The Meaning of Romans 9:3 Explained

Romans 9:3

KJV: For I could wish that myself were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh:

YLT: for I was wishing, I myself, to be anathema from the Christ -- for my brethren, my kindred, according to the flesh,

Darby: for I have wished, I myself, to be a curse from the Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen, according to flesh;

ASV: For I could wish that I myself were anathema from Christ for my brethren's sake, my kinsmen according to the flesh:

What does Romans 9:3 Mean?

Verse Meaning

"I could wish" introduces a wish that God would not possibly grant ( Romans 8:35). Nevertheless it was a sincere wish. Paul had given up many things for the salvation of others ( Philippians 3:8). Moses voiced a similar self-sacrificing wish for the Israelites" salvation ( Exodus 32:30-35). Paul"s brethren here were not his spiritual but his racial brothers and sisters. Even though he was "the apostle to the Gentiles" he still took pleasure in being a Jew.

Context Summary

Romans 9:1-13 - Longing For His Kinsmen
Our consciences should be continually bathed in the light and warmth of the Holy Spirit, Romans 9:1, that the inward witness may be maintained in its integrity. We must love as Moses and Paul did, Romans 9:3, before we can understand Exodus 32:32 and Galatians 3:10. The Hebrew nation was marvelously privileged by adoption as God's firstborn, by having the Shekinah glory and by being called to maintain the witness of the Temple and its services, Romans 9:4. But these privileges were granted, not for the nation itself, but for the blessing of mankind. This is the meaning of election. There are elect races, elect nations, elect souls, that they may be able to impart of what they have received, and communicate whatever advantages have been entrusted.
The sorrowful admission must be made that a very large proportion of the Hebrew race had missed the privileges to which they were entitled, because they had regarded these merely as intended for their own comfort and enrichment, Romans 9:6. This was the outstanding difference between Esau and Jacob. It is plain that the hatred in Romans 9:13 means nothing more than relative repudiation, as it does in Matthew 6:24 and Luke 14:26. No personal animosity can obtain in the nature of the God of love except that He withholds from the recreant soul the full manifestation and outflow of His love. [source]

Chapter Summary: Romans 9

1  Paul is sorry for the Jews
7  All of Abraham not of the promise
18  God's sovereignty
25  The calling of the Gentiles and rejecting of the Jews, foretold
32  The cause of their stumbling

Greek Commentary for Romans 9:3

I could wish [ηυχομην]
Idiomatic imperfect, “I was on the point of wishing.” We can see that ευχομαι — euchomai (I do wish) would be wrong to say. Αν ηυχομην — An ēuchomēn would mean that he does not wish (conclusion of second class condition). Αν ηυχομην — An ēuchomēn would be conclusion of fourth class condition and too remote. He is shut up to the imperfect indicative (Robertson, Grammar, p. 886). [source]
Anathema [ανατεμα]
See for this word as distinct from ανατημα — anathēma (offering) 1 Corinthians 12:3; Galatians 1:8. I myself (αυτος εγω — autos egō). Nominative with the infinitive ειναι — einai and agreeing with subject of ηυχομην — ēuchomēn According to the flesh As distinguished from Paul‘s Christian brethren. [source]
I myself [αυτος εγω]
Nominative with the infinitive ειναι — einai and agreeing with subject of ηυχομην — ēuchomēn [source]
According to the flesh [κατα σαρκα]
As distinguished from Paul‘s Christian brethren. [source]
I could wish [ἠυχόμην]
Or pray as 2 Corinthians 13:7, 2 Corinthians 13:9; James 5:16. Lit., I was wishing; but the imperfect here has a tentative force, implying the wish begun, but stopped at the outset by some antecedent consideration which renders it impossible, so that, practically, it was not entertained at all. So Paul of Onesimus: “Whom I could have wished ( ἐβουλόμην ) to keep with me,” if it had not been too much to ask (Philemon 1:13). Paul would wish to save his countrymen, even at such sacrifice, if it were morally possible. Others, however, explain the imperfect as stating an actual wish formerly entertained. [source]
Accursed from Christ [ἀνάθεμα ἀπὸ τοῦ χριστοῦ]
Compare Galatians 1:8, Galatians 1:9; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 16:22. See on offerings, Luke 21:5. Set apart to destruction and so separated from Christ (Philemon 1:21; Philemon 3:8, Philemon 3:20). An expression of deep devotion. “It is not easy to estimate the measure of love in a Moses and a Paul. For our limited reason does not grasp it, as the child cannot comprehend the courage of warriors” (Bengel). Compare Moses, Exodus 32:32. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Romans 9:3

