The Meaning of Titus 1:11 Explained

Titus 1:11

KJV: Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.

YLT: whose mouth it behoveth to stop, who whole households do overturn, teaching what things it behoveth not, for filthy lucre's sake.

Darby: who must have their mouths stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which ought not to be taught for the sake of base gain.

ASV: whose mouths must be stopped; men who overthrow whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre's sake.

What does Titus 1:11 Mean?

Context Summary

Titus 1:10-16 - Reprove Those Whose Works Deny God
The Judaizing teachers, who insisted that men must become Jews before they could be Christians, were always on Paul's heels, visiting his churches and diverting his converts from the simplicity of the faith. Their motive in many cases was very largely self-aggrandizement. Such men were to be resisted to the uttermost and sharply rebuked. Where the work of grace is really commenced in the heart, a sharp rebuke will often turn the soul back to God. The gardener must not hesitate to use a pruning-knife, if the well-being of the tree is at stake.
Note the marvelous power we possess of viewing things in the light or gloom cast upon them from our own temperament. We see life and the world in a glass colored from within. Oh, that we might possess that pure and untarnished nature that passes through the world like a beam of sunshine, irradiating all but contaminated by none! The true test of the knowledge of God is a holy life. These act and react. The better you know God, the more you will resemble Him; compare Psalms 111:1-10; Psalms 112:1-10. The more you are like God, the better you will know Him. [source]

Chapter Summary: Titus 1

1  Paul greets Titus, who was left to finish the work in Crete
6  How those chosen as ministers ought to be qualified
11  The mouths of evil teachers to be stopped;
12  and what manner of men they be

Greek Commentary for Titus 1:11

Whose mouths must be stopped [ους δει επιστομιζειν]
Literally, “whom it is necessary to silence by stopping the mouth.” Present active infinitive επιστομιζειν — epistomizein old and common verb (επι — epi στομα — stoma mouth), here only in N.T. To stop the mouth either with bridle or muzzle or gag. [source]
Overthrow [ανατρεπουσιν]
Old and common verb, to turn up, to overturn. In N.T. only here and 2 Timothy 2:18. In papyri to upset a family by perversion of one member. Things which they ought not (α μη δει — ha mē dei). Note subjective negative μη — mē with indefinite relative and indicative mode. For filthy lucre‘s sake The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul‘s warnings in 1 Timothy 3:3, 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:5 reveal it as “a besetting temptation of the professional teacher” (Parry). See Titus 1:7 above. Disgraceful gain, made in shameful ways. [source]
Things which they ought not [α μη δει]
Note subjective negative μη — mē with indefinite relative and indicative mode. [source]
For filthy lucre‘s sake [αισχρου κερδους χαριν]
The Cretans are given a bad reputation for itinerating prophets for profit by Polybius, Livy, Plutarch. Paul‘s warnings in 1 Timothy 3:3, 1 Timothy 3:8; 1 Timothy 6:5 reveal it as “a besetting temptation of the professional teacher” (Parry). See Titus 1:7 above. Disgraceful gain, made in shameful ways. [source]
Whose mouths must be stopped [οὓς δεὶ ἐπιστομίζειν]
Lit. whom it is necessary to silence. Ἑπιστομίζειν , N.T.oolxx. Originally, to put something into the mouth, as a bit into a horse's mouth. Ἑπιστόμιον is the stop of a water-pipe or of a hydraulic organ. Comp. φιμοῦν 1 Timothy 5:18. [source]
Who subvert [οἵτινες ἀνατρέπουσιν]
The double relative is explanatory of must; in as much as they, etc. For subvert rend. overthrow. See on 2 Timothy 2:18. [source]
Houses [οἴκους]
Families. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Titus 1:11

