What does Ai mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
הָעָֽי a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 8
הָעָ֑י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 4
הָעַ֔י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 3
הָעַ֖י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 3
וְהָעָ֔י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 2
הָעַ֛י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 2
הָעַ֗י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 2
לָעַ֖י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
הָעַ֞י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
הָעַי֮ a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
וְהָעַ֣י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
הָעַי֙ a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
לָעַ֜י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
עַ֗י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
לָעָ֑י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
לָעַ֔י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
בָּעַי֙ a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
הָעַ֨י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
הָעַ֜י a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
וְלָעָֽי a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan. 1
(בָּעַ֔י) excitement 1

Definitions Related to Ai

H5857


   1 a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan.
   2 a city of the Ammonites on the east of the Jordan and apparently attached to Heshbon.
   Additional Information: Ai or Aija or Aiath or Hai = “heap of ruins”.
   

H5892


   1 excitement, anguish.
      1a of terror.
   2 city, town (a place of waking, guarded).
      2a city, town.
      

Frequency of Ai (original languages)

Frequency of Ai (English)

Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Ai
Called also Hai, Genesis 12:8 ; Aija, Nehemiah 11:31 ; and Aiath, Isaiah 10:28 . A royal city of the Canaanites, east of Bethel, near which Abraham once sojourned and built an altar, Genesis 12:8 ; 13:3 . It is memorable for Joshua's defeat on account of Achan, and his subsequent victory, Joshua 7:2-5 ; 8:1-29 . It was rebuilt, and is mentioned by Isaiah. Its ruins are spoken of by Eusebius and Jerome, but the exact site cannot now be fixed with certainty.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Ai
Ruins.
One of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Joshua 10:1 ; Genesis 12:8 ; 13:3 ). It was the scene of Joshua's defeat, and afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite city taken by Israel (Joshua 7:2-5 ; 8:1-29 ). It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the Benjamites (Ezra 2:28 ; Nehemiah 7:32 ; 11:31 ). It lay to the east of Bethel, "beside Beth-aven." The spot which is most probably the site of this ancient city is Haiyan, 2 miles east from Bethel. It lay up the Wady Suweinit, a steep, rugged valley, extending from the Jordan valley to Bethel.
A city in the Ammonite territory (Jeremiah 49:3 ). Some have thought that the proper reading of the word is Ar (Isaiah 15:1 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Sibbec(h)Ai
(shb' beh cawee) Personal name of uncertain meaning. Member of David's army who killed a giant or, more literally, a descendant of the Rephaim (2 Samuel 21:18 REB). 1 Chronicles 11:29 lists him among David's military heroes, leading many commentators to see Sibbecai as the original reading for Mebunnai in 2 Samuel 23:27 resulting from a confusion of Hebrew letters by early scribes. Sibbecai commanded David's forces for the eighth month ( 1 Chronicles 27:11 ).
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Ai
Or Hai
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Ai
("heap of rains".)
1. AI or HAI, i.e. the Ai (Genesis 12:8); a royal city (Joshua 7:2; Joshua 8:9; Joshua 8:23; Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:1-2; Joshua 12:9); E. of Bethel, "beside Bethaven." The second Canaanite city taken by Israel and "utterly destroyed." The name AIATH still belonged to the locality when Sennacherib marched against Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:28). "Men of Bethel and Ai," (223 according to Ezra 2:28, but 123 according to Nehemiah 7:32,) returned from Babylon with Zerubbzbel. Ezra's list was made in Babylon; Nehemiah's in Judaea long after. Death and change of purpose would make many in Ezra's list of intending returners not appear in Nehemiah's list of those actually arriving.
Aija is mentioned among the towns reoccupied by the Benjamites (Nehemiah 11:31). Perhaps the site is at the head of Wary Harith. (See BETHEL.) There is a hilltop E. of the church remains on the hill adjoining and E. of Bethel (Beitin); its Arab name, et Tel, means "the heap," and it doubtless is the site of Ai, or Hai (on the east of Abraham's encampment and altar, Genesis 12:8). In the valley behind Joshua placed his ambush. Across the intervening valley is the spot where Joshua stood when giving the preconcerted signal. The plain or ridge can be seen down which the men of Ai rushed after the retreating Israelites, so that the men in ambush rose and captured the city behind the pursuers, and made it. "a heap" or tel for ever.
2. A city of Ammon, near Heshbon (Jeremiah 49:3).
Webster's Dictionary - Ai
(n.) The three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus) of South America. See Sloth.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ai
(ay' i) a city located two miles from Bethel, was the site where Abram built an altar, and Joshua and Achan suffered ruin. Ai is also spelled Aija, Aiath, and Hai. Ai means “ruin” (or possibly “heap”) in the Hebrew language. The city was almost the ruin of Joshua's leadership (Joshua 7:1-9 ); it was the ruin of Achan and his family (Joshua 7:16-26 ); and it suffered complete ruin (Joshua 8:1-29 ). Several hundred years before Joshua, Abram built an altar on a hill just west of Ai which was also near Bethel (Genesis 12:8 ). He then returned to the location after visiting Egypt (Genesis 13:3 ). The prophets later referred to Ai as a symbol of the power of God who provided victory for his obedient people. Isaiah noted the Assyrian army marching by Ai on his way to Jerusalem, but promised God would stop their progress (Isaiah 10:28 ). Jeremiah used the ruin of Ai as a warning to the Ammonites, who had occupied Israel's territory (Jeremiah 49:3 ). Residents of Bethel and Ai returned from Exile with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:28 ).
Although the existence of Ai is well documented, its exact location is debated. The general location of the city is known to be about 10-12 miles north of Jerusalem in the central hills of Palestine. This would be about the same distance from Jericho. William F. Albright identified Beitin as the city of Bethel and then concluded that et-Tell (a site one mile southeast of Beitin) was biblical Ai. Excavations conducted in the 1920s (John Garstang), 1930s (Judith Marquet-Krause and Samuel Yeivin), and 1960s and 1970s (Joseph Callaway), however, produced some disturbing evidence in light of Albright's 1939 proposal. It seems that et-Tell was first occupied as early as the fourth millennium (3200-3000 B.C.) and continued to thrive until the end of the third millennium (2200 B.C.). The problem is that the site has no evidence of being inhabited during the next 1000 years which includes the time of the Israelite invasion. Callaway found a small village without defense walls lasting from 1220 to 1050 B.C. This has resulted in some speculations concerning Albright's theory and the Bible story.
The suggestions for solving this problem are basically three: (1) the Bible contains an inaccurate or legendary story built on the earlier fame of the city; (2) the Israelites actually destroyed Bethel (not Ai), but the twin cities (see Ezra 2:28 ; and Nehemiah 7:32 ) were considered to be the same, or (3) further archaeological evidence will reveal a different site for Ai. Because of the Bible's historical accuracy, many scholars today dismiss the first idea. The second and third proposals, however, will require further archaeological evidence before this dilemma is solved.
Ai's meaning goes far beyond its mysterious location. At Ai, Israel learned they could not take a city known as the ruin if they disobeyed God. Victory did not lie in military strength or wise leadership. It lay in God's presence. Israel also learned they had hope after defeat. Confession of sin and punishment of offenders helped restore God's favor. The victory at Ai (Joshua 8:1 ) frightened the other Canaanites (Joshua 9:3 ; Joshua 10:2 ) and helped Israel to further victories. Israel learned to live with a punishing as well as a promising God.
Gary C. Huckaby
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ai
AI . 1 . A place between which and Bethel Abraham was stationed before ( Genesis 12:8 ) and after ( Genesis 13:3 ) his sojourn in Egypt. The repulse of the Israelite attempt on the city ( Joshua 7:2-5 ) led to the exposure of the crime of Achan; when that was expiated, the city was captured and destroyed ( Joshua 8:1-28 ) by a ruse. It never reappears in history, though it continued to be inhabited: it is the Aiath in Isaiah’s description of the march of the Assyrian ( Joshua 10:28 ), and the Aija of Nehemiah 11:31 . In 1 Chronicles 7:28 ‘Azzah , enumerated among the cities of Ephraim, is in many MSS ‘Ayyah , which is another form of the name. This, however, cannot in any case be the same place, which was within the tribe of Benjamin ( Joshua 18:23 , where Avvim is possibly a corruption for the name of this city). After the Exile, Ai and Bethel between them supplied a contingent of 223 to the number that returned ( Ezra 2:28 ), and the city was once more settled by Benjamites ( Nehemiah 11:31 ). That the city was insignificant is definitely stated in Joshua 7:3 , and indicated by the fact that in the list of captured cities it is almost the only one of which the situation is specified ( Joshua 12:9 ). Its capture, however, made a deep impression on the Canaanites ( Joshua 9:3 ; Joshua 10:1 ). As to its identification, the only indication to guide us is its proximity to Bethel (agreed by all to be Beitin ), on the east of that place (as follows from Genesis 12:8 ). Various sites have been proposed Turmus ‘Aya (which contains an element resembling the name, but the situation is impossible); Khurbet Hayan (which also has a similar name, but the antiquities of the place are not known to be old enough); Deir Diwan (which is in the right place, but also possibly not an old enough site); and et-Tell (a mound whose name has the same meaning as the word Ai [1]. Possibly this last is the most likely site.
2 . A wholly distinct place, mentioned in a prophecy against the Ammonites, Jeremiah 49:3 (perh. a clerical error for Ar ).
R. A. S. Macalister.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ai, HAi
1. Royal city of Canaan. It was known to Abraham, who pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. Genesis 12:8 . It was conquered by Joshua — after a repulse because of the sin of Achan — by a stratagem; it was burnt and made a 'heap.' Joshua 7:2-5 ; Joshua 8:1-29 ; Joshua 10:1,2 . It was near Bethel, in Benjamin's lot, and apparently rebuilt, for it is mentioned in Ezra 2:28 ; Nehemiah 7:32 . It is probable that the AIATH of Isaiah 10:28 and the AIJA of Nehemiah 11:31 are the same as Ai, by the places named in association with them. In the district there are ruins scattered along the narrow summit of a ridge, and a depression among the rocky heights well suited for an ambuscade such as Joshua employed. The ruins are called Haiyan, 31 55' N, 35 16' E. Travellers say that when on the spot, the Biblical narrative of the capture of Ai can be vividly realised.
2. City of the Ammonites, unknown. Jeremiah 49:3 .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ai
called by the LXX, Gai, by Josephus, Aina, and by others Ajah, a town of Palestine, situate west of Bethel, and at a small distance north-west of Jericho. The three thousand men, first sent by Joshua to reduce this city, were repulsed, on account of the sin of Achan, who had violated the anathema pronounced against Jericho, by appropriating a part of the spoil. After the expiation of this offence, the whole army of Israel marched against Ai, with orders to treat that city as Jericho had been treated, with this difference, that the plunder was to be given to the army. Joshua, having appointed an ambush of thirty thousand men, marched against the city, and by a feigned retreat, drew out the king of Ai with his troops; and upon on a signal given by elevating his shield on the top of a pike, the men in ambush entered the city and set fire to it. Thus the soldiers of Ai, placed between two divisions of Joshua's army, were all destroyed; the king alone being preserved for a more ignominious death on a gibbet, where he hung till sunset. The spoil of the place was afterward divided among the Israelites. The men appointed for ambush are, in one place, said to be thirty thousand, and in another five thousand. For reconciling this apparent contradiction, most commentators have generally supposed, that there were two bodies placed in ambuscade between Bethel and Ai, one of twenty-five thousand and the other of five thousand men; the latter being probably a detachment from the thirty thousand first sent, and ordered to lie as near to the city as possible. Masius allows only five thousand men for the ambuscade, and twenty-five thousand for the attack.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Ai
Ai (â'î, heap of ruins. 1. A city of the Canaanites, Genesis 13:3, where it is "Hai" in the Authorized Version, but Ai in the Revised Version. Taken by Joshua. Joshua 7:2-5; Joshua 8:1-29. Also called Aiath, Isaiah 10:28, and Aija in the A. V. and R. V., Nehemiah 11:31. Abraham pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. Genesis 12:8. The city of Ai was east of Bethel, and about nine miles north of Jerusalem. It is named 38 times in the Bible. 2. A city of the Ammonites, not far from Heshbon. Jeremiah 49:3.

Sentence search

Aiath - (ay i' awth) Alternate spelling of Ai (Isaiah 10:28 ). See Ai
Aija - (ay i' juh) Alternate spelling of Ai (Nehemiah 11:31 ). See Ai
Hai - (ha' i) KJV reading for Ai in Genesis 12:8 ; Genesis 13:3 . See Ai
Hai - (Genesis 12:8; Genesis 13:3) equates to Ai, with the Hebrew article ha , which always accompanies Ai
a-i'Ath - (feminine of Ai ), a place named by Isaiah, ( Isaiah 10:28 ) in connection with Migron and Michmash probably the same as Ai
Ais - ) of Ai...
ha'i - Same as Ai
Ayyah - (aih' ihuh) Place name meaning, “ruin. ” In the unclear Hebrew text of 1 Chronicles 7:20 , modern translations read Ayyah as a city on the border of Ephraim. Some identify this with Ai. See Ai
Aiath - Isaiah 10:28 . See Ai
Aija - See Ai
Aiath - Same as Ai; an hour; eye; fountain
Aija - AiJA , Nehemiah 11:31 . See Ai, No
Ai - Ai is also spelled Aija, Aiath, and Hai. Ai means “ruin” (or possibly “heap”) in the Hebrew language. Several hundred years before Joshua, Abram built an altar on a hill just west of Ai which was also near Bethel (Genesis 12:8 ). The prophets later referred to Ai as a symbol of the power of God who provided victory for his obedient people. Isaiah noted the Assyrian army marching by Ai on his way to Jerusalem, but promised God would stop their progress (Isaiah 10:28 ). Jeremiah used the ruin of Ai as a warning to the Ammonites, who had occupied Israel's territory (Jeremiah 49:3 ). Residents of Bethel and Ai returned from Exile with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:28 ). ...
Although the existence of Ai is well documented, its exact location is debated. Albright identified Beitin as the city of Bethel and then concluded that et-Tell (a site one mile southeast of Beitin) was biblical Ai. ...
The suggestions for solving this problem are basically three: (1) the Bible contains an inaccurate or legendary story built on the earlier fame of the city; (2) the Israelites actually destroyed Bethel (not Ai), but the twin cities (see Ezra 2:28 ; and Nehemiah 7:32 ) were considered to be the same, or (3) further archaeological evidence will reveal a different site for Ai. ...
