the embankment of the Thames, London, and the one in Central Park, New York, once stood at Alexandria.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Alexandria
After his conquest in 333 BC, Alexander the Great of Greece built the city of Alexandria as a Mediterranean sea port for Egypt and named it after himself. It soon became the greatest Greek city of the time, and was famed for its architectural magnificence. It was the capital of Egypt during the Greek and Roman Empires, and was a busy centre of commercial and manufacturing activity. From here the famous grain ships of Alexandria carried Egypt’s corn to Greece and Rome (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11).
The population of the city was a mixture of Greek, Egyptian, Jewish and Roman people (Acts 6:9; Acts 18:24). The city became a centre of learning, famous for its Greek philosophers and its Jewish Bible scholars. Some non-canonical Jewish books of pre-Christian times were written in Alexandria (see CANON). More importantly, Alexandria was the place where seventy Jewish scholars prepared the first Greek translation of the Old Testament. This is known as the Septuagint (referred to in writing as LXX) and was widely used in New Testament times along with the Hebrew Old Testament (see SEPTUAGINT).
A feature of the Alexandrian school of Jewish Old Testament scholars was that their interpretations were detailed, earnest, philosophical and often extravagant. They gained the reputation of being learned and eloquent speakers. In the New Testament there is a record of one of them, Apollos, whose knowledge of Old Testament references to the Messiah was extraordinary. His knowledge of certain Christian teachings was lacking, but he was willing to learn. He soon became a powerful Christian preacher (Acts 18:24-28; see APOLLOS).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Maximus, Bishop of Alexandria
Maximus (9) , bp. of Alexandria, 14th "successor of St. Mark," had been a presbyter under bp. Dionysius. During the Decian persecution, after Dionysius had been carried away by some Christians of Mareotis into Libya, Maximus with three other presbyters "kept themselves concealed in Alexandria, secretly carrying on the oversight of the brethren" (Dionys. to Domitius and Didymus, ap. Euseb. vii. 11). It is surprising that their ministrations were undetected by the inquisitorial severity of the local government, which found victims among the virgins of the church (see Eus. vi. 41). Seven years later, when Valerian's persecution began, we find Maximus attending his bishop (who calls him his "fellow-presbyter") to the tribunal of the prefect Aemilianus, as involved with him, and three deacons and a Roman lay Christian, in the charge of contumacious rejection of the gods who had "preserved the emperor's sovereignty," and whose worship was in accordance with "natural" law. He was banished with Dionysius to Cephro in the Libyan frontier, sharing in the rough reception the heathen inhabitants gave to the bishop and assisting him in the preaching which ere long won over "not a few" of them to "the word then sown among them for the first time." After a while the party were removed to Colluthion, much nearer to Alexandria ( ib. vii. 11). When Dionysius, "worn out with years," died early in 265 (in Mar. according to Le Quien, Oriens Christ. ii. 395; Neale says Feb., Hist. Alex. i. 39, 83), Maximus was appropriately elected to succeed him. Maximus died on Sun. Apr. 9, 282 (Le Quien, ii. 396) and was succeeded by Theonas.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Pantaenus, of Alexandria
Pantaenus , chief of the catechetical school of Alexandria, in the latter part of the 2nd cent. and perhaps the early years of the 3rd. Of his previous life little is known with certainty. We are not informed whether he was originally a Christian or became one by conversion. Our authorities agree, however, that he was trained in the Greek philosophy, and owed to this training much of his eminence as a teacher. Origen, in a passage preserved by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 19), names him as an example—the earliest, apparently, that he can adduce—of a Christian doctor who availed himself of his heathen learning. Eusebius tells us ( ib. v. 10) that in his zeal for the faith he undertook the work of an evangelist in the East, and penetrated as far as India; where he found that St. Bartholomew had already preached the Word and had left there a copy of St. Matthew's Gospel in Hebrew characters, which was still treasured by the Christians there. Jerome ( de Vir. Ill. 36) adds (but probably without authority) that Pantaenus brought this to Alexandria. He also represents that the people of India had heard his fame as a teacher and sent a deputation to solicit this mission. This is by no means incredible, considering the celebrity of Alexandria as a seat of learning. But Jerome raises a difficulty when he names Demetrius as the bishop by whom he was sent. For Eusebius places the accession of Demetrius to the patriarchate in the 10th year of Commodus ( H. E. v. 22; cf. Chron. ), a.d. 189; while he represents Pantaenus as head of the Alexandrian school in his 1st year (H. E. v. 9, 10) and distinctly conveys that this appointment was after his return from his Indian mission.
There is a like conflict of authority concerning the relation of Pantaenus to Clement of Alexandria. Eusebius (v. 11) unhesitatingly assumes that Pantaenus is the unnamed master whom Clement in his Stromateis (i. p. 322, Potter) places above all the great men by whose teaching he was profited, "last met, but first in power," in whom he "found rest." To this authority we may add that of Pamphilus, who was principal author of their joint Apology for Origen ; for Photius (Bibl. cxviii.) states on the authority of that work (now lost) that Clement "was the hearer of Pantaenus and his successor in the school." This information Pamphilus no doubt had from his master Pierius, himself head of the same school, a follower of Origen and probably less than 50 years his junior. Maximus the Confessor ( Scholia in S. Greg. Naz. ) styles Pantaenus "the master" (καθηγητὴν ) of Clement. But Philip of Side (c. 427) in his Hist. Christiana , as we learn from a fragment first pub. by Dodwell, made "Clement the disciple of Athenagoras, and Pantaenus of Clement." We unhesitatingly prefer the witness of Eusebius. Dodwell's attempts to discredit it are ineffectual. This contradiction, however, and the difficulty as to the chronology of Pantaenus, may be solved, or at least accounted for, if we suppose that Pantaenus was head of the school both before and after his sojourn in India, and Clement in his absence. Origen afterwards thus quitted and resumed the same office. If Pantaenus was the senior, Clement was the more brilliant; and at the close of the 2nd cent. it may well have seemed a question which was master and which disciple. This hypothesis agrees with the probable date of Clement's headship; and likewise with the note in the Chronicon of Eusebius, under year of Pertinax, or 2nd of Severus ( c. 193), where we read that Clement was then in Alexandria, "a most excellent teacher ( διδάσκαλος ) and shining light (διέλαμπε ) of Christian philosophy," and Pantaenus "was distinguished as an expositor of the Word of God." Thus also Alexander, bp. of Jerusalem (ap. Eus. H. E. vi. 14), in a letter to Origen, couples the names of Pantaenus and Clement (placing, however, Pantaenus first), as "fathers," and speaks of both as recently deceased. This letter shows, further, that this Alexander and the illustrious Origen himself were almost certainly pupils of Pantaenus.
We do not know the date of his death, but the Chronicon ( vid. sup. ) confirms Jerome in prolonging his activity into the reign of Severus (193–211), and not improbably, as Jerome states, he lived into the following reign—a statement repeated in the (later) Roman Martyrology. Photius is thus wrong in believing that Pantaenus was a hearer not only "of those who had seen the apostles" (which he may well have been), but also "of some of the apostles themselves." A man alive after 193 and not the senior of Clement by more than a generation could not possibly have been born so early as to have been a hearer even of St. John. Photius was probably misled by a too literal construction of Clement's statement (Strom. u.s. )—that his teachers "had received the true tradition of the blessed doctrine straight from the holy apostles Peter, James, John, and Paul."
Eusebius tells us that Pantaenus "interpreted the treasures of the divine dogmas"; Jerome, that he left "many commentaries on the Scriptures." Both however indicate that the church owed more to his spoken utterances than to his writings. The two extant fragments (see Routh, Rel. Sac. i. p. 378) appear to be relics of his oral teaching. One bears the character of a verbal reply to a question; it is preserved by Maximus the Confessor ( Scholia in S. Greg. Naz. ), who, in illustration of the teaching of Dionysius the Areopagite concerning the divine will, tells us that Pantaenus when asked by certain philosophers, "in what manner Christians suppose God to know things that are?" replied, "Neither by sense things sensible, nor by intellect things intelligible. For it is not possible that He Who is above the things that are, should apprehend the things that are according to the things that are. But we say that He knows the things that are, as acts of His own will (ὡς ἴδια θελήματα ); and we give good reason for so saying; for if by act of His will He hath made all things (which reason will not gainsay), and if it is ever both pious and right to say that God knows His own will, and He of His will hath made each thing that hath come to be; therefore God knows the things that are as acts of His own will, inasmuch as He of His will hath made the things that are." The other, contained in the Eclogae e Propheticis appended to the works of Clement, is introduced by "Our Pantaenus used to say" ( ἔλεγε ), and lays down as a principle in interpreting prophecy that it "for the most part utters its sayings indefinitely [1], using the present sometimes for the future and sometimes for the past." Anastasius of Sinai (7th cent.), in his Contemplations on the Hexaemeron (quoted by Routh, i. p. 15), twice cites Pantaenus as one authority for an interpretation according to which Christ and his church are foreshewn in the history of the creation of Paradise (I. p. 860; VII. cont. p. 893 in Bibl. Max. PP. t. ix. ed. Lyons, 1677), the true inference from these references apparently being that Pantaenus led the way in that method of spiritual or mystical interpretation of O.T., usually associated with his more famous followers, Clement and Origen.
Anastasius describes him as "priest of the church of the Alexandrians (τῆς Ἀλεξανδρέων ἱερεύς )"; which is noteworthy in the absence of all direct information concerning the time and place, or even the fact, of his ordination. That he was a priest may be inferred—not indeed from his headship of a school, for Origen was a layman, but—from the fact that he was sent by his bishop to evangelize India.
Besides authors quoted, see Baronius, Ann., s.a. 183; Cave, Primitive Fathers , p. 185 (1677); Hist. Lit. t. i. p. 51 (1688); Du Pin, Auteurs ecclés. t. i. pt. i. p.184; Lardner, Credibility , c. xxi.; Le Quien, Oriens Chr. t. ii. coll. 382, 391; Tillem. Mém. t. iii. p. 170.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria
Petrus (4) I. St. archbp. of Alexandria succeeded Theonas a.d. 300. He had three years of tranquil administration which he so used as to acquire the high reputation indicated by Eusebius who calls him a wonderful teacher of the faith and "an admirable specimen of a bishop alike in the excellence of his conduct and his familiarity with Scripture" (Eus. viii. 113; ix. 6). Then came the Diocletian persecution and in the early part of 306 Peter found it necessary to draw up conditions of reconciliation to the church and of readmission to her privileges for those who through weakness had compromised their fidelity. The date is determined by the first words of this set of 14 "canons" or regulations "Since we are approaching the fourth Easter from the beginning of the persecution," i.e. reckoning from the Lent of 303. (This is overlooked in Mason's Persecution of Diocletian p. 324 where these "canons" are assigned to 311.) The substance of these remarkable provisions (given at length in Routh's Reliquiae Sacrae iv. 23 ff.) is as follows. (1) Those who did not give way until extreme tortures had overstrained their powers of endurance and who had been for three years already "mourners" without being admitted to regular penance might communicate after fasting 40 days more with special strictness. (2) Those who as Peter phrases it had endured only the "siege of imprisonment," not the "war of tortures," and therefore deserved less pity yet gave themselves up to suffer some affliction for "the Name," although in prison they were much relieved by Christian alias may be received after another year's penance. (3) Those who endured nothing at all but lapsed under sheer terror must do penance for four years. (4) is not strictly speaking a canon but a lamentation over lapsi who had not repented (Neale i. 98). Peter cites the cursing of the fig-tree with Is 66:24; Is 57:20. (5) Those who to evade trial of their constancy feigned epilepsy promised conformity in writing or put forward pagans to throw incense on the altar in their stead must do penance for six months more although some of them had already been received to communion by some of the steadfast confessors. (6) Some Christian masters compelled their Christian slaves to face the trial in their stead: such slaves must "shew the works of repentance" for a year. (7) But these masters who by thus imperilling their slaves shewed their disregard for apostolic exhortations (Eph_6:9; Col_4:1) must have their own repentance tested for three more years. (8) Those who having lapsed returned to the conflict and endured imprisonment and tortures are to be "joyfully received to communion alike in the prayers and the reception of the Body and Blood and oral exhortation." (9) Those who voluntarily exposed themselves to the trial are to be received to communion because they did so for Christ's sake although they forgot the import of "Lead us not into temptation but deliver us," etc. and perhaps did not know that Christ Himself repeatedly withdrew from intended persecution and even at last waited to be seized and given up; and that He bade His disciples flee from city to city (Mat_10:23) that they might not enhance their enemies' guilt. Thus Stephen and James were arrested; so was Peter who "was finally crucified in Rome"; so Paul who was beheaded in the same city. (10) Hence clerics who thus denounced themselves to the authorities then lapsed and afterwards returned to the conflict must cease to officiate but may communicate; if they had not lapsed their rashness might be excused. (11) Persons who in their zeal to encourage their fellow-Christians to win the prize of martyrdom voluntarily avowed their own faith were to be exempted from blame; cf. Eus. vi. 41 fin. Requests for prayer on behalf of those who gave way after imprisonment and torture ought to be granted: "no one could be the worse "for sympathizing with those who were overcome by the devil or by the entreaties of their kindred (cf. Passio S. Perpet. 3; S. Iren. Sirm. 3 ; Eus. viii. 9). (12) Those who paid for indemnity are not to be censured ; they shewed their disregard for money; and Act_17:9 is here quoted. (13) Nor should those be blamed who fled abandoning their homes—as if they had left others to bear the brunt. Paul was constrained to leave Gaius and Aristarchus in the hands of the mob of Ephesus (Act_19:29-30); Peter escaped from prison and his guards died for it; the Innocents died in place of the Holy Child. (14) Imprisoned confessors in Libya and elsewhere had mentioned persons who had been compelled by sheer force to handle the sacrifices. These like others whom tortures rendered utterly insensible were to be regarded as confessors for their will was steadfast throughout; and they might be placed in the ministry. These "canons" were ratified by the council in Trullo c. 2 a.d. 692 and so became part of the law of the Eastern church. (Cf. Eus. Mart. Pal. 1 ; Passio SS. Tarachi et Probs c. 8 in Ruinart Act. Sinc. p. 467; C. Ancyr. c. 3.)
Very soon after these "canons" were drawn up the persecution was intensified by the pagan fanaticism of Maximin Daza. Peter felt it his duty to follow the precedents he had cited in his 8th canon and the example of his great predecessor Dionysius by "seeking for safety in flight" (Burton, H. E. ii. 441). Phileas, bp. of Thmuis, and three other bishops were imprisoned at Alexandria; and then, according to the Maffeian documents, Meletius, being himself at large, held ordinations in their dioceses without their sanction "or that of the archbishop," and without necessity ( Hist. Writings of St. Athanasius, Oxf. 1881, Introd. p. xxxix). Peter, being informed of this lawless procedure, wrote to the faithful in Alexandria: "Since I have ascertained that Meletius, disregarding the letter of the martyred bishops, has entered my diocese, taken upon himself to excommunicate the presbyters who were acting under my authority . . . and shewn his craving for pre-eminence by ordaining certain persons in prison; take care not to communicate with him until I meet him in company with wise men, and see what it is that he has in mind. Farewell" (Routh, Rel. Sac . iv. 94).
Maximin, besides presiding over martyrdoms in Palestine (a.d. 306, 307, 308), practised other enormities at Alexandria (Eus. viii. 14; Burton, ii. 451). During Peter's retirement his habits had become more strictly ascetic. He continued to provide "in no hidden way" for the welfare of the church (Eus. vii. 32). The phrase οὐκ ἀφανῦς is significant, as it points to the well-understood system of communication whereby a bp. of Alexandria, although himself in hiding, could, as did Athanasius, make his hand felt throughout the churches which still owned him as their "father." Probably Peter's return to Alexandria, and the formal communication of the Meletians above mentioned, took place after a toleration-edict, which mortal agony wrung from Galerius in Apr. 311. This edict constrained Maximin to abate his persecuting energy; but he soon again harassed his Christian subjects, and encouraged zealous heathen municipalities to memorialize him "that no Christians might be allowed to dwell among them" ( ib. ix. 2). Thus at the end of Oct. 311 "the Christians found themselves again in great peril" (Burton); and one of the first acts of Maximin's renewed persecution was to smite the shepherd of the flock at Alexandria. Peter was beheaded (Eus. vii. 32), "in the ninth year of the persecution" (311), by virtue of a "sudden" imperial order, "without any reason assigned" (ix. 6).
Johnson and Routh reckon as a "fifteenth" canon what is, in fact, a fragment of a work on the Paschal Festival. In it Petrus says it is usual to fast on Wednesday, because of the Jews "taking counsel for the betrayal of the Lord"; and on Friday, "because He then suffered for our sake." "For," he adds, "we keep the Lord's day as a day of gladness, because on it He rose again; and on it, according to tradition, we do not even kneel." The custom of standing at prayer on Sunday was again enforced by the Nicene council (c. 20; Bright, Notes on the Canons of the First Four Councils, p. 73).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria
Petrus (5) II., archbp. of Alexandria, succeeded Athanasius in May 373. To promote the peaceful succession of an orthodox bishop, Athanasius, being requested to recommend one who could be elected by anticipation, named Peter, whom Gregory Nazianzen describes as honoured for his wisdom and grey hairs ( Orat. 25. 12), "who had been a companion of his labours" (Theod. iv. 20), and, in Basil's phrase, his spiritual "nursling" ( Ep. 133); and who, in conjunction with another presbyter, when they were passing through Italy to Egypt in 347, had accepted from the notorious Arian intriguers Valens and Ursacius a written attestation of their desire to be at peace with Athanasius, when his cause was for the time triumphant (Athan. Hist. Ar. 26). The clergy and magistrates assented to the nomination; the people in general applauded; the neighbouring bishops came together to attend the consecration, in which, according to a "fragment" of Alexandrian history, the dying archbp. took the principal part (cf. Theod. l.c. ; and Hist. Aceph. ap. Athan.). Five days afterwards (May 2) Athanasius died, and Peter took possession of "the evangelical throne." But the Arians seized the opportunity for which they had been waiting, and employed, as in 340, the agency of a pagan prefect. Palladius, by means of bribes, assembled a "crowd of pagans and Jews" and beset that same church of Theonas within which Syrianus had all but seized Athanasius in 356. Peter was commanded to withdraw; he refused; the church doors were forced, and the brutal orgies described in Athanasius's Encyclical were repeated: a youth in female dress danced upon the altar; another sat naked on the throne, and delivered a mock sermon in praise of vice (cf. Peter ap. Theod. iv. 22 with Greg. Naz. Orat. l.c. ). At this point Peter quitted the church; Socrates says that he was seized and imprisoned (iv. 21), but his own narrative points the other way. It proceeds to describe the intrusion of the Arian Lucius. Peter tells us that the pagans esteemed Lucius as the favourite of Serapis, because he denied the divinity of the Son; and dwells on the brave confessorship (1) of 19 priests and deacons whom Magnus, after vain attempts to make them Arianize, transported to the pagan city of Heliopolis in Phoenicia, sending also into penal servitude 23 monks and others who expressed their sympathy; (2) of 7 Egyptian bishops exiled to Diocaesarea, a city inhabited by Jews, while some other prelates were "handed over to the curia," their official immunity from onerous curial obligations being annulled in requital of their steadfastness in the faith. Damasus of Rome, hearing of this new persecution, sent a deacon with a letter of communion and consolation for Peter; the messenger was arrested, treated as a criminal, savagely beaten, and sent to the mines of Phenne. Peter adds that children were tortured, and intimates that some persons were actually put to death or died of cruel usage, and that, after the old usage in pagan persecutions, their remains were denied burial. The narrative illustrates at once the theology, ritual, and electoral customs of the Egyptian church. Peter puts into the mouth of the 19 confessors an argument, quite Athanasian in tone, from the eternity of the Divine Fatherhood (cf. Athan. de Decr. Nic. 12): like Athanasius, he there insists that God could never have existed without His "Wisdom" (cf. Orat. c. Ar. i. 14; disowns a materialistic conception of the γέννησις (cf. de Decr. Nic. 11; Orat. c. Ar. i. 21); quotes the Arian formula ἦν ὅτε οὐκ ἦν ("once the Son was not," cf. Orat. c. Ar. i. 5, etc.); and represents the Homoousion as summarizing the purport of many texts (cf. de Decr. Nic. 20).
Peter refers to the invocation of the Holy Spirit at the Eucharistic consecration, and intimates that monks used to precede a newly arrived bishop, chanting the Psalms. When describing the uncanonical intrusion of Lucius, he refers to the three elements of a proper episcopal election, as fixed by "the institutions of the church"—(1) the joint action of the assembled bishops of the province, (2) the vote (ψήφω ) of "genuine" clergy, (3) the request of the people (αἰτήσει , the Latin suffragium , as Cyprian uses it, Ep. 55. 7, speaking of the same threefold process, "de clericorum testimonio, de plebis . . . suffragio, et de sacerdotum . . . collegio"; and for the "requests" of the people, sometimes urgently enforced, see Athan. Apol. c. Ar. 6). Peter remained for some time in concealment, whence he wrote his encyclical (Tillem. vi. 582); he afterwards went to Rome, and was received by Damasus, as Julius welcomed Athanasius in 340. He remained at Rome five years, gave information as to Egyptian monasticism (Hieron. Ep. cxxvii. 5), and was present, as bp. of Alexandria, at a council held by Damasus, probably in 377, for the condemnation of the Apollinarians. Timotheus, whom Apollinaris had sent to Rome, and Vitalis, bishop of the sect in Antioch, were included in the sentence pronounced against their master (cf. Soz. vi. 25 with Theod. v. 10); and Facundus of Hermiane, in his Defence of the Three Articles, quotes part of a letter addressed by Peter to the exiled Egyptian confessors at Diocaesarea. "I ask your advice," he writes, "under the trouble that has befallen me: what ought I to do, when Timotheus gives himself out for a bishop, that in this character he may with more boldness injure others and infringe the laws of the Fathers? For he chose to anathematize me, with the bps. Basil of Caesarea, Paulinus, Epiphanius, and Diodorus, and to communicate with Vitalis alone" ( Pro Defens. Trium. Capit. iv. 2). Here Peter treats Paulinus, not Meletius, as the true bp. of Antioch, this being the Alexandrian view. His relations with Basil were very kindly; their common love and reverence for Athanasius drew them into a correspondence (Basil, Ep. 133, written in 373); and a letter of Basil's in 377 has an interest for the church-history of the time ( Ep. 266). It appears that the Egyptian "confessors" had hastily received into their communion the gravely-suspected disciples of Marcellus of Ancyra. This had troubled Basil. Peter had heard of it, but not from Basil; and had remonstrated with his exiled subordinates. Moreover, Basil's enemy Dorotheus, visiting Rome to enlist Western sympathies in favour of MeIetius as against Paulinus, met Peter in company with Damasus. Peter fired up at the name of Meletius and exclaimed, "He is no better than a Arian." Dorotheus, angered in his turn, said something which offended Peter's dignity and Peter wrote to Basil, complaining of this and of his silence in regard to the exile's conduct. Basil answers in effect: "As to the first point, I did not care to trouble you, and I trust it will come right by our winning over the Marcellians; as to the second, I am sorry that Dorotheus annoyed you, but you who have suffered under Arians ought to feel for Meletius as a fellow-sufferer, and I can assure you that he is quite orthodox."
Peter's exile ended in the spring of 378. The troubles of Valens with the Goths encouraged the prelates he had banished to act for themselves. Fortified by a letter of commendation from Damasus, Peter returned to Alexandria; the people forthwith expelled Lucius, who went to Constantinople; and Peter was thenceforth undisturbed in his see. Jerome taxes him with being too easy in receiving heretics into communion (Chron. ); and in one celebrated affair of another kind, his facility brought him no small discredit. Early in 379 he had not only approved of the mission of Gregory of Nazianzus to act as a Catholic bishop in Constantinople, but had formally authorized it, had "honoured" Gregory "with the symbols of establishment" (Carm. de Vita Sua, 861), and thereby apparently claimed some supremacy over Constantinople (Neale, Hist. Alex. i. 206). Yet ere long he allowed himself to become the tool of the ambitious Maximus, who pretended to have been a confessor for orthodoxy, and thus perhaps reached Peter's weak side. He aimed at "securing the see of Constantinople; and Peter, contradicting himself in writing," as Gregory words it ( de Vita Sua, 1015), commissioned some Egyptian prelates to go to Constantinople and consecrate Maximus. The scheme failed disgracefully: Maximus had to leave Constantinople, and after attempting in vain to propitiate Theodosius, went back to Alexandria and tried to intimidate Peter, "putting the old man into a difficulty" ( ib. 1018), but was expelled by secular force. Peter reconciled himself to Gregory, who panegyrized him as "a Peter in virtue not less than in name, who was very near heaven, but remained in the flesh so far as to render his final assistance to the truth," etc. ( Orat. 34. 3). Peter died Feb. 14, 380. In ignorance of this event, Theodosius, a fortnight after wards, named him with Damasus as a standard of Catholic belief in the famous edict of Thessalonica ( Cod. Theod. xvi. 1, 2; see Gibbon, iii. 363). He was succeeded by his brother Timotheus.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Pierius, a Presbyter of Alexandria
Pierius ( Hierius ). An eminent presbyter of Alexandria, famous for voluntary poverty, philosophical knowledge, and public expositions of Holy Scripture. He ruled the catechetical school of Alexandria under bp. Theonas, a.d. 265, and afterwards lived at Rome. He wrote several treatises extant in St. Jerome's time, and some were known as late as that of Photius. One was a homily upon Hosea, which he recited on Easter Eve, wherein he notes that the people continued in church on Easter Eve till after midnight. Photius mentions a work on St. Luke's Gospel as part of a volume by him, divided into 12 books. >From his eloquence he was called the younger Origen. Photius declares that he was orthodox about the Father and the Son, though using the words substance and nature to signify person. But his manner of speaking about the Holy Ghost was unorthodox, because he said that His glory was less than that of the Father and the Son. In the time of Epiphanius there was a church at Alexandria dedicated in his honour. Some have therefore thought that he suffered martyrdom in Diocletian's persecution. Eus. vii. 32; Hieron. Vir. Ill. c. 76; id. Ep. 70 al. 84, § 4, p. 429; id. Praefat. in Osee ; Photius, Cod. 119; Niceph. Call. H. E. vi. 35; Du Pin, H. E. cent. iii.; Ceillier, ii. 462; Tillem. Mém. . iv. 582.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Potimiaena, a Martyr at Alexandria
Potimiaena (June 28), one of the most celebrated martyrs at Alexandria in the persecution of Severus, being a virgin distinguished alike for her beauty, chastity, and courage. Eusebius ( H. E. vi. 5) relates how she was cruelly tortured, and death finally inflicted by burning pitch poured slowly about her from feet to head. Her story is also given by Palladius ( Hist. Laus. 3).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria
Proterius, St., patriarch of Alexandria, was presbyter and church-steward under Dioscorus, and left in charge of the church when Dioscorus went to the council of Chalcedon. After Dioscorus was deposed by that council, the emperor Marcian ordered a new election to the see. The suffragan bishops, except 13 detained at Constantinople by a resolution of the council (Chalced. c. 30), were assembled in synod; and the chief laymen of Alexandria came as usual to express their mind and assent to the prelate's choice (cf. Liberat. Breviar. c. 14, and Evagr. ii. 5). There was great difficulty in reaching a conclusion; for the majority of the Alexandrian church people were profoundly aggrieved by the action of the council. In their eyes Dioscorus was still their rightful "pope," the representative of Cyril and of Athanasius. Ultimately, however, opposition to the imperial mandate was felt impracticable. It was resolved to elect, and then all favoured Proterius, who was consecrated and enthroned (a.d. 452); but the passions of the Dioscorian and anti-Dioscorian parties broke .out at once into tumultuous dissension, which Evagrius likens to the surging of the sea. Proterius sending Leo the usual announcement of his elevation, Leo asked some definite assurance of his orthodoxy (Leo, Ep. 113, in Mar 453), and received a letter which he regarded as "fully satisfactory," shewing Proterius to be a "sincere assertor of the Catholic dogma," inasmuch as he had cordially accepted the Tome ( Epp. 127, 130). Thereupon (Mar 454) he wrote again to Proterius, advising him to clear himself from all suspicion of Nestorianizing, by reading to his people certain passages from approved Fathers, and then shewing that the Tome did but hand on their tradition and guard the truth from perversions on either side. Leo took care, in thus addressing the "successor of St. Mark," to dwell on that evangelist's relation to St. Peter as of a disciple to a teacher; and he bespeaks the support of the Alexandrian see in this resistance to the unprincipled ambition of Constantinople, which in the 28th canon, so called, of Chalcedon had injured the "dignity" of the other great bishoprics ( Ep. 129). Another question prolonged the correspondence. The Nicene Fathers were believed to have commissioned the Alexandrian bishops to ascertain and signify the right time for each coming Easter. Leo had consulted Cyril as to the Easter of 444; and he now, in 454 applied to Proterius, through the emperor, for his opinion as to the Easter of 455, which the Alexandrian Paschal table appeared to him to place too late ( Epp. 121, 127). Proterius replied to Leo at some length ( Ep. 133, Apr. 454) that Egypt and the East would keep Apr. 24 as Easter Day, and expressed his belief that all Christians everywhere would "observe one faith, one baptism, and one most sacred paschal solemnity."
Proterius had troubles with his own clergy. Not long after the council a priest named Timotheus and a deacon named Peter (nicknamed Mongus) refused to communicate with him, because in his diptychs he ignored Dioscorus and commemorated the council of Chalcedon. He summoned them to return to duty; they refused, and he pronounced in synod their deposition (Liberat. c. 15; Brevic. Hist. Eutych. or Gesta in causa Acacii, in Mansi, vii. 1062). Four or five bishops and a few monks appear to have actively supported them, and to have been included in their condemnation and in the imperial sentence of exile which followed ( Ep. Aegypt. Episc. ad Leonem Aug. in Mansi, vii. 525). The monks in Egypt, as elsewhere, were generally attached to the Monophysite position, which they erroneously identified with the Cyrilline. They took for granted that the late council had been practically striking at Cyril through Dioscorus; and that Christ's single personality was at stake. Thus, besides those monks who had overtly taken part with Timotheus and Peter, others apparently had suspended communion with the archbishop; and Marcian had addressed them in gentle and persuasive terms, assuring them that the doctrine of "one Christ," symbolized by the term Theotokos, had been held sacrosanct at Chalcedon, and exhorting them therefore to join with the Catholic church of the orthodox, which was one (Mansi; vii. 481). But the schism, once begun, was not thus to be abated; the zealous seceders raised a cry, which has practically never died out, that the Egyptian adherents of the council of Chalcedon were a mere state-made church, upheld by the court against the convictions of the faithful. To this day the poor remnant of orthodoxy in Egypt bears a name which is a stigma, Melchites or "adherents of the king." (Cf. Renaudot, Hist. Patr. Alex. p. 119; Neale, Hist. Patr. Alex. ii. 7. They both add that the orthodox accepted the term.) Even after Dioscorus died in exile Proterius was ignored and disclaimed, and knew that he was the object of a hatred that was biding its time, and "during the greater part of his pontificate," as Liberatus tells us, depended for safety on a military guard. At last, in Jan. 457, Marcian died, and the Monophysites thought they saw their opportunity. Some malcontent Egyptian bishops renewed their outcry against the council (Eulogius, in Phot. Bibl. 130, p. 283, ed. Bekk.); and Timotheus, returning to Alexandria, began those intrigues which won him his title of "the Cat." [1] The "dux" Dionysius being absent in Upper Egypt, Timotheus found it the easier to gather a disorderly following and obtain irregular consecration. Dionysius, returning, expelled Timotheus; and the latter's partisans in revenge rushed to the house of Proterius, and after besetting him for some time in the adjacent church of Quirinus, ran him through with a sword in its baptistery, and he died under many wounds with six of his clerics. His corpse was dragged by a cord across the central place called Tetrapylon, and then through nearly the whole city, with hideous cries, "Look at Proterius!" Beaten as if it could still suffer, torn limb from limb, and finally burnt, its ashes were "scattered to the winds." The day was Easter Day, Mar 31, 457. See also Evagr. ii. 8; Le Quien, ii. 412; Neale, Hist. Alex. ii. 12.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Serapion, Penitent of Alexandria
Serapion (3), a penitent of Alexandria, who fell during the Decian persecution. Dionysius of Alexandria uses his case as an argument against the Novatianist schism, to which his correspondent, Fabius of Antioch, was inclined. Serapion lived a long life without blame, but had sacrificed at last. He often begged for admission to the church, but was refused. He was then taken sick, being three days without speech. When he awoke to consciousness he dispatched his grandson for a presbyter, who was sick and unable to come, but sent a portion of the consecrated Eucharist, telling the boy to moisten it and drop it into Serapion's mouth, who then died in peace. Reservation of the Sacrament must then have been practised in Alexandria. No argument, however, for communion in one kind can be drawn from this, as doubtless the bread had been dipped in the Eucharistic wine, according to Eastern fashion (see Bingham's Antiq. lib. xv. c. v.). Eus. H.E. vi–44.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theognostus, a Priest of Alexandria
Theognostus (1) , a priest of Alexandria and a writer of about the middle of cent. iii., whom we only know from quotations in St. Athanasius and Photius. He composed a work called Hypotyposes in seven books, still extant when Photius wrote ( Cod. 106). He used language in bk. ii. of very Arian sound, speaking of the Son as a creature, and in bk. iii. of the Holy Ghost in a style as little orthodox as that of Origen. In bk. v. he attributed bodies to angels and devils. In bks. vi. and vii. he discussed the doctrine of the Incarnation in a more orthodox manner than in bk. ii. Yet St. Athanasius regarded him as a useful witness against Arianism. Philip of Side says that he presided over the school of Alexandria after Pierius a.d. 282 (cf. Dodwell, Dissert. in Irenaeum , p. 488). The fragments of Theognostus are collected in Routh's Reliq. Sac. t. iii. 407–422, and trans. in Ante-Nic. Lib. Cf. Migne, Patr. Gk. t. x. col. 235–242; Ceill. ii. 450; Athan. Ephesians 4 ad Serap., de Decretis Nic. Syn.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria
Theonas (1) , 15th bp. of Alexandria (whom Eutychius absurdly calls Neron ), succeeded Maximus in 282. His episcopate, says Neale (Hist. Patr. Alex. i. 86), was a time of much suffering to the Egyptians, owing to the revolt of Achilleus. Diocletian besieged Alexandria in 294; and after eight months' siege the city, "wasted by the sword and fire, implored the mercy of the conqueror, but experienced the full extent of his severity" in the form of "promiscuous slaughter" and sentences "of death or of exile" (Gibbon, ii. 76). Yet Theonas has left a very interesting and attractive picture of the relations which the emperor earlier in his reign maintained towards his Christian servants. Eusebius's testimony that those imperial domestics who held the faith (three of whom he afterwards names, Dorotheus, Gorgonius, and Peter) were allowed perfect freedom therein, and were even peculiarly valued by their master (viii. 1), is singularly illustrated by the "letter of Theonas the bp. to Lucian, praepositus cubiculariorum or high chamberlain," published in cent. xvii. by D’Achery. It is obviously a translation from a Greek original, which no one will now hesitate to ascribe to Theonas of Alexandria. (See it in Routh's Rel. Sac. iii. 439, and an Eng. version in Mason's Persecution of Diocletian , p. 348, and see ib. p. 39). After some opening words on the duty of so using the peace which the church was then enjoying "by means of a kindly sovereign" that God might be glorified by genuinely Christian lives, Theonas urges Lucian to thank Him for a signal opportunity of thus promoting His cause by fidelity to "an emperor who was indeed not yet enrolled in the Christian ranks," but who might be favourably impressed in regard to Christianity by the loyalty of the Christians to whose care he had "entrusted his life." Thus it was a primary duty to avoid everything that was "base and unworthy, not to say flagitious," lest the name of Christ should thereby be blasphemed. The Christian chamberlains were not to take money for procuring audience, must be clear of all avarice, duplicity, and scurrility, acting in all things with modesty, courtesy, affability, and justice, must discharge their several duties in the fear of God, with love for their prince and with exact diligence, regarding all his orders which did not clash with God's as coming from God Himself, and taking care in their ministrations to put away all gloom or bad temper, and to refresh his weariness by a cheerful manner and glad obedience.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria
Theophilus (9), bp. of Alexandria, succeeding Timotheus in the last week of July 385. He had probably been a leading member of the Alexandrian clergy. Socrates states that Theophilus (probably two years later, Clinton, Fast. Rom. i. 522) obtained from Theodosius a commission to demolish the pagan temples of Alexandria (Socr. v. 16). Sozomen corrects this by saying that Theodosius granted to Theophilus, at his own request, the temple of Dionysus, on the site of which he proposed to build a church (vii. 15). Socrates says that Theophilus "cleared out the temple of Mithras, and exposed its bloody mysteries." Socrates adds that the foul symbols used in the worship of Serapis and other gods were, by the archbishop's order, carried through the agora as objects of contemptuous abhorrence. The votaries of Alexandrian idolatry arranged a tragically successful onslaught on the Christians and then took possession of the vast Serapeum, in the N.W. quarter of the city, which had been the popular sanctuary of Alexandrian paganism, and now became their stronghold of "furious despair" ( Orat. of Athan. against the Arians , p. 5, ed. Oxf.). They made sallies from its precincts, captured several Christians, dragged them within, and inflicted torture or death on those who would not sacrifice. The general in command at Alexandria and the Augustal prefect summoned them to surrender, but in vain. Olympius, a philosopher, sustained their obstinate resolution until the arrival of an edict ordering the destruction of all the temples. Terrified by the shouts which proclaimed this mandate, the desperadoes abandoned the Serapeum; and Theophilus, with a great body of soldiers, exultant Christians, and astounded pagans, ascended the hundred steps leading up the mound, and penetrated into the faintly lighted sanctuary, from within which the Christians afterwards believed that Olympius, on the night before the evacuation, had heard a voice chanting "Alleluia" (Soz. vii. 15). There was the huge seated statue of Serapis, constructed of various metals, now dusky with age, and inlaid with various precious stones (Clem. Alex. Cohort 48). The successor of Athanasius gazed on this visible concentration of the power of Egyptian idolatry, no doubt the symbol to many Alexandrians of the principle of life and of the powers that ruled the underworld. It was a supreme moment; at last the church had her foot on the neck of her foe. Mutterings of superstitious fear were heard; to draw near the image was to cause an earthquake. The archbishop turned to a soldier who held an axe, and bade him "strike hard." The man obeyed. A shriek of terror burst from many; another and another blow followed, the head was lopped off, and there ran out a troop of mice, which had "dwelt within the god of the Egyptians." Misgiving and alarm gave way to noisy triumph; the body of Serapis was broken up and burned; the head was made a public show. At Canopus, 14 miles from Alexandria, temples were immediately laid low. The images were melted down into cauldrons and other vessels required in the eleemosynary work of the Alexandrian church. The one exception was an image of an ape, which Theophilus set up in a public place "in perpetuam rei memoriam," to the vexation of the pagan grammarian Ammonius, who lived to teach the young Socrates at Constantinople, and used to complain seriously of the injustice thus done to "Greek religion" (Socr. v. 16). During the demolition of various temples there were found hollow statues of bronze and wood, set against the walls, but capable of being entered by the priests, who thus carried on their impostures, which Theophilus explained to his pagan fellow-citizens (Theod. v. 22). But when the Nile-gauge was removed from the Serapeum to the church, the pagans asked, Would not the god avenge himself by withholding the yearly inundation his power had been wont to effect? It was, in fact, delayed. Murmurs swelled into remonstrances; the state of the city was becoming dangerous; the prefect had to consult his sovereign. Theodosius's answer was: "If the Nile would not rise except by means of enchantments or sacrifices, let Egypt remain unwatered." Forthwith the river began to rise with vehemence; the fear was now of a flood (Soz. vii. 20). We know not the nature of those concessions to the pagans which, according to a letter from Atticus to Theophilus's nephew Cyril, Theophilus made at this time for the sake of peace (Cyril, Epp. p. 202), but they did not prevent a pagan like Eunapius from abusing him. To Eunapius the temple-breakers were impious men who "threw everything into confusion, boasted of having conquered the gods," enriched themselves by the plunder, "brought into the sacred places the so-called monks, men in form but swinish in life," deified the, "bones and heads of worthless men who had been punished by the courts for their offences," and assigned to "bad slaves who had borne the marks of the lash the title of martyrs and intercessors with the gods."