Mark 1:25 Hold thy peace [πιμωτητι]
First aorist passive imperative of πιμοω — phimoō “Be quiet,” Moffatt translates it. But it is a more vigorous word, “Be muzzled” like an ox. So literally in Deuteronomy 25:4, 1 Corinthians 9:9; 1 Timothy 5:18. It is common in Josephus, Lucian, and the lxx. See Matthew 22:12, Matthew 22:34. Gould renders it “Shut up.” “Shut your mouth” would be too colloquial. Vincent suggests “gagged,” but that is more the idea of επιστομαζειν — epistomazein in Titus 1:11, to stop the mouth. [source]
Romans 3:19 That every mouth may be stopped [ινα παν στομα πραγηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist passive subjunctive of πρασσω — phrassō old verb to fence in, to block up. See note on 2 Corinthians 11:10. Stopping mouths is a difficult business. See note on Titus 1:11 where Paul uses επιστομιζειν — epistomizein (to stop up the mouth) for the same idea. Paul seems here to be speaking directly to Jews (τοις εν τωι νομωι — tois en tōi nomōi), the hardest to convince. With the previous proof on that point he covers the whole ground for he made the case against the Gentiles in Romans 1:18-32. [source]
Galatians 3:19 It was added because of transgressions [των παραβασεων χαριν προσετετη]
First aorist passive of προστιτημι — prostithēmi old verb to add to. It is only in apparent contradiction to Galatians 3:15., because in Paul‘s mind the law is no part of the covenant, but a thing apart “in no way modifying its provisions” (Burton). Χαριν — Charin is the adverbial accusative of χαρις — charis which was used as a preposition with the genitive as early as Homer, in favour of, for the sake of. Except in 1 John 3:12 it is post-positive in the N.T. as in ancient Greek. It may be causal (Luke 7:47; 1 John 3:12) or telic (Titus 1:5, Titus 1:11; Judges 1:16). It is probably also telic here, not in order to create transgressions, but rather “to make transgressions palpable” (Ellicott), “thereby pronouncing them to be from that time forward transgressions of the law” (Rendall). Παραβασις — Parabasis from παραβαινω — parabainō is in this sense a late word (Plutarch on), originally a slight deviation, then a wilful disregarding of known regulations or prohibitions as in Romans 2:23. Till the seed should come (αχρις αν ελτηι το σπερμα — achris an elthēi to sperma). Future time with αχρις αν — achris an and aorist subjunctive (usual construction). Christ he means by το σπερμα — to sperma as in Galatians 3:16. The promise hath been made Probably impersonal perfect passive rather than middle of επαγγελλομαι — epaggellomai as in 2 Maccabees 4:27. Ordained through angels (διαταγεις δι αγγελων — diatageis di' aggelōn). Second aorist passive participle of διατασσω — diatassō (see note on Matthew 11:1). About angels and the giving of the law see Deuteronomy 33:2 (lxx); Acts 7:38, Acts 7:52; Hebrews 2:2; Josephus (Ant. XV. 5. 3). By the hand of a mediator Εν χειρι — En cheiri is a manifest Aramaism or Hebraism and only here in the N.T. It is common in the lxx. Μεσιτης — Mesitēs from μεσος — mesos is middle or midst, is a late word (Polybius, Diodorus, Philo, Josephus) and common in the papyri in legal transactions for arbiter, surety, etc. Here of Moses, but also of Christ (1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). [source]
Philippians 1:21 To live is Christ [το ζηιν Χριστος]
No copula Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money (so in papyri). In N.T. only here, Phlippians 3:7; Titus 1:11. To die (το αποτανειν — to apothanein second aorist active infinitive, single act) is to cash in both principal and interest and so to have more of Christ than when living. So Paul faces death with independence and calm courage. [source]
Philippians 1:21 Gain [κερδος]
Old word for any gain or profit, interest on money (so in papyri). In N.T. only here, Phlippians 3:7; Titus 1:11. [source]
1 Timothy 6:5 Gain is godliness [πορισμὸν εἶναι τὴν εὐσέβειαν]
Wrong. Rend. that godliness is a way (or source ) of gain. Πορισμὸς , only here and 1 Timothy 6:6, is a gain-making business. See Wisd. 13:19; 14:2. They make religion a means of livelihood. Comp. Titus 1:11. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 The sound doctrine [τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ]
A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ὑγιαίνειν tobe in good health, Luke 5:31; Luke 7:10; 3 John 1:2. oP. Quite frequent in lxx, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 9:19; 2Samuel href="/desk/?q=2sa+14:8&sr=1">2 Samuel 14:8; Exodus 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with διδασκαλία teachingor λόγοι wordsand twice with ἐν τῇ πίστει or τῇ πίστει inthe faith. The sound teaching (comp. διδαχή teaching 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2, 2 Timothy 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ἀλη.