Ai's meaning goes far beyond its mysterious location. At Ai, Israel learned they could not take a city known as the ruin if they disobeyed God. The victory at Ai (Joshua 8:1 ) frightened the other Canaanites (Joshua 9:3 ; Joshua 10:2 ) and helped Israel to further victories
Ai - Ai (â'î, heap of ruins. A city of the Canaanites, Genesis 13:3, where it is "Hai" in the Authorized Version, but Ai in the Revised Version. Also called Aiath, Isaiah 10:28, and Aija in the A. Abraham pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. The city of Ai was east of Bethel, and about nine miles north of Jerusalem
Shebarim - Breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Joshua 7:5 ; RSV marg
a-i'ja, - like Aiath probably a variation of the name Ai, mentioned with Michmash and Bethel
Enasibus - The form is probably due to reading Ai as N
Migron - A town in the vicinity of Ai and Gibeah, north of Michmash, now lost, 1 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 10:28
Achan - After the battle of Ai, the Lord told Joshua the reason for Israel's defeat was that the ban concerning the spoil of Jericho had been violated (Joshua 7:11 ). See Ai ; Joshua
Ai - ("heap of rains". Ai or HAI, i. the Ai (Genesis 12:8); a royal city (Joshua 7:2; Joshua 8:9; Joshua 8:23; Joshua 8:29; Joshua 10:1-2; Joshua 12:9); E. " The name AiATH still belonged to the locality when Sennacherib marched against Jerusalem (Isaiah 10:28). "Men of Bethel and Ai," (223 according to Ezra 2:28, but 123 according to Nehemiah 7:32,) returned from Babylon with Zerubbzbel. ...
Aija is mentioned among the towns reoccupied by the Benjamites (Nehemiah 11:31). of the church remains on the hill adjoining and E. of Bethel (Beitin); its Arab name, et Tel, means "the heap," and it doubtless is the site of Ai, or Hai (on the east of Abraham's encampment and altar, Genesis 12:8). The plain or ridge can be seen down which the men of Ai rushed after the retreating Israelites, so that the men in ambush rose and captured the city behind the pursuers, and made it
Achor - Valley of, between Jericho and Ai
Hai - The same as Ai, the translators having apparently included the article (ha) as part of the name in Genesis 12:8 ; Heap - When Joshua took the city of Ai (Joshua 8 ), he burned it and "made it an heap
Shebarim - ” Place with symbolic name and uncertain location near Ai (Joshua 7:5 ), translated as “stone quarries” (NIV; compare REB)
Achan - This sin led to the Israelites’ defeat in the battle for Ai
Shebarim - A place mentioned ( Joshua 7:5 ) in the description of the pursuit of the Israelites by the men of Ai. RVm Ithamar - (Exodus 6:23) His name signifies, island of the palm tree, from Tamar, a palm tree, on Ai, an island
Ambush - Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the inhabitants that he gained an easy victory (Joshua 8:4-26 )
Ai - called by the LXX, Gai, by Josephus, Aina, and by others Ajah, a town of Palestine, situate west of Bethel, and at a small distance north-west of Jericho. The three thousand men, first sent by Joshua to reduce this city, were repulsed, on account of the sin of Achan, who had violated the anathema pronounced against Jericho, by appropriating a part of the spoil. After the expiation of this offence, the whole army of Israel marched against Ai, with orders to treat that city as Jericho had been treated, with this difference, that the plunder was to be given to the army. Joshua, having appointed an ambush of thirty thousand men, marched against the city, and by a feigned retreat, drew out the king of Ai with his troops; and upon on a signal given by elevating his shield on the top of a pike, the men in ambush entered the city and set fire to it. Thus the soldiers of Ai, placed between two divisions of Joshua's army, were all destroyed; the king alone being preserved for a more ignominious death on a gibbet, where he hung till sunset. The men appointed for ambush are, in one place, said to be thirty thousand, and in another five thousand. For reconciling this apparent contradiction, most commentators have generally supposed, that there were two bodies placed in ambuscade between Bethel and Ai, one of twenty-five thousand and the other of five thousand men; the latter being probably a detachment from the thirty thousand first sent, and ordered to lie as near to the city as possible
Royal City - Gibeon (Joshua 10:2 ) was compared in size and strength to cities with kings, such as Ai and Jericho
Migron - ” Town (or towns) in Benjamin (1 Samuel 14:2 ; Isaiah 10:28 ). The town of Isaiah 10:1 is generally located between Aiath (Ai) and Michmash, that is, to the north of Michmash
Diphthong - ) A vowel digraph; a union of two vowels in the same syllable, only one of them being sounded; as, Ai in rain, eo in people; - called an improper diphthong
Beth-Aven - A city near Ai east of Bethel (Joshua 7:2 ). Suggestions include Burqa, south of Bethel; tell Maryam; and Ai. Thus he commanded worshipers to refuse to go there (Hosea 4:15 ), to prepare for battle against an army marching from the south against Benjamin (Hosea 5:8 ), and to be afraid of the golden calves in the worship place of Beth-el, not because they represented the fearful presence of God but because they brought disaster on the nation (Hosea 10:5 )
ai, Hai - It was known to Abraham, who pitched his tent between Hai and Bethel. It is probable that the AiATH of Isaiah 10:28 and the AiJA of Nehemiah 11:31 are the same as Ai, by the places named in association with them. The ruins are called Haiyan, 31 55' N, 35 16' E. Travellers say that when on the spot, the Biblical narrative of the capture of Ai can be vividly realised
Vale - ...
Νachal , a wady or wide stream bed in winter filled by a torrent, but in summer dry and strewed with water worn stones and shrubs; KJV translated it also "brook," "river," "stream"; Βiqu'ah , a plain wider than a valley, the wide plain between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon is still called Bequa'a (Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7), and Megiddo (Zechariah 12:11). Ηa-shephelah , wrongly translated "valley," a broad tract of low hills between the mountains of Judah and the coast plain (Isaiah 10:28-32; Joshua 10:40). ...
The use of the words 'eemeq and gay assists in the identification of Ai with Khirbet Haiy, one mile E. as did Joshua, he would naturally come to Khirbet Haiy. Thus all the places enumerated in his approach to Jerusalem (Deuteronomy 1:7) are visible from Geba exactly in the geographical order given in Isaiah, "Aiath, Migron (i. " Khirbet Haiy also suits Joshua 8:11-13, "the Israelites pitched on the N: side of Ai; now there was a valley (gay) between them and Ai . The "plain" N. of Khirbet Haiy suits the Hebrew creek. The gai is either the ravine between the liers in wait and Ai, or else the bed of the watercourse in the creek
Ae - Ai
Beth-Aven - Close to Ai ( Joshua 7:2 ), by the wilderness ( Joshua 18:12 ), north-west of Michmash ( 1 Samuel 13:5 ), and on the way to Aijalon ( 1 Samuel 14:23 ), still inhabited in the 8th cent
a'Chan - (troubler ), an Israelite of the tribe of Judah, who, when Jericho and all that it contained were accursed and devoted to destruction, secreted a portion of the spoil in his tent. For this sin he was stoned to death with his whole family by the people, in a valley situated between Ai and Jericho, and their remains, together with his property, were burnt. [1] (B
Achan - Hence the repulse before Ai
Ai - Ai . It never reappears in history, though it continued to be inhabited: it is the Aiath in Isaiah’s description of the march of the Assyrian ( Joshua 10:28 ), and the Aija of Nehemiah 11:31 . In 1 Chronicles 7:28 ‘Azzah , enumerated among the cities of Ephraim, is in many MSS ‘Ayyah , which is another form of the name. After the Exile, Ai and Bethel between them supplied a contingent of 223 to the number that returned ( Ezra 2:28 ), and the city was once more settled by Benjamites ( Nehemiah 11:31 ). Various sites have been proposed Turmus ‘Aya (which contains an element resembling the name, but the situation is impossible); Khurbet Hayan (which also has a similar name, but the antiquities of the place are not known to be old enough); Deir Diwan (which is in the right place, but also possibly not an old enough site); and et-Tell (a mound whose name has the same meaning as the word Ai [1]. A wholly distinct place, mentioned in a prophecy against the Ammonites, Jeremiah 49:3 (perh
Achor, Valley of - The valley was between Jericho and Ai, on the border of the tribe of Judah. Hosea 2:15 ; Isaiah 65:10
Gib'Eon - (hill city ), one of the four , cities of the Hivites, the inhabitants of which made a league with Joshua, ( Joshua 9:3-15 ) and thus escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai. It retains its ancient name almost intact, el-Jib . Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road is about 6 1/2 miles; but there is a more direct road reducing it to five miles
Adonizedec - Hearing of the destruction of Ai, he called four kings to his Aid to punish Gibeon for making peace with Israel. They took shelter in a cave but were taken from thence, and, after the captains of Israel had placed their feet on their necks, they were slain
Achan - Joshua was convinced that the defeat which the Israelites afterwards sustained before Ai was a proof of the divine displeasure on account of some crime, and he at once adopted means by the use of the lot for discovering the criminal. He and all that belonged to him were then consumed by fire, and a heap of stones was raised over the ashes
Rimmon - In Joshua 15:32 Ain and Rimmon are mentioned separately, but in 19:7 and 1 Chronicles 4:32 (Compare Nehemiah 11:29 ) the two words are probably to be combined, as forming together the name of one place, Ain-Rimmon=the spring of the pomegranate. ...
...
"Rock of," to which the Benjamites fled (Judges 20:45,47 ; 21:13 ), and where they maintained themselves for four months after the fearful battle at Gibeah, in which they were almost exterminated, 600 only surviving out of about 27,000. It is the present village of Rummon, "on the very edge of the hill country, with a precipitous descent toward the Jordan valley," supposed to be the site of Ai
Achan - It is brought home to Joshua ( Joshua 7:8-12 ) that the defeat at Ai was due to the fact of Jahweh’s covenant having been transgressed
Michmash - of Jerusalem; on the northern edge of the wady Suweinit, the main pass between the central highlands where Michmash stands and the Jordan valley at Jericho. ) The Philistines swarmed up from their seacoast plain, and occupied Michmash so that Saul had to retire to Gilgal near Jericho. , left his heavy baggage ("carriages") at Michmash, and crossing the pass lodged for the night at Geba (Isaiah 10:28-29). ) Kitchener suggests that Khirbet Haiy is the site of Ai. A plain to the N. Michmash and Ai are closely connected
Nebo - A town in the vicinity of Bethel and Ai, Ezra 2:29 Nehemiah 7:33 . A city of Reuben, Numbers 32:38 , taken by the Moabites, who held it in the time of Jeremiah, Isaiah 15:2 Jeremiah 48:1 . A mountain of Moab, whence Moses had a view of the promised land, and where he died. It is a summit of the range Abarim, "over against Jericho. An idol of the Babylonians, Isaiah 46:1
Mount Gerizim - And here it was that Moses commanded Israel, from this mountain, to pronounce blessings upon the people. (Deuteronomy 11:29-30) There should seem to have been a special design in this appointment of the Lord by Moses; for here it was, beside the plains of Moreh, that Abraham first came, at the call of God, when he left Haran. The reader may find farther account of the blessings which the Lord appointed to be pronounced on mount Gerizim, Deuteronomy 27:11 and Deuteronomy 28:1-14 and the confirmation of the whole, as fulfilled by Joshua after Israel had passed over Jordan, taken Jericho and Ai, Joshua 8:33-35
Ambush - A military tactic of hiding a unit of troops for surprise attack while carrying on normal battle with the remainder of the troops. Joshua used the tactic against Ai (Joshua 8:1 ). The people of Shechem waited in hiding to attack and rob people who crossed the mountain (Judges 9:25 ; compare Hosea 6:9 ). Saul apparently used similar tactics against the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15:5 ). God set ambushes against Moab, Ammon, and Edom to defeat them for King Jehoshaphat (873-848 B. ...
The psalmists asked for God's help against wicked persons who sought to ambush them (Psalm 10:8 ; Psalm 59:3 ; Psalm 64:4 ; compare Proverbs 1:11 ,Proverbs 1:11,1:18 ). Jeremiah accused his people of spiritual ambush against one another (Jeremiah 9:8 )
Covet, Covetous - After Israel's defeat at Ai, Achan confessed that his selfish desire for treasure was so great that he disobeyed God's specific commandment (Joshua 7:21 ). In defense of Judah's poor, Micah declared the Lord's judgment against the land-grabbers for coveting small farms and actually seizing them from their powerless owners (Micah 2:2 ). Although the commandment against coveting seems concerned only with motivation, some passages indicate that coveting in the heart was expected to end with taking what was desired. In the Luke passage Jesus said that the covetous man will not be “rich toward God. So, the greedy person—one who covets—denies his faith in God and scorns His values
Fort, Fortification - Walled structures built defense against enemy armies. Beginning in the Early Bronze Age mudbrick walls, towers, and gates were built on stone foundations at Ai, Arad, Beth Yerah, Gezer, Jericho, Megiddo, and elsewhere. A glacis was sometimes built against the outside wall for added protection against the battering ram
Hanging - Joshua 8:29 ; Joshua 10:26-27 record that the bodies of the kings of Ai and the kings of the Amorites were taken down and buried at sundown on the same day they were hanged
Jezebel - (1 Kings 16:31) Her ame is very singular, meaning an island of the habitation—from Ai, island; and Zebal, habitation. And the stench would be intolerable, did not the beasts of prey in the neighbouring mountains visit the streets by night, and carry off as carrion the bodies of those so murdered. And this may serve to explain also that passage in the prophet: "I will appoint over them four kinds, saith the Lord, the sword to slay, and the dogs to tear, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beast of the earth, to devour and destroy
Bethel - Abram pitched his tent on a mountain E. The naming of Bethel Jacob repeated more publicly on his return home, 20 years later, with his family purified of idols, when God again appeared to him, and confirmed his change of name to Israel (Genesis 35:1-15; Genesis 32:28). ...
Bethel belonged by lot to Benjamin, but was falcon by Ephraim (Bethel being on his southern border) through the treachery of an inhabitant (Judges 1:22-26). Under Jehu, who restored the calf worship, and Jeroboam II his great grandson, Bethel comes again into prominence (2 Kings 10:29). " After the overthrow of Israel, the king of Assyria sent one of the Israelite priests to settle at Bethel, and teach the new settlers from Babylon, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, "the manner of the god of the land," and "how they should fear Jehovah" (2 Kings 17:27-28). ) The ruins, covering three or four acres, still bear a like name, Beitin, on a low bill, between two wadies, which unite in the main valley of es-Suweinit, toward the S. of this mount stands the ruin Tel er Rijmah, "the mound of the heap," answering to Ai or Hai. Ritter makes Medinet Gai answer to Ai
Conquest of Canaan - The difficulty lies in the fact that the date of the Exodus is uncertain. Canaanite society operated according to a feudal system whereby the kings of city states paid tribute to their Egyptian overlords. The city states were numerous in the heavily-populated Palestinian coastal plain; the mountainous regions were lightly populated. ...
Joshua's Strategy Joshua led a three-campaign invasion of Canaan. At the close of the wilderness wanderings the Israelites arrived on the plains of Moab in the Transjordan (“beyond the Jordan”). From there Joshua led the first military campaign against the Canaanites in the sparsely-populated central highlands, northwest of the Dead Sea. ...
The Israelites then attempted to conquer the nearby city of Ai, where they met with their first defeat. The reason for the failure was that Achan, one of the Israelite soldiers, had kept some booty from the invasion of Jericho—an action which violated God's orders to destroy everything in the city. After Achan was executed, the Israelites were able to destroy Ai (Joshua 7-8 ). Alarmed by the defection of the Gibeonites to Israel, a group of southern Canaanite kings, led by Adoni-zedek of Jerusalem, formed a coalition against the invading force. Joshua then launched a southern campaign which resulted in the capture of numerous Canaanite cities (Joshua 10:1 ). ...
