What does Abba mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἀββᾶ father 3

Definitions Related to Abba

G5


   1 father, customary title used of God in prayer.
   Whenever it occurs in the New Testament it has the Greek interpretation joined to it, that is apparently to be explained by the fact that the Chaldee “Abba” through frequent use in prayer, gradually acquired the nature of a most sacred proper name, to which the Greek speaking Jews added the name from their own tongue.
   Additional Information: Abba = “father”.
   

Frequency of Abba (original languages)

Frequency of Abba (English)

Dictionary

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Abba
A Syriac word signifying father. When the Jews came to speak Greek, this word may have been retained from their ancient language, as being easier to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek pater. It expressed the peculiar tenderness, familiarity, and confidence of the love between parent and child, Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6 .
Chabad Knowledge Base - Samuel bar Abba
(d. 257) Talmudic sage, resident of Nahrdea, Babylonia, a contemporary of Rav. In his youth, Samuel studied in Tiberias, Israel, at the Torah academy of Rabbi Judah the Prince. He later returned to his Babylon, and became the principal of the academy in Nahardea. The Talmud records many examples of Samuel's proficiency in economics, medicine, zoology, astronomy and calendric science.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Abba
See Fatherhood of God
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abba Salama
(from Aramaic for father of peace)
Title given to Frumentius, first Bishop of Abyssinia; still used by the head of the Abyssinian Church.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abba
(from Aramaic for father) Title given to bishops in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic Churches. With translation subjoined, it is used by Mark and Paul in the New Testament as a form of address to God. It is used as a title of honor for Hebrew scholars and forms part of many Hebrew names.
King James Dictionary - Abba
AB'BA, n. In the Chaldee and Syriac, a father, and figuratively a superior. appen.
In the Syriac, Coptic and Ethiopic churches, it is a title given to the Bishops, and the Bishops bestow the title, by way of distinction, on the Bishop of Alexandria. Hence the title Baba, or Papa, Pope or great father, which the Bishop of Alexandria bore, before the Bishop of Rome.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Abba
Abba is the emphatic form of the Aram. word for ‘father’ (see Dalman, Aram. Gram. p. 98, for אב and its various forms; also Maclean, in Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , s.v.). It is found only in three passages in the NT, viz. Mark 14:36, Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6; in each case ὁ πατήρ is subjoined to Ἀββᾶ, the whole expression being a title of address. [1]
Lightfoot on Galatians 4:6 argues that the bilingual expression is a liturgical formula originating with Hellenistic Jews, who, while clinging to the original word which was consecrated by long usage, added to it the Greek equivalent; but he supports an alternative theory that it took its rise among Jews of Palestine after they had become acquainted with the Greek language, and is simply an expression of importunate entreaty, and an example of that verbal usage whereby the same idea is conveyed in different forms for the sake of emphasis. As illustrations of this repetition, he quotes Revelation 9:11 (Ἀπολλύων, Ἀβαδδών) Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2 (Σατανᾶς, Διἀβολος). Thayer, in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) (s.v.), points out that, though devotional intensity belongs to repetition of the same term (e.g. κύριε, κύριε), it is also expressed by such phrases as ναὶ ἀμήν, ‘Hallelujah, Praise the Lord,’ where the terms are different. The context of each passage where ‘Abba, Father’ is found appears to prove that the Greek addition is not merely the explanation of the Aramaic word, such as, e.g., St. Peter might have added in his preaching-a custom to be perpetuated by the Evangelists, as suggested by the passage in Mk.; but is rather an original formula, the genesis of which is to be sought further back, perhaps in the actual words used by our Lord Himself. Thus Sanday-Headlam on Romans 8:15 (International Critical Commentary , 1902) remark:
‘It seems better to suppose that our Lord Himself, using familiarly both languages, and concentrating into this word of all word such a depth of meaning, found Himself Impelled spontaneously to repeat the word, and that some among His disciples caught and transmitted the same habit. It is significant however of the limited extent of strictly Jewish Christianity that we find no other original examples of the use than these three.’
Thus, the double form is due to the fact that the early Christians were a bilingual people; and the duplication, while conveying intensity to the expression, ‘would only be natural where the speaker was using in both cases his familiar tongue.’ F. H. Chase (Texts and Studies i. iii. 23) suggests that the phrase is due to the shorter or Lucan form of the Lord’s Prayer, and that the early Christians repeated the first word in the intensity of their devotion, coupling a Hellenistic rendering with the Aramaic Abba. He argues that the absence of such a phrase as ὅ ἐστιν, or ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον, in Mark 14:36 is due to the familiarity of the formula; and that, while the Pauline passages do not recall Gethsemane, they suggest the Lord’s Prayer as current in the shorter form. Moulton (op. cit. p. 10), combating Zahn’s theory that Aramaic was the language of St. Paul’s prayers-a theory based on the Apostle’s ‘Abba, Father’-remarks that ‘the peculiar sacredness of association belonging to the first word of the Lord’s Prayer in its original tongue supplies a far more probable account of its liturgical use among Gentile Christians.’ He mentions the analogy (see footnote, loc. cit.) of the Roman Catholic ‘saying Paternoster,’ but adds that ‘Paul will not allow even one word of prayer in a foreign tongue without adding an instant translation’; and further refers to the Welsh use of Pader as a name for the Lord’s Prayer.
It seems probable (1) that the phrase, ‘Abba, Father,’ is a liturgical formula; (2) that the duality of the form is not due to a Hebraistic repetition for the sake of emphasis, but to the fact that the early Christians, even of non-Jewish descent, were familiar with both Aramaic and Greek; (3) that Abba, being the first word of the Lord’s Prayer, was held in special veneration, and was quoted with the Greek equivalent attached to it, as a familiar devotional phrase (like Maran atha [2], which would be quite intelligible to Christiana of Gentile origin, though its Greek translation, ὁ Κύριος ἐγγός [3], was also used; cf. Did. 10. 5, where ‘Maran atha’ and ‘Amen’ close a public prayer); and (4.) that our Lord Himself, though this cannot be said to be established beyond doubt, used the double form in pronouncing the sacred Name, which was invoked in His prayer.
In conclusion, it should be noted that, while the phrase is associated with the specially solemn occasion of the Gethsemane agony, where our Lord is reported by St. Mark to have used it, both examples of its use in the Pauline writings convey a similar impression of solemnity as connected with the Christian believer’s assurance of sonship-and sonship (let it be noted) not in the general sense in which all humanity may be described as children of God, but in the intimate and spiritual connotation belonging to υἱοθεσίαν, or ‘adoption,’ into the family of God.
Literature.-See article ‘Abba’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Dict. of Christ and the Gospels , and Jewish Encyclopedia , an art in Expository Times xx. [4] 358, and the authorities cited above.