θεια or ἡ ἀλήθεια thetruth, the knowledge ( ἐπίγνωσις ) of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; Titus 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow ( παρακολουθεῖν ) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is εὐσέβεια or θεοσέβεια godlinessor piety (1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 1 Timothy 4:8; 1 Timothy 6:6, 1 Timothy 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as κατ ' εὐσέβειαν accordingto godliness (1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1). Comp. εὐσεβεῖν toshow piety, 1 Timothy 5:4. εὐσεβῶς ζῇν to live godly, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; and βίον διάγειν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ tolead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:10; Titus 2:2. Ἁλήθεια truthis used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Romans 3:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 2:5; Ephesians 4:21, Ephesians 4:24; and 2 Timothy 2:25, 2 Timothy 2:26; 2 Timothy 3:7(comp. 2 Timothy 3:1-9); 2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:12(comp. Titus 1:11, Titus 1:15); Titus 2:4(comp. Titus 2:1, Titus 2:3); Titus 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:3f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:8, 1 Timothy 5:12; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21; Titus 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness (1 Timothy 1:9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (1 Timothy 1:9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (1 Timothy 1:11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.| [source]
1 Timothy 5:13 And busybodies [και περιεργοι]
Old word (from περι εργον — periπεριεργαζομαι — ergon), busy about trifles to the neglect of important matters. In N.T. only here and Acts 19:19. See note on 2 Thessalonians 3:11 for τα μη δεοντα — periergazomai Things which they ought not (α μη δει — ta mē deonta). “The not necessary things,” and, as a result, often harmful. See note on Titus 1:11 ha mē dei (which things are not necessary). [source]
1 Timothy 5:13 Things which they ought not [α μη δει]
“The not necessary things,” and, as a result, often harmful. See note on Titus 1:11 ha mē dei (which things are not necessary). [source]
1 Timothy 5:13 They learn to be idle [αργαι μαντανουσιν]
There is no ειναι — einai (to be) in the Greek. This very idiom without ειναι — einai after μαντανω — manthanō occurs in Plato and Dio Chrysostom, though unusual. Αργαι — Argai (idle) is old adjective See note on Matthew 20:3 and note on Titus 1:12. Going about (περιερχομεναι — perierchomenai). Present middle participle of περιερχομαι — perierchomai old compound verb. See note on Acts 19:13 of strollers. From house to house Literally “the houses,” “wandering around the houses.” Vivid picture of idle tattlers and gossipers. But tattlers also (αλλα και πλυαροι — alla kai phluaroi). Old word from πλυω — phluō (to boil up, to throw up bubbles, like blowing soap bubbles). Only here in N.T. Πλυαρεω — Phluareō in 3 John 1:10 only in N.T. And busybodies Old word (from περι εργον — periπεριεργαζομαι — ergon), busy about trifles to the neglect of important matters. In N.T. only here and Acts 19:19. See note on 2 Thessalonians 3:11 for τα μη δεοντα — periergazomai Things which they ought not (α μη δει — ta mē deonta). “The not necessary things,” and, as a result, often harmful. See note on Titus 1:11 ha mē dei (which things are not necessary). [source]
1 Timothy 5:13 From house to house [τας οικιας]
Literally “the houses,” “wandering around the houses.” Vivid picture of idle tattlers and gossipers. But tattlers also (αλλα και πλυαροι — alla kai phluaroi). Old word from πλυω — phluō (to boil up, to throw up bubbles, like blowing soap bubbles). Only here in N.T. Πλυαρεω — Phluareō in 3 John 1:10 only in N.T. And busybodies Old word (from περι εργον — periπεριεργαζομαι — ergon), busy about trifles to the neglect of important matters. In N.T. only here and Acts 19:19. See note on 2 Thessalonians 3:11 for τα μη δεοντα — periergazomai Things which they ought not (α μη δει — ta mē deonta). “The not necessary things,” and, as a result, often harmful. See note on Titus 1:11 ha mē dei (which things are not necessary). [source]
2 Timothy 2:18 Have erred [ηστοχησαν]
“Missed the mark.” First aorist active indicative of αστοχεω — astocheō for which see note on 1 Timothy 1:6; 1 Timothy 6:21. That the resurrection is past already (αναστασιν ηδη γεγονεναι — anastasin ēdē gegonenai). Second perfect active infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai in indirect assertion after λεγοντες — legontes (saying) with the accusative of general reference (αναστασιν — anastasin). Overthrow See note on Titus 1:11. [source]
2 Timothy 2:18 Overthrow [ανατρεπουσιν]
See note on Titus 1:11. [source]
2 Timothy 3:6 That creep [οι ενδυνοντες]
Old and common verb (also ενδυω — enduō) either to put on (1 Thessalonians 5:8) or to enter (to slip in by insinuation, as here). See same idea in Judges 1:4 These stealthy “creepers” are pictured also in Titus 1:11. [source]
James 3:2 To bridle the whole body also [χαλιναγωγησαι και ολον το σωμα]
