What does Alexander mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἀλέξανδρος son of Simon of Cyrene who carried Jesus’s cross 4
ἀλέξανδρον son of Simon of Cyrene who carried Jesus’s cross 1
ἀλεξάνδρου son of Simon of Cyrene who carried Jesus’s cross 1

Definitions Related to Alexander

G223


   1 son of Simon of Cyrene who carried Jesus’s cross, Mk 15:21.
   2 a certain man of the kindred of the high priest, Acts 4:6.
   3 a certain Jew, Acts 19:33.
   4 a certain coppersmith who opposed the Apostle Paul, 1 Ti. 1:20.
               Additional Information: Alexander = “man defender”.
               

Frequency of Alexander (original languages)

Frequency of Alexander (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Newski, Saint
(1219-1263) Confessor. Grand Duke of Novgorod and Kiev, born Vladimir, Russia; died Gorodetz. He was victorious over the Swedes on the River Neva, hence his surname. An organizer and reformer, he defended Russia against the Tatars. Relics at Leningrad. Feast, August 30,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Newski, Alexander, Saint
(1219-1263) Confessor. Grand Duke of Novgorod and Kiev, born Vladimir, Russia; died Gorodetz. He was victorious over the Swedes on the River Neva, hence his surname. An organizer and reformer, he defended Russia against the Tatars. Relics at Leningrad. Feast, August 30,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Natalis, Alexander
(Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France. He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86). He originated the writing of history by dividing it into studies of special epochs or institutions and events. When corrected by the Holy See for Gallicanism, he submitted. Later he favored Jansenism but retracted.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Alexander
1. The Great, the famous son and successor of Philip, king of Macedon. He is alluded to in Daniel 7:6 8:4-7 , under the figures of a leopard with four wings, and a one-horned he-goat, representing the swiftness of his conquests and his great strength. He was appointed by God to destroy the Persian Empire and substitute the Grecian. In the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, Daniel 2:39 , the belly of brass was the emblem of Alexander. He succeeded his father B. C. 336, and within twelve years overran Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, founded Alexandria, conquered the Persians, and penetrated far into the Indies. He died at the age of thirty-two, from the effects of intemperance, and left his vast empire to be divided among his four generals.
2. Son of Simon the Cyrenian, Mark 15:21 , apparently one of the more prominent early Christians.
3. One of the council who condemned Peter and John, Acts 4:6
4. A Jew of Ephesus, who sought in vain to quiet the popular commotion respecting Paul, Acts 4:6
5. A coppersmith, and apostate from Christianity, 1 Timothy 1:20 2 Timothy 4:14 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Macdonell, Alexander
First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Born Glengarry, Scotland, 1760; died Dumfries, Scotland, 1840. After ordination at Valladolid, his life was devoted to his Gaelic kinsmen in Lochaber and Canada. When they were evicted in 1792 he led them to Glasgow and later formed them into a British regiment, the Glengarry Fencibles, being himself appointed their chaplain, the first Catholic British Army chaplain in centuries. When they were disbanded he brought them to Canada and formed a Highland colony called Glengarry. In 1819 he was made vicar Apostolic of Upper Canada, which in 1826 was erected into a bishopric. Five years later he was appointed to the legislative Council. He founded a seminary at Saint Raphael's and a college at Kingston, and by his zealous labours merited the title of apostle of Ontario.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Briant, Blessed
Jesuit martyr. Born Somersetshire, England, c.1556;died Tyburn, England, 1581. A pupil of Father Persons at Oxford, he was ordained at Rheims, assigned to the English Mission, arrested, and executed after frightful tortures.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander, of Alexandria
Alexander , St., archbp. of Alexandria, appears to have come to that see in 313, after the short episcopate of Achillas. He was an elderly man, of a kindly and attractive disposition; "gentle and quiet," as Rufinus says (i. 1), but also capable of acting with vigour and persistency. Accusations were laid against him by the malcontent Meletian faction, "before the emperor," Constantine (Athan. Apol. c. Ar. 11; ad Ep. Aeg. 23), but apparently without result. He was involved in a controversy with one Crescentius as to the proper time for keeping Easter (Epiph. Haer. 70, 9). But in 319 he was called upon to confront a far more formidable adversary. [1] Arius was the parish priest, as he may be described, of the church of Baukalis, the oldest and the most important of the churches of Alexandria, situated "in the head of the mercantile part of the city" (Neale, Hist. Alex. i. 116), a man whose personal abilities enhanced the influence of his official position; he had been a possible successor at the last vacancy of the "Evangelical Throne," and may have consequently entertained unfriendly feelings towards its actual occupant. But it would be unreasonable to ascribe his opinions to private resentment. Doubtless the habits of his mind (Bright, Hist. Ch. p. 11) prepared him to adopt and carry out to their consequences, with a peculiar boldness of logic, such views as he now began to disseminate in Alexandrian society: that the Son of God could not be co-eternal with His Father; that He must be regarded as external to the Divine essence, and only a creature. The bishop tried at first to check this heresy by remonstrance at an interview, but with no real success. Agitation increasing, Alexander summoned a conference of his clergy; free discussion was allowed; and, according to Sozomen, Alexander seemed to waver between the Arian and anti-Arian positions. Ultimately he asserted in strong terms the co-equality of the Son; whereupon Arius criticized his language as savouring of the Sabellian error [2] which had "confounded the Persons." The movement increased, and Alexander himself was charged with irresolution or even with some inclination towards the new errors. It was then, apparently, that Colluthus, one of the city presbyters, went so far as to separate from his bishop's communion, and, on the plea of the necessities of the crisis, "ordained" some of his followers as clergy. (See Valesius on Theod, i. 4, and Neale, i. 116). Alexander's next step was to write to Arius and his supporters, including two bishops, five priests, and six deacons, exhorting them to renounce their "impiety"; and the majority of the clergy of Alexandria and the Mareotis, at his request, subscribed his letter. The exhortation failing, the archbishop brought the case formally before the synod of his suffragans, who numbered nearly 100. The Arians were summoned to appear: they stated their opinions; the Son, they held, was not eternal, but was created by the impersonal "Word," or Wisdom of the Father; foreign, therefore, to the Father's essence, imperfectly cognizant of Him, and, in fact, called into existence to be His instrument in the creation of man. "And can He then," asked one of the bishops, "change from good to evil, as Satan did?" They did not shrink from answering, "Since He is a creature, such a change is not impossible"; and the council instantly pronounced them to be "anathema." Such was the excommunication of Arius, apparently in 320. It was as far as possible from arresting the great movement of rationalistic thought (for this, in truth, was the character of Arianism) which had now so determinedly set in. The new opinions became extraordinarily popular; Alexandrian society was flooded with colloquial irreverence. But Arius ere long found that he could not maintain his position in the city when under the ban of the archbishop; it may be that Alexander had power actually to banish him; and he repaired to Palestine, where, as he expected, he found that his representations of the case made a favourable impression on several bishops, including Eusebius of Caesarea. Some wrote in his favour to Alexander, who, on his part, was most indefatigable in writing to various bishops in order to prevent them from being deceived by Arius; Epiphanius tells us that seventy such letters were preserved in his time ( Haer. 69. 4). Of these, some were sufficiently effectual in Palestine to constrain Arius to seek an abode at Nicomedia. He had secured the support of the bishop of the city, the able but unprincipled Eusebius (Theod. i. 5; Athan. de Syn. 17); and he now wrote (Athan. de Syn. 16) in the name of "the presbyters and deacons" who had been excommunicated, to Alexander, giving a statement of their views, and professing that they had been learned from Alexander himself; the fact being, probably, as Möhler thinks, that Alexander had formerly used vague language in an anti-Sabellian direction. Eusebius now repeatedly urged Alexander to readmit Arius to communion; and the other bishops of Bithynia, in synod (Soz. i. 15), authorized their chief to send circular letters in his favour to various prelates. A Cilician bishop, Athanasius of Anazarbus, wrote to Alexander, openly declaring that Christ was "one of the hundred sheep"; George, an Alexandrian presbyter, then staying at Antioch, had the boldness to write to his bishop to the effect that the Son once "was not," just as Isaiah "was not," before he was born to Amoz (Athan. de Syn. 17), for which he was deposed by Alexander from the priesthood. Arius now returned into Palestine, and three bishops of that country, one of whom was Eusebius of Caesarea, permitted him to hold religious assemblies within their dioceses. This permission naturally gave great offence to Alexander. He had hitherto written only to individual bishops, but he now drew up (perhaps with the help of his secretary and "archdeacon," Athanasius) his famous encyclic to all his fellow-ministers, i.e. to the whole Christian episcopate, giving an account of the opinions for which the Egyptian synod had excommunicated the original Arians, adducing Scriptural texts in refutation, and warning his brethren against the intrigues of Eusebius (Socr. i. 6). This letter, which he caused his clergy to sign, probably preceded the "Tome" or confession of faith which he referred to as having been signed by some bishops, when he wrote to Alexander, bp. of Byzantium, the long and elaborate letter preserved by Theod. i. 4; in which, while using some language which in strictness must be called inaccurate, he gives an exposition of texts which became watchwords of the orthodox in the struggle (A.D. 323).
Another correspondent now appears on the scene. Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had a strong influence over the emperor Constantine, persuaded the latter to write, or to adopt and sign, a letter to Alexander and Arius, in which the controversy was treated as a logomachy (Eus. Vit. Con. ii. 64 seq.; Socr. i. 7). The imperial epistle was entrusted to a prelate of very high position, Hosius of Cordova, who can have had but little sympathy with the tone assumed by the Emperor. The council held at Alexandria on his arrival decided one point very unequivocally: the ordinations performed by Colluthus were pronounced absolutely null (Athan. Apol. 76). Peace was impossible on the basis of indifferentism, and Constantine summoned a general assembly of bishops to meet at Nicaea, in June 325. [3] The Arians were condemned, and the Nicene Creed, in its original form, was drawn up.
The story told by Epiphanius, of severities used by Alexander towards the Meletians [4], and of a consequent petition addressed by them to Constantine, appears to be one of several misstatements which he adopted from some Meletian sources. Athanasius tells us expressly that Alexander died within five months after the reception of the Meletians into church communion in the council of Nicaea (Apol. c. Ari. 59), and this, if strictly reckoned from the close of the council, would place his death in Jan. 326. It cannot be dated later than April 18 in that year. See further, Athanasius.
Athanasius mentions a circumstance of Alexander's local administration which furnished a precedent, on one occasion, for himself. Alexander was building the church of St. Theonas at Alexandria, on a larger scale than any of the existing churches, and used it, for convenience' sake, before it was completed (Ap. ad Const. 15). He is also said by tradition to have never read the Gospels in a sitting posture, and to have never eaten on fast days while the sun was in the sky (Bolland. Act. SS. , Feb. 26). Two short fragments of a letter addressed by him to a bishop named Aeglon, against the Arians, are quoted in the works of Maximus the Confessor (in the Monothelite controversy), vol. ii. p. 152. A trans. of his extant writings is in the Ante-Nicene Lib. (T. & T. Clark).
[5]
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Alexander
Man-defender.
A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6 ).
A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21 ).
A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33 ). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had. It is possible that this man was the same as the following.
A coppersmith who, with Hymenaeus and others, promulgated certain heresies regarding the resurrection (1 Timothy 1:19 ; 2 Timothy 4:14 ), and made shipwreck of faith and of a good conscience. Paul excommunicated him (1 Timothy 1:20 ; Compare 1 Corinthians 5:5 ).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Noel, Alexander
(Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France. He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86). He originated the writing of history by dividing it into studies of special epochs or institutions and events. When corrected by the Holy See for Gallicanism, he submitted. Later he favored Jansenism but retracted.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Alexander
One who assists men
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Alexander
1. ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Born at Pella, 356 B.C., son of Philip, king of Macedon; not named, but described prophetically: "an he-goat" )symbol of ogility, the Graeco-Macedonian empire) coming from the W. on the face of the whole earth and not touching the ground (implying the incredible swiftness of his conquests); and the goat had A NOTABLE HORN (Alexander) between his eyes, and he came to the ram that had two horns (Media and Persia, the second great world kingdom, the successor of Babylon; under both Daniel prophesied long before the rise of the Macedon-Greek kingdom) standing before the river (at the river Granicus Alexander gained his first victory over Darius Codomanus, 334 B.C.) and ran unto him in the fury of his power, moved with choler against him (on account of the Persian invasions of Greece and cruelties to the Greeks), and smote the ram and broke his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him; but he cast him down to the ground and stamped upon him, and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand: therefore the he-goat waxed very great, and when he was strong the great horn was broken, and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven" (Daniel 8:5-8).
The "he-goat" answers to the "leopard" (Daniel 7:6) whose "wings" similarly marked the winged rapidity of the Greek conquest of Persia. In 331 B.C. Alexander finally defeated Darius, and in 330 burned Persepolis, the Persian capital. None, not even the million composing the Persian hosts, could deliver the ram, Persia, out of his hand. But "when he was strong, the great horn Alexander was broken." The Graeco-Macedonian empire was in full strength at Alexander's death by fever, the result of drunken excesses, at Babylon. At the time it seemed least likely to fall it was "broken." Alexander's natural brother, Philip Aridaeus, and his two sons Alexander AEgus and Hercules, in 15 months were murdered; "and for it the he-goat came up four notable ones, toward the four winds of heaven": Seleucus in the E. obtained Syria, Babylonia, Mede-Persia; Cassander in the W. Macedon, Thessaly, Greece; Ptolemy in the S. Egypt, Cyprus, etc.; Lysimachus in the N. Thrace, Cappadocia, and the northern regions of Asia Minor.
The" leopard" is smaller than the "lion" (Daniel 7:4; Daniel 7:6); swift (Habakkuk 1:8), cruel (Isaiah 11:6), springing suddenly on its prey (Hosea 13:7). So Alexander, king of a small kingdom, overcame Darius at the head of an empire extending from the AEgean sea to the Indies, and in 12 years attained the rule from the Adriatic to the Ganges. Hence the leopard has four wings, whereas the lion (Babylon) had but two. The "spots" imply the variety of nations incorporated, perhaps also the variability of Alexander's own character, by turns mild and cruel, temperate and drunken and licentious. "Dominion was given to it" by God, not by Alexander's own might; for how unlikely it was that 30,000 men should overthrow hundreds of thousands. Josephus (Ant. 11:8, section 5) says that Alexander meeting the high priest Jaddua (Nehemiah 12:11-22) said that at Dium in Macedonia he had a divine vision so habited, inviting him to Asia and promising him success.
Jaddua met him at Gapha (Mizpeh) at the head of a procession of priests and citizens in white. Alexander at the sight of the linen arrayed priests, and the high priest in blue and gold with the miter and gold plate on his head bearing Jehovah's name, adored it, and embraced him; and having been shown Daniel's prophecies concerning him, he sacrificed to God in the court of the temple, and granted the Jews liberty to live according to their own laws, and freedom from tribute in the sabbatical years. The story is doubted, from its not being alluded to in secular histories: Arrian, Plutarch, Diodorus, Curtius. But their silence may be accounted for, as they notoriously despised the Jews. The main fact is strongly probable. It accords with Alexander's character of believing himself divinely chosen for the great mission of Greece to the civilized world, to join the east and west in a union of equality, with Babylon as the capital.
"Many kings of the East met him wearing (linen) fillets" (Justin). Jews were in his army. Jews were a strong element in the population of that city which he founded and which still bears his name, Alexandria. The remission of tribute every sabbatical year existed in later times, and the story best explains the privilege. When Aristotle urged him to treat the Greeks as freemen and the Orientals as slaves, he declared that "his mission from God was to be the more fit together and reconciler of the whole world in its several parts." Arrian says: "Alexander was like no other man, and could not have been given to the world without the special interposition of God."
He was the providential instrument of breaking down the barrier wall between kingdom and kingdom, of bringing the contemplative east and the energetic west into mutually beneficial contact. The Greek language, that most perfect medium of human thought, became widely diffused, so that a Greek version of the Old Testament was needed and made (the Septuagint) for the Greek speaking Jews at Alexandria and elsewhere in a succeeding generation; and the fittest lingual vehicle for imparting the New Testament to mankind soon came to be the language generally known by the cultivated of every land. Commerce followed the breaking down of national exclusiveness, and everywhere the Jews had their synagogues for prayer and reading of the Old Testament in the leading cities. preparing the way and the place for the proclamation of the gospel, which rests on the Old Testament, to the Jews first, and then to the Gentiles.
2. Son of Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21). He and his brother Rufus are spoken of as well known in the Christian church.
3. A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius.
4. A Jew whom the Jews put forward during Demetrius' riot at Ephesus to plead their cause before the mob who suspected that the Jews were joined with the Christians in seeking to overthrow Diana's worship (Acts 19:33). Calvin thought him a convert to Christianity from Judaism, whom the Jews would have sacrificed as a victim to the fury of the rabble.
5. The coppersmith at Ephesus who did Paul much evil. Paul had previously "delivered him to Satan" (the lord of all outside the church) (1 Corinthians 5:5; 2 Corinthians 12:7), i.e. excommunicated, because he withstood the apostle, and made shipwreck of faith and of good conscience, and even blasphemed, with Hymenaeus. The excommunication often brought with it temporal judgment, as sickness, to bring the excommunicated to repentance (1 Timothy 1:20; 2 Timothy 4:14-15).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hales, Alexander of
(died 1245) Theologian and philosopher. Born in Hales, England; died in Paris. He joined the Franciscans, 1222, and was installed as the first Franciscan teacher of theology in the University of Paris in 1231. He was the earliest of the great 13th-century Schoolmen. Author of the unfinished "Summa Universre Theologire," the first attempted systematic exposition of Catholic doctrine following the introduction into Europe and knowledge of Aristotle's complete works, he gave definite form to the Scholastic method and its application to theology, and outlined the plan later followed by all the great "Summae."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baumgartner, Alexander
(1841-1910) Writer, son of Gallus Jacob Baumgartner, born Saint Gall, Switzerland; died Luxemburg. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1860 and for 36 years was on the editorial staff of the periodical Stimmen aus Maria-Laach. His most valuable works are a history of the literature of the world in eight volumes, poems for special occasions, and accounts of his travels.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Alexander
(al ehx an' dehr) names five New Testament men including the son of Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21 ), a relative of Annas (Acts 4:6 ), a Jew of Ephesus (Acts 19:33 ), a false teacher (1 Timothy 1:19-20 ), and a coppersmith (2 Timothy 4:14 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Alexander the Great
(al ehx an' drih uh) succeeded his father as king of Macedonia and quickly conquered the Persian empire. Related Old Testament Passages—Daniel 7:6 (leopard Alexander the Great); Daniel 8:8 (broken horn death of Alexander); Daniel 11:3-4 (mighty king Alexander); Zechariah 9:1-8 (Alexander's conquest of Palestine).
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) was one of the greatest military leaders in history. His father was Phillip of Macedon, king of a region of Greece known as Macedonia.
Phillip had great plans for his son, Alexander. When Alexander was thirteen years old, his father enrolled him as a student of Aristotle. Aristotle instilled in his brilliant young pupil a love for literature and Greek culture.
When Alexander was twenty years old (336 B.C.), his father was killed, and Alexander became king. This ambitious young king immediately began to make plans to conquer Persia. Persia had extended its empire to Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). In 334 B.C., Alexander led his troops into Asia Minor where they won a series of victories over the Persians.
Alexander the Great continued his victorious military march into Syria and Egypt. From victories there, he led his troops into Persia, Media, and as far east as northern India. He returned to Babylon, where he died in 323 B.C. at the age of thirty-three.
Alexander's most lasting legacy was his spread of Greek culture. Everywhere he went, he tried to instill that culture. While Alexander is never directly named in the Bible, the culture which he brought to Palestine greatly affected the biblical world, especially during the time between the writing of the Old and New Testaments. His empire is one element of the historical background of Daniel. See Greece, Religion and Society of and Alexandria .
Lynn Jones
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alexander
ALEXANDER . 1 . Son of Simon of Cyrene; like his brother Rufus, evidently a well-known man ( Mark 15:21 only). 2 . One of the high-priestly family ( Acts 4:6 ). 3 . The would-he spokesman of the Jews in the riot at Ephesus, which endangered them as well as the Christians ( Acts 19:33 ); not improbably the same as the coppersmith ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ) who did St. Paul ‘much evil,’ and who was probably an Ephesian Jew; possibly the same as the Alexander of 1 Timothy 1:20 (see Hymenæus), in which case we may regard him as an apostate Christian who had relapsed into Judaism.
A. J. Maclean.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alexander Balas
ALEXANDER BALAS . A low-born youth called Balas, living in Smyrna, was put forward by the enemies of Demetrius I. as son of Antiochus IV., king of Syria. In their struggle for the throne the rivals sought to outbid each other for the support of Jonathan Maccabæus, who elected to side with Alexander, and was appointed high priest by him (b.c. 153). Jonathan defeated Apollonius, one of the generals of Demetrius, and received still further honours ( 1Ma 10:1-89 ). But Alexander Balas cared more for sensual pleasures than for kingly duties: his father-in-law Ptolemy turned against him, and Alexander, fleeing to Arabia, was assassinated there ( 1Ma 11:17 ).
J. Taylor.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Alexander the Great
ALEXANDER THE GREAT . A Jewish tradition, reported by Josephus and the Talmud, relates that whilst the renowned Macedonian conqueror was besieging Tyre (b.c. 333), rival embassies from the Jews and the Samaritans solicited his protection. At the close of the siege he set out for Jerusalem, and was met outside by the entire population, with the high priest at their head. Recognizing the latter as the person who had appeared to him in a dream and promised him victory, the king prostrated himself. He then entered the city, offered sacrifice, was shown the passages in Daniel relating to himself, granted the people unmolested use of their customs, promised to befriend their eastern settlements, and welcomed Jews to his army ( Ant . XI. viii.). The objections to this story are: (1) that although there are references to Alexander and his successors in Daniel ( Daniel 2:40 ff., Daniel 7:7 ; Daniel 8:5 ; Daniel 8:8 ; Daniel 8:21 ; Daniel 11:3 f.), they were not written till the 2nd cent. b.c.; and (2) that the accounts given by Arrian and Curtius do not mention these events. It is also most likely that when Josephus declares that Alexander gave to the Jews in Alexandria equal privileges with the Macedonians ( c. Ap. ii. 4), he is anticipating by some years what happened under the Ptolemys.
The deep impression made by Alexander’s successes is evinced by the numerous legends connected with his name in later Jewish literature. But his real importance to the Biblical student consists in this he brought the Jews into contact with Greek literature and life.
J. Taylor.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Goss, Alexander
Archaelogist, second Bishop of Liverpool, born Ormskirk, England, 1814; died Liverpool, England, 1872. He was ordained at the English College in Rome, 1841; consecrated, 1853; and became Bishop of Liverpool, 1856. Zealous, and outspoken, he was a champion of Catholic education and of the welfare of the Church. As a member of the Chetham Society he edited several archaeological treatises; he also collected materials for a history of Catholicity in the north, and edited Drioux's "Sacred History."
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis Euphratensis
Alexander , bp. of Hierapolis Euphratensis and metropolitan in the patriarchate of Antioch; the uncompromising opponent of Cyril of Alexandria, and the resolute advocate of Nestorius in the controversies that followed the council of Ephesus, A.D. 431. His dignity as metropolitan gave him a leading place in the opposition of which the patriarch John of Antioch was the head, and his influence was confirmed by personal character. He may have commenced his episcopate as early as A.D. 404, when with uncompromising zeal he erased from the diptychs of one of his churches the name of Julian, a man famous for sanctity, but accused of Apollinarianism (Baluz. Nov. Coll. Conc. p. 867).
Alexander arrived at the council of Ephesus in company with his brother metropolitan Alexander of Apamea on or about June 20, 431. As soon as the Alexanders discovered Cyril's intention to open the council before John of Antioch's arrival they, on June 21, united with the other bishops of the East in signing a formal act demanding delay (Labbe, Concil. iii. 552, 660, 662; Baluz. 697, 699). The council heeded them not, opened their sittings the next day, June 22, and soon did the work for which they had been summoned, the condemnation of Nestorius. When John at last arrived, June 27, Alexander joined in the counter-council held by him and the prelates of his party in his inn, and signed the acts which cancelled the proceedings of the former council, deposing Cyril and Memnon, bp. of Ephesus, and declaring Cyril's anathemas heretical. As a necessary consequence Alexander was included in the sentence against John, and cut off from communion with Cyril's party (Labbe, iii. 764; Baluz. 507). Later he joined the council held by John at Tarsus, which pronounced a fresh sentence of deposition on Cyril (Baluz. 840, 843, 874); also that at Antioch in the middle of December, ratifying the former acts and declaring adherence to the Nicene faith. A meeting was held at Antioch early in 432, attended by Alexander, when six alternative articles were drawn up, one of which it was hoped Cyril would accept, and so afford a basis of reconciliation ( ib. 764). One declared a resolution to be content with the Nicene Creed and to reject all the documents that had caused the controversy. Another council was summoned at Beroea. Four more articles were added to the six, and the whole were despatched to Cyril. Cyril was well content to express his adherence to the Nicene Creed, but felt it unreasonable that he should be required to abandon all he had written on the Nestorian controversy (Labbe, iii. 114, 1151, 1157, iv. 666; Baluz. 786). Cyril's reply was accepted by Acacius and John of Antioch, and other bishops now sincerely anxious for peace, but not by Alexander or Theodoret (Baluz. 757, 782). The former renewed his charge of Apollinarianism and refused to sign the deposition of Nestorius ( ib. 762–763). This defection of Acacius of Beroea and John of Antioch was received with indignant sorrow by Alexander. It was the first breach in the hitherto compact opposition, and led to its gradual dissolution, leaving Alexander almost without supporters. In a vehement letter to Andrew of Samosata, he bitterly complained of Acacius's fickleness and protested that he would rather fly to the desert, resign his bishopric, and cut off his right hand than recognize Cyril as a Catholic until he had recanted his errors ( ib. 764–765). The month of April, 433, saw the reconciliation of John and the majority of the Oriental bishops with Cyril fully established (Labbe, iv. 659; Cyril, Ep. 31, 42, 44). Alexander was informed of this in a private letter from John, beseeching him no longer to hinder the peace of the church. Alexander's indignation now knew no bounds. He wrote in furious terms to Andrew and Theodoret (Baluz. 799, 800). His language became more and more extravagant, "exile, violent death, the beasts, the fire, the precipice, were to be chosen before communion with a heretic" ( ib. 768, 775, 799, 800, 809, 810), and he even "made a vow to avoid the sight, hearing, or even the remembrance of all who in their hearts turned back again to Egypt" ( ib. 865). Alexander's contumacy had been regarded as depriving him of his functions as metropolitan. John, as patriarch, stepped in, A.D. 434, and ordained bishops in the Euphratensian province. This act, of very doubtful legality, excited serious displeasure, and was appealed against by Alexander and six of his suffragans ( ib. 831–833, 865).
The end was now near at hand. Pulcheria and Theodosius had been carefully informed of the obstinate refusal of Alexander and the few left to support him to communicate with those whose orthodoxy had been recognized by the church. John had obtained imperial rescripts decreeing the expulsion and banishment of all bishops who still refused to communicate with him (ib. 876). This rescript was executed in the case of other recusants; Alexander still remained. John expressed great unwillingness to take any steps towards the deprivation of his former friend. He commissioned Theodoret to use his influence with him. But Theodoret had again to report the impossibility of softening his inflexibility. John now, A.D. 435, felt he could not offer any further resistance to the imperial decrees. But no compulsion was needed: Alexander obeyed the order with calmness, and even with joy at laying aside the burdens and anxieties of the episcopate. He went forth in utter poverty, not taking with him a single penny of his episcopal revenue, or a book or paper belonging to the church. His sole outfit consisted of some necessary documents, and the funds contributed by friends for the hire of vehicles ( ib. 868, 881, 882). The banishment of their beloved and revered bishop overwhelmed the people of Hierapolis with grief. Fear of the civil authorities deterred them from any open manifestation, but they closed the churches, shut themselves up in their houses, and wept in private. In exile at the mines of Phamuthin in Egypt, Alexander died, sternly adhering to his anathemas of Cyril to the last (Tillemont, Mém. Ecclés. xiv. xv.; Labbe, Concil. vol. iii.; Baluz. Nov. Collect. )
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem
Alexander , bp. of Jerusalem, was an early friend and fellow scholar of Origen at Alexandria, where they studied together under Pantaenus and Clemens Alex. (Eus. H. E. vi. 14). He was bishop of a city in Cappadocia ( ib. vi. 11); or, according to Valesius ( Not. ad Euseb. ) and Tillemont (Mém. eccl. iii. p. 183), of Flaviopolis in Cilicia. He became a confessor in the persecution of Severus, A.D. 204, and was thrown into prison, where he continued some years. He was still a prisoner at the commencement of Caracalla's reign, A.D. 211, when he sent a letter by the hand of Clemens to congratulate the church of Antioch on the appointment of Asclepiades as their bishop in the room of Serapion (Eus. vi. 11). The next year he was released from prison, and, in fulfilment of a vow, visited Jerusalem, where he was chosen coadjutor to the aged bp. Narcissus. This being the first occasion of the translation of a bishop, as well as of the appointment of a coadjutor bishop, and in apparent violation of the canons of the church, it was deemed essential to obtain the sanction of the whole episcopate of Palestine. A synod was summoned at Jerusalem, and the assembled bishops gave their unanimous consent to the step, A.D. 213 (Hieron. de Script. Eccl. ; Vales. Not. in Euseb. vi. 11; Socr. vii. 36; Bingham, Origines , bk. ii. § 4). On the death of Narcissus, Alexander succeeded as sole bishop. His chief claim to celebrity rests on the library he formed at Jerusalem, and on the boldness with which he supported Origen against his bishop, Demetrius of Alexandria. [1] The friendship of Alexander and Origen was warm and lasting; and the latter bears testimony to the remarkable gentleness and sweetness of character manifested in all Alexander's public instructions (Orig. Homil. I. in Lib. Reg. No. 1). Alexander was again thrown into prison at Caesarea in the Decian persecution, where he died A.D. 251 (Eus. H. E. vi. 46; Hieron. Script. Eccl. ). Eusebius has preserved some fragments of Alexander's letters: to the Antinoites, H. E. vi. 11, to the church of Antioch, ib. ; to Origen, H. E. vi. 14, and to Demetrius, H. E. vi. 19. These have been published by Galland, Biblioth. Vet. Patrum , vol. ii. pp. 201 seq. Clemens Alex. dedicated his Canon Ecclesiasticus to him (Eus. vi. 13).
[2]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander, of Byzantium
Alexander , St., bp. of Byzantium, as the city was then called (Theod. Hist. i. 19) for about 23 years, his consecration being variously dated from A.D. 313 to 317. He was already 73 years old at the time (Socr. Hist. ii. 6; Soz. Hist. iii. 3). He is highly praised by Gregory of Nazianzum ( Or. 27), and by Epiphanius ( adv. Haer. lxix. 10). Theodoret calls him an "apostolic" bishop ( Hist. i. 3, cf. Phil. 12). In the commencement of the Arian troubles the co-operation of Alexander was specially requested by his namesake of Alexandria (Theod. i. 4); and he was present at the council of Nicaea (Soz. ii. 29). When Constantine, induced by the Eusebians (Athan. Ep. ad Serap. ; Rufinus, Hist. i.), and deceived by the equivocations of Arius (Socr. i. 37), commanded that Arius should be received to communion, Alexander, though threatened by the Eusebians with deposition and banishment, persisted in his refusal to admit the archheretic to communion, and shut himself up in the church of Irene for prayer in this extremity. Alexander did not long survive Arius (Socr. ii. 6; Theod. i. 19). On his death-bed he is said to have designated Paulus as his successor, and warned his clergy against the speciousness of Macedonius.