R. Martin Pope.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Abba (2)
ABBA.—An Aramaic word preserved by St. Mark in our Lord’s prayer in Gethsemane (Mark 14:36 Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ, πάντα δυνατά σοι), and given twice in the same association with ὁ πατήρ by St. Paul (Romans 8:15 ἐλάβετε πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας ἐν ᾧ κράζομεν, Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ; and Galatians 4:6 ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ Θεὸς τὸ Πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν κρᾶζον, Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ). A difficulty arises both as to the spelling and the pronunciation of the word Abba, and also as to its being found in all the above passages joined to ὁ πατήρ.
1. Abba (ἁββᾶ) corresponds to the Aramaic אַבְא abbâ, which is the definite state of אַב âbh (construct state אִב abh), and means ‘Father,’ unless it is used for ‘my Father’ (אַבּ֖א for אִבֽי) as in Genesis 19:34 a (Targ. [1] of Onkelos and pseudo-Jonathan; see Dalman, Aramaisch-Neuhebräisches Wörterbuch, s.v., Gramm. p. 162, and Words of Jesus, p. 192 [2]). It is not, however, quite certain that the word was pronounced abbâ in Palestine in our Lord’s time. As the points were not invented till many centuries after, we cannot be sure that abbâ was then the definite state rather than abhâ as in Syriac; and we have no indication except the Greek transliteration that the b was then doubled. But the fact that, when points were first used (a.d. 700?), the daghesh was employed for the definite state of this word in the Targnmic literature, coupled with the doubling of the Β in the Greek, affords a presumption that the b was hard and doubled in this word at the beginning of our era [3]. The Syriac, on the other hand, has b aspirated throughout, ܐܰܒ abh, ܐܰܒܳܐ abhâ (pron. av, avâ, or aw, awâ), etc., and the distinction between abâ, a spiritual father, and ܐܒܼܐ avâ, a natural father, which the grammarians make, appears not to be founded on any certain basis, nor to agree with the manuscripts (Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, s.v.). The proper name ܐܰܒܳܐ also in Syriac has always aspirated b, while Dalman (Wörterbuch) gives for Targumic אַבֽא, and says it is an abbreviation of אֲבִיָה. In Mark 14:36 (Peshitta) Pusey and Gwilliam give ܐܰܒܼܳܐ as in Massora 1 in the British Museum (Codex Additionalis 12138, Nestorianus, a.d. 899); the American edition prints ܐܲܒܵܐ (i.e. with ܒܿ) in all three NT places; but this is rather a following of the grammarians than of good manuscripts. It is very noteworthy, however, that the Harkleian version in the Markan passage spells the word ܐܰܒܒܰܐ, transliterating the Greek directly back into Syriac, rather than using the Syriac word itself.
John Lightfoot (Horae Hebraicae on Mark 14:36) remarks that the Targum, in translating the OT, never renders a ‘civil’ father, i.e. a master, prince, lord, etc., by אַבָא, but only a natural father, or a father who adopts; in the former sense they use some other word. But this throws no light on the pronunciation of Abba.
It is to be noticed that it is not certain how the Greeks of the 1st cent. themselves pronounced ἀββᾶ, whether abbâ or, as the modern Greeks pronounce it, avvâ. The word is not found in the LXX Septuagint. It passed into ecclesiastical Latin with a doubled b, and gave us such words as ‘abbot,’ ‘abbacy,’ etc.
But does it mean ‘Father’ or ‘my Father’? If it be a Jewish formula or fixed manner of beginning prayer, it may well be the latter. We must, however, note that whatever be the way of accounting for Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ (see below), the originators or originator of that phrase in Greek, whether the Jews, or our Lord, or St. Paul, or the Second Evangelist, seem to have taken Ἀββᾶ to mean merely ‘Father.’ And the same is probably true of the translators of the Peshitta. The Sinaitic Syriac, however, appears to read ܐܳܒܼܝܝ my Father (see below). The Curetonian Syriac is wanting here.
2. We have next to account for the association of Ἀββᾶ in its Greek dress with ὁ πατήρ in all the three places where it occurs in NT. In Mark 14:36 the Peshitta reads ܐܰܒܼܳܐ ܐܳܒܼܝܝ ‘Father, my Father,’ and the Sinaitic Syriac has simply ܐܳܒܼܝܝ ‘my Father.’ In Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 the Peshitta reads ܐܰܒܳܐ ܐܰܒܰܘܢ. All these appear to be mere expedients adopted to avoid the awkwardness of repeating ܐܰܒܳܐ, and they do not really throw light on the origin of the Greek phrase.
We may first take as a supposition that our Lord, praying in Gethsemane, used the Aramaic language, and therefore said ‘Abba’ only, and that ὁ πατήρ is the Evangelist’s explanation, for Greek readers, of the Aramaic word. St. Mark undoubtedly reports several Aramaic words, and except in the case of the well-known ‘Rabbi,’ ‘Rabboni’ (Mark 9:5; Mark 10:51 etc.), explains them. But then he always uses a formula, ὅ ἐστιν (Mark 3:17, Mark 7:11; Mark 7:34) or ὅ ἐστι μεθερμηνευόμενον (Mark 5:41, Mark 15:34). It is suggested that in the case of Abba the familiarity of the word would make the connecting formula unnecessary; but the same consideration would make it unnecessary to explain it at all. Another suggestion is that the solemnity of the context would make the formula incongruous. The strongest argument for ὁ πατήρ being an addition of the Evangelist is that, whatever view we take of our Lord’s having made use of Greek in ordinary speech, it is extremely unlikely that His prayers were in that language; and if He prayed in Aramaic, He would only say ‘Abba.’ It is the common experience of bilingual countries that though the acquired language may be in constant use for commerce or the ordinary purposes of life, the native tongue is tenaciously retained for devotion and prayer. Sanday-Headlam’s supposition (Romans, in loc.), that our Lord used both words spontaneously, with deep emotion, might be quite probable if He prayed in the foreign tongue, Greek; but scarcely so if He prayed in the native Aramaic (see, however, below).
If ὁ πατήρ be due to St. Mark, it is probably not a mere explanation for the benefit of Greek readers. The suggestion that Ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ had become a quasi-liturgical formula, possibly even among the Jews, or more probably among the Christians, would account for its introduction in a prayer, where interpretations would be singularly out of place. And this suggestion would account for St. Paul’s using the phrase twice, in two Epistles written about the same time, indeed, but to two widely distant Churches. St. Paul is not in the habit of introducing Aramaic words (‘Maranatha’ in 1 Corinthians 16:22 is an exception), and if he were not quoting a well-known form, it is unlikely that he would have introduced one in writing to the Romans and Galatians. It is not probable, however, that he is quoting or thinking of our Lord’s words in Gethsemane, for there is nothing in the context to suggest this.