Mark 6:3 And they were offended in him [σκανδαλον]
So exactly Matthew 13:56, were made to stumble in him, trapped like game by the πετρα σκανδαλου — skandalon because they could not explain him, having been so recently one of them. “The Nazarenes found their stumbling block in the person or circumstances of Jesus. He became - προπητης — petra skandalou (1 Peter 2:7, 1 Peter 2:8; Romans 9:33) to those who disbelieved” (Swete). Both Mark and Matthew 13:57, which see, preserve the retort of Jesus with the quotation of the current proverb about a prophet‘s lack of honour in his own country. John 4:44 quoted it from Jesus on his return to Galilee long before this. It is to be noted that Jesus here makes a definite claim to being a prophet They stumble at Jesus today as the townspeople of Nazareth did.In his own house (en tēi oikiāi autou). Also in Matthew 13:57. This was the saddest part of it all, that his own brothers in his own home disbelieved his Messianic claims (John 7:5). This puzzle was the greatest of all. [source]
Mark 6:3 were made to stumble in him []
, trapped like game by the πετρα σκανδαλου — skandalon because they could not explain him, having been so recently one of them. “The Nazarenes found their stumbling block in the person or circumstances of Jesus. He became - προπητης — petra skandalou (1 Peter 2:7, 1 Peter 2:8; Romans 9:33) to those who disbelieved” (Swete). Both Mark and Matthew 13:57, which see, preserve the retort of Jesus with the quotation of the current proverb about a prophet‘s lack of honour in his own country. John 4:44 quoted it from Jesus on his return to Galilee long before this. It is to be noted that Jesus here makes a definite claim to being a prophet They stumble at Jesus today as the townspeople of Nazareth did.In his own house (en tēi oikiāi autou). Also in Matthew 13:57. This was the saddest part of it all, that his own brothers in his own home disbelieved his Messianic claims (John 7:5). This puzzle was the greatest of all. [source]
Luke 2:34 The fall and rising again [πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν]
For the fall, because he will be a stumbling-block to many (Isaiah 8:14; Matthew 21:42, Matthew 21:44; Acts 4:11; Romans 9:33; 1 Corinthians 1:23). For the rising, because many will be raised up through him to life and glory (Romans 6:4, Romans 6:9; Ephesians 2:6). The A. V. predicates the falling and the rising of the same persons: the fall and rising again of many. The Rev., the falling and rising up of many, is ambiguous. The American Revisers give it correctly: the falling and the rising. [source]
Luke 2:34 Is set for the falling and the rising up of many in Israel [Κειται εις πτωσιν και αναστασιν πολλων εν τωι Ισραηλ]
Present indicative of the old defective verb appearing only in present and imperfect in the N.T. Sometimes it is used as the passive of τιτημι — tithēmi as here. The falling of some and the rising up of others is what is meant. He will be a stumbling-block to some (Isaiah 8:14; Matthew 21:42, Matthew 21:44; Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:16.) who love darkness rather than light (John 3:19), he will be the cause of rising for others (Romans 6:4, Romans 6:9; Ephesians 2:6). “Judas despairs, Peter repents: one robber blasphemes, the other confesses” (Plummer). Jesus is the magnet of the ages. He draws some, he repels others. This is true of all epoch-making men to some extent. [source]
John 1:5 Comprehended [κατέλαβεν]
Rev., apprehended. Wyc., took not it. See on Mark 9:18; see on Acts 4:13. Comprehended, in the sense of the A.V., understood, is inadmissible. This meaning would require the middle voice of the verb (see Acts 4:13; Acts 10:34; Acts 25:25). The Rev., apprehended, i.e., grasped or seized, gives the correct idea, which appears in John 12:35, “lest darkness come upon you,” i.e., overtake and seize. The word is used in the sense of laying hold of so as to make one's own; hence, to take possession of. Used of obtaining the prize in the games (1 Corinthians 9:24); of attaining righteousness (Romans 9:30); of a demon taking possession of a man (Mark 9:18); of the day of the Lord overtaking one as a thief (1 Thessalonians 5:4). Applied to darkness, this idea includes that of eclipsing or overwhelming. Hence some render overcame (Westcott, Moulton). John's thought is, that in the struggle between light and darkness, light was victorious. The darkness did not appropriate the light and eclipse it. “The whole phrase is indeed a startling paradox. The light does not banish the darkness; the darkness does not overpower the light. Light and darkness coexist in the world side by side” (Westcott). [source]
John 4:22 That which ye know not [ο ουκ οιδατε]
Cf. Acts 17:23. “You know whom to worship, but you do not know him” (Westcott). The Samaritans rejected the prophets and the Psalms and so cut themselves off from the fuller knowledge of God. We We Jews. Jesus is a Jew as he fully recognizes (Matthew 15:24). That which we know Neuter singular relative as before. The Jews, as the chosen people, had fuller revelations of God (Psalm 147:19.; Romans 9:3-5). But even so the Jews as a whole failed to recognize God in Christ (John 1:11, John 1:26; John 7:28). For salvation is from the Jews “The salvation,” the Messianic salvation which had long been the hope and guiding star of the chosen people (Luke 1:69, Luke 1:71, Luke 1:77; Acts 13:26, Acts 13:47). It was for the whole world (John 3:17), but it comes “out of” (εκ — ek) the Jews. This tremendous fact should never be forgotten, however unworthy the Jews may have proved of their privilege. The Messiah, God‘s Son, was a Jew. [source]
Acts 4:13 Perceived [καταλαβόμενοι]
The word, meaning originally to seize upon or lay hold of, occurs frequently in the New Testament in different phases of this original sense. Thus, to apprehend or grasp, Ephesians 3:18; Philemon 3:12, Philemon 3:13; Romans 9:30: of seizure by a demon, Mark 9:18: of something coming upon or overtaking, John 12:35; 1 Thessalonians 5:4: of comprehending, grasping mentally, as here, Acts 10:34; Acts 25:25. [source]
Acts 13:1 Lucius of Cyrene []
Attempts have been made to identify him with Luke the evangelist; but the name Lucas is an abbreviation of Lucanus, and not of Lucius. It is worth noting, however, that, according to Herodotus (iii., 131), the physicians of Cyrene had the reputation of being the second best in Greece, those of Crotona being the best; and that Galen the physician says that Lucius was before him a distinguished physician in Tarsus of Cilicia. From this it has been conjectured that Luke was born and instructed in medicine in Cyrene, and left that place for Tarsus, where he made Paul's acquaintance, and was, perhaps, converted by him (Dr. Howard Crosby, “The New Testament, Old and New Version”). But, apart from the form of the name (see above), the mention of the evangelist's name here is not in accord with his usual practice, since he nowhere mentions his own name, either in the Gospel or in the Acts; and if the present passage were an exception, we should have expected to find his name last in the list of the worthies of Antioch. Of the five here named, four are known to be Jews; and therefore, probably, Lucius was also a Jew from Cyrene, where Jews are known to have abounded. Luke the evangelist, on the contrary, was a Gentile. Nothing certain can be inferred from Romans 16:21, where Lucius is enumerated by Paul among his kinsmen. If συγγενεῖς , kinsmen, means here, as is claimed by some, countrymen, it would prove Lucius to be a Jew; but the word is commonly used of relatives in the New Testament. In Romans 9:3, Paul applies the term to his fellow-countrymen, “my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites. ” [source]
Acts 22:5 All the estate of the elders [παν το πρεσβυτεριον]
All the eldership or the Sanhedrin (Acts 4:5) of which Paul was probably then a member (Acts 26:10). Possibly some of those present were members of the Sanhedrin then (some 20 odd years ago). From whom (παρ ων — par' hōn). The high priest and the Sanhedrin. Letters unto the brethren Paul still can tactfully call the Jews his “brothers” as he did in Romans 9:3. There is no bitterness in his heart. Journeyed (επορευομην — eporeuomēn). Imperfect middle indicative of πορευομαι — poreuomai and a vivid reality to Paul still as he was going on towards Damascus. To bring also Future active participle of αγω — agō to express purpose, one of the few N.T. examples of this classic idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1118). Them which were there (τους εκεισε οντας — tous ekeise ontas). Constructio praegnans. The usual word would be εκει — ekei (there), not εκεισε — ekeise (thither). Possibly the Christians who had fled to Damascus, and so were there (Robertson, Grammar, p. 548). In bonds Perfect passive participle of δεω — deō predicate position, “bound.” For to be punished (ινα τιμωρητωσιν — hina timōrēthōsin). First aorist passive subjunctive of τιμωρεω — timōreō old verb to avenge, to take vengeance on. In the N.T. only here, and Acts 26:11. Pure final clause with ινα — hina He carried his persecution outside of Palestine just as later he carried the gospel over the Roman empire. [source]