[1]
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Alexander i., Bishop of Rome
Alexander I., bp. of Rome, is stated by all the authorities to have been the successor of Evaristus. Eusebius (H. E. iv. 4) makes him succeed in A.D. 109, in his Chronicle, A. D. 111 (f. 89). He assigns him in both works a reign of ten years. He has been confused with a martyr of the same name, who is mentioned in a fragment of an inscription.
[1]
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Severus
Profile Roman emperor from 222 to 235. He succeeded his cousin, Elagabalus, to the imperial throne. Origen was invited by his mother, Mammma, to Antioch as his tutor. Severns respected Christianity and granted tolerance though there was some anti-Christian legislation in his reign. He was a disciple of "syncretism," uniting together against a common enemy, and strove to establish order and moral decency at Rome. He was murdered by his mutinous soldiers.
Born in Aeco, Palestine
Died murdered in 235 at Sicula on the Rhine
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Viii, Pope
(1689-1691) Born Venice, 1610; died Rome. Son of the Chancellor of the Republic of Venice, he became governor of Terni, Rieti, and Spoleto, auditor of the Rota for 14 years, cardinal, bishop of Brescia, cardinal-datary, and pope. Louis XIV restored Avignon to him. He pronounced the Declaration of Gallican Liberties void, assisted Venice against the Turks with subsidies, and enlarged the Vatican Library.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander of Jerusalem, Saint
(251) Martyr, bishop in Cappadocia. He was later coadjutor Bishop of Jerusalem; ordained Origen to the priesthood; and built a library at Jerusalem. After cruel torments he died in chains. Feast, March 18,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Iii, the Great
(356-323 B.C.) King of Macedon, born Pella, Macedonia; died Babylon. He is the subject of important mention in the opening of the First Book of Machabees.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander the Charcoal Burner, Saint
(c.250) Martyr, Bishop of Comana in Pontus. He was known as the "Charcoal Burner," because he assumed that occupation to escape worldly honors. Gregory Thaumaturgus discovered his merits, and he was made bishop. He was burned to death in the persecution of Decius. Patron of charcoal burners. Feast, August 11,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander of Hales
(died 1245) Theologian and philosopher. Born in Hales, England; died in Paris. He joined the Franciscans, 1222, and was installed as the first Franciscan teacher of theology in the University of Paris in 1231. He was the earliest of the great 13th-century Schoolmen. Author of the unfinished "Summa Universre Theologire," the first attempted systematic exposition of Catholic doctrine following the introduction into Europe and knowledge of Aristotle's complete works, he gave definite form to the Scholastic method and its application to theology, and outlined the plan later followed by all the great "Summae."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander, Saint (2)
(died 326) Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Patriarch of Alexandria. His appointment excluded Arius from that post. Although a supporter of Athanasius, he treated Arius with consideration; but he is said to have drawn up the Acts of the Council of Nicrea in which Arius was condemned. Feast, April 17,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander, Saint
(Greek: defending men)
(died c.440)Abbot, founder of the Acremetre (Greek: without sleep), monks of Asiatic origin. He converted by a miracle the governor of Edessa, Saint Rabulas. In the desert he converted 30 robbers and changed their den into a monastery. He also founded a monastery on the Euphrates. With 300 monks, he settled at Gomon in Bithynia, and divided them into six choirs to sing the Divine Office, so that it might ascend ceaselessly, night and day. Feast, January 15,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Natalis
(Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France. He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86). He originated the writing of history by dividing it into studies of special epochs or institutions and events. When corrected by the Holy See for Gallicanism, he submitted. Later he favored Jansenism but retracted.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Noel
(Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France. He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86). He originated the writing of history by dividing it into studies of special epochs or institutions and events. When corrected by the Holy See for Gallicanism, he submitted. Later he favored Jansenism but retracted.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander v, Pope
(Pietro Philarghi) (1409-1410) Born Crete, c.1330;died Bologna, Italy. He was a Franciscan and successively Bishop of Piacenza, of Vicenza, of Navoya and Archbishop of Milan, created cardinal, 1405. He was instrumental in attempting to heal the Great Schism. At the Council of Pisa, 1400, he was the leading spirit and in June was elected to the papacy. He never reached Rome. Theologians are still undecided as to whether he may be considered a legitimate pope.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Sauli, Saint
Apostle of Corsica. Born in 1533 in Milan, Italy; died on October 11, 1592 in Pavia, Italy. He was a Barnabite and as bishop of Aleria, Corsica from 1571 to 1591 he reclaimed the people from laxity and ignorance, rebuilt churches, founded colleges and seminaries, and placed the Church in a flourishing condition. He was bishop of Pavia from 1591 to 1592.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Goss
Archaelogist, second Bishop of Liverpool, born Ormskirk, England, 1814; died Liverpool, England, 1872. He was ordained at the English College in Rome, 1841; consecrated, 1853; and became Bishop of Liverpool, 1856. Zealous, and outspoken, he was a champion of Catholic education and of the welfare of the Church. As a member of the Chetham Society he edited several archaeological treatises; he also collected materials for a history of Catholicity in the north, and edited Drioux's "Sacred History."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Nechay
Catholic geographer. Born Herfordshire, England, September 8, 1157; died Kempsey, Worcestershire, 1229. Augustinian abbot of Cirencester. Author of the "Liber de Natura Rerum," which contains the first record of the use of the mariner's compass in navigation, and a list of remarkable rivers and lakes.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Neckam
Catholic geographer. Born Herfordshire, England, September 8, 1157; died Kempsey, Worcestershire, 1229. Augustinian abbot of Cirencester. Author of the "Liber de Natura Rerum," which contains the first record of the use of the mariner's compass in navigation, and a list of remarkable rivers and lakes.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Pope
English poet; born on May 22, 1688 in London, England; died May 30, 1744 in Twickenham, England. Frail and deformed in body, he was able to acquire only a spasmodic and irregular education, and after thirteen was self-educated. A Catholic, he was barred from a professional career by the anti-Catholic Laws, and turned to poetry. In 1709 his Pastorals and Episode of Sarpedon appeared in the Poetical Miscellanies; in 1712 he published the Rape of the Lock; in 1713 he began a translation of Homer's Iliad in English verse, and in 1727 a translation of the Odyssey. The same year, together with Swift, he brought out the Miscellanies and in 1728 the Dunciad first appeared, although it did not come out in its final form until 1743. His famous Essay on Man appeared in 1733. Pope had a fatal gift of arousing enmity and of yielding to vindictiveness; he is, however, recognized as the representative poet of the first half of the 18th century.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Macdonell
First Bishop of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Born Glengarry, Scotland, 1760; died Dumfries, Scotland, 1840. After ordination at Valladolid, his life was devoted to his Gaelic kinsmen in Lochaber and Canada. When they were evicted in 1792 he led them to Glasgow and later formed them into a British regiment, the Glengarry Fencibles, being himself appointed their chaplain, the first Catholic British Army chaplain in centuries. When they were disbanded he brought them to Canada and formed a Highland colony called Glengarry. In 1819 he was made vicar Apostolic of Upper Canada, which in 1826 was erected into a bishopric. Five years later he was appointed to the legislative Council. He founded a seminary at Saint Raphael's and a college at Kingston, and by his zealous labours merited the title of apostle of Ontario.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander iv, Pope
Pope from December 12, 1254 to March 25, 1261. Born in Anagni, France as Rinaldo Conti; died on March 25, 1261 in Viterbo, Italy. Of the house of Segni, he became cardinal-bishop of Ostia and was well advanced in years when elected pope. Although a man of great virtue, he was unable to cope with the difficult political conditions of his time. His crusade against the tyrant Ezzelino was successful, but the spirit of the Crusades was dying out and his expedition against the Tatars was unsuccessful. Rome and a large portion of Italy were lost to papal control during his reign.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander i, Saint, Pope
Reigned c.106to 115. Probably born in Rome, Italy; died there. He was the fifth successor of Saint Peter. As commemorated in the ninth lesson of Nocturn for his feast, he inserted in the Canon of the Mass the words commemorative of the institution of the Eucharist beginning "Qui pridie," introduced the use of holy water for blessing Christian homes, and suffered martyrdom. He is represented with his chest pierced with nails or spikes. Feast, Roman Calendar, May 3,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander ii, Pope
Reigned from 1061 to 1073. Born at Baggio, near Milan as Anselmo Baggio; died Rome. Also known as Anselm of Lucca. While Bishop of Lucca and as pope he opposed simony and the lax observation of clerical celibacy. He was the first pope to be elected by the college of cardinals, according to the decree of Pope Nicholas II, and with the help of his chancellor Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII, he succeeded in putting aside the antipope Cadalous and was formally recognized as pontiff in 1064.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander vi, Pope
Reigned from 1492 to 1503. Born Xativa, near Valencia, Spain in 1431 as Rodrigo Borgia; died in Rome in 1503. He studied law at Bologna. He was adopted into the family of his uncle, Pope Callistus III, 1455, became cardinal-deacon, 1456, and cardinal-bishop, 1476, and dean of the Sacred College. From 1457 he officiated very successfully as Vice-Chancellor of the Roman Church. His election as pope met with general approval, and the attempts to attribute it to simony were never clearly proven. With great energy he labored to restore order in Rome and to stabilize its government. He was well versed in canon law, a patron of literature and science, a promoter of education, and the originator of missions to the New World. Gradually, by effective alliances with Milan, Venice, and Spain, he recovered the territories of the Papal States which had fallen under the control of petty tyrants, and finally overcame the Roman barons who were the causes of perpetual disorder in and about the city. He took advantage of his successes to promote the fortunes of his family, chiefly of those who were reputed to be his own children.
He is the most maligned of all the popes. The enemies he was compelled to make did not spare his memory. Historians in times succeeding his death were bent on reviling the papacy. Gradually writers for and against him have cleared him of the worst things imputed to him, and their controversies have brought out the fact that the mistakes or even evil deeds of a pope, deplorable though they may be, are not to be laid to the sacred office he holds.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Vii, Pope
Reigned from April 7, 1655 to May 22, 1667. Born on February 13, 1599 in Siena, Italy as Fabio Chigi; died in Rome, Italy on May 22, 1667. Of the illustrious Chigi family, he fulfilled many papal diplomatic missions and was created cardinal, 1652. During his pontificate difficulties with Louis XIV led to the temporary loss of Avignon and acceptance of the humiliating terms of the treaty of Pisa. Alexander combated Jansenism by compelling the French clergy to sign his "formulary." A patron of art, he beautified Rome, enlarged the Vatican Library, and befriended men of letters.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexander Iii, Pope
Reigned from September 7, 1159 to August 30, 1181. Born c.1100in Siena, Italy as Orlando Bandinelli; died Civita Castellana, Italy. He was a canonist, cardinal-priest, and papal chancellor. Elected pope almost unanimously, he was opposed with violence by the anti-pope, Cardinal Octavian, the imperial candidate, and took refuge in Anagni. He excommunicated Emperor Frederick I, who submitted after seventeen years, and in England upheld the rights for which Saint Thomas Becket suffered martyrdom, finally exacting them from King Henry II. He convoked the third Lateran Council in 1170.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Alexander the Great
This conqueror is not mentioned by name in scripture, but his kingdom is certainly referred to in prophecy, principally in Daniel, some 200 years before he was born. It is first spoken of as a part of the great image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar; it is foreshadowed by the belly and thighs, which are of brass, a depreciation in the character of the kingdom in comparison with the empires of Babylon and of the Medes and Persians, though it was larger in extent: it "shall bear rule over all the earth." Daniel 2:32,39 . It is also compared to a leopard which had four heads and four wings of a fowl. The leopard is distinguished for its blood-thirstiness and tearing its prey : this indeed magnifies the contrast in the millennium when it will lie down with the kid. Isaiah 11:6 . Also remarkable for its swiftness of action: 'their horses also are swifter than the leopards.' Habakkuk 1:8 . These characteristics exactly agree with the character and actions of Alexander. The four heads and four wings refer to the extension of the kingdom to the four winds of heaven, as it was divided among four of his generals after his death. Daniel 7:6 . Again in Dan, 8., where the kingdom of Media and Persia is compared to a ram, Greece is compared to a he goat, with a great horn, which is its first king, Alexander, Daniel 8:21 . Here again we get his character described: so swift that he 'touched not the ground,' he rushed against the ram 'with choler,' cast him to the ground and stamped upon him. Daniel 8:5-8 . In Zechariah 6:2,3 , the four great monarchies are alluded to, and the third, the kingdom of Greece, is compared to a chariot with white horses.
Alexander the Great, son of Philip II. and Olympias, was born at Pella B.C. 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323. These dates show the rapidity of his conquests, agreeing with the above scriptures. As to his cruelty let one instance suffice: at the capture of Tyre which then belonged to Persia, provoked by the long resistance and valiant defence, 8,000 of the inhabitants were massacred, 2,000 being crucified: of the rest, except those who escaped by sea, 30,000 were sold into slavery, the king and the chief magistrates were spared, doubtless as trophies. This was the work of the 'leopard' of scripture. While besieging Tyre Alexander sent to demand the submission of the Jews; but was told they were faithful vassals of Darius. After the conquest of Gaza, the conqueror marched to Jerusalem. The high priest Jaddua, being warned of God in a vision, hung the city with garlands and went forth in his robes with the other priests and the people in white to meet the king. On seeing these Alexander was arrested, fell to the ground and then embraced the high priest. In reply to an astonished courtier, Alexander said he did not worship the priest, but the name on his frontlet, and explained that he had seen in a vision a figure resembling this very priest, who told him to conquer Persia. He granted the Jews in Palestine, Media and Babylonia the free enjoyment of their laws and exemption from tribute during the Sabbatical year. Such is a rapid sketch of how prophecy and history agree. The empire of Greece had thus to do with God's ancient people the Jews, and formed a link in the chain of kingdoms until the Messiah Himself appeared and laid the foundation for His kingdom that shall endure for ever.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alexander
(Ἀλέξανδρος, ‘helper of men’)
This name is found in the NT in five different connexions, and possibly designates as many different individuals.
1. The son of Simon of Cyrene, who bore the cross to Calvary (Mark 15:21), and the brother of Rufus. In all probability Alexander and his brother were well-known and honoured men in the Church of Rome (cf. Romans 16:13 and article Rufus), to which the Gospel of Mark was addressed, as St. Mark identifiés the father by a reference to the sons. We may regard the allusion as an interesting instance of the sons being blessed for the father’s sake.
2. A leader of the priestly party in Jerusalem at the period subsequent to the death of Christ. After the healing of the impotent man we are told that Alexander was present at a meeting of the Jewish authorities along with Annas, Caiaphas, and John, and ‘as many as were of the kindred of the high priest’ (Acts 4:6). It is probable, though not quite certain, that this indicates that Alexander belonged to the high-priestly class; and it is impossible to identify him with Alexander the ‘alabarch’ of Alexandria and brother of Philo.
3. A leading member of the Jewish community at Ephesus (Acts 19:33), who was put forward by the Jews at the time of the Ephesian riot to clear themselves of any complicity with St. Paul or his teaching, but whom the mob refused to hear. He may have been one of the ‘craftsmen,’ though on the whole it is unlikely that a Jew would have any connexion with the production of the symbols of idolatry. There are, however, slight variations in the Manuscripts of Acts 19:33, and different views have been taken with regard to Alexander and the intention of the Jews. Meyer holds that Alexander was a Jewish Christian who was put forward maliciously by the Jews in the hope that he might be sacrificed (cf. Com. in loco). The omission of τις, ‘a certain,’ before his name has been regarded as an indication that Alexander was a well-known man in Ephesus at the time.
4. A Christian convert and teacher, who along with Hymenaeus (q.v. [1] ) and others apostatized from the faith, and was excommunicated by the Apostle Paul (1 Timothy 1:19-20).
5. Alexander the coppersmith, who did St. Paul much evil and whom the Apostle desires to be rewarded according to his works (2 Timothy 4:14-15). This Alexander has been identified with both 3 and 4. We are able to gather certain facts regarding him which would seem to connect him with 3.-(1) His trade was that of a smith (see Coppersmith), a worker in metal, originally brass, but subsequently any other metal, which might associate him with the craftsmen of Ephesus. (2) The statement regarding him was addressed to Timothy, who was settled in Ephesus. On the other hand, we are told that Alexander greatly withstood St. Paul’s words-a reference which seems to indicate a bitter personal hostility between the two men, as well as controversial disputes on matters of doctrine which might rather connect him with 4, the associate of Hymenaeus. It is possible that 3, 4, and 5 may be the same person, but Alexander was a very common name, and the data are insufficient to allow of any certain identification. Those who hold the Epistles to Timothy to be non-Pauline regard the statement in Acts 19:33 as the basis of the references in the Epistles, but the only thing in common is the name, while there is no indication in Acts that Alexander had any personal connexion with St. Paul.
Literature.-R. J. Knowling, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Acts,’ 1900; Comm. of Meyer, Zeller, Holtzmann; W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul, 1895, p. 279; articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica .
W. F. Boyd.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Alexander
1. Son of Simon, the Cyrenian who was compelled to carry the cross of the Lord. Mark 15:21 .
2. One of the leaders among the Jews when Peter and John were arrested. Acts 4:6 .
3. A Jew at Ephesus who sought to address the crowd in the theatre. Acts 19:33 .
4. One in the church who having made shipwreck of faith was by Paul delivered unto Satan that he might learn not to blaspheme. 1 Timothy 1:20 .
5. The coppersmith who did Paul much evil, and of whom Timothy was warned. 2 Timothy 4:14 . He may have been the same as No. 4.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Alexander And Rufus
ALEXANDER AND RUFUS.—The Synoptists all record that the Saviour’s cross was borne by one Simon of Cyrene. St. Mark (Mark 15:21) alone adds that he was ‘the father of Alexander and Rufus.’ From this we gather that, when the Second Gospel was written, the sons of him who bore the cross were followers of the Crucified, and men of prominence and note in the Church. This information as to the two sons of Simon being Alexander and Rufus, is also found in the Gospel of Nicodemus (Mark 4). The name Alexander appears in Acts 4:6; Acts 19:33, 1 Timothy 1:20, 2 Timothy 4:14, but there is not the slightest ground for identifying any one of these with the Alexander of Mark 15:21.
In the case of Rufus, however, it has generally been considered that he is probably the same as the Rufus who, with his mother, is saluted by St. Paul in Romans 16:13 (Ῥοῦφον τὸν ἐκλεκτὸν ἐν Κυρίῳ). And if this is so, it tells us that not only the sons of Simon of Cyrene, but his wife also, were members of the Church. Lightfoot supports this view, and Swete considers that it has ‘some probability.’ In St. Paul’s Epistle to the Philippians, written from Rome, occurs a salutation sent to the Church at Philippi from Caesar’s household (Philippians 4:22). Lightfoot has compared the list of names of those to whom St. Paul sends greeting in his letter to the Romans (ch. Romans 16) with the names in the lists of the household which occur in the inscriptions, and on the name Rufus he writes (Philippians7 [1] , p. 176)—
‘Rufus is a very ordinary name, and would not have claimed notice here but for its occurrence in one of the Gospels. There seems no reason to doubt the tradition that St. Mark wrote especially for the Romana; and if so, it is worth remarking that he alone of the Evangelists describes Simon of Cyrene as the “father of Alexander and Rufus” (15:21). A person of this name, therefore, seems to have held a prominent place among the Roman Christians: and thus there is at least fair ground for identifying the Rufus of St. Paul with the Rufus of St. Mark. The inscriptions exhibit several members of the household bearing the names Rufus and Alexander, but this fact is of no value where both names are so common.’
In connexion with Bishop Lightfoot’s note, it is worthy of notice that in Polycarp’s Epistle to the Philippians (Philippians 9) we find Ignatius, Zozimus, and Rufus adduced as examples, with St. Paul and the rest of the Apostles, of men who had obeyed the word of righteousness and exercised all patience, ‘and are gone to the place that was due to them from the Lord with whom also they suffered; for they loved not this present world, but Him who died and was raised again by God for us.’
In the Acts of Andrew and of Peter, Rufus and Alexander appear as the companions of Peter, Andrew, and Matthias, but no further information is given.
J. B. Bristow.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Alexander the Coppersmith
THERE are some most interesting and most important questions of New Testament scholarship, and New Testament sanctification, connected with Alexander the coppersmith of Ephesus. And the first of those questions is this: Have we got in our present text the very and identical words that Paul penned in his parchment to Timothy? Have we got the literal and exact expressions, and discriminations of expressions, that Paul so studiously employed? Have we got the very moods and tenses, both in grammar and in morals, that were in Paul's mind and heart at the moment when he wrote these two so difficult verses about Alexander? That is a very interesting, important, and indeed indispensable, question. Only, the settlement of that question must be left in their hands who alone are able to grapple with such questions. But, meantime, a question and a lesson of the very foremost importance faces us and forces itself on the most unlearned and ignorant of us. And that question and that lesson is this. Suppose that Paul both thought and felt and wrote about Alexander as our version literally reads, what are we to do? Are we free to follow Paul, and to do what he here does? Are we free to execrate and denounce bad men, and hand them over to be rewarded according to their works? Are we free, and is it our duty, to imprecate God's judgments on those who do us much evil, and who withstand the work of God which has been committed to our hands? A whole controversy of New Testament scholarship, and another whole controversy of New Testament morals and religion, have arisen around this text concerning Alexander the coppersmith. But, taking the text just as it has been put into our hands tonight, what are we able to make of it? What shall we succeed in taking out of it tonight for our own guidance tomorrow, and for every day we live on the earth?
The first time we come on Alexander he is a Jew of Ephesus, and a clever speaker to an excitable crowd. By the next time we meet with Alexander he has thought it to be for his interest to be baptized and to be seen openly on Paul's side. But Paul's side did not turn out to be so serviceable to the coppersmith as he had expected, and thus it is that he is next discovered to us as having made complete shipwreck of faith and a good conscience. And, then, as no man is so implacable at you as a complete renegade from you, so there was no man, among Paul's many enemies, who so hated Paul, and so hunted him down, as just this Alexander the coppersmith.
To go back to his beginning. Alexander had this temptation, that he was fitted by nature to be much more than a mere coppersmith, he was so clever and so captivating with his tongue. Unless you are a man of a very single heart and a very sound conscience, it is a great temptation to you to be able in a time of public commotion to speak so as to sway the swaying multitude and to command their applause and their support. You rise on a wave of popularity at such a season, and you make use of your popularity for your own chief end in life. Many were the clever speeches the coppersmith made during his baptized days also; the Christians putting him forward to speak, just as the Jews were wont to put him forward when he was one of themselves. But, the wind working round and setting strongly in another direction, the coppersmith himself also instantly obeyed the law of the weather-cock he had fashioned with his own hands and had fastened on the roof of his workshop; for, as his copper creature did, so did he before the variable skies of those unsettled days. And thus it is, that when Paul is so soon to depart from all his false friends and all his implacable enemies alike, the Apostle writes this much-needed warning to his young and inexperienced successor, and says, "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil, the Lord reward him according to his works, of whom be thou ware also, for he hath greatly withstood my words." Alexander did Paul and his apostolic work much evil, and that not out of ignorance and fanaticism, but out of sheer unmitigated malice. Sometimes malice is bought and sold in the open market, till everybody sees it and understands it. Sometimes a man is to be had for money, and he will write letters or make speeches for you as long as you pay him best. But genuine malice is a different article from that. There is no getting to the bottom of real and original and priceless malice. Its bottom is not here. Its bottom is in the bottomless pit. Unless Alexander sets himself, nay, unless God sets Alexander, to search in his own heart for the roots of his malice against Paul, no other man can come near understanding or believing the depth and the strength and the malignity of Alexander's ill-will. At the same time, Paul and the other apostles could not but see as clear as day, and every day, Alexander's ill-will and the malignity of it, so much was it thrust upon their painful experience continually. Alexander followed Paul about wherever he went, poisoning the minds and the hearts of all men to whom his tongue or his pen had access. One of our latest and best authorities thinks that Alexander even followed Paul to Rome, and did his best to poison Nero and his court still more against Paul. But, whether he made that malicious and superfluous journey or no, Alexander certainly did Paul and his good name and his divine work all the evil that his great gifts of speech and pen could do. It was no wonder that the constant presence of Alexander, and his implacable and sleepless malice, was almost too great a trial for Paul to bear. So studied, so systematic, and so persistent, were Alexander's evil words and evil deeds.
Now, surely there can be no question as to Paul's duty to Timothy in that case. Paul would have been sinning both against Timothy and against the Gospel had he not taken Timothy and warned him against the malignity of Alexander. True, Timothy had not yet suffered as Paul had suffered from the coppersmith. Alexander had not yet followed Timothy about poisoning the wells everywhere against him. But to prepare Timothy for what he might expect, and would be sure to meet with, Paul told Timothy, with all plainness and all pain, what his experience of Alexander and his malice had been. Now, what do you say? What do you do? Suppose such a man as Alexander the coppersmith has arisen in your community and is doing Alexander's very same work over again under your eyes every day, what do you do in that case? Do you content yourself with despising and detesting the mischief-making man in your heart? Should you not rather take some of his more wicked letters and speeches and point out to the simple and inexperienced the great lessons that lie on the face of such things? Is malice and misrepresentation less important to point out to a young man entering on life, than bad grammar and slovenly composition? There are studies in sheer malignity set us every day, as well as studies in style; and a teacher of morals should treat the one kind just as a teacher of letters always treats the other. Why should we be so careful to point out solecisms and careless composition to our young people, and pass by studied malice, misrepresentation, perversion, and suppression of the truth? And malice, too, that is not limited and localised in its scope as Alexander's malice was in his day, but which has all the resources of civilisation in our day to spread it abroad. And resources also such that Alexander and his seed can do their wicked work in our day out of sight, and nobody know who they are till the day of judgment.
But by far and away our most important lesson out of Paul and Alexander is yet to come. Only, that lesson throws us back again on the previous question. Did Paul feel in his heart, and did he entertain and express to Timothy, all the anger and resentment that is expressed in the text? Did Paul actually say, "The Lord reward Alexander the coppersmith according to his evil works?" Whether he did or no, that makes no difference to us. Even if he did, we must never do so. Were another Alexander to rise in our day, ay, and were he to do all the evil to us and to our work that Alexander did to Paul and to his work, we must never say what Paul is here made to say, Paul was put by Alexander to the last trial and sorest temptation of an apostolic and a sanctified heart. And it is the last two-edged sword that pierces to the dividing of soul and spirit in ourselves, not to forgive insult and injury done to ourselves, but to forgive Alexander all that when he does it to the Church of Christ. Only, Christ Himself will have to be formed in you, and will have to live in you, and will have to think and feel and write in you, before you will be able to love that bad man, and to do him good, all the time he is doing, not you, but Jesus Christ Himself, evil. But when Jesus Christ truly dwells in you, then no malediction, and no revenge; nothing but good wishes and good words, will ever escape your lips or your pen. It is for this that bad men like Alexander are let live among us. It is first for their own repentance and reformation, and then it is that they may be the daily sanctification of men like Paul. Of men, that is, who would not be tempted by any less spiritual trial than anger and resentment at the enemies, not of themselves, but of the Church of Christ. And such men among us are sent to school, not to David on his deathbed, nor to Paul in his prison, but to Jesus Christ on His Cross; Who, when He was reviled, reviled not again; when He suffered, He threatened not; leaving us an example, that we should follow His steps. I once asked a friend of mine who had been subjected to more reviling than any other man of his land and day, how he thought such and such another man who had suffered still more reviling could go on with his public work under such diabolical ill-usage. "Oh," said he, "So-and-so always lives in facie eternitatis." And nothing but the nearness of eternity and the nothingness of time, and the still more nothingness of either the praise or the blame of such men as Alexander; nothing but the constant presence of such things as these could support Paul and could keep his heart quiet and sweet under the malice and maltreatment of such a wicked man as the coppersmith. The face of eternity and the nearness of eternity will do it. The face of eternity and the nearness of eternity, and the face and the nearness of the Lord of eternity, that will do it.
Whether, then, this is some corruption in the text, as the scholars call corruption; or some of the remaining corruption in Paul's heart, as he would have called it himself, I do not know. But this I know, that it is the essence, and the concentration, and the core, of all corruption in my heart, when I again detect myself hating this man and that man for the love of God. Long after I am able to forgive this man and that man for what he has said or done against myself, I am compelled to cry out, O wretched man that I am! as often as I despise, or detest, or desire to hear of hurt to Alexander or to any of his widespread seed. I must not even let myself say, Vengeance is mine, I will repay, saith the Lord. No, I must rather say, 'Let thy vengeance fall on me rather. For I have been a disappointment to Alexander's ambition. I have been a provocation to him and an offence to him in many ways. He has stumbled and has been broken on me. I am not without blame in his shipwreck of faith and a good conscience.' Instead of cursing Alexander to God, William Law would the more have prayed for him late every night, according to that great man's life-long practice-'if you pray for a man sufficiently often, and sufficiently fervently, and sufficiently in secret, you cannot but love that man, even were he Alexander the coppersmith.' That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven; for He maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.
But all questions of corruptions in the text, and in Paul's heart, apart, let us part with Paul when he is indisputably at his very highest and his very best. And he is at his very highest and his very best in the very next verse to his two unhappy verses about Alexander. "At my first answer no man stood with me, but all men forsook me: I pray God that it may not be laid to their charge." Paul is at his very best in that; for it is not Paul at all who says that, but it is He speaking in Paul who, when He also was forsaken, said, "Father, forgive them." "I am crucified with Christ," says Paul when he is at his best. "Nevertheless I live: yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: liveth in me and forgiveth Alexander the coppersmith in me: and the life I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me."
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Alexander
commonly called the Great, son and successor of Philip, king of Macedon, is denoted in the prophecies of Daniel by a leopard with four wings, signifying his great strength, and the unusual rapidity of his conquests, Daniel 7:6 ; and by a one-horned he-goat running over the earth so swiftly as not to touch it, attacking a ram with two horns, overthrowing him, and trampling him under foot, without any being able to rescue him, Daniel 8:4-7 . The he-goat prefigured Alexander; the ram, Darius Codomannus, the last of the Persian kings. In the statue beheld by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, Daniel 2:39 , the belly of brass was the emblem of Alexander. He was appointed by God to destroy the Persian empire, and to substitute in its room the Grecian monarchy.
Alexander succeeded his father Philip, A.M. 3668, and B.C. 336. He was chosen, by the Greeks, general of their troops against the Persians, and entered Asia at the head of thirty-four thousand men, A.M. 3670. In one campaign, he subdued almost all Asia Minor; and afterward defeated, in the narrow passes which led from Syria to Cilicia, the army of Darius, which consisted of four hundred thousand foot, and one hundred thousand horse. Darius fled, and left in the hands of the conqueror, his camp, baggage, children, wife, and mother.