In 391 or 392 Theophilus was named by the council of Capua as arbiter of the dispute between Flavian, as representing the Meletian succession to the see of Antioch, and Evagrius, whose claims, like those of his predecessor Paulinus, were upheld by the West. Theophilus undertook to examine the case with the aid of his suffragans. Evagrius soon died, but Flavian was not recognized by the West until Chrysostom primarily, and Theophilus secondarily, effected that result in 398 (Soz. viii. 3; cf. Tillem. x. 538).
In A.D. 394 we find Theophilus for the first time at Constantinople, at a council in the baptistery of the great church, on Sept. 29. He sat next to Nectarius of Constantinople, and there were present also Flavian, Gregory of Nyssa, and Theodore of Mopsuestia. Theophilus was in close relations with the solitaries of Egypt. In the Sayings of the Fathers he appears as inviting some of them to be present. at the destruction of the temples, and again as visiting those of the famous Nitrian settlement, and penetrating to the more distant Scetis. Still more celebrated was his intimacy with four monks of Scetis, known as "the Tall Brothers." These years were the best in Theophilus's episcopate; and if it had lasted only ten years, he might have left the name, if not of a saint, at least of a good as well as an able and energetic prelate.
But in 395 the story of his life changes its character. He begins to justify the description afterwards given of him by an adversary "Naturally impulsive, headlong, intensely contentious, insatiable in grasping at his objects, awaiting in his own case neither trial nor inquiry, impatient of opposition, determined to carry out his own resolves " (Pallad. Dial. p. 76). In 395, at the request of bp. John of Jerusalem, he sent his friend Isidore, said to have been an Origenist, as his envoy into Palestine, to abate the strife between John and Jerome. Isidore visited Jerome three times, but would not give him a letter which Theophilus had written him (ib. 39); and his so-called mediation only produced a soreness on Theophilus's part towards Jerome, whose letters for some time he ignored. At last he wrote, coldly exhorting Jerome to respect the authority of the bp. of Jerusalem, and again in 399 (according to Vallarsi), urging Jerome to come to terms with John.
Theophilus had been throwing his whole weight against the extreme literalism of the Anthropomorphists, a coarse reaction from the Alexandrian allegorism. A number of ill-informed and enthusiastic monks recoiled even from the ordinary explanation of those O.T. economies by which, as Epiphanius himself held, the divine manifestation had been adapted to the capacities of human nature (Haer. 70. 7; see also Aug. Haer. 50 and 76; Theodoret, iv. 10). They took the scriptural expressions "as to eyes, face, and hands of God, as they found them, without examination " (Soz. viii. 11). Hence, when Theophilus, in his Paschal Letter for 399, insisted peremptorily on the immateriality of the divine nature, a storm of wrathful zeal broke out among the solitaries; one of them, indeed, named Serapion, was candid enough to be convinced by argument, but the pain which ensued was such that when his brethren were engaged in their devotions, he exclaimed with tears, "They have taken away my God, and I know not whom to adore!" (Cassian, Coll. x. 3 ). Many others were of fiercer mood: was the "image of God" to be thus nullified? They hurried from their deserts to Alexandria and menaced the "pope" whom they had been wont to honour. "Impious man! thou deservest death!" He saw that they were not to be defied, but a smooth prevarication might disarm them. "In seeing you I see God's face!" It was enough: he had appeared to accept the imperilled phrase: they asked more calmly, "If you admit that God's face is like ours, anathematize the books of Origen; for some people contradict us on their authority. If you will not do this, be prepared for the treatment due to those who fight against God." Theophilus uttered the fateful words of compliance: "I will do what you think fit; do not be angry with me, for I object to Origen's books, and blame those who approve them." Here he was using "economy"; he stooped to propitiate the Anthropomorphists by using their phrase in a sense of his own and letting them think that he condemned Origen absolutely. About the end of 399 or beginning of 400 he held a synod at Alexandria, at which "Origenism" was condemned. He then wrote to Anastasius of Rome and Jerome, informing them of this. At the beginning of 401 he attacked Origenism in his Paschal Letter (Hieron. Ep. 96), a remarkable document which anticipates the Christology of his nephew and successor Cyril, while excluding all Apollinarian ideas. Theophilus traces to Origen the (Marcellian) notion that Christ's kingdom would have an end. He goes on to denounce Origenistic Universalism, and the notions that Christ would suffer again on behalf of the demons, and that after the resurrection human bodies would again be subject to dissolution. Fortified by an imperial edict forbidding all monks to read Origen (Anastasius, ad Joan. Jerus. ), he ordered the neighbouring bishops to banish the chief Nitrian monks from their own mountains and from the farther desert. Some of the monks came to remonstrate with him. They probably disclaimed the special errors associated with the name of Origen, and urged that they ought not to be treated as heretics because they opposed the degrading literalism of the Anthropomorphists. Palladius represents him as glaring at them in a fury, throwing his scarf or omophorion over the neck of Ammonius, one of the Tall Brothers, and with a blow on the face drawing blood, and fiercely exclaiming, "You heretic, anathematize Origen!" ( Dial. p. 54). Palladius adds that he induced five of the Nitrian monks ("men unworthy even to be doorkeepers"), whom he had promoted to ecclesiastical office, to sign accusations against three of their chief brethren, who were accordingly excommunicated in a council. At his request the Augustal prefect decreed their expulsion from Egypt; and Theophilus is said to have attacked the Nitrian settlement by night at the head of a force which was to execute this order. A wild scene, according to Palladius, ensued ( Dial. p 57). Against this account is to be set Theophilus's own statement in what is called the synodical letter to the bishops of Palestine and Cyprus (trans. by Jerome, Ep. 92), intended to be read by them when assembled for the Dedication Festival at Jerusalem in Sept. 401. Theophilus says that, having been memorialized by orthodox "fathers and presbyters," he went to Nitria with a great number of neighbouring bishops, and there, in presence of many fathers who come together from nearly the whole of Egypt, some of Origen's treatises were read, and the adherents of Origenism condemned. The Origenist monks were now going about in foreign provinces, "seeking whom to devour with their impiety"; their mad impetuosity must be restrained. Theophilus protests that he has done them no hurt and taken nothing wrongfully from them. It is clear that Theophilus did personally visit Nitria, and that its "Origenist monks" were put under ban, and driven forth, probably in the early summer of 401, and that their places were filled by others of whose "docility" Theophilus could rely.
The persecuted "Brothers" found a temporary refuge with many other fugitives (Dial. p. 160) at Scythopolis, on the slope of mount Gilboa. Some bishops of Palestine who shewed them countenance were peremptorily warned by Theophilus ( ib. p. 58). Hunted from place to place, the Nitrians determined to seek redress at Constantinople. Here the current of the Origenistic controversy flows suddenly, and with momentous consequences, into the stream of Chrysostom's episcopate. Towards the close of 401 some 50 elderly men of the Nitrian party fell at his feet as suppliants ( ib. p. 58). The bishop, moved to tears, asked who had accused them. "Sit down, father," they answered, "and provide some remedy for the harm that pope Theophilus has done us. If out of regard to him you will not act, we shall be obliged to apply to the emperor. But we beg you to induce Theophilus to let us live in our own country; for we have not offended against him or against the law of our Saviour." Chrysostom promised to do his best. "Meanwhile," he said, "until I have written to my brother Theophilus, keep silence about your affairs." He assigned them a lodging in the precincts of the church of Anastasia, and pious ladies contributed to their support. He wrote to Theophilus, "oblige me as your son and brother" (alluding to his own consecration by Theophilus), by being reconciled to these men." Theophilus saw his way to a blow, not only at the Origenists, but at Chrysostom, whom, according to Palladius, he had disliked from the first. He wrote to Epiphanius, urging him to get Origenism condemned by a synod of his suffragans in Cyprus. Epiphanius obtained from a synod of his insular church a decree forbidding the faithful of Cyprus to read Origen's works (A.D. 402). Meantime the "Brothers" had laid before the emperor Arcadius their charges against Theophilus, and requested the empress Eudoxia to promote a formal hearing of the case, and even to cause Theophilus to be brought to Constantinople to be tried by its bishop. Arcadius ordered Theophilus to be summoned. Theophilus delayed to obey the imperial citation. When at last he set forth, as he passed through Lycia he is said to have boasted that he was "going to court to depose John" ( ib. p. 72). It was not a mere brag; he knew his own diplomatic ability, and that Chrysostom's unworldly strictness had alienated Eudoxia and some people of rank, and even not a few ecclesiastics. The great name of the see of Athanasius would also go for much, and the watchword of "No Origenism" for yet more. He felt that he could exchange the position of a defendant for that of a judge. Theophilus landed at Constantinople at midday on a Thursday in the latter part of June 403 ( ib. p. 64). Not one of the clergy went to meet him or pay him the usual honour (Socr.). Chrysostom invited him to the episcopal residence (Chrys. Ep. i. to Innocent; Pallad. p. 12), but he ignored all friendly messages, would not enter the cathedral; and betook himself to lodgings without the city. The emperor now urged Chrysostom to sit as judge in the case; he refused, for he "knew" (so he says) "the laws of the Fathers, and had a respect for the man." Theophilus had no such scruples. Proceedings against Chrysostom were taken at the council of "the Oak," a suburb of Chalcedon, and a sentence of deposition passed. [1] Theophilus was afterwards pleased to take up the almost forgotten question of the Nitrian exiles. They were persuaded to ask their pope's forgiveness, and Theophilus restored them to his communion. Returning to Constantinople he boldly entered the cathedral with an armed following to enforce the installation of a successor to "John," but finding that he had undertaken too much, and that the people were resolutely loyal to Chrysostom, he went on board a vessel at midnight and fled with his followers ( Dial. p. 16). It was high time, for, says Palladius drily, "the city was seeking to throw him into the sea " ( ib. p. 75). Theophilus did not attack Chrysostom in his Paschal Letter for 404, but returned to the subject of Origenism as an error which deceived "simple and shallow" minds. He informed pope Innocent that he had deposed Chrysostom; and Innocent, disposed to censure his "hasty arrogance" in not communicating the grounds of the condemnation ( ib. p. 9) wrote, "Brother Theophilus, we are in communion with you and with our brother John. . . . Again we write, and shall do so whenever you write to us, that unless that mock trial is followed by a proper one, it will be impossible for us to withdraw from communion with John."
Theophilus seems to have written a work of great length against Origenism (Gennadius, de Vir. Ill. 33), from which Cyril quotes in his treatise, ad Arcadiam et Marinam (P. Pusey's Cyril , vii. 166), in support of the "Personal Union," and Theodoret in his second dialogue on the distinction between Christ's soul and the Word. Theophilus affirmed that Origen had been condemned (not only by Demetrius, but) by Heraclas. Either in this work (as Tillemont thinks, xi. 497) or in another, he strove to shew that he had only seemed to agree with the Anthropomorphists, for "he shewed," says Gennadius, that, according to the faith, God was incorporeal, "neque ullis omnino membrorum lineamentis compositum." In 410 he consecrated the eccentric philosopher and sportsman SYNESIUS to the metropolitan see of Ptolemais, who thanked him warmly for his Paschal Letter of 411, and wished him a long and happy old age (Synes. Ep. 9). In another letter Synesius, after professing his readiness to "treat as a law whatever the throne of Alexandria might ordain," asks the archbishop what should be done in regard to the people of Palaebisca and Hydrax, who were most reluctant to be placed, as Theophilus intended, under a bishop of their own, and asked leave to remain under Paul, bp. of Erythrum, to which diocese these "villages" had always belonged, save while Siderius was their bishop. Theophilus had also asked him to reconcile the bps. of Erythrum and Dardanis to each other ( Ep. 67).
Theophilus died "of lethargy" on Oct. 15, 412 (Socr. vii. 7), after an episcopate of 27 years and nearly 3 months. The moral of his life is the deterioration which too great power can produce in one whose zeal in the cause of religion, although genuine and active, is not combined with singleness of heart.
All his extant remains are collected in Gallandius (Bibl. Patrum , vol. vii. pp. 603 ff.); his "canons" in Beveridge (Pand. Can. ii. 170). The sense of these canons is given in Johnson's Vade Mecum , ii. 255. See also Zahn, Forschungen , ii. 234 ff.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Timotheus i., Archbaptist of Alexandria
Timotheus (7) I., archbp. of Alexandria, unanimously elected, as Theodosius I. affirms ( Cod. Theod. t. vi. p. 348; Tillem. vi. 621), on the death of his brother, Peter II., in the latter half of Feb. 381. He was an elderly man of high character, who had sat at the feet of Athanasius; and his distinguishing epithet of ἀκτήμων (Coteler. Eccl. Gr. Mon. i. 366) indicates that he had parted with all his property. The council of Constantinople met in May 381; he and his attendant suffragans arrived late, and did not contribute to the peace of the assembly (Greg. Naz. Carm. de Vita Sua , 1800 ff.). They were annoyed at finding Gregory of Nazianzus established in the see of Constantinople; their jealousy of the "oriental" bishops who had "enthroned him" broke forth in angry debate. They assured Gregory that they had no objection to him personally; but they probably resented the disgrace of Maximus, who had attempted, by the aid of some Egyptian bishops, to possess himself of the see. Gregory was glad to take this opportunity of resigning it, and Timotheus perhaps presided over the council during the few days between this abdication and the appointment of Nectarius (Tillem. ix. 474). The third canon gave to the see of Constantinople the second rank throughout the church; Neale says that Timotheus "refused to allow" its "validity" (Hist. Alex. i. 209). The council of Aquileia alludes to some annoyance given to him and Paulinus of Antioch by those whose orthodoxy had previously been suspected (Ambr. Ep. 12); yet that he did not break off openly from the majority is proved by the law of July 30, 381, in which Theodosius names him as one of the centres of Catholic communion (Soz. vii. 9; cf. Tillem. ix. 720). His episcopate was brief and uneventful. Facundus transcribes a letter of his to Diodore of Tarsus, referring to Athanasius as having spoken highly of Diodore, and professing his own inability to do justice to his virtue and orthodox zeal ( Pro Defens. Tri. Capit. iv. 2). Timotheus wrote an account of several eminent monks, which Sozomen used (vi. 29). His 18 "canonical answers" to requests by his clergy for direction are interesting, and became part of the church law of the East (see Beveridge, Pand. Can. ii. 165; Galland. vii 345). He died on Sun., July 20, 385 (see Tillem. vi. 802), and was succeeded by Theophilus.
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Sentence search

Alexandria, Peter of, Saint - Bishop of Alexandria. He suffered in the Decian persecution and was at one time head of the famous catechetical school at Alexandria. When during the Diocletian persecution Peter left Alexandria for concealment, the Meletian schism broke out among his own clergy, and he had this to contend with at a time when it was all he could do to comfort and guide the captive Christians. On his return to Alexandria he convened a synod of bishops against Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis, who had usurped his authority. Soon after this he was martyred at Alexandria in 311 at the command of Maximinus Daja, and was buried in the cemetery for martyrs
Alexandria, Cyril of, Saint - Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Bishop of Alexandria; born Alexandria, Egypt, 376; died there, 444. In 412 he was elevated to the See of Alexandria. Relics at Alexandria
Euphrosyne, Saint - (Greek: mirth) ...
Virgin; born Alexandria, Egypt, 413; died 470. According to legend she was the daughter of a wealthy citizen of Alexandria, who, in order to keep her vow of chastity, retired in male attire to a monastery of men near Alexandria where, under the name of Smaragdus, she lived for over 30 years, only making known her identity when she was dying
John the Almsgiver, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Joannes Eleemosynasius, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Joannes Misebicors, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Misebicors, Joannes, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Almsgiver, John the Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Eleemosynasius, Joannes, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor. At the fall of Alexandria, he fled to his native land, where he died
Origenist - ) A follower of Origen of Alexandria
Alexandria, Egypt, Diocese of (Latin Rite) - The diocese of Alexandria was one of the earliest. Its name was changed to the Vicariate Apostolic of Alexandria, Egypt on January 27, 1951
Alexan'Dria, - -- (Alexandria was situated on the Mediterranean Sea directly opposite the island of Pharos, 12 miles west of the Canopic branch of the Nile and 120 miles from the present city of Cairo. -- Under the despotism of the later Ptolemies the trade of Alexandria declined, but its population and wealth were enormous. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three. "For a long period Alexandria was the greatest of known cities. " After Rome became the chief city of the world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and second to Athens only in literature and science. Mark first "preached the gospel in Egypt, and founded the first church in Alexandria. " At the beginning of the second century the number of Christians at Alexandria must have been very large, and the great leaders of Gnosticism who arose there (Basilides, Valentinus) exhibit an exaggeration of the tendency of the Church. , was found in Alexandria
Athanasian - ) Of or pertaining to Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria in the 4th century
Alexandrians - The Jews of Alexandria, who had a synagogue at Jerusalem
Abba - ...
In the Syriac, Coptic and Ethiopic churches, it is a title given to the Bishops, and the Bishops bestow the title, by way of distinction, on the Bishop of Alexandria. Hence the title Baba, or Papa, Pope or great father, which the Bishop of Alexandria bore, before the Bishop of Rome
Gordianus, Saint - Martyrs (Rome, 362 and Alexandria, 250). His body was buried in a crypt on the Latin Way, beside the body of Saint Epimachus, martyred at Alexandria under Decius
Epimachus, Saint - Martyrs (Rome, 362 and Alexandria, 250). His body was buried in a crypt on the Latin Way, beside the body of Saint Epimachus, martyred at Alexandria under Decius
Euthalius - (Greek: euthaleia, bloom) ...
Deacon of Alexandria, later Bishop of Sulca (flourished 5th century), author of the Euthalian Sections or division of the New Testament (exclusive of the Gospels, already so divided by Ammonius of Alexandria, and the Apocalypse) into chapter and verse
Alexandrine - ) Belonging to Alexandria; Alexandrian
Heracleonite - ) A follower of Heracleon of Alexandria, a Judaizing Gnostic, in the early history of the Christian church
Myra - A town of Lycia, where Paul embarked for Rome, on board a ship of Alexandria, Acts 27:5
Arius - He quarreled with the Bishop of Alexandria over Christ's Divinity (see Arianism) in 325 his views were condemned at the Council of Nicrea, and he was banished. of Emperor Constantine, he created constant troubles for Athanasius in Alexandria
Basilideans - the followers of Basilides of Alexandria, a gnostic leader of the early part of the second century
Didymus, Saint - Martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt, 304
Alexan'Drians - the Jewish colonists of Alexandria, who were admitted to the privileges of citizenship and had a synagogue at Jerusalem
Damianists - A denomination in the sixth century, so called from Damian, bishop of Alexandria
Damianist - ) A follower of Damian, patriarch of Alexandria in the 6th century, who held heretical opinions on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity
Alexandria - ...
Alexandria bears the name of its founder, Alexander the Great, who planted the city about 332 B. When Ptolemy inherited Alexander's Egyptian empire, he made Alexandria its capital. ...
Alexandria was designed to act as the principal port of Egypt located on the western edge of the Nile delta. Jewish rabbis gathered in Alexandria to produce the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament. ...
The educated Jews of Alexandria contended with Stephen (Acts 6:9 ). Apollos, the great Christian orator, came from Alexandria (Acts 18:24 ), and Paul rode the ships of that port (Acts 27:6 ; Acts 28:11 )
Dionysius of Alexandria, Saint - 190)Bishop of Alexandria. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus
Dionysius the Great - 190)Bishop of Alexandria. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus
Great, Dionysius the - 190)Bishop of Alexandria. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus
Alexandria, Dionysius of - 190)Bishop of Alexandria. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus
Alexandrian - ) Of or pertaining to Alexandria in Egypt; as, the Alexandrian library
Alexandria - They were, in fact, made free citizens, and had all the privileges of Macedonians granted to them; which liberal policy contributed much to the rise and prosperity of the new city; for this enterprising and commercial people knew much better than either the Greeks or the Egyptians how to turn the happy situation of Alexandria to the best account. The fall of Tyre happening about the same time, the trade of that city was soon drawn to Alexandria, which became the centre of commercial intercourse between the east and the west; and in process of time grew to such an extent, in magnitude and wealth, as to be second in point of population and magnificence to none but Rome itself. ...
Alexandria owed much of its celebrity as well as its population to the Ptolemies. ...
In the hands of the Romans, the successors of the Macedonians in the government of Egypt, the trade of Alexandria continued to flourish, until luxury and licentiousness paved the way, as in every similar instance, for its overthrow. ...
Alexandria, together with the rest of Egypt, passed from the dominion of the Romans to that of the Saracens. With this event, the sun of Alexandria may be said to have set: the blighting hand of Islamism was laid on it; and although the genius and the resources of such a city could not be immediately destroyed, it continued to languish until the passage by the Cape of Good Hope, in the fifteenth century, gave a new channel to the trade which for so many centuries had been its support; and at this day, Alexandria, like most eastern cities, presents a mixed spectacle of ruins and wretchedness,—of fallen greatness and enslaved human beings. ...
Some idea may be formed of the extent and grandeur of Alexandria, by the boast made by Amrou: "I have taken," said he, "the great city of the west. "...
It was in Alexandria chiefly that the Grecian philosophy was engrafted upon the stock of ancient oriental wisdom. This influence of the Grecian upon the oriental philosophy continued long after the time of Alexander, and was one principal occasion of the confusion of opinions which occurs in the history of the Alexandrian and Christian schools. Alexander, when he built the city of Alexandria, with a determination to make it the seat of his empire, and peopled it with emigrants from various countries, opened a new mart of philosophy, which emulated the fame of Athens itself. The consequence was, that Egypt was soon filled with religious and philosophical sectaries of every kind; and particularly, that almost every Grecian sect found an advocate and professor in Alexandria. Ptolemy Lagus, who had obtained the crown of Egypt by usurpation, was particularly careful to secure the interest of the Greeks in his favour, and with this view invited people from every part of Greece to settle in Egypt, and removed the schools of Athens to Alexandria. Under the patronage first of the Egyptian princes, and afterward of the Roman emperors, Alexandria long continued to enjoy great celebrity as the seat of learning, and to send forth eminent philosophers of every sect to distant countries. Philosophy, during this period, suffered a grievous corruption from the attempt which was made by philosophers of different sects and countries, Grecian, Egyptian, and oriental, who were assembled in Alexandria, to frame, from their different tenets, one general system of opinions. Hence arose a heterogeneous mass of opinions, under the name of the Eclectic philosophy, and which was the foundation of endless confusion, error, and absurdity, not only in the Alexandrian school, but among Jews and Christians; producing among the former that specious kind of philosophy, which they called their Cabala, and among the latter innumerable corruptions of the Christian faith. ...
At Alexandria there was, in a very early period of the Christian aera, a Christian school of considerable eminence. Jerome says, the school at Alexandria had been in being from the time of St. Clement of Alexandria succeeded Pantaenus in this school about the year 190; and he was succeeded by Origen. The extensive commerce of Alexandria, and its proximity to Palestine, gave an easy entrance to the new religion, and when Adrian visited Egypt, he found a church composed of Jews and Greeks, sufficiently important to attract the notice of that inquisitive prince. The theological system of Plato was introduced into both the philosophical and Christian schools of Alexandria; and of course many of his sentiments and expressions were blended with the opinions and language of the professors and teachers of Christianity. ...
Alexandria was the source, and for some time the principal stronghold, of Arianism; which had its name from its founder, Arius, a presbyter of the church of this city, about the year 315. Arius was steadfastly opposed by the celebrated Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the intrepid champion of the catholic faith, who was raised to the archiepiscopal throne of Alexandria in 326. ...
It was in a ship belonging to the port of Alexandria, that St. Alexandria was also the native place of Apollos
Dioscorus - Anti-pope, born Alexandria, Egypt; died 530. Originally a deacon of Alexandria, he became a member of the Roman clergy, and the leader of the Byzantine party in Rome, opposing the Gothic party which Pope Felix IV favored
Tro'as, - (Acts 20:5,6 ; 2 Corinthians 2:12,13 ; 2 Timothy 4:13 ) Its full name was Alexandria Troas (Liv. 42), and sometimes it was called simply Alexandria sometimes simply Troas. Afterward it was embellished by Lysimachus, and named Alexandria Troas
Serapion, Penitent of Alexandria - Serapion (3), a penitent of Alexandria, who fell during the Decian persecution. Dionysius of Alexandria uses his case as an argument against the Novatianist schism, to which his correspondent, Fabius of Antioch, was inclined. Reservation of the Sacrament must then have been practised in Alexandria
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea, in Syria Prima; a native and deacon of Alexandria. Dionysius had been banished from Alexandria, Eusebius remained, ministering to those in prison and burying the martyrs, a faithful service gratefully commemorated in a letter of Dionysius (apud Eus: H. During the civil strife at the death of Valerian, when Alexandria was in revolt, a. of Alexandria, being unable to be present through age, sent Eusebius as his representative
Philo Judaeus - Also known as Philo of Alexandria, he lived about the same time as Jesus (about 20 B. A member of a wealthy Jewish family in Alexandria, Egypt, He was well educated in Greek schools and used the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, as his Bible
Egypt - According to tradition Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced the Catholic Faith into Alexandria which became the center of Christianity in Egypt. Until the Second Æcumenical Council (381) the Patriarch of Alexandria was recognized as next in rank to the Bishop of Rome, and the patriarchate reached its most flourishing period under Saint Athanasius (died 373), champion of the Faith against Arianism, and Saint Cyril (412-444), defender of the Divinity of Christ. Organization of the Uniat Coptic Church dates from 1721 when Benedict XIV gave to Amba Athanasius, Coptic Bishop of Jerusalem, jurisdiction over all Catholics of the Coptic Rite in Egypt and elsewhere, and in 1895 Leo XIII restored the Patriarchate of Alexandria. ...
Vicariates Apostolic include: ...
Alessandria di Egitto (-Eliopoli di Egitto-Port-Said)
Alexandria (Armenian)
Hermopolis Magna
Eliopoli di Egitto
Port-Said
Coptic ecclesiastical divisions include: ...
Alessandria (Archdiocese)
Alessandria (Eparchy)
Assiut {Lycopolis} (Eparchy)
Guizeh (Eparchy)
Ismayliah (Eparchy)
Luqsor (Eparchy)
Minya (Eparchy)
Sohag (Eparchy)
Other ecclesiastical divisions include: ...
Alessandria (Melkite Archdiocese)
Iskanderiya (Armenian Eparchy)
Le Caire (Chaldean Eparchy)
Le Caire (Maronite Eparchy)
Le Caire (Syrian Eparchy)
See also: ...
World Fact Book
patron saints index: Egypt
Almagest - ) The celebrated work of Ptolemy of Alexandria, which contains nearly all that is known of the astronomical observations and theories of the ancients
Angelites - A sect in the reign of the emperor Anastasius, about the year 494; so called from Angelium, a place in the city of Alexandria, where they held their first meetings. They were called likewise Severites, from Severus, who was the head of their sect; as also Theodosians, from one Theodosius, whom they made pope at Alexandria
Gaianitae - A denomination which derived its name from Gaian, a bishop of Alexandria, in the sixth century, who denied that Jesus Christ, after the hypostatical union, was subject to any of the infirmities of human nature
Athanasius, Saint 2 May - (Greek: immortality) ...
Confessor, Doctor of the Church (296-373), Bishop of Alexandria, called Father of Orthodoxy, as the chief champion of belief in the Divinity of Christ, born and died Alexandria. As secretary to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria, he attended the Council of Nicea, 325, and upon Alexander's death, 328, succeeded as bishop; he spent seventeen of the forty-six years of his episcopate in exile and fought for the acceptance of the Nicene Creed. After the death of Gregory, Bishop of Alexandria, in 345, Athanasius again returned to his see
Cleopatra's Needle - Either of two obelisks which were moved in ancient times from Heliopolis to Alexandria, one of which is now on the Thames Embankment in London, and the other in Central Park, in the City of New York
Therapeutae - ) A name given to certain ascetics said to have anciently dwelt in the neighborhood of Alexandria
Muscat - The muscat of Alexandria is a large oval grape of a pale amber color
Athanasius, Bishop of Perrha - of Perrha, a see dependent on the Syrian Hierapolis; present at the council of Ephesus, 431, supporting Cyril of Alexandria. Through the intervention on his behalf of Proclus of Constantinople and Cyril of Alexandria, Domnus II. 449, had made Dioscorus of Alexandria the temporary ruler of the Eastern church, Sabinianus was in his turn deposed, and Athanasius reinstated at Perrha
Origenism - ) The opinions of Origen of Alexandria, who lived in the 3d century, one of the most learned of the Greek Fathers
Alexandria - After his conquest in 333 BC, Alexander the Great of Greece built the city of Alexandria as a Mediterranean sea port for Egypt and named it after himself. From here the famous grain ships of Alexandria carried Egypt’s corn to Greece and Rome (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11). Some non-canonical Jewish books of pre-Christian times were written in Alexandria (see CANON). More importantly, Alexandria was the place where seventy Jewish scholars prepared the first Greek translation of the Old Testament. ...
A feature of the Alexandrian school of Jewish Old Testament scholars was that their interpretations were detailed, earnest, philosophical and often extravagant
Apostolic Churches - , Alexandria, by Saint Mark
Alexandria, Louisiana, Diocese of - Org
diocese of Alexandria
patron saints index
Google Map
Christ, Bride of - ...
(3) Mystical union of certain saints, Catherine of Alexandria, Catherine of Siena, and Teresa, with Our Lord
Christ, Spouse of - ...
(3) Mystical union of certain saints, Catherine of Alexandria, Catherine of Siena, and Teresa, with Our Lord
Kingston, Ontario, Canada - Suffragan dioceses: ...
Alexandria-Cornwall
Peterborough
Sault Sainte Marie
See also: ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Hermopolis Magna, Egypt, Diocese of - Comprises central Egypt, bounded north by the patriarchate; east by the Gulf of Hermopolis; south by 27° and 28° north latitude; west by the Libyan Desert; established, 1895; suffragan of Alexandria
Spouse of Christ - ...
(3) Mystical union of certain saints, Catherine of Alexandria, Catherine of Siena, and Teresa, with Our Lord
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. In opposition to the rationalizing Gnostics, then a force in Alexandria, he made faith the basis of his speculations, but interpreted Scripture in too allegorical a manner
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. In opposition to the rationalizing Gnostics, then a force in Alexandria, he made faith the basis of his speculations, but interpreted Scripture in too allegorical a manner
Alexandrians - Alexandrians (Al-egz-ăn'dri-anz). It was reasonable, therefore, to expect that Alexandria, where so many Jews dwelt, would have a special synagogue for their worship in Jerusalem
Pierius, a Presbyter of Alexandria - An eminent presbyter of Alexandria, famous for voluntary poverty, philosophical knowledge, and public expositions of Holy Scripture. He ruled the catechetical school of Alexandria under bp. In the time of Epiphanius there was a church at Alexandria dedicated in his honour
Alexander, Saint (2) - (died 326) Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Patriarch of Alexandria
Sisters of Saint Joseph -(Peterborough) - The congregation manages academies, high schools, continuation and separate schools, hospitals, orphanages, missions, and a House of Providence, in the dioceses of Peterborough, Saulte-Sainte-Marie, and Alexandria, and the archdiocese of Ottawa
Joannes Talaia, Bishop of Nola - , surnamed Talaia , patriarch of Alexandria and afterwards bp. From having been a presbyter in the monastery of the Tabennesians at Canopus near Alexandria, he was known as Tabennesiotes (Pagi, Critic. Previous to the expulsion of Salofaciolus from his see of Alexandria, and after his restoration, John held the office of oeconomus under him ( Brevic. Shortly afterwards John was sent by the Catholics of Alexandria to the emperor Zeno, to thank him for the restoration of Salofaciolus, and to pray that when a vacancy occurred in the see they might choose his successor. 12), and after his return became greatly distinguished as a preacher in Alexandria ( Brevic. Thus driven from Alexandria, Talaia went to Illus at Antioch, and thence to Rome (Liberat. Felix wrote to inform Zeno of this, and to let him know that "the apostolic see would never consent to communion with Peter of Alexandria, who had been justly condemned long since" ( Ep. 491, to whom John had shewn kindness at Alexandria after his shipwreck. ...
All these efforts to procure his reinstatement were of no avail; John never returned to Alexandria, but received, as some compensation, the see of Nola in Campania, where, after many years, he died in peace (Liberat
Demetrius - of Alexandria (Eus. After Clement had left Alexandria, he placed Origen at its head, c. of Alexandria, who had formerly governed the whole province, is probably correct, though the only direct authority for it is that of Eutychius, patriarch of Alexandria, in the 10th cent
Apollo - (1century) Learned Jew, born Alexandria
Apostolic See - , Alexandria, founded by Saint Mark
See, Apostolic - , Alexandria, founded by Saint Mark
Eclectics - One Potamon, of Alexandria, who lived under Augustus and Tiberius, and who, weary of doubting of all things, with the Sceptics and Pyrrhonians, was the person who formed this sect
Eclectics - One Potamon, of Alexandria, who lived under Augustus and Tiberius, and who, weary of doubting of all things, with the Sceptics and Pyrrhonians, was the person who formed this sect
Ephesus, Third Council of - Presided over by Saint Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, it condemned Nestorius, the Bishop of Constantinople, who taught that Mary did not bring forth the Word of God, but the Man who became the temple of the Godhead, "the animated purple of the King
Greek Rites - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the language in which it is now used. ...