Joshua's third and last military campaign was in northern Canaan. However, some areas still remained outside their control, such as the heavily-populated land along the coast and several major Canaanite cities like Jerusalem (Joshua 13:1-5 ; Joshua 15:63 ; Judges 1:1 ). Even though some sections of the land remained to be conquered, God instructed Joshua to apportion Canaan to the tribes which had not yet received territory (Joshua 13:7 ). This interpretation of the conquest diverges from the biblical record in its claim that the bulk of the population of Israel was made up of former Canaanite peasants. See Achan ; Ai ; Exodus ; Gilgal ; Jericho ; Joshua
Sarah - SARAH or SARAI . ‘Sarai’ is the form used previous to Genesis 17:15 , and ‘Sarah’ afterwards, in harmony with the change of name there narrated (by P Bethel -
A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. The name Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered Canaan he formed his second encampment between Bethel and Hai (Genesis 12:8 ); and on his return from Egypt he came back to it, and again "called upon the name of the Lord" (13:4). Here Jacob, on his way from Beersheba to Haran, had a vision of the angels of God ascending and descending on the ladder whose top reached unto heaven (28:10,19); and on his return he again visited this place, "where God talked with him" (35:1-15), and there he "built an altar, and called the place El-beth-el" (q. " Bethel remained an abode of priests even after the kingdom of Israel was desolated by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:28,29 )
Take, Handle - ...
“To seize” someone may be to arrest him: “… Irijah took [1] Jeremiah, and brought him to the princes” ( Ai they took alive, and brought him to Joshua” (
Gibeon - Hill-city, "one of the royal cities, greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty" (Joshua 10:2 ). Here the tabernacle was set up after the destruction of Nob, and here it remained many years till the temple was built by Solomon. It is represented by the modern el-Jib, to the south-west of Ai, and about 5 1/2 miles north-north-west of Jerusalem. A deputation of the Gibeonites, with their allies from three other cities (Joshua 917;17 ), visited the camp at Gilgal, and by false representations induced Joshua to enter into a league with them, although the Israelites had been specially warned against any league with the inhabitants of Canaan (Exodus 23:32 ; 34:12 ; Numbers 33:55 ; Deuteronomy 7:2 ). ...
The most remarkable incident connected with this city was the victory Joshua gained over the kings of Palestine (Joshua 10:16-27 ). " The kings of southern Canaan entered into a confederacy against Gibeon (because it had entered into a league with Joshua) under the leadership of Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, and marched upon Gibeon with the view of taking possession of it. The Gibeonites entreated Joshua to come to their Aid with the utmost speed. ...
This place is again brought into notice as the scene of a battle between the army of Ish-bosheth under Abner and that of David led by Joab. ) and the five sons of Michal, and these the Gibeonites took and hanged or crucified "in the hill before the Lord" (2 Samuel 21:9 ); and there the bodies hung for six months (21:10), and all the while Rizpah watched over the blackening corpses and "suffered neither the birds of the Air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night. To the altar of burnt-offering which was at Gibeon, Joab (1 Kings 2:28-34 ), who had taken the side of Adonijah, fled for sanctuary in the beginning of Solomon's reign, and was there also slain by the hand of Benaiah. ...
Soon after he came to the throne, Solomon paid a visit of state to Gibeon, there to offer sacrifices (1 Kings 3:4 ; 2 Chronicles 1:3 ). When the temple was built "all the men of Israel assembled themselves" to king Solomon, and brought up from Gibeon the tabernacle and "all the holy vessels that were in the tabernacle" to Jerusalem, where they remained till they were carried away by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 24:13 )
Fire - Fire for a sacred purpose obtained otherwise than from the altar was called "strange fire" (Leviticus 10:1,2 ; Numbers 3:4 ). ...
The victims slain for sin offerings were afterwards consumed by fire outside the camp (Leviticus 4:12,21 ; 6:30 ; 16:27 ; Hebrews 13:11 ). ...
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Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were guilty of certain forms of unchastity and incest (Leviticus 20:14 ; 21:9 ). ...
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In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as Jericho (Joshua 6:24 ), Ai (8:19), Hazor (11:11), Laish (Judges 18:27 ), etc. ...
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Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah's presence and the instrument of his power (Exodus 14:19 ; Numbers 11:1,3 ; Judges 13:20 ; 1 Kings 18:38 ; 2 Kings 1:10,12 ; 2:11 ; Isaiah 6:4 ; Ezekiel 1:4 ; Revelation 1:14 , etc
Gibeon - Chief of the four Hivite (in 2 Samuel 21 called by the general name "Amorite") cities which obtained a league from Joshua by guile (Joshua 9). "A great city like one of the royal cities, greater than Ai" (Joshua 10:2); "all its men were mighty. " Within Benjamin; by the main road. Ninety-five men of Gibeon returned with Zerubbabel, and helped in repairing the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah (Nehemiah 3:7; Nehemiah 7:25). Now el Jib, on a rounded chalk hill the limestone strata of which lie horizontally, forming terraces along which olives and vines abound, with a basin of broad valleys and plains below. ...
The remains of a tank 120 ft. Retributively it was here also that Joab met his doom from Benaiah while clinging to the brazen altar of the tabernacle at Gibeon (1 Kings 2:28-34; 1 Chronicles 16:39-41. David put the brazen altar before the tabernacle (2 Chronicles 1:5) probably at the same time lie removed the ark to Zion and appointed the priests under Zadok to offer the daily sacrifices, and Heman and Jeduthun to direct the music (2 Chronicles 1:3)
Lot - He removed with the rest of his kindred to Charran, and again subsequently with Abraham and Sarai to Canaan. (Genesis 13:1 ) and then to their original settlement between Bethel and Ai. (Genesis 13:3,4 ) But the pastures of the hills of Bethel, which had with ease contained the two strangers on their first arrival, were not able any longer to bear them, so much had their possessions of sheep, goats and cattle increased. Accordingly they separated, Lot choosing the fertile plain of the Jordan, and advancing as far as Sodom. he fled first to Zoar, in which he found a temporary refuge during the destruction of the other cities of the plain. Where this place was situated is not known with certainty. [1] The end of Lot's wife is commonly treated as one of the difficulties of the Bible; but it surely need not be so. It cannot be necessary to create the details of the story where none are given. The value and the significance of the story to us are contained in the allusion of Christ
Lot - He removed with the rest of his kindred to Charran, and again subsequently with Abraham and Sarai to Canaan. (Genesis 13:1 ) and then to their original settlement between Bethel and Ai. (Genesis 13:3,4 ) But the pastures of the hills of Bethel, which had with ease contained the two strangers on their first arrival, were not able any longer to bear them, so much had their possessions of sheep, goats and cattle increased. Accordingly they separated, Lot choosing the fertile plain of the Jordan, and advancing as far as Sodom. he fled first to Zoar, in which he found a temporary refuge during the destruction of the other cities of the plain. Where this place was situated is not known with certainty. [1] The end of Lot's wife is commonly treated as one of the difficulties of the Bible; but it surely need not be so. It cannot be necessary to create the details of the story where none are given. The value and the significance of the story to us are contained in the allusion of Christ
Altar - The Hebrew word for altar is mizbeah [1], from a verbal root meaning "to slaughter. " Greek renders this word as thusiasterion [2], "a place of sacrifice. The altar of incense was placed inside the sanctuary in front of the curtain screening the Holy of Holies. He responded to Noah's action by declaring that he would never again destroy all living things through a flood. Abraham built an altar where he pitched his tent between Bethel and Ai. Perhaps there was no true communication at the altar between Bethel and Ai. Blood, believed to contain the "life" of an animal (or a human being), was particularly important in the sacrificial ritual. It was sprinkled against the altar (Leviticus 1 ); once a year, blood was smeared on the horns of the incense altar. After Isaac was laid on the altar, but before he was sacrificed, God proclaimed his recognition that Isaac had "not [3] withheld. The altar was a place where an unintentional murderer could gain a haven (Exodus 21:13-14 ). In an oracle against Israel (Amos 3:14 ), God declared that "the horns of the altar will be cut off and fall to the ground. " The message is clear: There will be no place to intercede with God, and no place to claim his sanctuary
Ebal - of Shechem full of fountains and trees. The central position of these mountains adapted them for the scene of the reading. The remains of the road to it still exist. There is still a rocky amphitheatrical recess on the side of Ebal, and a corresponding one of the same dimensions on the side of Gerizim; probably formed for the accommodation of the people, when all Israel, their elders, officers, and judges, stood: half of them, the six blessing tribes, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Joseph, and Benjamin (sprung from Jacob's proper wives), over against Gerizim; and half, the six cursing tribes (four sprung from Zilpah and Bilhah, and Reuben the incestuous oldest and Zebulun the youngest) over against Ebal: with the ark and the priests and Levites in the center between the two mountains. The mountains are about 2,500 ft. On Ebal the great altar of unhewn stones was erected, plastered with lime and inscribed with the law (Deuteronomy 27:2-8) immediately after entering the Holy Land, when Joshua had the first leisure after destroying Ai. The distance which Joshua had to march from Ai to Shechem was 30 miles in a straight line. on the further side of the main route from Syria and Damascus to Jerusalem and Egypt, through the center of Palestine. Moses adds "over against Gilgal" (not the Gilgal near Jericho and the Jordan, first named by Joshua (Joshua 5:9), but the modern Jiljulieh, 12 miles S. of Gerizim and on the brow of lofty hills, a suitable landmark, 2 Kings 2:1-2), "and beside the oaks (not 'plains,' but terebinths) of Moreh. The conquest of the heart of the country by Joshua, mount Ephraim, Esdraelon or the Jezreel valley, is not detailed; but the narrative passes from his conquest of the S. The Samaritan Pentateuch reads "Gerizim "for Ebal (Deuteronomy 27:4) as the site of the altar and the plastered and law-inscribed stones; but all the Hebrew authorities are against it, and the site of the cursing is fitly the site of the altar where the penalty of the curse is borne by the typical victim. The Samaritans' Aim in their reading was to justify their erection of the temple on Gerizim
Joshua, Book of - He is exhorted to be strong and God would not fail him. The spies learned that the fear of Israel had fallen upon the people of the land, and the faith of Rahab saved her and her family. A Gentile gets a place in the promised possession by faith. What answers to this with the Christian is found in Colossians 2:11Colossians 3:3-5 ; the renunciation of the life of flesh through Christ having been cut off on the cross; of those it can be said, "Ye are dead . Then Jehovah was manifested to Joshua as Captain of the host, with a drawn sword in His hand. Jericho (type of the world antagonistic to the Lord's rights ranged under Satan) was the first city taken, and the manner of its destruction showed plainly that power for conquest was really in Jehovah. God said the whole was accursed and must be destroyed, and a curse should rest upon the man who should rebuild the city. Unconscious of this sin and confiding in their own strength, they attacked Ai in vain. The sin of Achan was accounted as a sin of the people: 'Israel hath sinned,' God said; and there could be no power or blessing until the evil was put away (as in the action enjoined upon the church at Corinth). The evil being judged, Ai was destroyed, and in this case the cattle and spoil were taken. When the kings in the south heard of the destruction of Jericho and Ai, they conspired together to oppose Israel. Type of the devices of Satan, against which the Christian is warned. From Gilgal Joshua went again in strength against the confederacy of the north, being encouraged by Jehovah, and conquered everywhere, cutting off the Anakims from the mountains, and "so Joshua took the whole land according to all that the Lord said unto Moses. Chapter 12 closes the first part of the book, which says that the whole land had been taken; but Joshua 13 opens with the statement that there remained "yet very much land to be possessed. This is typical of the Christian having all things, and yet failing to enter into his full heavenly position. There were minor conquests in taking possession, and mention is made of Balaam the soothsayer being slain: God's judgement had reached the wicked man. Of Joseph it was said, "Thou art a great people, and hast great power:" in Ephraim and Manasseh Joseph had two portions. The details are given as to the boundaries of the tribes. The tabernacle was set up at Shiloh, which was fairly central, 32 3' N, and the allotment of the possessions of the tribes was made in Shiloh before the Lord, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. To Joshua was given an inheritance, Timnath-serah in mount Ephraim. " They had rest, and not any good thing that Jehovah had promised failed them. The warriors of the two and a half tribes, who had crossed the Jordan to Aid in the conquest of the land on the west, were dismissed to their possessions on the east of Jordan, with the blessing of Joshua. The tribes on the west feared that the altar had been built in separation from the worship of Jehovah, and sent princes with Phinehas the priest to protest against it, but on hearing the explanation given, they were satisfied that the tribes on the east were faithful in heart. They thus still remained under law, their obedience being the condition of their living in peace, and being blessed by Jehovah. Joshua, the faithful servant of the Lord, died, being 110 years old
Canaanites - At a later period, they spread themselves out over all the mountainous country which forms the southeastern part of Canaan, and which was called from them the "mountain of the Amorites," and afterwards the "mountain of Judea," ...
Deuteronomy 1:19,20 Numbers 13:29 Joshua 11:3 . The Numbers 1:29 , dwelt among the Amorites in the mountainous district of the south, afterwards called the "mountain of Judah. The Genesis 13:7 , they dwelt with the Canaanites, between Bethel and Ai; and according to Genesis 34:30 , in the vicinity of Shechem. There were also several other tribes of diverse origin within the bounds of Canaan, destroyed by the Israelites; such as the Anakim, the Amalekites, and the Rephaim of giants
Lot - He removed with the rest of his kindred to Haran, and again subsequently with Abraham and Sarai to Canaan. With them he took refuge in Egypt from a famine, and with them returned first to the "South," Genesis 13:1, and then to their original settlement between Bethel and Ai. Later, they separated, Lot choosing the fertile plain of the Jordan, near Sodom. He fled first to Zoar, in which he found a temporary refuge during the destruction of the other cities of the plain. The value and the significance of the story to us are contained in the allusion of Christ. The orders of the priests and their daily services were also assigned by lot
a'Braham - Haran died before his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a son, Lot; and Terah, taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife and his grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died. On the death of his father, Abram, then in the 75th year of his age, with Sarai and Lot, pursued his course to the land of Canaan, whither he was directed by divine command, ( Genesis 12:5 ) when he received the general promise that he should become the founder of a great nation, and that all the families of the earth should be blessed in him. (Genesis 12:7 ) The next halting-place of the wanderer was on a mountain between Bethel and Ai, (Genesis 12:8 ) but the country was suffering from famine, and Abram journeyed still southward to the rich cornlands of Egypt. There, fearing that the great beauty of Sarai might tempt the powerful monarch of Egypt and expose his own life to peril, he arranged that Sarai should represent herself as his sister, which her actual relationship to him, as probably the daughter of his brother Haran, allowed her to do with some semblance of truth. (Genesis 12:10-20 ) He left Egypt with great possessions, and, accompanied by Lot, returned by the south of Palestine to his former encampment between Bethel and Ai. Lot chose the fertile plain of the Jordan near Sodom, while Abram pitched his tent among the groves of Mamre, close to Hebron. At the suggestion of Sarai, who despaired of having children of her own, he took as his concubine Hagar, her Egyptian main, who bore him Ishmael in the 86th year of his age. [1] But this was not the accomplishment of the promise. This most important crisis in Abram's life, when he was 99 years old, is marked by the significant change of his name to Abraham, "father of a multitude;" while his wife's from Sarai became Sarah. Abraham accompanied them, and is represented as an interlocutor in a dialogue with Jehovah, in which he pleaded in vain to avert the vengeance threatened to the devoted cities of the plain. (Genesis 18:17-33 ) In remarkable contrast with Abraham's firm faith with regard to the magnificent fortunes of his posterity stand the incident which occurred during his temporary residence among the Philistines in Gerar, whither he had for some cause removed after the destruction of Sodom. (Genesis 21:10 ) But the severest trial of his faith was yet to come. His faith, hitherto unshaken, supported him in this final trial, "accounting that God was able to raise up his son, even from the dead, from whence also he received him in a figure. The remaining years of Abraham's life are marked by but few incidents. After Isaac's marriage with Rebekah and his removal to Lahai-roi, Abraham took to wife Keturah, by whom he had six children, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbok and Shuah, who became the ancestors of nomadic tribes inhabiting the countries south and southeast of Palestine. (Genesis 25:26 ) At the goodly age of 175 he was "gathered to his people," and laid beside Sarah in the tomb of Machpelah by his sons Isaac and Ishmael
Grave - The variety of grave sites used by the Hebrews was determined by several factors: the circumstances of death, the surrounding terrain, and the time available for preparation and burial. The Hebrews apparently envisioned a “shade” existence in death and preferred proximity to ancestors over solitude for the placement of their loved ones' remains. The graves of the infamous dead were often marked with a pile of stones (Achan, Joshua 7:26 ; Absalom, 2 Samuel 18:17 ; the king of Ai and the five Canaanite kings, Joshua 8:29 ; Joshua 10:27 ). While Canaanites often placed containers of food and water in their tombs, the Israelites largely avoided this custom. ...