See note on James 1:26 for this rare verb applied to the tongue Here the same metaphor is used and shown to apply to the whole body as horses are led by the mouth. The man follows his own mouth whether he controls the bridle therein (James 1:26) or someone else holds the reins. James apparently means that the man who bridles his tongue does not stumble in speech and is able also to control his whole body with all its passions. See Titus 1:11 about stopping people‘s mouths (επιστομιζω — epistomizō). [source]
James 3:2 If not [ειου]
Condition of first class with ου — ou (not μη — mē) negativing the verb πταιει — ptaiei word In speech. The teacher uses his tongue constantly and so is in particular peril on this score.The same (ουτος — houtos). “This one” (not ο αυτος — ho autos the same).A perfect man “A perfect husband” also, for ανηρ — anēr is husband as well as man in distinction from woman The wife is at liberty to test her husband by this rule of the tongue.To bridle the whole body also (χαλιναγωγησαι και ολον το σωμα — chalinagōgēsai kai holon to sōma). See note on James 1:26 for this rare verb applied to the tongue (γλωσσαν — glōssan). Here the same metaphor is used and shown to apply to the whole body as horses are led by the mouth. The man follows his own mouth whether he controls the bridle therein (James 1:26) or someone else holds the reins. James apparently means that the man who bridles his tongue does not stumble in speech and is able also to control his whole body with all its passions. See Titus 1:11 about stopping people‘s mouths (επιστομιζω — epistomizō). [source]
James 3:2 A perfect man [τελειος ανηρ]
“A perfect husband” also, for ανηρ — anēr is husband as well as man in distinction from woman The wife is at liberty to test her husband by this rule of the tongue.To bridle the whole body also (χαλιναγωγησαι και ολον το σωμα — chalinagōgēsai kai holon to sōma). See note on James 1:26 for this rare verb applied to the tongue (γλωσσαν — glōssan). Here the same metaphor is used and shown to apply to the whole body as horses are led by the mouth. The man follows his own mouth whether he controls the bridle therein (James 1:26) or someone else holds the reins. James apparently means that the man who bridles his tongue does not stumble in speech and is able also to control his whole body with all its passions. See Titus 1:11 about stopping people‘s mouths (επιστομιζω — epistomizō). [source]
1 Peter 5:2 Not by constraint [μη αναγκαστως]
Negative μη — mē because of the imperative. Old adverb from verbal adjective αναγκαστος — anagkastos here alone in N.T.But willingly (αλλα εκουσιως — alla hekousiōs). By contrast. Old adverb, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 10:26.Nor yet for filthy lucre A compound adverb not found elsewhere, but the old adjective αισχροκερδης — aischrokerdēs is in 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7. See also Titus 1:11 “for the sake of filthy lucre” Clearly the elders received stipends, else there could be no such temptation.But of a ready mind (αλλα προτυμως — alla prothumōs). Old adverb from προτυμος — prothumos (Matthew 26:41), here only in N.T. [source]
1 Peter 5:2 Nor yet for filthy lucre [μηδε αισχροκερδως]
A compound adverb not found elsewhere, but the old adjective αισχροκερδης — aischrokerdēs is in 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7. See also Titus 1:11 “for the sake of filthy lucre” Clearly the elders received stipends, else there could be no such temptation.But of a ready mind (αλλα προτυμως — alla prothumōs). Old adverb from προτυμος — prothumos (Matthew 26:41), here only in N.T. [source]
1 Peter 5:2 Flock [ποιμνιον]
Old word, likewise from ποιμην — poimēn contraction of ποιμενιον — poimenion (Luke 12:32).Exercising the oversight (επισκοπουντες — episkopountes). Present active participle of επισκοπεω — episkopeō old word (in Hebrews 12:15 alone in N.T.), omitted here by Aleph B.Not by constraint Negative μη — mē because of the imperative. Old adverb from verbal adjective αναγκαστος — anagkastos here alone in N.T.But willingly (αλλα εκουσιως — alla hekousiōs). By contrast. Old adverb, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 10:26.Nor yet for filthy lucre A compound adverb not found elsewhere, but the old adjective αισχροκερδης — aischrokerdēs is in 1 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:7. See also Titus 1:11 “for the sake of filthy lucre” Clearly the elders received stipends, else there could be no such temptation.But of a ready mind (αλλα προτυμως — alla prothumōs). Old adverb from προτυμος — prothumos (Matthew 26:41), here only in N.T. [source]
1 John 4:3 Confesseth not [μη ομολογει]
Indefinite relative clause with the subjective negative μη — mē rather than the usual objective negative ου — ou (1 John 4:6). It is seen also in 2 Peter 1:9; Titus 1:11, a survival of the literary construction (Moulton, Prolegomena, p. 171). The Vulgate (along with Irenaeus, Tertullian, Augustine) reads solvit (λυει — luei) instead of μη ομολογει — mē homologei which means “separates Jesus,” apparently an allusion to the Cerinthian heresy (distinction between Jesus and Christ) as the clause before refers to the Docetic heresy. Many MSS. have here also εν σαρκι εληλυτοτα — en sarki elēluthota repeated from preceding clause, but not A B Vg Cop. and not genuine. [source]