ANTIOCH ...
(1) Pure, survives only in the "Apostolic Constitutions"
(2) Modified at Jerusalem in the Liturgy of Saint James
(a) Greek Saint James, used once a year by the Orthodox
(b) Syriac Saint James (Jacobites and Catholic Syrians)
(c) Maronite Rite
(3) Chaldean Rite (Nestorians and Chaldean Uniats)
(a) Malabar Rite (Uniats and non-Uniats of Malabar)
(4) Byzantine Rite (Orthodox, Bulgarians, Byzantine Uniats, and Bulgarian Uniats)
(5) Armenian Rite (Uniat and non-Uniat Armenians)
Alexandria ...
(1)
(a) Greek Liturgy of Saint Mark; no longer used
(b) Coptic Liturgies of Saint Cyril, Saint Basil and Saint Gregory Nazianzus (Uniat and non-Uniat Copts)
(2) AEthiopic Liturgy (non-Uniat Abyssinians)
Rites, Greek - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the language in which it is now used. ...
ANTIOCH ...
(1) Pure, survives only in the "Apostolic Constitutions"
(2) Modified at Jerusalem in the Liturgy of Saint James
(a) Greek Saint James, used once a year by the Orthodox
(b) Syriac Saint James (Jacobites and Catholic Syrians)
(c) Maronite Rite
(3) Chaldean Rite (Nestorians and Chaldean Uniats)
(a) Malabar Rite (Uniats and non-Uniats of Malabar)
(4) Byzantine Rite (Orthodox, Bulgarians, Byzantine Uniats, and Bulgarian Uniats)
(5) Armenian Rite (Uniat and non-Uniat Armenians)
Alexandria ...
(1)
(a) Greek Liturgy of Saint Mark; no longer used
(b) Coptic Liturgies of Saint Cyril, Saint Basil and Saint Gregory Nazianzus (Uniat and non-Uniat Copts)
(2) AEthiopic Liturgy (non-Uniat Abyssinians)
New Orleans, Louisiana, Archdiocese of - Suffragan dioceses include ...
Alexandria, Louisiana
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Houma-Thibodaux, Louisiana
Lafayette, Louisiana
Lake Charles, Louisiana
Shreveport, Louisiana
See also ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Arian - ) Pertaining to Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, in the fourth century, or to the doctrines of Arius, who held Christ to be inferior to God the Father in nature and dignity, though the first and noblest of all created beings
Ammonian Sections - Divisions of the four Gospels indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin manuscripts, attributed to Ammonius of Alexandria (c
Alexandria - Alexandria (ăl-egz-ăn'dri-a). Alexandria numbered, in the days of its ancient prosperity, 800,000 inhabitants, half of them slaves, and ranked next to Athens in literature. At Alexandria the Old Testament was translated into the Greek by 70 learned Jews—hence called the "Septuagint"—in the third century before the Christian era. The Alexandrian Greek dialect, known as Hellenistic Greek, was the language used by the early Christian fathers, and is still the study of the biblical scholar In the pages of the New Testament. Alexandria was the birthplace of Apollos, Acts 18:24, and in the apostle Paul's time it carried on an extensive commerce with the countries on the Mediterranean. In Alexandria originated the Arian heresy denying that Jesus Christ was divine, and there Athanasius, the "father of orthodoxy," firmly opposed the false and defended the true doctrine of the deity of our Lord. The obelisk on the embankment of the Thames, London, and the one in Central Park, New York, once stood at Alexandria
Ambrosius of Greece - There is no other trace of this tradition, nor ground for identifying him with Ambrose of Alexandria
Apollonia, Saint - Virgin, martyr, deaconess, died Alexandria, c249 She was seized by the insurgent heathen populace who tortured her by knocking out her teeth
Dionysia, Martyr at Alexandria - Dionysia (2) , at Alexandria, a
Potimiaena, a Martyr at Alexandria - Potimiaena (June 28), one of the most celebrated martyrs at Alexandria in the persecution of Severus, being a virgin distinguished alike for her beauty, chastity, and courage
Maximus, Bishop of Alexandria - of Alexandria, 14th "successor of St. During the Decian persecution, after Dionysius had been carried away by some Christians of Mareotis into Libya, Maximus with three other presbyters "kept themselves concealed in Alexandria, secretly carrying on the oversight of the brethren" (Dionys. " After a while the party were removed to Colluthion, much nearer to Alexandria ( ib
Posthumianus, of Aquitania - Alexandria was then convulsed by the quarrel between the patriarch Theophilus and the monks about the writings of Origen, and Posthumianus went on by land to Bethlehem, where he spent six months with Jerome, whom he praises highly both for virtue and learning. Posthumianus then returned to Alexandria, and thence went to the Thebaid, spending a year and seven months visiting its monasteries and hermitages. After three years' absence he returned, taking 30 days from Alexandria to Marseilles
Lucius (11) - Lucius (11), the third Arian intruded into the see of Alexandria, an Alexandrian by birth, ordained presbyter by George. After the murder of that prelate Lucius seems to have been regarded as head of the Arians of Alexandria; but Socrates's statement (iii. They said they were "Christians from Alexandria," and wanted a bishop. 582), "either at Antioch, or at some other place out of Egypt," he attempted to possess himself of the bishopric, and entered Alexandria by night on Sept. Accordingly Lucius appeared in Alexandria, escorted, as Peter said in his encyclical letter (Theod. 25), not by monks and clergy and laity, but by Euzoius, and the imperial treasurer Magnus, at the head of a large body of soldiers; while the pagan populace intimated their friendly feeling towards the Arian bishop by hailing him as one who did not worship the Son of God and who must have been sent to Alexandria by the favour of Serapis. He took an active part in the attack on the monks of Egypt; finding them immovably attached to the Nicene faith, he advised that their chief "abbats," the two Macarii, should be banished to a little pagan island; but when the holy men converted its inhabitants, the Alexandrian people made a vehement demonstration against Lucius, and he sent the exiles back to their cells (Neale, Hist. When the Arian supremacy came to an end at the death of Valens, in 378, Lucius was finally ejected, and repaired to Constantinople, but the Arians of Alexandria still regarded him as their bishop (Socr
Athanasius - the celebrated patriarch of Alexandria, resisted Arius and his erroneous doctrines; and his sentiments as to the Trinity are embodied in the creed which bears his name, though not composed by him. At the Council of Nice, though then but a deacon of Alexandria, his reputation for skill in controversy gained him an honourable place in the council, and with great dexterity he exposed the sophistry of those who pleaded on the side of Arius. Notwithstanding the influence of the emperor, who had recalled Arius from banishment, and upon a plausible confession of his faith, in which he affected to be orthodox in his sentiments, directed that he should be received by the Alexandrian church, Athanasius refused to admit him to communion, and exposed his prevarication. The Arians upon this exerted themselves to raise tumults at Alexandria, and to injure the character of Athanasius with the emperor, who was prevailed upon to pronounce against him a sentence of banishment. 362, held a council at Alexandria, where the belief of a consubstantial Trinity was openly professed. During the reign of Jovian also Athanasius held another council, which declared its adherence to the Nicene faith; and with the exception of a short retirement under Valens, he was permitted to sit down in quiet and govern his affectionate church of Alexandria
Orthodox Church - Originally comprising the four Eastern patriarchates, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, they were separated from the West in the schism of the 9th and 11th centuries. ...
Church of Cyprus
Church of Greece (Modern)
Church of Mount Sinai
Greek Church in Australia
Greek Church in Western Europe (headquarters in London)
Greek Orthodox Church in the United States
Independent Greek Orthodox Church in America
Patriarchate of Alexandria (Egypt)
Patriarchate of Antioch (Syria)
Patriarchate of Constantinople
Patriarchate of Jerusalem
Patriarchate of Moscow (Russia; largest of all Eastern Churches)
Patriarchate of Poland
Patriarchate of Rumania
Patriarchate of Serbia
Russian Church (Czarist: headquarters in Serbia)
The Living Church (Russia; new)
The majority of them have become national churches, governed by a Holy Directing Synod and absolutely independent upon the state
Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria - Heraclas, patriarch of Alexandria, a. From being a pupil he became an assistant in teaching to Origen, who left the school to him when he retired from Alexandria to Caesarea ( ib
Mary of Egypt, Saint - After living an evil life for seventeen years at Alexandria, she was miraculously converted at Jerusalem
Egypt, Mary of, Saint - After living an evil life for seventeen years at Alexandria, she was miraculously converted at Jerusalem
Friday - Mention of this practise is made in the "Teaching of the Apostles," and by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Pope Nicholas I (858-867), who declared abstinence on that day to be obligatory throughout the Church
Patriarch - ) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch
Hilarius, Pope - He attended the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, 449, as a legate and upheld the rights of the papacy until Dioscurus of Alexandria forced him to flee
Hilarus, Pope - He attended the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, 449, as a legate and upheld the rights of the papacy until Dioscurus of Alexandria forced him to flee
Hilary, Pope - He attended the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, 449, as a legate and upheld the rights of the papacy until Dioscurus of Alexandria forced him to flee
Theurgy - ) A kind of magical science or art developed in Alexandria among the Neoplatonists, and supposed to enable man to influence the will of the gods by means of purification and other sacramental rites
Alexandria - Alexandria was founded (b. The Ptolemys, who succeeded to the Egyptian portion of Alexander’s divided empire, made Alexandria their capital, and by their extensive building operations rendered the city famous for the magnificence and beauty of its public edifices. Besides the Royal Palace, the Royal Mausoleum, the Temple of Neptune, the Great Theatre, the Gymnasium, and the vast Necropolis, Alexandria possessed three other structures for which it was celebrated. The Museum of Alexandria became in course of time practically the centre of the intellectual life of the world. The Library was in two portions; and, in the siege of Alexandria by Julius Cæsar, the part stored in the Museum was burned; a loss, however, which was largely made up by the presentation to Cleopatra, by Mark Antony, of the Royal Library of Pergamum. (3) The third structure which attracted the attention of the world to Alexandria was the Pharos (Lighthouse), erected by Ptol. ...
In its times of greatest prosperity, Alexandria had a population of between 800,000 and 1,000,000. Alexandria became, next to Rome, the largest and most splendid city in the world. Paul twice sailed in a ship of Alexandria ( Acts 27:6 ; Acts 28:11 ). ...
It was in Alexandria that one of the most important events in the history of religion took place, when the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into the Greek tongue. Epiphanes the Alexandrian supremacy over Palestine was exchanged for that of Antiochus III. Julius Cæsar stormed Alexandria in b. We read of a ‘synagogue of the Alexandrians’ in Jerusalem, furiously hostile to St. Apollos of Alexandria ( Acts 18:24-28 ) needed to be ‘more accurately instructed’ in Christian doctrine, though we have no direct evidence that he was a disciple of Philo. to the Hebrews shows traces of Alexandrian influence, and there are evidences that St. Paul was not unfamiliar with Alexandrian hermeneutics and terminology (cf. Paul ever visited Alexandria. Alexandria was the intellectual capital of Christendom. The Alexandrian school of theology was made lustrous by the names of Pantænus, Clement, and especially Origen, who, while continuing the allegorical tradition, strove to show that Christian doctrine enshrined and realized the dreams and yearnings of Greek philosophy. The evil tendencies of the method found expression in the teachings of the Alexandrian heretics, Basilides and Valentinian. Alexandria became more and more the stronghold of the Christian faith. 641, Alexandria fell before Amrou; in the 7th cent. Alexandria was a mere village
Theognostus, a Priest of Alexandria - Theognostus (1) , a priest of Alexandria and a writer of about the middle of cent. Philip of Side says that he presided over the school of Alexandria after Pierius a
Nicomedia, Eusebius of - He succeeded in placing his tools in the sees of the deposed bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and having denied the jurisdiction of Rome usurped the See of Constantinople and induced the young Emperor Constantius to enforce his policy
Eusebius of Nicomedia - He succeeded in placing his tools in the sees of the deposed bishops of Alexandria and Antioch, and having denied the jurisdiction of Rome usurped the See of Constantinople and induced the young Emperor Constantius to enforce his policy
Tarsus - Strabo compares it in this respect to Athens and Alexandria
Alexandria - Alexandria rose rapidly to a state of prosperity, becoming the center of commercial intercourse between the East and the West, and in process of time was, in point both magnitude and wealth, second only to Rome itself. ...
Upon the death of Alexander, whose body was deposited in this new city, Alexandria became the regal capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, and rose to its highest splendor. 26, Alexandria passed into the hands of the Romans; and after having enjoyed the highest fame for upwards of a thousand years, it submitted to the arms of the caliph Pmar, A. ...
The present Alexandria, or according to the pronunciation of the inhabitants, Skanderia, occupies only about the eighth part of the site of the ancient city. According to his statements, also, there dwelt in his time, in Alexandria and the other Egyptian cities, not less than a million Jews; but this would seem exaggerated
Catechetical School of Alexandria - Founded by the Church of Alexandria, in latter half of 2century
Serapis - The temple to him at Alexandria was the largest and best known among several
Jude - It is referred to by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen
Alexandria, Catechetical School of - Founded by the Church of Alexandria, in latter half of 2century
Anatolius, Bishop of Constantinople - , through the influence of Dioscorus of Alexandria with Theodosius II. After the council of Chalcedon some Egyptian bishops wrote to Anatolius, earnestly asking his assistance against Timotheus, who was usurping the episcopal throne at Alexandria (Labbe, Conc. The circular of the emperor requesting the advice of Anatolius on the turbulent state of Alexandria is given by Evagrius ( H
Daria, Saint - The legend concerning them relates that Chrysanthus, the son of the noble Polemius of Alexandria, was converted at Rome by the presbyter Carpophorus, and lived in virginial matrimonial union with Daria, a beautiful Vestal
Indicopleustes, Cosmas - Sixth century traveler and geographer, born Alexandria, Egypt
Abishua - The Chronicon of Alexandria shows that his pontificate included the period of Ehud's judgeship, and probably of Eglon's oppression
Africa - (For additional New Testament references to Africa see Alexandria; CYRENE
Fair Havens - Here the ship of Alexandria in which Paul and his companions sailed was detained a considerable time waiting for a favourable wind
Tarsus - It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city
Troas - It is now called Eski-Stamboul: there are many ruins of the ancient city (called Alexandria Troas), which was the chief port of the traffic from Macedonia
Eastern Churches - All ancient churches which were originally under the jurisdiction of one of the four great Eastern patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem
Bernice - This lady was first betrothed to Mark, the son of Alexander Lysimachus, albarach of Alexandria; afterward she married Herod, king of Chalcis, her own uncle by the father's side
Patriarch - In the christian church, a dignitary superior to the order of archbishops as the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Ephesus
Lentile - Augustine says, "Lentils are used as food in Egypt, for this plant grows abundantly in that country, which renders the lentils of Alexandria so valuable that they are brought from thence to us, as if none were grown among us
Dositheus - The priest who, according to a note in one of the Greek recensions of Esther, brought the book to Alexandria in the 4th year of Ptolemy Philometor (?) and Cleopatra, c Ptolemies - ) established the dynasty which bears his name and moved the capitol of Egypt from Memphis to Alexandria, the city Alexander founded. ...
The Ptolemies made Alexandria a center of learning and commerce. During the campaigns to secure Palestine for Egypt, Ptolemy I transported large numbers of Jews from Palestine to Alexandria for settlement. Soon Alexandria became a major center of world Jewry. The Alexandrian Jews imbibed Hellenism much more deeply than their counterparts in Judea as evidenced by the need to translate the Old Testament writings into Greek
Gennadius (10), Bishop of Constantinople - In the latter he exclaims, "How many times have I heard blasphemies from Cyril of Egypt? Woe to the scourge of Alexandria!" In 433 Gennadius was probably one of those who became reconciled with Cyril. Timothy Aelurus, chased from the see of Alexandria by order of the emperor, had obtained leave to come to Constantinople, intending, by a pretence of Catholicism, to re-establish himself on his throne. of Rome, June 17, 460, did his utmost to prevent the voyage of Timothy, and to secure the immediate consecration of an orthodox prelate for Alexandria. of Alexandria in his stead. ...
Gennadius died in 471, and stands out as an able and successful administrator, for whom no historian has anything but praise, if we except the criticism naturally aroused by his attack in his younger days against Cyril of Alexandria, an attack which the unmeasured language of Cyril perhaps excuses
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - of Alexandria (356–361). 356, after Athanasius had retired from Alexandria in consequence of the attack on his church, which all but ended in his seizure, he heard that George was to be intruded into his throne, as Gregory had been 16 years previously. George arrived in Alexandria, escorted by soldiers, during Lent 356 ( de Fug. His installation was a signal for new inflictions on Alexandrian church-people. He allowed the notorious adventurer Aetius, founder of the Anomoeans or ultra-Arians, to officiate as deacon at Alexandria, after having been ordained, as Athanasius tells us (de Synod. He managed to keep the confidence of Constantius, who congratulated the Alexandrians on having abandoned such "grovelling teachers" as Athanasius and entrusted their "heavenward aspirations" to the guidance of "the most venerable George" (Athan. But George was far from recommending his form of Christianity either to the orthodox or to the pagans of Alexandria. He stood well with Constantius, who was guided theologically by the Acacians; and it was easy for the "pope" of Alexandria to embitter his sovereign (as Julian says he did, Ep. 10) against the Alexandrian community, to name several of its members as disobedient subjects, and to suggest that its grand public buildings ought by rights to pay tax to the treasury (Ammian. 18), with an armed force into the superb temple of Serapis at Alexandria, which was forthwith stripped of images, votive offerings, and ornaments (Julian, l. The news of Julian's accession arrived at Alexandria Nov. George of England" as the Alexandrian usurper "transformed "into a heroic soldier-saint; but bp
Frumentius, Saint - Frumentius journeyed to Alexandria, where he was consecrated bishop by Saint Athanasius, c328 He returned to Abyssinia, established his see at Axum, and was called Abuna (Our Father) or Abba Salama (Father of Peace)
Dolci, Carlo - See also ...
Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Lucia ...
Web Gallery of Art ...
Carlo Dolci - See also ...
Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Lucia ...
Web Gallery of Art ...
Tarsus - It was famous for its educational institutions, and was considered the centre of learning in Asia Minor (as Athens was in Greece and as Alexandria was in Egypt)
Coptic Church - The native church of Egypt or church of Alexandria, which in general organization and doctrines resembles the Roman Catholic Church, except that it holds to the Monophysitic doctrine which was condemned (a
Caster And Pollux - " At Cyrene in the region of Africa, adjoining Alexandria, they were especially worshipped. This accords with the Alexandrian vessel that Paul sailed in (Acts 28:11), having as the figure head or painting on the bow these deities, as they may be seen on coins of Rhegium (where the ship touched); two youths on horseback, with conical caps, and stars above their heads
Hypatia, Writer - In the synodical book of the council of Ephesus is given a letter, from its style evidently the work of a female writer (unnamed), which is falsely attributed to Hypatia (1) the philosopher of Alexandria
Meletians - The name of a considerable party who adhered to the cause of Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, in Upper Egypt, after he was deposed, about the year 306, by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, under the charge of his having sacrificed to the gods, and having been guilty of other heinous crimes; though Epiphanius makes his only failing to have been an excessive severity against the lapsed
Silk - , by the way of Alexandria, and was sold for its weight in gold
Nomus, Leading Personage at Constantinople - Through them Dioscorus of Alexandria and the Eutychian doctrines he supported were brought into favour at court. ), where a libel or petition against him was presented by a nephew of Cyril, Athanasius by name, a presbyter of Alexandria, accusing him of violence and extortion which had reduced Athanasius and his relatives to beggary and caused his brother to die of distress ( ib
Africanus, Julius - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Julius Africanus - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Apollinarians - Their doctrine was first condemned by a council at Alexandria in 362, and afterwards in a more formal manner by a council at Rome in 375, and by another council in 378, which deposed Apollinaris from his bishopric
Myra - A town in Lycia, where Paul was taken from the Adramyttian ship into the Alexandrian ship bound for Rome. of Alexandria. The mountains are conspicuous from afar, and the current sets westward; all good reasons for the Alexandrian ship taking Myra in its course. , as it impeded the Adramyttian ship, would also impede the Alexandrian (Acts 27:4-7)
Antioch, Syria - ; next to Rome and Alexandria the greatest city of the Roman Empire
Basilides, Saint - The best-known saint by this name, however, was an officer of the court at Alexandria, who was commissioned to lead Saint Potamiana to her death
Sextus Julius Africanus - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Serapion, Solitary of Scete - Serapion (14), a solitary, of Scete, and leader of the Anthropomorphites against the festal epistle of Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria
Dionysius (7), Bishop of Rome - When Dionysius of Alexandria (q. In 264 the Alexandrian and Roman Dionysii acted together with the council of Antioch in condemning and degrading Paul of Samosata
Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria - of Alexandria (whom Eutychius absurdly calls Neron ), succeeded Maximus in 282. Diocletian besieged Alexandria in 294; and after eight months' siege the city, "wasted by the sword and fire, implored the mercy of the conqueror, but experienced the full extent of his severity" in the form of "promiscuous slaughter" and sentences "of death or of exile" (Gibbon, ii. It is obviously a translation from a Greek original, which no one will now hesitate to ascribe to Theonas of Alexandria
Apostolic - Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. In progress of time, the bishop of Rome growing in power above the rest, and the three patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, falling into the hands of the Saracens, the title apostolical was restrained to the pope and his church alone; though some of the popes, and St
Colluthus, Presbyter And Sect Founder - Colluthus (2), presbyter and founder of a sect at Alexandria early in the 4th cent. He claimed (on what grounds it is unknown) to exercise episcopal functions; but the council of Alexandria under Hosius (a
Monophysites - Outstanding among the first exponents of Monophysitism were Dioscurus (condemned at Chalcedon, 451) and Timothy Ælurus, both patriarchs of Alexandria
Monophysitism - Outstanding among the first exponents of Monophysitism were Dioscurus (condemned at Chalcedon, 451) and Timothy Ælurus, both patriarchs of Alexandria
Apollos - A Jew of Alexandria, a learned and eloquent man, who through the Scriptures and the ministry of John the Baptist became a Christian
Memphis - After the founding of Alexandria, Memphis rapidly fell into decay
Tarsus - ' It was a seat of learning under the early Roman emperors and was ranked by Strabo as even above Athens and Alexandria: it was Paul's native place, and he visited it after his conversion
Monophysites - Outstanding among the first exponents of Monophysitism were Dioscurus (condemned at Chalcedon, 451) and Timothy Ælurus, both patriarchs of Alexandria
Monophysitism - Outstanding among the first exponents of Monophysitism were Dioscurus (condemned at Chalcedon, 451) and Timothy Ælurus, both patriarchs of Alexandria
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - of Alexandria and Rome, and to other Catholic bishops. Felix, who had in the meantime succeeded Dionysius, addressed a letter on the subject to Maximus and to the clergy of Antioch, fragments of which are preserved in the Apologeticus of Cyril of Alexandria, and in the Acts of the council of Ephesus, and which is also alluded to by Marius Mercator, and by Vincent of Lerins in his Commonitorium ; cf
Dioscorus, the Monk - They were reluctantly induced by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, to leave the desert and to submit to ordination. On the pretext of their adherence to the mystic views of Origen on the Person of the Deity, and their decided opposition to Anthropomorphism, which Theophilus had originally shared with them, Theophilus had them ejected from their monasteries and treated them with the utmost contumely and violence when they went to Alexandria to appeal (Pallad. Having procured their condemnation at a packed synod at Alexandria, a
Paulus, Bishop of Emesa - of Emesa one of the most deservedly respected prelates of the period of the Nestorian controversy the contemporary of Cyril and John of Antioch the peacemaker between the patriarchs of Alexandria and Antioch after the disastrous close of the council of Ephesus a. Weary of conflict and anxious to obtain peace John of Antioch despatched Paul as his ambassador to Alexandria to confer with Cyril on the terms of mutual concord a. This eventually was signed by John and brought back with great joy by Paul to Alexandria (ib. The happy reunion of the long-divided parties was published by Cyril in the chief church of Alexandria Apr
Daughters of the Cross (French) - It has approximately 15 houses in Belgium, France, India, England, and the United States, where they are established in the Diocese of Alexandria, Louisiana, numbering 79 religious, and have 6 schools, including Saint Vincent's College and Academy, at Shreveport
Tar'Sus, - Strabo compares it in this respect to Athens unto Alexandria
Ring - Clement of Alexandria, while forbidding to Christians such ornaments as are mere luxuries, makes an exception of the ring because of its use for the purpose of sealing
Lentil - Austin says, they grow abundantly in Egypt, are much used as a food there, and those of Alexandria are considered particularly valuable
Dionysius of Alexandria - Dionysius (6) of Alexandria. This "great bishop of Alexandria" (Eus. of Alexandria, a. A popular outbreak at Alexandria (a. Dionysius fled from Alexandria, and, being afterwards taken by some soldiers, was rescued by a friend, escaping in an obscure retirement from further attacks. 257, he was banished, but continued to direct and animate the Alexandrian church from the successive places of his exile. 260, Dionysius was allowed to return to Alexandria ( ib. Dionysius of Rome regarded ὑπόστασις as expressing the essence of the divine nature; Dionysius of Alexandria as expressing the essence of each divine person. —To Novatian, to the Roman Confessors, to Cornelius of Rome, Fabius of Antioch, Conon of Hermopolis; and to Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, Laodicaea, Armenia, on discipline and repentance, with pictures from contemporary history (ib
Origen - A celebrated ecclesiastical writer; born Alexandria, Egypt, 185; died Tyre, Phenicia, 253. He succeeded Clement as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, which under him became a nursery of confessors and martyrs. Later while journeying to Greece he was ordained at Cresarea; Demetrius, Bishop of Alexandria, was displeased at this and Origen, forced to quit the catechetical school, 231, settled at Caesarea in Palestine and resumed his teaching
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - Petrus (6), surnamed Mongus (Stammerer), Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, ordained deacon by Dioscorus, and said to have taken part in the outrages against Flavian at the Latrocinium (Mansi, vi. 17), ejected Peter, and ordered his expulsion from Alexandria (Mansi, vii. Zeno ordered Talaia to be expelled from Alexandria and Peter Mongus enthroned after accepting the HENOTICON, or instrument of unity (a. This was addressed to the bishops, clergy, monks, and laymen of the Alexandrian patriarchate; it recognized the creed of "the 318" at Nicaea as "confirmed by the 150" at Constantinople, the decisions of the council of Ephesus, together with the 12 articles of Cyril; it employed language as to Christ's consubstantiality with man which Cyril had adopted in his "reunion with the Easterns"; it rejected the opposite theories of a "division" and a "confusion" in the person of Christ, and included Eutyches as well as Nestorius in its anathema. Peter was accordingly enthroned amid a great concourse, at Alexandria. This caused a great excitement; the earnest Catholics renounced Peter's communion; and tidings of this turn of events disturbed the mind of Acacius, who sent to Alexandria for an authentic account. He then wrote again to Zeno, desiring him to "choose between the communion of Peter the apostle and that of Peter the Alexandrian" (Mansi, vii. A new strife between Constantinople and Alexandria was imminent, when Peter Mongus, respected by none, died at the end of Oct
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - (305) Virgin, martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt
Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint - (305) Virgin, martyr, died Alexandria, Egypt
Troas - Alexandria Troas, as its name implies, owed its origin to Alexander the Great
Syene - The latitude of Syene, according to Bruce is 24 0'...
45'; that of Alexandria, 31 11' 33"; difference 7 10' 48", equal to four hundred and thirty geographical miles on the meridian, or about five hundred British miles; but the real length of the valley of Egypt, as it follows the windings of the Nile, is full six hundred miles
Sycamine - Galen has a separate article on the sycamorus, which he speaks of as rare, and mentions as having seen it at Alexandria in Egypt
Apol'Los - (given by Apollo ) a Jew from Alexandria, eloquent (which may also mean learned ) and mighty in the Scriptures; one instructed in the way of the Lord, according to the imperfect view of the disciples of John the Baptist, ( Acts 18:24 ) but on his coming to Ephesus during a temporary absence of St
Mark, Saint Evangelist - Tradition represents Saint Mark as the founder of the Church of Alexandria and bishop of that city for about twenty years. The date of Saint Mark's death is uncertain; the "Acts" of Mark give the saint the glory of martyrdom and say that he died while being dragged through the streets of Alexandria
Memphis - Kings and dynasties might make their principal residences in the cities from which they sprang, but until Alexandria was founded as the capital of the Greek dynasty, no Egyptian city, except Thebes, under the New Kingdom equalled Memphis in size and importance. After the foundation of Alexandria the old capital fell to the second place, but it held a vast population till after the Arab conquest, when it rapidly declined
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - A native of Alexandria of low parentage, he boasted that his family had produced martyrs. He imposed upon Peter of Alexandria, who lent himself to Maximus's projects. Seven unscrupulous sailors were dispatched from Alexandria to mix with the people and watch for a favourable opportunity for carrying out the plot. Maximus returned to Alexandria, and demanded that Peter should assist him in re-establishing himself at Constantinople. Having only his own representations to guide them, and there being no question that Gregory's translation was uncanonical, while the election of Nectarius was open to grave censure as that of an unbaptized layman, Maximus also exhibiting letters from Peter the late venerable patriarch, to confirm his asserted communion with the church of Alexandria, it is not surprising that the Italian bishops pronounced decidedly in favour of Maximus and refused to recognize either Gregory or Nectarius
Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis - The see of Lycopolis stood next in rank to that of Alexandria, of which Peter, afterwards martyr, was then bishop (a. The bishops were martyred, and Meletius went to Alexandria. of Alexandria then wrote forbidding his flock to have fellowship with Meletius until these acts had been investigated. The 2nd, 4th, and 6th canons refer directly or indirectly to the Egyptian schism; and in a synodical epistle addressed by the bishops assembled there "to the holy and great church of the Alexandrians and to the beloved brethren throughout Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis," the "contumacy of Meletius and of those who had been ordained by him" is dealt with (Socr. At Alexander's request he handed in a list of his clerical adherents, including 29 bishops, and in Alexandria itself 4 priests and 3 deacons. Meletius retired to Lycopolis, and during Alexander's lifetime remained quiet; but the appointment of Athanasius to the see of Alexandria was the signal for union of every faction opposed to him, and in the events which followed Meletius took a personal part
Athanasian Creed - For about ten centuries Saint Athanasius of Alexandria was erroneously taken to be its author
Abyssinian Church - A body of Monophysite Christians in Abyssinia, governed by the Abuna, a vicar of the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria
Dorotheus (3) Presbyter of Antioch - 290, who with his contemporary Lucian may be regarded as the progenitor of the sound and healthy school of scriptural hermeneutics which distinguished the interpreters of Antioch from those of Alexandria
Septuagint - , at Alexandria for the Jewish colonists of Egypt
Mark, Feast of Saint - Mark is said to have founded the Churchin Alexandria, and one of the ancient Liturgies is called by hisname
Alexandria - (Ἀλεξάνδρια)...
The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great’s dream of ‘a city surpassing anything previously existing’ (Plutarch, Alex. ...
The name of the city does not occur in the NT, but ‘Alexandrian,’ as noun and adj. There was a synagogue of Alexandrians in Jerusalem (Acts 6:9), fanatical defenders of the Mosaic faith, roused to indignation by the heresies of Stephen. Apollos was ‘an Alexandrian by race, a learned man (ἀνὴρ λόγιος; Authorized Version and Revised Version margin, ‘eloquent’), mighty in the scriptures’ (Acts 18:24). In one Alexandrian ship St. Here are references to the three most striking aspects of the life of Alexandria-her religion, culture, and commerce. -Alexandria was built on a site uniquely adapted for maritime trade. ]'>[2] and on her southern side by the wharves of Mareotis, Alexandria entered into the heritage of both Tyre and Carthage, and drew to herself the commerce of three continents. ...
The cruisers and coasters of Alexandria traded with every part of the Mediterranean, and it was an ordinary occurrence to find vessels bound for Italy in the harbours of Myra and Malta (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11). Seneca gives a vivid picture of the arrival of the Alexandrian fleet of merchantmen at Puteoli (Ep. Alexandria really succeeded in winning for herself the crown of science, and was for centuries the foster-mother of an international Hellenic culture. In this home of endowed research the exact sciences flourished; Alexandria had on her roll of fame the names of Euclid in geometry, Hipparchus in astronomy, Eratosthenes in geography; and her physicians were the most celebrated in the world. Alexandria’s most brilliant scholars, detached from the realities of life, immured in academic cloisters, were, connoisseurs, not writers, of classics. -While the eclecticism of Alexandrian religion was represented in its pagan aspect by the cultus of the Serapeum, the most famous of the city’s temples, in which the attempt was made to blend the creeds of Greece and Egypt, the grafting of Judaism on Hellenism flowered into a system which had far more influence upon the permanent thought of the world. Alexandria became the greatest of Jewish cities, the centre of Semitism as well as of Hellenism (q. Alexandria thus became the meeting-place of Eastern and Western ideals. Alexandrian thought provided the categories-in themselves cold and speculative-into which Christianity, as represented by the writers of Colossians, Hebrews, and the Fourth Gospel, poured the warm life-blood of a historic and humane faith. And if the Alexandrian exegetical method was often unscientific-as when it made Moses identify Abraham with understanding, Sarah with virtue, Noah with righteousness, the four streams of Paradise with the four cardinal virtues-yet the writer of Hebrews could scarcely have built a bridge between Judaism and Christianity unless he had been trained in a school which taught its disciples to pass from symbols to ultimate realities. ]'>[5] ), the learned and eloquent (λόγιος, δυνατὸς ἐν ταῖς γραφαῖς), was a true Alexandrian, not impossibly ‘of the Museum’; and Luther was happily inspired in suggesting that he may have been the writer who used the Hebrew-Hellenic theology of Egypt to interpret the manger of Bethlehem. -Article ‘Alexandria’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Hastings’ Single-vol. des alten Alexandria, Berlin, 1872; J
John Chrysostom, Saint - " In 398 he was elevated to the See of Constantinople, where he incurred popular resentment by his sweeping reforms, and was deposed and exiled, 403, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria
Origenism - The doctrines ascribed to Origen of Alexandria, one of the outstanding ecclesiastical writers of the early half of the 3century
Famine - Helena, queen of Adiabene, being at Jerusalem at that time, procured corn from Alexandria and figs from Cyprus for its poor inhabitants
Apollos - A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and eloquent (Acts 18:24 ; RSV, "learned")
Harmonies of the Gospels - Euthalius, a deacon of Alexandria, besides adopting the division into sections, applied the method of numbered lines to the Acts and Epistles
Agnoet ae - There arose another sect of the same name in the sixth century, who followed Themistius, deacon of Alexandria
Troas - The city was a Macedonian and Roman colony of much promise, and was called Alexandria Troas
Septuagint - See Alexandria
Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch - of Alexandria, c. of Antioch, summoned Euzoïus from Alexandria, and commanded the bishops of the province to consecrate him
Timotheus, Patriarch of Constantinople - The extreme Monophysites, headed by John Niciota, patriarch of Alexandria, whose name he had inserted in the diptychs, at first stood aloof from him, because, though he accepted the Henoticon, he did not reject the council of Chalcedon, and for the same reason Flavian II. His emissaries to Alexandria anathematized from the pulpit the council of Chalcedon
Abyssinian Church - The Abyssinians, by the most authentic accounts, were converted to the Christian faith about the year 330; when Frumentius, being providentially raised to a high office, under the patronage of the queen of Ethiopia, and ordained bishop of that country by Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria, established Christianity, built churches, and ordained a regular clergy to officiate in them. ...
The Abyssinian Christians have always received their abuna, or patriarch, from Alexandria, whence they sprang, and consequently their creed is Monophysite, or Eutychian; maintaining one nature only in the person of Christ, namely, the divine, in which they considered all the properties of the humanity to be absorbed; in opposition to the Nestorians. ...