In Hebrew thought graves were not simply places to deposit human remains
High Places - This was so especially among the Moabites (Isaiah 15:2; Isaiah 16:12; Numbers 23:28). The three altars built by Abraham at Shechem, between Bethel and Ai, and at Mamre, were on heights. Old usage however strove against the law, and too frequently reasserted itself. But the strict rule was against it, except where God especially (1 Chronicles 21:26) sanctioned sacrifice on some one occasion at a place (Deuteronomy 12:4-11; Leviticus 17:3-4; John 4:20). ...
The priests whom the kings of Judah ordained to burn incense in the high places were called Chemarim; compare Hosea 10:5; Zephaniah 1:4 idol priests not having reached the age of puberty, meaning "ministers of the gods," the Tyrian camilli, (black attired ministers, subordinate to the priests, they felled the victim), from chaamar "to be black. In Ezekiel 20:29, I said . Asa in one place is said to have taken away the high places, in another not so; also Jehoshaphat similarly. So rooted was the practice that the removal of the high places was made by Rabshakeh a taunt against Hezekiah as if it were an impious innovation against Jehovah's honour; evidently he knew that the act had provoked the enmity of a considerable party among the Jews
Achan - His guilty presence alone brought from Jehovah defeat upon Israel at Ai (Ecclesiastes 9:18). Joshua, by Jehovah's direction, through lots detected the culprit, and having elicited his confession said, "Why hast thou troubled us?" (alluding to the meaning of Achar or Achan) "the Lord shall trouble thee this day. ...
The God who made has the power to destroy a whole family or nation for the guilt of one (2 Kings 23:25-27); for the individual members are not isolated atoms, but form one organic whole, and the good or the evil of one affects the whole and is laid to the charge of the whole, as constituting one moral unity, divinely constituted, not a mere civil institution, just as the whole body suffers by the sin or suffering of a single member. Achan's children were not taken to the valley (as some explain) as mere spectators, to take warning from their father's doom; for why then should Achan's cattle have been taken out along with him? On the other hand, Calmet argues:...
(1) Had his family been stoned, would not the heap of stones have included THEM ALSO? Whereas it is raised over HIM. ...
(2) His sons and daughters who, in some degree at least, acted under his authority, were certainly not punished more rigorously (by burning AND stoning) than the principal criminal. ? But to what effect could Achan's family be first burned, and then stoned?...
"They raised over him a great heap of stones," as cairns are still in the East heaped over infamous persons. Every passer by shows his detestation of the crime by adding a stone to the cairn (Joshua 8:29; 2 Samuel 18:17). The valley of Achor (see Isaiah 65:10) is identified by some with that of the brook Cherith, before Jordan, now wady el Kelt (1 Kings 17:1-7)
Fasting - Joshua and the elders of Israel remained prostrate before the ark from morning till evening, without eating, after Israel was defeated at Ai, Joshua 7:6 . The eleven tribes which fought against that of Benjamin, fell down on their faces before the ark, and so continued till evening without eating, Judges 20:26 . Beside the solemn fast of expiation instituted by divine authority, the Jews appointed certain days of humiliation, called the fasts of the congregation. Neander, did not by any means retire from the business of life, yet they were accustomed to devote many separate days entirely to examining their own hearts, and pouring them out before God, while they dedicated their life anew to him with uninterrupted prayers, in order that they might again return to their ordinary occupations with a renovated spirit of zeal and seriousness, and with renewed powers of sanctification
Take Away - A secondary meaning is “to take away, remove, take to oneself,” as when the invading kings “took away” and “took to themselves” all the movable goods of the cities of the plain (Job 4:12). 21:32, where the Israelites are said to have taken the villages of the Amorites. In establishing the source of Israel’s defeat by Ai, lots were used “to take or separate” the guilty party, Achan and his family ( Maps - Sod'om - The next mention of the name of Sodom, (Genesis 13:10-13 ) gives more certain indication of the position of the city. Abram and Lot are standing together between Bethel and Ai, ver. However we may interpret the words of the earliest narrative, one thing is certain --that the lake was not one of the agents in the catastrophe. From all these passages, though much is obscure, two things seem clear:
That Sodom and the rest of the cities of the plain of Jordan stood on the north of the Dead Sea; ...
That neither the cities nor the district were submerged by the lake, but that the cities were overthrown and the land spoiled, and that it may still be seen in its desolate condition. ...
The opinion long current that the five cities were submerged in the lake, and that their remains--walls, columns and capitals--might he still discerned below the water, hardly needs refutation after the distinct statement and the constant implication of Scripture. There are several grounds for this belief; but the main point on which Dr. (c) A third argument, and perhaps the weightiest of the three, is the existence of the salt mountain at the south of the lake, and its tendency to split off in columnar masses presenting a rude resemblance to the human form. But it is by no means certain that salt does not exist at other spots round the lake. And it may be that this burning out of the soil caused the plain to sink below the level of the Dead Sea, and the waters to flow over it--if indeed Sodom and its sister cities are really under the water
Devote, Devoted - The Hebrew noun used to denote exclusive dedication of something to God is herem [1]. Israel met with defeat at Ai because Achan kept some of this spoil (Joshua 7:1-5 ), and thirty-six men were killed. The killing of Canaanites took place mainly during the conquest of the land. This killing was essential to the survival of pure Mosaic religion and hence crucial to the redemption of the world (Deuteronomy 20:16-18 ; Psalm 106:34-39 ). When faith in Yahweh was sufficiently established to meet challenges of Baalism, the killing stopped. Loyalty to Yahweh was Israel's protection against the nations. Saul lost the kingship for his failure to carry out this command (1 Samuel 15:22-23 ). ...
Prophets applied the herem [ 1 Kings 20:41 ), Babylon (Jeremiah 50:21,26 ; 51:3 ), Egypt (Isaiah 11:15 , ; unless the word should be translated "split" here ), Edom (Isaiah 34:2,5 ), and other nations (Micah 4:13 ). The context of some of these passages indicates that these nations may be symbolic for nations at the final battle against the forces of Satan. Paul indicates that destruction of the flesh for the salvation of the soul was in Satan's domain (1 Corinthians 5:5 ). Zechariah 14:11 looks forward to a day when there will be herem [1]
Lot - ...
After traveling throughout Canaan and into Egypt, Abraham and Lot finally settled between Bethel and Ai, about ten miles north of Jerusalem (Genesis 13:3 ). ...
Some interesting details of the split between Abraham and Lot remind the reader of earlier events in Genesis. This detail not only recalls Abraham's nearly disastrous journey to Egypt to avoid the famine in Canaan (Genesis 12:10-20 ) but also foreshadows the journey that Jacob and his family would later make (Genesis 42-50 )—a journey that did have disastrous consequences (Exodus 1:8-14 ). To add to the negative connotations that cities have in the stories of Genesis, we are told that the people of Sodom were great sinners against the Lord (Genesis 13:13 ). ...
Lot is not mentioned again until Genesis 19:1 when two angels visited him. Abraham had rescued Lot, again, ( Genesis 19:29 ; compare Genesis 12:4 ). Losing one's life is the only way to gain life (Luke 17:32 ). The story of Lot is also used to show the faithfulness of God to rescue his people (2 Peter 2:7 )
War, Holy War - Violence that filled the earth with pain was one of the major causes of the flood (Genesis 6:11 ). The prophet Shemaiah would not allow Rehoboam to put down the rebellion of the northern tribes by force of arms (1 Kings 12:22-23 ). Micaiah refused to be swayed by the unanimous clamor of the war prophets (1 Kings 22 ). In the first two chapters of Amos foreign nations are designed for judgment because of their war crimes both against Israelites and against each other. ...
The Torah contained rules to ensure wars would be conducted as humanely as possible. Moses proclaims to the people, "Stand firm and you will see the deliverance the Lord will bring you today. The prophet leads them straight into Samaria. It is when nations stream to the holy mountain to learn about God. It will be a time when weapons are turned into farm implements and war shall be no more (Isaiah 2:1-4 ). The killing of everyone in Jericho and Ai, young and old, men and women in Joshua (6:21; 8:24-25) seems harsh and cruel when taken out of context. ...
All this indicates that special circumstances were prevailing in the initial period of conquest. All these practices would not only have contaminated pure Mosaic Yahwehism but would have destroyed the fabric of any society's family structure. It appears that the killing of these people was to be done at the outset so as to allow Mosaic morality to gain a foothold in the land. If Canaanites had been allowed to survive unbridled, they would have slowly and painfully killed their own selves. Exodus 23:29-30 , however, indicates it was God's original purpose to drive the Canaanites out "little by little" so the land would not become desolate and wild animals multiply against them. They were militarily crippled so there would be little chance for them to gain control of Israelite society. He cripples his entire fighting force for two weeks by subjecting them to the painful act of circumcision (Joshua 5:2 ). Instead they proceed to walk around the city and will use only faith to bring the walls down. After only two cities (Jericho and Ai) are taken they proceed north into hostile territory to Shechem. It was given by the promise and it will be kept by being faithful to the promises of God. It is learned from Deuteronomy 25:17-19 that they were attacking the stragglers at Israel's rear when they were faint and weary. When the rod was raised, Israel prevailed. When Moses put his hands down, Amalek prevailed. Anyone who was fainthearted and did not put his full trust in Yahweh was sent home. Anyone who might have his mind too much on affairs back home was dismissed (Deuteronomy 20:1-8 ). ...
These examples indicate that God is not to be manipulated into giving victory because a certain set "recipe" was followed. Only faithfulness to the Torah and loyal obedience to Yahweh would insure victory. Achan's transgression caused defeat at Ai (Joshua 7-8 ). Early in his life he had learned that simple faith in the Lord gave him victory over the lion and the bear. "With God, " David says, "we will gain the victory, and he will trample down our enemies. " He believed that God raises a victory banner for those who fear him. In faith he could proclaim, "Moab is my washbasin, upon Edom I toss my sandal" (vv. Through the eyes of faith he saw his victory being brought about by the march of the Divine Warrior in the attendant circumstances of storm and earthquake (vv. A king who wages war against another must count the cost. There is, however, safety against capricious fate. One can have many war horses but in the end the battle is the Lord's (Proverbs 21:31 ; Isaiah 31:1 )
Fasting - FAST, FASTING...
There seems to have been a disposition in all men, and from the earliest ages of antiquity, to testify a somewhat of sorrow in the mind in all abstinence, at certain times, and upon certain occasions, from food, by way of punishment for sin. But whether the first observance of fasts had their origin in those feelings of nature, I would not presume to say; yet certain it is, the very mind of man since the fall hath always leaned to somewhat of doing, or suffering, by way of propitiation for the sins and transgressions of nature. No one can doubt, who knows any thing of the human frame and character, that every individual by nature feels in himself a disposition to enter into a compromise or commutation with God; and if the Lord would but relax in certain demands which are enforced, he shall have offerings, of another kind by way of compensation or atonement. "Wherewith shall I come before the Lord, and bow myself before the High God? shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves of a year old? Will the Lord be pleased with thousands of rams, or with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first-born for my transgression; the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?" (Micah 6:6-7) But the grand question in relation to fasts is, What saith the word of God concerning them? We certainly do not read any thing in the divine appointment of fasts before the days of Moses, and in the patriarchal age. That the people of God set apart days and seasons for the affliction of the soul is most certain, and this by divine command, (Leviticus 23:27; Lev 23:29) but the reader will be careful to observe, that there is a wide distinction between the sorrow of soul and the fasting of the body. Joshua and the elders of Israel fell upon their faces before the ark, and put dust upon their heads, when the men of Ai had a momentary triumph over Israel. (See Matthew 6:16-18) From whence arose the long ritual in the Romish church, and the special season of Ember Weeks, and the Wednesdays and Fridays in every week, and the vigil before every saint's day, and the whole of Lent, it is difficult to say. But while men of no religion, and strangers to vital godliness, may, and will take up with the outside of piety, and abstain from their ordinary food on fast days, and glut the appetite with dainties on feast days; the great question still again recurs, what can we gather from the word of God of instruction in relation to fasting? I answer in the words of the apostle, "The kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost. Every child of God well knows from his own experience, arising from a body of sin and death that he carries about him, that fleshly lusts of every kind war against the soul; that it is impossible to be too strict in abridging every species of indulgence in the body; and that pampering the flesh, is only causing that flesh to rebel. Hence, therefore, he desires to observe a perpetual fast in things pertaining to the body, that through grace he may put on the Lord Jesus Christ, "making no provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lust thereof. Well is it for the faithful follower of Jesus, that He, the glorious High Priest of our profession, "beareth away the iniquity of our most holy things
Absalom - ) Third son of David, by Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur, a Syrian region N. Impatient of delay in his ambitious schemes, he sent for Joab, and, not being heeded, he burnt Joab's grain (as Samson did to the Philistines, Judges 15:4), which drove Joab to intercede with David for Absalom's admission to his presence. possibly he feared the succession of Bathsheba's son to the throne, to which he had the title, being alone of royal descent by his mother's side, also the oldest surviving son (Amnon being slain, and Chileab or Daniel dead, as his name does not occur after 2 Samuel 3:3). His beauty too, as in Saul's case (1 Samuel 9:2), and his princely retinue, attracted many (2 Samuel 14:25-26, where probably some error of number has crept in: though doubtless 200 shekels after the king's weight is much less weight of hair than ordinary shekels would be; 2 Samuel 15:1-6). He repaired thither after four (so we ought to read instead of "forty," 2 Samuel 15:7) years, under the hypocritical pretense of a vow like that of pious Jacob (compare 2 Samuel 15:8 with 2 Samuel 13:8); David alludes to the hypocrisy of the rebels in Psalms 4:5. Amasa, son of Abigail, David's sister, and Jether, an Ishmaelite, owing to David's neglect of him, and preference of his other sister Zeruiah's sons (probably because of his Ishmaelite fatherhood), was tempted to join the rebellion, and Ahithophel of Giloh also, because of his granddaughter Bathsheba's wrong (2 Samuel 11:8; 2 Samuel 23:34). ...