If the phrase be a liturgical formula, we may account for it in various ways. J. B. Lightfoot (Galatians, in loc.) suggests that it may have originated among Hellenistic Jews; or else among Palestinian Jews, after they had learned Greek, as ‘an expression of importunate entreaty.’ He prefers the latter view, thinking that perhaps our Lord Himself used both words. He apparently means that Jesus took the Greek word into His Aramaic prayer; and he quotes from Schöttgen a similar case where a woman entreats a judge and addresses him as מרי בירי ‘My lord, lord,’ the second word being equivalent to the first, except for the possessive suffix, and being a transliteration of κύριε. Chase (‘The Lord’s Prayer in the Early Church,’ in the Cambridge and Studies, vol. i. p. 23) has suggested another origin for the phrase, which would place its home, not among the Jews (for which there is no evidence), but among the Christians. He suggests that it is due to the shorter or Lukan form of the Lord’s Prayer (Luke 11:2 ff.). The Aramaic shorter form would begin with Abba, for the Greek begins with Πάτερ; and the hypothesis is that the early Christians in the intensity of their devotion repeated the first word of the prayer in either language. A somewhat similar phenomenon is seen in the repetitions for emphasis in Revelation 9:11; Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2, where the names are given in both languages. Such a repetition is possible only in a bilingual country. That it is the shorter form of the Lord’s Prayer that is used (if Dr. Chase’s hypothesis be true), is seen from the Aramaic אַבָא Abba. If the longer form had been in question, Πάτερ ἡμῶν, the initial word of the Aramaic would have had the possessive pronominal suffix of 1 pers. pl., and would be אֲבוּנָא ăbhûnâ.
It is a confirmation of this theory that the words which follow, ‘Not what I will but what thou wilt,’ recall ‘Thy will be done’ of the Lord’s Prayer; compare especially Matthew 26:42 γενηθήτω τὸ θέλημά σου, the exact words of the longer form of the Lord’s Prayer. This shows that both Evangelists had that prayer in their minds when relating the agony. The only consideration which militates against the theory is that ὁ πατήρ is used for Πάτερ. The nominative with the article is, however, often used in NT, by a Hebrew analogy, for an emphatic vocative, and the desire for emphasis may account for its use here.
A. J. Maclean.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Abba
The Chaldaic-Hebrew form, as ab is the Hebrew form, for the Greek pater , "father." Instead of the definite article which the Hebrew uses before the word, the Chaldee or Aramaic adds a syllable to the end, producing thus the emphatic or definitive form. It is used to express a vocative case, and therefore is found in all the passags in which it occurs in the New Testament (being in all, an invocation): Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6.
The use of the Hebrew and of the Greek appellation addressed to the one Father beautifully suggests that the Spirit of adoption from Jesus, who first used the double invocation, inspires in both Jew and Gentile alike the experimental knowledge of God as our Father, because He is Father of Jesus with whom faith makes us one, and as our God because He is Jesus' God. Compare John 20:17, "ascend unto My Father and (therefore) your Father. and to My God and (therefore) your God"; Galatians 3:28, "there is neither Jew nor Greek, for ye are all one in Jesus Christ"; Ephesians 2:18, "through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the leather." (Especially (See ABADDON above.) "Abba" was a title not to be used by slaves to a master, nor Imma to a mistress, only by children: see Isaiah 8:4. "Before the child shall have knowledge to cry Abi, Immi.")
Holman Bible Dictionary - Abba
(ab' buh) is the Aramaic word for “father” used by Jesus to speak of His own intimate relationship with God, a relationship that others can enter through faith.
Old Testament Although abba does not occur in the Old Testament, its Hebrew associate ab occurs frequently. Ab usually refers to a human father. On occasion the Old Testament speaks of God in the role of Father to Israel ( Exodus 4:22 ; Deuteronomy 32:6 ; Isaiah 45:9-11 ; Malachi 2:10 ) or to Israel's king (2 Samuel 7:14 ; Psalm 2:7 ; Psalm 89:26-27 ).
New Testament The idea of God's intimate relationship to humanity is a distinct feature of Jesus' teaching. God relates to believers as a father relates to his child. Some would translate Abba as “Daddy” to convey the close, personal meaning of the world. Even when “Father” in the New Testament translates the more formal Greek word pater, the idea of abba is certainly in the background. Jesus addressed God as Abba in prayer ( Mark 14:36 ) and taught His disciples to pray in the same terms (Luke 11:1-2 ). Jesus' claim of intimate relationship with God offended many of His opponents because they considered Abba to be overly familiar in addressing God. But Jesus' usage established the pattern for the church's view of God and each believer's relationship with Him. Paul used Abba to describe God's adoption of believers as His children ( Romans 8:15 ) and the change in the believer's status with God that results (Galatians 4:6-7 ).
Michael Fink
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Abba
Father
Chabad Knowledge Base - Jeremiah ben Abba
(4th century) Talmudic sage, born in [1] but emigrated to Tiberias, Israel, where he diligently studied under Rabbis Abahu and Zeira. His hairsplitting questions irked his colleagues, once even prompting his expulsion from the study hall. Whenever the Talmud writes, "In Israel, they said..." it is a reference to Rabbi Jeremiah.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Abba
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6 ), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father." It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."
Webster's Dictionary - Abba
(n.) Father; religious superior; - in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the patriarch.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abba
ABBA is the ‘emphatic’ form of the Aram. [1] word for ‘father.’ It is found in the Gr. and Eng. text of Mark 14:36 , Romans 8:15 , and Galatians 4:6 (in each case Abbâ, ho patçr , ‘Abba, Father’). Aram. [1] has no article, and the ‘emphatic’ affix â is usually the equivalent of the Heb. article. Both can represent the vocative case (for Hebrew see Davidson’s Syntax , § 21 f.); and abba occurs in the Pesb. of Luke 22:42 ; Luke 23:34 for pater . The ‘articular nominative’ is found in NT sixty times for the vocative; and so we have ho patçr for ô pater (Moulton, Gram. of NT Greek , p. 70). Jesus often addressed God as ‘Father’ or ‘my Father.’ In both cases He would probably use ‘Abba’; for ’abbâ may be used for ’âbî (Targ. on Genesis 19:34 ). In Mark 14:36 , ho patçr is perhaps a gloss added by the Evangelist, as in Mark 5:41 ; Mark 7:11 ; Mark 7:34 he adds an explanation of the Aram. [1] : but in Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 the Gentile Christians had learned for importunity to use the Aram. [1] word Abba ; as the Jews in prayer borrowed Kyrie mou (‘my Lord’) from the Greek, and used it along with Heb. words for ‘my master,’ ‘my father’ (Schöttgen, Hor. Heb . 252).