Instead of this, however, the emperor sent for a new patriarch from Alexandria, imprisoned Bermudes, and declared the pope a heretic
Timotheus Salofaciolus - Timotheus (19) , commonly called Salofaciolus , patriarch of Alexandria, elected after the expulsion of Timotheus Aelurus, at the beginning of Aug. He was attached to the Chalcedonian dogma, and may be identified with the "Timotheus, presbyter, and a steward of the Alexandrian church," who signed the memorial which the persecuted Catholic bishops presented to the emperor Leo in 457 (Mansi, Concil. After his consecration he sent a letter to pope Leo, who replied in terms of warm congratulation, and urged the newly appointed "Catholic bishop of the Alexandrian church" to root out all remains of Nestorian as well as of Eutychian error ( Ep. "In his episcopal administration," says Liberatus, "he was exceedingly gentle, so that even those who were of his communion complained of him to the emperor for being too remiss and easy-going towards heretics, in consequence of which the emperor wrote to him not to allow the heretics to hold assemblies or to administer baptism; but he continued to treat them gently, and while he thus discharged his office the Alexandrians loved him, and cried aloud to him in the streets and in the churches, 'Even if we do not communicate with thee, yet we love thee. When Timotheus Aelurus returned in 476 and took possession of the archbishopric, Salofaciolus was allowed to reside in the monastery of the monks of Tabennesus, situated in a suburb of Alexandria called Canopus (see Le Quien, Or. Peter Mongus was lurking in corners of Alexandria, "plotting against the church"; the patriarch wrote to Zeno and Simplicius, begging that he might be removed to a distance (Liberat
Arians - Followers of Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, about 315, who maintained that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct from the Father; that he was the first and noblest of those beings whom God had created...
the instrument, by whose subordinate operation he formed the universe; and therefore, inferior to the Father both in nature and dignity: also that the Holy Ghost was not God, but created by the power of the Son. ...
The Arians were first condemned and anathematised by a council at Alexandria, in 320, under Alexander, bishop of that city, who accused Arius of impiety, and caused him to be expelled from the communion of the church; and afterwards by 380 fathers in the general council of Nice, assembled by Constantine, in 325. Notwithstanding this, Athanasius, then bishop of Alexandria, refused to admit him and his followers to communion. ...
This so enraged them, that, by their interest at court, they procured that prelate to be deposed and banished; but the church of Alexandria still refusing to admit Arius into their communion, the emperor sent for him to Constantinople; where upon delivering in a fresh confession of his faith in terms less offensive, the emperor commanded him to be received into their communion; but that very evening, it is said, Arius died as his friends were conducting him in triumph to the great church of Constantinople
Joannes Philoponus, Distinguished Philosopher - Joannes (564) Philoponus, a "grammaticus" of Alexandria; a distinguished philosopher, a voluminous writer (Suidas, s. He was a native of Alexandria. Notwithstanding this, if not because of it, the emperor Justinian sent one of his officers named Stephanus to Alexandria to summon Philoponus to Constantinople "in causa fidei," but he wrote excusing himself because of age and infirmity. "...
On the death of Joannes Ascusnaghes, the founder of the Tritheites, his Demonstrationes were sent to Philoponus at Alexandria
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - of Alexandria succeeded Theonas a. of Thmuis, and three other bishops were imprisoned at Alexandria; and then, according to the Maffeian documents, Meletius, being himself at large, held ordinations in their dioceses without their sanction "or that of the archbishop," and without necessity ( Hist. Peter, being informed of this lawless procedure, wrote to the faithful in Alexandria: "Since I have ascertained that Meletius, disregarding the letter of the martyred bishops, has entered my diocese, taken upon himself to excommunicate the presbyters who were acting under my authority . 306, 307, 308), practised other enormities at Alexandria (Eus. of Alexandria, although himself in hiding, could, as did Athanasius, make his hand felt throughout the churches which still owned him as their "father. " Probably Peter's return to Alexandria, and the formal communication of the Meletians above mentioned, took place after a toleration-edict, which mortal agony wrung from Galerius in Apr. 311 "the Christians found themselves again in great peril" (Burton); and one of the first acts of Maximin's renewed persecution was to smite the shepherd of the flock at Alexandria
Hylozoism - It grew pantheistic with the later Peripatetics, the Neo-Pythagoreans, and the Neo-Platonic school of Alexandria, which explained that there was life in all material beings but that perfections proceed from the soul
Creed, Athanasian - A formulary or confession of faith, long supposed to have been drawn up by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century, to justify himself against the calumnies of his Arian enemies; but it is now generally allowed not to have been his
Allegory - Origen at Alexandria introduced a faulty system of interpreting Scripture by allegorizing, for which this passage gives no warrant
Anthony, Saint - During this time he made two visits to Alexandria: in 311 to strengthen the Christian martyrs in persecution, and in 350 to preach against the Arians
Hilarion, Saint - While studying at Alexandria he was converted to Christianity; he visited Saint Anthony in the desert, and stayed with him for two months
Apollos - A convert from Alexandria, an eloquent man and mighty in thescriptures, who, when only knowing the baptism of John, taught diligently the things of Jesus
Alexandria - Tradition relates that the apostle Mark was the first to introduce Christianity into Alexandria
Thessalonians - These epistles are ascribed to Paul by Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian
Disciple - The church readers were, in some places, appointed to instruct the catechumens; and at Alexandria, where often learned men presented themselves for instruction, the office of catechist was filled by learned laymen, and these catechists laid the foundation of an important theological school
Pergamos - There was here collected by the kings of this race a noble library of two hundred thousand volumes, which, after the country was ceded to the Romans, was transported to Egypt for Cleopatra, and added to the library at Alexandria
Macarius, an Egyptian Hermit or Monk - " Yet Rufinus, who lived 6 years in Alexandria and the adjoining monasteries, describes the residence of Macarius ( Hist
Paphnutius, Surnamed Bubalus - of Alexandria and the monks of the Egyptian desert, Paphnutius took the side of the bishop and orthodoxy (Cass
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - of Jerusalem, was an early friend and fellow scholar of Origen at Alexandria, where they studied together under Pantaenus and Clemens Alex. His chief claim to celebrity rests on the library he formed at Jerusalem, and on the boldness with which he supported Origen against his bishop, Demetrius of Alexandria
Myra - The corn-ships of Alexandria, which brought food to the population of Rome, were in the habit of sailing due north to Lycia, making Myra a place of call, and then proceeding westward. Paul from Caesarea found an Alexandrian corn-ship in the harbour of Myra, about to continue her course to Italy, this was no surprising occurrence. Before he began his voyage he no doubt calculated on being able to trans-ship into one of the vessels of that great fleet of corn-ships which linked the names of Alexandria and Myra in the common talk of all men of the sea
Troas - The name was an abbreviation of ‘Trojan Alexandria’ (Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ Τρῳάς, Strabo, XIII. , Τρῳάς, which was needed to differentiate this Alexandria from the many other cities of the same name, came to be used sometimes alone (as in Pliny, Historia Naturalis (Pliny) v. ...
The city, which was founded by Antigonus and named Antigonia Troas, was enlarged and improved by Lysimachus and renamed Alexandria. Alexandria continued to exist, and became a large place; at present’ Patriarchs - Thus the patriarch of Constantinople grew to be a patriarch over the patriarchs of Ephesus and Caesarea, and was called the (Ecumenical and Universal Patriarch; and the patriarch of Alexandria had some prerogatives which no other patriarch but himself enjoyed; such as the right of consecrating and approving of every single bishop under his jurisdiction. Rome in Europe, Antioch in Asia, and Alexandria in Africa: and thus formed a trinity of patriarchs. In deed, it does not appear that the dignity of patriarch was appropriated to the five grand sees of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, till after the council of Chalcedon, in 451; for when the council of Nice regulated the limits and prerogatives of the three patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria, it did not give them the title of patriarchs, though it allowed them the pre-eminence and privileges thereof: thus when the council of Constantinople adjudged the second place to the bishop of Constantinople, who, till then, was only a suffragan of Heraclea, it said nothing of the patriarchate
Alexandrians - Stephen were ‘certain of them that were of the synagogue called the synagogue … of the Alexandrians’ (Ἀλεξανδρέων, Acts 6:9). Holtzmann, Rendall) assume that the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, Cilicians, and Asiatics residing in Jerusalem all worshipped in one synagogue. Page groups the Libertines in one place of worship, the men of Alexandria and Cyrene in a second, and those of Cilicia and Asia in a third. A synagogue of the Alexandrians in Jerusalem is mentioned in Jerus. translation , 113) is disposed to accept as ‘by no means improbable,’...
The Jews of Alexandria (q. The governor Flaccus issued an edict in which he termed the Jews of Alexandria ‘strangers,’ thus depriving them of the rights of citizenship which they had enjoyed for centuries. 90) one could still see standing in Alexandria ‘the pillar containing the privileges which the great Caesar (Julius) bestowed upon the Jews’ (τὴν στήλην … τὰ δικαιώματα περιέχουσαν ἃ Καῖσαρ ὁ μέγας τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ἔδωκεν
For a time the ‘Alexandrians’ were doubtless bilingual, but ultimately they forgot their Hebrew or Aramaic, and adopted Greek as the language of the home and the synagogue as well as of the market. Even before becoming a Christian, the Alexandrian Apollos had doubtless a breadth of sympathy, as well as a richness of culture, which could not have been attained among the Rabbis of Jerusalem. Yet in the great mass of the ‘Alexandrians,’ as throughout the Dispersion generally, the Jewish element predominated, and it need occasion no surprise that those of them who chose to reside in the Holy City were as zealous for the Mosaic traditions, and as strenuously opposed to innovations, as any Hebrew of the Hebrews
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - , virgin and martyr of Alexandria. Eusebius relates how a lady of Alexandria—he omits her name—was one of the victims of Maximinus early in 4th cent. It was easy to identify the corpse as that of the anonymous sufferer, to invent a name for it, and to bridge over the distance between Alexandria and Mount Sinai. She was regarded generally as the patron saint of schools, probably from the tradition of her learned controversy with the philosophers at Alexandria
Fathers - 116; Justin Martyr, 140; Dionysius of Corinth, 170; Tatian, 172; Hegesippus, 173; Melito, 177; Irenaeus, 178; Athenagoras, 178; Miltiades, 180; Theophilus, 181; Clement of Alexandria, 194; Tertullian, 200; Minutius Felix, 210; Ammonius, 220; Origen, 230; Firmilian, 233; Dionysius of Alexandria, 247; Cyprian, 248; Novatus or Novatian, 251; Arnobius, 306; Lactantius, 306; Alexander of Alexandria, 313; Eusebius, 315; Athanasius, 326; Cyril of Jerusalem, 348; Hilary, 354; Epiphanius, 368; Basil, 370; Gregory of Nazianzum, 370; Gregory of Nyssa, 370; Optatus, 370; Ambrose, 374; Philaster, 380; Jerome, 392; Theodore of Mopsuestia, 394; Ruffin, 397; Augustine, 398; Chrysostom, 398; Sulpitius Severus, 401; Cyril of Alexandria, 412; Theodoret, 423; and Gennadius, 494
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - 121), and anathematized Peter Mongus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, for accepting it. Severus is charged with having stirred up a fierce religious war among the excitable population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. He caused the name of Peter Mongus to be inscribed in the diptychs; declared himself in communion with the Eutychian prelates, Timotheus of Constantinople and John Niciota of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l. 518 sailed by night for Alexandria (Liberat. At Alexandria his reception by his fellow-religionists was enthusiastic. Alexandria speedily became the resort of Monophysites of every shade of opinion, who formed too powerful a body for the emperor to molest
Alexandrian Library - This celebrated collection of books was first founded by Ptolemy Soter, for the use of the academy, or society of learned men, which he had founded at Alexandria. In the war which Julius Caesar waged with the inhabitants of Alexandria, the library of Bruchion was accidentally, but unfortunately, burnt. Abulpharagius, in his history of the tenth dynasty, gives the following account of this catastrophe: John Philoponus, surnamed the Grammarian, a famous peripatetic philosopher, being at Alexandria when the city was taken by the Saracens, was admitted to familiar intercourse with Amrou, the Arabian general, and presumed to solicit a gift inestimable in his opinion, but contemptible in that of the barbarians; and this was the royal library
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - Timotheus (18), commonly called Aelurus , a Monophysite intruder into the see of Alexandria. 457, he returned to Alexandria, and practised the artifice which apparently procured him the epithet αἴλουρος , "cat. He declared open war against the maintainers of "two natures" as being in effect Nestorianizers, and on this ground boldly broke off communion with Rome, Constantinople, and Antioch, denouncing bishops of the Alexandrian patriarchate who had accepted the formula of the council, and some of whom had held their sees before the accession of Cyril; he also sent to cities and monasteries a prohibition to communicate with such bishops or to recognize clerics ordained by them. 536), to the effect that under their "most pious archbishop, the great city of the Alexandrians, with its churches and monasteries, was by God's favour enjoying complete peace," and that they and their archbishop held firmly to the Nicene Creed, refusing to admit any alterations in, or additions to, its text. The document, as we now have it, breaks off abruptly with the words, "for the church of the great city of the Alexandrians does not accept the council of Chalcedon"; but it appears from other evidence (Leo, Ep. 522) that it went on to ask that the sanction given to that council might be recalled, and a new council summoned, asserting that the Alexandrian people, the civil dignitaries, the municipal functionaries, and the company of transporters of corn-freights, desired to retain Timotheus as their bishop. sent orders to Stilas, the "dux" commanding at Alexandria, to expel Timotheus from the church, and to promote the election of an orthodox bishop (Liberat. of Alexandria, and by his advice put forth a circular to the episcopate, condemning "the innovation in the faith which was made at Chalcedon" (Evagr. When he reached Alexandria, the kindly and popular Salofaciolus was allowed to retire to his monastery at the suburb called Canopus
Troas - 300 by Lysimachus, who named it Alexandria Troas
Hypostasis - The word has occasioned great dissensions in the ancient church, first among the Greeks, and afterwards among the Latins; but an end was put to them by a synod held at Alexandria about the year 362, at which St
Alexandria - Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9 ), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom
Lycia - The former was a celebrated seat of the worship of Apollo, the latter an important harbour, between which and Alexandria there was constant traffic in ancient times
Ammon (or Amon), Saint - Being left an orphan by his parents, wealthy people near Alexandria, he was forced by his uncle to marry
Alexandrian Manuscript - Cyrillus brought it with him from Alexandria, where probably it was written
Eusebius, Saint Martyr - After the synod at Alexandria, 362, Eusebius went to Antioch to reconcile the Eustathians and the Meletians, visited other churches of the Orient in the interest of the orthodox faith, and arriving at Vercelli, 363, became one of the chief opponents of Arianism
Louisiana - Included in the state are the Archdiocese of New Orleans, and the dioceses of Lafayette and Alexandria. ...
Catholic influence on place-names of the state is shown in the following: ...
Convent
Saint Amant
Saint Benedict
Saint Bernard
Saint Francisville
Saint Gabriel
Saint James
Saint Joseph
Saint Landry
Saint Martinville
Saint Maurice
Saint Patrick's
Saint Rose
Archdioceses, past and present, include ...
New Orleans
Dioceses, past and present, include: ...
Alexandria
Baton Rouge
Houma-Thibodaux
Lafayette
Lake Charles
Shreveport
See also, ...
patron saints index
Monophysites - The laborious efforts of Jacob were seconded in Egypt and the adjacent countries by Theodosius, bishop of Alexandria; and he became so famous, that all the Monophysites of the East considered him as their second parent and founder, and are to this day called Jacobites, in honour of their new chief. Athanias, near the city of Merdin: the former are under the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Alexandria, who generally resides at Grand Cairo, and are subdivided into Cophts and Abyssinians
Eutherius, Bishop of Tyana - Before the council he was in active correspondence with John of Antioch, about the alleged Apollinarianism of Cyril of Alexandria and his adherents (Theod. 304), in which he subjects the "Scholia" of Cyril of Alexandria, "de Incarnatione Unigeniti" (Mar
Paulus, the Black - to 578, was a native of Alexandria (Assem. Paul was probably then syncellus to Theodosius, the Jacobite patriarch of Alexandria, who was in nominal exile at Constantinople, but exercising full authority over the Jacobite congregations there and in Egypt
Epiphanes, a Gnostic Writer - Clement of Alexandria (Strom. He was the son of Carpocrates, by a mother named Alexandria, a native of Cephallenia. 32), it is plain that Epiphanius has been following Irenaeus until, on coming to the words ἑπιφανὴς διδάσκαλος , he goes off to Clement of Alexandria, and puts in what he there found about Epiphanes
Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea - He was a native of Alexandria. of Alexandria (ib. After his excommunication at Alexandria he sought admission among the clergy of Antioch but was steadily rejected by Eustathius (Athan
Alexander - 336, and within twelve years overran Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, founded Alexandria, conquered the Persians, and penetrated far into the Indies
Alexander, of Byzantium - In the commencement of the Arian troubles the co-operation of Alexander was specially requested by his namesake of Alexandria (Theod
Patriarch - ) ("After the destruction of Jerusalem, patriarch was the title of the chief religious rulers of the Jews in Asia and in early Christian times it became the designation of the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem
Julianus, Missionary Priest to the Nubians - He was an old man of great worth, and one of the clergy in attendance on Theodosius, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, then residing at Constantinople
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - ...
His only episcopal act of which anything needs to be said is his probable assent to the condemnation of Origen by Demetrius of Alexandria
Dispersion - The three great sections of the dispersion at Christ's coming were the Babylonian, the Syrian, and the Egyptian (including Alexandria where the Grecian element was strongest, and with African offshoots, Cyrene and N. So we find Aquila from Pontus, Barnabas of Cyprus, Apollos of Alexandria, Clement probably of Rome
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - He went to Alexandria, followed quickly by Severus on his expulsion from Antioch (Liberatus, Brev. Some Alexandrians hearing this asked Julian, who said that the "fathers" had declared the contrary. ...
Four scholastici from Alexandria visited Ephesus c. Eutropius afterwards ordained ten Julianist bishops, and sent them as missionaries east and west, among other places to Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, and into Syria, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the country of the Homerites (Asseman. But the Gaianites of Alexandria took courage from the edict to erect churches in that city, and elected Helpidius, an archdeacon, as their bishop (Theoph. ...
The Julianists were still numerous at Alexandria during the patriarchate of Eulogius (Phot
Nativity of Christ, Feast of the - First mention of the feast, then kept on May 20, was made by Clement of Alexandria, c200 The Latin Church began c
Christmas - First mention of the feast, then kept on May 20, was made by Clement of Alexandria, c200 The Latin Church began c
Italy - see), and from there sailed to Ephesus or Antioch or Alexandria, as he desired
Mark - Nothing further of him is recorded in the Scripture; but we may identify him with the author of the second Gospel, and may readily believe ecclesiastical history which tells us that he was bishop of the church in Alexandria
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - Gregory was educated at Caesarea, where he formed a lasting friendship with Saint Basil, and at Alexandria and Athens
Hermias (5), a Christian Philosopher - Bohn) regards Hermias as "one of those bitter enemies of the Greek philosophy whom Clement of Alexandria thought it necessary to censure, and who, following the idle Jewish legend, pretended that the Greek philosophy had been derived from fallen angels
Acephali - Peter Mongus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, subscribed this compromise [1]; for this reason many of his party, especially among the monks, separated from him, and were called Acephali
Ambrosius of Alexandria - Ambrosius (1) ( Ἀμβρόσιος ) of Alexandria, a deacon according to Jerome (de Vir
Cassianus, Bishop of Autun - The Life tells us that he was born of noble parents in Alexandria, and brought up by a bp
Abba - The bishops themselves bestow the title abba more eminently upon the bishop of Alexandria, which occasioned the people to give him the title of baba, or papa, that is, grandfather; a title which he bore before the bishop of Rome
Noph - Memphis, a celebrated city of Egypt, and, till the time of the Ptolemies, who removed to Alexandria, the residence of the ancient kings of Egypt
Therapeutae - One particular phenomenon which resulted from the theosophico-ascetic spirit among the Alexandrian Jews, was the sect of the Therapeutae. Their headquarters were at no great distance from Alexandria, in a quiet pleasant spot on the shores of the Lake Moeris, where they lived, like the anchorites in later periods, shut up in separate cells, and employed themselves in nothing but prayer, and the contemplation of divine things
Apollinarians - The doctrine of Apollinaris was first condemned by a council at Alexandria in 362, and afterward in a more formal manner by a council at Rome in 375, and by another council in 338, which deposed Apollinaris from his bishopric
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - Jewish settlements were also established at Alexandria by Alexander and Ptolemy I
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - He was translated as prefect in 304 or 305 to Bithynia after the persecution broke out, and in 305 or 306 was promoted to the government of Alexandria, as is proved by the fact that Eusebius records the martyrdom of Aedesius at Alexandria as occurring by his orders a short time after that of Apphianus, which he dates Apr
Septuagint - The Greek version of Old Testament, made for the Greek speaking (Hellenistic) Jews at Alexandria. The oldest manuscripts in capitals ("uncials") are the Cottonian ("fragments") in British Museum; Vatican (representing especially the oldest text) at Rome; Alexandrian in British Museum, of which Baber in 1816 published a facsimile; Sinaitic at Petersburgh. Alexandrian is of the fifth century, the others are of the fourth. Its completion was commemorated by a yearly feast at Alexandria (Philo, Vit. Aristeas' letter is probably a forgery of an Alexandrian Jew; nevertheless the story gave its title to the Septuagint (70, the round number for 72). The composition at Alexandria begun under the earlier Ptolemies, 280 B. The Alexandrian Macedonic Greek forms in the Septuagint disprove the coming of 72 interpreters from Jerusalem, and show that the translators were Alexandrian Jews
Antioch - Its situation, amid innumerable groves and small streams, midway between Alexandria and Constantinople, rendered it a place of great beauty and salubrity, as well as commercial importance
Myra - It grew especially through the Alexandrian corn-trade with Italy. The Alexandrian ships did not coast round the Levant, but took advantage of the steady west winds to cross direct between Lycia and Egypt. Paul found at Myra ‘a ship of Alexandria sailing to Italy’; whereas in Acts 21:1 Samt
Asterius, a Bishop of Arabia - 362) took part in the important council summoned by the newly restored Athanasius at Alexandria, for the purpose of promoting union between the orthodox and those who, without embracing the errors of Arius, had held communion with the Arian party
Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria Prima - He had been famous at Alexandria for proficiency in the liberal arts, while his reputation for practical wisdom was so great that when the suburb of Brucheium was besieged by the Romans during the revolt of Aemilianus, A
Alexan'Der Iii - 332, and in this year he founded Alexandria
Noph - ...
Memphis was the residence of the ancient kings of Egypt till the times of the Ptolemies, who commonly resided at Alexandria
Volume - Of such volumes, Ptolemy's library in Alexandria contained 3 or 700,000
Wonder - The seven wonders of the world were the Egyptian pyramids, the Mausoleum erected by Artemisia, the temple of Diana at Ephesus, the walls and hanging gardens of Babylon, the colossus at Rhodes, the statue of Jupiter Olympius, and the Pharos or watch-tower of Alexandria
Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem - " A letter was addressed to him and other orthodox bishops by Alexander of Alexandria (Epiph
Pantaenus, of Alexandria - Pantaenus , chief of the catechetical school of Alexandria, in the latter part of the 2nd cent. 36) adds (but probably without authority) that Pantaenus brought this to Alexandria. This is by no means incredible, considering the celebrity of Alexandria as a seat of learning. 189; while he represents Pantaenus as head of the Alexandrian school in his 1st year (H. ...
There is a like conflict of authority concerning the relation of Pantaenus to Clement of Alexandria. 193), where we read that Clement was then in Alexandria, "a most excellent teacher ( διδάσκαλος ) and shining light (διέλαμπε ) of Christian philosophy," and Pantaenus "was distinguished as an expositor of the Word of God. ...
Anastasius describes him as "priest of the church of the Alexandrians (τῆς Ἀλεξανδρέων ἱερεύς )"; which is noteworthy in the absence of all direct information concerning the time and place, or even the fact, of his ordination
Exegesis - The two schools of catechetics founded at Alexandria and Antioch soon devoted themselves to the exegesis of the Sacred Books. At Alexandria, Pantrenus, Clement, and especially Origen, established a system of interpretation
Exegete - The two schools of catechetics founded at Alexandria and Antioch soon devoted themselves to the exegesis of the Sacred Books. At Alexandria, Pantrenus, Clement, and especially Origen, established a system of interpretation
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - On the one side he laboured to restore unity to Eastern Christendom, which was distracted by the varieties of opinion to which the Eutychian debates had given rise; and on the other to aggrandize the authority of his see by asserting its independence of Rome, and extending its influence over Alexandria and Antioch. In conjunction with a Stylite monk, Daniel, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the emperor Basiliscus, who, after usurping the empire of the East, had issued an encyclic letter in condemnation of the council of Chalcedon, and taken Timotheus Aelurus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, under his protection, A. Three years later (482), on the death of the patriarch of Alexandria, the appointment of his successor gave occasion to a graver dispute. Talaia retired to Rome (482–483), and Simplicius wrote again to Acacius, charging him in the strongest language to check the progress of heresy elsewhere and at Alexandria (Simplic
Sep'Tuagint - [1] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar language was Alexandrian Greek. They had settled in Alexandria in large numbers soon after the time of Alexander, and under the early Ptolemies. But it is now generally admitted that the letter is spurious and is probably the fabrication of an Alexandrian Jew shortly before the Christian era. Still there can be no doubt that there was a basis of fact for the fiction; on three points of the story there is no material difference of opinion and they are confirmed by the study of the version itself:-- ...
The version was made at Alexandria
Antioch - It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman empire
Adramyttium - Luke sailed from Caesarea by Sidon and under the lee (to the east) of Cyprus to Myra in Lycia, where they joined a corn-ship of Alexandria bound for Italy (Acts 27:2-6)
Malchion, a Presbyter of Antioch - A great council of bishops and presbyters having then been called together, and having condemned Paul, Malchion was chosen to write the letter denouncing him as a heretic and a criminal to the bishops of Rome and Alexandria, and through them to the world
Serapion, Surnamed Scholasticus - Eudoxius, who had been tortured; the other censuring some monks of Alexandria
Agnoetae - Themistius deacon of Alexandria representing a small branch of the Monophysite Severians taught after the death of Severus that the human soul (not the Divine nature) of Christ was like us in all things even in the limitation of knowledge and was ignorant of many things especially the day of judgment which the Father alone knew (Mar_13:32 cf. Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria wrote against the Agnoëtae a treatise on the absolute knowledge of Christ of which Photius has preserved large extracts
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - His education was continued in Palestine and subsequently at Alexandria. Eusebius's high personal character and reputation for learning marked him out for the episcopate, and to avoid the office he repaired to Alexandria, where he devoted himself to philosophy. 340, under the predominant influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, to nominate a successor to the newly deposed Athanasius, offered the vacant throne to Eusebius, who, well knowing how Athanasius was beloved by the Alexandrians, resolutely declined, and Gregory was chosen in his stead
Eusebius, Bishop of Pelusium - He played the knave and tyrant, treated the bishops as his tool, was more than once in peril of his life from the indignation of the citizens, went to Alexandria, was menaced by archbp. of Majuma, assisted at the ordination of Timotheus Aelurus to the see of Alexandria (Evagr
Libertines - It is probable the Jews of Cyrenia, Alexandria, &c, built synagogues at Jerusalem at their own charge, for the use of their brethren who came from those countries; as the Danes, Swedes, &c, build churches for the use of their own countrymen in London; and that the Italian Jews did the same; and because the greatest number of them were libertini, their synagogue was therefore called the synagogue of the Libertines. Now, as all the other people of the several synagogues, mentioned in this passage of the Acts, are denominated from the places from whence they came, it is probable that the Libertines were so too; and as the Cyrenians and Alexandrians, who came from Africa, are placed next to the Libertines in that catalogue, it is probable they also belonged to the same country. So that, upon the whole, there is little reason to doubt of the Libertines being so called from the place from whence they came; and the order of the names in the catalogue might lead us to think, that they were farther off from Jerusalem than Alexandria and Cyrenia, which will carry us to the proconsular province in Africa about Carthage
Philippus, the Arabian - 54) calls Philip the first of all Christian emperors, in which he is followed by Orosius; and Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. (6) A year before Decius issued his edict against the Christians, and therefore while Philip was still reigning, a violent persecution had broken out at Alexandria (Eus
Alexander, of Alexandria - of Alexandria, appears to have come to that see in 313, after the short episcopate of Achillas. ]'>[1] Arius was the parish priest, as he may be described, of the church of Baukalis, the oldest and the most important of the churches of Alexandria, situated "in the head of the mercantile part of the city" (Neale, Hist. 11) prepared him to adopt and carry out to their consequences, with a peculiar boldness of logic, such views as he now began to disseminate in Alexandrian society: that the Son of God could not be co-eternal with His Father; that He must be regarded as external to the Divine essence, and only a creature. Alexander's next step was to write to Arius and his supporters, including two bishops, five priests, and six deacons, exhorting them to renounce their "impiety"; and the majority of the clergy of Alexandria and the Mareotis, at his request, subscribed his letter. The new opinions became extraordinarily popular; Alexandrian society was flooded with colloquial irreverence. A Cilician bishop, Athanasius of Anazarbus, wrote to Alexander, openly declaring that Christ was "one of the hundred sheep"; George, an Alexandrian presbyter, then staying at Antioch, had the boldness to write to his bishop to the effect that the Son once "was not," just as Isaiah "was not," before he was born to Amoz (Athan. The council held at Alexandria on his arrival decided one point very unequivocally: the ordinations performed by Colluthus were pronounced absolutely null (Athan. Theonas at Alexandria, on a larger scale than any of the existing churches, and used it, for convenience' sake, before it was completed (Ap
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - Alexandria had been held by Timothy Salofaciolus since the Eutychian Timothy Aelurus had been banished by the emperor Leo I. Basiliscus declared at once for Eutychianism, and promptly recalled Timothy Aelurus to Alexandria. ...
The death of Timothy Salofaciolus at Alexandria in 482 gave rise to much more serious differences between Constantinople and Rome. John Talaias was elected canonically by a synod of the orthodox at Alexandria in the room of Salofaciolus. 18) informs us that, driven from Alexandria, John Talaias appealed for support to Simplicius, who on his behalf wrote to Acacius, but received the reply that Acacius could not recognize Talaias, having received Peter Mongus into communion on the basis of the emperor's HENOTICON
Fourteen Holy Helpers - The group includes ...
Saint Achatius
Saint Barbara
Saint Blaise
Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Saint Christopher
Saint Cyriacus
Saint Denis
Saint Erasmus
Saint Eustachius
Saint George
Saint Giles
Saint Margaret
Saint Pantaleon
Saint Vitus
In various localities the Blessed Virgin or Saint Magnus are added to the list, and in some places other favorite saints are substituted for the fourteen mentioned, e
Alexander the Great - It is also most likely that when Josephus declares that Alexander gave to the Jews in Alexandria equal privileges with the Macedonians ( c
Eustochius (6), Patriarch of Jerusalem - On the death of Peter, Eustochius, oeconomus of the church of Alexandria but residing at Constantinople, was favoured by the emperor Justinian in preference to Macarius, an Origenist, who had been first elected
University of Heidelberg, Germany - It was modeled on the University of Paris with faculties of theology, law, medicine, and art and was under the patronage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Heidelberg, Germany, University of - It was modeled on the University of Paris with faculties of theology, law, medicine, and art and was under the patronage of Saint Catherine of Alexandria
Corinth'Ians, First Epistle to the, - (Acts 18:11 ) A short time after the apostle had left the city the eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to Corinth, (Acts 19:1 ) and gained many followers, dividing the church into two parties, the followers of Paul and the followers of Apollos
Ptolemae'us, - Ptolemy bestowed liberal encouragement on literature and science, founding the great library and museum at Alexandria, and gathered about him many men of learning, as the poet Theocritus, the geometer Euclid and the astronomer Aratua. A sudden paralysis hindered his design; but when he returned to Alexandria he determined to inflict on the Alexandrine Jews the vengeance for his disappointment. , the younger brother of Ptolemy Philometor, assumed the supreme power at Alexandris; and Antiochus, under the pretext of recovering the crown for Philometor, besieged Alexandria in B. But while doing so he prepared for another invasion of Egypt, and was already approaching Alexandria when he was met by the Roman embassy led by C
Manuscripts, Illuminated - It was practised by the Greek artists of Alexandria
Troas - Alexandria Troas, now Eshki Stamboul, "old Constantinople
Apollonius of Ephesus - John, that he relates the raising to life of a dead man at Ephesus by the same John, and that he makes mention of the tradition quoted also by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom
Medicine - Luke "the beloved physician" practiced at Antioch, the center between the schools of Cilicia (Tarsus) and Alexandria
Vincentius - All Rome and Italy, he reported, had been delivered; and his praise of Theophilus of Alexandria as having by his letter to the pope Anastasius procured this deliverance is communicated to that prelate in Jerome's letter ( Ep
Illuminated Manuscripts - It was practised by the Greek artists of Alexandria
Luke (Evangelist) - Other traditions connect him with Achaia, Bithynia, or Alexandria; some assign to him a martyr’s crown
Tarsus - Ranked by Strabo above Athens and Alexandria for its school of literature and philosophy; Athenodorus, Augustus' tutor, the grammarians Artemidorus and Diodorus, and the tragedian Dionysides belonged to Tarsus
Person - On the other hand, the Greek church thought that the word person did not sufficiently guard against the Sabellian notion of the same individual Being sustaining three relations; whereupon each part of the church was ready to brand the other with heresy, till by a free and mutual conference in a synod at Alexandria, A
Ammonius - After being for some time high in favour with Theophilus of Alexandria, he and his brothers were accused by him of Origenism
Aristo Pellaeus - Corderii) in these words, "I have also read the expression 'seven heavens' in the dialogue of Papiscus and Jason, composed by Aristo of Pella, which Clemens of Alexandria in the 6th book of his Hypotyposes says was written by St
Eastern Church - The highest five authorities are the patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the patriarch of Alexandria, the patriarch of Jerusalem, the patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia
Alexander the Great - See Greece, Religion and Society of and Alexandria
On - They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A
Eclectics - The Eclectic philosophy was in a flourishing state at Alexandria when our Saviour was upon earth. The moral doctrine of the Alexandrian school was as follows:— The mind of man, originally a portion of the Divine Being, having fallen into a state of darkness and defilement, by its union with the body, is to be gradually emancipated from the chains of matter, and rise by contemplation to the knowledge and vision of God. In the infancy of the Alexandrian school, not a few of the professors of Christianity were led, by the pretensions of the Eclectic sect, to imagine that a coalition might, with great advantage, be formed between its system and that of Christianity
Tarsus - Tarsus was distinguished for the culture of Greek literature and philosophy, so that at one time, in its schools and in the number of its learned men, it was the rival of Athens and Alexandria
On - They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A
Apollos - Over the last two or three hundred years of the pre-Christian era, a strong community of Jewish biblical scholars had grown up in Alexandria in Egypt
Theophylactus Simocatta - 14); his overthrow and murder by Phocas, and the miraculous announcement of it by his statues at Alexandria the same night (viii
Evagrius of Antioch - Here he zealously co-operated with Eusebius in restoring peace to the churches distracted by the results of the council of Ariminum, and re-establishing orthodoxy on the terms laid down by the synod of Alexandria in 362. of Antioch, but found the question too knotty, and relegated the decision to Theophilus of Alexandria and the Egyptian bishops
Acts of the Apostles - This strong testimony in favour of the genuineness of the Acts of the Apostles is supported by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Jerome, Eusebius, Theodoret, and most of the later fathers. The probability appears to be in favour of Greece, though some contend for Alexandria in Egypt
Pamphilus, Presbyter of Caesarea - Having received his earlier education in his native city, he passed to Alexandria, where he devoted himself to theological studies under Pierius, the head of its catechetical school (Routh, Rel. In the catechetical school of Alexandria Pamphilus had conceived a most ardent admiration for Origen, with whose works he made it his special object to enrich his library, copying the greater part himself (Hieron
Liturgy - John,  Antioch, or Jerusalem or Alexandria St. Mark, for the Church in Alexandria
Septuagint - Ptolemy accordingly sent ambassadors to Eleazar the high priest, who sent back to Alexandria seventy-two elders, six from each tribe, with magnificent copies of the Hebrew Scriptures. ...
This legend is related in a pseudonymous letter purporting to be written by Aristeas (an Alexandrian, and one of Ptolemy’s ambassadors to Jerusalem) to his brother Philocrates. Other forms of the tradition are given by the Alexandrian writers Aristobulus and Philo, and by Josephus. What amount of truth underlies the legend it is difficult to decide; but the following facts are probable: (1) that the translation was begun at Alexandria; (2) that it was not undertaken officially, by order of the king (though he probably encouraged it), but resulted from the needs of the Alexandrian Jews, who knew no Hebrew and probably little or no Aramaic; (3) it may be true that Hebrew rolls were brought from Jerusalem; (4) the translation was, as might be expected, cordially received by Hellenistic Jews, who would be glad to have a Greek account of the origins of the Hebrew people. ...
The Alexandrian version embraced only the Pentateuch; and the letter of Aristeas professes no more. And before the Christian era Alexandria probably possessed the whole of the Hebrew Bible in a Greek translation, with the possible exception of Ecclesiastes. It may be realized, therefore, what a blessing was conferred upon the Jewish race by Alexandria when she gave them their own Scriptures in the universal language of the day.
