The Meaning of Revelation 7:1 Explained

Revelation 7:1

KJV: And after these things I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on the sea, nor on any tree.

YLT: And after these things I saw four messengers, standing upon the four corners of the land, holding the four winds of the land, that the wind may not blow upon the land, nor upon the sea, nor upon any tree;

Darby: And after this I saw four angels standing upon the four corners of the earth, holding fast the four winds of the earth, that no wind might blow upon the earth, nor upon the sea, nor upon any tree.

ASV: After this I saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that no wind should blow on the earth, or on the sea, or upon any tree.

What does Revelation 7:1 Mean?

Study Notes

angels
.
Angel, Summary: Angel, "messenger," is used of God, of men, and of an order of created spiritual beings whose chief attributes are strength and wisdom. 2 Samuel 14:20 ; Psalms 103:20 ; Psalms 104:4 . In the O.T. the expression "the angel of the Lord" (sometimes "of God") usually implies the presence of Deity in angelic form.; Genesis 16:1-13 ; Genesis 21:17-19 ; Genesis 22:11-16 ; Genesis 31:11-13 ; Exodus 3:2-4 ; Judges 2:1 ; Judges 6:12-16 ; Judges 13:3-22 (See Scofield " Malachi 3:1 ") . The word "angel" is used of men in; Luke 7:24 ; James 2:25 ; Revelation 1:20 ; Revelation 2:1 ; Revelation 2:8 ; Revelation 2:12 ; Revelation 2:18 ; Revelation 3:1 ; Revelation 3:7 ; Revelation 3:14 In Revelation 8:3-5 . Christ is evidently meant. Sometimes angel is used of the spirit of man.; Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 12:15 . Though angels are spirits; Psalms 104:4 ; Hebrews 1:14 power is given them to become visible in the semblance of human form. Genesis 19:1 cf; Genesis 19:5 ; Exodus 3:2 ; Numbers 22:22-31 ; Judges 2:1 ; Judges 6:11 ; Judges 6:22 ; Judges 13:3 ; Judges 13:6 ; 1 Chronicles 21:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:20 ; Matthew 1:20 ; Luke 1:26 ; John 20:12 ; Acts 7:30 ; Acts 12:7 ; Acts 12:8 etc.). The word is always used in the masculine gender, though sex, in the human sense, is never ascribed to angels.; Matthew 22:30 ; Mark 12:25 . They are exceedingly numerous.; Matthew 26:53 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 5:11 ; Psalms 68:17 . The power is inconceivable. 2 Kings 19:35 . Their place is about the throne of God.; Revelation 5:11 ; Revelation 7:11 . Their relation to the believer is that of "ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation," and this ministry has reference largely to the physical safety and well-being of believers.; 1 Kings 19:5 ; Psalms 34:7 ; Psalms 91:11 ; Daniel 6:22 ; Matthew 2:13 ; Matthew 2:19 ; Matthew 4:11 ; Luke 22:43 ; Acts 5:19 ; Acts 12:7-10 . From; Hebrews 1:14 ; Matthew 18:10 ; Psalms 91:11 it would seem that this care for the heirs of salvation begins in infancy and continues through life. The angels observe us; 1 Corinthians 4:9 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; Ecclesiastes 5:6 a fact which should influence conduct. They receive departing saints. Luke 16:22 . Man is made "a little lower than the angels," and in incarnation Christ took "for a little "time" this lower place.; Psalms 8:4 ; Psalms 8:5 ; Hebrews 2:6 ; Hebrews 2:9 that He might lift the believer into His own sphere above angels. Hebrews 2:9 ; Hebrews 2:10 . The angels are to accompany Christ in His second advent. Matthew 25:31 . To them will be committed the preparation of the judgment of the nations. Matthew 13:30 ; Matthew 13:39 ; Matthew 13:41 ; Matthew 13:42 . See Scofield " Matthew 25:32 ". The kingdom-age is not to be subject to angels, but to Christ and those for whom He was made a little lower than the angels. Hebrews 2:5 An archangel, Michael, is mentioned as having a particular relation to Israel and to the resurrections.; Daniel 10:13 ; Daniel 10:21 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Daniel 12:2 ; Judges 1:9 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 . The only other angel whose name is revealed Gabriel, was employed in the most distinguished services.; Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Luke 1:19 ; Luke 1:26 .
Fallen angels. Two classes of these are mentioned:
(1) "The angels which kept not their first estate place, but left their own habitation," are "chained under darkness," awaiting judgment. 2 Peter 2:4 ; Judges 1:6 ; 1 Corinthians 6:3 ; John 5:22 .
(See Scofield " Genesis 6:4 ")
(2) The angels who have Satan Genesis 3:1 as leader.
(See Scofield " Revelation 20:10 ") .
The origin of these is nowhere explicitly revealed. They may be identical with the demons.
(See Scofield " Matthew 7:22 ") . For Satan and his angels everlasting fire is prepared. Matthew 25:41 ; Revelation 20:10 .

Verse Meaning

The phrase "after this" (Gr. meta touto) indicates that what follows is a new vision (cf. Revelation 4:1). The general chronological progression of the visions suggests that the events John saw now will happen at the end of the first half of the Tribulation. What John saw in this vision supports that conclusion. [1]
The angels described here were God"s agents (cf. Hebrews 1:14). They appear to be different from the four living creatures and the24elder-angels (if they are angels). Four of them received the task of keeping the wind from blowing. God stationed them at the four "corners" (i.e, compass points) of the earth for this purpose (cf. Revelation 20:8; Isaiah 11:12; Jeremiah 49:36; Matthew 24:31). The winds represent God"s judgments coming on the world ( Revelation 7:3; cf. Jeremiah 49:36-38; Daniel 7:2; Hosea 13:15), specifically those about to follow during the remainder of the Tribulation (cf. Ezekiel 9:4-8). The threefold repetition of "four" probably stresses the universal control of these angels. [2] We should probably understand the "sea" and any "tree" literally in view of what follows (cf. Revelation 7:3).

Context Summary

Revelation 7:1-10 - The Multitude Before The Throne
Before times of unusual trial God prepares for the safety of His people. See Genesis 7:1; Genesis 19:16; Exodus 12:13; Ezekiel 9:3-5; Matthew 24:15-16. What a majestic conception this is and how comforting the thought that the winds are controlled by angels, and that the storms which sweep earth and heaven must obey the mandate of eternal love! God's people are not always saved from trial, but they are kept safe in it. We are sealed when the divine likeness is stamped on our characters, Ephesians 1:13. Those that have that likeness also enjoy the earnest of heaven in their hearts, 2 Corinthians 1:21-22.
The definiteness of the number sealed indicates the perfectness and greatness of this first fruit sheaf of souls. If the first sheaf be so full and heavy, what will not the harvest be! See Revelation 14:4. Beyond human count in number; representing every country under heaven; spotless in character; victorious in their conflict with evil; ascribing all glory to the Lamb as the result of His travail of soul. The tribe of Dan is omitted but perhaps reappears in Revelation 21:12. Does this mean that some will be saved as by firebrands plucked from it by the grace of God? [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 7

1  An angel seals the servants of God in their foreheads
4  The number of those who were sealed of the tribes of Israel: 144,000
9  Of all the other nations an innumerable multitude, which stand before the throne
14  Their robes were washed in the blood of the Lamb