By Ahithophel's abominable counsel, Absalom lay with his father's concubines, at once committing his party to an irreconcilable war, and him to the claim to the throne (according to oriental ideas: so Adonijah, 1 Kings 2:13, etc. Hushai, David's friend, defeated treachery by treachery. Absalom, though well pleased at the counsel of "smiting the king only" and at once, was easily drawn aside by fear of his father's bravery, and by indecision and vanity; all which Hushai acted on in his counsel to summon all Israel, and that Absalom should command in person. He waited to have himself anointed king first (2 Samuel 19:10). The battle in Gilead in the wood of Ephraim (called from Ephraim's defeat, Judges 12:4) resulted in the defeat of his cumbrous undisciplined host. ...
His locks, on which he prided himself (Judges 14:25-26), were the means of his destruction, for they kept him suspended from a terebinth tree until Joab pierced him; and David, whom the unnatural son would have gladly smitten, but who charged Joab, Abishai, and Ittai, his three generals, to spare the youth for his sake, mourned pathetically for his death: "O Absalom, my son, would God I had died for thee; my son, my son!" His grave was a pit, over which the insulting conquerors heaped stones, as over Achan and the king of Ai (Joshua 7:26; Joshua 8:29). Absalom's fair daughter Tamar married Uriel, by whom she had Michaiah or Maachah, wife of Rehoboam and mother of (See ABIJAH
Jericho - From a root "fragrance," or "the moon" (yareach ), being the seat of Canaanite moon worship, or "broad" from its being in a plain bounded by the Jordan. Its spoil included silver, gold, vessels of iron and brass (Joshua 6:19), cast in the same plain of Jordan where Solomon had his foundry (1 Chronicles 4:17). ...
Other towns had their inhabitants only slain, as under the divine ban (Deuteronomy 7:2; Deuteronomy 20:16-17; Deuteronomy 2:34-35), while the cattle and booty fell to the conquerors. The plain was famed for palms and balsams, whence Jericho is called "the city of palms" (Deuteronomy 34:3; Judges 1:16; Judges 3:13; 2 Chronicles 28:15). However, modern research places it a quarter of a mile from the mountain Quarantana (the traditional scene of Christ's temptation), at the fountain of Elisha. This accords with Joshua 16:1, "the water of Jericho," and Josephus mentions the fount and the mountain near (B. of the fountain. Joshua's curse therefore was not Aimed against rebuilding the town, which the Benjamites did, but against its miraculously overthrown walls being restored, against its being made again a fortress. Elisha "healed the waters" of the fountain, called also Ain es Sultan (2 Kings 2:18-22), half an hour N. of Riha, in the rainy season forming a brook, which flows through the wady Kelt into the Jordan. In its plains Zedekiah was overtaken by the Chalaeans (2 Kings 25:5; Jeremiah 39:5). ...
From mount Pisgah, the peak near the town Nebo, on its western slope (Deuteronomy 34:1), Moses looked "over against Jericho. " Jericho strategically was the key of the land, being situated at the entrance of two passes through the hills, one leading to Jerusalem the other to Ai and Bethel. "By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after they were compassed about seven days" (whereas sieges often last for years) (Hebrews 11:30). Trumpets, though one were to sound for ten thousand years, cannot throw down walls; but faith can do all things (Chrysostom). Archelaus in our Lord's days had irrigated the plain and planted it with palms. Herod the Great had previously founded a new town (Phasaelis) higher up the plain
Print - —In the Gospels ‘print’ is found only in John 20:25, where in most Manuscripts it occurs twice: ‘Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe’ (for other uses of τύπος in NT see Grimm-Thayer and Cremer, s. τόπον is found in Ai, which Lach.
If it be asked, how the prints of the wounds could be seen, and even remain open, in His risen and glorified body, it is but one of many difficulties arising from our ignorance as to the nature of that body. Meanwhile there is deep significance in the fact that the marks of these wounds remain. ‘The prints of the nails are not only signs of recognition, but also signs of victory. We must all have seen, again and again, figures of the Lord in glory raising His wounded hands to bless, or pleading even on the throne of judgment with those who have rejected Him by the marks of His death, so showing that by these He is still known; that by these He still proclaims the unchanging Gospel, “Redemption through sacrifice” ’ (Westcott, The Revelation of the Risen Lord, p. ‘He gave them confidence in His unfailing sympathy, by shewing that He bore even to the throne of heaven the marks of His dying love’ (ib
Abraham - Sarai, daughter, i. His being oldest appears from the fact that his brothers married his daughters, and that Sarai was only ten years younger than Abraham (Genesis 17:17); the two younger were born subsequently, Abram, the youngest, when Terah was 130, as appears from comparing Esther 9:15-16 with Genesis 12:4; Acts 7:3-4; "before he dwelt in Charran Ηaran , while he was in Mesopotamia," in his 60th year, at Ur he received his first call: "Depart from thy land, to a land which I will show thee" (as yet the exact land was not defined). ...
The deluge, the revelation to Noah, and the Babel dispersion had failed to counteract the universal tendency to idolatrous apostasy, obliterating every trace of primitive piety. God therefore provided an antidote in separating one family and nation to be the repository of His truth against the fullness of time when it should be revealed to the whole world. The unfriendly attitude of the Canaanites induced him next to move to the mountain country between Bethel and Ai, where also he built an altar to Jehovah, whose worship was fast passing into oblivion in the world. The record of his unbelieving cowardice there, and virtual lie as to Sarai (See ABIMELECH) is a striking proof of the candor of Scripture. Its heroes' faults are not glossed over; each saint not only falls at times, but is represented as failing in the very grace (e. Abraham in faith) for which he was most noted. This position, communicating with Egypt, and opening on the pastures of Beersheba, marks the greater power of his retinue now, as compared with what it was when he encamped in the mountain fastness of Ai. " Abraham, with 318 followers, and Aided by the Amorite chiefs, Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, overtook the victorious invaders near Jordan's springs, and attacked them by night from different quarters and routed them, and recovered Lot with all the men and the goods carried off. " Immediately after Abraham had refused worldly rewards Jehovah in vision said, "I am . " His faith herein was called forth to accept what was above nature on the bore word of God; so "it (his faith) was counted to him for righteousness" (Genesis 15). ...
Hence he passes into direct covenant relation with God, confirmed by the sign of the burning lamp (compare Isaiah 62:1) passing between the divided pieces of a heifer, she goat, and ram, and accompanied by the revelation that his posterity are to be afflicted in a foreign land 400 years, then to come forth and conquer Canaan when the iniquity of the Amorites shall be full. Tyre and Sidon were never conquered; therefore the complete fulfillment remains for the millennial state, when "the meek shall inherit the land," and Psalms 72:8-10 shall be realized; compare Luke 20:37. The taking of Hagar the Egyptian, Sarai's maid, at the suggestion of Sarai, now 75 years old, was a carnal policy to realize the promise in Ishmael. ...
Family quarreling was the inevitable result, and Hagar fled from Sarai, who dealt hardly with her maid when that maid despised her mistress. Abraham in his 99th year was recalled to the standing of faith by Jehovah's charge, "Walk before Me and be thou perfect" (Genesis 17). God then gave circumcision as seal of the covenant of righteousness by faith, which he had while yet uncircumcised (Romans 4). His name was changed at circumcision from Abram to Abraham (father of many nations), to mark that the covenant was not to include merely his seed after the flesh, the Israelites, but the numerous Gentile nations also, who in his Seed, Christ, should be children of his faith (Galatians 3). Sarai (my princess, or "nobility," Gesenius) became Sarah (princess) no longer queen of one family, but spiritually of all nations (Galatians 3:16). Now first, Jehovah, with two ministering angels, reveals Himself and His judicial purposes (Genesis 18) in familiar intercourse with Abraham as "the friend of God" (John 15:15; Psalms 25:14; 2 Chronicles 20:7; James 2:23; Amos 3:7), and accepts his intercession to a very great extent for the doomed cities of the plain. " His abode was "the oaks of Mamre" (as Genesis 18:1 ought to be translated, not "plains". Ishmael's expulsion, though painful to the father who clung to him (Genesis 17:18), was needed to teach Abraham that all ties must give way to the one great end. The full spiritual meaning of it, but faintly revealed to Abraham, appears in Galatians 4:22-31. faith was perfected took place (James 2:21-23). Still it was his faith, not his work, which was "imputed to him for righteousness"; but the faith that justified him was evinced, by his offering at God's command his son, to be not a dead but a living "faith that works by love. The natural feelings of the father, the divine promise specially attached to Isaac, born out of due time and beyond nature, a promise which seemed impossible to be fulfilled if Isaac were slain, the divine command against human bloodshedding (Genesis 9:5-6), —all might well perplex him. But it was enough for him that God had commanded; his faith obeyed, leaving confidently the solution of the perplexities to God, "accounting that God was able to raise Isaac even from the dead" (Hebrews 11:19), "from whence he received him in a figure. His faith was rewarded by the original promises being now confirmed by Jehovah's oath by Himself (Hebrews 6:13; Hebrews 6:17); and his believing reply to his son, "God will provide Himself a lamb," received its lasting commemoration in the name of that place, Jehovah Jireh, "the Lord will provide. The only possession he got, and that, by purchase from the Hittites, was a burying place for Sarah, the cave of Machpelah, said to be under the mosque of Hebron. As "father of the faithful," who left home and all at the call of God, to be a sojourner in tents, he typifies Him who at the Father's call left His own heaven to be a homeless stranger on earth, and to sacrifice Himself, the unspeakably precious Lamb, for us: "the Word tabernacled Greek John 1:14 among us
Raca - It was replaced by ‘Raca’ in 1638, and explained ‘that is, Vain fellow, 2 Samuel 6:20,’ by one of the marginal notes added to the Authorized Version at various times, chiefly in 1762 (see the Introduction to Scrivener’s Paragraph Bible, p. 32; racha in most Manuscripts of the Latin Versions; raccha in d; only f k Zc and the official Vulgate have raca; רקא in all Syriac Versions, vocalized רָקָא, רַקָא, רָקֵא, רַקָא (see the edition of the Tetraeuangelium by Pusey-Gwilliam, and the Thesaurus Syriacus; it is explained as = שׁיטא, i. Joshua - " Son of Nun, of Ephraim (1 Chronicles 7:27). Probably he even in Egypt was recognized as an officer among his brethren; for at his first public act, choosing and leading picked men of Israel against the attacking Amalekites at Rephidim (Exodus 17:9) he is introduced abruptly without description as one already well known by the designation Joshua (not Hoshea) given by anticipation. Next as Moses' "minister" Joshua accompanied him along with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 elders up the mountain of God; but Moses went alone into the cloud (Exodus 24:9; Exodus 24:13-15). On the descent Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting, and with a warrior's thought he said to Moses, "there is a noise of war in the camp"; but it was the noise of singers in the calf worship. ...
Sent to spy out Canaan as representing Ephraim; Caleb represented Judah. He commands Moses and Joshua to write Moses' song, and teach it to Israel as a witness against them of God's benefits, their duties, and the penalty of their apostasy. When Eldad and Medad prophesied in the camp separately from the rest of the 70 who received of the spirit that was upon Moses, in his presence, Joshua said, "my lord Moses, forbid them;" he replied, "enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets," etc. " God kept His promise, working mighty miracles in his behalf, and giving Israel all the land and rest round about; no good thing failed which the Lord had spoken (Joshua 21:43-45). ...
Joshua took the command at Shittim, sent spies to Jericho, crossed Jordan, fortified his camp at Gilgal, circumcised the people (for Israel's work was a spiritual one, and men still having the badge of fleshliness were not fit agents for the Lord's work: Joshua 10:40; Judges 5:31), kept the Passover, (after which on their eating the old grain of the land the manna ceased,) and received the assurance of Jericho's fall and God's fighting against Israel's foes from the uncreated Angel of Jehovah (Joshua 5:13-15; Joshua 6:2-5), the Captain of Jehovah's host (Matthew 26:53; Exodus 23:20-23; Revelation 19:11-14). Ganneau suggests that Sartabeh the mountain was the spot whereon the Captain of Jehovah's host, Hebrew: Sarsaba , appeared to Joshua, and thence takes its name. ...
The divine Captain was on a height above Joshua, for "he lifted up his eyes" toward Him, and went unto Him. ) The repulse at Ai, through Achan's sin, taught Israel their success depended on their doing God's work of wrath in God's holy way, without greed. ) Ai then fell. over against Gerizim. ) This brought on the attack of the five confederate kings whom he defeated at Makkedah, Aided by a divinely sent hailstorm and prolongation of daylight: the condition of the Air was probably rendered by God, at Joshua's believing prayer, highly refractive so as to cause the sun to be seen long after its actual descent beneath the horizon, as the fata morgana in Sicily and the arctic region; compare the recession of the sun dial shadow under Hezekiah (2 Kings 20:11). Timnath Serah in Ephraim was assigned to Joshua himself," the city which he asked" (Joshua 19:49). His singular unselfishness herein appears; he who might have claimed the first and best is served the last, and with no extraordinary possession above the rest. ...
A long time after Jehovah had given rest unto Israel from all foes, Joshua, now old, convened all Israel (Joshua 23) represented by their heads, judges, and officers, to either Timhath Serah his home or Shiloh the sanctuary, and exhorted them to love and serve Jehovah ("be ye very courageous to do all that is written in the law, turn not aside to the right or to the left," Joshua 23:6; the same as God had enjoined Himself, Joshua 1:7), constrained by His past benefits, His promises of future help, and His threats of leaving the nations to be snares, scourges, and thorns to vex and destroy Israel in the event of apostasy. Again he gathered all the tribes with their heads and officers to Shechem, as being the place where Abram received God's first promise of the land after his migration into Canaan (Genesis 12:6-7); more especially because here Jacob on his return from Mesopotamia settled, and removed his household's strange gods (Genesis 33:19; Genesis 35:2-4), just as Joshua now wished Israel to renew the covenant binding them to renunciation of all idols. ...
When the people, self confidently (like Peter, Luke 22:33), promised faithfulness, Joshua replied "ye cannot serve the Lord," i. His influence under God kept them faithful both in his own time and that of the elders who outlived him. ...
A pious warrior, almost without blemish, one who learned to command in advanced age by obeying when a youth, ever looking up to Jehovah with childlike faith, worshipping with devout prostration the Captain of the Lord's host, dispensing kingdoms yet content at the last with a petty inheritance, as disinterested and unselfish as he was brave, generous, and patriotic. He leads His people through a Jordan-like flood of troubles and death itself without being overwhelmed (Isaiah 43:2). ...