Acts 22:5 Letters unto the brethren [επισταλας προς τους αδελπους]
Paul still can tactfully call the Jews his “brothers” as he did in Romans 9:3. There is no bitterness in his heart. Journeyed (επορευομην — eporeuomēn). Imperfect middle indicative of πορευομαι — poreuomai and a vivid reality to Paul still as he was going on towards Damascus. To bring also Future active participle of αγω — agō to express purpose, one of the few N.T. examples of this classic idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1118). Them which were there (τους εκεισε οντας — tous ekeise ontas). Constructio praegnans. The usual word would be εκει — ekei (there), not εκεισε — ekeise (thither). Possibly the Christians who had fled to Damascus, and so were there (Robertson, Grammar, p. 548). In bonds Perfect passive participle of δεω — deō predicate position, “bound.” For to be punished (ινα τιμωρητωσιν — hina timōrēthōsin). First aorist passive subjunctive of τιμωρεω — timōreō old verb to avenge, to take vengeance on. In the N.T. only here, and Acts 26:11. Pure final clause with ινα — hina He carried his persecution outside of Palestine just as later he carried the gospel over the Roman empire. [source]
Romans 7:5 In the flesh [ἐν τῇ σαρκί]
Σάρξ fleshoccurs in the classics in the physical sense only. Homer commonly uses it in the plural as denoting all the flesh or muscles of the body. Later the singular occurs in the same sense. Paul's use of this and other psychological terms must be determined largely by the Old-Testament usage as it appears in the Septuagint. 1. In the physical sense. The literal flesh. In the Septuagint τὰ κρέα flesh(plural) is used where the reference is to the parts of animals slain, and αἱ σάρκες , flesh (plural) where the reference is to flesh as the covering of the living body. Hence Paul uses κρέα in Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 8:13, of the flesh of sacrificed animals. Compare also the adjective σάρκιμος fleshy 2 Corinthians 3:3; and Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26, Sept. -DIVIDER-
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2. Kindred. Denoting natural or physical relationship, Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3-8; Romans 11:14; Galatians 4:23, Galatians 4:29; 1 Corinthians 10:18; Philemon 1:16. This usage forms a transition to the following sense: the whole human body. Flesh is the medium in and through which the natural relationship of man manifests itself. Kindred is conceived as based on community of bodily substance. Therefore:-DIVIDER-
3. The body itself. The whole being designated by the part, as being its main substance and characteristic, 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 7:28; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 10:3; 2 Corinthians 12:7. Romans 2:28; Galatians 6:13, etc. Paul follows the Septuagint in sometimes using σῶμα bodyand sometimes σάρξ fleshin this sense, so that the terms occasionally seem to be practically synonymous. Thus 1 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Corinthians 6:17, where the phrase one body is illustrated and confirmed by one flesh. See Genesis 2:24; Ephesians 5:28, Ephesians 5:31, where the two are apparently interchanged. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3, and Colossians 2:5. Σάρξ , however, differs from σῶμα in that it can only signify the organism of an earthly, living being consisting of flesh and bones, and cannot denote “either an earthly organism that is not living, or a living organism that is not earthly” (Wendt, in Dickson). Σῶμα not thus limited. Thus it may denote the organism of the plant (1 Corinthians 15:37, 2 Corinthians 5:1-84) or the celestial bodies (1 Corinthians 15:40). Hence the two conceptions are related as general and special: σῶμα bodybeing the material organism apart from any definite matter (not from any sort of matter), σάρξ , flesh, the definite, earthly, animal organism. The two are synonymons when σῶμα is used, from the context, of an earthly, animal body. Compare Philemon 1:22; 1618737460_51. -DIVIDER-
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Σῶμα bodyand not σάρξ fleshis used when the reference is to a metaphorical organism, as the church, Romans 12:4sqq.; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 12:12-27; Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:18, etc. -DIVIDER-
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The σάρξ is described as mortal (2 Corinthians 4:11); subject to infirmity (Galatians 4:13; 2 Corinthians 12:7); locally limited (Colossians 2:15); an object of fostering care (Ephesians 5:29). -DIVIDER-
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4. Living beings generally, including their mental nature, and with a correlated notion of weakness and perishableness. Thus the phrase πᾶσα σάρξ allflesh (Genesis 6:12; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 49:23). This accessory notion of weakness stands in contrast with God. In Paul the phrase all flesh is cited from the Old Testament (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16) and is used independently (1 Corinthians 1:29). In all these instances before God is added. So in Galatians 1:16, flesh and blood implies a contrast of human with divine wisdom. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:50; Ephesians 6:12. This leads up to-DIVIDER-
5. Man “either as a creature in his natural state apart from Christ, or the creaturely side or aspect of the man in Christ.” Hence it is correlated with ἄνθρωπος man 1 Corinthians 3:3; Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 5:17. Compare Romans 6:6; Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9; Galatians 5:24. Thus the flesh would seem to be interchangeable with the old man. -DIVIDER-
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It has affections and lusts (Galatians 5:24); willings (Ephesians 2:3; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7); a mind (Colossians 2:18); a body (Colossians 2:11). -DIVIDER-
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It is in sharp contrast with πνεῦμα spirit(Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:19; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19-24; Galatians 6:8; Romans 8:4). The flesh and the spirit are thus antagonistic. Σάρξ fleshbefore or in contrast with his reception of the divine element whereby he becomes a new creature in Christ: the whole being of man as it exists and acts apart from the influence of the Spirit. It properly characterizes, therefore, not merely the lower forms of sensual gratification, but all - the highest developments of the life estranged from God, whether physical, intellectual, or aesthetic. -DIVIDER-
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It must be carefully noted:-DIVIDER-
1. That Paul does not identify flesh and sin. Compare, flesh of sin, Romans 8:3. See Romans 7:17, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Galatians 2:20. -DIVIDER-
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2. That Paul does not identify σάρξ withthe material body nor associate sin exclusively and predominantly with the body. The flesh is the flesh of the living man animated by the soul ( ψυχή ) as its principle of life, and is distinctly used as coordinate with ἄνθρωπος manAs in the Old Testament, “it embraces in an emphatic manner the nature of man, mental and corporeal, with its internal distinctions.” The spirit as well as the flesh is capable of defilement (2 Corinthians 7:1; compare 1 Corinthians 7:34). Christian life is to be transformed by the renewing of the mind (Romans 12:2; compare Ephesians 4:23). -DIVIDER-
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3. That Paul does not identify the material side of man with evil. The flesh is not the native seat and source of sin. It is only its organ, and the seat of sin's manifestation. Matter is not essentially evil. The logical consequence of this would be that no service of God is possible while the material organism remains. See Romans 12:1. The flesh is not necessarily sinful in itself; but as it has existed from the time of the introduction of sin through Adam, it is recognized by Paul as tainted with sin. Jesus appeared in the flesh, and yet was sinless (2 Corinthians 5:21).The motions of sins ( τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν )Motions used in earlier English for emotions or impulses. Thus Bacon: “He that standeth at a stay where others rise, can hardly avoid motions of envy” (“Essay” xiv.). The word is nearly synonymous with πάθος passion(Romans 1:26, note). From πάθειν tosuffer; a feeling which the mind undergoes, a passion, desire. Rev., sinful passions: which led to sins.Did work ( ἐνηργεῖτο )Rev., wrought. See 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:12; Ephesians 3:20; Galatians 5:6; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29. Compare Mark 6:14, and see on power, John 1:12. [source]