Greek Commentary for Revelation 7:1

After this [μετα τουτο]
Instead of the seventh seal (Revelation 8:1) being opened, two other episodes or preliminary visions occupy chapter 7 (the sealing of the servants of God Revelation 7:1-8 and the vision of the redeemed before the throne Revelation 7:9-17). [source]
Standing [εστωτας]
Second perfect predicate participle of ιστημι — histēmi intransitive and followed by επι — epi and the accusative case γωνιας — gōnias as already in Revelation 3:20 Old word for angle (Matthew 6:5), also in Revelation 20:8.Holding Present active participle of κρατεω — krateō to hold fast (Mark 7:3; John 20:23). The four winds (cf. Matthew 24:31) are held prisoner by angels at each of the four corners. Some Jews held the winds from due north, south, east, west to be favourable, while those from the angles (see Acts 27:14) were unfavourable (Charles). There is an angel of the fire (Revelation 14:18) and an angel of the waters (Revelation 16:5).That no wind should blow (ινα μη πνεηι ανεμος — hina mē pneēi anemos). Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē and the present active subjunctive, “lest a wind keep on blowing.”Upon any tree Accusative case here with επι — epi rather than the preceding genitives (γησ ταλασσης — gēsthalassēs), “upon the land or upon the sea,” but “against any tree” (picture of attack on the tree like a tornado‘s path). [source]
Corners [γωνιας]
Old word for angle (Matthew 6:5), also in Revelation 20:8. [source]
Holding [κρατουντας]
Present active participle of κρατεω — krateō to hold fast (Mark 7:3; John 20:23). The four winds (cf. Matthew 24:31) are held prisoner by angels at each of the four corners. Some Jews held the winds from due north, south, east, west to be favourable, while those from the angles (see Acts 27:14) were unfavourable (Charles). There is an angel of the fire (Revelation 14:18) and an angel of the waters (Revelation 16:5).That no wind should blow (ινα μη πνεηι ανεμος — hina mē pneēi anemos). Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē and the present active subjunctive, “lest a wind keep on blowing.”Upon any tree Accusative case here with επι — epi rather than the preceding genitives (γησ ταλασσης — gēsthalassēs), “upon the land or upon the sea,” but “against any tree” (picture of attack on the tree like a tornado‘s path). [source]
That no wind should blow [ινα μη πνεηι ανεμος]
Negative purpose clause with ινα μη — hina mē and the present active subjunctive, “lest a wind keep on blowing.” [source]
Upon any tree [επι παν δενδρον]
Accusative case here with επι — epi rather than the preceding genitives (γησ ταλασσης — gēsthalassēs), “upon the land or upon the sea,” but “against any tree” (picture of attack on the tree like a tornado‘s path). [source]
These things [ταῦτα]
Read τοῦτο thisHolding ( κρατοῦντας )Holding fast or firmly. See on Mark 7:3; see on Acts 3:11. [source]
Read τοῦτο this Holding [κρατοῦντας]
Holding fast or firmly. See on Mark 7:3; see on Acts 3:11. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 7:1

Matthew 2:6 Shall be shepherd of [ποιμανεῖ]
So Rev., rightly, instead of shall rule. The word involves the whole office of the shepherd - guiding, guarding, folding, as well as feeding. Hence appropriate and often applied to the guides and guardians of others. Homer calls kings “the shepherds of the people.” To David the people said, “The Lord said to thee, Thou shalt feed (as a shepherd) my people Israel” (2 Samuel 5:2; compare Psalm 78:70-72). God is often called a shepherd (Genesis 48:15; Psalm 23:1; Psalm 77:20; Psalm 80:1; Isaiah 40:11; John 10:11). Peter, who is bidden by Jesus to shepherd his sheep (John 21:16, ποίμαινε , Rev., tend), calls him the Shepherd of Souls (1 Peter 2:25), and the Chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4); and in the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 13:20), he is styled the great Shepherd of the sheep. In Revelation 2:27, rule is literally to shepherd (compare Revelation 19:15); but Christ will shepherd his enemies, not with the pastoral crook, but with a sceptre of iron. Finally, Jesus will perpetuate this name and office in heaven among his redeemed ones, for “theLamb, which is in the midst of the throne, shall be their shepherd (Revelation 7:17, Rev.). In this verse the word governor is in harmony with the idea of shepherding, since the word ἡγούμενος originally means one who goes before, or leads the way, and suggests Christ's words about the good shepherd in John 10:3, John 10:4: “He calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out … .He goeth before them, and the sheep follow him.” [source]
Matthew 2:5 Shall be shepherd [ποιμανει]
The Authorized Version had “shall rule,” but “shepherd” is correct. “Homer calls kings ‹the shepherds of the people‘”(Vincent). In Hebrews 13:20 Jesus is called “the great shepherd of the sheep.” Jesus calls himself “the good shepherd” (John 10:11). Peter calls Christ “the chief shepherd” (1 Peter 2:25). “The Lamb which is in the midst of the throne shall be their shepherd” (Revelation 7:17). Jesus told Peter to “shepherd” the lambs (John 21:16). Our word pastor means shepherd. [source]
Luke 5:2 Were washing []
From the sand and pebbles accumulated during the night's work. Luke uses four different words for washing or cleansing: πλύνω , here, see also Revelation 7:14; ἀπομάσσω , of wiping the dust from the feet, only at Luke 10:11; ἐκμάσσω , of the woman wiping Christ's feet with her hair, Luke 7:38, Luke 7:44; ἀπολούω , of washing away sins, Acts 22:16; λούω , of washing the prisoners' stripes and the body of Dorcas, Acts 16:33; Acts 9:37. The reading ἀποπλύνω is rejected by the best texts, so that ἀπομάσσω is the only one peculiar to Luke. All the words were common in medical language. [source]
John 4:14 Shall never thirst [οὐ μὴ διψήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα]
The double negative, οὐ μὴ , is a very strong mode of statement, equivalent to by no means, or in nowise. It must not be understood, however, that the reception of the divine life by a believer does away with all further desire. On the contrary, it generates new desires. The drinking of the living water is put as a single act, in order to indicate the divine principle of life as containing in itself alone the satisfaction of all holy desires as they successively arise; in contrast with human sources, which are soon exhausted, and drive one to other fountains. Holy desire, no matter how large or how varied it may become, will always seek and find its satisfaction in Christ, and in Christ only. Thirst is to be taken in the same sense in both clauses, as referring to that natural craving which the world cannot satisfy, and which is therefore ever restless. Drusius, a Flemish critic, cited by Trench (“Studies in the Gospels”), says: “He who drinks the water of wisdom thirsts and does not thirst. He thirsts, that is, he more and more desires that which he drinks. He does not thirst, because he is so filled that he desires no other drink.” The strong contrast of this declaration of our Lord with pagan sentiment, is illustrated by the following passage from Plato: “Socrates: Let me request you to consider how far you would accept this as an account of the two lives of the temperate and intemperate: There are two men, both of whom have a number of casks; the one man has his casks sound and full, one of wine, another of honey, and a third of milk, besides others filled with other liquids, and the streams which fill them are few and scanty, and he can only obtain them with a great deal of toil and difficulty; but when his casks are once filled he has no need to feed them any more, and has no further trouble with them, or care about them. The other, in like manner, can procure streams, though not without difficulty, but his vessels are leaky and unsound, and night and day he is compelled to be filling them, and if he pauses for a moment he is in an agony of pain. Such are their respective lives: And now would you say that the life of the intemperate is happier than that of the temperate? Do I not convince you that the opposite is the truth?-DIVIDER-
“Callicles: You do not convince me, Socrates, for the one who has filled himself has no longer any pleasure left; and this, as I was just now saying, is the life of a stone; he has neither joy nor sorrow after he is once filled; but the life of pleasure is the pouring in of the stream. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
“Socrates: And if the stream is always pouring in, must there not be a stream always running out, and holes large enough to admit of the discharge?-DIVIDER-
“Callicles: Certainly. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
“Socrates: The life, then, of which you are now speaking is not that of a dead man, or of a stone, but of a cormorant; you mean that he is to be hungering and eating?-DIVIDER-
“Callicles: Yes. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
“Socrates: And he is to be thirsting and drinking?-DIVIDER-
“Callicles: Yes, that is what I mean; he is to have all his desires about him, and to be able to live happily in the gratification of them” (“Gorgias,” 494). Compare Revelation 7:16, Revelation 7:17. [source]