But though she knew it not, Alexandria provided them with something greater
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - A considerable number of Monophysite bishops from all parts of the East, including Theodosius of Alexandria, Anthimus the deposed patriarch of Constantinople, Constantius of Laodicea, John of Egypt, Peter, and others, who had come to Constantinople in the hope of mitigating the displeasure of the emperor and exciting the sympathies of Theodora, were held by Justinian in one of the imperial castles in a kind of honourable imprisonment. Conon and Eugenius, whom he had ordained at Alexandria—the former for the Isaurian Seleucia, the latter for Tarsus—who became the founders of the obscure and short-lived sect of the "Cononites," or, from the monastery at Constantinople to which a section of them belonged, "Condobandites" (John of Ephesus, H. Paul's rehabilitation caused great indignation among the Monophysites at Alexandria. They clamoured for his deposition, which was carried into effect by Peter, the intruded patriarch, in violation of all canonical order; the patriarch of Antioch (Paul's position in the Monophysite communion) owning no allegiance to the patriarch of Alexandria ( ib. James allowed himself to be persuaded that if he were to visit Alexandria the veneration felt for his age and services would bring to an end the unhappy dissension between the churches of Syria and Egypt, and though he had denounced Peter, both orally and in writing, he was induced not only to hold communion with him but to draw up instruments of concord and to give his formal assent to the deposition of Paul, only stipulating that it should not be accompanied by any excommunication ( ib. Wearied out at last, and feeling the necessity for putting an end to the violence and bloodshed which was raging unchecked, James suddenly set out for Alexandria, but never reached it
Arius the Heresiarch - of Alexandria, to bp. But so unsatisfactory was that settlement that the reopening of the question sooner or later was practically unavoidable, especially in an atmosphere so intellectual as that of Alexandria. of Alexandria, had used much the same language as Arius afterwards held, and a correspondence is extant in which Dionysius of Rome blames his brother of Alexandria for using such language. Dionysius of Alexandria withdrew, or perhaps rather explained (see Athan. (Alexander) of Alexandria ( c. of Alexandria, in a letter to Alexander of Constantinople, describes it in very unfavourable terms. It has been stated that his action was largely the result of jealousy on account of his having been a candidate for the patriarchal throne of Alexandria, when Alexander was elected to it. He had no doubt a disproportionate number of female supporters, but there seems no ground for the insinuation of Alexander of Alexandria, in the above-mentioned letter, that these women were of loose morals. Nor can he be acquitted of something like a personal canvass of the Christian population in and around Alexandria in order to further his views. ...
The patriarch of Alexandria has also been the subject of adverse criticism for his action against his subordinate. Alexander, patriarch of Alexandria, was also a man of mark. The council then broke up, after having addressed a letter to the churches in and around Alexandria. When Alexander died at Alexandria in 327, the election of Athanasius in his place was only secured in the face of violent opposition from the Arianizing faction
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - From those parts, says Photius, he went to Alexandria and Oasis and the neighbouring deserts. At Alexandria Moschus remained eight years (as the Latin version renders νρόνους ὁκτώ , Prat. The names of monastic localities in and about Alexandria occur in Prat. This again assists the chronology; for as the Persians obtained possession of Jerusalem in 615 and in 616 advanced from Palestine and took Alexandria (Rawl
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - Clement of Alexandria refers it to Paul, on the authority of Pantaenus of Alexandria (in the middle of the second century) saying that as Jesus is called the "apostle" to the Hebrew, Paul does not in it call himself so, being apostle to the Gentiles; also that Paul prudently omitted his name at the beginning, because the Hebrew were prejudiced against him; that it was originally written in Hebrew for the Hebrew, and that Luke translated it into Greek for the Greeks, whence the style resembles that of Acts. The Alexandrian phraseology does not prove Apollos' authorship (Alford's theory). The Alexandrian church would not have so undoubtingly asserted Paul's authorship if Apollos their own countryman had really been the author. At Jerusalem there was an Alexandrian synagogue (Acts 6:9). ...
Paul knew well how to adapt himself to his readers; to the Greek Corinthians who idolized rhetoric his style is unadorned, that their attention might be fixed on the gospel alone; to the Hebrew who were in no such danger he writes to win them (1 Corinthians 9:20) in a style attractive to those imbued with Philo's Alexandrian conceptions and accustomed to the combination of Alexandrian Greek philosophy and ornament with Judaism. All the Old Testament quotations except two (Hebrews 10:30; Hebrews 13:5) are from the Septuagint, which was framed at Alexandria. Herein allegorical interpretation, which the Alexandrians strained unduly, is legitimately under divine guidance employed. - No Greek father ascribes the epistle to any but Paul, for it was to the Hebrew of Alexandria and Palestine it was mainly addressed; but in the western and Latin churches of N. ...
When in the fourth century at last they found it was received as Pauline and canonical (the Alexandrians only doubted its authorship, not its authority) on good grounds in the Greek churches, they universally accepted it. What gives especial weight to the testimony for it of the Alexandrian church is, that church was founded by Mark, who was with Paul at Rome in his first confinement, when probably this epistle was written (Colossians 4:10), and possibly bore it to Jerusalem where his mother resided, visiting Colosse on the way, and from Jerusalem to Alexandria. - As there was no exclusively Jewish Christian church he does not address the rulers, but the Jews of the Palestinian and adjoining churches, Jerusalem, Judea, and Alexandria, wherein Jewish Christians formed the majority. It was from Alexandria the epistle came to the knowledge of Christendom. ...
Those addressed are presumed to be familiar with temple services, with discussions of Scripture (32 Old Testament quotations occur, including 16 from Psalms), and with the Alexandrian philosophy
Philo - Philo of Alexandria, the Jew, a contemporary of the apostles, was so highly esteemed by early Christian theologians as to be counted among the Christian authors (Jerome, de Vir. ]'>[1], and, for the background, to the papyri dealing with persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria. _ The Rabbinical literature does not mention this Hellenistic leader of Alexandria. ...
Philo belonged to one of the noblest and wealthiest Jewish families of Alexandria. In consequence of the anti-Semitic riots at Alexandria under Flaccus, Philo, as the leader of a Jewish embassy, went to Rome to see the Emperor Caligula. His opponent was the same Alexandrian littérateur, Apion, against whom Josephus wrote his two books. The papyri report, in the time of Claudius, a hearing of the Alexandrian anti-Semites against King Agrippa, but do not mention Philo. ...
It is owing to this method of interpretation that Philo had such an astonishing vogue in later centuries: almost all Christian writers of the early and mediaeval Church followed in his footsteps, in particular the interpreters of the Alexandrian School, from the author of the so-called Epistle of Barnabas down to Cyril. Apollos, a certain Jew born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, mighty in the Scriptures (Acts 18:24), was not necessarily a pupil of Philo; there were other interpreters of the Scriptures at Alexandria besides him, as Philo himself mentions occasionally. _ Hebrews after all shows more traces of Palestinian than of Alexandrian interpretation. Siegfried, Philo von Alexandria als Ausleger des Alten Testaments, Jena, 1875; H. Freudenthal, Die Erkenntnislehre Philos von Alexandria, Berlin, 1891; L. von Arnim, Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria, Berlin, 1888; B
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - , patriarch of Alexandria, was presbyter and church-steward under Dioscorus, and left in charge of the church when Dioscorus went to the council of Chalcedon. 30), were assembled in synod; and the chief laymen of Alexandria came as usual to express their mind and assent to the prelate's choice (cf. There was great difficulty in reaching a conclusion; for the majority of the Alexandrian church people were profoundly aggrieved by the action of the council. Peter as of a disciple to a teacher; and he bespeaks the support of the Alexandrian see in this resistance to the unprincipled ambition of Constantinople, which in the 28th canon, so called, of Chalcedon had injured the "dignity" of the other great bishoprics ( Ep. The Nicene Fathers were believed to have commissioned the Alexandrian bishops to ascertain and signify the right time for each coming Easter. Leo had consulted Cyril as to the Easter of 444; and he now, in 454 applied to Proterius, through the emperor, for his opinion as to the Easter of 455, which the Alexandrian Paschal table appeared to him to place too late ( Epp. ); and Timotheus, returning to Alexandria, began those intrigues which won him his title of "the Cat
Apocrypha - Their style proves that they were a part of the Jewish- Greek literature of Alexandria, within three hundred years before Christ; and as the Septuagint Greek version of the Hebrew Bible came from the same quarter, it was often accompanied by these uninspired Greek writings, and they thus gained a general circulation
Septuagint - In Alexandria in Egypt, the large Jewish population was almost entirely Greek-speaking, and for their sake the Hebrew Bible (our Old Testament) was translated into Greek
Matthias - From the latter Clement of Alexandria quotes two sayings: (1) ‘Wonder at the things before you’ (‘making this,’ he explains, ‘the first step to the knowledge beyond
Dioscuri - 13), It is worthy of note that they were specially held in honour in the district of Cyrenaica near Alexandria (schol
Thomas Edessenus - The latter, originally Magian by religion, was converted to Christianity, learnt Syriac at Nisibis, and Greek at Edessa from Thomas a Jacobite, whom he afterwards took with him to Alexandria and there with his help translated the Scriptures ( or , the books) from Greek into Syriac (Gregory Bar-hebr
Leo i, Emperor - Immediately upon the news of Marcian's death, religious troubles broke out in Alexandria, where the Monophysite party murdered the patriarch Proterius (Proteius), substituting for him Timothy Aelurus. 458, replied, unanimously upholding the decrees of Chalcedon and rejecting the ordination of Timothy, who, however, maintained his position at Alexandria till 460
Patrophilus of Scythopolis - When Arius, driven from Alexandria, took refuge in Palestine, Patrophilus was one of the Palestinian bishops who warmly espoused his cause, wrote in support of his teaching (Athan. Passing thence to Constantinople at the empress's command, he denounced Athanasius as having threatened the imperial city with starvation by preventing the sailing of the Alexandrian corn-ships, and procured his banishment to Trèves (Socr. He was one of the ordainers of George, the violent heterodox intruder into the see of Alexandria in 353 ( ib
Isaacus, Egyptian Solitary - 358, and attached himself to Macarius of Alexandria, the disciple of St. ...
The 10th Conference begins by relating how the patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria scandalized the Scetic anchorites by his Paschal Letter denouncing Anthropomorphism and how the aged abbat Serapion though convinced of his error could not render thanks with the rest but fell a-weeping and crying "They have taken my God from me!" Cassianus and the other witnesses asked Isaacus to account for the old man's heresy. ...
When 50 years old Isaacus was expelled from his desert by Theophilus of Alexandria, albeit that prelate had made bishops of seven or eight of his anchorites
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - Euthalius (5) , a deacon of Alexandria, afterwards bp. of Alexandria about that time. ]'>[1] Ammonius of Alexandria in the 3rd cent. ) Of these, 53 were for Sundays, which seem alone to have been provided for in the Alexandrian Synaxes, and Mill supposes that the other 4 were for Christmas, Good Friday, Easter, and Epiphany (Proleg
Maccabees - Those, also, who suffered under Ptolemy Philopater of Alexandria, fifty years before this period, were afterward called Maccabees; and so were Eleazar, and the mother and her seven sons, though they suffered before Judas erected his standard with the motto from which the appellation originated. And therefore, as these books, which contain the history of Judas and his brothers, and their wars against the Syrian kings, in defence of their religion and liberties, are called the first and second books of the Maccabees; so that book which gives us the history of those who, in the like cause, under Ptolemy Philopater, were exposed to his elephants at Alexandria, is called the third book of the Maccabees; and that which is written by Josephus, of the martyrdom of Eleazar, and the seven brothers and their mother, is called the fourth book of the Maccabees. The second book of the Maccabees begins with two epistles sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt and Alexandria, to exhort them to observe the feast of the dedication of the new altar erected by Judas, on his purifying the temple. The third book of the Maccabees contains the history of the persecution of Ptolomy Philopater against the Jews in Egypt, and their sufferings under it; and seems to have been written by some Alexandrian Jew in the Greek language, not long after the time of Siracides. It is in most of the ancient manuscript copies of the Greek Septuagint, particularly in the Alexandrian and Vatican, but was never inserted into the vulgar Latin version of the Bible, nor, consequently, into any of our English copies
Meletius, Bishop of Antioch - of Vercelli, to establish unity in order to resist the pagan emperor; and this was one of the principal objects of a council held at Alexandria in 362 (Hefele, Conciliengeschichte , i. of Calaris, had gone direct to Antioch instead of to the council of Alexandria. 378), which, known as "the Tome of the Westerns," was sent in the first instance to Paulinus; and two years later (381) Meletius—though disowned by Rome and Alexandria—was appointed to preside at the council of Constantinople
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - A storm of unpopularity soon drove him from Antioch to Cilicia; but having been defeated in argument by one of the Borborian Gnostics, he betook himself to Alexandria, where he soon recovered his character as an invincible adversary by vanquishing the Manichean leader Aphthonius. Athanasius to Alexandria in 349, Aetius retired to Antioch, of which his former teacher Leontius was now bishop. of Alexandria (Epiph. ...
The fall of Gallus in 354 caused a change in the fortunes of Aetius, who returned to Alexandria in 356 to support the waning cause of Arianism
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - of Alexandria, succeeded Athanasius in May 373. The clergy and magistrates assented to the nomination; the people in general applauded; the neighbouring bishops came together to attend the consecration, in which, according to a "fragment" of Alexandrian history, the dying archbp. of Alexandria, at a council held by Damasus, probably in 377, for the condemnation of the Apollinarians. of Antioch, this being the Alexandrian view. Fortified by a letter of commendation from Damasus, Peter returned to Alexandria; the people forthwith expelled Lucius, who went to Constantinople; and Peter was thenceforth undisturbed in his see. The scheme failed disgracefully: Maximus had to leave Constantinople, and after attempting in vain to propitiate Theodosius, went back to Alexandria and tried to intimidate Peter, "putting the old man into a difficulty" ( ib
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - of Alexandria in his stead. ...
Early in 340 Pistus had been given up as the rival bishop, and one Gregory, a Cappadocian, violently intruded by Philagrius the prefect of Egypt into the see; and the Lenten services had been the occasion of atrocious treatment of the Catholics of Alexandria. of Alexandria or in deprecation of the case being referred to Rome. He dwells on the uncanonical intrusion of Gregory the Cappadocian by military force into the Alexandrian see, and on the atrocities committed to enforce acceptance of him. to the Roman church]'>[3] especially about the Alexandrian see? Can you be ignorant that this is the custom; that we should be written to in the first place, so that hence [5], it ought to have been referred hither to our church. of Alexandria at least, custom gave the initiative of proceedings to the bp. In this reference to custom he probably has in view the case of Dionysius of Alexandria, the charges against whom had been laid before Dionysius of Rome. He may be alluding to the action of the Nicene council in entertaining the case of Arius after he had been synodically condemned at Alexandria. In the African case the error was eventually exposed by reference to the copies of the Nicene canons preserved at Constantinople and Alexandria, and the Africans thereupon distinctly repudiated the claims of Rome which rested upon this false foundation. ...
At the close of its sittings the council of Sardica addressed letters to the two emperors, to Julius, to the church of Alexandria, to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, and an encyclic "to all bishops. Nor is there in the letter to the Alexandrians, or in the encyclic to all bishops, any reference to him as having initiated or taken part in the council; only in the latter a passing allusion to the previous council which he ("comminister poster dilectissimus") had convened at Rome. Before that he again visited Rome, and was again cordially received by Julius, who wrote a letter of congratulation to the clergy and laity of Alexandria, remarkable for its warmth of feeling and beauty of expression. He pictures vividly his welcome home by rejoicing crowds at Alexandria. [1]...
His only extant writings are the two letters, to the Eusebians and the Alexandrians, referred to above
Doctors of the Church - ...
The following are Doctors of the Church: ...
Albertus Magnus
Alphonsus Maria de Liguori
Ambrose of Milan
Anselm of Canterbury
Anthony of Padua
Athanasius
Augustine of Hippo
Basil the Great
Bede the Venerable
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bonaventure
Catherine of Siena
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Jerusalem
Ephrem of Syria
Francis of Sales
Gregory Nanzianzen
Gregory the Great
Hilary of Poitiers
Isidore
Jerome
John Chrystostom
John Damascene
John of the Cross
Lawrence of Brindisi
Leo the Great
Peter Canisius
Peter Chrysologus
Peter Damian
Robert Bellarmine
Teresa of Avila
Therese of Lisieux
Thomas Aquinas
Berenice, Bernice - 28, and early betrothed to Marcus, son of Alexander who was alabarch at Alexandria
Florentius, a Chief Minister of State at Constantinople - As Eutyches left the hall he lodged with Florentius an appeal against his condemnation to the churches of Rome, Alexandria, and Jerusalem
Glass - During this period, Alexandria, Egypt, became world famous as a center for the production of glassware
Brethren of the Lord - So Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Epiphanius
Apion - 490), a grammarian of Alexandria in the 1st cent
Hesychius (27) Illustris, a Writer - Without sufficient grounds Hesychius Illustris has been identified with the lexicographer of Alexandria
Hypatia, Lady in Alexandria - 15) says: "There was a lady in Alexandria, by name Hypatia, daughter of the philosopher Theon. This deed occasioned no small blame to Cyril and the Alexandrian church; for murders, fightings, and the like are wholly alien to those who are minded to follow the things of Christ
Copts - " The Copts have a patriarch, whose jurisdiction extends over both Egypts, Nubia, and Abyssinia; who resides at Cairo, but who takes his title from Alexandria
Epicure'Ans, the, - " The doctrines of Epicurus found wide acceptance in Asia Minor and Alexandria
Patara - Patara derived an ample revenue from the vast traffic between the aegean coast and Alexandria
Nicolaitanes, a Heretical Sect - 232) says that Hippolytus and Epiphanius make Nicolas the deacon of Act_6:5 answerable for the errors of the sect called after him; whereas Ignatius Clement of Alexandria Eusebius and Theodoret condemn the sect but impute none of the blame to Nicolas himself
Prodicus, a Gnostic Teacher - Our only other trustworthy information about Prodicus is in three notices by Clement of Alexandria
Theodosius, a Monophysite Monk - Having been expelled from his monastery for some crime, he repaired to Alexandria, where he stirred up strife, was scourged, and paraded round the city on camelback as a seditious person (Evagr
Zoaras - Here Theodorus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, was living and propagating his doctrines
Enoch - Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and others allude to the Book of Enoch Bruce the Abyssinian traveler brought home three Ethiopic copies from Alexandria, which Lawrence translated in 1821
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - of Alexandria, with letters of communion, and a request for the same in return (Evagr. He speedily, however, withdrew from intercourse with the patriarchs of Alexandria, and joined the opposite party, uniting with Elias of Jerusalem and Macedonius of Constantinople (Liberat
Alexander - Jews were a strong element in the population of that city which he founded and which still bears his name, Alexandria. The Greek language, that most perfect medium of human thought, became widely diffused, so that a Greek version of the Old Testament was needed and made (the Septuagint) for the Greek speaking Jews at Alexandria and elsewhere in a succeeding generation; and the fittest lingual vehicle for imparting the New Testament to mankind soon came to be the language generally known by the cultivated of every land. A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius
Didymus, Head of the Catechetical School - Didymus , head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria in the 4th cent. In his earlier manhood, Anthony, visiting Alexandria to support the Catholic cause against the Arians, entered Didymus's cell, and despite his modest reluctance obliged him to offer up prayers (Rosweyd. 29) stayed for a month at Alexandria in 386, mainly (see Prolog
Cophti - The Cophts have a patriarch, who resides at Cairo; but he takes his title from Alexandria
Barnabas - ...
Barnabas in Later Legend In the third century Clement of Alexandria identified Barnabas as one of the seventy of Luke 10:1 ; Tertullian referred to him as the author of Hebrews; and the Clementine Recognitions stated he was the Matthias of Acts 1:23 ,Acts 1:23,1:26
Cnidus - Paul’s ship of Alexandria sailed from Myra ‘slowly’ and ‘with difficulty,’ probably on account of adverse winds rather than of calms, taking ‘many days’ to come ‘over against Cnidus
Ammonius Saccas - He was a native of Alexandria; Porphyry asserts that he was born of Christian parents, and returned to the heathen religion. That the founder of the Alexandrian school of philosophy (for such Ammonius Saccas was) should have been at the same time a Christian, though not impossible, seems hardly likely
Septuagint, the - ...
It is believed to have been made at Alexandria, and to have been begun about B. The translation was by Alexandrian Jews, and by different persons
Hesychius (3), Egyptian bp - 296) when the authors were in prison and Peter of Alexandria alive
Edesius - They were not in orders, and Frumentius went to Alexandria and asked for a bishop to be sent to Abyssinia
Timotheus i., Archbaptist of Alexandria - of Alexandria, unanimously elected, as Theodosius I
Catholic Epistles - ]'>[3] 260, by Dionysius of Alexandria (ap. The letter of the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:23-29) is referred to as ‘catholic’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - (8) In the preface to the Alexandrian Chronicle a work περὶ τοῦ πάσχα is attributed to Apolinaris, from which two extracts are furnished which have given rise to much controversy; the main point being whether (if the fragments are genuine) Apolinaris wrote on the side of the practice of the Roman church, or on that of the Quartodecimans of Asia Minor. In support of the former view is urged the similarity of the language of these fragments with that of Clement of Alexandria and of Hippolytus, who advocated the Western practice; and also the fact that Apolinaris is not claimed as a Quartodeciman by Polycrates, bp. 952), and also states that Apollinaris answered Dionysius of Alexandria ( Prooem
Aristeas - The author pretends to have been one of the two ambassadors—Andreas, ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ of the king, being the other—sent by king Ptolemaeus Philadelphus to the high priest Eleazar of Jerusalem in order to get for him a copy of the Law, and men to translate it for the Royal Library at Alexandria. ’ Philo seems to follow a somewhat different tradition, and mentions that in his days the Jews of Alexandria kept an annual festival in honour of the spot where the light of this translation first shone forth, thanking God for an old but ever new benefit
Luciferus i, Bishop of Calaris - Hearing of his arrival in Egypt, Athanasius sent a letter from Alexandria, full of praise and congratulations, asking him to let him see a copy of his work After receiving it, Athanasius thanked him in a still more laudatory letter, and calls him the Elias of the age. Lucifer and Eusebius of Vercelli were both in the Thebaid, and Eusebius pressed his friend to come with him to Alexandria, where a council was to be held under the presidency of Athanasius, to attempt to heal a schism at Antioch. Unwilling to come into open collision with his friend, he retired immediately; Lucifer stayed, and declared that he would not hold communion with Eusebius or any who adopted the moderate policy of the Alexandrian council, which had determined that those bishops who had merely consented to Arianism under pressure should remain undisturbed
Marcianus, Flavius, Emperor of the East - The emperor wrote to the monks of Alexandria by Joannes the Decurio ( ib. The troubles at Alexandria, however, were too great to be appeased by words
Maximinus ii., Emperor - The sufferings of the Christians in Alexandria drew the hermit Anthony from his desert seclusion to exhort them to steadfastness. of Alexandria, with many other bishops, was beheaded ( ib
Titus (Emperor) - He began the work by bringing the fifteenth legion (Apollinaris) from Alexandria to Judaea in a very short time, considering that it was winter, and successfully besieged Jaffa and Jotapata. There is no doubt that the popularity of Titus helped them to this decision, and later Titus accompanied Vespasian to Alexandria to strengthen his position there. From Zeugma he returned, probably via Tarsus, to Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria (reached probably in May 71). After sending the fifth and fifteenth legions back to their former garrisons and selecting 700 captives for his triumph, he took the usual route by sea from Alexandria past Rhegium to Puteoli (see Roads and Travel), and thence to Rome
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - of Alexandria. ...
(1) He was born at Alexandria, and had but scanty private means (Apol. of Alexandria in the 4th cent. " The young author seems to have been ordained deacon about this time, and placed in the position of chief among the Alexandrian deacons. Among the clergy who joined the archbishop in calling on Arius to retract, and who afterwards assented to his deposition, was the young archdeacon of Alexandria (see the Benedictine Athanasius , i. A solemn and touching incident of Alexander's last moments is connected with the history of Athanasius, who was then absent from Alexandria. An encyclical letter of these same Egyptian prelates proclaimed to all Christendom, some years later, that a majority of them had elected Athanasius in the presence, and amid the applause, of the whole Alexandrian laity, who for nights and days persevered in demanding him as "the good, pious, ascetic Christian," who would prove a "genuine bishop," and prayed aloud to Christ for the fulfilment of their desire ( Apol. " It is probable that (as Fleury thinks, though Tillemont and Neander date it much later) we should refer to this period the visit of Anthony to Alexandria ( Vit. " Not long afterwards, in compliance with instructions from Eusebius, three Meletians, Ision, Eudaemon, and Callinicus, appeared before the emperor at Nicomedia with a charge against Athanasius that he had assumed the powers of the government by taxing Egypt to provide linen vestments for the church of Alexandria. An inquiry of such an ex parte character called forth indignant protests from the Alexandrian and Mareotic clergy, one of the documents bearing the date Sept. Many of them, in alarm, fled homewards; but the two Eusebii, Theognis, Patrophilus, Valens, and Ursacius repaired to court, and, saying nothing of "the chalice," or the report of the commission, presented a new charge, like the former quasi-political ones—that Athanasius had talked of distressing Constantinople by preventing the sailing of Alexandrian corn-ships. , who in the partition of the empire had a certain precedency over his brothers Constantius and Constans, the sovereigns of the East and of Italy, wrote from Trèves to the Catholics of Alexandria, announcing that he had resolved, in fulfilment of an intention of his father, to send back Athanasius, of whose character he expressed high admiration (Apol. His arrival at Alexandria, in Nov. of Rome; on the other hand, Athanasius sent to Rome presbyters to state his case, and an encyclic—the invaluable document which has furnished us with so much information—from "the holy synod assembled at Alexandria out of Egypt, Thebais, Libya, and Pentapolis," composed, says Athanasius, of nearly 100 prelates. ...
Early in 340 a new announcement disquieted the Alexandrian church. ( a ) The Latin church, which became his "scholar" as well as his "loyal partisan," was confirmed by the spell of his master-mind "in its adhesion to orthodoxy, although it did not imbibe from him the theological spirit"; and (b ) when Gibbon says that "Athanasius introduced into Rome the knowledge and practice of the monastic life," he records the origination of a vast European movement, and represents the great Alexandrian exile as the spiritual ancestor of Benedict, of Bernard, and of the countless founders and reformers of "religious" communities in the West. The letters of Alexandrians to Athanasius, consolatory as proofs of their affection, gave mournful accounts of torture and robbery, of hatred towards himself shewn in persecution of his aunt, of countenance shewn to Gregory by the "duke" Balacius; and some of these troubles were in his mind when, early in 341, he wrote "from Rome" his Festal Letter for the year. Constans had shewn himself friendly to Athanasius, who at his request had sent him from Alexandria some bound copies of the Scriptures ( Ap. They wrote letters of sympathy to the suffragans of Athanasius and the churchmen of Alexandria, urging the faithful "to contend earnestly for the sound faith and the innocence of Athanasius. "...
The bold line taken at Sardica provoked the advisers of Constantius to fresh severities; and the Alexandrian magistrates received orders to behead Athanasius, or certain of his clergy expressly named, if they should come near the city. " Invited by Constans to Trèves, Athanasius made a diversion on his journey in order to see Rome again; it was some six years since he had been cordially welcomed by Julius, who now poured forth his generous heart in a letter of congratulation for the Alexandrian church, one of the most beautiful documents in the whole Athanasian series. Julius dwelt on the well-tried worth of Athanasius, on his own happiness in gaining such a friend, on the steady faith which the Alexandrians had exhibited, on the rapture with which they would celebrate his return; and concluded by invoking for his "beloved brethren" the blessings "which eye had not seen, nor ear heard
Henoticon, the - ...
The immediate cause of its issue was the dissension between the rival occupants of the patriarchal see of Alexandria. On the death of Timotheus Salofaciolus in 482, John Talaia, the oeconomus of the Alexandrian church, was elected by the orthodox party. of Hermopolis Minor, a relation of Timotheus Salofaciolus, and "apocrisiarius" or legate of the see of Alexandria, who conceived that he too had been slighted by the new patriarch, determined to compass his overthrow. They represented to Zeno that Talaia was unworthy of the patriarchate, both as having replaced the name of Dioscorus on the diptychs, and as having perjured himself by accepting the see of Alexandria, after having, as was asserted, taken an oath that he would not seek for it. This opposition roused the indignation of Zeno, who issued imperative commands to Pergamius, the new prefect of Egypt, then about to sail for Alexandria, and to Apollonius the governor, to expel John Talaia and seat Peter Mongus in his place. ...
The "Henoticon" was directed to the bishops and people in Alexandria, Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis; but, as Tillemont has remarked (Mém. 512, where the Monophysite Severus, who had raised religious riots in the streets of Alexandria and Constantinople, reigned supreme
Senuti, an Anchorite - After the council of Chalcedon he became a Monophysite and a violent partisan of the patriarch Dioscorus of Alexandria, dying under Timotheus Aelurus aged 118 years
Apollinaris, the Elder, of Alexandria - Apollinaris (or, according to Greek orthography, Apollinarius ) the Elder , of Alexandria, was born about the beginning of the 4th cent
Beryllus, Bishop of Bostra - Origen, however, who, having been recently degraded from Holy Orders and excommunicated at Alexandria, was then residing at Caesarea, had been invited to the synod, and by his intellectual superiority, dialectical skill, and friendly moderation succeeded in proving to Beryllus the unsoundness of his tenets, and in leading him back to the orthodox faith
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - He urged Dionysius of Alexandria to attend the council of Antioch, held to repudiate Novatianism (ib
Demophilus - He then called his followers together, and retired, with Lucius of Alexandria and others, to a place of worship without the walls (Socr
Dianius, Bishop of Caesarea - 340, by which the deposition of Athanasius was confirmed, and George of Cappadocia placed on the throne of Alexandria ( Epistola Julii , apud Athanas
Mem'Phis - The rise of Alexandria hastened its decline
Maximinus i., Roman Emperor - >From his retirement Origen addressed two treatises On Martyrdom and On Prayer to his disciple Ambrosius, a deacon of the church of Alexandria (Eus
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - When through the rapacity of the rebel count Heraclian she was denuded of her property, and thus set free from the promise to remain at Hippo, she accompanied her husband to Egypt, and, after staying among the monastic establishments of the Thebaid and visiting Cyril at Alexandria, eventually went to Palestine, and, together with her mother Albina, settled at Bethlehem in 414
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done
Fathers of the Church - Lastly, the highest degree of ecclesiastical approbation is reached when the Church takes the very doctrine of a Father and embodies it in her own official pronouncements, as, in the case of Saint Cyril of Alexandria, whose twelve anathematisms against Nestorius were adopted by the Council of Ephesus (431). Ultimemente, le grandissime mesura de approbation ecclesiastic es attingete quando le Ecclesio incarna le doctrina de un Patro in su pronunciamentos official, como in le caso de Sancte Cyril de Alexandria, de qui dece-duo anathemas contra Nestorius era adoptate per le Consilio de Ephesus (431)
Eusebius, Bishop of Vercellae - Eusebius went to Alexandria to consult with Athanasius. The two bishops convoked a council in 362 at Alexandria. ]'>[1] Lucifer renounced communion with Eusebius and with all who, in accordance with the decree of the Alexandrian council, were willing to receive back bishops who repented their connexion with Arian heresy
Decius, Emperor - ) and partly from the history of the persecution as traced by Cyprian in his epistles and the treatise de Lapsis and by Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. The wiser and more prudent bishops such as Dionysius of Alexandria and Cyprian of Carthage followed the counsel of their Lord (Mat_10:23) and the example of Polycarp fled from the storm themselves and exhorted their followers to do the same. of Jerusalem, Acacius of the Phrygian Antioch, Epimachus and Nemesius of Alexandria, Peter and his companions of Lampsacus, Irenaeus of Neo-Caesarea, Martial of Limoges, Abdon and Sennen (Persians then at Rome), Cassian of Imola, Lucian a Thracian, Trypho and Respicius of Bithynia, the Ten Martyrs of Crete, have all found a place in the martyrologies of this period, and, after allowing uncertainty to some of the names, the list is enough to shew that there was hardly a province of the empire where the persecution was not felt. Among "confessors" (a title which seems to have been then, for the first time, used in this sense) were Origen, who was tortured on the rack, and the boy Dioscorus who, at the age of 15, offered himself for the crown of martyrdom, but was spared by the Alexandrian prefect in pity for his youth
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - of Alexandria, succeeding Timotheus in the last week of July 385. He had probably been a leading member of the Alexandrian clergy. 522) obtained from Theodosius a commission to demolish the pagan temples of Alexandria (Socr. The votaries of Alexandrian idolatry arranged a tragically successful onslaught on the Christians and then took possession of the vast Serapeum, in the N. quarter of the city, which had been the popular sanctuary of Alexandrian paganism, and now became their stronghold of "furious despair" ( Orat. The general in command at Alexandria and the Augustal prefect summoned them to surrender, but in vain. The successor of Athanasius gazed on this visible concentration of the power of Egyptian idolatry, no doubt the symbol to many Alexandrians of the principle of life and of the powers that ruled the underworld. At Canopus, 14 miles from Alexandria, temples were immediately laid low. The images were melted down into cauldrons and other vessels required in the eleemosynary work of the Alexandrian church. ...
Theophilus had been throwing his whole weight against the extreme literalism of the Anthropomorphists, a coarse reaction from the Alexandrian allegorism. Many others were of fiercer mood: was the "image of God" to be thus nullified? They hurried from their deserts to Alexandria and menaced the "pope" whom they had been wont to honour. About the end of 399 or beginning of 400 he held a synod at Alexandria, at which "Origenism" was condemned. In another letter Synesius, after professing his readiness to "treat as a law whatever the throne of Alexandria might ordain," asks the archbishop what should be done in regard to the people of Palaebisca and Hydrax, who were most reluctant to be placed, as Theophilus intended, under a bishop of their own, and asked leave to remain under Paul, bp
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - One of the most authoritative documents of Arianism is a letter sent by Arius to Eusebius of Nicomedia after his first suspension from presbyteral functions at Baukalis Alexandria in which he reminds Eusebius of their ancient friendship and briefly states his own views. The alarm created by the conduct of Arius and his numerous friends in high quarters induced Alexander of Alexandria to indite his famous letter to Alexander of Constantinople which is of an encyclical character and was sent in some form to Eusebius of Nicomedia and other prelates. Eusebius believed Alexander of Alexandria to be in doctrinal error but not yet so far gone but that Paulinus might put him right. He tacitly assumed that the party of Alexandria asserted "two unbegotten beings," a position utterly denied by themselves. Arius was again condemned by a council at Alexandria and the entire East was disturbed. The angry letter of Constantine to Arius which must have been written after his condemnation by the Alexandrian council and before the council of Nicaea shews that the influence of Eusebius must now have been in abeyance. He refers angrily to the conduct of Eusebius in urging Alexandrians and others to communicate with the Arians. ) details the circumstances of the union of the Meletian schismatics with the Arians, and the disingenuous part taken by Eusebius in promising his good offices with the emperor, if they in their turn would promote the return of Arius to Alexandria, and would promise inter-communion with him and his party. of Alexandria, with deposition if he did not admit those anxious for communion. The answers Athanasius gave to Eusebius and the emperor made it clear that the project could never succeed so long as Athanasius remained at Alexandria. On his return to Alexandria, Athanasius had to encounter fresh opposition. At the council of Dedication at Jerusalem, Arius propounded a view of his faith which was satisfactory to the council, was received into communion there, and sent by Eusebius to Alexandria, whence, as his presence created great disturbance, he was summoned to Constantinople
Septuagint - Horne, the Alexandrian or Septuagint is the most ancient and valuable, and was held in so much esteem both by the Jews as well as by the first Christians, as to be constantly read in the synagogues and churches. According to one account, Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, caused this translation to be made for the use of the library which he had founded at Alexandria at the request and with the advice of the celebrated Demetrius Phalereus, his principal librarian. He adds, that an annual festival was celebrated by the Alexandrian Jews in the isle of Pharos, where the version was made, until his time, to preserve the memory of it, and to thank God for so great a benefit. In order to determine this difference, he commanded the two nations to send deputies to Alexandria. Separate apartments in a particular quarter of Alexandria were assigned to each of these strangers, who were prohibited from having any personal intercourse, and each of them had a Greek scribe to write his version. It is well known, that, at the period above noticed, there was a great number of Jews settled in Egypt, particularly at Alexandria: these, being most strictly observant of the religious institutions and usages of their forefathers, had their sanhedrim or grand council composed of seventy or seventy-two members, and very numerous synagogues, in which the law was read to them on every Sabbath; and as the bulk of the common people were no longer acquainted with Biblical Hebrew, the Greek language alone being used in their ordinary intercourse, it became necessary to translate the Pentateuch into Greek for their use. This is a far more probable account of the origin of the Alexandrian version than the traditions above stated. Thus, they express the creation of the world, not by the proper Greek word κτισις , but by γενεσις , a term employed by the philosophers of Alexandria to express the origin of the universe. From the very close resemblance subsisting between the text of the Greek version, and the text of the Samaritan Pentateuch, Louis De Dieu, Selden, Whiston, Hassencamp, and Bauer, are of opinion that the author of the Alexandrian version made it from the Samaritan Pentateuch
Alexandria - At Myra in Lycia (Acts 27:5) the centurion found this Alexandrian. The tackling had been thrown out long before, but the cargo was kept until it could be kept no longer, and then first we learn it was wheat, the very freight which an Alexandrian vessel usually (as we know from secular authors) carried to Rome: an undesigned propriety, and so a mark of truth. ...