Joshua was buried in the border of his inheritance in Timnath Serah (probably now Kefr Haris) in Mount Ephraim, on the northern side of the hill Gaash (Joshua 24:30). ) The Septuagint adds: "there they laid with him in the tomb the stone knives with which he circumcised the children of Israel in Gilgal
Joshua - directed affairs at Jerusalem after the restoration ( Haggai 1:1 ; Haggai 1:12 ; Haggai 1:14 etc. ’ The son of Nun and of the tribe of Ephraim, he commanded the army in the battle with Amalek ( Exodus 17:8-16 ), attended on Moses at Mt. Sinai ( Exodus 32:17 f. ), and at the Tent of Meeting ( Exodus 33:11 ; all these passages are from E [1] ); acted as one of the twelve spies ( Numbers 13:8 ; Numbers 14:6-9 ), was spared along with Caleb ( Numbers 14:30 ; Numbers 14:38 ; all P
The view is widely held that Joshua has no historical reality as a person, that his name is merely the name of a clan in Ephraim, and that his leadership in Israel represents, and puts back into the period of the conquest the commanding position which Ephraim had come to hold in the Israelite confederation. And the effort is made to show that he makes his appearance first in E
It seems more probable that Joshua led the nation in their first assault on Palestine, that under his leadership the entry by Jericho was won, and a wedge thrust into the land by the capture of Bethel and Ai. But this is not incompatible with the fact that Joshua may have retained such a position of arbiter as, e. The loose confederacy, which still recognized its unity against its enemies, may have turned naturally for guidance to one who led its early efforts. But only on the supposition that there was something to idealize is it possible to understand why a man, who belongs to a clan in Ephraim which is otherwise unknown, came to be set up as the hero under whom they won their foothold among the nations, and passed from wandering tribes into a people. The reason generally accepted for this is that Joshua, unlike Exodus or Leviticus, does not contain Torah or law. 1 12, an account, closely akin to JE [5] , the other with E [1] , fails from insufficient criteria. It recounts the circumcision at Gilgal, which it views as a novelty (‘the second time’ of Joshua 5:2 is absent from the LXX [8]). He brought out certain features in connexion with the passage of Jordan the fear inspired in the Canaanites, the presence of the 2 1 / 2 tribes, the exaltation of Joshua by Jahweh (Joshua 2:10 f. He gave a different reason for the circumcision at Gilgal ( Joshua 5:4-7 ), and added some details to the fraud of the Gibeonites ( Joshua 9:1 f. This is the more remarkable since at Joshua 8:30-35 we have a statement of how Joshua built an altar at Ebal, before the country between Gilgal and Mount Ephraim was subdued. Probably this formed the conclusion to JE [4] ’s narrative of the conquest of Central Palestine; possibly it was derived from E [1] , a source which was specially interested in North Israelite sanctuaries, and which (see Deuteronomy) was a favourite source with D
A few verses in this section, Joshua 4:13 ; Joshua 4:19 , Joshua 5:10-12 , Joshua 7:1 , Joshua 9:15 b, Joshua 9:17-21 , are generally assigned to P [2] take a character and range wholly unlike those which characterize this document throughout the Pentateuch; on the other, it is still a subject of debate whether the section owes its final form to a Deuteronomic or a Priestly editor, D [11] or P [11] edited this section also, using as his sources JE [4] and what is called P
(1) P
(2) D [11] incorporated with this, material drawn from JE [22]. Before the lot of Benjamin he placed the statement of a survey made for the seven remaining tribes ( Joshua 18:2-6 ; Joshua 18:8-10 [from JE [4] ; Joshua 18:7 is from D [4] , but the list of Naphtali’s cities ( Joshua 19:32-39 ), which is entirely different in character from the description of the other lots, may be from JE [2] edited JE
(3) D [11] took the account of the dismissal of the 2 1 /2 tribes ( Joshua 22:9-34 ) from P [4] (probably E
The source named P Cross - the death of the cross was the most dreadful of all others, both for the shame and pain of it; and so scandalous, that it was inflicted as the last mark of detestation upon the vilest of people. The form of a cross being such as has been already described, the body of the criminal was fastened to the upright piece by nailing the feet to it, and on the other transverse piece generally by nailing the hands on each side. Now, because these parts of the body, being the instruments of action and motion, are provided by Nature with a much greater quantity of nerves than others have occasion for; and because all sensation is performed by the spirit contained in the nerves; it will follow, as Stanhope observes, that whereever they abound, the sense of pain must needs in proportion be more quick and tender. The worshippers of Baal-peor, and the king of Ai were hung up alive; as were also the descendants of Saul, who were put into the hands of the Gibeonites, 2 Samuel 21:9 . After this manner, we find Christ was compelled to bear his cross; and as he sunk under the burden, Simon the Cyrenian was constrained to bear it after him and with him. the long and transverse part both, this seems to be a thing impossible; and therefore Lipsius (in his treatise De Supplicio Crucis) has set the matter in a true light, when he tells us that Jesus only carried the transverse beam; because the long beam, or the body of the cross, was either fixed in the ground before, or made ready to be set up as soon as the prisoner came; and from hence he observes, that painters are very much mistaken in the description of our Saviour carrying the whole cross. This way, it is said, Peter chose, out of respect to his master, Jesus Christ, not thinking himself worthy to be crucified like him; though the common way of crucifying was by fastening the criminal with nails, one through each hand, and one through both feet, or one through each of them; for this was not always performed in the same manner; the ancients sometimes represent Jesus Christ crucified with four nails, and sometimes with three. The text of the gospel shows clearly that Jesus Christ was fastened to the cross with nails, and the Psalmist (Psalms 22:16 , ) had foretold long before, that they should pierce his hands and his feet; but there are great disputes concerning the number of these nails. The Greeks represent our Saviour as fastened to the cross with four nails; in which particular Gregory of Tours agrees with them, one on each hand and foot. But several are of opinion that our Saviour's hands and feet were pierced with three nails only, viz. one on each hand, and one through both his feet: and the custom of the Latins is rather for this last opinion; for the generality of the old crucifixes made in the Latin church have only three nails. ...
Nonnus thinks that our Saviour's arms were besides bound fast to the cross with chains; and St. Eusebius speaks of certain martyrs in Egypt who were kept upon the cross till they were starved to death. Pilate was amazed at Jesus Christ's dying so soon, because naturally he must have lived longer, if it had not been in his power to have laid down his life, and to take it up again. The thighs of the two thieves, who were crucified with our Saviour, were broken, in order to hasten their death, that their bodies might not remain upon the cross on the Sabbath day, John 19:31 ; John 19:33 ; and to comply with the law of Moses, which forbids the bodies to be left there after sun-set. But, among other nations, they were suffered to remain upon the cross a long time. The Adoration of the Cross seems to have been practised in the ancient church, in as much as the heathens, particularly Julian, reproached the primitive Christians with it; and we do not find that their apologists disclaimed the charge. Cyril, but could not support his allegation at the conference of Fontainbleau. Helena is said to have reduced the adoration of the cross to its just principle, since she adored Christ in the wood, not the wood itself. It was the wood; the wood they were to adore! Imbert replied, it was Christ, not the wood; for which he was cited before the archbishop of Bourdeaux, suspended from his functions, and even threatened with chains and perpetual imprisonment. It little availed him to cite the bishop of Meaux's distinction; it was answered that the church allowed it not
Punishment - When Achan broke the law by taking some of the spoil from Jericho, the whole Israelite army was defeated at Ai (Joshua 7:1-5 ). For example, Assyria was seen as the Lord's rod of wrath (Isaiah 10:5 ). ...
The third command prohibited taking Yahweh's name in vain (Exodus 20:7 ; Leviticus 19:12 ; cf. ...
The fifth command entails respect for parents (Exodus 20:12 ). In the case of seduction, the result was the same except that no mention is made of divorce and the father could still be paid the marriage present though he disallowed the wedding (Exodus 22:16-17 ). Incest was proscribed (Leviticus 20:11,12 , 14,17 , 19-21 ; Deuteronomy 27:20,22-23 ) for which the penalty in certain cases was death by burning (Leviticus 20:11,14 ). If one believer sinned against another, the offended party was to confront the guilty party. If that failed, he was to bring the accusation to the church, which may then excommunicate the sinner (Matthew 18:15-17 ). This may refer to excommunication (if cast out of the church one is under the domain of Satan) or to a mortal illness invading the sinner's body. Isaiah 66:24 speaks of an undying worm and unquenchable fire—the same imagery Jesus uses to warn about hell ( Mark 9:42-43,47-48 )
Sea, the Salt - "The sea of the plain" (Arabah): Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:49; Joshua 3:16. The saltness is due to masses of fossil salt in a mountain on its S. At the southern end the fords between Lisan and the western shore are now impassable, though but three feet deep some years ago; again the causeway between the Rijm el Bahr and the mainland has been submerged for 12 years, though previously often dry. The area was filled by a chain of large lakes reaching to the sea. The depression continuing, the heat and the consequent evaporation increased, until there remained only the present three lakes, Merom, Galilee, and the Dead Sea which depends on evaporation alone for maintaining its level. It occupies probably what was originally the plain of Jordan, the vale of Siddim. Genesis 13:10 is not to be pressed further than to mean that Lot from between Bethel and Ai saw enough to arrive at the conclusion that the Ciccar ("circuit") of the Jordan, i. It holds in solution ingredients six times those contained in common salt water: one third common salt (chloride of sodium) and two thirds chloride of magnesium. Sulphur springs abound around, and sulphur lies over the plains in layers or in fragments. Only in the district near wady Zurka have igneous rocks been found; the lake basin's formation is mainly due to the action of water. It receives the Jordan at the northern end; Zurka Main on its E. side (anciently Callirrhoe , and perhaps the older Εn Εglaim ), also the Mojib (Arnon) and the Beni Hemad; on the S. Ain Jidy. The mountain walls on either side run nearly parallel; the eastern mountains are higher and more broken by ravines than the western. above the lake, where the Jewish zealots made their last stand against Sylva the Roman general, and slew themselves to escape capture, A. The lower part, the salt rock, rises abruptly from the plain at its eastern base. , draining about 6,000 square miles, bring down the silt and shingle which have filled up the southern part of the estuary. The lake is said to resemble Loch Awe, glassy, blue, and transparent, reflecting the beautiful colours of the encircling mountains; but the sterile look of the shores, the stifling heat, the sulphureous smell, the salt marsh at the S
Abraham - Soon after this, for some reason not mentioned, he removed his tent to the mountain district between Bethel, then called Luz, and Ai, towns about two miles apart, where he built an altar to "Jehovah. " He again moved into the southern tract of Palestine, called by the Hebrews the Negeb; and was at length, on account of a famine, compelled to go down into Egypt. Sarai was restored to him; and Pharaoh loaded him with presents, recommending him to withdraw from the country. ) He chose the well-watered plain in which Sodom was situated, and removed thither; and thus the uncle and nephew were separated. Immediately after this Abram was cheered by a repetition of the promises already made to him, and then removed to the plain or "oak-grove" of Mamre, which is in Hebron. ...
Some fourteen years before this, while Abram was still in Chaldea, Palestine had been invaded by Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, who brought under tribute to him the five cities in the plain to which Lot had removed. Sarai, now seventy-five years old, in her impatience, persuaded Abram to take Hagar, her Egyptian maid, as a concubine, intending that whatever child might be born should be reckoned as her own. When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that purpose the patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:4,5 ), and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant. It was then announced that the heir to these covenant promises would be the son of Sarai, though she was now ninety years old; and it was directed that his name should be Isaac. At the same time, in commemoration of the promises, Sarai's name was changed to Sarah. The next time we see him his faith is put to a severe test by the command that suddenly came to him to go and offer up Isaac, the heir of all the promises, as a sacrifice on one of the mountains of Moriah. His faith stood the test (Hebrews 11:17-19 ). He proceeded in a spirit of unhesitating obedience to carry out the command; and when about to slay his son, whom he had laid on the altar, his uplifted hand was arrested by the angel of Jehovah, and a ram, which was entangled in a thicket near at hand, was seized and offered in his stead. " The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to the patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Genesis 22:19 ), where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron. He is called "the friend of God" (James 2:23 ), "faithful Abraham" (Galatians 3:9 ), "the father of us all" (Romans 4:16 )
Dead - The ancient Israelites, in imitation of the Heathen, from whom they borrowed the practice, frequently cut themselves with knives and lancets, scratched their faces, or pricked certain parts of their bodies with needles. " The bereaved Greeks tore, cut off, and sometimes shaved, their hair; they reckonded it a duty which they owed to the dead, to deprive their heads of the greatest part of their honours, or, in the language of Scripture, made a baldness between their eyes. The same custom prevailed among the ancient Persians, and the neighbouring states. Shaving, however, was, on some occasions, a sign of joy; and to let the hair grow long, the practice of mourners, or persons in affliction. Joseph shaved himself before he went into the palace, Genesis 41:14 ; and Mephibosheth let his hair grow during the time David was banished from Jerusalem, but shaved himself on his return. In ordinary sorrows they only neglected their hair, or suffered it to hang down loose upon their shoulders; in more poignant grief they cut it off; but in a sudden and violent paroxysm, they plucked it off with their hands. Such a violent expression of sorrow is exemplified in the conduct of Ezra, which he thus describes:...
"And when I heard this thing I rent my garment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head, and of my beard, and sat down astonied,"...
Ezra 9:3 . The Greeks, and other nations around them, expressed the violence of their sorrow in the same way; for in Homer, Ulysses and his companions, bewailing the death of Elpenor, howled and plucked off their hair. Mourners withdrew as much as possible from the world; they abstained from banquets and entertainments; they banished from their houses as unsuitable to their circumstances, and even painful to their feelings, musical instruments of every kind, and whatever was calculated to excite pleasure, or that wore an Air of mirth and gaiety. Oriental mourners divested themselves of all ornaments, and laid aside their jewels, gold, and every thing rich and splendid in their dress. Long after the time of Moses, that rebellious nation again received a command of similar import: "Strip you, and make you bare, and gird sackcloth upon your loins," Isaiah 32:11 . Progne, having notice of Philomela's death, lays aside her robes, beaming with a profusion of gold, and appears in sable vestments; and Althaea, when her brethren were slain by Meleager, exchanged her glittering robes for black:—...
"Et auratas mutavit vestibus atris. " In Judea, the mourner was clothed in sackcloth of hair and by consequence, in sable robes; and penitents, by assuming it, seemed to confess that their guilt exposed them to death. Some of the eastern nations, in modern times, bury in linen; but Chardin informs us, that others still retain the use of sackcloth for that purpose. To sit in sackcloth and ashes, was a frequent expression of mourning in the oriental regions; and persons overwhelmed with grief, and unable to sustain the weight of their calamities, often threw themselves upon the earth, and rolled in the dust; and the more dirty the ground was, the better it served to defile them, and to express their sorrow and dejection. In this way Tamar signified her distress, after being dishonoured by Amnon, "She put ashes on her head;" and when Mordecai understood that the doom of his nation was sealed, he "rent his clothes, and put on sackcloth with ashes. " Our Lord alludes to the same custom, in that denunciation: "Wo unto thee, Chorazin! wo unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works which were done in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon. When the armies of Israel were defeated before Ai, "Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face, he and the elders of Israel, and put dust upon their heads. " The mourner sometimes laid his hands upon his head; for the prophet, expostulating with his people, predicts their humiliation in these words: "Yea, thou shalt go forth from him, and thine hands upon thine head; for the Lord hath rejected thy confidences, and thou shalt not prosper in them," Jeremiah 2:37 . When they return from the grave to the house of the deceased, the chief mourner receives them with his jaws tied up with a linen cloth, in imitation of the manner in which the face of the dead is covered; and by this the mourner is said to testify that he was ready to die for his friend. This allusion is perhaps revolved in the charge which Ezekiel received when his wife died, to abstain from the customary forms of mourning: "Forbear to cry; make no mourning for the dead; bind the tire of thy head upon thee, and put on thy shoes upon thy feet, and cover not thy lips, and eat not the bread of men,"...