John 1:29 The Lamb [ὁ ἀμνὸς]
The word occurs in John only here and in John 1:36. Also in Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19. The diminutive ἀρνίον , a little lamb, is found once in the Gospel (John 21:15), often in Revelation, but only of the glorified Redeemer, and nowhere else in the New Testament. In some instances the word may emphasize the gentle and innocent character of Jesus suffering to expiate the sins of men (Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 13:8); but it is also employed in describing Him as indignant (Revelation 6:16); as victorious (Revelation 17:4); as the object of adoration (Revelation 5:8); and as enthroned (Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:17). The term, the Lamb of God (note the article), is evidently used here by the Baptist in some sense understood by his hearers, and points to Isaiah 53:7; compare Acts 8:32. The reference is probably to the Paschal lamb, though commentators differ. [source]
John 1:14 Dwelt [ἐσκήνωσεν]
Literally, tabernacled, fixed, or had His tabernacle: from σκηνή , a tent or tabernacle. The verb is used only by John: in the Gospel only here, and in Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6; Revelation 21:3. It occurs in classical writings, as in Xenophon, ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἐσκήνου , he pitched his tent in the plain (“Anabasis,” vii., 4,11). So Plato, arguing against the proposition that the unjust die by the inherent destructive power of evil, says that “injustice which murders others keeps the murderer alive - aye, and unsleeping too; οὕτω πόῤῥω του ὡς ἔοικεν ἐσκήνωται τοῦ θανάσιμος εἶναι , i.e., literally, so far has her tent been spread from being a house of death” (“Republic,” 610). The figure here is from the Old Testament (Leviticus 27:11; 2 Samuel 7:6; Psalm 78:67sqq.; Ezekiel 37:27). The tabernacle was the dwelling-place of Jehovah; the meeting-place of God and Israel. So the Word came to men in the person of Jesus. As Jehovah adopted for His habitation a dwelling like that of the people in the wilderness, so the Word assumed a community of nature with mankind, an embodiment like that of humanity at large, and became flesh. “That which was from the beginning, we heard, we saw, we beheld, we handled. Our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ” (1 John 1:1-3. Compare Philemon 2:7, Philemon 2:8). Some find in the word tabernacle, a temporary structure (see the contrast between σκῆνος , tabernacle, and οἰκοδομή , building, in 2 Corinthians 5:1), a suggestion of the transitoriness of our Lord's stay upon earth; which may well be, although the word does not necessarily imply this; for in Revelation 21:3, it is said of the heavenly Jerusalem “the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will set up His tabernacle ( σκηνώσει ) with them.”-DIVIDER-
Dante alludes to the incarnation in the seventh canto of the “Paradiso:”- “the human species down belowLay sick for many centuries in great error, Till to descend it pleased the Word of God-DIVIDER-
To where the nature, which from its own Maker-DIVIDER-
Estranged itself, He joined to Him in personBy the sole act of His eternal love.” [source]