After subduing Syria, Alexander came to Tyre; and the Tyrians refusing him entrance into their city, he besieged it. At the same time he wrote to Jaddus, high priest of the Jews, that he expected to be acknowledged by him, and to receive from him the same submission which had hitherto been paid to the king of Persia. Jaddus refusing to comply under the plea of having sworn fidelity to Darius, Alexander resolved to march against Jerusalem, when he had reduced Tyre. After a long siege, this city was taken and sacked; and Alexander entered Palestine, A.M. 3672, and subjected it to his obedience. As he was marching against Jerusalem, the Jews became greatly alarmed, and had recourse to prayers and sacrifices. The Lord, in a dream, commanded Jaddus to open the gates to the conqueror, and, at the head of his people, dressed in his pontifical ornaments, and attended by the priests in their robes, to advance and meet the Macedonian king. Jaddus obeyed; and Alexander perceiving this company approaching, hastened toward the high priest, whom he saluted. He then adored God, whose name was engraven on a thin plate of gold, worn by the high priest upon his forehead. The kings of Syria who accompanied him, and the great officers about Alexander, could not comprehend the meaning of his conduct. Parmenio alone ventured to ask him why he adored the Jewish high priest; Alexander replied, that he paid this respect to God, and not to the high priest. "For," added he, "whilst I was yet in Macedonia, I saw the God of the Jews, who appeared to me in the same form and dress as the high priest at present, and who encouraged me and commanded me to march boldly into Asia, promising that he would be my guide, and give me the empire of the Persians. As soon, therefore, as I perceived this habit, I recollected the vision, and understood that my undertaking was favoured by God, and that under his protection I might expect prosperity."
Having said this, Alexander accompanies Jaddus to Jerusalem, where he offered sacrifices in the temple according to the directions of the high priest. Jaddus is said to have showed him the prophecies of Daniel, in which the destruction of the Persian empire by Alexander is declared. The king was therefore confirmed in his opinion, that God had chosen him to execute this great work. At his departure, Alexander bade the Jews ask of him what they would. The high priest desired only the liberty of living under his government according to their own laws, and an exemption from tribute every seventh year, because in that year the Jews neither tilled their grounds, nor reaped their fruits. With this request Alexander readily complied.
Having left Jerusalem, Alexander visited other cities of Palestine, and was every where received with great testimonies of friendship and submission. The Samaritans who dwelt at Sichem, and were apostates from the Jewish religion, observing how kindly Alexander had treated the Jews, resolved to say that they also were by religion Jews. For it was their practice, when they saw the affairs of the Jews in a prosperous state, to boast that they were descended from Manasseh and Ephraim; but when they thought it their interest to say the contrary, they failed not to affirm, and even to swear, that they were not related to the Jews. They came, therefore, with many demonstrations of joy, to meet Alexander, as far almost as the territories of Jerusalem. Alexander commended their zeal; and the Sichemites entreated him to visit their temple and city. Alexander promised this at his return; but as they petitioned him for the same privileges as the Jews, he asked them if they were Jews. They replied, they were Hebrews, and were called by the Phoenicians, Sichemites. Alexander said that he had granted this exemption only to the Jews, and that at his return he would inquire into the affair, and do them justice.
This prince having conquered Egypt, and regulated it, gave orders for the building of the city of Alexandria, and departed thence, about spring, in pursuit of Darius. Passing through Palestine, he was informed that the Samaritans, in a general insurrection, had killed Andromachus, governor of Syria and Palestine, who had come to Samaria to regulate some affairs. This action greatly incensed Alexander, who loved Andromachus. He therefore commanded all those who were concerned in his murder to be put to death, and the rest to be banished from Samaria; and settled a colony of Macedonians in their room. What remained of their lands he gave to the Jews, and exempted them from the payment of tribute. The Samaritans who escaped this calamity, retired to Sichem, at the foot of mount Gerizim, which afterward became their capital. Lest the eight thousand men of this nation, who were in the service of Alexander, and had accompanied him since the siege of Tyre, if permitted to return to their own country, should renew the spirit of rebellion, he sent them into Thebais, the most remote southern province of Egypt, where he assigned them lands.
Alexander, after defeating Darius in a pitched battle, and subduing all Asia and the Indies with incredible rapidity, gave himself up to intemperance. Having drunk to excess, he fell sick and died, after he had obliged "all the world to be quiet before him," 1Ma_1:3 . Being sensible that his end was near, he sent for the grandees of his court, and declared that "he gave the empire to the most deserving." Some affirm that he regulated the succession by a will. The author of the first book of Maccabees says, that he divided his kingdom among his generals while he was living, 1Ma_1:7 . This he might do; or he might express his foresight of what actually took place after his death. It is certain, that a partition was made of Alexander's dominions among the four principal officers of his army, and that the empire which he founded in Asia subsisted for many ages. Alexander died, A.M. 3684, and B.C. 323, in the thirty-third year of his age, and the twelfth of his reign. The above particulars of Alexander are here introduced because, from his invasion of Palestine, the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks became intimate, and influenced many events of their subsequent history.
On the account above given of the interview between Alexander and the Jewish high priest, by Josephus, many doubts have been cast by critics. But the sudden change of his feelings toward them, and the favour with which the nation was treated by him, render the story not improbable.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Severus, Alexander
Profile Roman emperor from 222 to 235. He succeeded his cousin, Elagabalus, to the imperial throne. Origen was invited by his mother, Mammma, to Antioch as his tutor. Severns respected Christianity and granted tolerance though there was some anti-Christian legislation in his reign. He was a disciple of "syncretism," uniting together against a common enemy, and strove to establish order and moral decency at Rome. He was murdered by his mutinous soldiers.
Born in Aeco, Palestine
Died murdered in 235 at Sicula on the Rhine
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Alexander
Alexander (ăl-egz-ăn'der), strong man, or helper of men. 1. The son of Simon. Mark 15:21. 2. A member of the council. Acts 4:6. 3. A Jew of Ephesus. Acts 19:34. 4. A coppersmith, and an apostate from Christianity. 1 Timothy 1:19-20; 2 Timothy 4:14.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Healy, George Peter Alexander
Painter, born Boston, Massachusetts, 1808; died Chicago, Illinois, 1894. He studied in Europe, 1834-1850, a pupil of Baron Antoine Gros and Thomas Couture among others, and lived there again from 1869-1890. The interval was spent mainly in Chicago, where he finally established himself in 1892. He is chiefly known as a portrait painter. Among his subjects were Pius IX, Ulysses S Grant, Louis Philippe, Cardinal McCloskey, and Henry W. Longfellow. His most celebrated historical painting, "Webster's Reply to Hayne," is in Faneuil Hall, Boston.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Alexander jannaeus
(Hasmonean king): King of Judea for 27 years (c. 103-76 BCE), husband of Salome Alexandra. He declared himself high priest, killing or exiling most the Pharisaic leaders, as they considered him halachically unfit for this office. During Sukkot, he publicly disparaged the Pharisaic traditions in the Temple courtyard, inciting the people to pelt him with their etrogim. This served as a pretext to wage a war against the Pharisees which cost approximately 50,000 Jewish lives.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Severus, Aurelius Alexander
Severus (2), Aurelius Alexander, emperor, born at Arca Caesarea in Syria, Oct. 1, 205 (Lampridius) or 208 (Herodian). For an account of his family see ELAGABALUS. Like him he was made in childhood a priest of the Sun at Emesa, and when his cousin became emperor he and his mother Julia Mammaea accompanied him to Rome. Mammaea took the utmost pains to educate her son and to preserve him uncontaminated by the monstrous excesses of his cousin. Created Caesar by the emperor in 221; on Feb. 1, 222 (Clinton), he became emperor on the death of Elagabalus and his mother Soaemis at the hands of the indignant soldiery. Being then at most not yet 17, the administration rested with his mother and grandmother Julia Mammaea and Julia Maesa, the latter of whom, till her death c. 225, enjoyed the greater power. Their chief minister or regent was the famous jurist Ulpian, whose appointment appears to have been due to Maesa's influence, though Mammaea afterwards acquiesced in it (Lamp. 50). He was assisted by a council of at least 70 members, 16 to 20 eminent jurists of whom formed a sort of inner cabinet (cf. Herodian, vi. i. with Lamp. 15); separate committees of this council administering different departments of the state.
The first step of the new administration was to reverse the acts of Elagabalus. The images of the gods he had collected at Rome from all parts of the empire were restored to their former shrines. His creatures were removed from offices obtained by disgraceful means. The senate, knights, tribes, and army were purged of the infamous persons appointed by Elagabalus, and the imperial establishment reduced as low as possible.
The praetorians and the army did not easily acquiesce in these reforms. Probably in order to check their mutinous spirit their prefects Flavianus and Chrestus were put to death and Ulpian made sole prefect. From some trifling cause a riot broke out between the praetorians and the people, lasting for three days. The soldiers, getting the worst of it, set fire to the city and thus checked their assailants. They could not endure the firm rule of Ulpian. Several times he had to take refuge in the palace, and was saved with difficulty by the emperor from their fury. At last, probably in 228, he was killed by the soldiers in the presence of Alexander and his mother, who were only able by a stratagem to punish the ringleader. Throughout the empire the same insubordinate spirit prevailed. The troops in Mesopotamia mutinied and killed their commander, Flavius Heracleon. The historian Dion by his firm rule in Pannonia so excited the hatred of the praetorians that Alexander was driven to the humiliating expedient of requesting him not to come to Rome during his consulship.
This spirit of mutiny was the more dangerous as this reign witnessed the Persian revolt under Artaxerxes against the Parthians, which, after three great battles, in one of which the Parthian king Artabanus fell, completely broke the Parthian power, and by the most extraordinary revival in history reestablished the kingdom of Darius in 226. As heir of the ancient monarchy he claimed all the Asiatic provinces of Rome. Such pretensions naturally produced a war. At the end of 231 or the beginning of 232 the emperor, accompanied by his mother, left Rome to fight the Persians, but returned without any decisive results to Europe, being summoned by news of the movements of the Germans on the Rhine and Danube. After a triumph at Rome on Sept. 25, 233 (Clinton), he proceeded to the Rhine frontier, where he was slain in his tent, and his mother with him, near Mayence, at the beginning of 235 (Clinton), by the mutinous soldiery.
Thus perished one of the most virtuous of the emperors. Apparently his only faults were an excessive deference to his mother and a certain want of energy. He was frugal, temperate, and chaste. He was fond of reading, preferring Greek to Latin authors. His favourite works were the Republic of Plato and the de Officiis and de Republica of Cicero. He was also fond of Vergil and Horace. He was acquainted with geometry, was able to paint, and could sing and play on various instruments. Though he attended the temples regularly and visited the Capitol every seventh day, and though he rebuilt and adorned the shrines of various deities, by a curious anticipation of Comtism, the objects of his peculiar veneration were not the gods of the various popular religions, but deified heroes and men. The private chapel in which he performed his devotions every morning contained no images of gods, but statues of canonized men, including the best of his predecessors, Alexander the Great, who might be called his patron saint, Orpheus, Apollonius of Tyana, Abraham, and Christ. In a smaller chapel were images of Achilles, Vergil (whom he used to call the Plato of poets), Cicero, and other great men. From his mother's intercourse with Origen (Eus. H. E. vi. 21) he would naturally have better means of learning the doctrines and practices of Christianity than any of his predecessors. It is said that he contemplated erecting a temple to Christ and placing Him among the gods. At any rate, though he did not give Christianity the status of a religio licita, the Christians during his reign enjoyed a de facto toleration. In the famous suit between the guild of cooks and the Christians for a piece of land, which according to tradition is the site of St. Maria in Trastevere, he decided in favour of the Christians on the broad ground that it was better God should be worshipped there under whatever form than that it should be given to the cooks. This decision implies a certain recognition of the right of the Christians as such to hold property, which is also implied by the life of CALLISTUS. Consistently with this, it is in the reign of Alexander that edifices set apart for Christian worship begin to appear—at any rate in some parts of the empire (cf. the letter of Firmilian to Cyprian (in Migne, Patr. Lat. iii. 1163) with Origen, Hom. 28 on St. Matthew (quoted in contra Celsum, viii. 755, in Migne, Patr. Gk. xi. 1539)). A form of the golden rule of Christian morality ("Do not do to another what you would not have done to yourself ") was so admired by the emperor that he caused it to be inscribed on the palace and other buildings. A curious anecdote of Lampridius (44) shews the emperor's acquaintance with Christian usages and also the antiquity of the practice of publishing to the congregation the names of those who sought ordination. In imitation of this the emperor caused the names of persons he was about to appoint to be published beforehand, exhorting any who had charges against them to come with proofs.
Strange to say, in later tradition the emperor, whom all writers near his time represent as a friend, nay almost a convert, to Christianity, whose chapel contained an image of Christ and whose household was filled with Christians (Eus. H. E. vi. 28), appears as a cruel persecutor. It is said that pope Callistus with many companions, St. Caecilia and her comrades, pope Urban I., and many others suffered in his reign, and that he personally took part in their martyrdom, On the other hand, no Father of the 3rd, 4th, or 5th cents. knows anything of such a persecution, but on the contrary agree in representing his reign as a period of peace. Firmilian ( l.c. ) testifies that before the persecution of Maximin the church had enjoyed a long peace, and Sulpicius Severus (ii. 32 in Patr. Lat. xx. 447) includes the reign of Alexander in the long peace lasting from Septimius Severus to Decius, broken only by the persecution of Maximin. Against this can be set only the evidence of late authors, such as Bede, Ado, and Usuard and unauthentic Acts of martyrs. The most famous of the alleged martyrs of this reign, St. Caecilia and her companions, are placed by other accounts in the reigns of M. Aurelius or Diocletian. All are given up by Tillemont except Callistus. His chief ground for considering him a martyr is that in the Depositio Martyrum, written in 354 (in Patr. Lat. cxxvii. 123), a Callistus is mentioned as martyred on Oct. 14, the day on which the pope is commemorated. Lipsius ( Chronol. d. röm. Bischöfe, 177) acutely conjectures that this notice refers, not to the martyrdom, but to the confession of Callistus before Fuscianus mentioned by Hippolytus, as up to the Decian persecution the word "martyr" was still used in the wider sense. We may therefore conclude that all these accounts of persecutions and martyrdoms, so inconsistent with the known character of the emperor and passed over in silence by all authors for more than two cents. afterwards, are fictions of a later date.
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Alexander the Great - Related Old Testament Passages—Daniel 7:6 (leopard Alexander the Great); Daniel 8:8 (broken horn death of Alexander); Daniel 11:3-4 (mighty king Alexander); Zechariah 9:1-8 (Alexander's conquest of Palestine). ...
Alexander the Great (356-323 B. ...
Phillip had great plans for his son, Alexander. When Alexander was thirteen years old, his father enrolled him as a student of Aristotle. ...
When Alexander was twenty years old (336 B. ), his father was killed, and Alexander became king. , Alexander led his troops into Asia Minor where they won a series of victories over the Persians. ...
Alexander the Great continued his victorious military march into Syria and Egypt. ...
Alexander's most lasting legacy was his spread of Greek culture. While Alexander is never directly named in the Bible, the culture which he brought to Palestine greatly affected the biblical world, especially during the time between the writing of the Old and New Testaments
Jaddua - In the reign of the last Persian king Darius and of Alexander; when he invaded Judea Jaddua is said to have gone out in priestly robes to meet Alexander, and to have implored his goodwill toward the Jews (Josephus, Alexander. ) The phrase "Darius the Persian" implies that the Grecian dynasty of Alexander the Great had begun
Alexander Balas - Alexander BALAS . In their struggle for the throne the rivals sought to outbid each other for the support of Jonathan Maccabæus, who elected to side with Alexander, and was appointed high priest by him (b. But Alexander Balas cared more for sensual pleasures than for kingly duties: his father-in-law Ptolemy turned against him, and Alexander, fleeing to Arabia, was assassinated there ( 1Ma 11:17 )
Imalcue - An Arab prince to whom Alexander Balas entrusted his youthful son Antiochus. After the death of Alexander, in b
Once in Royal David's City - Hymn written by Mrs Cecil Alexander in the 19th century
Theoctistus, Bishop of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Palestine, who on Origen's visit to Palestine received him at Caesarea and, like Alexander of Jerusalem, permitted him, though still a layman, to preach before him (Phot. On the remonstrance of Origen's bishop, Demetrianus, he joined with Alexander in a letter defending their conduct (Eus. 230, Theoctistus and Alexander ordained Origen ( ib
Coppersmith - See Alexander, Arts and Crafts, § 2
Bucephalus - ) The celebrated war horse of Alexander the Great
Ptolomies, Ptolomy - Members of an Egyptian Dynasty founded by one of Alexander the Great's generals
Seleucids - Members of a Syrian dynasty founded by one of the generals of Alexander the Great
Seleucids - Members of a Syrian dynasty founded by one of the generals of Alexander the Great
Alexander - In all probability Alexander and his brother were well-known and honoured men in the Church of Rome (cf. After the healing of the impotent man we are told that Alexander was present at a meeting of the Jewish authorities along with Annas, Caiaphas, and John, and ‘as many as were of the kindred of the high priest’ (Acts 4:6). It is probable, though not quite certain, that this indicates that Alexander belonged to the high-priestly class; and it is impossible to identify him with Alexander the ‘alabarch’ of Alexandria and brother of Philo. There are, however, slight variations in the Manuscripts of Acts 19:33, and different views have been taken with regard to Alexander and the intention of the Jews. Meyer holds that Alexander was a Jewish Christian who was put forward maliciously by the Jews in the hope that he might be sacrificed (cf. The omission of τις, ‘a certain,’ before his name has been regarded as an indication that Alexander was a well-known man in Ephesus at the time. Alexander the coppersmith, who did St. This Alexander has been identified with both 3 and 4. On the other hand, we are told that Alexander greatly withstood St. It is possible that 3, 4, and 5 may be the same person, but Alexander was a very common name, and the data are insufficient to allow of any certain identification. Those who hold the Epistles to Timothy to be non-Pauline regard the statement in Acts 19:33 as the basis of the references in the Epistles, but the only thing in common is the name, while there is no indication in Acts that Alexander had any personal connexion with St
John of Struma - He was Abbot of Struma, and in opposition to Pope Alexander III was elected at Viterbo to succeed antipope Guido of Crema. From Albano he fled to Tusculum where he prostrated himself before Pope Alexander, who forgave him, 1178, and later appointed him governor of Benevento
Struma, John of - He was Abbot of Struma, and in opposition to Pope Alexander III was elected at Viterbo to succeed antipope Guido of Crema. From Albano he fled to Tusculum where he prostrated himself before Pope Alexander, who forgave him, 1178, and later appointed him governor of Benevento
Alexander - The he-goat prefigured Alexander; the ram, Darius Codomannus, the last of the Persian kings. In the statue beheld by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, Daniel 2:39 , the belly of brass was the emblem of Alexander. ...
Alexander succeeded his father Philip, A. ...
After subduing Syria, Alexander came to Tyre; and the Tyrians refusing him entrance into their city, he besieged it. Jaddus refusing to comply under the plea of having sworn fidelity to Darius, Alexander resolved to march against Jerusalem, when he had reduced Tyre. After a long siege, this city was taken and sacked; and Alexander entered Palestine, A. Jaddus obeyed; and Alexander perceiving this company approaching, hastened toward the high priest, whom he saluted. The kings of Syria who accompanied him, and the great officers about Alexander, could not comprehend the meaning of his conduct. Parmenio alone ventured to ask him why he adored the Jewish high priest; Alexander replied, that he paid this respect to God, and not to the high priest. "...
Having said this, Alexander accompanies Jaddus to Jerusalem, where he offered sacrifices in the temple according to the directions of the high priest. Jaddus is said to have showed him the prophecies of Daniel, in which the destruction of the Persian empire by Alexander is declared. At his departure, Alexander bade the Jews ask of him what they would. With this request Alexander readily complied. ...
Having left Jerusalem, Alexander visited other cities of Palestine, and was every where received with great testimonies of friendship and submission. The Samaritans who dwelt at Sichem, and were apostates from the Jewish religion, observing how kindly Alexander had treated the Jews, resolved to say that they also were by religion Jews. They came, therefore, with many demonstrations of joy, to meet Alexander, as far almost as the territories of Jerusalem. Alexander commended their zeal; and the Sichemites entreated him to visit their temple and city. Alexander promised this at his return; but as they petitioned him for the same privileges as the Jews, he asked them if they were Jews. Alexander said that he had granted this exemption only to the Jews, and that at his return he would inquire into the affair, and do them justice. This action greatly incensed Alexander, who loved Andromachus. Lest the eight thousand men of this nation, who were in the service of Alexander, and had accompanied him since the siege of Tyre, if permitted to return to their own country, should renew the spirit of rebellion, he sent them into Thebais, the most remote southern province of Egypt, where he assigned them lands. ...
Alexander, after defeating Darius in a pitched battle, and subduing all Asia and the Indies with incredible rapidity, gave himself up to intemperance. It is certain, that a partition was made of Alexander's dominions among the four principal officers of his army, and that the empire which he founded in Asia subsisted for many ages. Alexander died, A. The above particulars of Alexander are here introduced because, from his invasion of Palestine, the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks became intimate, and influenced many events of their subsequent history. ...
On the account above given of the interview between Alexander and the Jewish high priest, by Josephus, many doubts have been cast by critics
Transpass - ) To pass over; as, Alexander transpassed the river
Alexander, of Byzantium - Alexander , St. In the commencement of the Arian troubles the co-operation of Alexander was specially requested by his namesake of Alexandria (Theod. 37), commanded that Arius should be received to communion, Alexander, though threatened by the Eusebians with deposition and banishment, persisted in his refusal to admit the archheretic to communion, and shut himself up in the church of Irene for prayer in this extremity. Alexander did not long survive Arius (Socr
Ardenia - Alexander Garden
Philetus - (See Alexander [1]
Portland Vase - A celebrated cinerary urn or vase found in the tomb of the Emperor Alexander Severus
League, Lombard - The anti-imperial alliance formed by the cities of Lombardy: Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Ferrara, and Verona; Vicenza, Padua, and Treviso belonging to an earlier league, with Pope Alexander III against the Emperor Frederick I. In the treaty of Venice, 1177, Frederick recognized Alexander as pope, which was the defeat of his pretensions to rule Italy and to interfere with papal elections
Lombard League - The anti-imperial alliance formed by the cities of Lombardy: Bergamo, Brescia, Mantua, Ferrara, and Verona; Vicenza, Padua, and Treviso belonging to an earlier league, with Pope Alexander III against the Emperor Frederick I. In the treaty of Venice, 1177, Frederick recognized Alexander as pope, which was the defeat of his pretensions to rule Italy and to interfere with papal elections
Decembrist - ) One of those who conspired for constitutional government against the Emperor Nicholas on his accession to the throne at the death of Alexander I
Alexander And Rufus - ALEXANDER AND RUFUS. Mark (Mark 15:21) alone adds that he was ‘the father of Alexander and Rufus. This information as to the two sons of Simon being Alexander and Rufus, is also found in the Gospel of Nicodemus (Mark 4). The name Alexander appears in Acts 4:6; Acts 19:33, 1 Timothy 1:20, 2 Timothy 4:14, but there is not the slightest ground for identifying any one of these with the Alexander of Mark 15:21. Mark wrote especially for the Romana; and if so, it is worth remarking that he alone of the Evangelists describes Simon of Cyrene as the “father of Alexander and Rufus” (15:21). The inscriptions exhibit several members of the household bearing the names Rufus and Alexander, but this fact is of no value where both names are so common. ’...
In the Acts of Andrew and of Peter, Rufus and Alexander appear as the companions of Peter, Andrew, and Matthias, but no further information is given
Aleria, Corsica, Diocese of - Notable bishops include ...
Saint Alexander Sauli
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Simon of Cyrene - A resident of Cyrene in Libya, the father of Alexander and Rufus; he was forced to carry the Cross of Our Saviour for part of the journey to Calvary (Matthew 27; Mark 15)
Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis Euphratensis - Alexander , bp. ...
Alexander arrived at the council of Ephesus in company with his brother metropolitan Alexander of Apamea on or about June 20, 431. As soon as the Alexanders discovered Cyril's intention to open the council before John of Antioch's arrival they, on June 21, united with the other bishops of the East in signing a formal act demanding delay (Labbe, Concil. When John at last arrived, June 27, Alexander joined in the counter-council held by him and the prelates of his party in his inn, and signed the acts which cancelled the proceedings of the former council, deposing Cyril and Memnon, bp. As a necessary consequence Alexander was included in the sentence against John, and cut off from communion with Cyril's party (Labbe, iii. A meeting was held at Antioch early in 432, attended by Alexander, when six alternative articles were drawn up, one of which it was hoped Cyril would accept, and so afford a basis of reconciliation ( ib. Cyril's reply was accepted by Acacius and John of Antioch, and other bishops now sincerely anxious for peace, but not by Alexander or Theodoret (Baluz. This defection of Acacius of Beroea and John of Antioch was received with indignant sorrow by Alexander. It was the first breach in the hitherto compact opposition, and led to its gradual dissolution, leaving Alexander almost without supporters. Alexander was informed of this in a private letter from John, beseeching him no longer to hinder the peace of the church. Alexander's indignation now knew no bounds. Alexander's contumacy had been regarded as depriving him of his functions as metropolitan. This act, of very doubtful legality, excited serious displeasure, and was appealed against by Alexander and six of his suffragans ( ib. Pulcheria and Theodosius had been carefully informed of the obstinate refusal of Alexander and the few left to support him to communicate with those whose orthodoxy had been recognized by the church. This rescript was executed in the case of other recusants; Alexander still remained. But no compulsion was needed: Alexander obeyed the order with calmness, and even with joy at laying aside the burdens and anxieties of the episcopate. In exile at the mines of Phamuthin in Egypt, Alexander died, sternly adhering to his anathemas of Cyril to the last (Tillemont, Mém
Alexander - Alexander . Paul ‘much evil,’ and who was probably an Ephesian Jew; possibly the same as the Alexander of 1 Timothy 1:20 (see Hymenæus), in which case we may regard him as an apostate Christian who had relapsed into Judaism
Alexander the Coppersmith - THERE are some most interesting and most important questions of New Testament scholarship, and New Testament sanctification, connected with Alexander the coppersmith of Ephesus. And the first of those questions is this: Have we got in our present text the very and identical words that Paul penned in his parchment to Timothy? Have we got the literal and exact expressions, and discriminations of expressions, that Paul so studiously employed? Have we got the very moods and tenses, both in grammar and in morals, that were in Paul's mind and heart at the moment when he wrote these two so difficult verses about Alexander? That is a very interesting, important, and indeed indispensable, question. Suppose that Paul both thought and felt and wrote about Alexander as our version literally reads, what are we to do? Are we free to follow Paul, and to do what he here does? Are we free to execrate and denounce bad men, and hand them over to be rewarded according to their works? Are we free, and is it our duty, to imprecate God's judgments on those who do us much evil, and who withstand the work of God which has been committed to our hands? A whole controversy of New Testament scholarship, and another whole controversy of New Testament morals and religion, have arisen around this text concerning Alexander the coppersmith. But, taking the text just as it has been put into our hands tonight, what are we able to make of it? What shall we succeed in taking out of it tonight for our own guidance tomorrow, and for every day we live on the earth?...
The first time we come on Alexander he is a Jew of Ephesus, and a clever speaker to an excitable crowd. By the next time we meet with Alexander he has thought it to be for his interest to be baptized and to be seen openly on Paul's side. And, then, as no man is so implacable at you as a complete renegade from you, so there was no man, among Paul's many enemies, who so hated Paul, and so hunted him down, as just this Alexander the coppersmith. Alexander had this temptation, that he was fitted by nature to be much more than a mere coppersmith, he was so clever and so captivating with his tongue. And thus it is, that when Paul is so soon to depart from all his false friends and all his implacable enemies alike, the Apostle writes this much-needed warning to his young and inexperienced successor, and says, "Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil, the Lord reward him according to his works, of whom be thou ware also, for he hath greatly withstood my words. " Alexander did Paul and his apostolic work much evil, and that not out of ignorance and fanaticism, but out of sheer unmitigated malice. Unless Alexander sets himself, nay, unless God sets Alexander, to search in his own heart for the roots of his malice against Paul, no other man can come near understanding or believing the depth and the strength and the malignity of Alexander's ill-will. At the same time, Paul and the other apostles could not but see as clear as day, and every day, Alexander's ill-will and the malignity of it, so much was it thrust upon their painful experience continually. Alexander followed Paul about wherever he went, poisoning the minds and the hearts of all men to whom his tongue or his pen had access. One of our latest and best authorities thinks that Alexander even followed Paul to Rome, and did his best to poison Nero and his court still more against Paul. But, whether he made that malicious and superfluous journey or no, Alexander certainly did Paul and his good name and his divine work all the evil that his great gifts of speech and pen could do. It was no wonder that the constant presence of Alexander, and his implacable and sleepless malice, was almost too great a trial for Paul to bear. So studied, so systematic, and so persistent, were Alexander's evil words and evil deeds. Paul would have been sinning both against Timothy and against the Gospel had he not taken Timothy and warned him against the malignity of Alexander. Alexander had not yet followed Timothy about poisoning the wells everywhere against him. But to prepare Timothy for what he might expect, and would be sure to meet with, Paul told Timothy, with all plainness and all pain, what his experience of Alexander and his malice had been. Now, what do you say? What do you do? Suppose such a man as Alexander the coppersmith has arisen in your community and is doing Alexander's very same work over again under your eyes every day, what do you do in that case? Do you content yourself with despising and detesting the mischief-making man in your heart? Should you not rather take some of his more wicked letters and speeches and point out to the simple and inexperienced the great lessons that lie on the face of such things? Is malice and misrepresentation less important to point out to a young man entering on life, than bad grammar and slovenly composition? There are studies in sheer malignity set us every day, as well as studies in style; and a teacher of morals should treat the one kind just as a teacher of letters always treats the other. Why should we be so careful to point out solecisms and careless composition to our young people, and pass by studied malice, misrepresentation, perversion, and suppression of the truth? And malice, too, that is not limited and localised in its scope as Alexander's malice was in his day, but which has all the resources of civilisation in our day to spread it abroad. And resources also such that Alexander and his seed can do their wicked work in our day out of sight, and nobody know who they are till the day of judgment. ...
But by far and away our most important lesson out of Paul and Alexander is yet to come. Did Paul feel in his heart, and did he entertain and express to Timothy, all the anger and resentment that is expressed in the text? Did Paul actually say, "The Lord reward Alexander the coppersmith according to his evil works?" Whether he did or no, that makes no difference to us. Were another Alexander to rise in our day, ay, and were he to do all the evil to us and to our work that Alexander did to Paul and to his work, we must never say what Paul is here made to say, Paul was put by Alexander to the last trial and sorest temptation of an apostolic and a sanctified heart. And it is the last two-edged sword that pierces to the dividing of soul and spirit in ourselves, not to forgive insult and injury done to ourselves, but to forgive Alexander all that when he does it to the Church of Christ. It is for this that bad men like Alexander are let live among us. " And nothing but the nearness of eternity and the nothingness of time, and the still more nothingness of either the praise or the blame of such men as Alexander; nothing but the constant presence of such things as these could support Paul and could keep his heart quiet and sweet under the malice and maltreatment of such a wicked man as the coppersmith. Long after I am able to forgive this man and that man for what he has said or done against myself, I am compelled to cry out, O wretched man that I am! as often as I despise, or detest, or desire to hear of hurt to Alexander or to any of his widespread seed. For I have been a disappointment to Alexander's ambition. ' Instead of cursing Alexander to God, William Law would the more have prayed for him late every night, according to that great man's life-long practice-'if you pray for a man sufficiently often, and sufficiently fervently, and sufficiently in secret, you cannot but love that man, even were he Alexander the coppersmith. And he is at his very highest and his very best in the very next verse to his two unhappy verses about Alexander. "Nevertheless I live: yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: liveth in me and forgiveth Alexander the coppersmith in me: and the life I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave Himself for me
Hellenic - ) The dialect, formed with slight variations from the Attic, which prevailed among Greek writers after the time of Alexander
Kolushan - to, a linguistic stock of North American Indians comprising the Tlinkit tribes of the Alexander Archipelago of southeastern Alaska and adjacent coast lands
Gopher Wood - It was here Alexander obtained timber for building his fleet
Mahalath - In the title of Psalm 53:1 ; 88:1 , is conjectured to refer to the tune or the instrument used in chanting these Psalms; or a Gengstenberg and Alexander suggest, the spiritual malady which they lament
Coppersmith - A certain Alexander was a coppersmith who caused trouble in the early church (2 Timothy 4:14 )
Giuseppe Pichler - Among his works are the portrait of Alexander I of Russia, and the three Graces, after Canova
Demetrius Soter - Demetrius was later defeated and slain by the Syrian pretender, Alexander, and his Jewish allies
Visible Speech - Alexander Melville Bell to represent all sounds that may be uttered by the speech organs, and intended to be suggestive of the position of the organs of speech in uttering them
Soter, Demetrius - Demetrius was later defeated and slain by the Syrian pretender, Alexander, and his Jewish allies
Holy Alliance - Name given to the treaty signed by Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and Alexander I of Russia. It was due to the transitory pietistic feeling of the Czar Alexander; and was afterwards replaced by purely political alliances
Glengarry - They were joined by two groups of Catholic Highlanders from Glengarry, Invernessshire, and other districts of western Scotland: one brought out by Reverend Alexander Macdonell (Scotus), in 1786; the other in 1803-1804, by Reverend Alexander Macdonell, afterwards first Bishop of Kingston
Alliance, Holy - Name given to the treaty signed by Emperor Francis I of Austria, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and Alexander I of Russia. It was due to the transitory pietistic feeling of the Czar Alexander; and was afterwards replaced by purely political alliances
Ymnosophist - ) One of a sect of philosophers, said to have been found in India by Alexander the Great, who went almost naked, denied themselves the use of flesh, renounced bodily pleasures, and employed themselves in the contemplation of nature
Zabdiel - An Arabian who put Alexander Balas to death and sent his head to Ptolemy ( 1Ma 11:17 )
Cadalous, Pietro - Bishop of Parma, he was elected pope at the Diet of Basel in opposition to Alexander II, the lawful pope
Honorius ii, Anti-Pope - Bishop of Parma, he was elected pope at the Diet of Basel in opposition to Alexander II, the lawful pope
Apotheosis - (Greek: deification) ...