J. T. Marshall.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Abba
A Syriac word, signifying Father. It is thrice used in the New Testament. Once, by the Lord Jesus, (Mark 14:36.) and twice by his servant the apostle Paul. (Romans 8:15. and Galatians 4:6.) It is a word of peculiar tenderness; and I could wish that the real and full meaning of it was strongly impressed on the mind of every regenerated believer. It would tend to give great confidence and comfort in a dark and trying hour. David, Levi, in his Lingua Sacra, derives it from a root, which signifies, desire, delight, complacency, satisfaction: and implying no less, special interest of relationship, as between the nearest of all connections. And agreeably to this account of the word, it is remarkable, that though the word, in its extensive sense, signifies the Ab, or Head, and Lord of a family; yet a slave, or menial servant, was never allowed to use it in addressing the Ab.
I very earnestly beg the reader not to lose sight of this view of the word Abba, but to let it possess a suitable place, equal to its importance, in his remembrance. For if it was so specially confined, among the people of the East, to the children of a family; and Jesus and his people in him, are enjoined to use it on this account; can any thing more strikingly prove their relationship? And I cannot but express my hope, that if the reader of this Poor Man's Concordance, is enabled, by grace, to see his own personal privilege herein, and can enter into a proper apprehension of the word, in this most endearing view, he will be led to discover the sweetness and blessedness of it, and from henceforth adopt it, in all his approaches to the throne of God in Christ. And how delightfully in this sense, doth it explain to us that passage of the apostle, in his epistle to the Galatians; where he saith, "Because ye are sons, [1] God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father." (Galatians 4:6.)
While I am upon this word Abba, Father, I cannot forbear adding to those observations, though in a cursory manner, a remark upon the word Ammah, Mother. For it is from the same root, and is also of the like peculiarity of tenderness, in reference to the church of Jesus; which, as the apostle saith, (including both that in heaven and in earth, for they are but one and the same,) "is the mother of us all." (Galatians 4:26.) We meet with the several branches of the same root in Scripture, according to the several relations arising out of it; but they are all one and the same family. (Ephesians 3:14-15.) Hence Zion is called, and by the Lord himself, the "Virgin daughter (the Almah) of Zion." (Isaiah 37:22.) So again she is spoken of as the sister (Ruhamah) (Hosea 2:1.) And it is no uncommon thing for Christ to call his church by all these names. (See Song of Song of Solomon 4:9-10; Son 4:12.) And when Isaiah was commissioned to proclaim to the church, the subject of the miraculous conception, he used the same word as the Lord did of Zion. "Behold, a virgin, (Almah) shall conceive." (Isaiah 7:14.) I venture to believe that if the recollection of these names, all springing as they do from one and the same source, were frequent in the believer's remembrance, they would much refresh the soul. And I think it worthy of yet farther remark, that there is a beautiful sameness between the first cry of nature, in the infancy of our being, and this language of grace when the souls of believers are first born to God. It was said by the prophet concerning Him, whom he predicted, that "before the child should know to refuse the evil and choose the good," the event leading to it should be accomplished. (Isaiah 7:16.) And it must be truly said, that before the cry of the soul, in the new birth of grace, goes forth in Abba, or Ammah, the apprehending union, interest, and relationship in Christ with his church, had been settled long before, even from all eternity.
Though I have already far exceeded, under this article, the ordinary limits to be observed in a work of this kind, yet I must beg to trespass a little farther, by way of confirmation of the observations made upon it.
The special and personal interest of the word Abba, derives another authority, from the customs and manners of the East. It is well known, that the ancient nations of the Arabs, retain many of the usages we read of in sacred history. And although they know nothing of the true religion of the patriarchs, yet in provincial acts and habits, they are much the same people that they were, two or three thousand years ago. Hence, among many proofs in point, which might be given in confirmation of this sameness of manners, the mode of salutation is one, in which there is nothing changed. We find among the patriarchs, the general expression was, "Peace be to you." (Genesis 43:23.) In the days of the Judges, the salutation was the same. (Judges 19:20.) So in the days of David, (1 Samuel 25:6.) and in the days of our Lord, and by Christ himself. (John 20:19.) In like manner the limitation of the word Abba is still the same as ever, not being brought into common use, but wholly restricted to relations, and of the nearest and tenderest kind.
One proof more. In the common acts of respect observed in the East, when servants do reverence to their masters, or superiors, it is always done by kissing the feet, or the garment. Hence the poor woman we read of, Luke 7:38. But when children meet their parents, and do reverence, they kiss the hand, or the head. Hence the father in the parable. (Luke 15:20.) Moreover, the posture which is observed upon those occasions, differs materially according to the rank of the parties. From inferiors, in giving what is called the Asslem-mah, (Salutation) they always offer it, by laying their right hand upon their breast. Persons of equality, or relations, do it by kissing the hand, head, or shoulder of each other. So Dr. Shaw relates in his Travels to Aleppo, page 301. Let the reader connect this with Jacob kissing his son, and the church's call unto Christ. (Song of Song of Solomon 1:2.) How beautiful and striking both cases! How little the change made in those things, in a period of near four thousand years!
From the whole of these observations, I cannot but conclude, that the word Abba hath a peculiar sweetness in it, and is intended to intimate what a nearness and dearness of affinity there is, between Christ and his church. And I venture to believe, that our holy faith, not only warrants the use of it, but enjoins it, from the personal union, and oneness, of the Lord Jesus Christ with our nature. And under such high encouragement and authority, I confess, that I feel a disposition, upon every occasion, to adopt it, considering it the peculiar privilege of all true believers in Christ, to bring it into constant use, whenever they draw nigh to a throne of grace. See Ammi.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Abba
The Greek form is ἀββᾶ father: it is the same as Ab in Hebrew, but was pronounced Abba in the time of our Saviour. It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by 'father,' and translated Abba Father; that is, the 'abba' is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be 'Father Father.' In the Greek it stands thus: ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ the 'Abba' being Aramaic, and the 'Father' Greek. In the, Old Testament Ab was not restricted in its use to children. Elisha used it toward Elijah; servants applied it to their masters, etc.: see 2 Kings 2:12 ; 2 Kings 5:13 ; 2 Kings 6:21 , etc. Jehovah asked, "Hath the rain a father?" Job 38:28 . In the N.T. it appears to be used in a stricter sense of relationship: "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption [1] , whereby we cry, Abba Father," Romans 8:15 ; and "because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba Father." Galatians 4:6 . The only other instance is when the Lord thus addresses His Father, Mark 14:36 ; and the Spirit in the hearts of believers puts the very words He used into their lips. It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places. God had been revealed in the Old Testament as Jehovah, the Almighty, etc., but it was reserved for New Testament times for Him to be made known to believers in the relationship of Father: cf. John 20:17 .