John 1:4 In Him was life [ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν]
He was the fountain of life - physical, moral, and eternal - its principle and source. Two words for life are employed in the New Testament: βίος and ζωὴ . The primary distinction is that ζωὴ means existence as contrasted with death, and βίος , the period, means, or manner of existence. Hence βίος is originally the higher word, being used of men, while ζωὴ is used of animals ( ζῶα ). We speak therefore of the discussion of the life and habits of animals as zoo logy; and of accounts of men's lives as bio graphy. Animals have the vital principle in common with men, but men lead lives controlled by intellect and will, and directed to moral and intellectual ends. In the New Testament, βίος means either living, i.e., means of subsistence (Mark 12:44; Luke 8:43), or course of life, life regarded as an economy (Luke 8:14; 1 Timothy 2:2; 2 Timothy 2:4). Ζωὴ occurs in the lower sense of life, considered principally or wholly as existence (1 Peter 3:10; Acts 8:33; Acts 17:25; Hebrews 7:3). There seems to be a significance in the use of the word in Luke 16:25: “Thou in thy lifetime ( ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου ) receivedst thy good things;” the intimation being that the rich man's life had been little better than mere existence, and not life at all in the true sense. But throughout the New Testament ζωὴ is the nobler word, seeming to have changed places with βίος . It expresses the sum of mortal and eternal blessedness (Matthew 25:46; Luke 18:30; John 11:25; Acts 2:28; Romans 5:17; Romans 6:4), and that not only in respect of men, but also of God and Christ. So here. Compare John 5:26; John 14:6; 1 John 1:2. This change is due to the gospel revelation of the essential connection of sin with death, and consequently, of life with holiness. “Whatever truly lives, does so because sin has never found place in it, or, having found place for a time, has since been overcome and expelled” (Trench). Ζωὴ is a favorite word with John. See John 11:25; John 14:6; John 8:12; 1 John 1:2; 1 John 5:20; John 6:35, John 6:48; John 6:63; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17; Revelation 7:17; John 4:14; Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14, Revelation 22:19; John 12:50; John 17:3; John 20:31; John 5:26; John 6:53, John 6:54; John 5:40; John 3:15, John 3:16, John 3:36; John 10:10; John 5:24; John 12:25; John 6:27; John 4:36; 1 John 5:12, 1 John 5:16; John 6:51.Was the Light of men ( ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων )Passing from the thought of creation in general to that of mankind, who, in the whole range of created things, had a special capacity for receiving the divine. The Light - the peculiar mode of the divine operation upon men, conformably to their rational and moral nature which alone was fitted to receive the light of divine truth. It is not said that the Word was light, but that the life was the light. The Word becomes light through the medium of life, of spiritual life, just as sight is a function of physical life. Compare John 14:6, where Christ becomes the life through being the truth; and Matthew 5:8, where the pure heart is the medium through which God is beheld. In whatever mode of manifestation the Word is in the world, He is the light of the world; in His works, in the dawn of creation; in the happy conditions of Eden; in the Patriarchs, in the Law and the Prophets, in His incarnation, and in the subsequent history of the Church. Compare John 9:5. Of men, as a class, and not of individuals only. [source]
John 4:10 Answered and said [απεκριτη και ειπεν]
As often (redundant) in John. The first aorist passive Condition of second class, determined as unfulfilled, ει — ei and past perfect ηιδεις — ēideis (used as imperfect) in condition and αν — an and aorist active indicative in conclusion The gift of God Naturally the gift mentioned in John 3:16 (Westcott), the inexpressible gift (2 Corinthians 9:15). Some take it to refer to the living water below, but that is another allusion (metaphor) to John 3:16. See Ephesians 4:7 for Paul‘s use of both χαρις — charis and δωρεα — dōrea (from διδωμι — didōmi to give). Who it is She only knew that he was a Jew. This Messianic self-consciousness of Jesus is plain in John, but it is early in the Synoptics also. Living water Running water like a spring or well supplied by springs. This Jacob‘s Well was filled by water from rains percolating through, a sort of cistern, good water, but not equal to a real spring which was always preferred (Genesis 26:19; Leviticus 14:5; Numbers 19:17). Jesus, of course, is symbolically referring to himself as the Living Water though he does not say it in plain words as he does about the Living Bread (John 6:51). The phrase “the fountain of life” occurs in Proverbs 13:14. Jesus supplies the water of life (John 7:39). Cf. Revelation 7:17; Revelation 22:1. [source]
Hebrews 13:20 That great shepherd of the sheep [τὸν ποιμένα τῶν προβάτων τὸν μέγαν]
The Greek order is, “the shepherd of the sheep the great (shepherd).” Comp. John 10:2, John 10:11, John 10:14; 1 Peter 2:25, and see Isaiah 63:11. Of God, Zechariah href="/desk/?q=zec+9:11&sr=1">Zechariah 9:11. The phrase eternal covenant N.T.oCommon in lxx; see Genesis 9:16; Genesis 17:19; Leviticus 24:8; 2 Samuel 23:5; Jeremiah 32:40; Ezekiel 16:60. Const. with the great shepherd of the sheep. It may be granted that the raising of Christ from the dead, viewed as the consummation of the plan of salvation, was in the sphere of the blood of the covenant; nevertheless, the covenant is nowhere in the N.T. associated with the resurrection, but frequently with death, especially in this epistle. See Matthew 26:28; Luke 22:20; Hebrews 9:15, Hebrews 9:16, Hebrews 9:17, Hebrews 9:20. The connection of the blood of the covenant with Christ's pastoral office gives a thoroughly scriptural sense, and one which exactly fits into the context. Christ becomes the great shepherd solely through the blood of the covenant. Comp. Acts 20:28. Through this is brought about the new relation of the church with God described in Hebrews 8:10ff. This tallies perfectly with the conception of “the God of peace”; and the great Shepherd will assert the power of the eternal covenant of reconciliation and peace by perfecting his flock in every good work to do his will, working in them that which is well pleasing in his sight. With this agree Jeremiah 50:5, Jeremiah 50:19; Ezekiel 34:25, and the entire chapter, see especially Ezekiel 34:12-15, Ezekiel 34:23, Ezekiel 34:31. In these verses the Shepherd of the Covenant appears as guiding, tending his flock, and leading them into fair and safe pastures. Comp. Isaiah 63:11-14, and Revelation 7:17, see note on ποιμανεῖ shallshepherd. Ἑν αἵματι “in the blood,” is in virtue of, or in the power of the blood. [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Whose is [ωι εστιν]
“To whom (dative) is,” that is to Jesus Christ the immediate antecedent, but in Romans 16:27; Judges 1:25 the doxology is to God through Christ. For other doxologies see 1 Peter 5:11; 2 Peter 3:18; Galatians 1:5; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; Philemon 4:20; Ephesians 3:21; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12. The others addressed to Christ are 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Revelation 1:6. [source]
1 Peter 4:18 And if the righteous is scarcely saved [και ει ο δικαιος μολις σωζεται]
First-class condition again with ει — ei and present passive indicative of σωζω — sōzō Quotation from Proverbs 11:31. See 1 Peter 3:12, 1 Peter 3:14; Matthew 5:20. But the Christian is not saved by his own righteousness (Philemon 3:9; Revelation 7:14). For μολις — molis see Acts 14:18 and for ασεβης — asebēs (ungodly, without reverence) see Romans 4:5; 2 Peter 2:5. [source]
1 Peter 1:2 The foreknowledge [προγνωσιν]
Late substantive (Plutarch, Lucian, papyri) from προγινωσκω — proginōskō (1 Peter 1:20), to know beforehand, only twice in N.T. (here and Acts 2:23 in Peter‘s sermon). In this Epistle Peter often uses substantives rather than verbs (cf. Romans 8:29).Of God the Father (τεου πατρος — theou patros). Anarthous again and genitive case. See πατηρ — patēr applied to God also in 1 Peter 1:3, 1 Peter 1:17 as often by Paul (Romans 1:7, etc.). Peter here presents the Trinity (God the Father, the Spirit, Jesus Christ).In sanctification of the Spirit Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like τεου πατρος — theou patros Late word from αγιαζω — hagiazō to render holy Obedience (from υπακουω — hupakouō to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1 Peter 1:22 “to the truth,” result of “the sanctification.”And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ Late substantive from ραντιζω — rantizō to sprinkle (Hebrews 9:13), a word used in the lxx of the sacrifices (Num 19:9, 13, 20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Hebrews 9:19.; Hebrews 12:24 with allusion to Exodus 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Revelation 7:14.; Revelation 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon προγνωσις τεου αγιασμος πνευματοσ αιμα Χριστου — prognōsis theouπλητυντειη — hagiasmos pneumatosπλητυνω — haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.Be multiplied (πλητυς — plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of χαρις και ειρηνη — plēthunō old verb (from ελεος — plēthus fulness), in a wish. So in 2 Peter 1:2; Judges 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (ελεος — charis kai eirēnē) occur together in 2 Peter 1:2, in 2 John 1:2 (with eleos), and in all Paul‘s Epistles (with eleos added in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy). [source]