The population of Alexandria had three prominent elements, Jews, Greeks, Egyptians
Barnabas - Clement of Alexandria treated it as genuine, and Origen called it a 'catholic epistle;' but it is now commonly held that its author was not the companion of Paul
Ephraim (6), Bishop of Antioch And Patriarch - In 537, at the bidding of Justinian, he repaired with Hypatius of Ephesus and Peter of Jerusalem to Gaza to hold a council in the matter of Paul the patriarch of Alexandria, who had been banished to that city and there deposed
Apollos - was a Jew of Alexandria, who came to Ephesus in the year of our Lord 54, during the absence of St
Moses of Khoren - ]'>[1] Born at Khoren or Khorni, a town of the province of Darou, he was one of a band of scholars sent by Mesrob to study at Edessa, Constantinople, Alexandria, Athens, and Rome
Nicolaitans - Clement of Alexandria, however (Strom
Victorius of Aquitaine - During the pontificate of Leo the Great in 444 and 453 differences arose between the Western churches headed by Rome, and the Eastern headed by Alexandria as to the correct day for celebrating Easter. He made his earliest Easter limit Mar 22, the same as the Alexandrians; his latest Apr. 550, wrote against Victorius's cycle and in favour of the Alexandrian method of computation
Acacius, Bishop of Beroea - 1072); while Flavian himself, through the exertions of Acacius, received letters of communion not only from Rome, but also from Theophilus of Alexandria and the Egyptian bishops. With the view of healing the breach between Cyril of Alexandria and Nestorius, he wrote a pacificatory reply to a violent letter of the former (A
Immanence - ...
In the later Platonic philosophy of the School of Alexandria the principle of the λόγος, especially in the hands of Philo the Jew, also suggests the idea of immanence. John borrowed many of his ideas, especially that of the λόγος, from the Platonic philosophy, as represented by Philo of Alexandria, who combined some OT ideas with the philosophy of Plato. The fact that he makes no allusion to Philo or to Alexandria, but rather assumes that he gathered his ideas from the teaching of Jesus, fully justifies thus view. Care is needed here not to give too much of the colour of the Alexandrian philosophy to the teaching of the Fourth Gospel upon this point
Mark (John) - Though their details will not precisely fit, we may possibly regard Mark as the founder of the Christian Church in Alexandria and as its first bishop. 62 (‘Mortuus est autem octavo Neronis anno et sepultus Alexandriae succedente sibi Anniano’). xxvii) to the see of Alexandria. The most probable and earliest tradition is that already mentioned which links his name to Alexandria
Glass - Pliny's story may have originated in the suitability of the sand at the mouth of the Syrian river Belus for making glass, for which accordingly it was exported to Sidon and Alexandria, the centers of that manufacture
Ethnarch - 2) shows us that the large Jewish community in the great city of Alexandria had an ‘ethnarch’ over it, and he defines his duties precisely thus: διοικεῖ τε τὸ ἔθνος καὶ διαιτᾷ κρίσεις καὶ συμβολαίων ἐπιμελεῖται καὶ προσταγμάτων, ὡς ἃν πολιτείας ἄρχων αὐτοτελοῦς (‘he governs the race and decides trials in court and has charge of contracts and ordinances as if he were an absolute monarch’)
Anastasius Sinaita - of Alexandria, by John, bp
Cyrene - It was noted for its fertility and for its commerce, which, however, declined after the foundation of Alexandria
Caesarius, of Nazianzus - He betook himself to Alexandria, "the workshop of every sort of education," for better instruction in physical science than he could obtain in Palestine
Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch - only inferior to Alexandria and Rome)
Philippus, of Side - " A fragment relating to the school of Alexandria and the succession of the teachers has been printed by Dodwell at the close of his dissertations on Irenaeus (Oxf
Valens, Emperor - Numerous acts of persecution at Edessa, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople are attributed to Valens, in all of which Modestus, the pretorian prefect, was his most active agent, save in Egypt, where Lucius, the Arian successor of Athanasius, endeavoured in vain to terrify the monks into conformity
Caligula - This claim was naturally rejected by the Jews of Judaea and of Alexandria. 40 the Jews of Alexandria sent an embassy to the Emperor to get the governor’s decree rescinded
Hierocles of Alexandria, a Philosopher - Hierocles (2) , a philosopher, generally classed among the neo-Platonists, who lived at Alexandria in the first half of 5th cent. He was then banished, and retired to Alexandria
Corinth - Paul was at liberty to remain some time longer at Corinth; and after his departure, Apollos, a zealous and eloquent Jewish convert of Alexandria, was made a powerful instrument in confirming the church, and in silencing the opposition of the Jews, Acts 18. Corinth also possessed numerous schools of philosophy and rhetoric; in which, as at Alexandria, the purity of the faith by an easy and natural process, became early corrupted
Arius, Followers of - But when he demanded of Athanasius that he should allow the use of one church to the Arians in Alexandria, the latter preferred a request in his turn that the same thing should be done in cities where the Arians were in possession—a request which Constantius did not deem it prudent to grant. Athanasius therefore, unfettered by conditions, returned (346) to Alexandria, and the people, wearied of Arian violence and cruelty, received him with the warmest demonstrations of joy. For ten years Athanasius had remained undisturbed at Alexandria, but premonitory signs of the eruption which was soon to burst forth had long been discernible. Early in 356 the imperial troops burst into the cathedral at Alexandria to seize Athanasius, who was at prayer with his flock. His Arian successor, one George, did not venture to set foot in Alexandria till a year after the departure of Athanasius, and his atrocious cruelties soon made him hated as well as feared by the populace. Among those who were present at this council were men so diverse as the hated tyrant George of Alexandria, and Hilary of Poictiers, still exiled from his diocese. The oppressor George had been expelled from Alexandria by a rising of the populace as early as 358. In 361, on his return to Alexandria, he was seized and murdered by his exasperated flock
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - A council at Alexandria, early in 362, wisely advised that Paulinus and his flock should unite with Meletius, who had now returned from exile; but the precipitancy of Lucifer of Cagliari perpetuated the schism by ordaining Paulinus bishop. 381 wrote to Theodosius in favour of Paulinus, and requested him to summon a council at Alexandria to decide that and other questions. The division between Flavian and Egypt and the West was finally healed by Chrysostom, who took the opportunity of the presence of Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, at Constantinople for his consecration in 398, to induce him to become reconciled with Flavian, and to join in dispatching an embassy to Rome to supplicate Siricius to recognize Flavian as canonical bishop of Antioch
Apollos - ...
Those who made his name their party cry were attracted by his rhetorical style acquired in Alexandria, as contrasted with the absence of "excellency of speech and enticing words of man's wisdom" (1 Corinthians 2:1-4), and even in their estimation "the contemptible speech" (2 Corinthians 10:10), of Paul
Ship - ...
In New Testament times huge grain ships sailed from Alexandria in Egypt to Greece and Rome (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11)
Wisdom, the, of Solomon, - --From internal evidence it seems most reasonable to believe that the work was composed in Greek at Alexandria some time before the time of Philo-about 120-80 B
Grecians Greeks - In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home
Anthropomorphitae - Theophilus of Alexandria formerly an admirer of Origen became his bitter opponent and expelled the Origenists from Egypt but nevertheless he rejected the Anthropomorphism of the anti-Origenistic monks (Ep
Jude - Nevertheless, it is to be found in all the ancient catalogues of the sacred writings; and Clement, of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen quote it as written by Jude, and reckon it among the books of sacred Scripture
Grecians Greeks - In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home
Memphis - Second only to Thebes in all Egypt; the residence of the kings until the Ptolemies moved to Alexandria. Alexandria succeeded to its importance
Antonius - 311), in which their bishop had fallen, he went to comfort the Christians of Alexandria; and though the presence of monks at these trials was forbidden as encouraging the martyrs in their disobedience to the emperor's edict, he persisted in appearing in court. 335 he revisited Alexandria, at the urgent request of Athanasius, to preach against the Arians (Theod
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - ...
The condemnation of Monophysitism at Chalcedon by no means silenced its abettors, who in the church of Alexandria were especially strong and resolute. The emperor and the great majority of the prelates of the East supported Acacius; and thus the patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, as well as Constantinople, remained out of communion with Rome
Greek Church - The other patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, all nominated by the patriarch of Constantinople, who enjoys a most extensive jurisdiction. The Greek church comprehends a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lybia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Siberia in Asia, Astrachan, Casan, and Georgia
Mark - Epiphanius, Eusebius, and Jerom, all assert that Mark preached the Gospel in Egypt; and the two latter call him bishop of Alexandria. It is mentioned, also, by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerom, Augustine, Chrysostom, and many others
Sabellianism, or Patripassianism - Dionysius of Alexandria wrote against their teaching, whereupon he was accused of heresy to Dionysius of Rome. Basil first called Sabellius an African, solely, it would seem, because of the prevalence of Sabellianism in the Pentapolis, under Dionysius of Alexandria, when probably SABELLIUS himself was long dead. Neander points out that this system presents many points of resemblance to the Alexandrian-Jewish theology
Easter Controversy - The Christians of Rome and Alexandria charged that the Jews had adopted very arbitrary methods in determining their year and had become neglectful of the law that the 14th of Nisan must never precede the equinox
Quartodeciman Controversy - The Christians of Rome and Alexandria charged that the Jews had adopted very arbitrary methods in determining their year and had become neglectful of the law that the 14th of Nisan must never precede the equinox
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - For the Old Testament the Jews distinguished the books contained in the Hebrew Bible (see Protocanonical) from the additional writings (see Deutebocanonical) preserved by the Jews of Alexandria in their venerated Greek version, the Septuagint
Bondage - ) and the Neo-Platonic School of Alexandria
Dispersion - Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria, which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with the Egyptians. 284), for the use of the Alexandrian Jews
Therapeutae - The principal society of this kind was formed near Alexandria, where they lived, not far from each other, in separate cottages, each of which had its own sacred apartment, to which the inhabitants retired for the purposes of devotion. Others have maintained, that the Therapeutae were an Alexandrian sect of Jewish converts to the Christian faith, who devoted themselves to a monastic life
Schoolmaster - One of the works of Clement of Alexandria is so designated
Divisions - Apollos was a Jew of Alexandria (Acts 18:24-28), a disciple of the Baptist, who, being more fully instructed by Aquila and Priscilla, was baptized into the Christian Church
Antioch - The largest city of the Roman empire after Rome in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt
Empire, Byzantine - Political and ecclesiastical dissension caused by the introduction of the Monophysite heresy was increased by rivalry between the patriarchs of Alexandria and Constantinople, until in 1215 the latter was declared second to Rome in honor by Pope Innocent III
Allegory - This interest flourished chiefly in Alexandria, and found its foremost representative in Philo (q. The Epistle to the Hebrews is especially rich in these features, which are much more Alexandrian in type than the writings of St
Claudius - He put an end to the dispute which had for some time existed between the Jews of Alexandria and the other freemen of that city, and confirmed the Jews in the possession of their right of freedom, which they had enjoyed from the beginning, and every where maintained them in the free exercise of their religion
Fish - Forskal mentions the echeneis neucrates [2] at Gidda, there called kaml el kersh, "the louse of the shark," because it often adheres very strongly to this fish; and Hasselquist says that it is found at Alexandria
Swallows - The first, דרור , in Psalms 84:3 , and Proverbs 26:2 , is probably the bird which Forskal mentions among the migratory birds of Alexandria, by the name of dururi; and the second, עגור , Isaiah 38:14 , and Jeremiah 8:7 , is the crane; but the word סיס , in the two last places rendered in our version "crane," is really the swallow
Mark, - Mark visited Egypt, founded the church of Alexandria, and died by martyrdom
Joannes i, Bishop of Rome - None were excluded from his communion except Timotheus, patriarch of Alexandria (Theophan
Marcella, Friend of Jerome - Anastasius completely yielded, and like Theophilus of Alexandria condemned Origen and his upholders
Urbanus, Bishop of Sicca Veneria - He proposed that reference should be made by themselves and by Boniface to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch, to obtain information as to its genuineness
Version - It is, however, an established fact that this version was made at Alexandria; that it was begun about 280 B. The first, numbered A, is the Alexandrian manuscript. , it is believed that it was written, not in that capital, but in Alexandria; whence its title
Chapters - Such is the case also in Clemens of Alexandria; but this writer also gives the name of περικοπαι to larger sections of the Gospels and St. Dionysius of Alexandria speaks of them in reference to the Apocalypse, and the controversies respecting it
Severus, l. Septimius - Laetus the prefect and his successor Aquila were merciless enemies of the Christians, who were dragged from all parts of Egypt to their tribunal at Alexandria. Yet here again we find the same inconsistency as at Alexandria
Acts of the Apostles - Thomas of Heraclea revised the Philoxenian with the help of Greek Manuscripts in the Library of the Enaton at Alexandria, and enriched his edition with a number of critical notes giving the variants of these Greek Manuscripts which often have a most remarkable text agreeing more closely with Codex Bezae than with any other known Greek manuscript . -The earliest quotations long enough to have any value for determining the text are in Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria, who may be regarded as representing the text of the end of the 2nd cent. in Gaul, Africa, and Alexandria. we have Origen and Didymus, representing the Alexandrian school; Cyprian for Africa, and Novatian for Italy. Athanasius and Cyril represent the later development of the Alexandria text; Lucifer, Jerome, and Ambrosiaster represent the text of Rome and Italy; Augustine, that of Africa; Eusebius and Cyril of Jerusalem the Palestinian text, which according to von Soden is I; the later Church writers mostly use the K text, though they sometimes show traces of probably local contamination with H and I. -As soon as textual criticism began to be based on any complete view of the evidence, it became obvious that the chief feature to be accounted for in the text of Acts was the existence of a series of additions in the text in the Latin Versions and Fathers, usually supported by the two great bilingual Manuscripts δ5 and 1001 (D and E), frequently by the marginal readings in SyrHarcl, and sporadically by a few minuscules; opposed to this interpolated test stood the Alexandrian text of δ1, δ2 (B א), and their allies; while between the two was the text of the mass of Manuscripts agreeing sometimes with one, sometimes with the other, and sometimes combining both readings. Acta Apostolorum, Göttingen, 1895) thought that Luke issued the Acts in two forms: one to Theophilus (the Alexandrian text), and the other for Rome (the Western text); but his reconstruction of the Roman text is scarcely satisfactory, and the style of the additions is not sufficiently Lucan. , three revisions were made: (a) H, by Hesychius in Alexandria, which preserved in the main the text of I-H-K without the Tatianic additions, but with a few other corruptions; (b) K, by Lucian, in Antioch, which had many Tatianic corruptions, as well as some of its own; (c) I, in Palestine, possibly in Jerusalem, which preserved many Tatianic additions, though in a few cases keeping the I-H-K text against H
Spikenard - 443) uses the epithet liquida with nardus; and Clement of Alexandria (Paed
on (2) - )...
Ηa-ra is the Egyptian sacred name, "abode of the sun"; Αn is the Egyptian common name; Cyril of Alexandria says Οn means "the sun"; the hieroglyphic uben , related to aven , means "shining"
Allegory - ...
Allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament arose among Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria during the second century B
Alexander the Great - 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323
Alexander - It is probable, though not quite certain, that this indicates that Alexander belonged to the high-priestly class; and it is impossible to identify him with Alexander the ‘alabarch’ of Alexandria and brother of Philo
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - The strongest reason for thinking that the book intended is the canonical book of the Revelation is that Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Eustathius (22), Bishop of Berytus - ...
When in 457 the emperor Leo, anxious to give peace to the church of Alexandria, dealt with the intrusion of Timothy Aelurus, Eustathius was consulted, and joined in the condemnation of that intruding patriarch (ib
Wayfaring Men - " "It was on the 24th of March," says Hoste, "that I departed from Alexandria for Rosetta: it was a good day's journey thither, over a level country, but a perfect desert, so that the wind plays with the sand, and there is no trace of a road
Mark, Gospel of - Chrysostom, indeed, asserts that it was published at Alexandria; but his statement receives no confirmation, as otherwise it could not fail to have done, from any Alexandrine writer
Revela'Tion of st. John, - 195), Clement of Alexandria (about 200), Tertullian (207), Origen (233)
Ephesus - )...
Early developments...
An important visitor during the early days of the Ephesian church was Apollos, a Jewish teacher from Alexandria in Egypt
Justinus ii - Justin also early in his reign sent Photinus, the stepson of Belisarius, with full powers to reconcile the churches of Egypt and Alexandria, but his mission seems to have been fruitless
Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem - A little later he warmly welcomed Athanasius when passing through Jerusalem to resume his seat at Alexandria, summoning an assemblage of bishops to do honour to him, by the whole of whom, with two or three exceptions, Athanasius was solemnly received into communion
Music (2) - Moreover, habitual contact with Greek influences in Alexandria and elsewhere probably produced (or at least goes to prove) an affinity with the Greek modes
Paulus i, Bishop of Constantinople - ...
Athanasius was then in exile from Alexandria, Marcellus from Ancyra, and Asclepas from Gaza; with them Paulus betook himself to Rome and consulted bp
Hebrews, Epistle to - The Churches of North Africa and Alexandria, on the contrary, have their respective positive traditions on this question. ...
The Alexandrian belief in the authorship of St. Alexandrian. For these and similar reasons it is generally believed that our author was a scholar of Hellenistic training, and most probably an Alexandrian Jew of philosophic temperament and education (see Bacon, Introd. The chief rival claimants to this honour are three: Palestine , which has the most ancient tradition in its favour, and which is countenanced by the superscription; Alexandria ; and Rome , where the Epistle first seems to have been known and recognized. ...
Nor can the claim of Alexandria to be the destination of the Epistle be said to have much force. ), and is contradicted by the historical evidence of the late date at which the Epistle seems to have been known in Alexandria, and by the fact that its authorship was completely hidden from the heads of the Church in that place
Coelestinus, Commonly Called Celestine, b.p. of Rome - 13) early in 429 received copies of controversial discourses said to be by Nestorius, and wrote on his own behalf, and on that of other Italian bishops, to Cyril of Alexandria, asking for information. ...
Celestine caused the Nestorian discourses to be rendered into Latin; and meanwhile received a letter from Cyril, accompanied by other translations of these documents, made at Alexandria. 11) commends Cyril's zeal in a cause which is, in truth, that of "Christ our God"; and concludes by saying that unless Nestorius should, within ten days, condemn his own wicked doctrines by a written profession of the same faith, as to "the birth of Christ our God," which is held by the Roman, by the Alexandrian, by the entire church, provision must be made for the see of Constantinople as if vacant, and Nestorius must be treated as one "separate from our body. His meaning is evident: he is not professing to act as the sole supreme judge and oracle of Christendom, or as the mouthpiece of the Catholic church; he announces his resolution, in concert with the Alexandrian church, to break off all communion with the bp. of Alexandria, affirm what he affirms—confess our faith. 430 when Theodosius had summoned an oecumenical council to meet at Ephesus at the coming Whitsuntide and before the Roman and Alexandrian resolutions had been communicated to Nestorius the latter wrote to Celestine that the best solution would be the adoption of the word "Christotokos," although he did not object to "Theotokos," if it were used so as not to imply "a confusion of natures. " In the spring of 431 Cyril wrote again to Celestine asking what should be done if Nestorius having refused to retract at the summons of Rome and Alexandria—were to retract at the coming synod. 16) in a tone which exhibits him in a more favourable light than his great Alexandrian colleague "I am anxious for the salvation of him who is perishing provided that he is willing to own himself sick: if not let our previous decisions stand
John (the Apostle) - The main witnesses for the common tradition are Irenaeus, Polycrates (Bishop of Ephesus), and Clement of Alexandria. The only support we have for this last supposition is Dionysius of Alexandria, who in the interests of the authorship of the Apocalypse by some other John than the Apostle cites the tradition that ‘there are two monuments in Ephesus, each bearing the name of John. Clement of Alexandria declares that the Apostles Peter and Philip had children, and that Philip gave his daughters to husbands (Strom. ...
(c) It is in connexion with the story of the young convert who subsequently became a robber that Clement of Alexandria speaks of John’s residence in Asia. The references to this fact are quite numerous in the Fathers, and begin with Clement of Alexandria (a. 12) assigns it to the reign of Claudius, while Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerome place it in the reign of Domitian. Of course, if John the Apostle died in this way, there is nothing left but to take some other John as the John of Ephesus; and all the testimony of Irenaeus, Polycrates, and Clement of Alexandria has a confusion of names underlying it; also the John of the Apostolic council (Galatians 2:9) was not the son of Zebedee
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - In 388 Palladius paid his first visit to Alexandria ( ib. Having visited several monasteries near Alexandria, and the famous Didymus, he retired ( c
Descent Into Hades - ]'>[10] restricted it to the righteous of Israel; while Clement of Alexandria†† [2] ...
Of Christ’s preaching in Hades there is no foreshadowing in the OT, although Clement of Alexandria|| [18] quotes 1 Peter 4:6, but he offers no comment upon it; and Clement of Alexandria** Calendar, the Christian - Clement of Alexandria, Strom. But this first appears in Peter of Alexandria († 311), who gives this explanation in his Canonical Epistle (canon xv. Another explanation is given by Clement of Alexandria (Strom, vii. The Hippolytcan Canons, which, whether they represent Roman usage or Alexandrian, probably date from the first half of the 3rd cent. ...
But hereafter there is a break, except that Peter of Alexandria gives evidence for Egypt, and that in the Edessene Canons of the first half of the 4th cent. 22) says that in his day almost all Churches celebrated the sacred mysteries on the Sabbath of every week [19], yet the Christians of Alexandria and Rome, on account of some ancient tradition, had ceased to do this. Socrates goes on to say that the Egyptians near Alexandria and those of the Thebaid held synaxes on the Sabbath, but, unlike other Christians, “after having eaten and satisfied themselves with food of all kinds [20], in the evening make the Offering (περὶ ἑσπέραν προσφέροντες) and partake of the mysteries
Barnabas, Epistle of - Clement of Alexandria quotes it as the work of ‘the Apostolic Barnabas, who was one of the seventy and a fellow-worker of Paul’ (Strom. It seems to have been held in high esteem in Alexandria towards the end of the 2nd cent. Paul’s companion; or, it was known as coming from Alexandria, and hence was ascribed to Barnabas as to one prominent in the early history of that Church. -There is a general agreement among scholars that Alexandria is the probable scene of its composition. The general style and the use of the allegorical method are thoroughly Alexandrian. At Alexandria, again, the Jews were particularly strong, and in constant conflict with the Christians. But possibly his knowledge is derived from Alexandria rather than from Palestine
Tyre - But, along with the sister-city of Sidon, it still retained its commercial prosperity, though they had now a very formidable rival in Alexandria
Levites - Clement of Alexandria wrote that Jesus, ‘on His interlocutor inquiring, “Who is my neighbour?” did not, in the same way with the Jews, specify the blood-relation, or the fellow-citizen, or the proselyte, or him that had been similarly circumcised, or the man who uses one and the same law
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - ...
Vigorous measures were at once adopted by Atticus in conjunction with the other members of the triumvirate to which the Eastern church had been subjected, Theophilus of Alexandria, and Porphyry of Antioch, to crush the adherents of Chrysostom
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - 431, visited Euthymius, who exhorted him to unite with Cyril of Alexandria and Acacius of Melitene, and to do in regard to the creed whatever seemed right to those prelates
Evagrius Ponticus, Anchoret And Writer - Theophilus, the metropolitan of Alexandria, desired to make him a bishop, and Evagrius fled to resist his importunities (Socr
Sinai - The third or most easterly summit is called by the religious in those parts, Mount Catherine; on the top of which there is a dome, under which they say was interred the body of this saint, brought thither by angels after she was beheaded at Alexandria
Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch - Fragments of a letter addressed to Porphyry by Theophilus of Alexandria, recommending him to summon a synod, when some were seeking to revive the heresy of Paul of Samosata, are found in Labbe ( Concil
Simeon Stylites - (5) Eulogius of Alexandria mentions his profession of the Catholic faith, which Cave conjectures to have been identical with (2) (cf
Jude Epistle of - Our earliest suggestion on this point comes from Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ...
Carpocrates, who lived at Alexandria in the first half of the 2nd cent. 3), Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Heracleon, a Gnostic - Heracleon (1), a Gnostic described by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Neander and Cave have suggested Alexandria as the place where Heracleon taught; but Clement's language suggests some distance either of time or of place; for he would scarcely have thought it necessary to explain that Heracleon was the most in repute of the Valentinians if he were at the time the head of a rival school in the same city
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - At the same time Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, wrote to John calling upon him, on pain of being separated from the communion of the West, to accept Celestine's decision and unite with him in defending the faith against Nestorius (Baluz. ...
The divergence of the Antiochene and Alexandrian schools of thought in their way of regarding the mystery of the Incarnation lay at the root of this controversy about the term, and it was brought into open manifestation by the publication of Cyril's twelve "anathematisms" on the teaching of Nestorius. His return to Alexandria was a triumphal progress (Labbe, iii. Alexandria and Antioch were two hostile camps. of Emesa, was dispatched by John to Alexandria to confer with Cyril and bring about the much-desired restoration of communion ( ib. 433, the act giving peace to the Christian world was signed and dispatched to Alexandria, where it was announced by Cyril in the cathedral on Apr
Greek Church - Comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Libya, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine, which are all under the jurisdiction of the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The other patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria
Celibacy (2) - Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ’...
Clement of Alexandria also refers to a conversation between our Lord and Salome mentioned in the lost ‘Gospel according to the Egyptians’ (Strom. ’ In interpreting these savings, notice must be taken of Clement of Alexandria’s comment that our Lord spoke in condemnation not of marriage, but of sins of the flesh and the mind, and to show the natural connexion between death and birth; and of the further words of Salome, ‘Theo I did well in not bearing children,’ with our Lord’s reply, ‘Eat every herb, but that which hath bitterness do not eat
Arians - this ancient sect, was unquestionably so called from Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria, in the early part of the fourth century. Their thorough attachment to the cause of Arius, and their hatred of Athanasius, who had so vigorously withstood them in the council, and was now advanced to the see of Alexandria, made them watchful of every opportunity to defeat the decisions of the council
Mark (John) - By that tradition Mark’s activity is associated both with Rome and with Alexandria; and the Egyptian Church assigns its principal liturgy to his name. But the early Alexandrian Fathers, Clement and Origen, are silent as to Mark’s residence in Egypt
si'Mon - (Acts 8:9 ) According to ecclesiastical writers he was born at Gitton, a village of Samaria, and was probably educated at Alexandria in the tenets of the Gnostic school
Logos - Philo of Alexandria used this concept in his efforts to interpret Jewish religion for those versed in Greek philosophy
Hilarion (1), a Hermit of Palestine - 300, of heathen parents, who sent him for education to Alexandria
Caesarius, Bishop of Chrysostom - Le Quien also urged that language is used which is not heard of until employed by Cyril of Alexandria in controversy with Nestorius
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - With high solemnity he said the office in Latin on Easter Day, communicating with all the bishops of the East except Timothy of Alexandria, the declared enemy of Chalcedon (Baron
Jehoshaphat - Cyril, of Alexandria, on Joel 3, says that this valley is but a few furlongs distant from Jerusalem
Sabellians - Its growth, however, was soon checked by the opposition made to it by Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, and the sentence of condemnation pronounced upon its author by Pope Dionysius, in a council held at Rome, A
Apocalypse - These two fathers are followed by Clement of Alexandria, Theophilus of Antioch, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Lactantius, Jerome, Athanasius, and many other ecclesiastical writers, all of whom concur in considering the Apostle John as the author of the Revelation
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - of Alexandria (in Theod
Mesrobes - Mesrobes attracted great numbers to his schools and sent the ablest pupils to study at Edessa, Athens, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and even Rome, whence they brought back the most authentic copies of the Scriptures, the Fathers, Acts of the councils, and the profane writers
Valerianus, Emperor - Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Mark, Gospel According to - Clement of Alexandria ( c Physician - ...
In the Alexandrian era under the Ptolemys medicine was transplanted from Cos and Cnidos to Alexandria. In Alexandria medicine was divided into surgery, dietetics, and rhizotomy or pharmacy. ’ Erasistratos of Julis, of the island of Ceos, son of a physician, left the court of Seleucus Nicator and went to Alexandria, where he wrote on fevers, paralysis, hygiene, and therapeutics. Rufus of Ephesus, who also practised medicine in the reign of Trajan, was educated at Alexandria. Soranos of Ephesus, who received his medical and anatomical training in Alexandria, was the most famous obstetrician of antiquity
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - Arethae ; where also it is told how the patriarch of Alexandria, at the request of Justin, urged Elesbaan to invade Yemen, offering up a litany and appointing a vigil on his behalf, and sending to him the Eucharist in a silver vessel. At Taphar Elesbaan is said to have built a church, digging the foundations for seven days with his own hands; and from Taphar he wrote of his victory to the patriarch of Alexandria. A bishop was sent from Alexandria and appointed to the see of Negran, but there are doubts as to both the orthodoxy and identity of this bishop
Euchites - We learn from the Ephesine decree that Messalianism had also been condemned at Alexandria, and Timotheus mentions Cyril as an antagonist of these heretics. He learned this from a letter written by Ptolemy, another bishop of the same district, to Timotheus of Alexandria. There have been at Alexandria several bishops of that name, but probably the Timotheus intended is the one contemporary with Lampetius (460-482)
Joannes Presbyter - Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. Although Eusebius does not here name Dionysius of Alexandria, he plainly had in mind that passage of his writings which he gives at length elsewhere. The silence of Dionysius of Alexandria is positive proof that no tradition of a second John had reached him
John, the Gospel According to - Philosophical speculation too had free scope in its xystus; here Cerinthus broached his doctrines, concocted at Alexandria. Acts 18:24 implies the connection between Alexandria, the headquarters of Gnosticism, and Ephesus. Oriental and Grecian speculations combined at Alexandria to foster it
Mark - The most widely spread is that which assigns to him a mission in Egypt, and the evangelization of Alexandria. It was also widely believed that he died at Alexandria, receiving (according to some versions) the crown of martyrdom
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - ...
However great the scandals attaching to Paul's administration of his episcopal office, it was his unsoundness in the faith which, chiefly by the untiring exertions of the venerable Dionysius of Alexandria, led to the assembling of the synods at Antioch, through which his name and character have chiefly become known to us. Paul's heresy being plainly proved, he was unanimously condemned, and the synod pronounced his deposition and excommunication, which they notified to Dionysius bp, of Rome, Maximus of Alexandria, and the other bishops of the church, in an encyclical letter, probably the work of Malchion, large portions of which are preserved by Eusebius ( H
Capernaum - Some have thought this fountain a vein of the Nile, since it produces a fish like the coracinus in the lake near Alexandria
Mark, John - Alexandria was the final scene of Mark's labors, bishopric, and martyrdom (Nicephorus, H
Nag Hammadi - Christian writers such as Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Tertullian not only gave descriptions of the teachings of gnosticism, but they also quoted from gnostic writings
Damasus, Pope - Peter of Alexandria was his firm friend all along; and was associated with him in the condemnation of Apollinaris (Soz
Hebrews - Paul is Clement of Alexandria, toward the end of the second century; but, as he ascribes it to St. Clement is followed by Origen, by Dionysius and Alexander, both bishops of Alexandria, by Ambrose, Athanasius, Hilary of Poitiers, Jerom, Chrysostom, and Cyril, all of whom consider this epistle as written by St. Clement, of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerom, thought that this epistle was originally written in the Hebrew language; but all the other ancient fathers who have mentioned this subject speak of the Greek as the original work; and as no one pretends to have seen this epistle in Hebrew, as there are no internal marks of the Greek being a translation, and as we know that the Greek language was at this time very generally understood at Jerusalem, we may accede to the more common opinion, both among the ancients and moderns, and consider the present Greek as the original text. Clement of Alexandria says that St. Of the same opinion, in respect to this, was Clement, of Alexandria; and Origen, as we have seen above, supposes that the thoughts contained in the epistle were St
Greek Versions of ot - ]'>[1] originated in Alexandria, in the time of the Macedonian dynasty in Egypt. Among them, especially in Alexandria, were many Jews, to whom Greek became the language of daily life, while the knowledge of Aramaic, and still more of literary Hebrew, decayed among them. 285 247), describes how the king, at the suggestion of his librarian, Demetrius of Phalerum, resolved to obtain a Greek translation of the laws of the Jews for the library of Alexandria; how, at the instigation of Aristeas, he released the Jewish captives in his kingdom, to the number of some 100,000, paying the (absurdly small) sum of 20 drachmas apiece for them to their masters; how he then sent presents to Eleazar, the high priest at Jerusalem, and begged him to send six elders out of each tribe to translate the Law; how the 72 elders were sent, and magnificently entertained by Ptolemy, and were then set down to their work in the island of Pharos; and how in 72 days they completed the task assigned to them. ]'>[1] were published in the two principal provinces of Greek Christianity, by Hesychius at Alexandria, and by Lucian at Antioch. it represents the edition of Hesychius, but his proof is very incomplete; for since he admits that Hesychius must have made but few alterations in the pre-Origenian Psalter, and that the text of B is not quite identical with that which he takes as the standard of Hesychius (namely, the quotations in Cyril of Alexandria), his hypothesis does not seem to cover the phenomena so well as Hort’s
Sweat - Cyril of Alexandria omits the verses in his Homilies on Lk. ’s Gospel, while the silence of such writers as Clement of Alexandria and Origen cannot be without significance
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - He received his education in the Judaeo-Philonic school of Alexandria. He had learned at Alexandria to distinguish between the different degrees of inspiration and attributed to different Angels the dictation severally of the words of Moses and of the Prophets; in this agreeing with Saturninus and the Ophites
Nestorius And Nestorianism - These two tendencies were certain some day to come into collision, and when reinforced by the personal jealousy felt by successive patriarchs of Alexandria at the elevation in 381 of Constantinople, as New Rome, to the second place among the patriarchates, over the head of a church which could boast of St. Already premonitions of the approaching conflict between Alexandria and Constantinople had appeared in the successful intrigues of THEOPHILUS, patriarch of Alexandria, against the renowned JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, patriarch of Constantinople. It is also found in the letter of Alexander of Alexandria to Alexander of Constantinople. ...
The ferment caused by these injudicious utterances spread far and wide, and soon reached Alexandria. The watchword (as Neander calls it) of the Alexandrians, on the other hand, was the ineffable and (to human reason) inconceivable nature of the inhabitation of the Man Christ Jesus by the Divine Logos. The Syrians inclined to the former, the Alexandrians to the latter. Approached by an Alexandrian presbyter named Lampon, who came to Constantinople in the interests of peace, Nestorius professed himself much touched by Lampon's tone, and wrote to Cyril in a more friendly spirit. Nestorius complained that Cyril garbled his quotations He was, however, pronounced a heretic by two synods held at Rome and Alexandria (430)
Hasmonean - It seems that Salome Alexandria invited the Pharisees to take an active role in policy-making as members of the Sanhedrin
Caesarea - His successor, Pamphilius, built on that reputation and founded a library that was second only to Alexandria
Domitianus, the Emperor - The name of Clement of Alexandria, Titus Flavius Clemens, may be regarded as an indication of the honour in which the martyr's memory was held
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - Under the influence of his wife Basiliscus declared for the Monophysites, recalled Timothy Aelurus, patriarch of Alexandria, from exile, and by his persuasion issued an encyclical letter to the bishops calling them to anathematize the decrees of Chalcedon (Evagr
Vespasian - Sending his son Titus very early in 67 to bring a legion from Alexandria, he himself went from Nero’s quarters in Achaia over the Hellespont by land to Syria, and collected the Roman forces there. It was this Alexander who in Alexandria on 1st July 69 proclaimed Vespasian Emperor, and made the two legions in Egypt take the oath to him. Vespasian marched to Antioch and, after entering into relations with the Parthians and Armenians, accompanied Titus to Alexandria. ...
Vespasian received the news of his recognition by the senate early in January, while he was still in Alexandria, where his financial arrangements were mocked at by the people. They, however, aroused the Alexandrian Jews against the Empire
Antiochus - He gained all except Alexandria. "...