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Abba
a Syriac word, which signifies father. The learned Mr. Selden, from the Babylonian Gemara, has proved that slaves were not allowed to use the title abba in addressing the master of the family to which they belonged. This may serve to illustrate Romans 8:15 , and Galatians 4:6 , as it shows that through faith in Christ all true Christians pass into the relation of sons; are permitted to address God with filial confidence in prayer; and to regard themselves as heirs of the heavenly inheritance. This adoption into the family of God, inseparably follows our justification; and the power to call God our Father, in this special and appropriative sense, results from the inward testimony given to our forgiveness by the Holy Spirit. St. Paul and St. Mark use the Syriac word abba, a term which was understood in the synagogues and primitive assemblies of Christians; but added to it when writing to foreigners the explanation, father. Figuratively, abba means also a superior, in respect of age, dignity, or affection. It is more particularly used in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches as a title given to their bishops. The bishops themselves bestow the title abba more eminently upon the bishop of Alexandria, which occasioned the people to give him the title of baba, or papa, that is, grandfather; a title which he bore before the bishop of Rome.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Abba
1: ἀββά (Strong's #5 — Noun — abba — ab-bah' ) is an Aramaic word, found in Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 . In the Gemara (a Rabbinical commentary on the Mishna, the traditional teaching of the Jews) it is stated that slaves were forbidden to address the head of the family by this title. It approximates to a personal name, in contrast to "Father," with which it is always joined in the NT. This is probably due to the fact that, abba having practically become a proper name, Greek-speaking Jews added the Greek word pater, "father," from the language they used. Abba is the word framed by the lips of infants, and betokens unreasoning trust; "father" expresses an intelligent apprehension of the relationship. The two together express the love and intelligent confidence of the child.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Abba
Abba (ăb'bah), a Chaldee word signifying father (Hebrew ab), easily pronounced by infant children, and expressing the peculiar tenderness, familiarity, and confidence of the love between parent and child. Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6. Luther translated Abba, Paler, "Abba, dear Father."
Chabad Knowledge Base - Abba chilkiah
(Circa 3century) Grandson of Honi Hame'aggel. His prayers were known to be highly effective; during droughts, the rabbis would ask him to pray for rain.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Abba
Abba was a common word in the Aramaic and Hebrew languages, and meant ‘father’. It was a warm and informal term used in the everyday language of family life.
Jews of Old Testament times never used abba when addressing God, but Jesus used it when praying to his Father (Mark 14:36). The early Christians also addressed God as Abba; for, through Christ, God has adopted believers as his sons and made them joint heirs with Christ of his heavenly inheritance (Romans 8:15-17; Galatians 4:5-6; cf. Galatians 3:26; see ADOPTION).

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Abba - Abba (ăb'bah), a Chaldee word signifying father (Hebrew ab), easily pronounced by infant children, and expressing the peculiar tenderness, familiarity, and confidence of the love between parent and child. Luther translated Abba, Paler, "Abba, dear Father
Abba - Abba was a common word in the Aramaic and Hebrew languages, and meant ‘father’. ...
Jews of Old Testament times never used Abba when addressing God, but Jesus used it when praying to his Father (Mark 14:36). The early Christians also addressed God as Abba; for, through Christ, God has adopted believers as his sons and made them joint heirs with Christ of his heavenly inheritance (Romans 8:15-17; Galatians 4:5-6; cf
Abba - ...
Old Testament Although Abba does not occur in the Old Testament, its Hebrew associate ab occurs frequently. Some would translate Abba as “Daddy” to convey the close, personal meaning of the world. Even when “Father” in the New Testament translates the more formal Greek word pater, the idea of Abba is certainly in the background. Jesus addressed God as Abba in prayer ( Mark 14:36 ) and taught His disciples to pray in the same terms (Luke 11:1-2 ). Jesus' claim of intimate relationship with God offended many of His opponents because they considered Abba to be overly familiar in addressing God. Paul used Abba to describe God's adoption of believers as His children ( Romans 8:15 ) and the change in the believer's status with God that results (Galatians 4:6-7 )
Abba - The Greek form is ἀββᾶ father: it is the same as Ab in Hebrew, but was pronounced Abba in the time of our Saviour. It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by 'father,' and translated Abba Father; that is, the 'abba' is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be 'Father Father. ' In the Greek it stands thus: ἀββᾶ ὁ πατήρ the 'Abba' being Aramaic, and the 'Father' Greek. it appears to be used in a stricter sense of relationship: "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption [1] , whereby we cry, Abba Father," Romans 8:15 ; and "because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba Father
Abba - Abba is the ‘emphatic’ form of the Aram. text of Mark 14:36 , Romans 8:15 , and Galatians 4:6 (in each case Abbâ, ho patçr , ‘Abba, Father’). ); and Abba occurs in the Pesb. ’ In both cases He would probably use ‘Abba’; for ’abbâ may be used for ’âbî (Targ. ]'>[1] word Abba ; as the Jews in prayer borrowed Kyrie mou (‘my Lord’) from the Greek, and used it along with Heb
Abba - 1: ἀββά (Strong's #5 — Noun — Abba — ab-bah' ) is an Aramaic word, found in Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6 . This is probably due to the fact that, Abba having practically become a proper name, Greek-speaking Jews added the Greek word pater, "father," from the language they used. Abba is the word framed by the lips of infants, and betokens unreasoning trust; "father" expresses an intelligent apprehension of the relationship
Ab - (father ), an element in the composition of many proper names, of which Abba is a Chaldaic form, having the sense of "endowed with," "possessed of
Ab - (father ), an element in the composition of many proper names, of which Abba is a Chaldaic form, having the sense of "endowed with," "possessed of
Abba - Selden, from the Babylonian Gemara, has proved that slaves were not allowed to use the title Abba in addressing the master of the family to which they belonged. Mark use the Syriac word Abba, a term which was understood in the synagogues and primitive assemblies of Christians; but added to it when writing to foreigners the explanation, father. Figuratively, Abba means also a superior, in respect of age, dignity, or affection. The bishops themselves bestow the title Abba more eminently upon the bishop of Alexandria, which occasioned the people to give him the title of baba, or papa, that is, grandfather; a title which he bore before the bishop of Rome
Barabbas - (Aramaic: Bar-abba, son of the father) A notable robber and murderer who was released instead of Jesus by Pilate at the desire of the people (John 18)
Barab'Bas - (son of Abba ), a robber, ( John 18:40 ) who had committed murder in an insurrection, (Mark 15:7 ; Luke 28:18 ) in Jerusalem and was lying in prison the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate
Barabbas - , son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to release, in accordance with the Roman custom (John 18:40 ; Mark 15:7 ; Luke 23:19 ). But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Matthew 27:16-26 ; Acts 3:14 )
Rav - 247) His given name was Abba bar Aibu, but was known simply as "Rav" ("rabbi")
Frumentius, Saint - Frumentius journeyed to Alexandria, where he was consecrated bishop by Saint Athanasius, c328 He returned to Abyssinia, established his see at Axum, and was called Abuna (Our Father) or Abba Salama (Father of Peace)
Barabbas - Barabbas (bär-ăb'bas), son of Abba. The Jews were permitted to name any prisoner whose release they desired; and when the choice lay between Barabbas and Christ, they chose the robber. Pilate was anxious to save Christ, but at last released Barabbas
Fatherhood of God - The exact term Jesus used is still found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15-16 ; Galatians 4:6 ) but elsewhere the Aramaic term Abba is translated by the Greek pater [3]. There is no evidence in pre-Christian Jewish literature that Jews addressed God as "Abba . " A second unique feature about Jesus' use of Abba as a designation for God involves the intimacy of the term. Abba was a term little children used when they addressed their fathers. " More recently, however, it has been pointed out that Abba was a term not only that small children used to address their fathers; it was also a term that older children and adults used. As a result it is best to understand Abba as the equivalent of "Father" rather than "Daddy. This is why the Greek-speaking Gentile churches in Galatia and Rome continued to address God as Abba . It is through the work of Christ that God invites us to call him "Abba, Father
Abba - Abba is the emphatic form of the Aram. The context of each passage where ‘Abba, Father’ is found appears to prove that the Greek addition is not merely the explanation of the Aramaic word, such as, e. 23) suggests that the phrase is due to the shorter or Lucan form of the Lord’s Prayer, and that the early Christians repeated the first word in the intensity of their devotion, coupling a Hellenistic rendering with the Aramaic Abba. Paul’s prayers-a theory based on the Apostle’s ‘Abba, Father’-remarks that ‘the peculiar sacredness of association belonging to the first word of the Lord’s Prayer in its original tongue supplies a far more probable account of its liturgical use among Gentile Christians. ...