Romans 4:1 What shall we say? [τι ἐροῦμεν]
See Romans 4:1; Romans 6:1; Romans 7:7; Romans 8:31; Romans 9:14, Romans 9:30. The phrase anticipates an objection or proposes an inference. It is used by Paul only, and by him only in this Epistle and in its argumentative portions. It is not found in the last five chapters, which are hortatory. [source]
Romans 4:5 Believeth on Him [πιστεύοντι ἐπὶ τὸν]
The verb πιστεύω tobelieve is used in the New Testament as follows: 1. Transitively, with the accusative and dative: to entrust something to one, Luke 16:11; John 2:24. In the passive, to be entrusted with something, Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7. With the simple accusative, to believe a thing, John 11:26; 1 John 4:16. -DIVIDER-
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2. With the infinitive, Acts 15:11. -DIVIDER-
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3. With ὅτι that Matthew 9:28; Mark 11:24; James 2:19. Especially frequent in John: John 4:21; John 11:27, John 11:42; John 13:19; John 14:10, John 14:11; John 16:27, John 16:30, etc. -DIVIDER-
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4. With the simple dative, meaning to believe a person or thing, that they are true or speak the truth, John 2:22; John 4:21; John 5:46. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:22, John 2:23; see on John 8:31; see on John 10:37. -DIVIDER-
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5. With the preposition ἐν inNot frequent, and questioned in some of the passages cited for illustration. In John 3:15, ἐν αὐτῷ inHim, is probably to be construed with have eternal life. The formula occurs nowhere else in John. In Mark 1:15we find πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ believein the gospel. The kindred noun πίστις faithoccurs in this combination. Thus Galatians 3:26, though some join in Christ Jesus with sons. See also Ephesians 1:15; Colossians 1:4; 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 3:15; Romans 3:25. This preposition indicates the sphere in which faith moves, rather than the object to which it is directed, though instances occur in the Septuagint where it plainly indicates the direction of faith, Psalm 78:22; Jeremiah 12:6. -DIVIDER-
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6. With the preposition ἐπί uponon to, unto. a. With the accusative, Romans 4:5; Acts 9:42; Acts 11:17; Acts 16:31; Acts 22:19. The preposition carries the idea of mental direction with a view to resting upon, which latter idea is conveyed by the same preposition. b. With the dative, 1 Timothy 1:16; Luke 24:25; compare Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6. The dative expresses absolute superposition. Christ as the object of faith, is the basis on which faith rests. -DIVIDER-
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7. With the preposition εἰς into Matthew 18:6; John 2:11; Acts 19:4; Romans 10:14; Galatians 2:16; Philemon 1:29, etc. The preposition conveys the idea of the absolute transference of trust from one's self to another. Literally the phrase means to believe into. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:23; see on John 9:35; see on John 12:44.Is counted for righteousness ( λογίζεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην )Rev., is reckoned. See on Romans 4:3. The preposition εἰς has the force of as, not the telic meaning with a view to, or in order that he may be (righteous); nor strictly, in the place of righteousness. Faith is not a substitute for righteousness, since righteousness is involved in faith. When a man is reckoned righteous through faith, it is not a legal fiction. He is not indeed a perfect man, but God does not reckon something which has no real existence. Faith is the germ of righteousness, of life in God. God recognizes no true life apart from holiness, and “he that believeth on the Son hath life.” He is not merely regarded in the law's eye as living. God accepts the germ, not in place of the fruit, but as containing the fruit. “Abraham believed God … . No soul comes into such a relation of trust without having God's investment upon it; and whatever there may be in God's righteousness - love, truth, sacrifice - will be rightfully imputed or counted to be in it, because, being united to Him, it will have them coming over derivatively from Him” (Bushnell). The idea of logical sequence is inherent in λογίζεται isreckoned - the sequence of character upon faith. Where there is faith there is, logically, righteousness, and the righteousness is from faith unto faith (Romans 1:17). Nevertheless, in the highest development of the righteousness of faith, it will remain true that the man is justified, not by the works of righteousness, which are the fruit of faith, but by the faith which, in making him a partaker of the life and righteousness of God, generates and inspires the works. Observe that the believer's own faith is reckoned as righteousness. “In no passage in Paul's writings or in other parts of the New Testament, where the phrase to reckon for or the verb to reckon alone is used, is there a declaration that anything belonging to one person is imputed, accounted, or reckoned to another, or a formal statement that Christ's righteousness is imputed to believers” (President Dwight, “Notes on Meyer”). -DIVIDER-
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[source]