Ezekiel 24:17 . It is remarkable, that we find Judea represented as a sorrowful woman sitting on the ground, in a passage of the prophet, where the same calamity which was recorded on the medals of these Roman emperors is foretold: "And she being desolate shall sit upon the ground," Isaiah 3:26 . If the conjecture of that intelligent traveller be well founded, the venerable prophet had been forced by the established etiquette of the court to retire from the management of public affairs at the death of Nebuchadnezzar; and had remained in a private station for twenty- three years, neglected or forgotten, till the awful occurrence of that memorable night rendered his assistance necessary, and brought him again into public notice. But it appears from an incident in the narrative of the raising of Lazarus, that in Judea they were accustomed to visit the graves of their deceased relations after the third day, merely to lament their loss, and give vent to their grief
Joshua, Theology of - Joshua the Faithful Warrior and Leader . When he reappears in Exodus 24:13 , Joshua climbs Mount Sinai alongside Moses. It only remains for Joshua to be recognized as leader by the Israelites, something he achieves through completion of the divinely appointed tasks involved in crossing the Jordan River. An alternative, or perhaps complementary, explanation focuses on the exceptions of Rahab's family and of the Gibeonites, who escaped divine wrath through confession of faith in Israel's God (2:8-13; 9:9-10,24-25). Does this imply that such an option was always open to those who would renounce idolatry and submit themselves to Israel and to Israel's God? Although the Israelites seem reluctant to allow any who live in Canaan to survive (9:7) and the Gibeonites are saved only by deceit, it remains true that we are never told of any Canaanites who confessed the lordship of Israel's God and who subsequently were put to death. The accounts of Jericho's defeat and of the massacre at Ai mention men and women, as well as young and old, but they do not specify children (as opposed to "youth, young man" in 8:30-35 and in the whole of chapter 24. Indeed, the circumcision and Passover celebration in chapter 5, as well as the theological role of the tribal allotments as part of Israel's covenantal inheritance from God, suggest that fulfillment of the covenant remains an integral part of the whole book. The people agree to this and bear witness against themselves if they forsake God and serve foreign deities. ...
The saving Acts of God are clearly represented in the military victories of the people against their enemies, especially in the miraculous collapse of Jericho's walls (6:20) and the divine control of the sun and the hailstones in such a manner as to Aid Israel (10:11-14). In addition, they occur in notes of how the enemies of Israel hear of the Israelite victories and how their courage melts (5:1); how God's presence with Joshua leads to his fame spreading throughout the land (6:27); and how the armies of Canaan learn of God's Acts but still refuse to accept God's sovereignty and signify this by perpetrating war against Israel (9:1-2; 10:1-5; 11:1-5). As a book that provides a transition from the Pentateuch and the lawgiving of Moses to the settled society and rule of the judges and the kings of Israel, this work presents a past ideal in which a leader like Moses brought the people into the promised land and proceeded on faith to lay claim to it. God's gracious gift of the land and his provision for the people as their leader and guide bear witness to later generations of divinely willed leadership for Israel and of how the faithful fulfillment of the covenant could bring upon God's people all the blessings involved in their occupation of the land. The later failures of Israel's leadership and of the people brought divine judgment, which revoked these blessings by uprooting the people from that land and sending them into exile. Even so, the prophetic promises looked forward to a return to the promised land and to a full claim of these blessings under a messianic leader who would rule the people in perfect fulfillment of the covenant and in a renewal of the rich blessings of the land to which Joshua had led the people so long ago
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Archaeology is a study of the past based upon the recovery, examination, and explanation of the material remains of human life, thought, and activity, coordinated with available information concerning the ancient environment. In the past, archaeology has Aided Old Testament studies especially, but its value to the student of the New Testament also is now being recognized more fully. The basic affirmations of the Bible—that God is, that He is active in history, and that Jesus is His Son raised from the dead—are not subject to archaeological verification. That claim is not open to archaeological verification. Biblical students are often remiss, and many commentaries are deficient, in making use of what materials are available. ), contained hundreds of feet of wall space lined with sculptured reliefs depicting the exploits of the king. Also among the discoveries was the Taylor Prism which contains a written Assyrian version of their invasion of the kingdom of Judah in 701 B. Although Sennacherib does not claim to have captured Jerusalem, he makes no mention of the calamity suffered by his troops as described in the biblical account. People chose to live at a site for certain reasons. This process, along with the ordinary accumulation of debris and rebuilding that occurs in any area of human occupation, gradually over the centuries and millennia resulted in the site becoming higher and higher—a “tell” was formed, containing many strata (layers). The ostraca from Samaria contain the records of supplies, including grain, oil, and wine, which had been sent in for the support of the royal palace by persons living in various towns. In addition, the presence of names of several persons containing Baal as a component (e. The list includes such important places as Babylon and Ur in ancient Mesopotamia and Ai, Bethel, Hazor, Jericho, Jerusalem, Lachish, Megiddo, Shechem, and many other sites in ancient Israel. ...
During the second stage of archaeology, primary attention had been paid to art, architecture, pottery and written sources, with little or no thought given to the investigation of other possible windows of information to the past. In the previous stage much of the labor of digging had been done by persons living in the region who were paid for their services. ...
All of this permits a much more complete picture than is available from buildings, pottery forms, and even from many written sources. Now there seems to be a real possibility that information about the everyday life of ordinary men and women during the biblical period can be gained. Also, some words in the Bible, particularly in the Old Testament, are obscure—their meaning is not certain. ...
Archaeology, through the recovery of ancient Hebrew and Greek copies of the Scripture, plus the discovery of other old literature written in related languages has helped scholars to determine a more exact text of the Bible than was available previously. ...
At the end of the last century in a rubbish room (now known as the Cairo Geniza) of an old synagogue in Cairo, Egypt, an invaluable find of Hebrew materials was made. A complete copy of the Book of Isaiah was written about 100 B. In a handful of cases, however, minor problems which had crept into the text of Isaiah could be corrected by use of the older scroll. Many clay tablets containing ancient writing were unearthed. A study of Ugaritic has helped Old Testament scholars better understand the nature and development of the Hebrew language, and it has been of particular value in the clarification of some of the ancient Hebrew poetry contained in the Bible. Discovery and decipherment of previously unknown ancient Middle Eastern languages like Sumerian, Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Eblite give a wider base for definition of words, making (by the study called Comparative Semitics) for a substantial reorientation of Old Testament vocabulary. ...
With reference to the New Testament, during the last one to two centuries, numerous old papyrus manuscripts have been found, mainly in Egypt, which contain portions of the biblical text. It contains John 18:31-33 ,John 18:31-33,18:37-38 . New Greek critical texts are being prepared to make all the material available to students, and already English translations are reflecting the new finds. Though it is recognized today that some advocates carried the theory too far, this insight did change New Testament study and has laid the basis for modern speech Bible translation efforts. Scrolls containing the Book of Psalms have been found in cave eleven which differ in several ways from the Book of Psalms as it was finalized by the Jews about A. The Qumran material contains some psalms that eventually were left out of the Bible and omit some that were finally included. Although some locations still remain in doubt, biblical maps and atlases testify eloquently to the success of archaeology in the realms of geography. Twenty-eight jar handles found in the cistern at El Jib made certain the location of ancient Gibeon; six stone carvings with the name “Gezer” identify that place, and “Arad” seven times scratched on a potsherd confirms its location. Aharoni [1] stated that 262 places out of the 475 mentioned in the Old Testament had with a degree of certainty been identified. The material included in the Bible was carefully selected under the guidance of God, and the history contained therein is theologically interpreted. ...
Leonard Woolley excavated the site of Ur (1922-1934) whose location had been determined by discovery of a cylinder describing repairs carried out in Ur by Nabonidus. A monument found in his mortuary chamber at Thebes contains a record of this venture and includes the oldest reference to Israel outside of the Bible. Merneptah claimed to have utterly destroyed them. Though the claim was earlier made on inadequate basis, evidence of cities built by the Israelites in Egypt has not actually been found. Nelson Glueck's claim that there was no evidence of settled habitation in the areas of Edom and Moab at a date that could be harmonized with an early Exodus is now called in question. Interesting comparisons in the “eye for an eye” law, the case of rape on the mountain as contrasted with in the city, possession of the goring ox, kidnapping, killing a thief in the house, and matters of deposited property can be made between these laws and those of Moses. While these codes have both similarities and differences from the laws of Moses, the claim of borrowing cannot be established. ...
Though searched for in the Jericho area, the location of Gilgal, the Israelites' camping place, remains elusive. Despite what now seems to have been unfounded claims earlier made for Jericho by John Garstang, archaeological evidence for the conquest of Jericho, Ai, and Gibeon, after excavation of the sites, remains debated. Cities on the Palestinian hill country like Shiloh, Bethel, Gibeah, Bethzur, Debir, and Hazor underwent destruction in the late Bronze Age, and poorer cities rose on their mounds; but the destroyer and rebuilder remain unidentified. Thutmoses III won a major victory at Megiddo in 1490 of which he left a record claiming that Megiddo is worth a thousand cities. However, the Tell Amarna letters show that respect for Egypt was weakening as the petty kings struggled with each other while begging Egypt for Aid. ...
Interesting sidelights on the general period of the Judges and Kings include the Egyptian custom of counting the victims of a campaign from stacks of severed hands (compare Judges 8:6 ), the putting out of an eye (1 Samuel 11:1-11 ), or both eyes (2 Kings 25:7 ), and depiction of circumcised men on a Megiddo ivory [2] where the subject described his ordeal. The Danites migrated north to Laish (Judges 18:1-31 ), the site known as Tel Dan. 200 in Greek and Aramaic, “To the god who is in Dan
Mephibosheth - By that time both Mephibosheth and Ziba and David had long passed away; and already their motives and their mainsprings may well have become a sacred riddle in Israel. Given the story of Mephibosheth, and the story of Ziba, first at the flight of David and then at his victorious return, and then-was Mephibosheth a heartless, selfish, contemptible time-server, while Ziba, his servant, was a prince beside him? Or, was Ziba a lying scoundrel, and Mephibosheth a poor, innocent, ill-used, lameter saint? Let us see the surface of the story. And David said, Is there yet any that is left of the house of Saul, that I may show him kindness for Jonathan's sake? And there was of the house of Saul a servant whose name was Ziba. And when they had called him unto David, the king said unto him, Art thou Ziba? And he said, Thy servant is he. And the king said, Is there not yet any of the house of Saul, that I may show the kindness of God to him? And Ziba said unto the king, Jonathan hath yet a son, which is lame on his feet. And the king said unto him, Where is he? And Ziba said unto the king, Behold, he is in the house of Machir, the son of Ammiel, from Lo-debar. And David said unto him, Fear not, for I will surely show thee kindness for Jonathan, thy father's sake, and will restore thee all the lands of Saul thy father, and thou shalt eat bread at my table continually. ...
Years passed on again, till Absalom by fair speeches and skilful courtesies had stolen the hearts of all Israel, of all of which Mephibosheth was a silent student, eating at David's table continually. And David said unto his servants, and to them that sat at his table, Arise, let us flee. And when David was a little past the top of the hill, behold, Ziba, the servant of Mephibosheth, met David with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and an hundred bunches of raisins, and an hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine. And the king said to Ziba, What meanest thou by these? And Ziba said, The asses be for the king's household to ride on, and the bread and the summer fruits for the young men to eat, and the wine that such as be faint in the wilderness may drink. And the king said, Where is thy master's son? And Ziba said to the king, Behold, he abideth in Jerusalem; for he said, Today shall the house of Israel restore to me the kingdom of my father. Then the king said to Ziba, Behold, thine are all that pertained to Mephibosheth. A few days after that the great battle was set in the wood of Ephraim, and of Absalom's side there was a great slaughter of twenty thousand men. And it was on that day that David went up to the chamber over the gate of Mahanaim, and wept; and as he went there he said, O my son Absalom; my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!...
So the king returned and came to Jordan. And Shimei fell down before the king and said, Let not my lord impute iniquity unto me, neither do thou remember that which thy servant did perversely the day that my lord the king went out of Jerusalem, that the king should take it to his heart. And the king said to Shimei, Thou shalt not die. Four hundred years before, just at the same place, when the inhabitants of Gibeon heard what Joshua had done to Jericho and to Ai, they did work wilily, and went and made as if they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon their asses, and wine bottles old and rent and bound up, and old shoes and clouted upon their feet, and old garments upon them, and all the bread of their provisions was dry and mouldy. And Joshua said, Who are ye, and whence come ye? And they said, From a very far country thy servants are come, because of the name of the Lord thy God. For Mephibosheth had not dressed his wooden feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes for grief, so he said, from the day that the king departed. Nor had he taken time today to make himself decent for such a journey, such was his joy that the king was coming back again to Jerusalem. I looked for thee, I was afraid that in the overthrow some evil had befallen thee. My lord, said Mephibosheth-but 'the tale was as lame as the tale-bearer. Say no more, Mephibosheth, said David, as he saw Jonathan's son crawling so abjectly before him. Kitto complains of David's tart answer to Mephibosheth. But if David was too tart, then with what extraordinary and saintly sweetness Mephibosheth received the over-tartness of the king. 'Let Ziba take all my estates today, forasmuch as my lord the king is come again in peace to his own house. But Solomon, as he moralises in one place on fathers and sons with Jonathan and Mephibosheth before him, tells us to rejoice with trembling when our sons are born to us, for who knoweth whether they shall be wise men or fools?...
Rarely into the branches of the treeDoth human worth mount up: and so ordainsHe who bestows it, that as His free giftIt may be called. I do not know that the other side has been so often brought out-that great bodily infirmity and disability, alongside of a renewed and a humble heart, will sometimes result in a sweetness and a saintliness of a most uncommon kind. But such was Mephibosheth at the bottom of his heart that, as he continued to eat at David's table, Satan entered into Mephibosheth and said to him in his heart that all this was his own by original and divine right. ' And the ingratitude of Mephibosheth grew at David's table to this high injustice, that he waited for both David and Absalom to be chased out of Jerusalem, that he might take their place. I am afraid to lose life or estate. Shall I forbear to hear that honest minister, James Urquhart, for a time, seeing the stone is like to fall on me if I do so?' And then our modern Mephibosheth has the grace to add in his diary, 'A grain of sound faith would easily answer all these questions. I think I shall die still but minting and Aiming to be a Christian man!'...