Elevation of a human being to the rank of a god; especially among the Greeks (Philip of Macedon; Alexander the Great), and the Roman emperors
Seven Holy Brothers - Januarius, Felix, and Philip were scourged to death; Silvanus was thrown over a precipice; Alexander, Vitalis, and Martialis were beheaded
Alexander, of Alexandria - Alexander , St. Agitation increasing, Alexander summoned a conference of his clergy; free discussion was allowed; and, according to Sozomen, Alexander seemed to waver between the Arian and anti-Arian positions. " The movement increased, and Alexander himself was charged with irresolution or even with some inclination towards the new errors. Alexander's next step was to write to Arius and his supporters, including two bishops, five priests, and six deacons, exhorting them to renounce their "impiety"; and the majority of the clergy of Alexandria and the Mareotis, at his request, subscribed his letter. But Arius ere long found that he could not maintain his position in the city when under the ban of the archbishop; it may be that Alexander had power actually to banish him; and he repaired to Palestine, where, as he expected, he found that his representations of the case made a favourable impression on several bishops, including Eusebius of Caesarea. Some wrote in his favour to Alexander, who, on his part, was most indefatigable in writing to various bishops in order to prevent them from being deceived by Arius; Epiphanius tells us that seventy such letters were preserved in his time ( Haer. 16) in the name of "the presbyters and deacons" who had been excommunicated, to Alexander, giving a statement of their views, and professing that they had been learned from Alexander himself; the fact being, probably, as Möhler thinks, that Alexander had formerly used vague language in an anti-Sabellian direction. Eusebius now repeatedly urged Alexander to readmit Arius to communion; and the other bishops of Bithynia, in synod (Soz. A Cilician bishop, Athanasius of Anazarbus, wrote to Alexander, openly declaring that Christ was "one of the hundred sheep"; George, an Alexandrian presbyter, then staying at Antioch, had the boldness to write to his bishop to the effect that the Son once "was not," just as Isaiah "was not," before he was born to Amoz (Athan. 17), for which he was deposed by Alexander from the priesthood. This permission naturally gave great offence to Alexander. This letter, which he caused his clergy to sign, probably preceded the "Tome" or confession of faith which he referred to as having been signed by some bishops, when he wrote to Alexander, bp. Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had a strong influence over the emperor Constantine, persuaded the latter to write, or to adopt and sign, a letter to Alexander and Arius, in which the controversy was treated as a logomachy (Eus. ...
The story told by Epiphanius, of severities used by Alexander towards the Meletians [4], and of a consequent petition addressed by them to Constantine, appears to be one of several misstatements which he adopted from some Meletian sources. Athanasius tells us expressly that Alexander died within five months after the reception of the Meletians into church communion in the council of Nicaea (Apol. ...
Athanasius mentions a circumstance of Alexander's local administration which furnished a precedent, on one occasion, for himself. Alexander was building the church of St
Jaddua - A high priest, probably at the end of the Persian period when Alexander the Great approached Jerusalem about 333 B
Dorchester, England, Abbey of - Founded, 1140, by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, for canons of the Order of Saint Augustine (Black Canons)
Shimon hatzaddik - In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot
Simeon the righteous - In 313 BCE, when the Samaritans tried to have the Holy Temple destroyed, Simeon met with Alexander the Great who agreed to leave the Temple standing, foiling the Samaritans' plot
Jaddua - He is doubtless the Jaddua who is named by Josephus in connexion with Alexander the Great (Jos
Abbey of Dorchester, England - Founded, 1140, by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, for canons of the Order of Saint Augustine (Black Canons)
Hymenae'us - Paul and Timothy; the first time classed with Alexander, ( 1 Timothy 1:20 ) and the second time classed with Philetus
Frangipani, Lando Dei - He was set up in opposition to Alexander III by the brother and followers of the deceased antipope, Octavian
Innocent Iii, Anti-Pope - He was set up in opposition to Alexander III by the brother and followers of the deceased antipope, Octavian
Lando Dei Frangipani - He was set up in opposition to Alexander III by the brother and followers of the deceased antipope, Octavian
Alexander - Alexander (ăl-egz-ăn'der), strong man, or helper of men
Maximinus i., Roman Emperor - Born in Thrace of a Gothic father and an Alan mother, eight feet high and of gigantic strength, he attracted the notice of Septimius Severus, and rose into favour with Alexander Severus. When that emperor fell into disfavour with his troops, Maximinus seized his opportunity and organized a conspiracy which ended in the murder of Alexander and his mother at Mayence in 235. ...
The hostility of Maximinus to his Christian subjects was probably because of the favour they had enjoyed from the eclectic or syncretic sympathies of Alexander Severus. The persecution was limited in its range, and probably was effectual chiefly in removing the restraints which the leanings of Alexander had imposed on the antagonism of the populations and governors of the provinces. This was all the more keenly felt after the comparatively long tranquillity which they had enjoyed under Alexander Severus and his predecessors
Demetrius Nikator - He was later captured by the Parthians; on his release, after attacking Egypt he was defeated by Alexander Zabinas, a pretender, and assassinated at Tyre, 128 B
Nikator, Demetrius - He was later captured by the Parthians; on his release, after attacking Egypt he was defeated by Alexander Zabinas, a pretender, and assassinated at Tyre, 128 B
Salome alexandra - After the death of her husband Aristobulus I, she freed his brother, Alexander Jannaeus from prison, and married him shortly thereafter, in accordance with the laws of yibbum
Shalomtzion - After the death of her husband Aristobulus I, she freed his brother, Alexander Jannaeus from prison, and married him shortly thereafter, in accordance with the laws of yibbum
Adoptionism - Abelard renewed this teaching in the 12th century, and his neo-Adoptionism was condemned by Pope Alexander III in 1177
Antigonish, Canada, Diocese of - Early missionaries: Father Angus MacEachern; Abbe Lejamtel; Fathers Alexander McDonell, William Chisholm, Colin Grant, James Grant; Father Vincent, founder of former Trappist monastery at Tracadie
Alexan'Dria, - (from Alexander ), 3 Maccabees 3:1 ; (Acts 18:24 ; 6:9 ) the Hellenic, Roman and Christian capital of Egypt. ) It was founded by Alexander the Great, B. The work thus begun was continued after the death of Alexander by the Ptolemies. According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a place in his new city
Shimon ben shetach - Later, during Alexander Jannaeus's reign, he became the head of the Sanhedrin, and succeeded in ousting the Sadducees from the Sanhedrin
Simeon ben shetach, rabbi - Later, during Alexander Jannaeus's reign, he became the head of the Sanhedrin, and succeeded in ousting the Sadducees from the Sanhedrin
Hymenaeus - Paul, in his apostolic authority, had delivered him and Alexander unto Satan that they might learn not to blaspheme
India - The country round the Indus, the Punjab, and Scinde, which Alexander the Great afterward conquered
Christ Jesus: the Marrow of Theology - Archibald Alexander, of Princeton, United States, had been a preacher of Christ for sixty years, and a professor of divinity for forty
Alexander the Great - Alexander THE GREAT . The objections to this story are: (1) that although there are references to Alexander and his successors in Daniel ( Daniel 2:40 ff. It is also most likely that when Josephus declares that Alexander gave to the Jews in Alexandria equal privileges with the Macedonians ( c. ...
The deep impression made by Alexander’s successes is evinced by the numerous legends connected with his name in later Jewish literature
Colluthus, Presbyter And Sect Founder - Alexander, in a letter preserved by Theodoret ( Ecc. A phrase used by Alexander ( Χριστεμπορεία ) has been understood by Valesius to charge Colluthus with taking money for conferring orders. Valesius also infers that the cause of Colluthus's separation was impatience that Alexander had not taken stronger measures against Arianism. The name Colluthus is the first among those presbyters who subscribed to Alexander's condemnation of Arius (Gelas
Minims, Order of - For fifty-seven years the Minims had no written rule, but in 1493, the first rule, which was almost a copy of that of Saint Francis of Assisi, was confirmed by Pope Alexander VI. A second version of the rule which showed more independence of the Rule of Saint Francis, was approved by Pope Alexander VI in 1501
Order of Minims - For fifty-seven years the Minims had no written rule, but in 1493, the first rule, which was almost a copy of that of Saint Francis of Assisi, was confirmed by Pope Alexander VI. A second version of the rule which showed more independence of the Rule of Saint Francis, was approved by Pope Alexander VI in 1501
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - Alexander , bp. On the death of Narcissus, Alexander succeeded as sole bishop. ]'>[1] The friendship of Alexander and Origen was warm and lasting; and the latter bears testimony to the remarkable gentleness and sweetness of character manifested in all Alexander's public instructions (Orig. Alexander was again thrown into prison at Caesarea in the Decian persecution, where he died A. Eusebius has preserved some fragments of Alexander's letters: to the Antinoites, H
Most Catholic King - The title was given to Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile by Pope Alexander VI
Epitaph - ) A brief writing formed as if to be inscribed on a monument, as that concerning Alexander: "Sufficit huic tumulus, cui non sufficeret orbis
Arkite - As the birthplace of the Emperor Alexander Severus, it was later called Cæsarea Libani
Antonio da Sangallo, the Elder - He was engaged by Pope Alexander VI to erect the fortification of the Castel Sant' Angelo and the fort Civita Castellana
Sangalo, Antonio da, the Elder - He was engaged by Pope Alexander VI to erect the fortification of the Castel Sant' Angelo and the fort Civita Castellana
Alexander the Great - These characteristics exactly agree with the character and actions of Alexander. , where the kingdom of Media and Persia is compared to a ram, Greece is compared to a he goat, with a great horn, which is its first king, Alexander, Daniel 8:21 . ...
Alexander the Great, son of Philip II. While besieging Tyre Alexander sent to demand the submission of the Jews; but was told they were faithful vassals of Darius. On seeing these Alexander was arrested, fell to the ground and then embraced the high priest. In reply to an astonished courtier, Alexander said he did not worship the priest, but the name on his frontlet, and explained that he had seen in a vision a figure resembling this very priest, who told him to conquer Persia
Kinloss Abbey - It was approved by Pope Alexander III, 1174
Rufus - Mark mentions him along with his brother Alexander as persons well known to his readers ( Mark 15:21 )
Exploit - ) A deed or act; especially, a heroic act; a deed of renown; an adventurous or noble achievement; as, the exploits of Alexander the Great
Arius - Later he demanded that Alexander of Constantinople give him communion by the emperor's orders, but his sudden death prevented the sacrilege
Guido of Crema - He was elected at Lucca, by the schismatic cardinals, in opposition to Pope Alexander III and as successor to the antipope Octavian
Abbey, Kinloss - It was approved by Pope Alexander III, 1174
Seleucia - It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, the successor in Syria to Alexander the Great
Frederick Barbarossa - A synod was called at Pavia by him, and a decision given in favor of antipope Victor IV against Pope Alexander III. The opponents of a universal imperial power rallied round Alexander, and eventually the battle of Legnano put an end to Frederick's pretensions
Frederick i - A synod was called at Pavia by him, and a decision given in favor of antipope Victor IV against Pope Alexander III. The opponents of a universal imperial power rallied round Alexander, and eventually the battle of Legnano put an end to Frederick's pretensions
Barbarossa, Frederick - A synod was called at Pavia by him, and a decision given in favor of antipope Victor IV against Pope Alexander III. The opponents of a universal imperial power rallied round Alexander, and eventually the battle of Legnano put an end to Frederick's pretensions
Macedonia - Alexander the Great, son of Philip, king of Macedonia, having conquered Asia, and subverted the Persian empire, the name of the Macedonians became very famous throughout the east; and it is often given to the Greeks, the successors of Alexander in the monarchy
Alexander - Alexander THE GREAT. on the face of the whole earth and not touching the ground (implying the incredible swiftness of his conquests); and the goat had A NOTABLE HORN (Alexander) between his eyes, and he came to the ram that had two horns (Media and Persia, the second great world kingdom, the successor of Babylon; under both Daniel prophesied long before the rise of the Macedon-Greek kingdom) standing before the river (at the river Granicus Alexander gained his first victory over Darius Codomanus, 334 B. Alexander finally defeated Darius, and in 330 burned Persepolis, the Persian capital. But "when he was strong, the great horn Alexander was broken. " The Graeco-Macedonian empire was in full strength at Alexander's death by fever, the result of drunken excesses, at Babylon. " Alexander's natural brother, Philip Aridaeus, and his two sons Alexander AEgus and Hercules, in 15 months were murdered; "and for it the he-goat came up four notable ones, toward the four winds of heaven": Seleucus in the E. So Alexander, king of a small kingdom, overcame Darius at the head of an empire extending from the AEgean sea to the Indies, and in 12 years attained the rule from the Adriatic to the Ganges. The "spots" imply the variety of nations incorporated, perhaps also the variability of Alexander's own character, by turns mild and cruel, temperate and drunken and licentious. "Dominion was given to it" by God, not by Alexander's own might; for how unlikely it was that 30,000 men should overthrow hundreds of thousands. 11:8, section 5) says that Alexander meeting the high priest Jaddua (Nehemiah 12:11-22) said that at Dium in Macedonia he had a divine vision so habited, inviting him to Asia and promising him success. Alexander at the sight of the linen arrayed priests, and the high priest in blue and gold with the miter and gold plate on his head bearing Jehovah's name, adored it, and embraced him; and having been shown Daniel's prophecies concerning him, he sacrificed to God in the court of the temple, and granted the Jews liberty to live according to their own laws, and freedom from tribute in the sabbatical years. It accords with Alexander's character of believing himself divinely chosen for the great mission of Greece to the civilized world, to join the east and west in a union of equality, with Babylon as the capital. " Arrian says: "Alexander was like no other man, and could not have been given to the world without the special interposition of God. A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem - Chronicon ), Alexander, a Cappadocian bishop, a confessor in the persecution of Severus, visiting the holy city in fulfilment of a vow, was selected by the aged Narcissus as his coadjutor and eventual successor. Eusebius preserves a fragment of a letter written by Alexander to the people of Antinous, in which he speaks of Narcissus as being then in his 116th year, and as having virtually retired from his episcopal office (Eus. Epiphanius states that he lived ten years after Alexander became his coadjutor, to the reign of Alexander Severus, a
Natalis, Alexander - (Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France
Elioenai - In the seventh generation from Zerubbabel, contemporary with Alexander the Great, but the Hebrew (1 Chronicles 3:23-24) is probably an error, and Shemaiah, grandfather of Elioenai and father of Neariah, Elioenai's father, is probably Shimei, Zerubbabel's brother
Arkites - of Phoenicia, called subsequently Caesarea Libani (at the base of Lebanon) from being Alexander Severus' birthplace; well known to the crusaders
Noel, Alexander - (Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France
Era - ) A period of time reckoned from some particular date or epoch; a succession of years dating from some important event; as, the era of Alexander; the era of Christ, or the Christian era (see under Christian)
Augustins - Augustin, prescribed them by pope Alexander IV
Alexander Natalis - (Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France
Alexander Noel - (Noel Alexander; 1639-1724) Historian and theologian, born Rouen; died in Paris, France
Felicitas, Saint 23 Nov - She was a holy Roman widow martyred during the reign of Emperor Antoninus, with seven sons (Januarius, Felix, Philip Pius, Silvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, and Martialis), because of their defense of Christianity
Susa - When Alexander the Great captured Susa, he found a large treasure which he confiscated
Cappadocia - Cappadocia was conquered by Cyrus, ruled by Alexander the Great, tributary to the Seleucidæ, and became a Roman province, a
Leopard - 1: πάρδαλις (Strong's #3917 — Noun Feminine — pardalis — par'-dal-is ) denotes "a leopard or a panther," an animal characterized by swiftness of movement and sudden spring, in Daniel 7:6 symbolic of the activities of Alexander the Great, and the formation of the Grecian kingdom, the third seen in the vision there recorded
Javan - Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan" (rendered "Grecia," Daniel 8:21 ; 10:20 ; comp 11:2; Zechariah 9:13 )
Alexandria - , founded by Alexander the Great as an outstanding Greek cultural and academic center. ...
Alexandria bears the name of its founder, Alexander the Great, who planted the city about 332 B. When Ptolemy inherited Alexander's Egyptian empire, he made Alexandria its capital. The historian Strabo purports that Alexander was later buried here
Savonarola, Girolamo - He introduced many severe measures to reform morals, came into conflict with Pope Alexander VI, was interdicted from preaching, and, refusing obedience, was excommunicated (1497), tried, condemned, and executed
Girolamo Savonarola - He introduced many severe measures to reform morals, came into conflict with Pope Alexander VI, was interdicted from preaching, and, refusing obedience, was excommunicated (1497), tried, condemned, and executed
Lasthenes - He raised a body of Cretan mercenaries, and enabled Demetrius to land in Cilicia, and wrest the throne of Syria from Alexander Balas (Jos
Moray, Scotland, Diocese of - Founded by King Alexander
Rufus - The brother of Alexander and son of Simon of Cyrene ( Mark 15:21 only)
Cento - The Byzantine empress Eudoxia is credited with having formed a history of the fall and redemption of man with lines from the works of Homer, while the works of Vergil supplied the material for the notable "Cento nuptialis" compiled by the Roman poet Ausonius, and for a life of Christ, compiled in 1634 by Alexander Ross
Hadrach, the Land of - Hengstenberg makes it a symbolical name of Persia, Zechariah thereby avoiding offence to the government under which he lived; from haad "strong", and raq "weak"; strong then, but soon to be weakened by Alexander its conqueror
Lucca, Anselm of, Saint - 1036-1086), called The Younger to distinguish him from his uncle, Pope Alexander II, born Mantua, Italy; died there
Gorres Society - An association of Catholic scientists and lawyers founded at Coblenz, 1876, by the poet, Alexander Kaufmann, to encourage the progress of science in Catholic Germany
Anselm of Lucca, Saint - 1036-1086), called The Younger to distinguish him from his uncle, Pope Alexander II, born Mantua, Italy; died there
Alcala, University of - As early, as 1499 this project had received the approbation of Pope Alexander VI
Bernice - This lady was first betrothed to Mark, the son of Alexander Lysimachus, albarach of Alexandria; afterward she married Herod, king of Chalcis, her own uncle by the father's side
Salamanca, University of - It was established as a royal foundation by King Alfonso IX, c1230 Confirmed by Pope Alexander IV in 1255, and placed under the direct control of the bishop
University of Salamanca - It was established as a royal foundation by King Alfonso IX, c1230 Confirmed by Pope Alexander IV in 1255, and placed under the direct control of the bishop
University of Alcala - As early, as 1499 this project had received the approbation of Pope Alexander VI
Elagabalus, Emperor - His mother, Julia Soëmia, and aunt, Julia Mammaea, were devoted to the worship of El-gabal (=God the Creator, or, according to less probable etymology, God of the Mountains), and he and his cousin Alexander Severus were in early childhood consecrated as priests of that deity, and the young Bassianus took the name of the god to whom he ministered. 21), speaks of her as a woman of exceptional piety ( γυνὴ θεοσεβεστάτη εἰ καὶ τις ἄλλη γεγονυία ), and we may trace her influence in the character of her son Alexander Severus. His jealousy and suspicion led him to imprison Alexander Severus, whose virtue attracted the admiration both of soldiers and people, and whom, at his mother's advice, he had adopted and proclaimed as Caesar soon after arriving in Rome
Macedonia - The Macedonian Empire is traced back some four hundred years before the Famous Philip, under whom, and especially under his son Alexander the Great, it reached the summit of its power. Alexander, B. After the death of Alexander, the power of the Macedonians declined, and they were at length conquered by the Romans under Paulus Emilius, B
Helladius, Bishop of Tarsus - When the rival leaders sought peace, Helladius kept aloof, and on the receipt of the six articles drawn up by John at a council at Antioch, which ultimately opened the way for reconcilation, he and Alexander of Hierapolis rejected the terms and all communion with Cyril. He wrote to Alexander that, wearied by the struggle and sick at heart at the defection of his fellow-combatants, he longed to retire to a monastery, and was only restrained by his care for his flock ( ib. " The firmness of Helladius rejoiced Alexander, who wrote that he intended to hold a synod himself, begging Helladius, whom he regarded as his leader, to attend it and sign its decrees ( ib. He, Alexander, Theodoret, and Maximian were ordered to accept the concordat or resign their sees. All eventually yielded except Alexander. 148), who, having determined on yielding, wrote to Alexander to explain his conduct ( ib. Alexander bitterly reproached him with his weakness ( ib
Myndus - It was strong enough to resist an assault of Alexander, but played no great part in history
Zemstvo - In the reign of Alexander III
Alexander Vii, Pope - Alexander combated Jansenism by compelling the French clergy to sign his "formulary
Alexan'Der Iii - The next two years were occupied by Alexander in the consolidation of his Persian conquests and the reduction of Bactria. ( Daniel 7:6 ; 8:5 ; 11:3 ) Alexander is intended in (Daniel 2:39 ) and also Dani 7:6; 8:5-7; 11:3,4 The latter indicating the rapidity of his conquests and his power
Grecia, Greece - Greece is referred to in Daniel as the seat of the third great Gentile empire, of which Alexander the Great was the head, though he was a Macedonian; but he conquered Greece, and the empire he established bears that name. On the death of Alexander the empire was not conquered by others, but fellto pieces of itself. See Alexander THE GREAT
Lorrain, Claude de - Among his patrons were Pope Urban VIII, Pope Innocent X, Pope Alexander VII, and Pope Clement IX
Lucius Iii, Pope - He absolved King William of Scotland from the excommunication imposed on him by Pope Alexander III, and later sent him the Golden Rose
Giovanni Bona - Pope Alexander VII, his intimate friend, appointed him consultor to the Congregation of the Index and to the Holy Office, and in 1669 he was created cardinal
Assos - 334 241 under Alexander the Great and his successors, and from b
Cyrene - From hence came Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus, on whom the Roman soldiers laid a part of our Savior's cross, Matthew 27:32 Luke 23:26
Darius - Alexander the Great invaded the Persian empire, and defeated Darius in three successive battles. Alexander having wintered at Babylon and Persepolis, took the field in search of Darius, who quitted Ecbatana, with an intention of retreating into Bactria; but, changing his resolution, Darius stopped short, and determined to hazard a battle, though his army at this time consisted only of forty thousand men. If Alexander pursued them, they intended to purchase their peace by delivering Darius into his hands; but if not, to kill him, seize the crown, and renew the war. Eight days after their departure, Alexander arrived at Ecbatana, and set out in pursuit of them, which he continued for eleven days: at length he stopped at Rages, in Media, despairing to overtake Darius. He was dead when Alexander arrived, who could not forbear weeping at so sad a spectacle. Alexander covered Darius with his own cloak, and sent him to Sisygambis his wife, that she might bury him in the tombs of the kings of Persia. Thus were verified the prophecies of Daniel, viii, who had foretold the destruction of the Persian monarchy, under the symbol of a ram, which butted with its horns westward, northward, and southward, and which nothing could resist; but a goat which had a very large horn between his eyes, and which denoted Alexander the Great, came from the west, and overran the world without touching the earth; springing forward with impetuosity, the goat ran against the ram with all his force, attacked him with fury, struck him, broke his two horns, trampled him under foot, and no one could rescue the ram
Octavius - Anti-Pope - Upon the death of Pope Adrian IV he sought in vain to have himself elected, and at the imposition of Pope Alexander III he seized the papal mantle and rushed out to his followers claiming to be the new pope
Lycia - It afterward, in common with the neighbouring countries of Asia Minor, formed part of the Macedonian empire, under Alexander; then of that of the Seleucidae, his successors in those countries; and, at the time of the Apostles, was reduced to the state of a Roman province
Troas - by Antigonus, a successor of Alexander the Great and was located about ten miles south of the city of Troy
Memphis - It continued to be an important city up till the time of its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 BC (Isaiah 19:13; Jeremiah 44:1; Jeremiah 46:14; Jeremiah 46:19; Ezekiel 30:13; Hosea 9:6)
Victor iv - Anti-Pope (1159-1164) - Upon the death of Pope Adrian IV he sought in vain to have himself elected, and at the imposition of Pope Alexander III he seized the papal mantle and rushed out to his followers claiming to be the new pope
Persep'Olis, - mentioned only in 2 Maccabees 9:2 , was the capital of Persia proper, and the occasional residence of the Persian court from the time of Darius Hystaspes, who seems to have been its founder, to the invasion of Alexander
Andreas Samosatensis of Samosata - In 453 Andreas accompanied Alexander and Theodoret to the council summoned at Antioch by Aristolaus the tribune, in compliance with the commands of Theodosius, to consult how the breach with Cyril might be healed (ib. On the amicable reception by Acacius and John of Cyril's letter written in answer to the rescript of this council, Andreas fully sympathized with his aged metropolitan Alexander's distress and indignation. His alteration of sentiments exasperated Alexander, who refused to see or speak to his former friend ( ib. He used his utmost endeavours in vain to persuade Alexander to attend the council at Zeugma, which acknowledged the orthodoxy of Cyril's letter ( ib
Influence of the Church on Civil Law - The right of sanctuary and the "Truce of God" were innovations by the Church; and trial by ordeal was condemned by the following popes: Nicholas I (858-867), Stephen V (VI) (885-891), Alexander II (1061-1073), Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1198-1216), and Honorius III (1216-1218)
Law, Influence of the Church on Civil Law - The right of sanctuary and the "Truce of God" were innovations by the Church; and trial by ordeal was condemned by the following popes: Nicholas I (858-867), Stephen V (VI) (885-891), Alexander II (1061-1073), Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1198-1216), and Honorius III (1216-1218)
Archangel, Gabriel the - " Mention of him occurs four times in the Bible; he foretold the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and its division among his generals after his death (Daniel 8), interpreted to Daniel the Messianic visions (Daniel 9); predicted to Zachary the birth of the precursor (Luke 1); and announced to Mary that she was to be the mother of God (Luke 1)
Gabriel the Archangel - " Mention of him occurs four times in the Bible; he foretold the destruction of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and its division among his generals after his death (Daniel 8), interpreted to Daniel the Messianic visions (Daniel 9); predicted to Zachary the birth of the precursor (Luke 1); and announced to Mary that she was to be the mother of God (Luke 1)
Gregory Xii, Pope - When the latter hesitated, Gregory refused to resign, and the cardinals at the Council of Pisa elected Alexander V to replace both
Sanballat - Josephus' account of a Sanballat 100 years later under Alexander the Great seems unhistorical
Angelo Corrario - When the latter hesitated, Gregory refused to resign, and the cardinals at the Council of Pisa elected Alexander V to replace both
Angelo Correr - When the latter hesitated, Gregory refused to resign, and the cardinals at the Council of Pisa elected Alexander V to replace both
Tiphsah - ' It was where Cyrus, Darius Codomannus, and Alexander crossed during their wars
Tarsus - The river Cydnus, which in the days of Cyrus and Alexander flowed through the city, now runs about half a mile east of it
Antioch of Pisidia - There were several other cities of the same name, sixteen in number, in Syria and Asia Minor, built by the Seleucidae, the successors of Alexander in these countries; but the above two are the only ones which it is necessary to describe as occurring in Scripture
Parthians - The Parthians adopted Greek culture following their fall to Alexander the Great
Pella - Alexander the Great settled the city with Macedonians
Cleopatra - 150 she was given in marriage by her father to Alexander Balas ( 1Ma 10:57-58 ; Jos
Agabus - The famine was in the procuratorship of Cuspius Fadus and Tiberius Alexander, A
Javan - In Daniel 8:21 , where the Hebrew is the same, Alexander the Great is king of Javan, agreeing with Daniel 10:20 ; Daniel 11:2 ; , Zechariah 9:13 that Javan refers to Greece
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Nepotism - This was done sometimes for unworthy motives (Sixtus IV and Alexander VI), sometimes in the interest of the Church (Paul IV and Pius II)
Bernardino di Betto di Biagio Pinturicchio - His greatest accomplishment was the decoration of the Borgia Apartments in the Vatican, executed for Alexander VI, and including an unflattering portrait of the patron
Diadem - It was adopted by Alexander the Great and his successors
Troas - Alexandria Troas, as its name implies, owed its origin to Alexander the Great
Darius - Darius the Persian, mentioned in Nehemiah 12:22, is generally identified with Darius Codomaunus, the antagonist of Alexander the Great, who ascended the throne b. Alexander defeated him, and thus the prophecy of Daniel, Daniel 8:1-27, was fulfilled
Darius - Alexander the Great defeated him several times, and at great length subverted the Persian monarchy, after it had been established two hundred and six years. Thus were verified the prophecies of Daniel, Daniel 8:1-27 , who had foretold the enlargement of the Persian monarchy, under the symbol of a ram, butting with its horns westward, northward, and southward, which nothing could resist; and its destruction by a goat having a very large horn between his eyes, (Alexander the Great,) coming from the west, and overrunning the world without touching the earth
Francis of Paula, Saint - In 1454 he assembled his followers at the monastery which he built near Paula; they were first known as "Hermits of Saint Francis" but later were called Minims by Pope Alexander VI who gave formal approbation to the order
Machaerus - of the Dead Sea, fortified by Alexander Jannæus, and greatly enlarged and strengthened by Herod the Great (Jos
Diamond - ...