At last Antiochus, when checked at Alexandria, met the Egyptian king at Memphis, and "both spoke lies at one table," trying to deceive one another
Joannes ii, Bishop of Jerusalem - Imbued with that tendency of Eastern church teachers which formed their chief difference from those of the Western church, he with difficulty brought himself to acquiesce in the condemnation of Origenism or to take any steps against Pelagius, with whom he was brought in contact at the close of his episcopacy, and the presence of Jerome and other immigrants from Italy, and the anti-Origenistic vehemence of Epiphanius of Salamis and Theophilus of Alexandria, made it impossible for him to escape the reproach of laxity and even at times of heresy. John had accepted a person under the ban of Theophilus who had come from Jerusalem to Alexandria, and thus had incurred the wrath of that fierce prelate; but Jerome represented that Theophilus had sent no letters condemnatory of this person, and that it would be rash to condemn John for a supposed fault committed in ignorance
Gospels, Apocryphal - Clement of Alexandria and Origen, particularly the latter, apparently knew such a Gospel well. Alexandrian. by Clement of Alexandria, by whom it was regarded as apparently of some historical worth, but not of the same grade as our four Gospels. ...
The most important sayings of Jesus which have come down from this Gospel are from the conversation of Jesus with Salome, given by Clement of Alexandria. As Clement of Alexandria and Justin Martyr both referred to incidents connected with the birth of Jesus which are related in the Protevangelium, it is not impossible that the writing circulated in the middle of the 2nd century. Mentioned by Origen as a heretical writing, and possibly quoted by Clement of Alexandria, who speaks of the ‘traditions of Matthias
Ste'Phen, - " Then begins a series of disputations with the Hellenistic Jews of north Africa, Alexandria and Asia Minor, his companions in race and birthplace
Hieracas, an Egyptian Teacher - Meletius and Peter of Alexandria and lived under Diocletian's persecution
Eusebius of Alexandria, a Writer of Sermons - Eusebius (5) , of Alexandria, a writer of sermons, about whom Galland says "all is uncertain; nothing can be affirmed on good grounds as to his age or as to his bishopric" (Bibl. He depicts vividly the extravagance of Alexandrian wealth; the splendid houses glistening with marble, beds and carpets wrought with gold and pearls, horses with golden bridles and saddles, the crowds of servants of various classes—some to attend the great man when he rides out, some to manage his lands or his house, building, or his kitchen, some to fan him at his meals, to keep the house quiet during his slumber:—the varieties of white bread, the pheasants, geese, peacocks, hares, etc
Eutychius - Vigilius refused, and Eutychius shared the first place in the assembly with the patriarchs Apollinarius of Alexandria and Domninus of Antioch
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - The gross blunders of making the death of the heresiarch contemporaneous with the council of Nicaea, and of confounding Alexander of Alexandria with Alexander of Constantinople, prove it an ignorant forgery
Polycarpus, Moyses of Aghel - 550), in a Letter to Paphnutius prefatory to his Syriac version of the Glaphyra of Cyril of Alexandria, prepares his readers to find variations from the Peshitto in Cyril's citations of Scripture after the Greek, by referring them to "the translation of the N
Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis - of Alexandria. Theophilus of Alexandria having in 398 directed a paschal epistle against the Anthropomorphists, a wild army of monks from the wilderness of Scete rushed into Alexandria, and so frightened the bishop that he thought his life depended on immediate concession
Dispersion - ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. Paul never visited Alexandria, where the freest development of pre-Christian Judaism took place. Alexandrian Judaism was ‘a cultured Unitarianism with strong ethical convictions. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The illustrious Church of Alexandria must have been founded, like other churches, on ‘the Rejected Stone
Dispersion - ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. Paul never visited Alexandria, where the freest development of pre-Christian Judaism took place. Alexandrian Judaism was ‘a cultured Unitarianism with strong ethical convictions. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The illustrious Church of Alexandria must have been founded, like other churches, on ‘the Rejected Stone
Mark, Gospel According to - ’...
Clement of Alexandria (Hypotyp. 16) makes Mark go to Egypt and found the Church at Alexandria after he had written his Gospel, and says (ib. by heretics is presumed from references to it in Heracleon, the Valentinians, pseudo-Peter, and the Clementine Homilies (the first two as reported by Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus), for which reference may be made to Swete’s St. Further, (d) the Alexandrian Fathers Clement and Origen do not mention Mark’s preaching at Alexandria—a strange silence; and (e) there is no hint till Hippolytus that there was more than one Mark; apparently the other writers identified the cousin of Barnabas and the disciple of Peter
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - These charges were that Athanasius had influenced Constans against Constantius, corresponded with Magnentius, used an unconsecrated church in Alexandria, and disregarded an imperial summons calling him to Rome (Athan. In Alexandria Athanasius was superseded by George of Cappadocia, the orthodox there cruelly persecuted, and Athanasius compelled eventually to take refuge among the hermits and coenobites of Egypt. 361) and the accession of Julian the Apostate having left the orthodox free from direct persecution, Athanasius returned once more in triumph to Alexandria (a. In the council, famous for its reassertion of orthodoxy, then held at Alexandria, Liberius seems to have taken no prominent part
Novatianus And Novatianism - After his consecration Novatian dispatched the usual epistles announcing it to the bishops of the chief sees to Cyprian Dionysius of Alexandria Fabius of Antioch. In Alexandria, however, they were persecuted by Cyril, their bp. , when Eulogius, Catholic patriarch of Alexandria, wrote a treatise against them (Phot. In Alexandria also we have noted its last historical manifestation
Rufinus of Aquileia - Besides these there are several prefaces to the translations from Greek authors, on which his chief labour was expended, and which include The Monastic Rule of Basil , and his 8 Homilies ; the Apology for Origen , written by Pamphilus and Eusebius; Origen's Περὶ Ἀρχῶν and many of his commentaries; 10 works of Gregory Nazianzen; the Sentences of Sixtus or Xystus; the Sentences of Evagrius, and his book addressed to Virgins; the Recognitions of Clement; the 10 books of Eusebius's History; the Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria. But the church of Alexandria was then in a state of trouble. Athanasius died in 372, and his successor, the Arian Lucius, acting with the successive governors of Alexandria, came as a wolf among the sheep (Ruf. of Alexandria (Hieron
Asia Minor, Cities of - Cities of Asia Minor important to the New Testament accounts included Alexandria Troas, Assos, Ephesus, Miletus, Patara, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Thyatira, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colassae, Attalia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and Tarsus. Located ten miles south of the site of ancient Troy, Alexandria Troas was founded as a Roman colony during the period of Augustus (27 B
Carpocrates, Philospher - Carpocrates ( Καρποκράτης , Irenaeus; Καρποκρᾱς , Epiphanius and Philaster, both probably deriving this form from the shorter treatise against heresies by Hippolytus), a Platonic philosopher who taught at Alexandria early in the 2nd cent. He is described as teaching with prominence the doctrine of a single first principle: the name μοναδικὴ γνῶσις , given by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Theodosius i., the Great - Peter taught the Romans and which Damasus of Rome and Peter of Alexandria profess, should be believed by all nations; that Father, Son, and Holy Ghost should be equally adored; that the adherent of this doctrine should be called Catholic Christians, while all others were to be designated heretics, their places of assembly refused the name of churches, and their souls threatened with divine punishment. The most notorious acts of destruction were in Egypt, and specially at Alexandria, as described by Socrates ( H
Greek Language - Consequently, the average citizen who lived in Alexandria (Egypt), in Jerusalem, or in Rome could have easily understood the writings found in the Greek of the New Testament
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - ...
Essenes We know of the Essenes through the writings of Josephus and Philo, a Jewish philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt
Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis Euphratensis - of Hierapolis Euphratensis and metropolitan in the patriarchate of Antioch; the uncompromising opponent of Cyril of Alexandria, and the resolute advocate of Nestorius in the controversies that followed the council of Ephesus, A
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - of Berrhoea he was one of the orthodox prelates to whom Alexander of Alexandria sent a copy of his letter to Alexander of Constantinople concerning Arius and his errors (Theod
Greek Language - The style of the New Testament has a considerable affinity with that of the Septuagint version which was executed at Alexandria, although it approaches somewhat nearer to the idiom of the Greek language; but the peculiarities of the Hebrew phraseology are discernible throughout: the language of the New Testament being formed by a mixture of oriental idioms and expressions with those which are properly Greek
Poverty - In the later period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great (from 322), prosperous communities of Jews grew up in such centres as Antioch and Alexandria (the Greek ‘Dispersion‘)
Marcus, a Gnostic - But Clement of Alexandria clearly knew and used them
Gnosticism - If we made our definition turn on the claim to the possession of such a Gnosis and to the title of Gnostic, we should have to count Clement of Alexandria among Gnostics and I. A very important though not a complete division is that made by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Thus Neander's division classifies sects as not unfriendly to Judaism or as hostile to it; the former class taking its origin in those Alexandrian schools where the authority of such teachers as Philo had weight the latter among Christian converts from Oriental philosophy whose early education had given them no prejudices in favour of Judaism. Gieseler divides into Alexandrian Gnostics whose teaching was mainly influenced by the Platonic philosophy and Syrian strongly affected by Parsism. Clement of Alexandria distinguished between faith and knowledge. What Lipsius counts as the second stage dates from the migration of Gnostic systems to Alexandria, where the myths of Syriac Gnosis came to be united to principles of Grecian philosophy. The Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria, though provokingly desultory and unsystematic, furnish much valuable information about Gnosticism, which was still a living foe of the church
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - 14), quoted from the lost ‘Outlines’ of Clement of Alexandria, gives us the earliest view which was taken of the Fourth Gospel. ’ The word ‘spiritual,’ or ‘pneumatic,’ is here, as usually with the Alexandrians, opposed to ‘bodily,’ or ‘somatic. ...
The distinction between the two modes of treatment was familiar at Alexandria, and had been familiar long before the Fourth Gospel was written. There can be little doubt that Apollos, the learned Jew of Alexandria, made this identification in his preaching, which was so mightily convincing. , as we see from the caution imposed upon Clement of Alexandria by conservative prejudice, and on the other side by the diatribes of the obscurantist Tertullian against philosophy? At that period Gnosticism had gained a footing within the Church, and orthodoxy had become alive to the dangers which threatened the Christian religion from this side. The method is strange to us, and we do not look out for allegories which would be at once understood by Alexandrians in the 2nd century. We find this conviction in Philo, and very strongly in Clement of Alexandria, who, as a Christian, is important evidence. Yet, in spite of himself, he half substitutes the Alexandrian and Philonic allegory for the Synoptic parable
Clement of Alexandria - Clement of Alexandria. Epiphanius, the earliest authority on the question, observes that two opinions were held in his time, "some saying that he was an Alexandrian, others that he was an Athenian" (ὅν φασί τινες Ἀλεξανδρέα ἕτεροι δὲ Ἀθηναῖον , Haer. Alexandria was the principal scene of his labours; but there was no apparent reason for connecting him with Athens by mere conjecture. Moreover, in recounting his wanderings he makes Greece the starting-point and Alexandria the goal of his search ( Strom. We may then with reasonable probability conclude that Clement was an Athenian by training if not by origin, and the fact that he was at the head of the catechetical school of Alexandria towards the close of the century fixes the date of his birth c. 202, 203) in which Leonidas, the father of Origen, perished, Clement retired from Alexandria (Eus
Synods - In the third century eighteen synods were held; the principal of which were, that of Alexandria, against Origen; that of Africa, against the schismatic Novatus; that of Antioch, against the heresy of Sabellius, and another in the same city against Paul of Samosata; that of Carthage, against such persons as fell away in time of persecution; and that of Rome, against Novatian and other schismatics. 325, three synods were held at Sinuessa, Cirtha, and Alexandria, the subjects discussed in which are unworthy of notice. After the forementioned synods, two were convened at Alexandria, A. Among the refugees at Rome was the celebrated bishop of Alexandria. Lastly, if, as the historian Sozomen says, the Sardican synod wrote to Julius, bishop of Rome, to apprize him of what they had done, and of their decrees being drawn up in the spirit of the council of Nice, the purport of the letter was not so strong as that which they addressed to the church of Alexandria, in which they pray it to give its suffrage to the determination of the council, additional suspicions are created
Bible - ]'>[2]6 , which represents the enlarged Greek Canon of Alexandria. Eusebius based his harmony on the references of the sections said to have been arranged by Ammonius of Alexandria in the early part of the 3rd cent. The chapters in the Acts and the Epistles are ascribed to Euthalius, a deacon of Alexandria (subsequently bishop of Sulci, in Sardinia) in the 5th century. The Bohairic, formerly used at Alexandria, has been assigned to as early a date as the 2nd cent
John, Epistles of - Clement of Alexandria at the close of the 2nd cent. Clement of Alexandria by a mention of John’s ‘larger Epistle’ shows that he was acquainted with at least one other shorter letter. ’ Dionysius of Alexandria appeals to them, adding that John’s name was not affixed to them, but that they were signed ‘the presbyter. ’ They appear to have been recognized together at least from the time of Dionysius of Alexandria, and they are mentioned together by Eusebius ( HE iii
Trade And Commerce - Alexandrian commerce found ready markets in the great coast towns of the Black Sea. Paul found an Alexandrian trading vessel at Myra in Lycia (Acts 27:6). The needs of the East were further in great part provided for by an Imperial mint at Alexandria. There must have been large warehouses at Alexandria and Puteoli in connexion with the great corn traffic between Egypt and Italy, as well as at other ports (cf. The Alexandrians had them at Perinthus (modern Eregli) in Thrace, and at Tomis (near modern Constantza) on the Black Sea. From Alexandria the journey to Coptos up the Nile took twelve days, with a favourable wind. The whole journey from Alexandria to Barace and back took six months
Bible, Canon of the - Even in the third century, authors such as Clement of Alexandria and Origen used the expression "new covenant" to refer to the covenant rather than to the documents containing it. Greek Old Testament manuscripts typically preserve the Alexandrian order, which arranged books according to their subject matter (narrative, history, poetry, and prophecy). These probably represented only the environs of Alexandria
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - 5:6, section 1) quotes 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Clement of Alexandria ( Alexandria quotes 2 Thessalonians 3:2 as Paul's words (Strom
James - 9) relates, on the authority of Clement of Alexandria, that, when he was tried for his life, his accuser was so greatly affected by his constancy that he declared himself a Christian, and died with him after obtaining his forgiveness and blessing. 1 (quotation from Clement of Alexandria), ii
Antioch - He further strove to render Antioch the intellectual rival of Alexandria, by inviting to his court scholars, such as Aratus the astronomer, and by superintending the translation into Greek of learned works in foreign tongues. The Patriarch of Antioch took precedence of those of Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Alexandria
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - In 341, in deference to the Dedication Council of Antioch, he forcibly intruded one Gregorius into the see of Alexandria; in 342 he sent his magister equitum, Hermogenes, to drive Paulus from Constantinople, but he did not confirm Macedonius, the rival claimant (Socr. Early in 356, Syrianus, the duke of Egypt, began the open persecution of the Catholics at Alexandria, and Constantius, when appealed to, confirmed his actions and sent Heraclius to hand over all the churches to the Arians, which was done with great violence and cruelty ( Hist
Cosmas (3), Indian Navigator - Cosmas (3), surnamed Indicopleustes (Indian navigator), a native of Egypt, probably of Alexandria (lib. he speaks of the recent death of Timotheus, patriarch of Alexandria, a
Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste - He studied at Alexandria under the heresiarch Arius (c. On leaving Alexandria he repaired to Antioch, where he was refused ordination on account of his Arian tenets by his orthodox namesake (Athan
Bible, Egypt in the - During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures
Barnabas - The Clementine Homilies make him a disciple of our Lord, and to have preached in Rome and Alexandria, and converted Clement of Rome
Colosse - , 2:10), Irenaeus (3:14, section 1), Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, 1:325), Tertullian (Praescr. Some Alexandrian Jews may have visited Colosse and taught Philo's Greek philosophy, combined with the rabbinical angelology and mysticism, afterward embodied in the Cabbala
Melita - " After the frustrated attempt of the shipmen to flee in a boat, they lightened the ship of its wheat (brought from Egypt, the great granary of Italy, Acts 27:6); they knew not the land (for Paul's bay is remote from the great harbor, and has no marked features to enable the Alexandrian seamen to know it), but discovered "a creek having a sandy beach (aigialon ) into which they determined if possible to strand the ship. Therefore Melita lay on the regular route between Alexandria and Puteoli, which Malta does; and Syracuse, 80 miles off, and Rhegium would be the natural track from the neighboring Malta
Origenists - A denomination which appeared in the third century, who derived their opinions from the writings of Origen, a presbyter of Alexandria, and a man of vast and uncommon abilities, who interpreted the divine truths of religion according to the tenor of the Platonic philosophy
Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea - His doctrine was condemned by a synod of Alexandria (not naming him), by two synods at Rome under Damasus (377 and 378), and by the second oecumenical council (381)
Egypt in the Bible - During the last three centuries before the Christian era Egypt, and especially Alexandria, became a great center of Jewish population; to this fact the world is indebted for the Greek translation of the old Hebrew Scriptures
Revelation of John, the - Dionysius of Alexandria says many before his time rejected it because of its obscurity, or because it supported Cerinthus' view of an earthly kingdom. Dionysius, Origen' s scholar, bishop of Alexandria (A. Cyril of Alexandria (De Adoratione, 146), while intimating the doubts of some, himself accepts it as John's work
Text of the Gospels - It may be, for instance, that Origen has a reading which agrees with Manuscripts most approved by critical writers, but that the passage in which it occurs is not quoted by Clement of Alexandria. Here we are placed in a difficulty, because Clement and Origen did not by any means always agree, and, if a quotation had been preserved in which Clement used a different reading, it would be probable that Origen’s reading did not belong to the text traditionally current at Alexandria, but that he had obtained it from some other source; his evidence, therefore, would be simply of a personal character. ‘The text used,’ writes Hort (§ 159), ‘by all those Ante-Nicene Greek writers, not being connected with Alexandria, who have left considerable remains, is substantially Western. A fair number of Manuscripts exist of the Paedagogue of Clement of Alexandria
Chronology of the New Testament - The difficulty of the phrase was early felt, for the Old Syriac and the Peshitta Syriac omit the participle altogether, and Clement of Alexandria ( Strom . ( a ) Clement of Alexandria ( loc
Revelation, Book of - It is also used, among others, by Melito, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen, and attributed to the Apostle John by the first-named as well as by Irenæus. ...
In the East, as might be expected, it was rejected by Marcion, and, because of disbelief in its Apostolic authorship, by Dionysius of Alexandria (middle of the 3rd cent
Egypt - West of the Delta was Alexandria. In the time of Christ, great numbers of Jews were residents of Alexandria, Leontopolis, and other parts of Egypt; and our Savior himself found an asylum there in his infancy, Matthew 2:13
Praise - There was a certain prejudice against the music of flutes, but they seem to have been used at Alexandria to accompany the hymns at the Agape until Clement of Alexandria substituted harps about a
John, the Epistles of - Dionysius of Alexandria, Origen's scholar, cites this epistle's words as the evangelist John's. " Dionysius of Alexandria (Eusebius ,H
Libertines - Swete, The Appearances of our Lord after the Passion, 114) that only one synagogue is mentioned, that of the Libertines, and that the following names are simply descriptive of origin, the members of the synagogue being partly from Cyrene and Alexandria, partly from Cilicia and Proconsular Asia
Transmigration - Alexandria, p
Marks - ’ A still more apposite illustration is afforded by the branding of certain Jews of Alexandria with an ivy leaf the symbol of Dionysus by Ptolemy Philopator ( 3Ma 2:29 )
Marriage (ii.) - Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Encratites - Not to speak of the Indian ascetics (to whom Clement of Alexandria refers as predecessors of the Encratites), the abstinence of the Essenes, both in respect of food and of marriage, is notorious
Antioch - It was built by Seleucus Nicanor, about three hundred years before Christ; and became the seat of empire of the Syrian kings of the Macedonian race, and afterward of the Roman governors of the eastern provinces; being very centrally and commodiously situated midway between Constantinople and Alexandria, about seven hundred miles from each, in 37 17' north latitude, and 36 45' east longitude
Luke - We may however observe, that his testimony is supported by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerom, Chrysostom, and many others
bi'Ble - The chief of these are-- (1) the Alexandrian (codex Alexandrinus , marked A), so named because it was found in Aiexandria in Egypt, in 1628. --The Old Testament was translated into Greek by a company of learned Jews at Alexandria, who began their labor about the year B
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - Accordingly the emperor Theodosius, soon after the close of the second general council, summoned the bishops of his empire to a fresh synod—not, however, as the Latins wished, at Alexandria, but at Constantinople
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - contain interesting pictures of the controversy at Alexandria between archbp. All Carthage was reading it, the Alexandrians knew its contents almost better than the author, and it had penetrated into Egypt, Nitria, and the Thebaid
Trade And Commerce - Alexandrian commerce found ready markets in the great coast towns of the Black Sea. Paul found an Alexandrian trading vessel at Myra in Lycia (Acts 27:6). The needs of the East were further in great part provided for by an Imperial mint at Alexandria. There must have been large warehouses at Alexandria and Puteoli in connexion with the great corn traffic between Egypt and Italy, as well as at other ports (cf. The Alexandrians had them at Perinthus (modern Eregli) in Thrace, and at Tomis (near modern Constantza) on the Black Sea. From Alexandria the journey to Coptos up the Nile took twelve days, with a favourable wind
Athenagoras - in Irenaeum , 429) to this effect: "Athenagoras was the first head of the school at Alexandria, flourishing in the times of Hadrian and Antoninus, to whom also he addressed his Apology for the Christians ; a man who embraced Christianity while wearing the garb of a philosopher, and presiding over the academic school. That he was ever leader of the Catechetical school of Alexandria cannot be definitely proved. In the Commentatio of Clarisse, § 8, is the acute conjecture that the treatise de Resurrectione was written at Alexandria rather than Athens, from c. 52 A, where the builder of a house is represented as making stalls for his camels ; and on a supposed Alexandrian tinge in the philosophy of Athenagoras vide Brucker (Hist
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 500), and began his translation of the work of Didymus, the blind Origenistic teacher of Alexandria, on the Holy Spirit, which he did not complete till after his settlement at Bethlehem, probably because of the increasing suspicions and enmity of clergy and people, whom he speaks of as the senate of the Pharisees, against all that had any connexion with Origen (pref. At Alexandria he sat, though already grey-haired (lxxxiv. Pausing at Alexandria only 30 days, they turned to the monasteries of Nitria, where they were received with great honour. At one time they were almost persuaded to remain in the Egyptian desert, but the attractions of the holy places of Palestine prevailed; and sailing from Alexandria to Majoma, they settled at Bethlehem, in the autumn of 386
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - He taught at Alexandria (Iren. If the Alexandrian Gnostic is the Basilides quoted in the Acts of the Disputation of Archelaus and Mani (c. Gnostic ideas derived originally from Syria were sufficiently current at Alexandria, and the foundation of what is distinctive in his thoughts is Greek. To prove that the heretical sects were "later than the Catholic church," Clement of Alexandria (l. It seems therefore impossible to place Basilides later than Hadrian's time; and, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, we may trust the Alexandrian Clement's statement that his peculiar teaching began at no earlier date. They are Agrippa Castor as cited by Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the anonymous supplement to Tertullian, de Praescriptione, the Refutation of Hippolytus, Epiphanius, Philaster, and Theodoret, and possibly the Acta Archelai, besides a few scattered notices which may be neglected here
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - ...
Immediately after his accession he sent, according to custom, a confession of his faith to the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, in which he declared his reception of the first four general councils, as of the four gospels, and his condemnation of the Three Chapters—i. He wrote to Eulogius of Alexandria and Anastasius of Antioch, representing the purpose of their brother of Constantinople as being that of degrading them, and usurping to himself all ecclesiastical power. " At this time he seems to have gained a supporter, if not to his protest, at any rate to the paramount dignity of his own see, in Eulogius of Alexandria, whom he had before addressed without result. "Who does not know," he says, "that the church was built and established on the firmness of the prince of the apostles, by whose very name is implied a rock? Hence, though there were several apostles, there is but one apostolic see, that of the prince of the apostles, which has acquired great authority; and that see is in three places, in Rome where he died, in Alexandria where it was founded by his disciple St
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - of Alexandria, and to Arius, by a trustworthy person named Hosius, who was bp. of Alexandria, whose see ranked next to that of Rome. It is not very clear what Hosius did at Alexandria, the accounts being very imperfect and confused. " The churches of the East were mainly under the jurisdiction of the metropolitans of Alexandria or Antioch, and these great bishops would not brook the interference of their Western brethren
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - 26, 398, by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria. The duty was very unwelcome, for Theophilus had left no stone unturned to secure the nomination of Isidore, a presbyter of Alexandria. The claims of Heraclea becoming antiquated, the prelates of Alexandria, as the first of the Eastern churches, gradually assumed metropolitan rights over Byzantium. of Rome, after him coming the metropolitans of Alexandria and Antioch
Eusebius of Caesarea - of Alexandria, remonstrating with him for deposing Arius and urging that he had misrepresented the opinions of the latter (Labbe, Conc. Accordingly, when he was deposed by a synod convened at Alexandria by Alexander, Arius appealed to Eusebius and others to interpose. 17) of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria. Josephus, Tatian, Clement of Alexandria, and especially Africanus
Worship - Even in the time of Clemens of Alexandria he found himself obliged to combat the notion, which allowed the essentials of a Christian life to be of one kind in, and of another out of, the church. Thus, Clemens of Alexandria warns the Christians, from the example of Christ, not to attribute too much value to outward beauty: "The Lord himself was mean in outward form; and who is better than the Lord? But he revealed himself not in the beauty of the body, perceptible to our senses, but in the true beauty of the soul as well as of the body; the beauty of the soul consisting in benevolence, and that of the body in immortality!"...
Fathers of entirely opposite habits of mind, the adherents of two different systems of conceiving divine things, were nevertheless united on this point by their common opposition to the mixture of the natural and the divine in Heathenism, and by the endeavour to maintain the devotion to God, in spirit and in truth, pure and undefiled. Clemens of Alexandria is as little favourable as Tertullian to the use of images. And Clemens of Alexandria says, in reference to the signet rings of the Christians, "Let our signet rings consist of a dove," the emblem of the Holy Ghost, "or a fish, or a ship sailing toward heaven," the emblem of the Christian church, or of individual Christian souls, "or a lyre," the emblem of Christian joy, "or an anchor," the emblem of Christian hope; "and he who is a fisherman, let him remember the Apostle, and the children who were dragged out from the water; for those men ought not to engrave idolatrous forms, to whom the use of them is forbidden; those can engrave no sword and no bow, who seek for peace; the friends of temperance cannot engrave drinking cups
Originality - Its birthplace was not Palestine, but the two cities in which the blending of East and West took place,—Alexandria and Rome. At Alexandria, Judaism was enriched by a combination of the Platonic world of ideas with the Heraclitic Logos. The author of the Urevangelium is ‘an Italian by birth, who was at home in Rome and Alexandria’; the author of Matthew, no Jewish Christian, but ‘a Roman nourished by Seneca’s spirit. Clement of Alexandria is the first who mentions Buddha by name
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - , born at Alexandria (Photius, Bibl. The wide range of his reading, as shewn by his familiarity with Greek poets, historians, orators, and philosophers, witnesses to the best Alexandrian education. ...
The two great church questions in which Isidore took a decided part brought him into collision with his own patriarch, Cyril of Alexandria. Theophilus of Alexandria had practically procured his deposition and exile; the West had supported Chrysostom while he lived and afterwards had suspended communion with churches which would not insert his name in their diptychs. 114); although a follower of Chrysostom he shews an Alexandrian tendency to far-fetched and fantastic interpretation as when he explains the live coal and the tongs in Isa_6:7 to represent the divine essence and the flesh of Christ (i
Ships And Boats - Paul sailed were ships of Alexandria engaged in the wheat trade with Italy (Acts 27:6 ; Acts 27:38 , Acts 28:11 ; Acts 28:13 ; Puteoli was the great emporium of wheat), is especially interesting, as we happen to know more about them than any other ancient class of ship. In the time of Commodus a series of coins with figures of Alexandrian corn-ships was struck to commemorate an exceptional importation of wheat from Alexandria at a time of scarcity
James - Clement of Alexandria (Hypotyposeis, 7; Eusebius, H. ...
Besides Clement of Alexandria who speaks of his episcopate (Hypot
Christian (the Name) - Of these, the fontal reference in Acts 11:26 explains that the name by which the religion of Jesus has been known for nineteen centuries was coined by the pagan slang of Antioch on the Orontes, a city which, like Alexandria, was noted for its nicknames. Writers like Justin, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria catch at this idea
Apocrypha - Bibles to-day are to be traced to the different ideas of the Canon on the part of the Jews of Palestine, where the Hebrew Bible was on its native soil, and on the part of the Jews of Alexandria who translated that same Hebrew Bible into Greek. 50, and to have been a Jew of Alexandria. The work is found in the Alexandrian MS of the Septuagint, and in Syriac
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - In the heated debates which followed, the four Monophysite bishops stoutly charged John of Sirmin with breach of the canons in annulling the orders of their clergy, and, when the patriarch demanded of them "a union such as that between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch," declared their willingness provided they might drive out the council of Chalcedon from the church, as Cyril had driven out Nestarius. ...
It is greatly to our historian's credit that, during the bitter strife which raged long among the Monophysites themselves, in the matter of the double election of Theodore and Peter to succeed Theodosius as their patriarch of Alexandria, he maintained an honourable neutrality, standing equally aloof from Paulites and Jacobites, although his sympathies were with Theodore, the injured patriarch (iv
World, the - The merging of Hebrew and Greek thought later found its fullest expression in the works of Philo of Alexandria, who used the word more than any other writer in antiquity
Tarsus - Inspired with an enthusiasm for learning and the arts, it established a university, which was not indeed so splendidly equipped as the older foundations of Athens and Alexandria, but, according to Strabo (XIV
Unicorn - If the Abyssinian rhinoceros had invariably two horns, it seems to me improbable the Septuagint would call him μονοκερως , especially...
as they must have seen an animal of this kind exposed at Alexandria...
in their time, when first mentioned in history, at an exhibition given to Ptolemy Philadelphus, at his accession to the crown, before the death of his father
Library - ...
The first corporate Hellenistic library was conceived by Ptolemy I at Alexandria in Egypt, and then established by Demetrius of Phalerum (Athens) under Ptolemy II (285-247 B
Head, Headship - Philo of Alexandria indicated that this regularly worn covering was a symbol of modesty (Special Laws 3
Alexander - ...
This prince having conquered Egypt, and regulated it, gave orders for the building of the city of Alexandria, and departed thence, about spring, in pursuit of Darius
Ordination - In opposition to episcopal ordination, they urge that Timothy was ordained by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, 1 Timothy 4:14 ; that Paul and Barnabas were ordained by certain prophets and teachers in the church of Antioch, and not by any bishop presiding in that city, Acts 13:1-3 ; and that it is a well known fact, that presbyters in the church of Alexandria ordained even their own bishops for more than two hundred years in the earliest ages of Christianity
Philip - ...
The most interesting of these is the account preserved by Clement of Alexandria (Strom, iii
Colossians, Epistle to the - And the Jews of Laodicea, together with any who may have dwelt at Colossae, were doubtless, like most of the Jews of the Diaspora, largely affected both by local tendencies of thought and by the wider influences which centred in Alexandria. was known to Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria. ’ And the Judaism of Colossae, like that of Alexandria, was at least given a, Hellenic colour
John, Gospel of - , however, and especially after the publication of Bretschneider’s Probabilia in 1820, an almost incessant conflict has been waged between the traditional belief and hypotheses which in more or less modified form attribute the Gospel to an Ephesian elder or an Alexandrian Christian philosopher belonging to the first half of the 2nd century. 170; Clement, head of the catechetical school in Alexandria, about 190; and Tertullian, the eloquent African Father, who wrote at the end of the century, and who quotes freely from all the Gospels by name. Clement of Alexandria, in handing down ‘the tradition of the elders from the first,’ says that ‘John, last of all, having observed that the bodily things had been exhibited in the Gospels, exhorted by his friends and inspired by the Spirit, produced a spiritual gospel’ (Eus. This acceptance included districts as far apart as Syria and Gaul, Alexandria, Carthage and Rome
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - A second letter arrived from Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, with the Acts of the synod of the Oak, shewing that Chrysostom had been condemned by 36 bishops, of whom 29 were Egyptians. ...
After the death of Chrysostom the pope and all the West remained for some time out of communion with Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch. The church of Alexandria was the last to come to terms
Amen (2) - (In the great synagogue of Alexandria the attendant used to signal the congregation with a flag when to give the response). 25), Dionysius of Alexandria (ap
Incarnation - Its purpose was to settle the dispute over the teachings of Arius, a presbyter in the church of Alexandria
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - Paul, and specifies it as the ‘First’ to the Thessalonians: it is quoted by Clement of Alexandria, and frequently by Tertullian
Palestine - He made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many privileges
Pseudepigrapha - Actually, it is more concerned about the table conversation at banquets in Alexandria than it is about the translation of the Septuagint
Colossians, Epistle to the - It appears to have been accepted without question as genuine both by Churchmen and by heretics, and is referred to by the Muratorian Fragment, by Irenæus, and by Clement of Alexandria
John the Baptist - Apollos was from Alexandria in North Africa and at one point knew only of the baptism of John (Acts 18:24-25 )
Learning - Culture was widespread, and at least two Jews belong to general literature: Philo the philosopher of Alexandria, who endeavoured to reconcile Hellenism and Judaism; and Josephus the historian, who was brought up in Jerusalem
Barnabas - From an early date also the writing of an Epistle has been ascribed to him: (1) the Epistle to the Hebrews, the authorship of which was claimed for him by Tertullian; and (2) the Epistle to which his name has been attached since the time of Clement of Alexandria (see following article)
Fulness of the Time - With its chief seat at Alexandria, its leading representatives, such as Aristobulus and Philo, endeavoured to show that the Mosaic law, correctly understood, contained all that the best Greek philosophers had taught
Unitarians - Arius, a presbyter in the church of Alexandria, a man of consummate talent and address, but of a cold and speculative mind, impiously maintained that there had been a time when the Son of God was not; that he was capable of virtue and vice; and that he was a creature, and mutable as creatures are! It is true that Arius held a qualified preexistence, when he said that God created the Son from nothing before he created the world; in other words, that the Son was the first of created beings; but such preexistence does not imply coexistence or coeternity with the Father
Commerce - Their commerce, nevertheless, was not great, till Alexander had destroyed Tyre and built Alexandria
New Testament - Only Begotten - Thus the present writer believes that it was persons like Clement of Alexandria who were first reminded of the Orphic titles of the aeons by the predicate μονογενής applied to Christ as Son of God
Mss - Christianity was no doubt introduced into Egypt even in Apostolic times, but it would have come in the first instance to the Jews of Alexandria and the Greek-speaking population generally. ) from the Arabic name of a district near Alexandria, the latter from the Arabic name for Upper Egypt. In Upper Egypt, though there were considerable Greek communities there also, and in the principal towns Greek must have been generally understood, the population as a whole must have been more Egyptian, and an Egyptian version of the NT would have been required there sooner than in the neighbourhood of Alexandria
New Testament - ...
To the outcry against hint for omitting the testimony of the three heavenly witnesses he replied, it is not omission but non-addition; even some Latin copies do not have it, and Cyril of Alexandria showed in his Thesaurus he did not know it; on the Codex Montfortianus (originally in possession of a Franciscan, Froy, who possibly wrote it, now in Trinity College, Dublin) being produced with it, Erasmus INSERTED it. Origen's readings show a text agreeing with manuscripts A, B, C (usually considered Alexandrian) rather than with the Western and Latin authorities. The Alexandrian and the western authorities coming from different quarters are independent witnesses. The Alexandrian manuscripts, few but far weightier, represent the more ancient ones; the far more numerous Byzantine manuscripts the more recent, family or class. The Byzantine or Constantinopolitan mutually concur, because copied from one another; the Alexandrian have some mutual discrepancies which render their concurrence in many more passages against the received text the weightier, because they prove the absence of collusion and mutual copying. It retains the Alexandrian forms of Greek words, though seeming barbarous, for this style of Greek was common in the New Testament era to Palestine, Egypt, and Libya, and appears in the Septuagint. ...
Alexandria was in the early ages the center for publishing Greek manuscripts; hence, our oldest manuscripts were copied there, though the originals were written elsewhere. It was originally written in the middle of the fourth century in Egypt; its text agrees with Alexandrian authorities. Translated from oldest Greek manuscripts, a text related to D, and of a different family from the Alexandrian manuscripts. ...