Romans 16:7 Kinsmen [συγγενεῖς]
The primary meaning is related by blood; but it is used in the wider sense of fellow-countrymen. So Romans 9:3. [source]
Romans 14:13 Stumbling-block [πρόσκομμα]
Compare Romans 9:32, Romans 9:33; Romans 14:20. Σκάνδαλον occasionof falling is also rendered stumbling-block in other passages. Some regard the two as synonymous, others as related to different results in the case of the injured brother. So Godet, who refers stumbling-block to that which results in a wound, and cause of stumbling to that which causes a fall or sin. [source]
Romans 10:3 God's righteousness []
That mentioned in Romans 9:30. Compare Philemon 3:9; Romans 1:16, Romans 1:17; Romans 3:20-22. [source]
Romans 10:11 The scripture saith []
The quotation from Isaiah 28:16is repeated (see Romans 9:33) with the addition of everyone, whosoever. [source]
Romans 10:2 But not according to knowledge [αλλ ου κατ επιγνωσιν]
They had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in privilege (Romans 2:9-11), but they sought God in an external way by rules and rites and missed him (Romans 9:30-33). They became zealous for the letter and the form instead of for God himself. [source]
Romans 10:4 The end of the law [τελος νομου]
Christ put a stop to the law as a means of salvation (Romans 6:14; Romans 9:31; Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 2:14) as in Luke 16:16. Christ is the goal or aim of the law (Galatians 3:24). Christ is the fulfilment of the law (Matthew 5:17; Romans 13:10; 1 Timothy 1:5). But here (Denney) Paul‘s main idea is that Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for “every one that believeth” whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote finis on law as a means of grace. [source]
Romans 10:11 Every one [πας]
Paul adds this word to the quotation from Isaiah 28:16 already made in Romans 9:33. [source]
Romans 10:20 Is very bold [αποτολμαι]
Present active indicative of αποτολμαω — apotolmaō old word, to assume boldness Paul cites Isaiah 65:1 in support of his own courage against the prejudice of the Jews. See on Romans 9:30-33 for illustration of this point. [source]
Romans 11:7 The election [η εκλογη]
Abstract for concrete (the elect). Obtained (επετυχεν — epetuchen). Second aorist active indicative of επιτυγχανω — epitugchanō old verb, to hit upon, only here in Paul. See Romans 9:30-33 for the failure of the Jews. Were hardened First aorist passive indicative of πωροω — pōroō late verb, to cover with thick skin See note on 2 Corinthians 3:14 and note on Mark 3:5. [source]
Romans 11:7 Obtained [επετυχεν]
Second aorist active indicative of επιτυγχανω — epitugchanō old verb, to hit upon, only here in Paul. See Romans 9:30-33 for the failure of the Jews. [source]
Romans 11:9 A trap [εις τηραν]
Old word for hunting of wild beasts, then a trap. Only here in N.T. A stumbling-block (εις σκανδαλον — eis skandalon). A third word for trap, snare, trap-stick or trigger over which they fall. See note on 1 Corinthians 1:23; Romans 9:33. A recompense Late word from double compound verb ανταποδιδωμι — antapodidōmi to repay (both αντι — anti and απο — apo). Ancient Greeks used ανταποδοσις — antapodosis In lxx and Didache. In N.T. only here (bad sense) and Luke 14:12 (good sense). [source]
Romans 11:9 A stumbling-block [εις σκανδαλον]
A third word for trap, snare, trap-stick or trigger over which they fall. See note on 1 Corinthians 1:23; Romans 9:33. [source]
Romans 14:13 That no man put a stumbling block in his brother‘s way or an occasion of falling [το μη τιτεναι προσκομμα τωι αδελπωι η σκανδαλον]
Articular present active infinitive of τιτημι — tithēmi in apposition with τουτο — touto accusative case after κρινατε — krinate “Judge this rather, the not putting a stumbling block (see note on Romans 9:32 for προσκομμα — proskomma) or a trap (σκανδαλον — skandalon Romans 9:33) for his brother” (αδελπωι — adelphōi dative of disadvantage). [source]
Romans 4:1 What then shall we say? [τι ουν ερουμεν]
Paul is fond of this rhetorical question (Romans 4:1; Romans 6:1; Romans 7:7; Romans 8:31; Romans 9:14, Romans 9:30). [source]
Romans 9:30 Attained [κατέλαβεν]
See on perceived, Acts 4:13, and see on taketh, Mark 9:18; see on John 1:5. Compare attained ( ἔφθασεν , Romans 9:31). Rev., arrive at. See on Matthew 12:28. The meaning is substantially the same, only the imagery in the two words differs; the former being that of laying hold of a prize, and the latter of arriving at a goal. The latter is appropriate to following after, and is carried out in stumbling (Romans 9:32). [source]
Romans 11:9 Table [τραπεζα]
For what is on the table, “a feast.” A snare (εις παγιδα — eis pagida). From πηγνυμι — pēgnumi to make fast, old word for snares for birds and beasts. See Luke 21:35. Εις — Eis in predicate with γινομαι — ginomai is a translation-Hebraism. A trap Old word for hunting of wild beasts, then a trap. Only here in N.T. A stumbling-block (εις σκανδαλον — eis skandalon). A third word for trap, snare, trap-stick or trigger over which they fall. See note on 1 Corinthians 1:23; Romans 9:33. A recompense Late word from double compound verb ανταποδιδωμι — antapodidōmi to repay (both αντι — anti and απο — apo). Ancient Greeks used ανταποδοσις — antapodosis In lxx and Didache. In N.T. only here (bad sense) and Luke 14:12 (good sense). [source]
1 Corinthians 12:3 Speaking in the Spirit of God [εν πνευματι τεου λαλων]