Apparently Alexander the Great around 330 B
Annas - But in Acts 4:6 Annas is called "high priest," Caiaphas, John, and Alexander are called "of his kindred
Philippi - It was founded by Philip the father of Alexander the Great, from whom it derived its name
Tutiorism - Absolute rigorism (or tutiorism, the safer course) was condemned by Pope Alexander VIII on December 7, 1690
Rigorism - Absolute rigorism (or tutiorism, the safer course) was condemned by Pope Alexander VIII on December 7, 1690
Lyc'ia - After the death of Alexander the Great, Lycia was included in the Greek Seleucid kingdom, and was a part of the territory which the Romans forced Antiochus to cede
Christ, Disciples of - Stone and of Alexander Campbell
Disciples of Christ - Stone and of Alexander Campbell
Tryphon - An officer of Alexander Balas, who, after the death of the latter, took advantage of the unpopularity of Demetrius to put forward Antiochus, the son of Balas, as a claimant to the throne ( 1Ma 11:39 )
il Sodoma - In 1507 he was invited to Rome by Pope Julius II to assist in decorating the Vatican, and from 1513 to 1515 he executed the noble frescoes of the "Life of Alexander" in the Villa Farnesina in Rome
Manaen - The earliest Greek translation uses syntropoi to refer to those generals who were reared with Alexander ( 1 Maccabees 1:6 ) as well as for members of court (2 Maccabees 9:29 )
Giovanni Bazzi - In 1507 he was invited to Rome by Pope Julius II to assist in decorating the Vatican, and from 1513 to 1515 he executed the noble frescoes of the "Life of Alexander" in the Villa Farnesina in Rome
Beast - These four kingdoms were the Babylonian, Medo-Persian, Grecian under Alexander the Great, and the Roman Empire
Bazzi, Giovanni Antonio - In 1507 he was invited to Rome by Pope Julius II to assist in decorating the Vatican, and from 1513 to 1515 he executed the noble frescoes of the "Life of Alexander" in the Villa Farnesina in Rome
Asia Minor - After receiving Greck civilization through the victories of Alexander it became a prosperous Roman province, combining the advantages of both civilizations
Parthians - ), revolting from the Seleucid successors of Alexander the Great, founded it
Interdict - This censure has been frequently executed in France, Italy, and Germany; and in the year 1170, Pope Alexander III
Grecians - , where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched
Greeks - , where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched
Per'Gamos - It was the residence of a dynasty of Greek princes founded after the time of Alexander the Great, and usually called the Attalic dynasty, from its founder, Attalus
Gaza or Azzah - the Jewish king Alexander Jannaeus captured and destroyed it. The few remains of the old city cover a large but low hill, two or three miles from the sea, once so strongly fortified as to withstand Alexander the Great for five months
Alexandria - It was founded by Alexander the Great, B. ...
Upon the death of Alexander, whose body was deposited in this new city, Alexandria became the regal capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, and rose to its highest splendor. Josephus says that Alexander himself assigned to them a particular quarter of the city, and allowed them equal rights and privileges with the Greeks
Notre Dame, Paris - The foundation stone was laid by the exiled Pope Alexander III, and the structure was consecrated in 1182
Claudius - ...
In Claudius' reign occurred the famine in Palestine and Syria (Acts 11:28-30) under the procurators Cuspins Fadus and Tiberius Alexander
Mark (2) - Mark introduces several Latin terms; he even substitutes Roman money for Greek, 12:42, which Luke does not, and notices that Simon of Cyrene was the father of Alexander and Rufus, 15:21, who probably were Christians in Rome
Conquer - Alexander conquered Asia
Alexandria - The city which Alexander the Great built with the object of its being the capital of the western empire
Geography - ...
Albertus Magnus
Alexander Neckam
Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie
Christopher Columbus
Claudius Clavus
Elie Colin
Ferdinand Magellan
Fra Mauro
Heinrich Scherer
Jacques Marquette
Joseph Tieffentaller
Juan de la Cosa
Louis Joliet
Martin Behaim
Martin Martini
Martin Waldseemuller
Olaus Magnus, Bishop
Rene Robert Cavalier de La Salle
Vasco da Gama
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Roman Empire - The empire of Rome succeeded the Macedonian empire founded by Philip and Alexander
Sixtus i., Bishop of Rome - of Rome, called the 6th after the apostles, and the successor of Alexander
Maccabees - As a sort of licensed revolutionist, Jonathan was sought as an ally by the two rivals for the Syrian throne, Alexander Balas and Demetrius i. Each made him extravagant offers, but Jonathan preferred Alexander Balas; and when the latter defeated his rival, Jonathan found himself a high priest, a prince of Syria, and military and civil governor of Judæa (b. When Alexander Balas was conquered by Demetrius ii. Alexander Jannæus (b. After the death of Aristobulus, his widow Alexandra (Salome) released his three brothers from prison, and married the oldest of them, Alexander Jannæus (or Jonathan), making him king and high priest. Alexander carried on still more vigorously the monarchical policy of Aristobulus, and undertook the extension of Judæa by the conquest of the surrounding cities, including those of Upper Galilee. The Egyptian army was withdrawn, and Alexander Jannæus was left in control of the country. , and succeeded in defeating Alexander. Thereupon, however, feeling that they were in danger of falling again into subjection to Syria, many of the Jews went over to Alexander and assisted him in putting down the rebellion. The consequent success of Alexander was marked by a series of terrible punishments inflicted upon those who had rebelled against him. Alexander , the elder son of Aristobulus ii. , married her cousin Alexander, son of Aristobulus ii. , son of Alexander and Alexandra, became a member of the household of Herod after the latter’s marriage with Mariamme. Mariamme , daughter of Alexander and Alexandra, was reputed to be one of the most beautiful women of the time. ...
Although the direct line of Hasmonæans was thus wiped out by Herod, the family was perpetuated in the sons of Herod himself by Mariamme Alexander and Aristobulus
Droit de Regale - Innocent XI condemned the Regale once more, as did Pope Alexander VIII, and Pope Innocent XII, but to no avail; and the practise continued until the French Revolution
Alexandria - The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B
Hymenaeus - A heretical Christian associated with Alexander in 1 Timothy 1:19 f
Lycia - Lycia was ruled by the Persians, and conquered by Alexander the Great
Gallican Articles - Alexander VIII proclaimed null and void all the declarations of the Assembly concerning papal authority; on the other hand, Louis XIV forbade the bishops nominated by him to seek their Bulls in Rome
Belly - ...
Daniel 2:32 (a) The word is used here to represent the third great world kingdom mentioned in Daniel's image, Alexander the Great and his Grecian empire
Articles, Gallican - Alexander VIII proclaimed null and void all the declarations of the Assembly concerning papal authority; on the other hand, Louis XIV forbade the bishops nominated by him to seek their Bulls in Rome
Thessalonica - Cassander having enlarged it, named it after his wife Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great
Alexandria, Egypt, City of - Seaport city, founded by Alexander the Great in 331 B
Urbanus, Bishop of Rome - of Rome under the emperor Alexander Severus, from 223 (or 222) to 230
Image, Nebuchadnezzar's - Others see a succession of kingdoms rather than kings, for example, (1) Babylon, Media, Persia, and Greece or (2) Babylon, Medo-Persia, Alexander the Great, and Alexander's Hellenistic successors. Interpreters divide over whether to identify the kingdom that rules the world (Daniel 2:39 ) with that of Cyrus who made this claim or with Alexander who in fact conquered much of the known world. The fourth “divided” kingdom (Daniel 2:41 ) is frequently identified with the division of Alexander's empire by his generals
Thessalonica - by Cassander, a general of Alexander the Great. He founded the city in that year, naming it after his wife who was the daughter of Philip II and half sister of Alexander
Eutherius, Bishop of Tyana - 681); to Alexander of Hierapolis, who was opposed to the reconciliation, a long letter ably defending the position which they and others were still determined to maintain ( ib. of Tarsus, who had also written to Alexander, to encourage him in his opposition, expressing great joy at what he had done ( ib
Gerizim - Manasseh, the grandson of Eliashib, the high priest, and brother to Jaddus, high priest of the Jews, having been driven from Jerusalem in the year of the world 3671, and not enduring patiently to see himself deprived of the honour and advantages of the priesthood, Sanballat, his father-in- law, addressed himself to Alexander the Great, who was then carrying on the siege of Tyre; and having paid him homage for the province of Samaria, whereof he was governor, he farther offered him eight thousand of his best troops, which disposed Alexander to grant what he desired for his son-in- law, and for many other priests, who being married, as well as he, contrary to the law, chose rather to forsake their country than their wives, and had joined Manasseh in Samaria
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - He succeeded Alexander, under whom the long-standing schism at Antioch had been healed, and followed his lead in replacing the honoured name of Chrysostom on the diptychs of the church. When in 424 Alexander, founder of the order of the Acoemetae, visited Antioch, Theodotus refused to receive him as being suspected of heretical views. His feeling was not shared by the Antiochenes, who, ever eager after novelty, deserted their own churches and crowded to listen to Alexander's fervid eloquence (Fleury, H
Hasmonean - These included embracing some forms of Hellenism (he changed the name of his three sons from Judas, Mattathias, and Jonathan, all names of Maccabean heroes, to Aristobulus, Antigonus, and Alexander Janneus). Aristobulus was followed by Alexander Janneus who ruled for some 28 years. Part of the general resistance was particularized in open animosity between the Hasmohynean priesthood, represented by Alexander Janneus and the Pharisees. Portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls may reflect criticisms leveled against Alexander Janneus
Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis - ); Meletius retaliated by abusing Peter and his immediate successors Achillas and Alexander. The council decreed that those who had received appointments from him should be confirmed by a more legitimate ordination and then admitted to communion and retain their rank and ministry, but were to be counted inferior to those previously ordained and established by Alexander; nor were they to do anything without the concurrence of the bishops of the Catholic and apostolical church under Alexander. At Alexander's request he handed in a list of his clerical adherents, including 29 bishops, and in Alexandria itself 4 priests and 3 deacons. Meletius retired to Lycopolis, and during Alexander's lifetime remained quiet; but the appointment of Athanasius to the see of Alexandria was the signal for union of every faction opposed to him, and in the events which followed Meletius took a personal part. The uncompromising sternness of Athanasius was contrasted with the "clemency" of the council and of Alexander; Arian and Meletian, schismatic and heretic banded together against the one man they dreaded, and so pitiless and powerful was their hate that it wrung from him the comment on the pardon accorded to Meletius by the council of Nicaea "Would to God he had never been received!"...
Before his death, the date of which is not known, Meletius nominated, contrary to the decree of the Nicene council, his friend John as his successor (Soz
English Martyrs - ...
Abbot, Austin (alias John Rivers), priest
Abbot, Henry, Blessed
Abbot, John, layman, 1597
Abel, Thomas, Blessed
Ackridge, John, priest, 1585
Ackridge, Thomas, Franciscan, 1583
Adams, John, Venerable
Adams, Richard, priest
Ailworth (Aylword) William, layman, 1580
Aldham (Adelham), Placid, Benedictine, 1679
Alfield, Thomas, Blessed
Allen, John, priest, 1538
Allison, William, priest, 1681
Almond, John, Saint
Almond, John, Cistercian, 1585
Amias, John, Blessed
Anderton, Robert, Blessed
Andleby, William, Blessed
Arden, Edward, layman, 1584
Arrowsmith, Edmund, Saint
Arrowsmith, Thurstan, layman, 1583
Ash, Anthony, layman
Ashby (Asleby), George, monk, 1537
Ashby, Thomas, Venerable
Ashley, Ralph, Blessed
Ashton, Roger, Venerable
Aske, Robert, layman, 1537
Atkins, William, Jesuit, 1681
Atkinson, James, layman, 1595
Atkinson, Nicholas, priest, 1610
Atkinson, Thomas, Blessed
Bailey, Lawrence, Venerable
Baldwin (Bawden), William, priest, 1588
Bales, Christopher, Blessed
Bales, Alexander, layman
Bamber, Edward, Blessed
Bannersley, William, priest
Barkworth, Mark, Blessed
Barlow, Ambrose Edward, Saint
Barnes, Ralph, monk, 1537
Barrow, William
Barton, Elizabeth
Battie, Anthony
Bayle, Ralph, bishop, 1559
Beche, John, Blessed
Bedal, Thomas, priest, 1568-1590
Bedingfeld, Thomas, Venerable, Jesuit, 1678
Beesley, George, Blessed
Belohiam, Thomas, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Bell, Arthur, Blessed
Bell, James, Blessed
Belser, Thomas, priest
Belson, Thomas, Venerable, layman, 1589
Bentney (alias Bennet), William, Jesuit, 1692
Bere, Richard, Blessed
Berisford, Humphrey, layman, 1588
Bickerdyke, Robert, Venerable, layman, 1595
Bigod, Sir Francis, 1537
Bird, James, Blessed
Bird, Robert, priest, 1540
Bird, William, priest, 1540
Birkett, Richard, priest, 1680
Bishop, Thomas, layman, 1569-1570
Blackburne, William, priest, 1586
Blake, Alexander, Venerable, layman, 1590
Blenkinsop, Thomas, layman, 1593
Blonham, Laurence, monk, 1537
Blount, Thomas, priest, 1647
Bocking, Edward, Benedictine, 1537
Bodey, John, Blessed
Bolbet, Richard, layman, 1589
Bonner, Edmund, bishop, 1569
Bosgrave, Thomas, Blessed
Boste, John, Saint
Bourne, Gilbert, bishop, 1569
Bowes, Marmaduke, Venerable, layman, 1585
Bowes, Richard, priest, 1590
Boxall, John, priest, 1571
Bradley, Richard, Jesuit, 1645
Branton, Stephen, layman, 1591
Brazier (Grimes), Matthew, Jesuit, 1650
Bredstock, William, layman, 1590
Briant, Alexander, Blessed
Brindholme, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1540-1544
Britton, John, Venerable, layman, 1598
Brookby, Anthony, Venerable, O
Martyrs, English - ...
Abbot, Austin (alias John Rivers), priest
Abbot, Henry, Blessed
Abbot, John, layman, 1597
Abel, Thomas, Blessed
Ackridge, John, priest, 1585
Ackridge, Thomas, Franciscan, 1583
Adams, John, Venerable
Adams, Richard, priest
Ailworth (Aylword) William, layman, 1580
Aldham (Adelham), Placid, Benedictine, 1679
Alfield, Thomas, Blessed
Allen, John, priest, 1538
Allison, William, priest, 1681
Almond, John, Saint
Almond, John, Cistercian, 1585
Amias, John, Blessed
Anderton, Robert, Blessed
Andleby, William, Blessed
Arden, Edward, layman, 1584
Arrowsmith, Edmund, Saint
Arrowsmith, Thurstan, layman, 1583
Ash, Anthony, layman
Ashby (Asleby), George, monk, 1537
Ashby, Thomas, Venerable
Ashley, Ralph, Blessed
Ashton, Roger, Venerable
Aske, Robert, layman, 1537
Atkins, William, Jesuit, 1681
Atkinson, James, layman, 1595
Atkinson, Nicholas, priest, 1610
Atkinson, Thomas, Blessed
Bailey, Lawrence, Venerable
Baldwin (Bawden), William, priest, 1588
Bales, Christopher, Blessed
Bales, Alexander, layman
Bamber, Edward, Blessed
Bannersley, William, priest
Barkworth, Mark, Blessed
Barlow, Ambrose Edward, Saint
Barnes, Ralph, monk, 1537
Barrow, William
Barton, Elizabeth
Battie, Anthony
Bayle, Ralph, bishop, 1559
Beche, John, Blessed
Bedal, Thomas, priest, 1568-1590
Bedingfeld, Thomas, Venerable, Jesuit, 1678
Beesley, George, Blessed
Belohiam, Thomas, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Bell, Arthur, Blessed
Bell, James, Blessed
Belser, Thomas, priest
Belson, Thomas, Venerable, layman, 1589
Bentney (alias Bennet), William, Jesuit, 1692
Bere, Richard, Blessed
Berisford, Humphrey, layman, 1588
Bickerdyke, Robert, Venerable, layman, 1595
Bigod, Sir Francis, 1537
Bird, James, Blessed
Bird, Robert, priest, 1540
Bird, William, priest, 1540
Birkett, Richard, priest, 1680
Bishop, Thomas, layman, 1569-1570
Blackburne, William, priest, 1586
Blake, Alexander, Venerable, layman, 1590
Blenkinsop, Thomas, layman, 1593
Blonham, Laurence, monk, 1537
Blount, Thomas, priest, 1647
Bocking, Edward, Benedictine, 1537
Bodey, John, Blessed
Bolbet, Richard, layman, 1589
Bonner, Edmund, bishop, 1569
Bosgrave, Thomas, Blessed
Boste, John, Saint
Bourne, Gilbert, bishop, 1569
Bowes, Marmaduke, Venerable, layman, 1585
Bowes, Richard, priest, 1590
Boxall, John, priest, 1571
Bradley, Richard, Jesuit, 1645
Branton, Stephen, layman, 1591
Brazier (Grimes), Matthew, Jesuit, 1650
Bredstock, William, layman, 1590
Briant, Alexander, Blessed
Brindholme, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1540-1544
Britton, John, Venerable, layman, 1598
Brookby, Anthony, Venerable, O
Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea - He was ordained presbyter by Alexander bp. The attempt at reconciliation completely failed and resulted in his deposition and excommunication by Alexander on the ground of false doctrine and of the open and habitual irregularities of his life (Athan. Fear kept him from the council of Sardica in 347 where the bishops unanimously deposed him and many others as having been previously condemned by Alexander and as holding Arian opinions (Theod
Greece - After the conquests of Alexander the Great, who died 323 b. Alexander was the chief agent in the spread of the Greek civilization, manners, language, and culture over these countries. When, about three centuries after Alexander’s death, practically all his former dominions had become Roman provinces, Greek was the one language which could carry the traveller from the Euphrates to Spain. Some of the successors of Alexander esteemed them highly as colonists, and they were to be found in large numbers over the Roman Empire, speaking in the first instance Greek (cf
Alexander - In the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, Daniel 2:39 , the belly of brass was the emblem of Alexander
Mass, Saints of the - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady
twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)
Pope Saint Linus
Pope Saint Cletus
Pope Saint Clement
Pope Saint Sixtus
Pope Saint Cornelius
Saint Cyprian of Carthage
Saint Lawrence
Saint Chrysogonus
Saint John the Martyr
Saint Paul the Martyr
Saint Cosmas
Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist
Saint Stephen the First Martyr
Saint Matthias the Apostle
Saint Barnabas the Apostles
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Pope Saint Alexander I
Saint Marcellinus
Saint Peter the Exorcist
Saint Felicitas
Saint Perpetua
Saint Agatha
Saint Lucy
Saint Agnes
Saint Cecilia
Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Isabella i - Ferdinand had meanwhile succeeded to the throne of Aragon, and thus the definitive unity of the Spanish nation was accomplished in the two monarchs, to whom Alexander VI gave the title of "Catholic" which the Kings of Spain still bear
Isabella the Catholic - Ferdinand had meanwhile succeeded to the throne of Aragon, and thus the definitive unity of the Spanish nation was accomplished in the two monarchs, to whom Alexander VI gave the title of "Catholic" which the Kings of Spain still bear
Thessalonica - 315, and named after a stepsister of Alexander the Great
Ashkelon - In the time of the judges (Judges 1:18 ) it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retaken by the Philistines (2 Samuel 1:20 ), who were not finally dispossessed till the time of Alexander the Great
Copper - ) ...
We find mention of Alexander (q
Catholic, Isabella the - Ferdinand had meanwhile succeeded to the throne of Aragon, and thus the definitive unity of the Spanish nation was accomplished in the two monarchs, to whom Alexander VI gave the title of "Catholic" which the Kings of Spain still bear
Ekron - Zechariah 9:5, "Ekron for her expectation shall be ashamed": she had expected Tyre would withstand Alexander in his progress southward toward Egypt; but her expectation shall bear the shame of disappointment
Gaza - It withstood Alexander for five months (b
Saints of the Mass - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady
twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)
Pope Saint Linus
Pope Saint Cletus
Pope Saint Clement
Pope Saint Sixtus
Pope Saint Cornelius
Saint Cyprian of Carthage
Saint Lawrence
Saint Chrysogonus
Saint John the Martyr
Saint Paul the Martyr
Saint Cosmas
Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist
Saint Stephen the First Martyr
Saint Matthias the Apostle
Saint Barnabas the Apostles
Saint Ignatius of Antioch
Pope Saint Alexander I
Saint Marcellinus
Saint Peter the Exorcist
Saint Felicitas
Saint Perpetua
Saint Agatha
Saint Lucy
Saint Agnes
Saint Cecilia
Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Mile'Tus, - After a brief period of spirited independence, it received a blow from which it never recovered, in the siege conducted by Alexander when on his eastern campaign
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - His banishment doubtless took place under Maximinus, who succeeded Alexander after the assassination of the latter in May 235
Acacius, Bishop of Beroea - 35), which he did not regain till 414, and then chiefly through Alexander of Antioch. The letter sent to the pope by Acacius, with those of Alexander, was received with haughty condescension, and an answer was returned readmitting the aged prelate on his complying with certain conditions ( Conc. His communion with Alexander was fully restored, and we find the two prelates uniting in ordaining Diogenes, a "bigamus" (Theod. ...
Three letters are still extant out of the large number that he wrote, especially on the Nestorian controversy: two to Alexander of Hierapolis, Baluzius, Nov
Arians - 313, felt not a little chagrined that Alexander should be preferred before him. Whether this circumstance had any influence on his opinions, it is impossible to say; but one day, when his rival (Alexander) had been addressing the clergy in favour of the orthodox doctrine, and maintaining, in strong and pointed language, "that the Son of God was co-eternal, co- essential, and co-equal with the Father," Arius considered this as a species of Sabellianism, and ventured to say, that it was inconsistent and impossible, since the Father, who begat, must be before the Son, who was begotten: the latter, therefore, could not be absolutely eternal. Alexander at first admonished Arius, and endeavoured to convince him of his error; but without effect, except that he became the more bold in contradiction. At length Alexander was roused, and attempted to silence Arius by his authority; but this not succeeding, as the latter was bold and pertinacious, Alexander, about the year 320, called a council of his clergy, by whom the reputed heretic was deposed and excommunicated. Upon this the emperor sent for Arius to Constantinople, and insisted upon his being received into communion, by Alexander, bishop of that city
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - Severus (2), Aurelius Alexander, emperor, born at Arca Caesarea in Syria, Oct. At last, probably in 228, he was killed by the soldiers in the presence of Alexander and his mother, who were only able by a stratagem to punish the ringleader. The historian Dion by his firm rule in Pannonia so excited the hatred of the praetorians that Alexander was driven to the humiliating expedient of requesting him not to come to Rome during his consulship. The private chapel in which he performed his devotions every morning contained no images of gods, but statues of canonized men, including the best of his predecessors, Alexander the Great, who might be called his patron saint, Orpheus, Apollonius of Tyana, Abraham, and Christ. Consistently with this, it is in the reign of Alexander that edifices set apart for Christian worship begin to appear—at any rate in some parts of the empire (cf. 447) includes the reign of Alexander in the long peace lasting from Septimius Severus to Decius, broken only by the persecution of Maximin
Francis Borgia, Saint - Among his ancestors were Pope Alexander VI, King Ferdinand of Aragon, and his father Juan Borgia, third Duke of Gandia
Felicitas, Martyr at Rome - He then calls upon each of her sons, Januarius, Felix, Philippus, Sylvanus, Alexander, Vitalis, Martialis, with a similar want of success, the mother exhorting them, "Behold, my sons, heaven, and look upwards, whence you expect Christ with His saints
Mahanaim - Merrill suggests a ruin called Suleikhat in the Wady Ajlûn , near its entrance to the Jordan valley; others consider the site of Jerash, which is first mentioned, as Gerasa, in the time of Alexander Jannæus, as a likely spot for so prominent and, apparently, so attractive a city
North Carolina - He officiated in the home of Mrs Alexander Gaston, whose distinguished son, William Gaston, was to bring about the repeal, in 1835, of the article in the North Carolina Constitution of 1776 which kept from office "those who denied the truth of the Protestant religion
Machaerus - It had been originally fortified by Alexander Jannaeus (Josephus BJ vii
Epoch - 556; the reign of Alexander the Great over the Persians, B
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - Jewish settlements were also established at Alexandria by Alexander and Ptolemy I
Ptolemies - (ptahl' eh meess) Dynastic powers which emerged in Egypt in the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great. ) established the dynasty which bears his name and moved the capitol of Egypt from Memphis to Alexandria, the city Alexander founded
Mammaea or Mamaea, Julia - By her marriage with the Syrian Gessius Marcianus she became the mother of Alexander Severus, and soon afterwards was a widow. On the election of her nephew Elagabalus as emperor, she went with him and her son Alexander, then 13 years old, to Rome, and it speaks well for her prudence and goodness that she continued to secure the life of her son from the jealous suspicions of the tyrant and to preserve him from the fathomless impurity which ran riot in the imperial court. 54) that of religiosa , was probably of the syncretistic type then prevalent, which shewed itself, in its better form, in Alexander's adoption of Christian rules of action, and in his placing busts of Christ, Abraham, Orpheus, and Apollonius of Tyana in his private oratory (Lamprid Vit
Order de Santiago de la Espada - The rule of Saint Augustine was adopted and Pope Alexander III recognized it as a religious order in 1175
Order of Saint James of Compostela - The rule of Saint Augustine was adopted and Pope Alexander III recognized it as a religious order in 1175
Lydia (1) - Alexander the Great conquered it in b
Smyr'na - Allusion is made to it in ( Revelation 2:8-11 ) It was founded by Alexander the Great, and was situated twenty shades (2 1/2 miles) from the city of the same name, which after a long series of wars with the Lydians had been finally taken and sacked by Halyattes
Thessalonica - After Alexander the Great established the Greek Empire (fourth century BC), the Greeks built many magnificent cities. One of these was Thessalonica in Alexander’s home state of Macedonia
Polyglot - the Paris Bible of Michael Jay, a French gentleman, in ten huge volumes, folio, copies of which were published in Holland under the name of pope Alexander the Seventh; and that of Brian Walton, afterwards bishop of Chester
Antipope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert
Adalbert
Aleric
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
Anacletus II
Anastasius Bibliothecarius
Baldassare Cossa
Benedict X
Benedict XIII
Benedict XIV
Bernard Garnier
Boniface Franco
Boniface VII
Boccadipecora, Teobaldo
Bourdin, Maurice
Buccapecuc, Thebaldus
Cadalous, Pietro
Callistus III
Celestine II
Christopher
Clement III
Clement VII
Clement VIII
Clemente Domínguez y Gómez
Constantine II
Conti, Gregorio
Cossa, Baldassare
Crema, Guido of
Dioscorus
Eulalius
Franco, Boniface
Frangipani, Lando dei
Felix II
Felix V
Filagatto, John
Gil Sanchez Muñoz
Giovanni of Struma
Gregorio Conti
Gregory VI
Gregory VIII
Gregory XVII
Guibert of Ravenna
Guido of Crema
Hippolytus, Saint
Honorius II
Innocent III
Jean Carrier
John
John XVI
John XXIII
John, Abbot of Struma
John, Bishop of Sabina
John Filagatto
John Mincius
John of Sabina
John of Struma
John Philagathus
Lando dei Frangipani
Lanzo of Sezza
Laurentius
Leo
Luna, Pedro de
Maginulf
Manuel Alonso Corral
Maurice Bourdin
Maurice Burdanus
Mincius, John
Muñoz, Gil Sanchez
Nicholas V
Novatian
Octavius
Ottavio di Montecelio
Paschal
Paschal III
Peter II
Pietro Cadalous
Pedro de Luna
Philagathus, John
Philip
Pierleone, Pietro
Pietro Cadalus
Pietro Philarghi Alexander V
Pietro Pierleone
Pietro Rainalducci
Rainalducci, Pietro
Ravenna, Guibert of
Robert of Geneva
Sabina, John of
Struma, John of
Sylvester III
Sylvester IV
Teobaldo Boccadipecora
Thebaldus Buccapecuc
Theodore
Theodoric
Theofylact
Tiberius
Ursicinus
Ursinus
Victor IV (1159-1164)
Anti-Pope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert
Adalbert
Aleric
Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy
Anacletus II
Anastasius Bibliothecarius
Baldassare Cossa
Benedict X
Benedict XIII
Benedict XIV
Bernard Garnier
Boniface Franco
Boniface VII
Boccadipecora, Teobaldo
Bourdin, Maurice
Buccapecuc, Thebaldus
Cadalous, Pietro
Callistus III
Celestine II
Christopher
Clement III
Clement VII
Clement VIII
Clemente Domínguez y Gómez
Constantine II
Conti, Gregorio
Cossa, Baldassare
Crema, Guido of
Dioscorus
Eulalius
Franco, Boniface
Frangipani, Lando dei
Felix II
Felix V
Filagatto, John
Gil Sanchez Muñoz
Giovanni of Struma
Gregorio Conti
Gregory VI
Gregory VIII
Gregory XVII
Guibert of Ravenna
Guido of Crema
Hippolytus, Saint
Honorius II
Innocent III
Jean Carrier
John
John XVI
John XXIII
John, Abbot of Struma
John, Bishop of Sabina
John Filagatto
John Mincius
John of Sabina
John of Struma
John Philagathus
Lando dei Frangipani
Lanzo of Sezza
Laurentius
Leo
Luna, Pedro de
Maginulf
Manuel Alonso Corral
Maurice Bourdin
Maurice Burdanus
Mincius, John
Muñoz, Gil Sanchez
Nicholas V
Novatian
Octavius
Ottavio di Montecelio
Paschal
Paschal III
Peter II
Pietro Cadalous
Pedro de Luna
Philagathus, John
Philip
Pierleone, Pietro
Pietro Cadalus
Pietro Philarghi Alexander V
Pietro Pierleone
Pietro Rainalducci
Rainalducci, Pietro
Ravenna, Guibert of
Robert of Geneva
Sabina, John of
Struma, John of
Sylvester III
Sylvester IV
Teobaldo Boccadipecora
Thebaldus Buccapecuc
Theodore
Theodoric
Theofylact
Tiberius
Ursicinus
Ursinus
Victor IV (1159-1164)
Gaza - It was taken by Cambyses, the Ptolemies, and by Alexander the Great, and was held in the twelfth century by the Knights Templars
Essenes - Pliny may have taken his data from Alexander Polyhistor, a contemporary of Sulla
Dorotheus (7), Bishop of Martianopolis - 840) to Alexander of Hierapolis and Theodoret, proposing a joint appeal to the emperor
Treasures - But a few years since, some workmen digging in a garden at Sidon, discovered several copper pots, filled with gold coin from the mint of Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander, unmixed with any of later date
Dari'us - Codomannus, the antagonist of Alexander and the last king of Persia, B
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - , where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched
Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem - " A letter was addressed to him and other orthodox bishops by Alexander of Alexandria (Epiph
Paulinus, Bishop Eustathian Party at Antioch - The controversy between the churches of the West and of Egypt which supported Paulinus, and that of the East which adhered to Meletius, was not finally healed till Alexander became bp, of Antioch, a
Demetrius - After seven years, Alexander Balas (wh. When civil war broke out between Alexander Jannæus and his Pharisee subjects, the latter invited the assistance of Demetrius (Jos
Samaria - The city was taken by Alexander the Great, who placed a body of Syro-Macedonians in it. It must, however, have been rebuilt; for in the time of Alexander Jannæus it was reckoned one of the cities possessed by the Jews
Antiochus - A name borne by a number of the kings of Syria subsequent to the period of Alexander the Great. 280 261) was the son of Seleucus Nikator, the chiliarch under Perdiccas who was regent immediately after the death of Alexander. , Son of Alexander Balas. Trypho, one of the generals of Alexander Balas, at first championed the cause of this boy after his father had been killed in Arabia
Russia - ...