What do the individual words in Titus 1:11 mean?

whom it is necessary to silence who whole households overthrow teaching things that [they] not ought base gain for [the] sake of
οὓς δεῖ ἐπιστομίζειν οἵτινες ὅλους οἴκους ἀνατρέπουσιν διδάσκοντες μὴ δεῖ αἰσχροῦ κέρδους χάριν

οὓς  whom 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ὅς 
Sense: who, which, what, that.
δεῖ  it  is  necessary 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: δεῖ  
Sense: it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper.
ἐπιστομίζειν  to  silence 
Parse: Verb, Present Infinitive Active
Root: ἐπιστομίζω  
Sense: to bridle or stop up the mouth.
ὅλους  whole 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ὅλος  
Sense: all, whole, completely.
οἴκους  households 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: οἶκος  
Sense: a house.
ἀνατρέπουσιν  overthrow 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: ἀνατρέπω  
Sense: to overthrow, overturn, destroy.
διδάσκοντες  teaching 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: διδάσκω  
Sense: to teach.
  things  that  [they] 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: ὅς 
Sense: who, which, what, that.
δεῖ  ought 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: δεῖ  
Sense: it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper.
αἰσχροῦ  base 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: αἰσχρός  
Sense: filthy, baseness, dishonour.
κέρδους  gain 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: κέρδος  
Sense: gain, advantage.
χάριν  for  [the]  sake  of 
Parse: Preposition
Root: χάριν  
Sense: in favour of, for the pleasure of.