1 Peter 1:2 In sanctification of the Spirit [εν αγιασμωι πνευματος]
Clearly the Holy Spirit, though anarthrous like τεου πατρος — theou patros Late word from αγιαζω — hagiazō to render holy Obedience (from υπακουω — hupakouō to hear under, to hearken) to the Lord Jesus as in 1 Peter 1:22 “to the truth,” result of “the sanctification.”And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ Late substantive from ραντιζω — rantizō to sprinkle (Hebrews 9:13), a word used in the lxx of the sacrifices (Num 19:9, 13, 20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Hebrews 9:19.; Hebrews 12:24 with allusion to Exodus 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Revelation 7:14.; Revelation 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon προγνωσις τεου αγιασμος πνευματοσ αιμα Χριστου — prognōsis theouπλητυντειη — hagiasmos pneumatosπλητυνω — haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.Be multiplied (πλητυς — plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of χαρις και ειρηνη — plēthunō old verb (from ελεος — plēthus fulness), in a wish. So in 2 Peter 1:2; Judges 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (ελεος — charis kai eirēnē) occur together in 2 Peter 1:2, in 2 John 1:2 (with eleos), and in all Paul‘s Epistles (with eleos added in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy). [source]
1 Peter 1:2 And sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ [ραντισμον αιματος Ιησου Χριστου]
Late substantive from ραντιζω — rantizō to sprinkle (Hebrews 9:13), a word used in the lxx of the sacrifices (Num 19:9, 13, 20, etc.), but not in any non-biblical source so far as known, in N.T. only here and Hebrews 12:24 (of the sprinkling of blood). Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross and to the ratification of the New Covenant by the blood of Christ as given in Hebrews 9:19.; Hebrews 12:24 with allusion to Exodus 24:3-8. Paul does not mention this ritual use of the blood of Christ, but Jesus does (Matthew 26:28; Mark 14:24). Hence it is not surprising to find the use of it by Peter and the author of Hebrews. Hort suggests that Peter may also have an ulterior reference to the blood of the martyrs as in Revelation 7:14.; Revelation 12:11, but only as illustration of what Jesus did for us, not as having any value. The whole Epistle is a commentary upon προγνωσις τεου αγιασμος πνευματοσ αιμα Χριστου — prognōsis theouπλητυντειη — hagiasmos pneumatosπλητυνω — haima Christou (Bigg). Peter is not ashamed of the blood of Christ.Be multiplied (πλητυς — plēthuntheiē). First aorist passive optative (volitive) of χαρις και ειρηνη — plēthunō old verb (from ελεος — plēthus fulness), in a wish. So in 2 Peter 1:2; Judges 1:2, but nowhere else in N.T. salutations. Grace and peace (ελεος — charis kai eirēnē) occur together in 2 Peter 1:2, in 2 John 1:2 (with eleos), and in all Paul‘s Epistles (with eleos added in 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy). [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Speaking as it were oracles of God [ως λογια τεου]
No predicate in this conclusion of the condition. For λογια τεου — logia theou see Acts 7:38 (Mosaic law); Romans 3:2 (the Old Testament); Hebrews 5:12 (the substance of Christian teaching), here of the utterances of God through Christian teachers. Λογιον — Logion (old word) is a diminutive of λογος — logos (speech, word). It can be construed here as nominative or as accusative. The verb has to be supplied.If any one ministereth (ει τις διακονει — ei tis diakonei). First-class condition again. See Acts 6:2-4 for the twofold division of service involved here.Which God supplieth Ablative case Peter has the compound επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:11. God is the supplier of strength.That God may be glorified (ινα δοχαζηται ο τεος — hina doxazētai ho theos). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō See John 15:8.Whose is “To whom (dative) is,” that is to Jesus Christ the immediate antecedent, but in Romans 16:27; Judges 1:25 the doxology is to God through Christ. For other doxologies see 1 Peter 5:11; 2 Peter 3:18; Galatians 1:5; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; Philemon 4:20; Ephesians 3:21; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12. The others addressed to Christ are 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Revelation 1:6. [source]
1 Peter 4:11 Which God supplieth [ης χορηγει ο τεος]
Ablative case Peter has the compound επιχορηγεω — epichorēgeō in 2 Peter 1:5, 2 Peter 1:11. God is the supplier of strength.That God may be glorified (ινα δοχαζηται ο τεος — hina doxazētai ho theos). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the present passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō See John 15:8.Whose is “To whom (dative) is,” that is to Jesus Christ the immediate antecedent, but in Romans 16:27; Judges 1:25 the doxology is to God through Christ. For other doxologies see 1 Peter 5:11; 2 Peter 3:18; Galatians 1:5; Romans 9:5; Romans 11:36; Philemon 4:20; Ephesians 3:21; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:16; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12. The others addressed to Christ are 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Revelation 1:6. [source]
1 John 4:14 The Savior of the world []
See the same phrase, John 4:42, and compare John 3:17. Σωτήρ Savioroccurs in John only here and John 4:42. Elsewhere it is applied both to God (1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3; Titus 1:3; Titus 2:10; Titus 3:4; Judges 1:25), and to Christ (Luke 2:11; Acts 5:31; Acts 13:23; 2 Timothy 1:10; Titus 1:4, etc.). The title is found in Paul's Epistles of the Captivity (Ephesians 5:23; Philemon 3:20), and in the Pastorals (see above), but not in Corinthians, Romans, Galatians, or Thessalonians. In classical writings the term is applied to many deities, especially to Zeus (Jupiter); also to Hermes (Mercury), Apollo, Hercules, and even to female deities, as Fortune and Aphrodite (Venus). “Zeus Soter” (Zeus Savior) was used as a formula in drinking at banquets. The third cup was dedicated to him. Compare Plato: “Then, by way of a third libation to the savior Zeus, let us sum up and reassert what has been said” (“Philebus,” 66). The drinking of this cup was a symbol of good fortune, and the third time came to mean the lucky time. “Twice then has the just man overthrown the unjust; and now comes the third trial, which, after Olympic fashion, is sacred to Zeus the savior, … and surely this will prove the greatest and most decisive of falls” (Plato, “Republic,” 583). Hence the proverb, τὸ τρίτον τῳ σωτῆρι , lit., the third to the savior; i.e., the third or lucky time. The name was also given later to princes or public benefactors. The kindred noun σωτηρία salvationdoes not occur in John's Epistles, and appears only once in the Gospel (John 4:22). It is found thrice in Revelation (Revelation 7:10; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 19:1). Σώζειν tosave occurs six times in John's Gospel, and once in Revelation (Revelation 21:24). It does not appear in the Epistles. [source]
Jude 1:12 Shepherds that feed themselves [εαυτους ποιμαινοντες]
“Shepherding themselves.” Cf. Revelation 7:17 for this use of ποιμαινω — poimainō Clouds without water Νεπελη — Nephelē common word for cloud (Matthew 24:30). 2 Peter 2:17 has πηγαι ανυδροι — pēgai anudroi (springs without water) and then ομιχλαι — homichlai (mists) and ελαυνομεναι — elaunomenai (driven) rather than περιπερομεναι — peripheromenai here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of περιπερω — peripherō to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes. [source]
Jude 1:12 When they feast with you [συνευωχουμενοι]
See 2 Peter 2:13 for this very word and form. Masculine gender with ουτοι οι — houtoi hoi rather than with the feminine σπιλαδες — spilades Cf. Revelation 11:4. Construction according to sense.Shepherds that feed themselves (εαυτους ποιμαινοντες — heautous poimainontes). “Shepherding themselves.” Cf. Revelation 7:17 for this use of ποιμαινω — poimainō Clouds without water (νεπελαι ανυδροι — nephelai anudroi). Νεπελη — Nephelē common word for cloud (Matthew 24:30). 2 Peter 2:17 has πηγαι ανυδροι — pēgai anudroi (springs without water) and then ομιχλαι — homichlai (mists) and ελαυνομεναι — elaunomenai (driven) rather than περιπερομεναι — peripheromenai here (borne around, whirled around, present passive participle of περιπερω — peripherō to bear around), a powerful picture of disappointed hopes.Autumn trees Late adjective (Aristotle, Polybius, Strabo) from πτινω — phthinō to waste away, and οπωρα — opōra autumn, here only in N.T. For ακαρπα — akarpa (without fruit) see 2 Peter 1:8.Twice dead (δις αποτανοντα — dis apothanonta). Second aorist active participle of αποτνησκω — apothnēskō Fruitless and having died. Having died and also “uprooted” (εκριζωτεντα — ekrizōthenta). First aorist passive participle of εκριζοω — ekrizoō late compound, to root out, to pluck up by the roots, as in Matthew 13:29. [source]
Revelation 4:2 One sitting []
He is called henceforward throughout the book He that sitteth on the throne, and is distinguished from the Son in Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10, and from the Holy Spirit in Revelation 4:5. He is commonly understood to be God the Father; but some understand the triune God. [source]
Revelation 22:14 That do His commandments [οἱ ποιοῦντες τὰς ἐντολὰς αὐτοῦ]
Read οἱ πλύνοντες τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶν theythat wash their robes. Compare Revelation 7:14. [source]