From the time of Peter the Great to Alexander I, the history of Catholicism in Russia is a constant struggle against Russian legislation. Alexander II allowed the sees to be filled, 1856, but soon the clergy were accused of plotting against the tsar, and the soldiery profaned churches and took priests prisoners, exiling several to Siberia. Under Alexander III negotiations between the Holy See and Russia were renewed, and Russia had a legation at the Vatican, but the clergy continued to endure oppression until Nicholas II published the edict of religious toleration in 1905
Heshbon - 4), it was in the hands of the Jews in the time of Alexander Jannæus (b
Guelphs And Ghibellines - The principal episodes of the conflict, which lasted from the 12th to the 15th century, were the battle of Legnano (1176), won by the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa, with the help of Pope Alexander III; the battle of Tagliacozw (1268), another Guelph triumph; and the battle of Montecatini (1315), a famous Ghibelline victory
Athanasius, Saint 2 May - As secretary to Bishop Alexander of Alexandria, he attended the Council of Nicea, 325, and upon Alexander's death, 328, succeeded as bishop; he spent seventeen of the forty-six years of his episcopate in exile and fought for the acceptance of the Nicene Creed
Gerasa - A city of the Decapolis of unknown origin, the first known event in its history being its capture by Alexander Jannæus, about b
Simon - He was "the father of Alexander and Rufus," Mark 15:21 ; and from the cordial salutation of Paul, Romans 16:13 , it would seem that the family afterwards resided at Rome, and that their labor of love was not forgotten by God
Gerizim - ...
After the captivity, Manasseh, a seceding priest, by permission of Alexander the Great, built a temple on Gerizim, and the Samaritans joined the worship of the true God to that of their idols; "They feared the Lord, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away form thence," 2 Kings 17:33
Ghibellines, Guelphs And - The principal episodes of the conflict, which lasted from the 12th to the 15th century, were the battle of Legnano (1176), won by the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa, with the help of Pope Alexander III; the battle of Tagliacozw (1268), another Guelph triumph; and the battle of Montecatini (1315), a famous Ghibelline victory
Parthians - However this may be, they came under Persian rule in the time of Darius Hystaspis, and remained loyal to the Persian kings till Alexander the Great overthrew Darius Codomannus (333 b
Dispersion - Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria, which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with the Egyptians. 280), one of the captains of Alexander the Great, large numbers of Jews migrated into Syria, where they enjoyed equal rights with the Macedonians
Tiberias - ...
The colony round Tiberias flourished under the emperors Antoninus Plus, Alexander Severus, and Julian, in the second and third centuries. (See SYNAGOGUE on the Roman character of the existing remains of synagogues in Palestine, due no doubt to the patronage of Antoninus Pius and Alexander Severus, the great builders and restorers of temples in Syria
Arnobius, Junior - 1686, Natalis Alexander, invites special attention to remarks of Arnobius upon Pss. Alexander was a Jansenist; and anti-Jansenist writers, such as the Bollandists, might maintain that the majority were capable of an orthodox interpretation
Alexandria - The Grecian capital of Egypt, founded by and named after Alexander the Great, b. Soon after its foundation by Alexander, it became the capital of the Ptolemies and the Grecian kings reigning in Egypt, and one of the most populous and prosperous cities of the East
Arius the Heresiarch - This statement is made in a letter written by Alexander, bp. Alexander of Constantinople. But the charge is somewhat vague in itself; it is unsupported by other authority, and Alexander's language, like that of most controversialists in past days, is not a little violent. Moreover, Lucian is not stated, even by Alexander himself, to have fallen into the heresy afterwards promulgated by Arius, but is accused generally—rather ad invidiam, it would seem—of heretical tendencies. (Alexander) of Alexandria ( c. Alexander, bp. of Alexandria, in a letter to Alexander of Constantinople, describes it in very unfavourable terms. It has been stated that his action was largely the result of jealousy on account of his having been a candidate for the patriarchal throne of Alexandria, when Alexander was elected to it. He had no doubt a disproportionate number of female supporters, but there seems no ground for the insinuation of Alexander of Alexandria, in the above-mentioned letter, that these women were of loose morals. Therefore Alexander allowed the controversy to go on until he felt that it was becoming dangerous to the peace of the church. Alexander then delayed no longer. Then he wrote (the letters are extant) to Alexander of Constantinople and Eusebius of Nicomedia (where the emperor was then residing), detailing the errors into which Arius had fallen, and complaining of the danger to the Christian church arising from his heresy. It is clear, from Arius's own letter (also extant) to Eusebius of Nicomedia, that Alexander's charges against Arius were in no way unfair. Alexander, patriarch of Alexandria, was also a man of mark. When Alexander died at Alexandria in 327, the election of Athanasius in his place was only secured in the face of violent opposition from the Arianizing faction. He had, as he himself tells us (see his letters to Alexander and Arius in the Life of Constantine by Eusebius Pamphili), a strong objection to idle and word-splitting discussions, private or public, and considered them unnecessary and unprofitable. So he was exiled to Trier (Trèves), after a number of leading bishops had been assembled at Constantinople to try him, and Alexander of Constantinople was ordered to receive Arius back into church communion. Alexander was in dire perplexity
Alexandria - It was founded by Alexander the Great: who being struck with the advantageous situation of the spot where the city afterward stood, ordered its immediate erection; drew the plan of the city himself, and peopled it with colonies of Greeks and Jews: to which latter people, in particular, he gave great encouragement. Ptolemy Soter, one of Alexander's captains, who, after the death of this monarch, was first governor of Egypt, and afterward assumed the title of king, made this city the place of his residence, about B. The Egyptian method of teaching by allegory was peculiarly favourable to such a union: and we may well suppose that when Alexander, in order to preserve by the arts of peace that extensive empire which he had obtained by the force of arms, endeavoured to incorporate the customs of the Greeks with those of the Persian, Indian, and other eastern nations, the opinions as well as the manners of this feeble and obsequious race would, in a great measure, be accommodated to those of their conquerors. This influence of the Grecian upon the oriental philosophy continued long after the time of Alexander, and was one principal occasion of the confusion of opinions which occurs in the history of the Alexandrian and Christian schools. Alexander, when he built the city of Alexandria, with a determination to make it the seat of his empire, and peopled it with emigrants from various countries, opened a new mart of philosophy, which emulated the fame of Athens itself. The family of the Ptolemies, as we have seen, who after Alexander obtained the government of Egypt, from motives of policy encouraged this new establishment
Darius - From that time the kingdom began a gradual regression until finally conquered by Alexander the Great in 331 B
Order, Carthusian - A general chapter meets annually; the first was held in 1152, and its powers were confirmed by Alexander IV in 1258
Seleucus - Seleucus I , ( Nikator ), originally a cavalry officer of Alexander the Great, became satrap of Babylon on the death of the king
Carthusian Order - A general chapter meets annually; the first was held in 1152, and its powers were confirmed by Alexander IV in 1258
Sar'Dis, - Its productive soil must always have continued a source of wealth; but its importance as a central mart appears to have diminished from the time of the invasion of Asia by Alexander
Man (the Good): Beneficial Influence of - Alexander Von Humboldt thus writes of the cow-tree:: 'On the barren flank of a rock grows a tree with coriaceous and dry leaves
Eustochius (6), Patriarch of Jerusalem - ); and when the acts m condemnation of Origenism were sent by the emperor to Jerusalem, all the bishops of Palestine except Alexander of Abila confirmed them
Rings - When Alexander the Great gave his ring to Perdiccas, this was understood as nominating him his successor
Alexandria - After his conquest in 333 BC, Alexander the Great of Greece built the city of Alexandria as a Mediterranean sea port for Egypt and named it after himself
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - 56–68); (2) the later and less trustworthy biography of Alexander, the founder of the Acoemetae. The biographer of Alexander ascribes it to Alexander's influence and teaching. Rabbûlas became the leading prelate of the Oriental church, regarded, according to the exaggerated language of the biographer of Alexander, as "the common master of Syria, Armenia, Persia, nay of the whole world. Rabbûlas's violence is also described in a letter of Andrew of Samosata to his metropolitan, Alexander of Hierapolis, shortly after Easter, 432, complaining that Rabbûlas was dealing with a high hand in Edessa, openly anathematizing Theodore's teaching of one nature in Christ, and excommunicating all who refused to accept the Cyrillian dogmas or who read Theodore's books, which he was everywhere committing to the flames. Alexander's anger having been aroused, Andrew wrote to the oeconomi of Hierapolis to justify himself
Samaritans - After the battle of Issus the Samaritans offered assistance to Alexander, and were allowed to build a temple on Gerizim , where they sacrificed after the manner of the Jews though they were quite ready to repudiate Jewish origin, rite, and prejudice whenever occasion arose (see Jos
ir-ha-Heres - Alexander the Great, the temporal "saviour" of Egypt from the Persians, was a type of the true Saviour
Benedict Xiii, Anti-Pope - The council made matters worse by electing another antipope, Pietro Philarghi (Alexander V), on whose death in the following year they elected Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII)
Luna, Pedro de - The council made matters worse by electing another antipope, Pietro Philarghi (Alexander V), on whose death in the following year they elected Baldassare Cossa (John XXIII)
Penitence - By virtue of a brief of pope Alexander, Simon, bishop of Paris, in 1497, drew them up a body of statutes, and gave them the rule of St
Lot (2) - Alexander, Gospel of Jesus Christ, 38; H
Aragon - He made generous donations to the Church, founded several abbeys; notably that of San Juan de la Peñta, and paid tribute to Pope Alexander II when the Roman liturgy was introduced into Aragon
Could - Alexander could easily conquer the effeminate Asiatics
Diana - When Alexander the Great was born, b
Kind - 1: γένος (Strong's #1085 — Noun Neuter — genos — ghen'-os ) akin to ginomai, "to become," denotes (a) "a family," Acts 4:6 , "kindred;" Acts 7:13 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 13:26 , "stock;" (b) "an offspring," Acts 17:28 ; Revelation 22:16 ; (c) "a nation, a race," Mark 7:26 , RV, "race" (AV, "nation"); Acts 4:36 , RV "(a man of Cyprus) by race," AV, "of the country (of Cyprus);" genos does not mean "a country;" the word here signifies "parentage" (Jews had settled in Cyprus from, or even before, the reign of Alexander the Great); Acts 7:19 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 18:2,24 , RV, "by race" (AV, "born"); 2 Corinthians 11:26 , "countrymen;" Galatians 1:14 , RV, "countrymen" (AV, "nation"); Philippians 3:5 , "stock;" 1 Peter 2:9 , RV, "race" (AV, "generation"); (d) "a kind, sort, class," Matthew 13:47 , "kind;" in some mss
Macedo'Nia - This general sketch sufficiently describes the Macedonia which was ruled over by Philip and Alexander and which the Romans conquered from Perseas
Euphra'Tes - On its banks stood the city of Babylon; the army of Necho was defeated on its banks by Nebuchadnezzar; Cyrus the Younger and Crassus perished after crossing it; Alexander crossed it, and Trajan and Severus descended it
Damascus - ...
After Alexander the Great’s conquest in 333 BC, Syria was made into an important province of the eastern part of the Greek Empire
Paulus i, Bishop of Constantinople - Alexander, his predecessor in the see. No sooner had Alexander breathed his last than the two parties came into open conflict
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - He is commended by Athanasius, together with Hosius, Alexander, Eustathius, and others ( adv. The gross blunders of making the death of the heresiarch contemporaneous with the council of Nicaea, and of confounding Alexander of Alexandria with Alexander of Constantinople, prove it an ignorant forgery
Macedonia - There a golden sarcophagus, supposedly of King Philip II (father of Alexander), was found in a vaulted tomb. Later the capital was moved to Pella (birthplace of Alexander the Great) where houses of the Macedonian nobility with beautiful pebble mosaics and the gigantic foundations of the royal palace have been excavated. The famous Greek tragedian Euripides spent some time at the court of the Macedonian kings; and Aristotle, before he founded his philosophical school in Athens, served as the teacher of the Macedonian prince Alexander. Its military strength and the wealth established by Philip II enabled his son Alexander to defeat the Persian Empire and to conquer the entire realm from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus River (including today's Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, Iran, and parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan). During the Hellenistic period, Macedonia was ruled by the Antigonids, descendants of Alexander's general Antigonus Monophhythalmus. Both Dionysus and Herakles appear as the patron deities of Alexander the Great
Samaria - They were in this condition when Alexander the Great came into Phenicia and Judea. And the Samaritans, being jealous of the Jews, on account of the favours that Alexander the Great had conferred on them, revolted from him, while he was in Egypt, and burned Andromachus alive, whom he had left governor of Syria. Alexander soon marched against them, took Samaria, and appointed Macedonians to inhabit it, giving the country round it to the Jews; and to encourage them in the cultivation, he exempted them from tribute. The kings of Egypt and Syria, who succeeded Alexander, deprived them of the property of this country. But Alexander Balas, king of Syria, restored to Jonathan Maccabaeus the cities of Lydda, Ephrem, and Ramatha, which he cut off from the country of Samaria, 1Ma_10:30 ; 1Ma_10:38 ; 1Ma_11:28 ; 1Ma_11:34
Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis - But Ramsay (Bulletin de correspondance hellénique , Juillet 1882) pointed out that Hiera polis had been frequently confounded with Hiero polis; and he also published in the same journal a metrical and early Christian epitaph of a certain Alexander (A. As to the copying, there can be no doubt, for the third line of the epitaph of Alexander, son of Antonius, will not scan, owing to the substitution of his name for that of Abercius (Lightfoot, Apost. We have thus fortunately a threefold help in reconstructing the text of the whole epitaph—(1) the text in the Life ; (2) the rediscovered fragments in the stone; (3) the epitaph on the tomb of Alexander. We cannot be sure as to the date of these extracts, but there is reason to place them towards the close of the reign of Commodus, 180–192, and the epitaph of Abercius must at least have been earlier than 216, the date of the epitaph of Alexander
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - of Berrhoea he was one of the orthodox prelates to whom Alexander of Alexandria sent a copy of his letter to Alexander of Constantinople concerning Arius and his errors (Theod. The deposition of Eustathius led to a lamentable schism in the church of Antioch which lasted nearly a century not being completely healed till the episcopate of Alexander a
Persia - After lasting about 200 years the Persian empire was overthrown by Alexander the Great, b
Decapolis - They were established after the time of Alexander the Great and were predominantly Greek in culture and influence
Christian Church, General Convention - In 1829 Alexander Campbell and followers separated from the Baptists of Pennsylvania and Ohio
Samaria - 331 it was besieged and conquered by Alexander, and in b
Simon - The Cyrenian who bore our Lord’s cross ( Matthew 27:32 , Mark 15:21 , Luke 23:26 ); See Alexander and Rufus
Septuagint - After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, the Greek language spread throughout Alexander’s empire and within a short time was the most commonly spoken language
Shushan - Alexander the Great conquered the Persians, after which Shushan declined
Philippi - ) It was named after Philip of Macedon (the father of Alexander the Great), who conquered it about 356 BC and made it into one of his strategic cities
Phoenicia - Alexander the Great put an end to Phoenician political power, but the great cities retained economic power
Macedonia - Under Philip, through his organization of an army and his diplomatic skill, they became masters of Greece, and under his son Alexander conquered the East
Medeba - Alexander Jannæus took it from the Arabians, and Hyrcanus ii
Hymenaeus - Gnosticism, or the pretension to extraordinary spiritual knowledge above what is written, was Hymenaeus' heresy, in concert first with Alexander, afterwards with Philetus
Javan - Greece, and her king Alexander, is prophetically mentioned (Daniel 8:21; Daniel 10:20; Daniel 11:2)
Medes - This region was absorbed in the Macedonian empire of Alexander the Great Later an independent Median kingdom held sway until the Christian era, after which it became a part of the Parthian empire
Mesopotamia - The conquests of Cyrus brought it wholly under the Persian yoke, and thus it continued to the time of Alexander
Miletus - It had defended itself on behalf of the Persian power against Alexander in b
Diana - In the year when Alexander the Great was born, B
ga'za - Its name means "the strong;" and this was well elucidated in its siege by Alexander the Great, which lasted five months
Hexapla - Eusebius relates, that Origen, after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla and Hexapla; others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. The fifth was found at Jericho, in the reign of Caracalla, about the year 217: and the sixth was discovered at Nicopolis, in the reign of Alexander Severus, about the year 228; lastly, Origen himself recovered part of a seventh, containing only the Psalms
Gaza - 30) describes it as ‘once famous, but razed by Alexander [1] and remaining deserted’ (καὶ μένουσα ἔρημος). ), and it stood a year’s siege before it was destroyed by Alexander Jannaeus in 96 b
Persia - In history, the empire defeated the Babylonians and then fell finally to Alexander the Great. (Thus, the period from Achaemenes to Alexander is called the Achaehymenid period. The impact came through the Jews, the Bible, contacts with the Greeks, and through Alexander the Great's incorporation of ideas and architecture from the Persians
Monks, White - The result was the division into Common and Strict Observance, but the latter was prevented from forming an independent order by the Bull of Alexander VII, 1666
Order of Citeaux - The result was the division into Common and Strict Observance, but the latter was prevented from forming an independent order by the Bull of Alexander VII, 1666
Missions Etrangeres de Paris - The project, coming under the immediate protection of Pope Alexander VII, was furthered by the untiring efforts of Monsignor Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, and Monsignor Motte-Lambert, Bishop of Beirut, whose nominations as vicars Apostolic were confirmed by Propaganda in 1658
Knights of the Holy Sepulcher - Pope Innocent III united it to the Knights Hospitallers in 1489, but it was restored to its former status as an independent order by Alexander VI, who conferred the honor upon those who visited the Holy Land and aided holy places
Augustinians Hermits - These were united in 1256 through the efforts of Pope Alexander IV, and monasteries were soon established in Germany, France, and Spain
Horse - Military victories such as those of Genghis Khan or Alexander the Great would have been impossible without horses
Machabees, the - Jonathan defeated Bacchides, revenged the death of his brother, and made peace with Alexander who had usurped the throne of Demetrius, the successor to Antiochus
Berenice, Bernice - 28, and early betrothed to Marcus, son of Alexander who was alabarch at Alexandria
Horn - The "notable horn" of the "he goat" (Daniel 8:5) is Alexander the Great who on coins is represented with horns
Holy Sepulcher, Knights of the - Pope Innocent III united it to the Knights Hospitallers in 1489, but it was restored to its former status as an independent order by Alexander VI, who conferred the honor upon those who visited the Holy Land and aided holy places
Preadamite - But he appealed from their sentence to Rome, whither he went in the time of Alexander VII
Aristotle - Recalled to Stagira by Philip of Macedon, he acquired influence with the young prince Alexander who aided him liberally in getting books and opportunities for research in natural science
Simon - Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus: he was made to carry the Lord's cross
Hermits of Saint Augustine - These were united in 1256 through the efforts of Pope Alexander IV, and monasteries were soon established in Germany, France, and Spain
Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch - He was one of 11 presbyters and deacons of that church, deposed together with Arius by Alexander bp
Aera - The aera of Alexander the Great, or his last victory over Darius, in...
3674, and before Jesus Christ 330
White Monks - The result was the division into Common and Strict Observance, but the latter was prevented from forming an independent order by the Bull of Alexander VII, 1666
Society of Foreign Missions of Paris - The project, coming under the immediate protection of Pope Alexander VII, was furthered by the untiring efforts of Monsignor Pallu, Bishop of Heliopolis, and Monsignor Motte-Lambert, Bishop of Beirut, whose nominations as vicars Apostolic were confirmed by Propaganda in 1658
Western Schism - ...
The list of Roman, Avignon, and Pisan popes is as follows: ...
at Rome
Urban VI (1378 to 1389)
Boniface IX (1389 to 1404)
Innocent VII (1404 to 1406)
Gregory XII (1406 to 1415)
at Avignon
Clement V1I (1378 to 1394)
Benedict XIII (1394 to 1411)
so-called popes of Pisa
Alexander V (1409 to 1410)
John XXIII (1410 to 1415)
Schism, Western - ...
The list of Roman, Avignon, and Pisan popes is as follows: ...
at Rome
Urban VI (1378 to 1389)
Boniface IX (1389 to 1404)
Innocent VII (1404 to 1406)
Gregory XII (1406 to 1415)
at Avignon
Clement V1I (1378 to 1394)
Benedict XIII (1394 to 1411)
so-called popes of Pisa
Alexander V (1409 to 1410)
John XXIII (1410 to 1415)
Hymenaeus - Hymenaeus is a heretic mentioned in 1 Timothy 1:20 in conjunction with Alexander (q. )...
The delivering of Hymenaeus and Alexander to Satan is to be understood as an excommunication from the fold of grace and safety, and a consequent transition into the world outside the Church where Satan has his throne-the world of suffering, disease, and death
Persia, Persians - This foretold the destruction of the Persian empire by that of Greece in the person of Alexander the Great. (Codomanus) … … … … 336...
Defeated by Alexander … … … 331 end of the Persian empire
Hexapla - Eusebius relates that Origen after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla, and Hexapla: others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. The fifth was found at Jericho, in the reign of Caracalla, about the year 217; and the sixth was discovered at Nicopolis, in the reign of Alexander Severus, about the year 228: lastly, Origen himself recovered part of a seventh, containing only the Psalms
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - A little later he visited Paphlagonia, where he vehemently attacked, and made a bitter enemy of, the impostor Alexander of Abonoteichos. Luckily he had a guard of two soldiers with him, sent by his friend the governor of Cappadocia (a proof of Lucian's importance at this time), or he would have fared badly at the hands of the attendants of Alexander. He endeavoured to get Alexander punished for this piece of treachery, but the latter's influence was too strong. ...
But what was Lucian's attitude towards Christianity, which in his age was beginning to be known as no inconsiderable power in all parts of the Roman world? Two dialogues have to be considered in answering this question—Ἀλέξανδρος ἢ Ψσευδόμαντις , Alexander, or the False Prophet; and περὶ τῆς Περεγρίνου τελευτῆς , Concerning the death of Peregrinus; for the Philopatris may be dismissed at once as pretty certainly no genuine work of its reputed author. ...
The most sympathetic allusion to the Christians by the genuine Lucian is in the "Alexander," where the Christians are joined with the Epicureans (whom Lucian much admired) as persistent and indomitable opponents of that fine specimen of rascality
Ptolemae'us, - SOTER, the son of Lagus, a Macedonian of low rank, distinguished himself greatly during the campaigns of Alexander; at whose death he secured for himself the government of Egypt, where he proceeded at once to lay the foundations of a kingdom, B. Ptolemy Soter is described very briefly in Daniel, (Daniel 11:6 ) as one of those who should receive part of the empire of Alexander when it was "divided toward the four winds of heaven. Alexander, a rival claimant, attempted to secure the crown, but was defeated and afterward put to death by Ptolemy
John Hus - The following year Hus again became rector of the university, and was reported to Rome for his Wycliffite tendencies, with the result that Archbishop Zbynk (Sbinco) received a Bull from Alexander V ordering him to withdraw Wyclif's writings from circulation, and forbid any preaching except in cathedral, collegiate, parish, and cloister churches
Hus, John - The following year Hus again became rector of the university, and was reported to Rome for his Wycliffite tendencies, with the result that Archbishop Zbynk (Sbinco) received a Bull from Alexander V ordering him to withdraw Wyclif's writings from circulation, and forbid any preaching except in cathedral, collegiate, parish, and cloister churches
No - In Ethiopia he was adopted as the national god, and his worship was established in the Oases, especially in the Oasis of Ammon (Siwa), where his oracle was visited by Alexander
Excommunication - Paul individually did the same with Hymenaeus and Alexander
Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea - In 414 Alexander, succeeding Porphyry as bp
Sep'Tuagint - They had settled in Alexandria in large numbers soon after the time of Alexander, and under the early Ptolemies. Wherever, by the conquests of Alexander or by colonization, the Greek language prevailed wherever Jews were settled and the attention of the neighboring Gentiles was drawn to their wondrous history and law there was found the Septuagint, which thus became, by divine Providence the means of spreading widely the knowledge of the one true God and his promises of it Saviour to come, throughout the nations
Alexandrians - At the foundation of the city Alexander gave them equal rights with the Greeks (ἔδωκε τὸ μετοικεῖν κατὰ τὴν πόλιν ἐξ ἰσοτιμίας πρὸς Ἔλληνας), and the Diadochoi permitted them to style themselves Macedonians (Jos, Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) ii. Philo’s brother Alexander and others filled the office of ‘alabarch’ (see Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - The alarm created by the conduct of Arius and his numerous friends in high quarters induced Alexander of Alexandria to indite his famous letter to Alexander of Constantinople which is of an encyclical character and was sent in some form to Eusebius of Nicomedia and other prelates. Exasperated by its tone Eusebius called a council in Bithynia (probably at Nicomedia itself) of the friends of Arius who addressed numerous bishops desiring them to grant communion to the Arians and requiring Alexander to do the like (Soz. Eusebius believed Alexander of Alexandria to be in doctrinal error but not yet so far gone but that Paulinus might put him right. 16) in which he called upon Alexander and Arius for the sake of peace to terminate their controversy. Constantine had probably been led to this step by Eusebius of Nicomedia and the strong pressure put upon Alexander to receive Arius into communion corresponds with the subsequent persistent demand of the Eusebians. Constantine was no theologian but hated a recalcitrant subordinate in church or state and hence the undoubted vacillation of his mind towards Alexander Arius Eusebius and Athanasius. The death of Alexander of Constantinople followed very shortly, and the effort to elect Paul (Paulus (18)] in his place (without the consent of the bp. 19) accuses Eusebius of unlawful translation from Nicomedia to Constantinople "in direct violation of that canon which prohibits bishops and presbyters from going from one city to another," and asserts that this took place on the death of Alexander. There is, however, proof that Paul, who was twice banished through the influence of Eusebius, was the immediate successor of Alexander. Paul was nominated by Alexander, but the Eusebian party put forward Macedonius (Soz
Canaan - Hecat‘us, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, and who wrote in the reign of Ptolemy, describes Palestine as a most fruitful province
Gallienus p. Licinius, Emperor - Thus formally, universally, and deliberately was done what Alexander Severus had done in an isolated case in a freak of generosity— i
Syria, Syrian - After that it passed to the Persians, and then submitted to Alexander the Great
Simon - He was the "father of Alexander and Rufus" (Matthew 27:32 )
Gerizim And Ebal - The Jewish historian Josephus reported that Alexander the Great gave permission to the Samaritans to build a temple on Mount Gerizim
Thessaloni'ca - Cassander the son of Antipater rebuilt and enlarged Therma, and named it after his wife Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
332...
Alexander the Great. ...
323...
Alexander's death
Ammon - or HAMMON, or JUPITER-AMMON, an epithet given to Jupiter in Lybia, where was a celebrated temple of that deity under the denomination of Jupiter Ammon, which was visited by Alexander the Great
Peraea - Alexander Jannæus held sway from the Dead Sea to the roots of Hermon
Mac'Cabees - Alexander Jannaeus was the next successor B
Eph'Esus - The earlier temple, which had been begun before the Persian war, was burnt down in the night when Alexander the Great was born; and another structure, raise by the enthusiastic co-operation of all the inhabitants of "Asia," had taken its place
Antioch in Syria - Soon after the sweeping conquests of Alexander the Great, the empire he established split into sectors under the control of his Greek generals
Libraries - Among the earliest accumulations was the library founded at Jerusalem principally by Bishop Alexander, c
Archelaus - He wedded illegally his brother Alexander's former wife, Glaphyra, who had children by Alexander, thereby giving much offense to the Jews
Alexandria - Founded by Alexander the Great, 332 B
Apostles Other Than the Twelve - The following are popularly known as apostles, of some region where, or of a people among whom, they planted or revived the Faith: ...
Saint Adalbert Prussia...
the Slavs...
Pope Adrian IV The North (Scandinavia)...
Saint Aidan Northumbria, England...
Albert, Bishop of Riga Livonia...
Charles Dominique Albini Corsica...
Saint Alexander Sauli Corsica...
Claude Allouez The Ottawas (Indians)...
Saint Amand Flanders...
Anchieta, Jose, S
Star - ...
Daniel 8:10 (b) Alexander the Great was the horn
Grecia - The Scripture has but little reference to Greece till the time of Alexander, whose conquests extended into Asia, where Greece had hitherto been of no importance
Pamphylia - Even Alexander had to fight his way through them
World - Alexander conquered the world
Timothy, the Second Epistle to - The Hymenaeus of 2 Timothy 2:17 is probably the Hymenaeus at Ephesus (1 Timothy 1:20); also "Alexander the coppersmith" (2 Timothy 4:14) seems to be the Alexander put forward by the Jews to clear themselves, not to befriend Paul, in the riot at Ephesus (Acts 19:33-34). ) But now three years had elapsed; and Paul as a Roman citizen was treated with greater respect for legal forms, and was acquitted on the "first" charge (2 Timothy 4:17) of instigating the Christians to incendiarism before his last departure from Rome; it was then that Alexander the coppersmith witnessed against him (2 Timothy 4:14); no patron dared to advocate his cause, though being probably a client of the Aemilian clan, from whence he derived his name Paul, he might naturally have looked for advocacy (2 Timothy 4:16-17)
Babel, Tower of - Alexander Polyhistor said that the four winds blew it down
Macedonia - Philip (from whom Philippi is named) and Alexander were its most famous kings
Darius - (Codomannus), the antagonist of Alexander the Great (B
Concordance - by Alexander Cruden, which no minister or student should be without, except he have such a prodigious memory as to supersede the necessity of it
Gerizim - Manasseh, brother of Jaddua the high priest, married the daughter of Sanballat the Cuthaean (2 Kings 17:24), who in order to reconcile his son-in-law to this forbidden affinity obtained leave from Alexander the Great to build a temple on Gerazim (Josephus, Chronicles, Books of the - This has been objected to on the ground of the genealogy in 1 Chronicles 3:1-24 : it is contended that the number of generations after Zerubbabel in 1 Chronicles 3:19 is so large that the writer must have lived in the days of Alexander the Great, and therefore could not have been contemporary with Ezra
Cyrene - ...
Simon of Cyrene (the father of Alexander and Rufus Great - Distinguished by rank, office or power elevated eminent as a great lord the great men of the nation the great Mogul Alexander the great
Tadmor or Tamar - The original name was preserved till the time of Alexander, who extended his conquests to this city, which then exchanged its name Tadmor for that of Palmyra, both signifying that it was a "city of palms
Society of Priests of Saint Sulpice - Alexander Le Ragois de Bretonvilliers, the successor of Olier (1657 to 1676), drew up the constitution of the society and secured its approval
Sulpicians - Alexander Le Ragois de Bretonvilliers, the successor of Olier (1657 to 1676), drew up the constitution of the society and secured its approval
Parched Ground - Quintus Curtius long ago gave an account of this wonder in his Life of Alexander the Great
Greece - He was succeeded by his twenty-year-old son, Alexander, whose schoolmaster had been the great philosopher, Aristotle. ...
Alexander was one of the most outstanding military and organizational geniuses of human history
Greek Language - Prior to the time of Alexander the Great, there was no central form of government which held power over all Greek-speaking people. It spread to the East as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great
Chronology - ...
336 Alexander the Great, head of the third great empire — The Greek. ...
323 Death of Alexander the Great: his four Generals divide the kingdom, but it ...
mainly merged into two kingdoms: Egypt, 'kings of the South,' and Syria, ...