(3) The Old Latin appears more accordant with the Alexandrian old Greek manuscripts in Bobbiensis, k, containing a fragment of the New Testament. " The Armenian, by Mesrobus, early in the fifth century, made from Greek manuscripts; brought from Alexandria and from Ephesus
Josephus - , starting from the return of Titus from Alexandria, describe the siege of the capital, and the internecine strife of the besieged, and close with the burning of the Temple (10th of the month Ab = July-August a. the apology for Judaism in two books, in which Josephus replies to the attacks of Anion, an Alexandrian littérateur (contra Apionem), may be regarded as in some degree a compensation for the second of the projected works, and was composed subsequently to the Antiquities. The former was probably written by an Alexandrian Jew; the latter, which survives only in a small fragment, is in all likelihood the work of Hippolytus. -The manner in which Josephus seeks to present Judaism to the Greek mind ranks him among the Alexandrian apologists of that faith, though he claims to write merely as a historian; and, as a matter of fact, he owes more to the tradition of Palestinian Rabbinism than to that of Alexandria. How little the horizon of Josephus extended beyond Palestine is shown also by the brevity with which he treats of the persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria, and of the famous embassy of Philo to the court of Gaius Caligula (xviii
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - Cyril of Alexandria (c. Cyril of Alexandria is particularly observable
Egypt - Formerly the obelisks of Cleopatra stood here also, but were removed to Alexandria during the reign of Tiberius; and one of them now stands on the banks of the Thames, London, and another in Central Park, New York. Among the noted tombs are those at Thebes, Beni-Hassan, and Osiout, and among the obelisks are those at Luxor, Karnak, Heliopolis, and Alexandria
Persecution - " The violence of Pagan intolerance was most severely felt in Egypt, and particularly at Alexandria. The city of Alexandria, the great theatre of persecution, had even anticipated the edicts of the emperor, and had put to death a number of innocent persons, among whom were some women
Exile - Finally, a large community in Alexandria established itself and produced the Septuagint, the earliest translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek
Claudius - Privileges were granted to the Jews of Alexandria; Agrippa (q
Nativity of Christ - The Egyptians placed it in January; Wagenseil, in February; Bochart, in March, some, mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, in April; others, in May; Epiphanius speaks of some who placed it in June, and of others who supposed it to have been in July; Wagenseil, who was not sure of February fixed it probably in August; Lightfoot, on the fifteenth of September; Scaliger, Casaubon, and Calvisius, in October; others, in November; and the Latin church in December
Jude, Epistle of - 200), commented upon by Clement of Alexandria, and accepted by Origen and by Tertullian
Pharisees - The one exception to Pharisaic opposition to the Hasmoneans was Salome Alexandria (76-67), under whom they virtually dominated the government
Christian - Although it does not figure prominently in the NT, in subsequent history it plays a great part as a rival of Alexandria, Rome, and Constantinople
Africanus, Julius - 21), Clement of Alexandria ( Stromata, i
Idatius (3), Author of Well-Known Chronicle - of Jerusalem, Eulogius of Caesarea, and Theophilus of Alexandria
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - 212, in Gaul 213, in Germany and on the Danube 214, at Antioch and Alexandria 215, marched against Parthia 216, killed on the way from Edessa to Carrhae, April 8, 217
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - 230) reports that he read among the works of Eulogius patriarch of Alexandria (d
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - " He found them attributed to Theophilus of Alexandria, but the disparity of style caused him to question the authorship
Sibylline Oracles - ), the new harvest of Sibyllina included some Jewish Alexandrian productions, which influenced Vergil. It is true, as we have seen, that the very diffusion of such verses led to the partial discrediting of the entire literature as a religious authority of impartial value, but long before this shadow fell upon the Sibyllina at Rome the Hellenistic Jews of Alexandria had taken advantage of the current Sibylline verse as a literary genre and started a new, ingenious development of the method. the literary method of the Sibylline oracles had been exploited by one or more Jewish authors at Alexandria, in the interests of religious apologetic and propaganda. ]'>[19] The Church appropriated them, appealed to them, edited them in her own interests, composed fresh ones, and, in general, treated the Jewish Sibylline oracles much as the Alexandrian Jews had treated the pagan ones
Old Testament - The Samaritans altered it still more (Gesenius); so it became "the Alexandrian Samaritan text. The literal system prevailed in Palestine, the allegorical in the Alexandria. Clement of Alexandria laid down the fourfold view of the Old Testament: literal, symbolical, moral, and prophetic ( John the Apostle - He bases this assertion upon the evidence of Irenæus and Clement of Alexandria. The explicit testimony of three writers like Polycrates, Irenæus, and Clement of Alexandria carries with it the implicit testimony of a whole generation of Christians extending over a very wide geographic area
John the Baptist - Of this number was Apollos, a learned and zealous man, who was of Alexandria, and came to Ephesus twenty years after the resurrection of our Saviour, Acts 18:25 . John, therefore, undertook, perhaps at the request of the true believers in Asia, to write what Clement of Alexandria called a spiritual Gospel; and, accordingly, we find in it more of doctrine, and less of historical narrative, than in any of the others
John, the Gospel of - Perhaps because it is so different from the Synoptic Gospels, Clement of Alexandria called it the “spiritual Gospel
John, the Letters of - It was regarded as the work of the apostle John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Muratorian Canon
Love-Feast - Mayor, Appendix C in Hort and Mayor’s Clement of Alexandria, Seventh Book of the Stromateis, London, 1902; also books and articles mentioned in article Eucharist
Athens - Her University drew to itself a host of foreign students, especially from Rome, and became the model of the younger foundations of Alexandria, Antioch, and Tarsus
Feasting - Clement of Alexandria speaks of the whole Christian life of the true Gnostic as a holy panegyric (joyful assembly) (Strom
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - Facundus and others tell us that he died full of days and glory, revered by the whole church and honoured by its chief doctors, by Basil, Meletius, Theodoret, Domnus of Antioch, and even by the chief impugner of the soundness of his faith, Cyril of Alexandria
Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - Finding that Peter Mongus, the patriarch of Alexandria, anathematized the council of Chalcedon, he was so indignant that before he took his seat on the patriarchal throne he solemnly separated from all communion with him, and with his own hands effaced his name from the diptychs, placing in its stead that of Felix III
Essenes - Mark, who founded the first church at Alexandria. According to the portraiture of them, given by Philo, the Alexandrian, in his separate treatise concerning the "True Freedom of the Virtuous," we should take the Essenes for men of an entirely practical religious turn, far removed from all theosophy and all idle speculation; and we should ascribe to them an inward religious habit of mind, free from all mixture of superstition and reliance on outward things
Philosophy - After the Christian era philosophy ceased to have any true vitality in Greece, but it made fresh efforts to meet the conditions of life at Alexandria and Rome
John, Gospel of (Critical) - ...
(2) Clement of Alexandria is the author of a statement preserved by Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica vi. ’ From about 189, Clement was head of the celebrated catechetical school at Alexandria. His great reverence for his teacher Pantaenus, who also preceded him in office, may fairly be regarded as indicating that he represents the ecclesiastical tradition at Alexandria
Simon Magus - The story of Simon is then related by two of his pupils: that his father’s name was Antonius, his mother’s Rachel; that he was a Samaritan of the village of Gitta, six miles from Samaria; that he was educated at Alexandria, and was skilled in the wisdom of the Greeks and in magic. The existence of the sect is testified by Hegesippus and Clement of Alexandria’ (op. With regard to his birthplace-Gitta-Justin was a Samaritan and a good witness; and the statements of Hegesippus about his father and his mother, and his being trained at Alexandria, are quite possibly good tradition. It may be assumed that he was born in the Samaritan village of Gitta; that he was a man of unusual attainments; that he received some training in Alexandrian philosophy; that he startled Samaria with his powers; that he was, for a time, nominally a Christian, but that he broke away from the Christian Church; that his knowledge of Christian truth was very shallow, and that he carried some Christian ideas over with him, but in confusion; and that his subsequent teaching was an amalgam of this crude Christian precipitate with Alexandrian speculation and with magic
Christ in the Early Church - ...
(b) In the East, Gnosticism was met by the great writers of the School of Alexandria, Clement and Origen, who further developed the conception of Christ as the Logos who is immanent in the Universe. ...
(a) The teaching of Arius, a parish priest of Alexandria, who had, however, previously studied at Antioch, brought swiftly the crisis when the Church must definitely and clearly state her belief as to the Person of Christ. ’...
(b) A remarkable hymn attributed to Clement of Alexandria, intended apparently to be sung by Christian children, in which Christ is addressed throughout and praised as Ruler, Shepherd, and King, is found in his Paedagogus (iii
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - 201); Caesarius departing thence to Alexandria, and Gregory remaining to study in the school made famous by Origen, Pamphilus, and Eusebius. >From Palestine Gregory went to Alexandria ( Orat. Here he unexpectedly met his brother Caesarius, journeying to Nazianzus from Alexandria
Clementine Literature - Clement, instead of meeting Barnabas in Rome, has been induced by an anonymous Christian teacher to sail for Palestine; but being driven by storms to Alexandria, there encounters Barnabas. On the one hand, the account that Clement is delayed from following Barnabas by the necessity of collecting money due to him is perfectly in place if the scene is laid at Rome, but not so if Clement is a stranger driven by stress of weather to Alexandria. The author, who elsewhere shews Alexandrian proclivities, may have wished to honour that city by connecting Barnabas with it; or was perhaps unwilling that Peter should be preceded by another apostle at Rome. On the other hand, the rabble which assails Barnabas is in both versions described as a mob of Greeks , and the fifteen days' voyage to Palestine corresponds better with Alexandria than with Rome
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - Dioscorus (1) , patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded Cyril about midsummer 444, receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. Mark formed his rules for Alexandria otherwise than on the Petrine model " (Ep. of Alexandria shewed himself a partisan throughout. This aroused once more the zealots of the Alexandrian party; one bishop sprang forward, shouting, "This upsets the whole church!" The Egyptians and the monks, led by Barsumas, cried out, "Cut him in two, who says two natures! He is a Nestorian!" Basil's nerves gave way; he lost, as he afterwards said, his perceptions, bodily and mental ( ib
Jews - Before he left Jerusalem he granted the Jews the same free enjoyment of their laws and their religion, and exemption from tribute every sabbatical year, which they had been allowed by the kings of Persia; and when he built Alexandria, he placed a great number of Jews there, and granted them many favours and immunities. Ptolemy carried many thousands captive into Egypt, both Jews and Samaritans, and settled them there: he afterward treated them with kindness, on account of their acknowledged fidelity to their engagements, particularly in their conduct toward Darius, king of Persia; and he granted them equal privileges with the Macedonians themselves at Alexandria. ( See Alexandria
Wisdom of Solomon - 16); as ‘Solomon’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 120); and as ‘Scripture’ by Dionysius of Alexandria (c
Gospels - ...
(1) The translation at Alexandria of the Old Testament into Greek (by the Septuagint), rendering the Jewish Scriptures accessible through that then universal language of the refined and polite to the literary of all nations. Clement of Alexandria in the latter part of the second century refers to the collection of Gospels as one whole, "the gospel" (Quis Dives Salvus?)
Barnabas, Epistle of - Clement of Alexandria bears witness to it as the work of "Barnabas the apostle"—"Barnabas who was one of the seventy disciples and the fellow-labourer of Paul"—"Barnabas who also preached the Gospel along with the apostle according to the dispensation of the Gentiles" ( Strom. And how came the great Fathers whose names have been already mentioned, how came the church at large, to value the epistle as it did if in the mention of them we have nothing but absurdity and error? We are hardly less puzzled to account for such inaccuracies if the writer was an Alexandrian Christian of heathen origin than if he were a Jew and a Levite. Two limits are allowed by all, the destruction of Jerusalem on the one hand, and the time of Clement of Alexandria on the other—that is, from a
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - "...
Gregory of Nyssa describes Gregory of Neocaesarea as spending much time in Alexandria, and says that before his baptism, while resident there, he displayed a high tone of moral propriety. A residence in Alexandria may have occurred in the five years that Gregory and his brother were under the direction of Origen
Peter, First Epistle of - It is first quoted as Peter’s by Irenæus and Tertullian, and is frequently used by Clement of Alexandria. Peter died in Rome is supported by a very strong chain of evidence, being deducible from Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Papias; and it is held by Dionysius of Corinth, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria
Bible, Translations - for the royal library of Alexandria
Marks Stigmata - Ptolemy Philopator commanded the Jews of Alexandria to be branded with an ivy-leaf, the symbol of Dionysius
Apostolic Fathers - Paul who bore that name then he would more properly be styled not an "apostolic man," as he is designated by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
City - Babylon, Nineveh, Jerusalem, Athens, Rome, Alexandria, Venice, Florence, and the mediaeval cities all mark stages in the development of the higher culture of the race
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - Its occasion had been the excommunication, by pope Felix, of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, for supporting and communicating with Peter Mongus, the once Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, who had, however, satisfied Acacius by subscribing the Henoticon, and afterwards the Nicene creed
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - ...
Some years after his death Julian was again condemned by Joannes Talaia, formerly patriarch of Alexandria, but c
Wisdom - Above all, we should remember the pervasive influence of Hellenism, especially in a centre like Alexandria, where East and West met and mingled (cf. The indications point rather to a blend of elements from Eastern faiths with notions and practices current among Jewish circles which were sensible to semi-Alexandrian influences (cf. The process is seen in Clement of Alexandria (Strom ii. Paul’s positive doctrine of the Christ, though it may well have been that the eloquent Alexandrian’s teaching ‘awakened a tendency to further free speculation’ (Weizsäcker, i. Thus he appropriates for the Crucified the ‘power’ and ‘wisdom’ of God, terms which were recognized ‘synonyms of the Λόγος in the Alexandrian-Jewish speculations’ (EGT , in loc
Oracle - Saturn had oracles in several places, but the most famous were those of Cumae in Italy, and of Alexandria in Egypt. Serapis had one at Alexandria, consulted by Vespasian
Faith - ...
Only the third verb form was rendered with the Greek word for faith in the New Testament and in the Septuagint, an early Greek version of the Old Testament originating in Alexandria
Romans, the Epistle to the - Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it
Sayings (Unwritten) - ...
Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Government - In Alexandria, in particular, they had special privileges and an ‘ethnarch’ of their own (Jos
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - This was, however, abandoned, and Miesrob, with two or three others, resorted to Alexandria to learn more perfectly the Greek language
Diognetus, Epistle to - The chief school of Christian thought would seem still to be at Athens, though on the eve of its transference to Alexandria by Athenagoras
Docetism - 109) against the hypotyposes of Clement of Alexandria
Cabbala - That this system of the cabbalistic philosophy, which we may consider as the acroamatic, esoretic, or concealed doctrine of the Jews, by way of contradistinction from the exoretic or popular doctrine, was not of Hebrew origin, we may conclude with a very great degree of probability, from the total dissimilarity of its abstruse and mysterious doctrines to the simple principles of religion taught in the Mosaic law; and that it was borrowed from the Egyptian schools, will sufficiently appear from a comparison of its tenets with those of the oriental and Alexandrian philosophy. These innovations chiefly consisted in certain dogmas concerning God and divine things, at this time received in the Egyptian schools; particularly at Alexandria, where the Platonic and Pythagorean doctrines on these subjects had been blended with the oriental philosophy. The similarity, or rather the coincidence, of the cabbalistic, Alexandrian, and oriental philosophy, will be sufficiently evinced by briefly stating the common tenets in which these different systems agreed
Mystery - The agraphon quoted by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
John the Apostle - Clement of Alexandria (Quis Dives Salvus? ) reports of John as a careful pastor, that he commended a noble looking youth in a city near Ephesus to the bishop
Manuscripts - It was probably written in Egypt, and came in 1098 into the possession of the patriarch of Alexandria, from which place it gets its name. Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, and former patriarch of Alexandria, sent it as a gift to Charles I
Canon of the New Testament - In the latter part of the 2nd century Clement of Alexandria refers to "the gospel" collection and that of all the epistles of "the apostles
Liberty - Here, too, it is of interest to recall that it was a Stoic doctrine of liberty that true freedom consists in obeying God, or, as Philo of Alexandria (see Tract, Quod sit liber quisquis virtuti studet) puts it, the following of God
Seventy (2) - Clement of Alexandria, writing in the latter part of the 2nd cent
Harmony of the Gospels - The first great work in this second approach to harmonizing the gospels was done by Amonnius of Alexandria in the third century
Salutations - 993), where he speaks of the city ‘full of Tarseans and Alexandrians. Clement of Alexandria also recognizes abuses which crept in, and refers to the resounding kisses in church which made suspicions and evil reports among the heathen, and claims that the kiss must be ‘mystic’ (Paed
Greece - ...
Even in the period of greatest depression Hellas still maintained her old pre-eminence in education, though for a time the universities of Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus rivalled that of Athens
Martyr - 9, quoting Clement of Alexandria
Majesty (2) - ‘Base of aspect’ (αἰσχρὸς τὴν ὄψιν) is the verdict of Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - Another doctrine of Hermogenes preserved by Clement of Alexandria ( Eclog
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - Pergamos possessed a library also that rivalled in size and in value the world-renowned library of Alexandria itself
Adam - , who contends that ‘the Church (of Alexandria?) introduced these two clauses into the Gospel in accordance with the permission to legislate which our Lord gave to all Churches (Matthew 18:18)
Peter - Peter has always been considered as canonical; and in proof of its genuineness we may observe that it is referred to by Clement of Rome, Hermes, and Polycarp; that we are assured by Eusebius, that it was quoted by Papias; and that it is expressly mentioned by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and most of the later fathers
Adam - , who contends that ‘the Church (of Alexandria?) introduced these two clauses into the Gospel in accordance with the permission to legislate which our Lord gave to all Churches (Matthew 18:18)
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - Macarius thus belonged to the Alexandrian school of allegorical interpretation as might be expected from the great use he makes of Origen not to the Syrian literal school. ]'>[1] Alexandria might also be suggested by the fact that Macarius has some scientific knowledge
Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra - 338–339, had only provoked such flagrant scenes as had happened more recently at Alexandria when St
Vincentius Lirinensis - Amongst the saintly doctors present in person, or whose works were cited as authoritative, were Peter of Alexandria, Athanasius, Theophilus, Cyril, Gregory Nazianzen, Basil and his excellent brother Gregory of Nyssa
Dates (2) - ...
The early Fathers, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Africanus, and Hippolytus, were the first to attempt to arrange the events of the Gospel in chronological sequence. There were also various calculations of the equinox, Hippolytus placing it on March 18, Anatolius on March 19, the Alexandrians on March 21. The Alexandrian year began on Aug. ...
(c) Patristic testimony, as represented by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus, and perhaps based upon Luke 2:2, favours a date between b
Jews - When Alexander was in Canaan, about 3670, he confirmed to them all their privileges; and, having built Alexandria, he settled vast numbers of them there. ...
At Alexandria the Jews murdered multitudes of the Heathens, and were murdered in their turn to about fifty thousand
Millenarians - Origen, the most learned of the fathers, and Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, usually, for his immense erudition, surnamed the Great, both opposed the doctrine that prevailed on the subject in their day; and Dr. The doctor supposes Dionysius of Alexandria, who wrote against Nepos, an Egyptian bishop, before the middle of the third century, to have been the first that attacked this doctrine; but Origen had previously assailed it in many of his fictitious additions
Paul - After a three-months stay in Malta the soldiers and their prisoners left in an Alexandria ship for Italy. At Puteoli they found "brethren," for it was an important place and especially a chief port for the traffic between Alexandria and Rome; and by these brethren they were exhorted to stay a while with them
Montanus - ...
The same argument was probably pursued by Clement of Alexandria, who promised to write on prophecy against the Montanists (Strom. Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - According to this his native home was on the coast of Egypt, and he received instruction in Greek literature and science at Alexandria. According to another fragment attributed to Valentinus, and preserved by Eulogius of Alexandria (ap
Corinth - Apollos' followers also rested too much on his Alexandrian rhetoric, to the disparagement of Paul, who studied simplicity lest aught should interpose between the Corinthians and the Spirit's demonstration of the Savior (1 Corinthians 2). ), Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Egypt - and founded the great city of Alexandria on the Mediterranean coast
Rome And the Roman Empire - Octavian was able to use Antony's reliance on Egypt against him, persuading the senate that Antony wanted to make Alexandria the capital of the empire
Bible, Texts And Versions - It was made in Alexandria, Egypt, to meet the needs of Jews and others who wanted to read the Old Testament but lacked the facility to read Hebrew. The earlier and (for most scholars) the most reliable ones are of the Alexandrian (also called Neutral, Egyptian, and African) type
Stoics - -This was due to that intermingling of peoples which followed the Alexandrian conquests. The earliest teachers came from Cyprus, Cilicia, Babylon, Palestine, Syria, and Phrygia, and the universities of Tarsus, Rhodes, and Alexandria were its strongholds
Esdras, the Second Book of - Some early writers cite it as prophetical-Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Various Readings - In the third century Ammonius of Alexandria arranged this numerical system to aid the reader in finding parallel passages in the Gospels; and in the fourth century Eusebius, the historian, in a set of Canons arranged the Ammonian Sections so as to make any particular one more easily found
Constantinus i - 1871); Neale's Eastern Church, Patriarchate of Alexandria ; Bright's History of the Church , A
Simon Maccabaeus - Simon Magus was a native of Gittum, a town in Samaria; and it is stated in a suspicious document of ancient though doubtful date, that he studied for some time at Alexandria
Text of the New Testament - Codex Alexandrinus , probably written at Alexandria in the 5th cent. From an uncertain, but early, date it belonged to the Patriarchs of Alexandria; it was brought thence by Cyril Lucar in 1621, when he became Patriarch of Constantinople, and was presented by him to Charles i
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - 456), he was not an Asiatic but an Alexandrian; and on this supposition his Quartodecimanism must have come from his close connexion with the Montanists of Asia Minor, since the Paschal calendar of Alexandria was the same as that of Rome. of Smyrna and martyr, and for this reason is held in just estimation, wrote to an Alexandrian that it is right, with respect to the Feast of the Resurrection, that we should celebrate it upon the first day of the week. 24) that Irenaeus wrote on the same subject to several persons, it is possible that this Alexandrian may have been another than Blastus. Paul had emphasized the antithesis between law and gospel, the Gentile churches after his time attached themselves more closely to the doctrinal norm of the older apostles, and laid stress on the continued validity of the law for Christians; though, as it was impossible to bind Gentiles to observe the ceremonial law, its precepts were given, after the example of the Jewish religious philosophy of Alexandria, a spiritual interpretation
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - An earlier instance of the use of the name occurs at Alexandria, but probably the first application of the name is traceable to Carthage. Dionysius of Alexandria, and with him Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Maximus of Nola, Babylas of Antioch, Alexander of Jerusalem, Fabian of Rome, were all attacked, the last three martyred
Eutyches And Eutychianism - He was a staunch upholder of the views and conduct of Cyril of Alexandria, who had even sent him, as a special mark of favour, a copy of the Acts of the council of Ephesus, a. Eutyches and Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria, had demanded it, and their position had been supported by Chrysaphius
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - " This expression the "vine of David" was known to Clement of Alexandria who says of Christ (Quis Dives Salv. ...
Clement of Alexandria was certainly acquainted with the Didaché in some form
Justinianus i, Emperor - The other three, Ephraim of Antioch, Peter of Jerusalem, Zoilus of Alexandria, under real or imagined threats of deposition, obeyed and signed, and after more or less intimidation and the offer of various rewards, the great majority of bishops through Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and Macedonia signed also. By him sat Apollinaris of Alexandria and Domninus of Antioch
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - The high-handed behaviour of the patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria towards the bp. For the details of the conflict see CYRILLUS OF Alexandria; PROCLUS; RABBULAS; IBAS
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - ...
The fame of Aetius, then teaching at Alexandria, reaching Eunomius, he proceeded thither c
Virgin Virginity - It is curious to note that Clement of Alexandria in Eus
Gennesaret, Land of - Some have thought it to be a vein of the Nile, because it produces the coracin fish as well as that lake does which is near to Alexandria
Confession - The Epistle of Barnabas is evidence for the preciseness with which the Church in Alexandria at the end of the 1st cent
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - ...
Notwithstanding the general triumph of orthodoxy throughout the East, except at Alexandria, the unbending pertinacity of Hormisdas still caused difficulties
Antioch - While the Judaism of Antioch did not assimilate Hellenic culture so readily as that of Alexandria, and certainly made no such contribution to the permanent thought of the world, it yet did much to prepare the city for the gospel
Apostle - " In this inferior sense the appellation is applied, by Clement of Alexandria, to Barnabas; who was not an Apostle in the highest sense of the word, so as the twelve and Paul were Apostles
New Testament - ...
Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir
Simon Magus - 62), who states that some of them were called Heleniani; and Clement of Alexandria ( Strom
Trinity - ’ This doctrine appealed ‘first to unsophisticated men, far removed from Alexandria or Athens; yet the very words in which it does so, turn out, upon analysis, to involve a view of personality which the world had not attained, but which, once stated, is seen to be profoundly, philosophically true’ (Illingworth, Personality , p
Ephesians, Theology of - 3 ), Clement of Alexandria (Stromateis 4
Soul - ’* Gratianus, Emperor - of Alexandria—that is to say, should confess the one deity and equal majesty of the three persons of the Blessed Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; and further, that they alone who hold this faith are to be called Catholics , and their places of meeting churches ; while the rest are branded as heretics, and are threatened with an indefinite punishment (Cod
Peter, Second Epistle of - 250); probably it was used by Clement of Alexandria; and Origen knew it, but doubted its genuineness
Presence (2) - John, and on most of the early Fathers except for the school of Alexandria
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - But possibly the book was commended to medieval readers less by its merits than by what most modern readers would count its faults for utterly unlike Chrysostom this writer constantly follows the mystical and allegorical method commonly connected with Alexandria
Soul - ’* Paul - Tarsus was also the seat of a famous university, higher in reputation even than the universities of Athens and Alexandria, the only others that then existed
Bible - Clement of Alexandria speaks of the New Testament making up with the Old Testament "one knowledge
Luke, Gospel According to - The first writers who name Luke in connexion with it are Irenæus and the author of the Muratorian Fragment (perhaps Hippolytus), Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria all at the end of the 2nd century
Diseases - the Greeks established an important medical school in Alexandria, Egypt, which flourished for several centuries and trained many physicians
Canon of the Old Testament - Philo of Alexandria (d. The popularity of the Alexandrian OT, including Apocrypha, and the growing influence of NT books caused the Rabbinical teachers to remove all doubt as to the limits of their Scripture
Galatians, Epistle to the - heretics, alluded to by adversaries like Celsus and the writer of the Clementine Homilies , and quoted by name and distinctly (as their fashion was) by Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian, at the end of the 2nd century
James Epistle of - Clement of Alexandria is said to have included a commentary on ‘Jude and the rest of the Catholic Epistles’ in his Hypotyposeis ( Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc
Ebionism And Ebionites - John excluded it from Asia Minor; in Antioch the names of Ignatius, Theophilus, and Serapion were vouchers for Catholic doctrine and practice; and the daughter-churches of Gaul and Alexandria naturally preferred doctrine supplied to them by teachers trained in the school of these Apostles
Antiochus - The next year he returned; and whilst he was engaged in the siege of Alexandria, a false report was spread of his death
Egypt - On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria
Prayer (2) - In the helpful illustration of the anchored ship, pointed out by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Teaching - Many churches came to have regular schools for the teaching of catechumens, that of Alexandria being especially famous in later times
Synagogue - 2:5-11), according to which each settlement of foreign Jews had a synagogue of its own-Alexandrians (cf. ...
The oldest synagogue on record is that built in Alexandria under Ptolemy III. -Like the Alexandrian Great Synagogue and the Hall of Hewn Stones in the Temple (Yômâ, 25a), the synagogue at Tiberias had the form of a basilica with a double row of pillars (Midr
Temple (2) - that presented by Alexander of Alexandria; it was one of the largest, and was covered with gold and silver; secondly, the Eastern gate, which was covered with Corinthian bronze; and, above all, the gate of Nicanor;* [19] Nicanor, the Alexandrian, who made the doors
Brethren of the Lord (2) - 160) and Clement of Alexandria (a
Peter - Yet lie conversed fluently with Cornelius seemingly without an interpreter, and in Greek His Greek style in his epistles is correct; but Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, and Tertullian allege he employed an interpreter for them
Assumption of Moses - A Greek version of both, of the same century, is presupposed by the quotations and parallels in Acts 7:36, Judges 1:9; Judges 1:16; Judges 1:18; Judges 1:2 Baruch, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen
Bethlehem - The author of it, according to him, in an Egyptian, most likely of Alexandria, who introduces Bethlehem into the narrative not because of its place in Hebrew prophecy, but because it was formerly a seat of the worship of Isis, and he wishes to incorporate this worship with Christianity
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - (3) An acquaintance with Leucius by Clement of Alexandria has been inferred from the agreement of both in giving on John's authority a Docetic account of our Lord
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - ...
It is impossible to repeat in detail the well-known evidence of Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria, for the accepted tradition of their time
Luke - -Very little is added by tradition to the information in the Pauline Epistles except (a) the constant attribution to Luke of the Third Gospel and Acts; (b) the statement that he was an Antiochene Greek; (c) somewhat less frequently, statements that he died in Bœotia, Bithynia, or Ephesus; (d) the statement, found only in late Manuscripts , that the Gospel was written in Alexandria
Acts of the Apostles - in Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Irenæus, all of whom ascribe the book to Luke
Abstinence - James, or Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Egypt - The introduction of Christianity into Egypt is mentioned under the article See Alexandria
Old Testament - But, as a Jew of the school of Alexandria, he is much more influenced by the allegorical spirit than St
Money - 301 198) the Jews had at their command the coins of the Ptolemaic dynasty, struck at Alexandria on the Phœnician standard, as well as those of the flourishing cities on the Mediterranean
Aristion (Aristo) - Corder), undoubtedly refers to the same ‘Aristo of Pella’ (Ἀρίστωνι τῷ Πελλαίῳ) as author of the Christian Dialogue of Jason and Papiscus, basing his statement on ‘the sixth book of the Hypotyposcis of Clement of Alexandria,’ who seems to have referred to this ‘Jason’ as ‘mentioned by (l
Romans Epistle to the - 140), Clement of Alexandria and Origen are the only Ante-Nicene Fathers who do so
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - , 1 Corinthians 4:13 and probably 1 Corinthians 2:6 ; Polycarp (§ 11) quotes 1 Corinthians 6:2 as Paul’s; references are found in the Martyrdom of Polycarp , in Justin Martyr, and in the Epistle to Diognetus ; while Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian at the end of the 2nd cent
God - 18, 28), Clement of Alexandria ( Exh
Lord's Day - In a Homily on the Lord’s Day by Eusebius of Alexandria Slave, Slavery - Clement of Alexandria gives a scathing account of these evils in PCEdagogus, iii
Gnosticism - 4), Hippolytus (Philosophoumena), Clement of Alexandria (Stromateis, Excerpta ex Theodoto), Tertullian (adv. , and from which sprang the system of Simon Magus (with his predecessor Dositheus, and his successor Menander), who is distinguished by the Fathers as the parent of Gnosticism; (3) Alexandrian, represented mainly by Philo, who produced an amalgam of Judaism with Greek philosophy
Gospels - He thinks that the late evidence of Clement of Alexandria,‡ Luke, Gospel According to - Matthew compiled the Logia (or Utterances of our Lord) in the Hebrew dialect, and each man interpreted them as he was able,’ he cannot, as the traditionalists suppose, be alluding to our First Gospel, which was written (at Alexandria?) in Greek
Sirach - Law, Prophets, Writings, as a name for the OT), and that he himself had come to Alexandria in the year 38 under King Euergetes, and studied there for a long time. The only trace that has been found of Alexandrian exegesis is in Sirach 44:16, where Enoch is said to have been a pattern of repentance to the generations
Hellenism - , Alexandria and the Cyrenaïca-formed a third of the population and had a powerful organization, had opened their minds to the spirit of Greek civilization
Ignatius - ” ’ Harnack thinks that Clement of Alexandria is so closely dependent on Ignatius that he must have read him (cf
Samaria, Samaritans - 6), and there in Alexandria we read of rivalry and disorders between them (Ant. Another testimony to their early reception of the Torah is that it is not divided into parâshahs like the Massoretic Text , but, on a totally different principle, independent alike of the Rabbis and the Alexandrian critics, into ketzîn
Canon of the New Testament - Then it has Acts, which it ascribes to Luke, and it acknowledges 13 Epistles of Paul admitting the Pastorals, but excluding Hebrews, though it subsequently refers to ‘an Epistle to the Laodiceans,’ and another ‘to the Alexandrians forged under the name of Paul,’ as well as ‘many others’ which are not received in the Catholic Church ‘because gall ought not to be mixed with honey. ...
Turning to the East, we find Clement of Alexandria (a. In the true Alexandrian spirit, Clement has a wide and comprehensive idea of inspiration, and therefore no very definite conception of Scriptural exclusiveness or fixed boundaries to the Canon
Gospels - Clement of Alexandria accounts for the fact of the differences by a solution which he says he derived from ‘the ancient elders,’ namely, that John, seeing that the external (lit
Education - At this epoch Athens and Rome had famous schools, but even they had to yield to Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus; and Marseilles, which had been from the very early days of Greek history a centre of Greek influence, was in the time of Strabo more frequented than Athens
Gospels (Apocryphal) - A close sympathy with the true ethical spirit of Christianity is, however, noticeable in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, in which stress is laid on acts of mercy and brotherly kindness; and in the ‘Traditions of Matthias’ mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and possibly identical with the Gnostic Gospel of Matthias, the doctrine of Christian responsibility for others’ welfare, in its most stringent form, is very forcibly put: ‘If the neighbour of an elect person sins, the elect has sinned; for if he had lived according to the counsels of the Word, his neighbour would have so esteemed his manner of life that he would have kept free from sin
Socialism - The fact that Clement of Alexandria took a different view in his Quis Dives salvetur considerably increases the significance of the rest of the Patristic literature: he explains the command to the Rich Young Man in Mark 10:21 in a purely allegorical sense, and protests that there is no advantage in poverty except when it is incurred for a special object, and that riches are serviceable if rightly used, and are not to be thrown away
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - The Epistle is first definitely ascribed to Clement of Rome in the writings of his namesake of Alexandria (circa, about a
Christ in Art - Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Augustus (2) - When Augustus finally defeated Antony at Alexandria in b
Trinity - Athenagoras, in replying to the same charge of atheism urged against Christians, because they refused to worship the false gods of the Heathen, says "Who would not wonder, when he knows that we, who call upon God the Father, and God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, showing their power in the unity, and their distinction in order, should be called atheists?" Clement of Alexandria not only mentions three divine persons, but invokes them as one only God
Monophysitism - 7, 12) has remarked on the use which the patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria alike were making at this period of all opportunities of adding to their secular importance
Papias - 24, possibly from Clement of Alexandria, whose account of the Gospels as contained in ‘a tradition of the elders of earlier times’ (τῶν ἀνέκαθεν πρεσβυτέρων) he elsewhere cites (vi
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - 357, when still under thirty, Basil left Caesarea to seek the most celebrated ascetics upon whose life he might model his own; visiting Alexandria and Upper Egypt, Palestine, Coelesyria, and Mesopotamia
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - The mutilated commencement of the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria opens in the middle of a quotation from The Shepherd and about ten times elsewhere he cites the book always with a complete acceptance of the reality and divine character of the revelations made to Hermas but without suggesting who Hermas was or when he lived
Art - It is from Clement of Alexandria in the chapter headed ‘Human arts as well as Divine knowledge proceed from God’ (Strom
Clemens Romanus of Rome - , the great Alexandrian MS. It gives a very good text of the Clementine letters, independent of the Alexandrian MS. Except for trifling omissions we must have the letter now as complete as it was originally in the Alexandrian MS. —This letter also formed part of the Alexandrian MS. Many of the quotations, however, differ from our canonical gospels, and since one of them agrees with a passage referred by Clement of Alexandria to the gospel of the Egyptians, this was probably the source of other quotations also
Bible - 3772, that is, two hundred and thirty-two years before the Christian aera, and was translated by the grandson of Jesus into Greek, for the use of the Alexandrian Jews. Fifty years, indeed, before the age of the author of Ecclesiasticus, or two hundred and eighty-two years before the Christian aera, the Greek version of the Old Testament, usually called the Septuagint, was executed at Alexandria, the books of which are the same as in our Bibles; whence it is evident that we still have those identical books, which the most ancient Jews attested to be genuine
Egypt - ...
Throughout the Hellenistic (Ptolemaic and Roman) period the capital of Egypt was Alexandria, the intellectual head of the world
Leo i, the Great - Cyril of Alexandria wrote to Leo against the ambitious design of juvenal of Jerusalem to obtain for his see the dignity of a patriarchate ( Ep
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - 25), Justin, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, Rhodo, and Tertullian
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Cyril of Alexandria