Either sphere or instrumentality. No great distinction here between λαλεω — laleō (utter sounds) and λεγω — legō (to say). Jesus is anathema (ανατεμα Ιησους — anathema Iēsous). On distinction between ανατεμα — anathema (curse) and ανατημα — anathēma (offering, Luke 21:5) see discussion. In lxx ανατημα — anathēma means a thing devoted to God without being redeemed, doomed to destruction (Leviticus 27:28f.; Joshua 6:17; 7:12). See note on 1 Corinthians 16:22; note. on Galatians 1:8; note on Romans 9:3. This blasphemous language against Jesus was mainly by the Jews (Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6). It is even possible that Paul had once tried to make Christians say Ανατεμα Ιησους — Anathema Iēsous (Acts 26:11). Jesus is Lord The term Κυριος — Kurios as we have seen, is common in the lxx for God. The Romans used it freely for the emperor in the emperor worship. “Most important of all is the early establishment of a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar in the application of the term Κυριος — Kurios ‹lord.‘The new texts have here furnished quite astonishing revelations” (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 349). Inscriptions, ostraca, papyri apply the term to Roman emperors, particularly to Nero when Paul wrote this very letter (ib., p. 353f.): “One with ‹Nero Kurios‘ quite in the manner of a formula (without article, like the ‹Kurios Jesus‘ in 1 Corinthians 12:3.” “The battle-cries of the spirits of error and of truth contending at Corinth” (Findlay). One is reminded of the demand made by Polycarp that he say Κυριος Χαεσαρ — Kurios Caesar and how each time he replied Κυριος Ιησους — Kurios Iēsous He paid the penalty for his loyalty with his life. Lighthearted men today can say “Lord Jesus” in a flippant or even in an irreverent way, but no Jew or Gentile then said it who did not mean it. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:3 Jesus is anathema [ανατεμα Ιησους]
On distinction between ανατεμα — anathema (curse) and ανατημα — anathēma (offering, Luke 21:5) see discussion. In lxx ανατημα — anathēma means a thing devoted to God without being redeemed, doomed to destruction (Leviticus 27:28f.; Joshua 6:17; 7:12). See note on 1 Corinthians 16:22; note. on Galatians 1:8; note on Romans 9:3. This blasphemous language against Jesus was mainly by the Jews (Acts 13:45; Acts 18:6). It is even possible that Paul had once tried to make Christians say Ανατεμα Ιησους — Anathema Iēsous (Acts 26:11). [source]
Galatians 5:5 Through the Spirit [πνεύματι]
The Holy Spirit who inspires our faith. Not as Lightfoot, spiritually. The words πνεύματι ἐκ πίστεως are not to be taken as one conception, the Spirit which is of faith, but present two distinct and coordinate facts which characterize the waiting for the hope of righteousness; namely, the agency of the Holy Spirit, in contrast with the flesh (comp. Romans 7:6; Romans 8:4, Romans 8:15, Romans 8:16; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 2:22), and faith in contrast with the works of the law (comp. Galatians 3:3, and see Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:3; Romans 1:17; Romans 3:22; Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6). [source]
Galatians 5:4 Christ is become of no effect unto you [κατηργήθητε ἀπὸ Χριστοῦ]
Incorrect. Lit. ye were brought to nought from Christ. Comp. Romans 7:2, Romans 7:6. Your union with Christ is dissolved. The statement is compressed and requires to be filled out. “Ye were brought to nought and so separated from Christ.” For similar instances see Romans 9:3; Romans 11:3. The ἀπὸ fromproperly belongs to the supplied verb of separation. For the verb καταργεῖν see on Romans 3:3. [source]
Galatians 4:24 Are an allegory [ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα]
N.T.oLit. are allegorised. From ἄλλο another ἀγορεύειν tospeak. Hence, things which are so spoken as to give a different meaning from that which the words express. For parable, allegory, fable, and proverb, see on Matthew 13:3. An allegory is to be distinguished from a type. An O.T. type is a real prefiguration of a N.T. fact, as the Jewish tabernacle explained in John href="/desk/?q=joh+3:14&sr=1">John 3:14. Comp. Romans 5:14; 1 Corinthians 10:6, 1 Corinthians 10:11. An allegory exhibits figuratively the ideal character of a fact. The type allows no latitude of interpretation. The allegory lends itself to various interpretations. This passage bears traces of Paul's rabbinical training. At the time of Christ, Scripture was overlaid with that enormous mass of rabbinic interpretation which, beginning as a supplement to the written law, at last superseded and threw it into contempt. The plainest sayings of Scripture were resolved into another sense; and it was asserted by one of the Rabbis that he that renders a verse of Scripture as it appears, says what is not true. The celebrated Akiba assumed that the Pentateuch was a continuous enigma, and that a meaning was to be found in every monosyllable, and a mystical sense in every hook and flourish of the letters. The Talmud relates how Akiba was seen by Moses in a vision, drawing from every horn of every letter whole bushels of decisions. The oral laws, subsequently reduced to writing in the Talmud, completely overshadowed and superseded the Scriptures, so that Jesus was literally justified in saying: “Thus have ye make the commandment of God of none effect through your tradition.” Paul had been trained as a Rabbi in the school of Hillel, the founder of the rabbinical system, whose hermeneutic rules were the basis of the Talmud. As Jowett justly says: “Strange as it may at first appear that Paul's mode of interpreting the Old Testament Scriptures should not conform to our laws of logic or language, it would be far stranger if it had not conformed with the natural modes of thought and association in his own day.” His familiarity with this style of exposition gave him a real advantage in dealing with Jews. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
It is a much-mooted question whether, in this passage, Paul is employing an argument or an illustration. The former would seem to be the case. On its face, it seems improbable that, as Dr. Bruce puts it: “it is poetry rather than logic, meant not so much to convince the reason as to captivate the imagination.” Comp. the argument in Galatians 3:16, and see note. It appears plain that Paul believed that his interpretation actually lay hidden in the O.T. narrative, and that he adduced it as having argumentative force. Whether he regarded the correspondence as designed to extend to all the details of his exposition may be questioned; but he appears to have discerned in the O.T. narrative a genuine type, which he expanded into his allegory. For other illustrations of this mode of treatment, see Romans 2:24; Romans 9:33; 1 Corinthians 2:9; 1 Corinthians 9:9, 1 Corinthians 9:10; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4. [source]