'kings of the north
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - At that gathering Theodoret, accompanying his metropolitan, Alexander of Hierapolis, was among the earlier comers, anticipating the Oriental brethren, whose arrival he, with 68 bishops, vainly urged should be waited for before the council opened (Baluz. at Constantinople, representing his metropolitan Alexander ( ib. 104–109), and a letter of his to Alexander of Hierapolis, whom he was representing, informing him how matters were going on at Chalcedon, telling him of the popularity of the deputies with the people, who, in spite of the hostility of the clergy and monks by whom they had been repeatedly stoned, flocked to hear them, assembling in a large court surrounded with porticos, the churches being closed against them; but Theodoret laments their ill-success with the emperor. ), the Orientals were divided into two great parties: the peace-seeking majority, with John of Antioch and the venerable Acacius at their head, ready to meet Cyril half-way; the violent party of irreconcilables, with Alexander of Hierapolis as their leader, opposed to all reconciliation as treason to the truth; while a third or middle party was led by Theodoret and Andrew of Samosata, anxious for peace, but on terms of their own. His inflexible metropolitan, Alexander, vehemently denounced as treason to the truth any approach to reconciliation with Cyril. Finding his growing isolation more and more intolerable, Theodoret invited the chiefs of the fast-lessening band of his sympathizers, Alexander, Andrew, and others, to take counsel at Zeugma, in reference to the union with Cyril, which had been accepted by John and earnestly pressed upon them by the combined weight of the ecclesiastical and civil power. Alexander refused to attend the synod except on his own terms. One by one the recalcitrant prelates yielded, except Alexander and some others. The coldness arising between him and John after John's reconciliation with Cyril had been much increased by John's uncanonical intrusion into the province of Alexander in the ordination of bishops. All eventually yielded to combined entreaties and menaces save Alexander and a small band of irreconcilables, who were banished from their sees
Tyre - 332 Alexander the Great appeared in front of the city. Alexander built a mole 200 ft. The defence was desperate and successful, till Alexander invested the city with a fleet of 224 ships
Tabor (1) - 53 Gabinius here defeated Alexander, son of Aristobulus ii
Sinaiticus Codex - " This precious fragment, after some negotiations, he obtained possession of, and conveyed it to the Emperor Alexander, who fully appreciated its importance, and caused it to be published as nearly as possible in facsimile, so as to exhibit correctly the ancient handwriting
Hiram - 18), apparently on the authority of Dius and Menunder of Ephesus in file time of Alexander the Great, states, "David reduced the Syrians near the Euphrates, and Commagene, the Assy
Grecians Greeks - From the days of Alexander the Great onwards, large numbers of Jewish emigrants were to be found all over the known world
Aram - With the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Greek language spread throughout his empire and became the official language
Grecians Greeks - From the days of Alexander the Great onwards, large numbers of Jewish emigrants were to be found all over the known world
Zidon - The son of Tennes became king, and retained the sceptre till the advent of Alexander. ), with the well-known inscription, now in Paris; and (1887) the tomb, containing 17 Phœnician and Greek sarcophagi, highly ornamented; among them that of Tabnit, father of Eshmunazar, and the alleged sarcophagus of Alexander the Great
Ararat - Berosus the Chaldaean, in Alexander the Great's time, makes the Kurdistan mountains, on the S
Elam - From Darius Hystaspes' time to Alexander the Great it was the Persian king's court residence
Sama'Ria - Alexander the Great took the city, killed a large portion of the inhabitants, and suffered the remainder to set it at Shechem
Rhodes - After the time of Alexander the Great, it was the first naval power in the aegean, and its code of mercantile law was regarded as an ideal for all other States. , Alexander’s Empire, 1887, ch
Sidon - After the coming of Alexander the Great, whom Sidon rapturously welcomed and Tyre frantically opposed, the two cities shared the same political fortunes, being for two centuries bones of contention between the Greek kings of Syria in the north and Egypt in the south
Smyrna - of Ephesus; beautified by Alexander the Great and Antigonus, and designated "the beautiful
Habibus, Deacon, Martyr at Edessa - ) in the year 620 of the kingdom of Alexander of Macedon, in the consulate of Licinius and Constantine, in the days of Conon, bp
Jansenists - The next pope, however, Alexander VII, was more particular, and determined the said propositions to be the doctrines of Jansenius; which excited no small trouble in the Gallican church
Archelaus - Herod having put to death his sons Alexander, Aristobulus, and Antipater, and expunged out of his will Herod Antipas, whom he had declared king, he substituted Archelaus, and gave Antipas the title of tetrarch only
Damascus - It was surrendered to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus, b
Media - Both countries were subdued by Alexander of Macedon, 330 B
Phoenicia - From the time of Alexander the Great onward, the country was one of the stakes in the chronic warfare between the Seleucids and the Ptolemys
Sarbelius, a Edessan Martyr - Trajan, in the 15th year of his reign (also described as the 3rd of Abgarus, the 7th king, and the 416th of the era of Alexander the Great), commanded the rulers of the provinces to see that sacrifices and libations were renewed and increased in every city, and to punish with torture those who refused to take part
Greece, Religion And Society of - carried out by Alexander the Great (336-323 B. From his father Philip II, Alexander inherited a unified Greek homeland with an increased economic order. Being aware of the threat of a Persian invasion from Asia Minor, Alexander set out from his Macedonian capitol in Pella on an eastward offensive. Alexander and his armies turned southward along the eastern end of the Mediterranean and conquered all the territory as far as, and including, Egypt. With Alexander's campaign, trade and commerce between East and West was enhanced. Alexander carried with him not only soldiers, commerce, and language, but also the totality of the Greek way of life
Damascus - , after the battle of Issus, the city was surrendered to Parmenio, the general of Alexander the Great, and during the subsequent Græco-Egyptian wars it fell more than once into the hands of the Ptolemys. and defeated Alexander Jannæus at Shechem
Samaritans - From that time the worship of the Samaritans came much nearer to that of the Jews, and they afterward obtained leave of Alexander the Great to build a temple on Mount Gerizim, near the city of Samaria, in imitation of the temple at Jerusalem, where they practised the same forms of worship. The Samaritans soon after revolted from Alexander, who drove them out of Samaria, introduced Macedonians in their room, and gave the province of Samaria to the Jews
Babylon - and permanently ended her dominance in Near Eastern affairs, but later in the time of Alexander the Great (c. In it was the king's throne room, perhaps the scene of Belshazzar's feast and the death of Alexander the Great. by Alexander the Great to prepare for a proposed building
Alexandria - 332) by Alexander the Great after his conquest of Egypt. One of these quarters ( Soma , ‘the body’) received the corpse of Alexander, and preserved it embalmed in the Royal Mausoleum. The Ptolemys, who succeeded to the Egyptian portion of Alexander’s divided empire, made Alexandria their capital, and by their extensive building operations rendered the city famous for the magnificence and beauty of its public edifices. Philadelphus, on the island which had been joined to the mainland by Alexander
Cyprus - Egyptian and Persian kings controlled Cyprus prior to the coming of Alexander the Great in 333 B
Steward - Alexander (Speaker’s Commentary, London, 1881, in loc
Jannes And Jambres - Freudenthal (Alexander Polyhistor, 1875, p
Wing - ...
Daniel 7:6 (b) The leopard represents the King of Greece, Alexander the Great
Faith - Simple belief of the scriptures, of the being and perfections of God, and of the existence, character and doctrines of Christ, founded on the testimony of the sacred writers, is called historical or speculative faith a faith little distinguished from the belief of the existence and achievements of Alexander or of Cesar
Sidon - Its fleet helped Alexander the Great against Tyre (Arrian, Anab
Gaza - For two months it baffled all the efforts of Alexander the Great, who was repeatedly repulsed and wounded in the siege; which he afterward revenged in a most infamous manner on the person of the gallant defender Betis, whom, while yet alive, having ordered his ankles to be bored, he dragged round the walls, tied to his chariot wheels, in the barbarous parade of imitating the less savage treatment of the corpse of Hector by Achilles
Greece - ...
The Jews and the Greeks appear to have had little intercourse with each other, until after Alexander the Great overran Egypt, Syria, and the East
Persia - 335, who was subdued and slain by Alexander of Macedon, B
Philip - Father of Alexander the Great ( 1M Malachi 1:1 ; 1Ma 6:2 )
Paulus, Bishop of Emesa - His moderation in these difficult and delicate negotiations was condemned by the uncompromising Alexander of Hierapolis as proceeding from a mean desire for reconciliation at the cost of the truth (Baluz
Praedestinatus, an Author - Thus he makes the apostle Thomas confute Saturninus, Barnabas in Cyprus the Carpocratians; he makes Alexander, who was bp
Jews - When Alexander the Great was preparing to besiege Tyre, he sent to Jaddua, the high priest at Jerusalem, to supply him with that quantity of provisions which he was accustomed to send to Persia. This refusal irritated Alexander; and when he had taken Tyre, he marched toward Jerusalem to revenge himself upon the Jews. Alexander, visibly struck with this solemn appearance, immediately laid aside his hostile intentions, advanced toward the high priest, embraced him, and paid adoration to the name of God, which was inscribed upon the frontlet of his mitre: he afterward went into the city with the high priest, and offered sacrifices in the temple to the God of the Jews. This sudden change in the disposition of Alexander excited no small astonishment among his followers; and when his favourite Parmenio inquired of him the cause, he answered, that it was occasioned by the recollection of a remarkable dream he had in Macedonia, in which a person, dressed precisely like the Jewish high priest, had encouraged him to undertake the conquest of Persia, and had promised him success: he therefore adored the name of that God by whose direction he believed he acted, and showed kindness to his people. See Alexander . ...
At the death of Alexander, (B. About forty-two years after, a contest arising between the two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, the sons of Alexander Jaddaeus, relative to the succession of the crown, both parties applied to the Romans for their support and assistance. Fadus was soon succeeded by Tiberius, and he was followed by Alexander Cumanus, Felix, and Festus; but Claudius afterward gave Trachonitis and Abilene to Agrippa, and Nero added a part of Galilee and some other cities
Egypt - Manetho, the Egyptian historian, has given a list of thirty dynasties, which, if successive, make a period of five thousand three hundred years to the time of Alexander, or three thousand two hundred and eighty-two years more than the real time, according to the Mosaic chronology. It comes, however, again into an interesting connection with the Jewish history under Alexander the Great, who invaded it as a Persian dependence. Alexander, merciless as he was to those who opposed his progress or authority, knew how to requite those who were devoted to his interests; and the Egyptians, for many centuries afterward, had reason to recollect with gratitude his protection and foresight. It formed, during this period, and before the rapid extension of the Roman empire toward the termination of these years, one of the only two ancient kingdoms which had survived the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian empires: the other was the Syrian, where the Seleucidae, another family of one of the successors of Alexander, reigned; who, having subdued Macedonia and Thrace, annexed them to the kingdom of Syria, and there remained out of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided these two only; distinguished, in the prophetic writings of Daniel, by the titles of the kings or kingdoms of the north and the south. They were in high favour, and continued to enjoy all the advantages conferred upon them by Alexander
Tarsus - 12)-and Alexander the Great almost lost his life from the effects of an imprudent bathe in its icy water (Plut. The victories of Alexander the Great changed the face of the East, and Tarsus was one of the many cities that were Hellenized by the Seleucids
Chronology of the Biblical Period - Persian rule ended with the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 333-332 B. After the death of Alexander, Palestine fell first under Ptolemaic rule (323-198 B
Pantaenus, of Alexandria - " Thus also Alexander, bp. This letter shows, further, that this Alexander and the illustrious Origen himself were almost certainly pupils of Pantaenus
Locust - , when Alexander overthrew Persia
Tyre - Since the time of a memorable siege by Alexander the Great (332 b
Diana - The second temple, alluded to in Acts, was built in the reign of Alexander the Great
Lebanon - Alexander the Great conquered Lebanon
Gaza - It withstood Alexander's siege with all his resources for five months. Alexander having taken the city, and slain 10,000 of its inhabitants, and sold the rest as slaves, bound Betis the satrap to a chariot by thongs thrust through his soles, and dragged him round the city, as Achilles did to Hector
Labour - Alexander, The Ethics of St
Horn - The big horns represent mighty kings who become world rulers, such as Alexander the Great
Tadmor - The city of Tadmor preserved this name to the time of the conquest by Alexander the Great: then it had the name of Palmyra given to it, which it preserved for several ages
Galatia - The Galatians are said to have been descended from those Gauls, who, finding their own country too strait for them, left it, after the death of Alexander the Great, in quest of new settlements
Jacob's Well - In the time of Alexander the Great, Sichem, or Napolose, as it is now called, was considered as the capital of Samaria
Philistines - They afterwards fell under the dominion of the Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who destroyed Gaza, the only city of the Philistines that dared to oppose him
Dispersion - Other Jews seem to have followed Alexander the Great to Egypt (Jos
Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch - He was succeeded by Alexander, by whom the long distracted church was united
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - Here, in his own patriarchate, he immediately held a council, together with Alexander of Hierapolis and the other deputies, at which he confirmed the deposition of Cyril and his brother-commissioners (Baluz, 840, 843, 847) Theodoret and the others engaged never to consent to the deposition of Nestorius. John summoned Alexander of Hierapolis, Andrew of Samosata, Theodoret, and probably others, to Antioch and held a conference to draw up terms of peace. Alexander of Hierapolis broke off communion with his patriarch John (Baluz. Proclus's influence was exerted in favour of peace, and so successfully that all the remonstrant bishops, except Alexander of Hierapolis and five others, ultimately accepted the concordat and retained their sees. Alexander was ejected in Apr
Herod - Mariamne had Maccabean blood flowing through her veins, was most beautiful, and Herod's hopes for establishing a dynasty rested with her and their two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus. Antipater, his firstborn son, and Salome, his sister, continually agitated the household and brought accusations against Alexander and Aristobulus, the sons of Herod and Mariamne
Authors of Articles - ...
Alexander Souter, M. Alexander Stewart, M
America (Land) - Spanish exploration and conquest followed rapidly, and as Portuguese rivals disputed Spanish claims, an appeal was made by both governments to Pope Alexander VI, who in 1493 delimited two spheres of influence by a line drawn 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands, the western to be Spanish, the eastern Portuguese
Syria - ...
The foundation of Greek cities in Syria after the time of Alexander the Great was of primary importance for the country
Franciscans - in 1245, and by Alexander Iv
Judas the Galilaean - Of these, two-Jacob and Simon-were crucified by Tiberius Alexander the procurator (a
si'Mon - (John 19:17 ) Mark describes him as the father of Alexander and Rufus, perhaps because this was the Rufus known to the Roman Christians, (Romans 16:13 ) for whom he more especially wrote
Red Sea - The Red Sea and Egypt after the time of Alexander the Great was the channel of commerce between Europe and India
Caesarea - Here he condemned to death his two sons Alexander and Aristobulus
Caiaphas (2) - He is referred to as the high priest in Luke 3:2 (with Annas), Matthew 26:3; Matthew 26:57, and is mentioned along with Annas, John, and Alexander among the heads of the Sanhedrin in Acts 4:6
Decapolis - From the days of Alexander the Great, who sought to Hellenize the Orient by founding Greek cities throughout the conquered lands, there were Greek cities in Palestine
Excommunication - 1 Timothy 1:20 , where Hymenæus and Alexander are delivered to Satan , that they may be taught not to blaspheme)
Arians - ...
The Arians were first condemned and anathematised by a council at Alexandria, in 320, under Alexander, bishop of that city, who accused Arius of impiety, and caused him to be expelled from the communion of the church; and afterwards by 380 fathers in the general council of Nice, assembled by Constantine, in 325
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - On the other hand we have the positive statements of Alexander, bp
Oracle - The demi-gods and heroes had likewise their oracles, such were those of Castor and Pollux at Lacedaemon, of Amphiaraus, of Mopsus in Cilicia, of Ulysses, Amphilochus, Sarpedon in Troas, Hermione in Macedonia, Pasiphae in Laconia, Chalcas in Italy, Aristaeus in Boeotia, Autolycus at Sinope, Phryxus among the Colchi, Zamolxis among the Getae, Hephaestion the minion of Alexander, and Antinous, &c. When Alexander fell sick at Babylon, some of his courtiers who happened to be in Egypt, or who went thither on purpose, passed the night in the temple of Serapis, to inquire if it would not be proper to bring Alexander to be cured by him. The god answered, it was better that Alexander should remain where he was. This is actually the construction they put upon the response; whereas had Alexander undertaken the journey, and died in the temple, or by the way, nothing could have been said in favour of Serapis
Persia - Alexander in a drunken fit, to please a courtesan, burned the palace. ) "Darius the Persian" or Codomanus (Nehemiah 12:22) was conquered by Alexander the Great (Daniel 8:3-7)
Philistia - After the Babylonian captivity (Ezekiel 25:15-17) the Philistines vented their "old hatred" on the Jews, for which God as He foretold "executed vengeance on them with furious rebukes, and destroyed the remnant," namely, by Psammetichus, Necho (Jeremiah 25:20), and Nebuchadnezzar who overran their cities on his way to Egypt (Jeremiah 47), and finally by Alexander the Great, as foretold (Zechariah 9:5-6, "the king shall perish from Gaza"; Alexander bound Betis the satrap to his chariot by thongs thrust through his feet, and dragged round the city; the conqueror slew 10,000, and sold the rest as slaves: Zephaniah 2:4-5)
Archaeology, Christian - ...
Catholics ...
Paul Allard
Flavio Biondo
Giovanni Battista de Rossi
Alexander Goss
Antonio Hosio (1575-1629) Known as the Columbus of the Catacombs and the Father of Christian Archaeology, was the first to begin the systematic exploration of the Roman cemeteries
Christian Archaeology - ...
Catholics ...
Paul Allard
Flavio Biondo
Giovanni Battista de Rossi
Alexander Goss
Antonio Hosio (1575-1629) Known as the Columbus of the Catacombs and the Father of Christian Archaeology, was the first to begin the systematic exploration of the Roman cemeteries
Troas - ‘It appeared to be an act of pious duty in the successors of Alexander first to found cities which should bear his name, and afterwards those which should be called after their own
Fathers - 116; Justin Martyr, 140; Dionysius of Corinth, 170; Tatian, 172; Hegesippus, 173; Melito, 177; Irenaeus, 178; Athenagoras, 178; Miltiades, 180; Theophilus, 181; Clement of Alexandria, 194; Tertullian, 200; Minutius Felix, 210; Ammonius, 220; Origen, 230; Firmilian, 233; Dionysius of Alexandria, 247; Cyprian, 248; Novatus or Novatian, 251; Arnobius, 306; Lactantius, 306; Alexander of Alexandria, 313; Eusebius, 315; Athanasius, 326; Cyril of Jerusalem, 348; Hilary, 354; Epiphanius, 368; Basil, 370; Gregory of Nazianzum, 370; Gregory of Nyssa, 370; Optatus, 370; Ambrose, 374; Philaster, 380; Jerome, 392; Theodore of Mopsuestia, 394; Ruffin, 397; Augustine, 398; Chrysostom, 398; Sulpitius Severus, 401; Cyril of Alexandria, 412; Theodoret, 423; and Gennadius, 494
Adoration - The ceremony, which the Greeks called προσκυνειν , Conon refused to perform to Artaxerxes, and Callisthenes to Alexander the Great, as reputing it impious and unlawful
Giant - The catacombs of ancient Egypt and Palestine; the cenotaph, if it be truly such, in the great pyramid; the tomb of Alexander the Great, are all calculated for bodies of ordinary dimensions
Babylon - Alexander the Great planned to restore it
Germany - This pagan imperial policy was again attempted by Frederick Barbarossa who was vanquished by Pope Alexander III
Per'Sia - The collapse of the empire under the attack of Alexander the Great took place B
Polychronius, Bishop of Apamea - But within the next three years he had died or otherwise vacated the see, for in the records of the council of Ephesus Alexander is bp
Obedience - Alexander, Christianity and Ethics, 1914, p
Egypt - On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria. On the death of Alexander the Ptolemies reigned over Egypt for about 300 years. ) On the Persian Empire being conquered by Alexander the Great, Egypt also became a part of the Grecian empire. ) On the death of Alexander, Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies
Surname - At least five persons are called Alexander; and of these the Alexanders referred to in " translation="">Acts 4:6; " translation="">Acts 19:33, " translation="">1 Timothy 1:20 are names and nothing more. ]'>[6] Alexander, as ὁ χαλκεύς,7 Peraea - ...
The immigration of Greek settlers into the country east of Jordan probably began with the presence there of Alexander the Great, and the towns of Pella (no doubt named from the Macedonian city which was Alexander’s birthplace) and Dion may have been founded by him, as Steph. 135–105) possibly first adopted the opposite policy, which was vigorously carried out by Alexander Jannaeus (b
Eusebius of Caesarea - Whatever his motives, he wrote to Alexander, bp. In a letter addressed to his namesake of Constantinople, Alexander complains of three Syrian bishops, "appointed he knows not how," as having fanned the flame of sedition (Theod. Accordingly, when he was deposed by a synod convened at Alexandria by Alexander, Arius appealed to Eusebius and others to interpose. The synod thought that Arius should be allowed to gather his congregation about him as heretofore, but added that he must render obedience to Alexander and entreat to be admitted to communion with him (Soz. ...
After pleading that early Greek and even Hebrew chronology present many difficulties, Eusebius, in the first section, gives a sketch of Chaldee and Assyrian history, subjoining a table of Assyrian, Median, Lydian, and Persian kings, ending with the Darius conquered by Alexander. The authors he uses are Alexander Polyhistor, and, as known through him, Berosus; Abydenus, Josephus, Castor, Diodorus, and Cephalion
Essenes (2) - 17) an appreciative notice of them, for which he was probably indebted to Alexander Polyhistor and his work ‘On the Jews
Caesarea - The Hasmonean ruler Alexander Jannaeus brought it under Jewish control in 96 B
Grecians - " Daniel (Daniel 8:5; Daniel 8:21; Daniel 11:3) foretold the rise of Alexander the Great, "the great horn between the eyes of the rough goat" which "came from the W. ...
Zechariah (Zechariah 9:13) represents Judah and Ephraim as the arrows filling God's bow, "when I have raised up thy son, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece" (Javan) thus foretelling that the Jewish Maccabees would punish Greece in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, one of Alexander's successors, in just retribution for her purchasing from Tyre as slaves" the children of Judah and Jerusalem
Damascus - It was taken and plundered, also, by Sennacherib, Nebuchadnezzar, the generals of Alexander the Great, Judas Maccabeus, and at length by the Romans in the war conducted by Pompey against Tigranes, in the year before Christ, 65
Babylon - Cyrus took it; Darius afterwards rifled it; Xerxes stripped its temples; and Alexander died in attempting its restoration
Pontus - In that year, consequent upon the troubles due to the early death of Alexander the Great, a certain Mithradates was able to carve out for himself a kingdom beyond the river Halys in N
Tarsus - 334, when Alexander the Great entered the country. Greek influence began again with Alexander the Great, but made very slow progress
Repentance (2) - —Bruce, Kingdom of God; Wendt, Teaching of Jesus; Stevens, Theology of NT; Beyschlag, NT Theology; Alexander, Son of Man; Weiss, Life of Christ; Stapfer, Jesus Christ before His Ministry; Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible , art. ...
Gross Alexander
Darius - As "Jaddua" was high priest at the invasion of Alexander the Great, Darius III, Codomanus, his enemy (336-330 B. , would be meant if Nehemiah were the writer; but it is more likely he was not, and that the continuation of the register down to Alexander's contemporary, Jaddua, is inserted by a later hand
Sardis - From the time of Alexander the Great it had enjoyed the constitution of a self-governing city of the Greek type, and under the Romans it became the head of a conventus juridicus in the Hermus valley
Cyprus - Athens made repeated attempts to secure the island, but the mixed population prevented any strong Hellenic movement, and it only passed definitely into Greek hands by submission to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus in b
Italy - Josephus mentions the Jewish colony of Puteoli in his story of the Jewish impostor who claimed to be Alexander the son of Herod (circa, about 4 b
Miletus - ), and by Alexander the Great (334), its days of greatness and glory were ended
Hieracas, an Egyptian Teacher - that children dying before the use of reason cannot inherit the kingdom of heaven; and asks if he who strives cannot be crowned unless he strive lawfully how can he be crowned who has never striven at all? Arius in his letter to Alexander in defence of his views concerning our Lord's Person (Epiph
Aretas - 3) in connexion with the siege of Gaza by Alexander Jannaeus in 96 b
Shushan - The kings left it for Ecbatana or Persepolis only in the height of summer, and for Babylon in the depth of winter; here Alexander found twelve million and the regalia of the great king
Eutychius - His father Alexander was a general under Belisarius
Pontus - It had not a definite geographical meaning till the founding of the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates in the troubled period which followed the death of Alexander the Great
Seceders - William Wilson, minister at Perth, Alexander Moncrief, minister at Abernethy, and James Fisher, minister at Kinclaven, gave in a written adherence, under the form of instrument; and these four withdrew, intending to return to their respective charges, and act agreeably to their protest whenever they should have an opportunity. Alexander Moncrief, minister at Abernethy, and Mr. Alexander Moncrief, Thomas Mair, Adam Gib, and others, contended, on the other hand, that the swearing of the above clause was a virtual renunciation of their testimony; and this controversy was so keenly agitated, that they split into two different parties, and now meet in different synods
Lunatic - Menzies Alexander says: ‘The popular idea that there is some connexion between the moon and epilepsy is partly due to the confusion of epilepsy with epileptic insanity. This has been claimed as the classical criterion of demonic possession, all cases where it is not found being regarded as not due to this cause even although the Scripture so attributes them (Menzies Alexander). The classification must be under the same general head—Defective Inhibition or Epileptic Insanity (rather than Epileptic Idiocy—as Alexander). He never speaks of more than one evil or unclean spirit (see Alexander, Demonic Possession, ch
Alexandria - (Ἀλεξάνδρια)...
The city of Alexandria almost realized Alexander the Great’s dream of ‘a city surpassing anything previously existing’ (Plutarch, Alex. ]'>[3] of Alexander, the palaces of the Egyptian kings, the Temple of Poseidon, and, at a later date, the Caesarium† Impostors - ...
Of the great number of impostors of the 2nd and 3centuries and onward, may be mentioned: ...
Alexander of Abonoteichos, called the oracle-monger, the most notorious impostor of the 2century
the Greek mountebank, Marcus
possibly the women, Priscilla and Maximilla
a fanatic of the 6th century mentioned by Saint Gregory of Tours
Adelbert and Clement, who opposed Saint Boniface in Germany c
Smyrna - Alexander the Great intended to re-found the city, but did not carry out his plan
Theudas - Soon afterwards Fadus’s successor, Alexander, put to death two sons of Judas of Galilee-the Judas who had raised an insurrection when Quirinius made an enrolment of the Jews
Ephesus - ...
Alexander the Great, who was reportedly born on the same day as the Artemision fire, took over the area in 334 B. ...
Lysimachus, one of Alexander's generals, ruled over Ephesus from about 301 to 281 B
Astrology - Such occurrences were not entirely unknown in antiquity, and sometimes were taken as pointing to the birth of a famous person, such as Alexander the Great
Four - ...
Daniel 8:8 (c) The great horn was Alexander the Great
Eden - It appears, indeed, that in the time of Alexander, the Euphrates pursued a separate course to the sea; or, at least, that a navigable branch of it was carried in that direction: in the mouth of which, at Diridotis, Nearchus anchored with his fleet
Greek Language - In the age which succeeded Alexander the Great, the Greek language underwent an internal change of a double nature
Poverty - In the later period, after the conquests of Alexander the Great (from 322), prosperous communities of Jews grew up in such centres as Antioch and Alexandria (the Greek ‘Dispersion‘)
ba'Bel - 331, when the last Persian king was dethroned by Alexander
Hippolytus Romanus - Eusebius says that he wrote a work on the Paschal feast, in which he gives a sixteen-years' Easter table, and accompanies it with a chronology, the boundary of his calculations being the first year of the emperor Alexander, i. One side has a sixteen-years' cycle, exactly corresponding to the description of Eusebius and beginning with the first year of Alexander. It has been shewn that the author of the cycle engraved on the chair must also have been the author of a chronicle, a Latin translation of which is extant, the last event in which is the death of the emperor Alexander (235). The chronicle records the death of the emperor Alexander, and therefore the deportation of Hippolytus and Pontianus to Sardinia could not have taken place under Alexander as the later Papal Catalogue has it, but under Maximin
Hellenism - -The reign of Alexander the Great marks a period in Greek history, not only by reason of the expansion of Greek influence but also owing to the rise of a new spirit which affected language, literature, art, philosophy, science, civilization in general, and religion. Mahaffy, Greek Life and Thought from the Death of Alexander to the Roman Conquest2, London, 1896. -Alexander had conquered the Orient, i. ...
Comparatively few Jews were led by contact with Hellenism to apostasy, like Philo’s nephew Tiberius Alexander
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - Alexander in 413 replaced the name of Chrysostom in the diptychs of his church, and sent a legation to Rome to sue for restoration of communion. Innocent wrote to Alexander congratulating him warmly and desiring a frequent interchange of letters. At the same time Acacius of Beroea, one of Chrysostom's bitterest opponents, was received into communion by Innocent through Alexander, to whom the letter of communion was sent for transmission. Alexander having, later, consulted the pope as to the jurisdiction of his patriarchal see of Antioch, Innocent replied that in accordance with the canons of Nice (Can
Daniel, the Book of - 7:11, section 8) records that Alexander the Great had designed to punish the Jews for their fidelity, to Darius; but Jaddua (332 B. Josephus' statement, if true, accounts for the fact that Alexander favored the Jews; it certainly proves that the Jews of Josephus' time believed in the existence of Daniel's book in Alexander's time long before the Maccabees
Babylon, History And Religion of - ” Alexander the Great, conqueror of the Persian Empire, embarked on a program of rebuilding in Babylon which was interrupted by his death in 323 B. After Alexander the city declined economically, but remained an important religious center until New Testament times
Bible, Egypt in the - After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great
Antiochus - These are so clear and definite that sceptics have foolishly said that at least this part of the prophecy of Daniel must have been writtenafter the events! The Greek kingdom, the third of the four great empires, was, on the death of Alexander the Great, divided amonghis four generals, and this resulted principally in a series of kings who ruled in Egypt bearing the general name of PTOLEMY, and are called in scripture 'Kings of the South;' and another series, called 'Kings of the North,' who bore the general name of either SELEUCUS or ANTIOCHUS
Flood - From all of this, it is the studied judgment of scholars “that the Babylonian and Hebrew versions (of the flood stories) are genetically related is too obvious to require proof” (Alexander Heidel
Colosse - Alexander the Great had garrisoned Phrygia with Babylonian Jews
Syria - Syria, with the rest of the Persian Empire, fell to the advances of Alexander the Great
Nehemiah, Book of - The high priest Jaddua mentioned in Nehemiah 12:11 is known from Josephus to have been a contemporary of Alexander the Great
Chaldaea - Above and below this sea are the Chaldaean marshes in which Alexander was almost lost
Perseverance - It is objected that many have in fact fallen away, as David, Solomon, Peter, Alexander, Hymeneus, &c
Jansenists - In this congregation Jansenius was condemned; and the bull of condemnation published in May, 1653, pope Alexander VII
Infallibility - ...