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This, then, is the prize for finding out that enigma of motive, Mephibosheth's hidden heart. To see him also as he waits on providence in Jerusalem to hear how the battle is to go. Till at last-O blessed hope!-every tang and taint of Mephibosheth's heart shall be taken out of us, and till truth, and righteousness, and fidelity, and gratitude, and courage, and love shall for ever reign in us and around us and over us
Achan - Balak's gold had long before now brought Balaam the soothsayer across the plains of Mesopotamia, and the gold and silver of Jericho had also drawn toward that city the travelling dealers in the woven work of the Babylonian looms. Who is that stealing about among the smoking ruins? Is that some soldier of Jericho who has saved himself from the devouring sword? When the night wind wakens the embers again these are the accoutrements and the movements of one of Joshua's men. But the men of Israel fled before the men of Ai, wherefore the hearts of the people melted and became as water. And the Lord said to Joshua, Get thee up; wherefore liest thou upon thy face? Up, sanctify the people, for there is an accursed thing in the midst of them. My son, said Joshua, give, I pray thee, glory to the Lord God of Israel, and make confession to Him; and tell me what thou hast done; hide it not from me. And Achan answered Joshua, and said, Indeed, I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done: When I saw among the spoil a goodly Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted them, and took them; and, behold, they are hid in the earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it And all Israel raised over him a great heap of stones to this day. But when once Achan's eyes lighted on that rich garment he never could get his eyes off it again. In his despair to get the devil out of his heart Job swore a solemn oath and made a holy covenant with his eyes. He pulls down His own best handiwork at its finest part so that He may get the devil's handiwork destroyed and rooted out of it; and then He will let us have all our eyes back again when and where we are fit to be trusted with eyes. 'True,' says that fine writer, 'all our lives long we shall be bound to refrain our soul, and to keep it low; but what then? For the books we now forbear to read, we shall one day be endued with wisdom and knowledge. For the companionships we shun, we shall be welcomed into angelic society and the communion of triumphant saints. ' Yes, it is as certain as God's truth and righteousness are certain, that the mortified man who goes about with his eyes out; the man who steals along the street seeing neither smile nor frown; he who keeps his eyes down wherever men and women congregate,-in the church, in the market-place, at a railway-station, on a ship's deck, at an inn table,-where you will; that man escapes multitudes of temptations that more open and more full-eyed men and women continually fall before. O sons and daughters of discovered Achan! O guilty and dissembling sinners! It is all in vain. It is all utterly and absolutely in vain. Wait till you see! Go on sowing as you have begun, and come and tell us when the harvest is reaped how it threshes out and bow it tastes. Every son has his father's grey hairs and his mother's anxious heart in his hands, and no possible power can alter that. Lay it out and say,-Indeed I have sinned against the Lord God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done. And then say this,-...
The dying thief rejoiced to seeThat Fountain in his day-and see what the true Joshua will stand over you and will say to you. Look at your Bible again, and see. 'And Sharon shall be a fold of flocks, and the Valley of Achor a place for the herds to lie down in, for the people that have sought Me,' And, again,-'And I will give her her vineyards from thence, and the Valley of Achor for a door of hope; and she shall sing there, as in the day of her youth, and as in the day when she came up out of the land of Egypt. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains of hell gat hold upon me; I found trouble and sorrow. O the Hope of Israel, the Saviour thereof in the time of trouble! You will sing that song in your Valley of Achor till this song shall be taken up over you by saints and angels,-These are they which came out of great tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb
Fortification And Siegecraft - RV
The treatment of the stone used for fortifications and other masonry of importance varied considerably in the successive periods, gradually advancing from that of the imposing but primitive ‘cyclopean’ walls characteristic of the early architecture of the Levant, to the carefully dressed stones with drafted margins, laid in perfect courses, of the Herodian period. The thickness of the walls varied from city to city, and even in the same city, being to a certain extent dependent on the required height at any given point. 2 Chronicles 26:15 , Zephaniah 1:16 , both RVm When the site was strongly protected by nature, a single wall sufficed; otherwise it was necessary to have an outer wall, which was of less height than the main wall. This is the chçl frequently mentioned in OT, generally rendered rampart ( 1 Kings 21:23 ) or bulwark ) Isaiah 26:1 ). In addition to its walls, every ancient city of importance possessed a strongly fortified place, corresponding to the acropolis of Greek cities, which served as a refuge from, and a last defence against, the enemy when the city itself had been stormed (cf. ), the castle in Tirzah ( 1 Kings 16:18 RV [6] , however, is hold or strong hold , as the ‘strong hold’ of Zion ( 2 Samuel 5:7 ), the acropolis of the Jebusite city, which AV It is impossible within the limits of this article to give details of those interesting buildings. More easily accessible to the ordinary student is the detailed account, with measurements and plans, of the citadel of Tell Zakariya perhaps the ancient Azekah fortified by Rehoboam ( 2 Chronicles 11:9 , cf. In such cases two gates were provided, an outer and an inner, at either end of the passage, as was the case at Mahanaim, where David is found sitting ‘between the two gates’ ( 2 Samuel 18:24 ). Here we further learn that it was usual to have a stair leading up to an upper storey in the gate-tower ( 2 Samuel 18:33 ), the roof of which was apparently on a level with the top of the city wall ( 2 Samuel 18:24 ). In place of a straight passageway through the tower, a passage bent at a right angle like the letter L increased the possibilities of defence. The average width of the numerous gateways laid bare by recent excavation is about nine feet. ...
The gate itself, called the ‘door of the gate’ in Nehemiah 6:1 , consisted ordinarily of two parts or leaves ( Isaiah 45:1 ) of wood. For greater security against fire these were often overlaid with bronze, the ‘gates of brass’ of Psalms 107:16 , Isaiah 45:2 . It remains to deal briefly with the siegecraft of the Hebrews and their contemporaries. The assault was directed against the weakest points of the enceinte , particularly the gates (cf. Isaiah 28:6 ). Before the Hebrews learned the use of the battering-ram, entrance to an enemy’s city or fortress was obtained by setting fire to the gates ( Judges 9:49 ; Judges 9:52 ), and by scaling the walls by means of scaling-ladders, under cover of a deadly shower of arrows and sling-stones. In early times, as is plain from the accounts of the capture of Ai ( Joshua 8:10 ff. ), by which the defenders’ main water-supply was cut off. ...
( c ) In conducting a regular siege , which of course included both blockade and assault, the first step was to ‘cast up a bank ’ (AV [7] 2 Samuel 20:15 , 2 Kings 19:32 , Isaiah 37:33 ) or mount (AV [7] Ezekiel 4:2 ; Ezekiel 17:17 RV [6] Joab is represented as, at the same time, ‘battering’ or, in RVm The battering-engines ( Ezekiel 26:9 RV [1] ; AV When Nebuchadnezzar laid siege to Jerusalem, his troops are said to have ‘built forts against it round about’ ( 2 Kings 25:1 , cf. Ezekiel 4:2 ), but the original term is obscure, and is rather, probably, to be understood in the sense of a siege-wall or circumvallatio the ‘bank’ of Luke 19:43 RV The monuments also show that the Assyrians had machines for casting large stones long before the tormenta , or siege-artillery, are said to have been invented in Sicily in b. By the ‘artillery’ of 1 Samuel 20:40 AV Egypt - a country of Africa, called also in the Hebrew Scriptures the land of Mizraim, and the land of Ham; by the Turks and Arabs, Masr and Misr; and by the native Egyptians, Chemi, or the land of Ham. Faber derives the name from Ai-Capht, or the land of the Caphtorim; from which, also, the modern Egyptians derive their name of Cophts. Egypt was first peopled after the deluge by Mizraim, or Mizr, the son of Ham, who is supposed to be the same with Menes, recorded in Egyptian history as the first king. Manetho, the Egyptian historian, has given a list of thirty dynasties, which, if successive, make a period of five thousand three hundred years to the time of Alexander, or three thousand two hundred and eighty-two years more than the real time, according to the Mosaic chronology. But this is a manifest forgery, which has, nevertheless, been appealed to by infidel writers, as authority against the veracity of the Mosaic history. "...
Astronomy, which probably, like that of the Chaldeans, comprehended also judicial astrology, physics, agriculture, jurisprudence, medicine, architecture, painting, and sculpture, were the principal sciences and arts; to which were added, and that by their wisest men, the study of divination, magic, and enchantments. Of all this knowledge, good and evil, and of a monstrous system of idolatry, Egypt was the polluted fountain to the surrounding nations; but in that country itself it appears to have degenerated into the most absurd and debased forms. But the earliest times had a purer faith. " A similar inscription still remains at Capua, on the temple of Isis: "Thou art one, and from thee all things proceed. " Plutarch also informs us, that the inhabitants of Thebais worshipped only the immortal and supreme God, whom they called Eneph. A superstitious reverence for certain animals, as propitious or hurtful to the human race, was not peculiar to the Egyptians. These they entertained at great expense, and with much magnificence. Lands were set apart for their maintenance; persons of the highest rank were employed in feeding and attending them; rich carpets were spread in their apartments; and the pomp at their funerals corresponded to the profusion and luxury which attended them while alive. In the midst of innumerable superstitions, the theology of Egypt contained the two great principles of religion, the existence of a supreme Being, and the immortality of the soul. We counted the number of stalks which sprouted from single grains of seed; carefully pulling to pieces each root, in order to see that it was but one plant. Their composition was necessarily perishable, and explains why it is that no remains of the ancient cities of Egypt are to be found. Jowett, speaking of Tentyra, "built of unburnt brick, crumbling into ruins, and giving place to new habitations, have raised the earth, in some parts, nearly to the level of the summit of the temple. ' Still more touching is the allusion, in Job 4:19 , where the perishing generations of men are fitly compared to habitations of the frailest materials, built upon the heap of similar dwelling-places, now reduced to rubbish: ‘How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust!'"...
6. It comes, however, again into an interesting connection with the Jewish history under Alexander the Great, who invaded it as a Persian dependence. So great, indeed, was the hatred of the Egyptians toward their oppressors, that they hailed the approach of the Macedonians, and threw open their cities to receive them. Egypt, indeed, was about to see better days; and, during the reigns of the Ptolemies, enjoyed again, for nearly three hundred years, something of its former renown for learning and power. It formed, during this period, and before the rapid extension of the Roman empire toward the termination of these years, one of the only two ancient kingdoms which had survived the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, and Macedonian empires: the other was the Syrian, where the Seleucidae, another family of one of the successors of Alexander, reigned; who, having subdued Macedonia and Thrace, annexed them to the kingdom of Syria, and there remained out of the four kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided these two only; distinguished, in the prophetic writings of Daniel, by the titles of the kings or kingdoms of the north and the south. But still, in Egypt, the Jews continued in the enjoyment of their privileges, so late as the reign of the sixth Ptolemy, called Philometor, who committed the charge of his affairs to two Jews, Onias and Dositheus; the former of whom obtained permission to build a temple at Heliopolis. A mode of government, the most singular and surprising that ever existed on earth, was established and maintained. Each successive ruler was raised to supreme authority, from being a stranger and a slave. When Egypt became tributary to the Turks in 1517, the Mamelukes retained much of their power; and every pasha was an oppressor and a stranger. A...
universal Air of misery, manifest in all the traveller meets, points out to him the rapacity of oppression, and the distrust attendant upon slavery. " The systematic oppression, extortion, and plunder, which have so long prevailed, and the price paid for his authority and power by every Turkish pasha, have rendered the country "desolate of that whereof it was full," and still show both how it has been "wasted by the hands of strangers," and how it has been "sold into the hand of the wicked. ...
Yet this fact, instead of militating against the truth of prophecy, may, possibly at no distant period, serve to illustrate other predictions. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land," &c, Isaiah 19:22-25
Israel - Four different documents, each the work of a school of writers, have been laid under tribute to compose it. These documents are quoted so literally that they can still be separated with practical certainty one from another. The documents are the Jahwistic (J [1] ), composed in Judah by J [1] 2 ; the Elohistic (E [4] 2 ; the Deuteronomic code (D [7] ), composed by D [7] 2 prefixed a second preface about ninety years later; the Code of Holiness, compiled by P [10] is older than D [1] and E
Of the remaining historical books 1 Maccabees is a first-rate historical authority, having been composed by an author contemporary with the events described. The other apocryphal works contain much legendary material. The Mishna and Talmud are compilations of traditions containing in some cases an historical kernel, but valuable for the light they throw upon Jewish life in the early Christian centuries. ...
The tenth chapter of Genesis contains a genealogical table in which nations are personified as men. Thus the sons of Ham were Cush (Nubia), Mizraim (Egypt), Put (East Africa?), and Canaan. (For the classification as to origin see Paton, AJTh
[20]
, 658 ff. ) tells how Joseph was divided into two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh. In Genesis, Moab and Ammon are said to be the children of Lot, probably because they settled in the country of Luten. (See KIB [4] document, which originated among the Ephraimites, is the first one that remembers that the name Jahweh was, until the Exodus, unknown to them (cf. ...
Probably we shall not go far astray, if we suppose that the Leah tribes were roaming the steppe to the south of Palestine where Menephtah defeated them, while the Rachel tribes, enticed into Egypt by the opportunity to obtain an easier livelihood, became entangled in trouble there, from which Moses emancipated them, perhaps in the reign of Menephtah himself. The J [1] , E [4] , and P [10] documents agree in their main picture of the Exodus, although J [4] and P [10] , at Horeb or Sinai, Jahweh’s holy mount, Moses first learned to worship Jahweh, who, he believed, sent him to deliver from Egypt his oppressed brethren. After various plagues (J [1] gives them as seven; E [4] , five; and P [10] ; six) Moses led them out, and by Divine Aid they escaped across the Red Sea. J [1] and E [4] with a few additions from J [7] claims that Og, the king of Bashan, was conquered at this time, but it is probable that the conquest of Bashan by a part of the tribe of Manasseh was a backward movement from the west after the conquest of Palestine was accomplished. The Arabic historian Nuwairi tells of a land-slide of one of the clay hills that border the Jordan, which afforded an opportunity to the Arabs to complete a military bridge. The account of this was published with translation in the PEFSt [1] ’s account and E [7] and P [10] strata of the book of Joshua, which form the main portion of it, represent Joshua as gaining possession of the country in two great battles, and as dividing it up among the tribes by lot. The J According to J [1] , there seem to have been at least three lines of attack: (1) that which Joshua led up the valley from Jericho to Ai and Bethel, from which the territories afterwards occupied by Ephraim and Benjamin were secured. (3) Lastly, there was the movement of the northern tribes into the hill-country which borders the great plain of Jezreel. J [1] distinctly states ( Judges 1:1-36 ) that the conquest was not complete, but that two lines of fortresses, remaining in the possession of the Canaanites, cut the Israelitish territory into three sections. Taanach, Ibleam, and Beth-shean, and gave the Canaanites control of the great plain of Jezreel. while, holding as they did Jerusalem, Aijalon, Har-heres (Beth-shemesh), and Gezer, they cut the tribe of Judah off from their northern kinsfolk. J [1] tells us (Judges 1:34-35 ) that the Danites struggled for a foothold in the Shephçlah, where they obtained out an insecure footing