Galatians 4:20 I desire [ἤθελον]
Better, I could wish, the imperfect tense referring to a suppressed conditional clause, as if it were possible. Comp. Acts 25:22; Romans 9:3. [source]
Galatians 2:16 By the works of the law [ἐξ ἔργων νόμου]
Lit. out of the works, etc. Comp. Romans 3:20. Works are characteristic of a legal dispensation. Paul often puts “works” alone as representing legal righteousness. See Romans 4:2, Romans 4:6; Romans 9:11, Romans 9:32; Romans 11:6; Ephesians 2:9. [source]
Galatians 1:8 Accursed [ἀνάθεμα]
See on Romans 9:3, and see on offerings, Luke 21:5. Comp. κατάρα , curse and see on ἐπικατάρατος cursed Galatians 3:13. In lxx. always curse, except Leviticus 27:28, and the apocryphal books, where it is always gift or offering. By Paul always curse: see Romans 9:3; 1 Corinthians 12:3; 1 Corinthians 16:22. The sense of excommunication, introduced by patristic writers, does not appear in New Testament. [source]
Galatians 1:14 Nation [γένει]
Race. Not sect of the Pharisees. Comp. Philemon 3:5; 2 Corinthians 11:26; Romans 9:3. [source]
Galatians 3:7 They which are of faith [οἱ ἐκ πίστεως]
Ἑκ πίστεως fromor out of faith, is found with the verb to justify (Romans 3:26, Romans 3:30; Romans 5:1): with other verbs, as live (Romans 1:17); eat (Romans 14:23): with the noun δικαιοσύνη righteousness(Romans 1:17; Romans 9:30; Romans 10:6): with other nouns, as promise (Galatians 3:22), law (Galatians 3:12). For parallels to the phrase οἱ ἐκ πίστεως , see Romans 3:26; Romans 4:16; Romans 14:23; Galatians 3:9. It denotes believers as sprung from, or receiving their spiritual condition from that which specially characterizes them. Comp. οἱ ἐξ ἐριθίας theywho are of faction, Romans 2:8; οἱ ἐκ νόμου theywho are of the law, Romans 4:14; ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας hewho is of the truth, John 18:37. [source]
Ephesians 5:14 Awake. etc. []
The quotation is probably a combination and free rendering of Isaiah 60:1; Isaiah 26:19. For similar combinations see on Romans 3:10; see on Romans 9:33. By some the words are regarded as the fragment of a hymn. [source]
Philippians 3:12 I have already obtained [ηδη ελαβον]
Rather, “I did already obtain,” constative second aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō summing up all his previous experiences as a single event. Or am already made perfect (η ηδη τετελειωμαι — ē ēdē teteleiōmai). Perfect passive indicative (state of completion) of τελειοω — teleioō old verb from τελειος — teleios and that from τελος — telos (end). Paul pointedly denies that he has reached a spiritual impasse of non- development. Certainly he knew nothing of so-called sudden absolute perfection by any single experience. Paul has made great progress in Christlikeness, but the goal is still before him, not behind him. But I press on He is not discouraged, but encouraged. He keeps up the chase (real idea in διωκω — diōkō as in 1 Corinthians 14:1; Romans 9:30; 1 Timothy 6:11). If so be that (ει και — ei kai). “I follow after.” The condition (third class, εικαταλαβω — ei̇̇katalabō second aorist active subjunctive of καταλαμβανω — katalambanō) is really a sort of purpose clause or aim. There are plenty of examples in the Koiné{[28928]}š of the use of ει — ei and the subjunctive as here (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1017), “if I also may lay hold of that for which (επ ωι — Ephesians' hōi purpose expressed by επι — epi) I was laid hold of (κατελημπτην — katelēmphthēn first aorist passive of the same verb καταλαμβανω — katalambanō) by Christ Jesus.” His conversion was the beginning, not the end of the chase. [source]
Philippians 3:12 But I press on [διωκω δε]
He is not discouraged, but encouraged. He keeps up the chase (real idea in διωκω — diōkō as in 1 Corinthians 14:1; Romans 9:30; 1 Timothy 6:11). If so be that (ει και — ei kai). “I follow after.” The condition (third class, εικαταλαβω — ei̇̇katalabō second aorist active subjunctive of καταλαμβανω — katalambanō) is really a sort of purpose clause or aim. There are plenty of examples in the Koiné{[28928]}š of the use of ει — ei and the subjunctive as here (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1017), “if I also may lay hold of that for which (επ ωι — Ephesians' hōi purpose expressed by επι — epi) I was laid hold of (κατελημπτην — katelēmphthēn first aorist passive of the same verb καταλαμβανω — katalambanō) by Christ Jesus.” His conversion was the beginning, not the end of the chase. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:16 Is come [ἔφθασεν]
The verb not frequent in N.T. and used mostly by Paul. See on 2 Corinthians 10:14, and comp. Romans 9:31; Philemon 3:16. [source]
1 Timothy 5:10 Diligently followed [ἐπακο ουθησεν]
Comp. 1 Timothy 5:24. Ἑπὶ afteror close upon. oP. Once in the disputed verses at the end of Mark (Mark 16:20), and 1 Peter 2:21. Comp. the use of διώκειν pursue Romans 9:30; Romans 12:13; 1 Corinthians 14:1; 1 Thessalonians 5:15. [source]
1 Timothy 1:16 Believe [πιστευ.ειν]
This verb, so frequent in Paul, occurs six times in the pastorals. In two instances, 1 Timothy 1:11; Titus 1:3, it is passive, in the sense of to be intrusted with. Here in the Pauline sense of believing on Christ. In 1 Timothy 3:16, passive, of Christ believed on in the world. In 2 Timothy 1:12, of God the Father, in whom the writer confides to keep the trust committed to him. In Titus 3:8, of belief in God. With ἐπὶ uponand the dative, Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6(all citations), and Romans 4:18; Luke 24:25. [source]
2 Timothy 2:22 Follow [δίωκε]
Pursue. Stronger than follow. A favorite word with Paul to denote the pursuit of moral and spiritual ends. See Romans 9:30, Romans 9:31; Romans 12:13; 1 Corinthians 14:1; Philemon 3:12. [source]
Hebrews 12:9 Fathers of our flesh [τοὺς μὲν τῆς σαρκὸς ἡμῶν πατέρας]
Up to this point the suffering of Christians has been explained by God's fatherly relation to them. Now the emphatic point is that their fathers, with whom God is compared, were only earthly, human parents. The phrase πατέρας τῆς σαρκὸς N.T.obut kindred expressions are found Romans 4:1, Romans 9:3; Galatians 4:29; Hebrews 2:14. [source]
Hebrews 12:14 Follow peace [εἰρήνην διώκετε]
Comp. lxx, Romans href="/desk/?q=ro+14:19&sr=1">Romans 14:19; 1 Peter 3:11. The verb is used of the pursuit of moral and spiritual ends, Romans 9:30, Romans 9:31; Romans 12:13; 1 Corinthians 14:1; Philemon 3:12, Philemon 3:14; 1 Thessalonians 5:15; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 2:22. [source]
1 Peter 2:6 Behold I lay, etc []
See Romans 9:33. [source]
1 Peter 2:8 And [και]
Peter now quotes Isaiah 8:14 and gives a new turn to the previous quotation. To the disbelieving, Christ was indeed “a stone of stumbling (λιτος προσκομματος — lithos proskommatos) and rock of offence (πετρα σκανδαλου — petra skandalou),” quoted also by Paul in Romans 9:32. See note on Romans 9:32 for discussion. Προσκομμα — Proskomma (from προσκοπτω — proskoptō to cut against) is an obstacle against which one strikes by accident, while σκανδαλον — skandalon is a trap set to trip one, but both make one fall. Too much distinction need not be made between λιτος — lithos (a loose stone in the path) and πετρα — petra (a ledge rising out of the ground). [source]
3 John 1:2 I wish above all things [περὶ πάντων εὔχομαι]
Wrong. This sense of περί is contrary to New Testament usage. The preposition means concerning. So Rev. “I pray that in all things thou mayst prosper.” Εὔχομαι Ipray or wish, occurs only here in John's writings, and not often elsewhere. See Acts 26:29; Romans 9:3; James 5:16. [source]
3 John 1:2 I pray [ευχομαι]
Here only in John‘s writings. See Romans 9:3. [source]
Revelation 22:3 There shall be no curse any more [παν κατατεμα ουκ εσται ετι]
No other example of κατατεμα — katathema has been found outside of the Didache XVI. 5, though the verb κατατεματιζω — katathematizō occurs in Matthew 26:74, meaning to curse, while we have ανατεματιζω — anathematizō in Mark 14:71 in the same sense. It may be a syncopated form of κατανατεμα — katanathema The usual ανατεμα — anathema (curse) occurs in 1 Corinthians 16:22; Galatians 1:8; Romans 9:3. For παν — pan with ουκουδεν — ouk =λατρευσουσιν αυτωι — ouden see Revelation 21:27. [source]