It seems probable (1) that the phrase, ‘Abba, Father,’ is a liturgical formula; (2) that the duality of the form is not due to a Hebraistic repetition for the sake of emphasis, but to the fact that the early Christians, even of non-Jewish descent, were familiar with both Aramaic and Greek; (3) that Abba, being the first word of the Lord’s Prayer, was held in special veneration, and was quoted with the Greek equivalent attached to it, as a familiar devotional phrase (like Maran atha [2], which would be quite intelligible to Christiana of Gentile origin, though its Greek translation, ὁ Κύριος ἐγγός [3], was also used; cf. -See article ‘Abba’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) , Dict
Barabbas - BARABBAS (Aramaic Bar-Abba, ‘son of Abba’ or ‘son of father. ’ There is very slight documentary authority for the reading Bar-Rabban, ‘son of a Rabbi,’ which is adopted by Ewald and Renan. On the other hand, if Bar-Abba = ‘son of father,’ it would hardly differ in meaning from Bar-Rabban; for in the time of Jesus ‘Abba’ was a common appellation of honour given to a Rabbi. But after all ‘Abba’ may have been a proper name; for though it is sometimes affirmed [1] that it was not till after the time of our Lord that the word began to be used in this way, the authors of the corresponding article in the Jewish Encyclopedia assure us that ‘Abba is found as a prœnomen as early as Tannaitic times’). ...
Only one Barabbas meets us in the Gospels, the criminal whom Pilate released instead of Jesus at the demand of the people. From these narratives we gather that Barabbas was ‘a notable prisoner,’ ‘a robber,’ one who had taken part in ‘a certain insurrection made in the city,’ and who in this disturbance had ‘committed murder. So he offered them the choice between the life of Jesus and the life of Barabbas, probably never doubting that to Jesus the preference would be given. The fact that he seems to have expected this precludes the view which some have held that Barabbas was a pseudo-Messiah, and even the notion that he was no vulgar bandit, but the leader of a party of Zealots, since popular sympathy might have been anticipated on behalf of a bold Zealot or insurrectionary Messiah. The probability accordingly is that Barabbas was simply a criminal of the lowest type, a hater of the Romans it may be, but at the same time a pest to society at large. ...
According to an old reading of Matthew 27:16-17, the name ‘Jesus’ in both verses is prefixed to Barabbas, so that Pilate’s question runs, ‘Whom will ye that I release unto you? Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?’ If this reading were accepted, Barabbas would not have the force of a proper name (like Bartimaeus), but would be only a patronymic added for the sake of distinction (cf. ]'>[5] in which ‘Jesus Barabbas’ is found in Matthew 27:16-17, ‘Barabbas’ and ‘Jesus’ are set in direct antithesis in Matthew 27:20 tells strongly against the reading, as well as the circumstance that no trace of it is found in any MS of the other three Gospels. ‘Barabbas’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, Encyc
Supernatual Adoption - 15, "You have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba (Father)," and by Saints John, Peter, and James
Abba - ...
I very earnestly beg the reader not to lose sight of this view of the word Abba, but to let it possess a suitable place, equal to its importance, in his remembrance. And how delightfully in this sense, doth it explain to us that passage of the apostle, in his epistle to the Galatians; where he saith, "Because ye are sons, [1] God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying Abba, Father. )...
...
While I am upon this word Abba, Father, I cannot forbear adding to those observations, though in a cursory manner, a remark upon the word Ammah, Mother. ) And it must be truly said, that before the cry of the soul, in the new birth of grace, goes forth in Abba, or Ammah, the apprehending union, interest, and relationship in Christ with his church, had been settled long before, even from all eternity. ...
The special and personal interest of the word Abba, derives another authority, from the customs and manners of the East. ) In like manner the limitation of the word Abba is still the same as ever, not being brought into common use, but wholly restricted to relations, and of the nearest and tenderest kind. ) How beautiful and striking both cases! How little the change made in those things, in a period of near four thousand years!...
From the whole of these observations, I cannot but conclude, that the word Abba hath a peculiar sweetness in it, and is intended to intimate what a nearness and dearness of affinity there is, between Christ and his church
Abba (2) - ABBA. A difficulty arises both as to the spelling and the pronunciation of the word Abba, and also as to its being found in all the above passages joined to ὁ πατήρ. Abba (ἁββᾶ) corresponds to the Aramaic אַבְא abbâ, which is the definite state of אַב âbh (construct state אִב abh), and means ‘Father,’ unless it is used for ‘my Father’ (אַבּ֖א for אִבֽי) as in Genesis 19:34 a (Targ. But this throws no light on the pronunciation of Abba. It passed into ecclesiastical Latin with a doubled b, and gave us such words as ‘abbot,’ ‘abbacy,’ etc. ...