Revelation 2:27 Shall rule [ποιμανεῖ]
Lit., shall shepherd. A comparison with Revelation 7:17, brings out the terrible irony in this word. Compare Psalm 2:9, Sept., where the same word is used. A.V., break. See on rule, Matthew 2:6; see on feed, Acts 20:28; see on 1 Peter 5:2; see on Judges 1:12. [source]
Revelation 16:5 The angel of the waters []
Set over the waters as other angels over the winds (Revelation 7:1) and over the fire (Revelation 14:18). [source]
Revelation 12:12 Dwell [σκηνοῦντες]
See on John 1:14. Compare Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6; Revelation 21:3. [source]
Revelation 1:6 Glory and dominion [ἡ δόξα καὶ τὸ κράτος]
Rev., correctly, rendering the two articles, “the glory and the dominion.” The articles express universality: all glory; that which everywhere and under every form represents glory and dominion. The verb be (the glory) is not in the text. We may render either as an ascription, be, or as a confession, is. The glory is His. Δόξα glorymeans originally opinion or judgment. In this sense it is not used in Scripture. In the sacred writers always of a good or favorable opinion, and hence praise, honor, glory (Luke 14:10; Hebrews 3:3; 1 Peter 5:4). Applied to physical objects, as light, the heavenly bodies (Acts 22:11; 1 Corinthians 15:40). The visible brightness in manifestations of God (Luke 2:9; Acts 7:55; Luke 9:32; 2 Corinthians 3:7). Magnificence, dignity (Matthew 4:8; Luke 4:6). Divine majesty or perfect excellence, especially in doxologies, either of God or Christ (1 Peter 4:11; Judges 1:25; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:11; Matthew 16:27; Mark 10:37; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 4:4). The glory or majesty of divine grace (Ephesians 1:6, Ephesians 1:12, Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; 1 Timothy 1:11). The majesty of angels (Luke 9:26; Judges 1:8; 2 Peter 2:10). The glorious condition of Christ after accomplishing His earthly work, and of the redeemed who share His eternal glory (Luke 24:26; John 17:5; Philemon 3:21; 1 Timothy 3:16; Romans 8:18, Romans 8:21; Romans 9:23; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Colossians 1:27).| Trench remarks upon the prominence of the doxological element in the highest worship of the Church as contrasted with the very subordinate place which it often occupies in ours. “We can perhaps make our requests known unto God, and this is well, for it is prayer; but to give glory to God, quite apart from anything to be directly gotten by ourselves in return, this is better, for it is adoration.” Dr. John Brown in his Memoir of his father, one of the very finest biographical sketches in English literature, records a formula used by him in closing his prayers on specially solemn occasions: “And now unto Thee, O Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, the one Jehovah and our God, we would - as is most meet - with the Church on earth and the Church in heaven, ascribe all honor and glory, dominion and majesty, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end, Amen” (“Horae Subsecivae”). Compare the doxologies in |1 Peter 4:11|; |Galatians 1:5|; |Revelation 4:9|, |Revelation 4:11|; |Revelation 5:13|; |Revelation 7:12|; |Judges 1:25|; |1 Chronicles 29:11|.|Forever and ever ( εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων )|Lit., unto the ages of the ages. For the phrase compare Galatians 1:5; Hebrews 13:21; 1 Peter 4:11. It occurs twelve times in Revelation, but not in John's Gospel or Epistles. It is the formula of eternity.|Amen ( ἀμὴν )|The English word is a transcription of the Greek and of the Hebrew. A verbal adjective, meaning firm, faithful. Hence ὁ ἀμὴν , the Amen, applied to Christ (Revelation 3:14). It passes into an adverbial sense by which something is asserted or confirmed. Thus often used by Christ, verily. John alone uses the double affirmation, verily, verily. See on John 1:51; see on John 10:1.| [source]
Revelation 1:6 And he made [και εποιησεν]
Change from the participle construction, which would be και ποιησαντι — kai poiēsanti (first aorist active of ποιεω — poieō) like λυσαντι — lusanti just before, a Hebraism Charles calls it, but certainly an anacoluthon of which John is very fond, as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:2, Revelation 2:9, Revelation 2:20; Revelation 3:9; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 14:2.; Revelation 15:3. [source]
Revelation 1:6 To him [αυτωι]
Another doxology to Christ. “The adoration of Christ which vibrates in this doxology is one of the most impressive features of the book” (Moffatt). Like doxologies to Christ appear in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10; 1 Peter 4:11; 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21. These same words (η δοχα και το κρατος — hē doxa kai to kratos) in 1 Peter 4:11, only η δοχα — hē doxa in 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18, but with several others in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Arrayed with a cloud [περιβεβλημενον νεπελην]
Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō with accusative case retained as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds (Revelation 1:7) as he ascended on a cloud (Acts 1:9). God‘s chariot is in the clouds (Psalm 104:3), but this angel is a special messenger of God‘s. [source]
Revelation 11:3 Clothed [περιβλημενους]
Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō as often before (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1, etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative plural in ους — ̇ous while C has the nominative in οι — ̇oi Charles suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a primitive error in early MSS. for the dative περιβεβλεμενοις — peribeblemenois agreeing with μαρτυσιν — martusin sackcloth Accusative retained with this passive verb as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. See Revelation 6:12 for σακκος — sakkos and also Matthew 3:4. The dress suited the message (Matthew 11:21). [source]
Revelation 11:19 Was opened [ηνοιγη]
Second aorist passive indicative of ανοιγω — anoigō with augment on the preposition as in Revelation 15:5. For the sanctuary (ναος — naos) of God in heaven see Revelation 3:12; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 15:5.; Revelation 21:22. [source]
Revelation 12:10 The salvation [η σωτηρια]
Here “the victory” as in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:1. [source]
Revelation 12:12 Therefore [δια τουτο]
“For this reason” as in Revelation 7:15; Revelation 18:8 (15 times in John‘s Gospel, Charles notes). It points back to Revelation 12:10. [source]
Revelation 14:1 The Lamb [το αρνιον]
See Revelation 5:6; Revelation 7:17; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 13:8 and is in contrast with the anarthrous αρνιον — arnion in Revelation 13:11. This proleptic vision of the Lamb “standing on the mount Zion” These victors have the name of the Lamb and God upon their foreheads as in Revelation 3:12; Revelation 22:4, in place of the mark of the beast above (Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:11). This seal protects them (Revelation 9:4). [source]
Revelation 15:5 Was opened [ηνοιγη]
Second aorist passive indicative of ανοιγω — anoigō as in Revelation 11:19. For ναος — naos see Revelation 3:12; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 14:15, Revelation 14:17; Revelation 16:1, Revelation 16:17. [source]
Revelation 16:5 The angel of the waters [του αγγελου τον υδατων]
Genitive case object of ηκουσα — ēkousa See Revelation 7:1 for the four angels in control of the winds and Revelation 14:18 for the angel with power over fire. The rabbis spoke also of an angel with power over the earth and another over the sea. [source]
Revelation 1:5 The first-born of the dead [ο πρωτοτοκος των νεκρων]
A Jewish Messianic title (Psalm 89:27) and as in Colossians 1:18 refers to priority in the resurrection to be followed by others. See Luke 2:7 for the word.The ruler of the kings of the earth (ο αρχων των βασιλεων της γης — ho archōn tōn basileōn tēs gēs). Jesus by his resurrection won lordship over the kings of earth (Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:16), what the devil offered him by surrender (Matthew 4:8.).Unto him that loveth us Dative of the articular present (not aorist αγαπησαντι — agapēsanti) active participle of αγαπαω — agapaō in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God and to Christ (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12.; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:12, etc.). For the thought see John 3:16.Loosed (λυσαντι — lusanti). First aorist active participle of λυω — luō (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read λουσαντι — lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always.By his blood As in Revelation 5:9. John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption. [source]
Revelation 1:5 Unto him that loveth us [τωι αγαπωντι ημας]
Dative of the articular present (not aorist αγαπησαντι — agapēsanti) active participle of αγαπαω — agapaō in a doxology to Christ, the first of many others to God and to Christ (Revelation 1:6; Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12.; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:12, etc.). For the thought see John 3:16.Loosed (λυσαντι — lusanti). First aorist active participle of λυω — luō (Aleph A C), though some MSS. (P Q) read λουσαντι — lousanti (washed), a manifest correction. Note the change of tense. Christ loosed us once for all, but loves us always.By his blood As in Revelation 5:9. John here as in the Gospel and Epistles states plainly and repeatedly the place of the blood of Christ in the work of redemption. [source]