What do the individual words in Romans 9:3 mean?

Could wish for a curse to be myself I separated from - Christ for the brothers of me - kinsmen according to [the] flesh
ηὐχόμην γὰρ ἀνάθεμα εἶναι αὐτὸς ἐγὼ ἀπὸ τοῦ Χριστοῦ ὑπὲρ τῶν ἀδελφῶν μου τῶν συγγενῶν κατὰ σάρκα

ηὐχόμην  Could  wish 
Parse: Verb, Imperfect Indicative Middle or Passive, 1st Person Singular
Root: εὔχομαι  
Sense: to pray to God.
ἀνάθεμα  a  curse 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: ἀνάθεμα  
Sense: a thing set up or laid by in order to be kept.
εἶναι  to  be 
Parse: Verb, Present Infinitive Active
Root: εἰμί  
Sense: to be, to exist, to happen, to be present.
αὐτὸς  myself 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Nominative Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
ἀπὸ  separated  from 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἀπό 
Sense: of separation.
τοῦ  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Χριστοῦ  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
ἀδελφῶν  brothers 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἀδελφός  
Sense: a brother, whether born of the same two parents or only of the same father or mother.
μου  of  me 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 1st Person Singular
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
τῶν  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
συγγενῶν  kinsmen 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: συγγενής 
Sense: of the same kin, akin to, related by blood.
κατὰ  according  to 
Parse: Preposition
Root: κατά 
Sense: down from, through out.
σάρκα  [the]  flesh 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: σάρξ  
Sense: flesh (the soft substance of the living body, which covers the bones and is permeated with blood) of both man and beasts.