We may first take as a supposition that our Lord, praying in Gethsemane, used the Aramaic language, and therefore said ‘Abba’ only, and that ὁ πατήρ is the Evangelist’s explanation, for Greek readers, of the Aramaic word. It is suggested that in the case of Abba the familiarity of the word would make the connecting formula unnecessary; but the same consideration would make it unnecessary to explain it at all. The strongest argument for ὁ πατήρ being an addition of the Evangelist is that, whatever view we take of our Lord’s having made use of Greek in ordinary speech, it is extremely unlikely that His prayers were in that language; and if He prayed in Aramaic, He would only say ‘Abba. The Aramaic shorter form would begin with Abba, for the Greek begins with Πάτερ; and the hypothesis is that the early Christians in the intensity of their devotion repeated the first word of the prayer in either language. Chase’s hypothesis be true), is seen from the Aramaic אַבָא Abba
Abbot - (from Aramaic: Abba, father) ...
Title definitely fixed by Saint Benedict and given to the superior of a monastery of monks having the nature of a private family and settle location, as the several branches of the Order of Saint Benedict, including the Black Monks of Saint Benedict, the Cistercians of the Three Observances, the Camaldolese, Vallumbrosans; Silvestrians; Olivetans, some houses of Canons Regular, of the Antonians, of the Armenian Benedictines, and of the Basilians, and the Premonstratensians
Barabbas - BARABBAS ( Matthew 27:15-23 = Mark 15:6-14 = Luke 23:18-23 = John 18:39-40 ). His artifice would probably have succeeded had not the malignant priests and elders incited the people to choose Barabbas. ...
Barabbas , like Bartholomew and Bartimœus , is a patronymic, possibly = ‘the son of the father’ ( i. If so, there is a dramatic adroitness in Pilate’s presentation of the alternative to the multitude: ‘Which of the two do ye wish me to release to you Jesus the bar-Abba or Jesus that is called Messiah?’...
David Smith
Cloak - The cloak mentioned here and in Luke 6:29 was the Greek himation, Latin pallium, and consisted of a large square piece of wollen cloth fastened round the shoulders, like the Abba of the Arabs
Abba - ) "Abba" was a title not to be used by slaves to a master, nor Imma to a mistress, only by children: see Isaiah 8:4
Adoption - In a much higher sense, since redemption has been wrought, those who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ are in the new creation sons by adoption, and the Spirit of God's Son is given them so that they can call God Abba Father, and not only be sons but know and enjoy the relationship with all its blessed privileges
Adoption - And by him we cry, 'Abba, Father'" (Romans 8:15 ). As a result the Holy Spirit comes into the believer's heart crying, "Abba, Father" (Galatians 4:5 )
Father - (Isaiah 9:6) I refer the reader to what was said under the article Abba, for the farther view of the blessedness of this relationship
Adoption - This is taught in several passages of Scripture:—...
Romans 8:15-16 , "For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. "...
Galatians 4:4-6 , "But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons; and because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. filial confidence in God,—"crying, Abba, Father
Holy Ghost, Holy Spirit - He is the Spirit of sonship and by him the believer cries, Abba Father
Adoption - The Holy Ghost by the apostle is express to this purpose, when he saith, "And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, where by ye cry Abba! Father!" (Galatians 4:6) And all the Scriptures are express to confirm this most unquestionable truth
Adoption - He called God His “Abba” (Mark 14:36 ). This drives out the fear sinners experience in the presence of the holy God and provides power to pray trustingly to God as our “Abba,” or “Daddy
Father - Chaldaic 'abba
Aramaic - Jewish Palestinian Aramaic words and phrases occur in the New Testament, such as Abba (father) ( Mark 14:36 ), talitha, qumi (maiden, arise) ( Mark 5:41 ), lama sabachthani (why hast thou forsaken me?) ( Mark 15:34 )
Adoption - Some of the privileges of this state are, deliverance from a fearful and servile spirit; the special love and care of our heavenly Father; conformity to his image; a filial confidence in him; free access to him at all times; the witness of the Holy Spirit, whereby we cry, "Abba, Father;" and the title to our heavenly home, Romans 8:14-17 Ephesians 1:4,5
Maranatha - It is clear from the passage in the Didache cited above that ‘Maranatha’ cannot be regarded as a formula of excommunication synonymous with ‘anathema’ (so Calvin, comparing ‘Abba, Father’)
Mark, Gospel According to - This appears probable when it is considered that it makes no reference to the Jewish law, and that the writer takes care to interpret words which a Gentile would be likely to misunderstand, such as, "Boanerges" (3:17); "Talitha cumi" (5:41); "Corban" (7:11); "Bartimaeus" (10:46); "Abba" (14:36); "Eloi," etc
Abaddon - " ((See Abba
Fear - " Hence the apostle saith, "Ye have not received the Spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father
Father - Since the coming of Jesus Christ, we have a new right to call God our Father, by reason of the adoption which our Saviour has merited for us, by clothing himself in our humanity, and purchasing us by his death: "Ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father
Orphan - It is this Spirit that allows Christians to call out, "Abba, Father" (Romans 8:15 )
Agony - There is a beautiful progression in the subjecting of His will to the Father's: "O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me, nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt" (Matthew 26:39): "Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee," (lest His previous IF should harbor a doubt of the Father's power) "take away this cup from Me, nevertheless not what I will but what Thou wilt" (Mark 14:86): "Father, if Thou be willing" (marking His realizing the Father's will as defining the true limits of possibility), remove this cup from Me, nevertheless not My will, but Thine be done" (Luke 22:42): "Oh My Father, if (rather since) this cup may (can) not pass away from Me except I drink it, (now recognizing that it is not the Father's will to take the cup away), Thy will be done" (Matthew 26:42): lastly, the language of final triumph of faith over the sinless infirmity of His flesh, "The cup which My Father hath given Me shall I not drink it?" (John 18:11
Garments - The peasants often wear such, called an 'abba' of camels' or goats' hair
Adam, the Second - This spiritual life force does not make us slaves again to fear but the spirit of the Son comes into our hearts crying "Abba, Father" (Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6-7 )
Son of God - Through Christ they come into a close personal relation with God the Father, and can even address him as ‘Abba’ as Jesus did (Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6; see Abba)
Element - For the sons of God through faith in Jesus Christ are not to remain little children, or in a state of dependence nothing different from that of a bond-servant, but they receive the fulness of the Holy Spirit in their hearts, and cry ‘Abba, Father
Spirit - This indwelling Spirit is the gift of grace, of adoption-the Holy Spirit poured into our hearts-which emboldens us to call God "Abba, my Father
Father - Believers therefore can speak to God confidently as their Father (Matthew 6:9; Luke 11:9-13; Romans 8:15-16; see Abba; PRAYER)
Adoption - It is not clear whether in Romans 8:15 he conceives the spirit of sonship which cries ‘Abba, Father
Prayer - ) With the word "abba" Jesus introduced a new way of prayingtalking to God as naturally, intimately, and sincerely as a child talks to his or her father. "Abba" reveals the heart of Jesus' relationship with God, marking his complete obedient surrender to the Father ( Habakkuk 1:2-4 ) and his authority as the one to whom God reveals his thoughts (Matthew 11:27 ). In fact, even the intimacy of the "abba" in the Lord's Prayer is mitigated by the following phrase, "who are in heaven, " to insure that petitioners remember that they and the addressee are not on a par with each other. In the New Testament the Spirit is that which makes possible even the address of God as "abba" (Romans 8:15-16 ; Galatians 4:6 )
Ammi - ...