Revelation 1:6 Kingdom [βασιλειαν]
So correctly Aleph A C, not βασιλεις — basileis (P cursives). Perhaps a reminiscence of Exodus 19:6, a kingdom of priests. In Revelation 5:10 we have again “a kingdom and priests.” The idea here is that Christians are the true spiritual Israel in God‘s promise to Abraham as explained by Paul in Gal 3; Rom 9.To be priests (ιερεις — hiereis). In apposition with βασιλειαν — basileian but with και — kai (and) in Revelation 5:10. Each member of this true kingdom is a priest unto God, with direct access to him at all times.Unto his God and Father Dative case and αυτου — autou (Christ) applies to both τεωι — theōi and πατρι — patri Jesus spoke of the Father as his God (Matthew 27:46; John 20:17) and Paul uses like language (Ephesians 1:17), as does Peter (1 Peter 1:3).To him (αυτωι — autōi). Another doxology to Christ. “The adoration of Christ which vibrates in this doxology is one of the most impressive features of the book” (Moffatt). Like doxologies to Christ appear in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10; 1 Peter 4:11; 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21. These same words (η δοχα και το κρατος — hē doxa kai to kratos) in 1 Peter 4:11, only η δοχα — hē doxa in 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18, but with several others in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10. [source]
Revelation 19:4 Fell down and worshipped God [επεσαν και προσεκυνησαν τωι τεωι]
Precisely as in Revelation 7:11, which see. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures take up the antiphonal chorus of the angels. [source]
Revelation 2:27 He shall rule [ποιμανει]
Future active of ποιμαινω — poimainō to shepherd (from ποιμην — poimēn shepherd), also from Psalm 2:8. See again Revelation 7:17; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15. [source]
Revelation 20:10 They shall be tormented [βασανιστησονται]
Return to the prophetic future of Revelation 20:7, Revelation 20:8. For βασανιζω — basanizō see Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:10. For “day and night” (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos) see Revelation 4:8; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:11. For “for ever and ever” (εις τους αιωνας τον αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas ton aiōnōn) see Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 11:15, etc. The devil was cast down from heaven (Revelation 12:9), then imprisoned (Revelation 20:2.), now he received his final doom. [source]
Revelation 21:3 And he shall dwell with them [και σκηνωσει μετ αυτων]
Future active of σκηνοω — skēnoō already in Revelation 7:15 from Ezekiel 37:27; Zechariah 2:10; Zechariah 8:8 and used of the Incarnate Christ on earth by John (John 1:14), now a blessed reality of the Father. The metaphor stands for the Shekinah Glory of God in the old tabernacle (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6; Revelation 15:5), the true tabernacle of which it was a picture (Hebrews 8:2; Hebrews 9:11). God is now Immanuel in fact, as was true of Christ (Matthew 1:23). [source]
Revelation 21:4 Shall wipe away every tear from their eyes [εχαλειπσει παν δακρυον εκ των οπταλμων αυτων]
More exactly, “shall wipe out every tear out of their eyes” (repetition of εχ — ex) like a tender mother as in Revelation 7:17 (Isaiah 25:8). There is no more that ought to cause a tear, for death (τανατος — thanatos) is no more, mourning (πεντος — penthos), associated with death and crying (κραυγη — kraugē wailing), and pain (πονος — ponos as in Revelation 16:10) are all gone. There is peace and bliss. [source]
Revelation 1:6 Unto his God and Father [τωι τεωι και πατρι αυτου]
Dative case and αυτου — autou (Christ) applies to both τεωι — theōi and πατρι — patri Jesus spoke of the Father as his God (Matthew 27:46; John 20:17) and Paul uses like language (Ephesians 1:17), as does Peter (1 Peter 1:3).To him (αυτωι — autōi). Another doxology to Christ. “The adoration of Christ which vibrates in this doxology is one of the most impressive features of the book” (Moffatt). Like doxologies to Christ appear in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10; 1 Peter 4:11; 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18; Hebrews 13:21. These same words (η δοχα και το κρατος — hē doxa kai to kratos) in 1 Peter 4:11, only η δοχα — hē doxa in 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Timothy 4:18, but with several others in Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:10. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Coming down out of heaven [καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου]
Present active participle of καταβαινω — katabainō picturing the process of the descent as in Revelation 20:1 (cf. Revelation 3:12).Arrayed with a cloud (περιβεβλημενον νεπελην — peribeblēmenon nephelēn). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō with accusative case retained as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds (Revelation 1:7) as he ascended on a cloud (Acts 1:9). God‘s chariot is in the clouds (Psalm 104:3), but this angel is a special messenger of God‘s.The rainbow See Revelation 4:3 for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.As the sun (ως ο ηλιος — hōs ho hēlios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in Revelation 1:16.As pillars of fire Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in Revelation 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος — stulos see Revelation 3:12; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Revelation 10:2 Open [ηνεωιγμενον]
See Ezekiel 2:9. Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle of ανοιγω — anoigō in contrast to the closed book in Revelation 5:1. There also we have επι — epi (upon) την δεχιαν — tēn dexian (the right hand), for it was a large roll, but here the little open roll is held in the hand First aorist active indicative of τιτημι — tithēmi The size of the angel is colossal, for he bestrides both land and sea. Apparently there is no special point in the right foot (τον ποδα τον δεχιον — ton poda ton dexion) being on the sea (επι της ταλασσης — epi tēs thalassēs) and the left (τον ευωνυμον — ton euōnumon) upon the land (επι της γης — epi tēs gēs). It makes a bold and graphic picture.As a lion roareth Only instance of ωσπερ — hōsper in the Apocalypse, but ως — hōs in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of μυκαομαι — mukaomai an old onomatopoetic word from μυ — mu or μοο — moo (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin mugire, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in 1 Peter 5:8 we have ωρυομαι — ōruomai Homer uses μυκαομαι — mukaomai for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 5:2, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2, Revelation 7:10, etc. [source]
Revelation 10:2 As a lion roareth [ωσπερ λεων μυκαται]
Only instance of ωσπερ — hōsper in the Apocalypse, but ως — hōs in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of μυκαομαι — mukaomai an old onomatopoetic word from μυ — mu or μοο — moo (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin mugire, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in 1 Peter 5:8 we have ωρυομαι — ōruomai Homer uses μυκαομαι — mukaomai for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 5:2, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2, Revelation 7:10, etc. [source]
Revelation 11:1 Like a rod [ομοιος ραβδωι]
See Revelation 2:27; Mark 6:8 for ραβδος — rabdos one said “Saying” (present active masculine participle of λεγω — legō) is all that the Greek has. The participle implies εδωκεν — edōken (he gave), not εδοτη — edothē a harsh construction seen in Genesis 22:20; Genesis 38:24, etc.Rise and measure (εγειρε και μετρησον — egeire kai metrēson). Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 21:5 Behold, I make all things new [Ιδου καινα ποιω παντα]
The first time since Revelation 1:8 that God has been represented as speaking directly, though voices have come out of the throne before (Revelation 21:3) and out of the sanctuary (Revelation 16:1, Revelation 16:17), which may be from God himself, though more likely from one of the angels of the Presence. This message is not addressed to John (Revelation 7:14; Revelation 17:7; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:6), but to the entire world of the blessed. See Isaiah 43:18. for the words The idea of a new heaven and a new earth is in Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22; Psalm 102:25. For the locative here with επι — epi See Revelation 20:11 for the picture. [source]
Revelation 11:1 Rise and measure [εγειρε και μετρησον]
Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 11:3 Unto my two witnesses [τοις δυσιν μαρτυσιν μου]
Dative case after δωσω — dōsō The article seems to point to two well-known characters, like Elijah, Elisha, but there is no possible way to determine who they are. All sorts of identifications have been attempted.Clothed (περιβλημενους — periblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō as often before (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1, etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative plural in ους — ̇ous while C has the nominative in οι — ̇oi Charles suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a primitive error in early MSS. for the dative περιβεβλεμενοις — peribeblemenois agreeing with μαρτυσιν — martusin sackcloth (σακκους — sakkous). Accusative retained with this passive verb as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. See Revelation 6:12 for σακκος — sakkos and also Matthew 3:4. The dress suited the message (Matthew 11:21). [source]