Then it was that this infallibility was transferred by many divines from popes to general authority of a council above that of a pope spread vastly, especially under the profligate pontificate of Alexander VI
Euthalius (5), Deacon of Alexandria - at Rome by Laurentius Alexander Zacagnius, praefect of the Vatican Library, in vol
Ephesus - This temple was seven times set on fire: one of the principal conflagrations happened on the very day that Socrates was poisoned, four hundred years before Christ; the other, on the same night in which Alexander the Great was born, when a person of the name of Erostratus set it on fire, according to his own confession, to get himself a name! It was, however, rebuilt and beautified by the Ephesians, toward which the female inhabitants of the city contributed liberally
Idolatry, - Though the conquests of Alexander caused Greek influence to be felt, yet after the captivity better condition of things prevailed, and the Jews never again fell into idolatry
Scotland - Malcolm's son, Alexander, erected the Bees of Moray and Dunkeld, introduced regular religious orders, and founded monasteries of canons regular
Coins - , after Alexander overran the Persian Empire, Greek coinage was circulated widely in Palestine, according to archaeological research
Egypt in the Bible - After the collapse of the Chaldean Empire Egypt, now but a shadow of its former greatness, fell into the hands of the Persian king Cambyses (525) and, two centuries later (332), of Alexander the Great
Philistines - Gaza in 332 held out against Alexander the Great, and his siege of it is famous (Diod
Precious Stones - The conquests of Alexander brought into the Western markets all the gems of the gorgeous East, and established a new standard of values in precious minerals
Josephus - the restoration of the nation under Cyrus, and its history till Alexander the Great; XII. the tragedy of Herod’s family till the execution of Alexander and Aristobulus, the sons of Mariamne; XVII. Of the period between Cyrus and Alexander the Great he has nothing to record, and he lures the reader across the gap by a long extract from the Epistle of Aristeas. , 102]'>[39], where the slaying of the sons of Judas by Tiberius Alexander is recorded after the crushing of Theudas’s insurrection by Cuspius Fadus
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - 1747, 1783), Vienne, 445 (Natalis Alexander, Hist. The case in favour of this has been ably summed up by Natalis Alexander (H
Cross, Cross-Bearing - But there is no need of this supposition, for the figure of bearing one’s cross would be quite intelligible to Jews since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Jannaeus, and Varus. The Jews themselves had not favoured crucifixion, save Alexander Jannaeus, the ‘Thracian’ in spirit
Euchites - ad Magnam , 21) couples with Adelphius of Mesopotamia, Alexander, who polluted Constantinople with like teaching, and against whom he contends that their idleness, instead of aiding devotion, gave scope to evil thoughts and passions and was inimical to the true spirit of prayer. Tillemont has conjectured that this was the Alexander who about this time founded the order of the Acoimetae (see D
Daniel - 'Furthermore,' says Plutarch, 'Alexander was far less given to wine than men would have judged. And in all other ways, like Plutarch's Alexander, Ardmillan was, I think, the most gracious and gentlemanly man I ever knew
Principality Principalities - Paul’s experience (2 Corinthians 12:1-4) must not be forgotten, and Alexander says that not without reason has a Greek Father (St. Alexander (Speaker’s Commentary, 1881); T
Essenes - The Greeks who followed Alexander to India marvelled at the Ascetics or Gymnosophists
Title on the Cross - John’s view, the witness of language to the King of the Jews, who is also the King of humanity’ (Alexander, Leading Ideas of the Gospels, pp
Nations - ...
Judaism was in even greater danger of being lost in the world-currents of speculation and religion soon after the time of Alexander the Great
Art And Aesthetics - Before they could get on their feet, Alexander the Great conquered their world
Apollonius of Tyana - The Christians were not then by any means an unknown sect; so well known were they that Alexander Severus (with a singular parallelism to the supposed conduct of Philostratus) placed Christ with Abraham, Orpheus, and Apollonius himself, among his household gods
Cosmopolitanism - Traces of a cosmopolitan atmosphere may be detected in Mark 15:21 (‘Simon, father of Alexander and Rufus’), in the Greek names of two of the disciples (Andrew and Philip), and the trilingual ‘title’ on the cross (John 19:20)
Ammon, Ammonites - ...
Between the time of Nehemiah and Alexander the Great the country east of the Jordan was overrun by the Nabatæans
Habakkuk - ’ In the second case the reference is to the Greeks, and the destroyer is Alexander the Great
Shechem - After the ruin of Samaria by Shalmaneser, Shechem became the capital of the Samaritans; and Josephus says it was so in the time of Alexander the Great
Joel - , when Persia fell before Alexander the Great
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - language in its development from the time of Alexander the Great to the close of the ancient period, excluding, of course, the older dialects so far as they survived at all, and excluding also the language of the Atticists (2nd-5th cent. Palestine, Syria, and Asia Minor, forms but a part of the great Hellenistic domain, the furthest boundaries of which were nearly coincident with those of Alexander’s Empire. ; Mahaffy, The Progress of Hellenism in Alexander’s Empire, Chicago, 1905; on the language or Jesus see, most recently, Moulton, op. This modified Attic was used at the Macedonian court before the time of Alexander the Great. But it was in reality the conquests of Alexander and the institution of kingdoms by his successors that diffused the new idiom throughout the Oriental world, and made it the universal language of Hellenism
Babylon - Here the principal devotions were performed; and over this, on the highest platform of all, was the observatory, by the help of which the Babylonians arrived to such perfection in astronomy, that Calisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied, Alexander to Babylon, found astronomical observations for 1903 years backwards from that time; which reach as high as the 115th year after the flood. "—Alexander the Great attempted to restore it to its former glory, and designed to make it the metropolis of a universal empire. Notwithstanding that Cyrus resided chiefly at Babylon, and sought to reform the government, and remodel the manners of the Babylonians, the succeeding kings of Persia preferred, as the seat of empire, Susa, Persepolis, or Ecbatana, situated in their own country: and in like manner the successors of Alexander did not attempt to complete his purpose of restoring Babylon to its preeminence and glory; but, after the subdivision of his mighty empire, the very kings of Assyria. The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror
Money - " The Attic talent was the standard one under Alexander, and subsequently down to Roman times; the drachma however becoming depreciated from 67
Library - Alexander the Great took with him copies of Homer, of the Greek tragedians, and of various poets
Laodicea - In connexion with it, but probably in Laodicea itself, was ‘a large Herophilian school of medicine under the direction of Zeuxis, and afterwards of Alexander Philalethes’ (Strabo, xii
Decius, Emperor - of Rome, was among the foremost of the victims; Babylas of Antioch, Pionius of Smyrna (seized, it was said, while celebrating the anniversary of the martyrdom of Polycarp), Agatha of Sicily, Polyeuctes of Armenia, Carpus and his deacon of Thyatira, Maximus (a layman) of Asia, Alexander, bp
Scribes - In some cases they were led to expound the law by the traditions, in direct opposition to its true intent and meaning; and it may be supposed that the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks, after the death of Alexander, contributed much to increase those vain subtleties with which they had perplexed and burdened the doctrines of religion
Phylacteries - They are also mentioned in connexion with Simeon ben Shetach, brother-in-law of Alexander Jannaeus (b
Dispersion - The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v
Dispersion - The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v
Palestine - After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (B
Thessalonica - , it was named after his wife Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great
Gentiles (2) - The very wide diffusion of the Greek language after the conquests of Alexander the Great was the reason that in our Lord’s day ‘Greek’ was often used as an equivalent for ‘Gentile
Samaria - Alexander the Great replaced its inhabitants with Syro Macedonians
Fulness of the Time - —Ever since the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Greek tongue had attained supremacy among the civilized nations, and had become the current medium for the exchange of thought
Commerce - Their commerce, nevertheless, was not great, till Alexander had destroyed Tyre and built Alexandria
Samaria, Samaritans - Jewish and Samaritan tradition agree as to the date of this event, which Josephus sets down wrongly in the time of Alexander the Great and Jaddua the high priest (b. Alexander and Ptolemy Lagi had taken many Jews and Samaritans to Egypt (Ant. original), which closely follows the canonical Joshua, but has many apocryphal additions and eight concluding chapters, bringing the history down to the time of Alexander Severus; Chronicle of Abul-Fath; el-Tolidoth, a short Hebrew history from Adam till the present high priest, accompanied by an Arabic translation
Jerusalem - From Alexander the Great to the Maccabees . 333) Alexander the Great became master of Palestine; and the Persian suzerainty, under which the Jews had enjoyed protection and freedom to follow their own rites, came to an end. Alexander’s death was the signal for the long and complicated struggle between the Seleucids and the Ptolemys, between whom Jerusalem passed more than once. To settle a squabble as to the successor of Alexander Jannæus, the Roman power was called in
Language of Christ - While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred literature, the language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. ...
With Alexander the Great, however, there came a fresh disturbance of the linguistic situation
Persecution - Among many nameless sufferers, history has preserved from oblivion Pothinus, the respectable bishop of Lyons, who was then more than ninety years of age; Sanctus, a deacon of Vienne; Attalus, a native of Pergamus; Maturus, and Alexander; some of whom were devoured by wild beasts, and some of them tortured in an iron chair made red hot. 235, and seems to have arisen from that prince's hatred to his predecessor, Alexander, in whose family many Christians had found shelter and patronage
Spirituality - Alexander, Christian Spirituality: Five Views of Sanctification ; D
Pharisees - The hostility was especially great during the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76), and they seem to have taken a leading part in opposition to him; it is usually assumed that Pharisees composed either all or a large part of the eight hundred Jews he later crucified (Ant 13
Septuagint - An army of apologists was raised up, of whom Josephus and Philo are, for us, the chief, because so much of their work is extant; but they must have been well-nigh equalled in weight and influence by such writers as the historians Alexander Cornelius (‘Polyhistor’), Demetrius, Eupolemus, Artapanus, and Aristeas, the poets Philo, Theodotus, and Ezekiel, the philosopher Aristobulus, and Cleodemus or Malchas, small fragments of whose writings are preserved in Clem
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - This separation lasted till the episcopate of Alexander, 414 or 415
Fornication - Alexander Severus furnished governors with concubines
Council - ) the third of Lateran, under Alexander III, in 1179, the decrees of which were intended to extirpate the Albigenses, as well as the Waldenses, who were variously called Leonists, or poor men of Lyons; (12
Gods, Pagan - The conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon took the Greek culture throughout the Near East. With the syncretism of the Hellenistic period following Alexander the Great's conquests, Zeus was equated with the Semitic storm god Hadad
Emperor-Worship - -Emperor-worship, like many other strange phenomena, was first of all a product of the contact and fusion of Orientalism and Hellenism, which for all practical purposes may be dated from the conquests of Alexander the Great. As noted above, in the kingdoms formed out of the Empire of Alexander in which Orientalism was hellenized, the deification of the monarch was definitely carried out
Antiochus - There were many kings of this name in Syria, much celebrated in the Greek, Roman, and Jewish histories, after the time of Seleucus Nicanor, the father of Antiochus Soter, and reckoned the first king of Syria after Alexander the Great. ANTIOCHUS THEOS, or the Divine, the son of Alexander Balas, king of Syria, was brought up by the Arabian prince Elmachuel, or, as he is called in the Greek, Simalcue, 1Ma_11:39-40 , &c
Philo - His brother Alexander was alabarch (or arabarch, i. His nephew Tiberius Alexander took service with the Romans, and, renouncing his Judaism, became a high official; he was governor of Judaea before a
Egypt - 525), and by the Greeks under Alexander the Great (B
Containers And Vessels - ...
Alexander the Great brought to the Middle East the Hellenistic culture and its large variety of ceramic ware
Proverbs, Book of - This would date Proverbs 10:1-15 after the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 332 B
Synagogue - Their erection began probably at the close of the second century, the Jews employing Roman workmen, at the dictation of Roman rulers in the time of Antoninus Pins and Alexander Severus, during the spiritual supremacy of the Jewish patriarch of Tiberias
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - , makes her contemporary with Urban, and places her martyrdom at Rome under Alexander Severus, c
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - Alexander's house, as his companion and secretary (Soz. The place held by Alexander as "successor of St. In this spirit he attended Alexander to the Nicene council in 325. A solemn and touching incident of Alexander's last moments is connected with the history of Athanasius, who was then absent from Alexandria. The Eusebians now resumed a project which had been found impracticable while Constantine lived; this was to place on "the Evangelical throne" an Arian named Pistus, who had been a priest under Alexander, had been deposed by him for adhering to Arius, and had been consecrated, as it seems ( Apol
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - 7), "he sent a letter to Alexander, bp. Alexander (vol. ) calls the letter of Constantine to Arius and Alexander "in its spirit a model of temper and conciliation
Jerusalem - From this time Jerusalem remained attached to the Persian empire, but under the local jurisdiction of the high priests, until the subversion of that empire by Alexander, fourteen years after. See Alexander . ...
At the death of Alexander, and the partition of his empire by his generals, Jerusalem, with Judea, fell to the kings of Syria
Nestorius And Nestorianism - It is also found in the letter of Alexander of Alexandria to Alexander of Constantinople. Nestorius was banished to a convent just outside the gates of Antioch, and Meletius of Mopsuestia, Alexander of Hierapolis, and Helladius of Tarsus, strong supporters of the school of Theodore, were involved in the fate of Nestorius
High Priest - (See ELIASHIB; Alexander. ) states that Jaddua's brother Manasseh was at Sanballat's request made the first high priest of the Samaritan temple by Alexander the Great
Vespasian - Vespasian had made sure of the support of the prefect or Egypt, Tiberius Julius Alexander, and now wrote to tell him that he was making a bid for the Empire, and counted on his support. It was this Alexander who in Alexandria on 1st July 69 proclaimed Vespasian Emperor, and made the two legions in Egypt take the oath to him
High Priest - Alexander Balas, a contender for the Seleucid throne, appointed Jonathan Maccabee “high priest” and “king's friend” (1 Maccabees 10:20 )
Divorce - Alexander...
See also Family Life and Relations ; Marriage ...
Bibliography
Simple, Simplicity - Alexander on Matthew give the best exposition
Hellenists - The former were Greeks by nation, and as such distinguished from Jews, Acts 16:1 ; Acts 19:10 ; and the Greek empire having been rendered by Alexander in a manner universal, and their language being then the most common and general, the appellation Greeks is sometimes given to the whole Heathen world, or to all who were not Jews, Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9
Philistim - Afterward they fell under the dominion of the Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who destroyed the city of Gaza, the only city of the Phenicians that dared to oppose him
Money - We find nothing concerning the money of the Egyptians, Phenicians, Arabians, or Syrians, before Alexander the Great
Nineveh - " And the village of Nunia, opposite Mosul, in its name, and the tradition of the natives, ascertains the site of the ancient city, which was near the castle of Arbela, according to Tacitus, so celebrated for the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians there; the site of which is ascertained by the village of Arbil, about ten German miles to the east of Nunia, according to Niebuhr's map
Name - Thus from ἀλέκω, ‘defend,’ and ἀνήρ we have Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexander), Herod - He put to death successively Hyrcanus, his wife Mariamne's grandfather, Mariamne herself to whom he had been passionately attached, his two sons by her, Alexander and Aristobulus, and just four days before his death signed the order for executing their bitter accuser, his oldest son Antipater. , 2:15, section 1; Life, section 11) records his anxiety to stand well with the Roman governors, Alexander in Egypt, and Gessius Florus in Judaea, in the latter case Berenice accompanying him
Mark, the Gospel According to - ...
He names Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46), states that "Jesus would not suffer any to carry any vessel through the temple" (Mark 11:16), that Simon of Cyrene was father of Alexander and Rufus (Mark 15:21)
Samaria - ), it began to be Hellenized by Alexander the Great (331)
Government - 105), and Alexander Jannæus uses the title on coins (b
Asia Minor, Cities of - Control passed to Alexander the Great about 333 B
Simeon - Of Cyrene; attending the Passover "from the country, father of Alexander and Rufus" (known to Roman Christians, Romans 16:13, for whom Mark wrote); impressed to bear after Christ the cross to Golgotha, when the Lord Himself had sunk under it (John 19:17; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26)
Phoenicia, phNicians - 333), all the Phœnician cities except Tyre opened their gates to Alexander the Great
Money - Money in the period from Alexander to the Maccabees . Alexander’s conquest of Syria was naturally followed by the introduction of his coinage in gold, silver, and bronze. Now the Seleucids had continued Alexander’s silver coinage on the Attic standard, the basis of which was the drachm of, originally, 67 grs. ’ The title of ‘king’ first appears on bronze coins of Alexander Jannæus ‘Jonathan the king’ who also first introduced a Greek, in addition to a Hebrew, legend
Greek Versions of ot - Greeks had been sporadically present in Egypt even before the conquest of the country by Alexander, and under the Ptolemys they increased and multiplied greatly. It is written in Greek, which in vocabulary and accidence is substantially that koinç dialektos , or Hellenistic Greek, which was in common use throughout the empire of Alexander, and of which our knowledge, in its non-literary form, has been greatly extended by the recent discoveries of Greek papyri in Egypt
Family Life And Relations - Alexander, EQ 61/1 (1989): 5-19; F
Jerusalem - ...
While Jewish writers pointed to future hope, Persians continued to rule Jerusalem until Alexander the Great took over in 333 B
World - 110); but after the conquests of Alexander, and in consequence of the same unifying influences as those by which the Greek dialects were merged in the κοινή, it came to express a view and feeling of the inhabited world as overpassing all national distinctions and boundaries
Micah, Theology of - Alexander, and B
Greece - The career of Alexander, the pupil of Aristotle, closed the Hellenic and opened the Hellenistic period of history. When Alexander’s empire extended the bounds of knowledge, attention began to be directed to foreign faiths, and Oriental mysteries gradually came into vogue. 1897, and Progress of Hellenism in Alexander’s Empire, do
Ephesus - ...
Alexander Souter and James Strahan
Education (2) - ]'>[7] The establishment of this system of education was ascribed to the celebrated Simon ben Shetach, brother of Salome Alexandra, the queen of Alexander Jannaeus (b
Antioch - 312 280) secured the rule over most of Alexander the Great’s Asiatic empire, which stretched from the Hellespont and the Mediterranean on the one side to the Jaxartes and Indus on the other
Nimrod - Alexander himself, the Great, as we call him, is to Daniel but a great pushing he-goat
World - 110); but after the conquests of Alexander, and in consequence of the same unifying influences as those by which the Greek dialects were merged in the κοινή, it came to express a view and feeling of the inhabited world as overpassing all national distinctions and boundaries
Dates (2) - This massacre, quite in keeping with the growing cruelty and suspicion of Herod, who had recently procured the murder of his two sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, was secretly carried out and seemingly of small extent, not being mentioned by Josephus, and being apparently limited to children to whom the star which the Magi saw in the east, at least six months before, might have reference. If the coming of the Magi took place shortly after the death of Herod’s sons Alexander and Aristobulus (b
Language of the nt - The strong hand of Philip of Macedon brought Hellas under one rule; his son, the great Alexander, carried victorious Hellenism far out into the world beyond. Unification of speech was a natural result, when Greeks from different cities became fellow-soldiers in Alexander’s army, or fellow-colonists in his new towns
Cross, Crucifixion - ” During the intertestamental period the western form was borrowed when Alexander Janneus crucified 800 Pharisees (76 B
Discipline - That the sentence is reformatory is confirmed by the fact that Paul ends the pronouncement in 1 Corinthians 5:5 with the express intent that the offender's spirit may be "saved in the day of the Lord"; similarly, 1 Timothy 1:20 notes that "Hymenaeus and Alexander were handed over to Satan to be taught not to blaspheme
Egypt - ...
Alexander the Great took Egypt from the Persians in 332 B
Herod - When, under the successors of Alexander, the centre of political gravity shifted from Persia to the shores of the Great Sea, the door was finally closed against the possibility of political autonomy in the Holy Land
Tongues, Confusion of - The Teutonic migration was much later; they were by the Baltic in the age of Alexander the Great (Pliny 37:11); glesum, the term for amber in that region, is Teutonic
Rufus - —See Alexander and Rufus
Star (2) - , ‘on the birthnight of Alexander, Magi prophesied from a brilliant constellation that the destroyer of Asia was born’ (cf
the Thorn in Paul's Flesh - Chrysostom thought he saw Hymenæus and Alexander in it
Exorcism - Alexander, Demonic Possession in the NT, 1902; H
Apocrypha - After introductory verses dealing with Alexander the Great, the book gives the causes for the revolt against the Seleucids
John, the Epistles of - Alexander of Alex
Jordanis, Historian of the Goths - Cyrus, Xerxes, Alexander the Great, Caesar and Tiberius are mentioned
Rufus - —See Alexander and Rufus
Clement of Alexandria - 11, ὃν ἴστε ); and, later, we find him in the company of an old pupil, Alexander, afterwards bp. Alexander regarded his presence as due to "a special providence" (cf
Egypt - ) into 31 dynasties from Menes to Alexander. At length, in 345, Ochus reconquered the province, and it remained subject to Persia until Alexander the Great entered it almost without bloodshed in 332 after the battle of Issus
Jews, Judaism - ...
Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture predominated
Golden Rule - One of the best of the Roman emperors, Alexander Severus, had it inscribed in his palace and on public buildings (Lamprid
Essenes - 17, probably drawn from Alexander Polyhistor)
Sanballat - Paul's Cathedral, class Oliver Cromwell with Alexander the Sixth and Richard the Third! To such lengths will a malevolent party spirit go even in the Christian pulpit!...
By the just and righteous ordination of Almighty God all our sins carry their own punishment immediately and inseparably with them
Zechariah, Prophecy of - 1618733251_37 had a partial fulfilment by the instrumentality of Alexander the Great
Antioch - , discovered an ideal site for the capital of his Syrian kingdom, the Asiatic portion of the vast empire of Alexander the Great, and here he built the most famous of the 16 Antiochs which he founded in honour of his father Antiochus
Amazement - Alexander), or even ‘inconceivable awe’ (Swete). Alexander’s excellent note on Mark 8:10 and Swete’s on Mark 6:6)
Moab - They were afterward conquered by Alexander the Great, and were in obedience to the kings of Syria and Egypt successively, and finally to the Romans
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - 11), and that he is writing an outline of events from the year of Alexander 886 (A
Minucius Felix, Marcus - We thus fall back on the opinion held by the best critics before the publication of Ebert's memoir, that the work of Minucius was written in the peaceful days of Alexander Severus, say a
Marriage - Alexander...
See also Divorce ; Family Life and Relations ; Sexuality, Human ...
Bibliography
Hating, Hatred - Jewish sages ordained that ‘if a man finds both a friend and an enemy in distress, he shall first assist his enemy,’ in order to subdue his evil inclination; and held that it is not permitted to ‘hate any one except only sinners who, having been duly warned and admonished, do not repent’ (Kalisch on Leviticus, quoted in Alexander, The Witness of the Psalms to Christ and Christianity, p
Humiliation of Christ - ...
Gross Alexander
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - , which treats of the Frankish conquests, he still owes much to Orosius and to the Lives of the Saints, and quotes from Renatus Frigiderius and Sulpicius Alexander (ii
Mephibosheth - ...
Hephæstion loved Alexander, while Craterus loved the king
Palestine - This was the route followed by the Hittites and the Egyptians, by Cambyses, Alexander, Pompey, and Napoleon
Jerusalem - , the city yielded to Alexander of Macedon; and not long after his death, Ptolemy of Egypt took it by an assault on the Sabbath, when it is said the Jews scrupled to fight
Trade And Commerce - After the conquests of Alexander, ghettos began to be formed in the great Hellenic cities, and the Roman conquests soon led to colonies of Jews settling yet farther west
Time - It was also called the Era of the Greeks or Syro-Macedonians and (incorrectly) the Era of Alexander
Canaan - " So the Talmud states, says Selden, the Africans claimed part of Israel's land from Alexander the Great, as part of their paternal possession
Lord's Prayer (i) - ...
(e) γενηθήτω is translation יֵעָשָׂה by Shemtob, Delitzsch, Salkinson-Ginsburg, Resch; יְהִי by Alexander (McCaul-Hoga), Margoliouth, by the old Syriac versions except the Syro-Palestinian; from SE cf
Zechariah, the Book of - Alexander's conquests in Syria and Philistia (Zechariah 9:1-8). , under Alexander's successors, especially Antiochus Epiphanes who profaned the temple, slew thousands, and enslaved more, should be delivered under the Maccabees by looking to the Lord. The three shepherds (Zechariah 11:8) cut off in one month answer to the three last princes of the Asmonaean line, Hyrcanus, Alexander, and Antigonus (the last conquered by Rome and Herod, and slain by the executioner, 34 B
Egypt - Manetho enumerates 30 dynasties as having ruled in Egypt before Alexander the Great, probably several of them at the same time, but over separate parts of the country
Pronunciation of Proper Names - ’...
Alexander Stewart
Timothy And Titus Epistles to - Timothy is to be on his guard against Alexander the coppersmith
Sanhedrin (2) - His refusal to concede the demand made the opposition of the Pharisees to the ruling party more acute, and under Alexander Jannaeus there was open war
Saviour (2) - Up to the time of Alexander the Great, σωτήρ was not applied to men, because it was still felt to be a cult-name reserved for the gods
Canon of the Old Testament - The rivalry of Hellenic culture after the cooquests of Alexander the Great ( c
Sibylline Oracles - The latter is first mentioned by Alexander Polyhistor, the Greek author of Χαλδαϊκά, in the 1st cent. It is necessary to say ‘apparently,’ for serious doubts have been thrown recently upon Alexander’s indebtedness to a Jewish source; both Geffcken [Note: In his ‘Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina’ (TU xxiii
Jeru'Salem - 332 it was captured by Alexander the Great
Philanthropy - Alexander
Temple (2) - that presented by Alexander of Alexandria; it was one of the largest, and was covered with gold and silver; secondly, the Eastern gate, which was covered with Corinthian bronze; and, above all, the gate of Nicanor;* [19] Nicanor, the Alexandrian, who made the doors
Roman Law in the nt - In Acts 19:33 the Jews put forward Alexander for this very purpose
Money (2) - Alexander the Great had made the Attic drachm the unit of his Imperial coinage, which he imposed upon all the lands he had conquered; and in adopting the Alexandrine drachm as equal to their own denarius, the Romans wished to indicate that they served themselves heirs to his kingdom in the East (Mommsen, op
Jerusalem - 332 it was captured by Alexander the Great, and again under Antiochus Epiphanes, b
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - ...
One of the most interesting facts introduced by his panegyrist refers to Gregory's selection of an obscure person, Alexander the charcoal burner, as bishop over the neighbouring city of Comana
Canon - Alexander, in his work on the canon, proving that no canonical book of the Old or New Testament has been lost, may here be properly introduced
Palestine - 333 Syria fell to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus
Thecla - As they entered Antioch her beauty caught the eye of Alexander the Syriarch (this seems to prove that the city here meant is the capital of Syria) who sought to obtain possession of her by offering money to Paul
Judas Iscariot (2) - It finds a fitting place in the introduction to the narrative of the Betrayal in the psychological Gospel which so often gives internal reasons; ‘the Gospel of the physician is also the Gospel of the psychologist’ (Alexander, Leading Ideas of the Gospels, p
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - All the great Protestant critics accept them; and among the Roman Catholics Natalis Alexander, Tillemont, Fleury, Dupin, Ceillier, Montfaucon, Constant, and Möhler
Nestorian Church - This revolution was to its authors a revival of the old kingdom destroyed by Alexander, and the Persian nation rose again with a national religion, that of Zoroaster
Novatianus And Novatianism - 38) mentions several martyrs for the Catholic faith whom they then furnished, especially one Alexander, a Paphlagonian, to whose memory they built a church at Constantinople existing in his own day
Hebrews - Clement is followed by Origen, by Dionysius and Alexander, both bishops of Alexandria, by Ambrose, Athanasius, Hilary of Poitiers, Jerom, Chrysostom, and Cyril, all of whom consider this epistle as written by St
Sanhedrin - Sheṭaḥ (contemporary of Alexander Jannaeus and relative of queen Alexandra) (H
Arius, Followers of - died, and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the ablest of Athanasius's antagonists, contrived to get himself removed to Constantinople after the death of the bishop, Alexander
Dream (2) - , Weiss, Keil, Alexander, Broadus, Nebe), and does not presuppose a precedent inquiry (as is assumed, e
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - In Antioch her beauty attracted the attention of Alexander, a prominent Antiochian, and her refusal to consent to his wishes led to her condemnation to the wild beasts
Canaan - From this period till the aera of Alexander the Great, Palestine remained subject to the Chaldean, Median, and Persian dynasties
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - ...
Other languages besides Aramaic contributed to the vocabulary of Hebrew: Assyrian , indirectly through the Canaanites from the earliest times to an extent not easily to be defined, and later directly; Persian , after the Persian conquest of Babylon in 538; Greek , after the time of Alexander (332 b
New Testament - Petersburg, having been presented to Alexander II of Russia, who had 300 copies, in four folio volumes, printed at his own expense in 1862
Bible - It may be added, that, in the first book of Chronicles, the genealogy of the sons of Zerubbabel is carried down for so many generations as must necessarily bring it to the time of Alexander; and consequently this book, or at least this part of it, could not be in the canon in Ezra's days
Babel - (when the last Darius was dethroned by Alexander)
Roads And Travel - The complete course of the Via Egnatia was as follows: Dyrrhachium, Clodiana (where the branch from Apollonia met it), Scampa, Lychnidus, Scirtiana, Nicaea, Heraclea, Cellae, Edessa, Pella (where Alexander the Great was born), Thessalonica, Apollonia, Amphipolis, Philippi, Neapolis, Porsulae, Brendice, Tempyra, Doriscus, Dyme, Cypsela, Syracellae, Apri, Bisanthe, Heraeum, Perinthus, Selymbria, Melantia, Byzantium (later Constantinople)
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - Hilary also meets with indulgence from Natalis Alexander; and, above all, is defended by his Benedictine editor, Dom Coutant, who, as Cave justly remarks, "naevos explicare, emollire et vindicare satagit
Jews - When Alexander was in Canaan, about 3670, he confirmed to them all their privileges; and, having built Alexandria, he settled vast numbers of them there
Monophysitism - Dioscorus next wrote to the patriarch of Antioch accusing Theodoret of Nestorianism; and when Theodoret defended himself with temper and moderation, pointing out that he had condemned those who had denounced the term θεοτόκος and divided the Person of Christ, and appealing to the authority of Alexander, Athanasius, Basil, and Gregory, Dioscorus encouraged his monks to anathematize Theodoret openly in the church (448)
Montanus - One other Montanist of this period was Alexander, who was honoured by his party as a martyr, but had, according to Apollonius, been only punished by the proconsul, Aemilius Frontinus, for his crimes, as the public records would testify
Pharisees (2) - The Macedonian policy of Alexander made the East Greek; the Romans made the West Latin; Persia and Carthage were overthrown; then Rome absorbed the Hellenistic East; and a world-system for the first time appeared when Jesus was born under the first Emperor
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - The same was also probably the case with Alexander, the Valentinian whose syllogisms Tertullian had in his hands ( de Carne Christi cc
Christ in Jewish Literature - Alexander (Jannaeus); this is the year 263 from the building of the Temple, and the 51st year of the Hasmonaeans, and the year 3675 from the Creation (b
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - At the Nicaean council, Alexander, then bp
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - Dionysius of Alexandria, and with him Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Maximus of Nola, Babylas of Antioch, Alexander of Jerusalem, Fabian of Rome, were all attacked, the last three martyred
Eutyches And Eutychianism - Alexander, the priest and periodeutes ("visitor," see Suicer, Theosaur
Worship - Heathens, who, like Alexander Severus, saw something divine in Christ's personal form, and sects which mixed Heathenism and Christianity together, were the first who made use of images of Christ; as, for instance, the Gnostic sect of the followers of Carpocratian, who put his image beside those of Plato and Aristotle
Odes of Solomon - After the invasion of Palestine, Syria, and neighbouring countries by the Hellenic troops, under the leadership of Alexander, the Greek language acquired a firm footing in these countries, and from the time of the Seleucids onwards it began to supersede, in great centres, the Canaanitish and Aramaic dialects which were doomed to disappear
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - ...
His ambition was to imitate Marcus Aurelius as a philosopher upon the throne, and Alexander the Great as a model in warfare (ad Themist
Justinianus i, Emperor - We hear, however, of only one bishop, Alexander of Abydus, who was deposed
Palestine - And behind them, more clearly visible since the campaigns of Alexander the Great, though still dim in the mists of vast distances, lay India and the Far East