See Abba...
Names of God - Jesus taught His disciples to use the Aramaic “Abba,” a term of affection that approximates our word Daddy , to address the heavenly Father. See Abba
Scribes - The ascending scale of rab, rabbi, rabban, presented so many steps on the ladder of ambition. The salutations in the market-place, (Matthew 23:7 ) the reverential kiss offered by the scholars to their master or by rabbis to each other the greeting of Abba, father (Matthew 23:9 ) the long robes with the broad blue fringe, (Matthew 23:5 ) --all these go to make up the picture of a scribe's life
Fear - The religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15)
Fear - The religion of law, in which God was a Sovereign to be obeyed and a Judge to be dreaded, was consummated by the religion of love, in which God is a Father and Christ a Saviour-Brother, It is the distinctive message of Christianity that God wills men to serve Him without fear (ἀφόβως, Luke 1:74), with a love which casts out fear (1 John 4:18), with a boldness which seeks His immediate presence (Hebrews 10:19), with a freedom and familiarity which prompt the cry ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15)
Adoption - Producing the filial cry of prayer in all, Jew and Gentile alike (See Abba) (Galatians 4:6); and the fruit of the Spirit, conformity to Christ (Romans 8:29), and renewal in the image of our Father (Colossians 3:10)
Lord - Additional terms such as Sabbaoth (that is, Supreme Head and Commander of all the heavenly forces) underscored the absolute lordship of Yahweh (Isaiah 3:1 ; Isaiah 10:16 ,Isaiah 10:16,10:33 ). Still, the New Testament does not go so far as to identify Jesus with God by calling Him, “abba ” (that is, father; see Abba )
Assurance - " "We have not received the spirit of bondage again unto fear, but the spirit of adoption, by which we cry, Abba, Father
Children of God, Sons of God - ]'>[2] so in Romans 8:15 ‘ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father’; so again in Galatians 4:4-6 ‘God sent forth his Son … that we might receive the adoption of sons … and because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father
Children (Sons) of God - Paul makes moral appeal on the ground that in exchange for the ‘spirit of bondage’ they had received the ‘spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father’ ( Romans 8:15 ). ’ The Law as ‘tutor’ has led them to Christ, in whom they are now ‘sons of God’; Christ has ‘redeemed’ them from the bondage of Law that they might ‘receive the adoption of sons,’ and, because they are sons, ‘God sent forth the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father
Vain - ) in prayer, as well as from His own example, when He sought relief from the weight and pressure of His work and ‘continued all night in prayer to God’ (Luke 6:12), or when He ‘offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying and tears unto him that was able to save him from death’ (Hebrews 5:7), satisfying the fervour of His feeling of Sonship with the cry, ‘Abba, Father,’ and returning to His oratory in the depth of the Garden to offer the same prayer as before (Mark 14:39 (Matthew 26:44) τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον εἰπών, ‘the same petition,’ rather than ‘the same words’; cf
Adoption - We Christians ‘received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father, for ‘we are children of God’ (Romans 8:15 f. The context in these passages shows that the Spirit leads us to the Father by making us realize our sonship; He teaches us how to pray, and puts into our mouth the words ‘Abba, Father’ (cf
Prayer - The indwelling Spirit enables a believer to call God “Abba” (Romans 8:15 ); that is, the Spirit's work within the believer prompts him or her to address God with the confidence of a child (Romans 8:14 )
Pilate - ...
It is not improbable that Barabbas' riot and murder were connected with Pilate's appropriation of the Corban; this explains the eagerness of the people to release him rather than Jesus; the name may mean "son of Abba," an honorary title of rabbis, from whence the elders were strongly in his favor
Holy Spirit, the - "God sends," in the case of His sons by adoption, "the Spirit of His Son into their hearts crying, Abba, Father" (Galatians 4:6; Romans 8:15; Romans 8:17)
Galatians, Epistle to the - He had sent the Spirit of His Son into their hearts, giving the cry of relationship, 'Abba, Father
Surname - ]'>[23]6 In this connexion the name Barabbas deserves notice. The Sinaitic (and Palestinian) Syriac version, some good minuscules, and Manuscripts known to Origen read: ‘Whom will ye that I release unto you? Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?’3 [Note: " translation="">Matthew 27:16-17; HDB i. 279 (who thinks that the correct reading is Bar-Abba, or Bar-Rabban); and J
Adoption - "Because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father
Prayer - It is the Spirit whose voice within each child of God cries ‘Abba, Father’ (Hebrews 12:22-233)
Agony - ...
‘Abba, Father, all things are possible unto thee; remove this cup from me: howbeit not what I will, but what thou wilt
God, Names of - "Abba , Father, " Mark 14:36 )
Lord's Prayer (i) - Abba in vol
Christ, Christology - His teaching on prayer was based on the awareness He had of God as His Father in an intimate sense, calling him “Abba,” my dear Father, which is a nursery word used of an earthly parent by Jewish children (Mark 14:36 ; Luke 10:21-22 ; Luke 11:2 )
Atonement (2) - For He who dwelt within them was the Spirit of Christ Jesus (Acts 16:7, Romans 8:9, Philippians 1:19, 1 Peter 1:11), the promise of the Father (Acts 1:4), whereby they had themselves attained the adoption, and were enabled to cry, ‘Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15-17, Galatians 4:6)
Mark, Gospel According to - only), Abba Mark 14:36 (so Romans 8:15 , Galatians 4:6 ), Rabbi Mark 9:5 , Mark 11:21 , Mark 14:45 , Hosanna Mark 11:9 (these two also in Mt
Justification (2) - He also expresses the same idea in terms of the parallel conception of adoption, by saying that the believer has received, in place of the spirit of bondage, leading to fear, the spirit of adoption, ‘whereby we cry, Abba, Father’ (Romans 8:15)
Inspiration And Revelation - For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father
Mediator - The new confession which is taught to us by the Spirit of God’s Son is expressed in the words ‘Abba, Father
Romans, Epistle to the - God has put it into our hearts to call Him ‘Abba, Father
Sanctification - The Spirit that sanctifies is shed abroad in our hearts, and we cry, ‘Abba, Father