Revelation 11:16 The four and twenty elders [οι εικοσι τεσσαρες πρεσβυτεροι]
They follow the living creatures (Revelation 11:15, if correctly interpreted) in their adoration, as in Revelation 4:9. Though seated on thrones of their own (Revelation 4:4), yet they fall upon their faces in every act of worship to God and Christ (Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8, Revelation 5:14; Revelation 19:4). Here επι τα προσωπα αυτων — epi ta prosōpa autōn (upon their faces) is added as in Revelation 7:11 about the angels. The elders here again represent the redeemed, as the four living creatures the forces of nature, in the great thanksgiving here (ευχαριστουμεν — eucharistoumen present active indicative of ευχαριστεω — eucharisteō). [source]
Revelation 12:10 Now is come [αρτι εγενετο]
Αρτι — Arti (John 13:33) shows how recent the downfall of Satan here proleptically pictured as behind us in time (aorist tense εγενετο — egeneto).The salvation (η σωτηρια — hē sōtēria). Here “the victory” as in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:1.The power Gods power over the dragon (cf. Revelation 7:12; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 19:1).The kingdom (η βασιλεια — hē basileia). “The empire of God” as in Revelation 11:15.The authority of his Christ Which Christ received from the Father (Matthew 28:18; John 17:2). See Revelation 11:15 (Psalm 2:2) for “his Anointed.”The accuser (ο κατηγωρ — ho katēgōr). The regular form, κατηγορος — katēgoros occurs in John 8:10; Acts 23:30, Acts 23:35; Acts 25:16, Acts 25:18 and in many MSS. here in Revelation 12:10, but A reads κατηγωρ — katēgōr which Westcott and Hort accept. It was once considered a Greek transliteration of a Hebrew word, but Deissmann (Light, etc., p. 93f.) quotes it from a vernacular magical papyrus of the fourth century a.d. with no sign of Jewish or Christian influence, just as διακων — diakōn appears as a vernacular form of διακονος — diakonos Only here is the word applied to Satan in the N.T. In late Judaism Satan is the accuser, and Michael the defender, of the faithful.Of our brethren The saints still on earth battling with Satan and his devices.Which accuseth them (ο κατηγορων αυτους — ho katēgorōn autous). Articular present active participle of κατηγορεω — katēgoreō old verb, to accuse, usually with the genitive of the person (John 5:45), but here with the accusative. This is the devil‘s constant occupation (Job 1:6.).Day and night Genitive of time. “By day and by night.” [source]
Revelation 21:6 I am the Alpha and the Omega [Εγω το Αλπα και το Ο]
God is the bountiful Giver (James 1:5, James 1:17) of the Water of Life. See Revelation 7:17; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17 for this metaphor, which is based on Isaiah 55:1. It is God‘s own promise For this partitive use of εκ — ek see Matthew 25:8, without εκ — ek Revelation 2:17.Freely See Matthew 10:8; John 4:10; Romans 3:24; Acts 8:20; Revelation 22:17. [source]
Revelation 21:12 Having a wall great and high [εχουσα τειχος μεγα και υπσηλον]
John returns, after the parenthesis in Revelation 21:11, to the structure in Revelation 21:10, only to use the accusative εχουσαν — echousan as before to agree with πολιν — polin but the nominative εχουσα — echousa as again with “twelve gates” Πυλων — Pulōn is an old word (from πυλη — pulē gate) for a large gate as in Luke 16:20 and six times in Rev for the gate tower of a city wall (Revelation 21:12, Revelation 21:13, Revelation 21:15, Revelation 21:21, Revelation 21:25; Revelation 22:14) as in 1 Kings 17:10; Acts 14:13. See Ezekiel 48:31. for these twelve gates, one for each tribe (cf. Revelation 7:1-8). [source]
Revelation 22:3 Shall do him service [λατρευω]
Future active of αυτωι — latreuō linear idea, “shall keep on serving.” See Revelation 7:15 for present active indicative of this same verb with the dative autōi as here, picturing the worship of God in heaven. See Revelation 22:1 for “the throne of God and of the Lamb.” [source]
Revelation 3:5 Shall be arrayed [περιβαλειται]
Future middle indicative of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling around one, here and in Revelation 4:4 with εν — en and the locative, but usually in this book with the accusative of the thing, retained in the passive or with the middle (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:13). [source]
Revelation 12:10 The power [η δυναμις]
Gods power over the dragon (cf. Revelation 7:12; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 19:1).The kingdom (η βασιλεια — hē basileia). “The empire of God” as in Revelation 11:15.The authority of his Christ Which Christ received from the Father (Matthew 28:18; John 17:2). See Revelation 11:15 (Psalm 2:2) for “his Anointed.”The accuser (ο κατηγωρ — ho katēgōr). The regular form, κατηγορος — katēgoros occurs in John 8:10; Acts 23:30, Acts 23:35; Acts 25:16, Acts 25:18 and in many MSS. here in Revelation 12:10, but A reads κατηγωρ — katēgōr which Westcott and Hort accept. It was once considered a Greek transliteration of a Hebrew word, but Deissmann (Light, etc., p. 93f.) quotes it from a vernacular magical papyrus of the fourth century a.d. with no sign of Jewish or Christian influence, just as διακων — diakōn appears as a vernacular form of διακονος — diakonos Only here is the word applied to Satan in the N.T. In late Judaism Satan is the accuser, and Michael the defender, of the faithful.Of our brethren The saints still on earth battling with Satan and his devices.Which accuseth them (ο κατηγορων αυτους — ho katēgorōn autous). Articular present active participle of κατηγορεω — katēgoreō old verb, to accuse, usually with the genitive of the person (John 5:45), but here with the accusative. This is the devil‘s constant occupation (Job 1:6.).Day and night Genitive of time. “By day and by night.” [source]
Revelation 12:11 Because of the blood of the Lamb [δια το αιμα του αρνιου]
As in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:14. The blood of Christ is here presented by δια — dia as the ground for the victory and not the means, as by εν — en in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9. Both ideas are true, but δια — dia with the accusative gives only the reason. The blood of Christ does cleanse us from sin (John 1:29; 1 John 1:7). Christ conquered Satan, and so makes our victory possible (Luke 11:21.; Hebrews 2:18). “Thus the Lamb is the true συνηγορος — sunēgoros (like Michael) of the New Israel, its παρακλητος προς τον πατερα — paraklētos pros ton patera (1 John 2:1)” (Swete).Because of the Word of their testimony (δια τον λογον της μαρτυριας αυτων — dia ton logon tēs marturias autōn). The same use of δια — dia “because of their testimony to Jesus” as in John‘s own case in Revelation 1:9. These martyrs have been true to their part.They loved not their life even unto death First aorist active indicative of αγαπαω — agapaō They did resist “unto blood” Jesus himself had been “obedient unto death” (Philemon 2:8). These martyrs seem to be still alive on earth, but their heroism is proleptically pictured. [source]
Revelation 12:12 Rejoice [ευπραινεστε]
Present middle imperative of ευπραινω — euphrainō as in Revelation 11:10; Revelation 18:20.O heavens (οι ουρανοι — hoi ouranoi). Plural here alone in the Apocalypse, though common elsewhere in the N.T. Satan is no longer in the heavens.They that dwell therein Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 12:12 They that dwell therein [οι εν αυτοις σκηνουντες]
Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 4:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
Change in the panorama, not chronology (Revelation 7:1, Revelation 7:9; Revelation 15:5; Revelation 18:1; Revelation 19:1). This vision is of heaven, not of earth as was true of chapters Rev 1; 2. The first vision of Christ and the messages to the seven churches began in Revelation 1:12. This new vision of the throne in heaven (Revelation 4:1-11) succeeds that to which it here alludes. [source]
Revelation 4:2 Upon the throne [Επι]
επι του τρονου — Epi with the accusative, as in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4.; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 20:4, but in Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:15 we have επι τωι τρονωι — epi tou thronou (genitive), while in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5 we have epi tōi thronōi (locative) with no great distinction in the resultant idea. [source]
Revelation 4:4 In white garments [ιματιοις λευκοις]
Locative case here as in Revelation 3:5 (with εν — en), though accusative in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.Crowns of gold (στεπανους χρυσους — stephanous chrusous). Accusative case again like πρεσβυτερους — presbuterous after ειδον — eidon (Revelation 4:1), not ιδου — idou In Revelation 19:14 εχων — echōn (having) is added. John uses διαδημα — diadēma (diadem) for the kingly crown in Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12, but it is not certain that the old distinction between διαδεμ — diadem as the kingly crown and στεπανος — stephanos as the victor‘s wreath is always observed in late Greek. [source]
Revelation 13:1 Upon the sand [επι την αμμον]
The accusative case as in Revelation 7:1; Revelation 8:3, etc. Αμμος — Ammos is an old word for sand, for innumerable multitude in Revelation 20:8.Out of the sea (εκ της ταλασσης — ek tēs thalassēs). See Revelation 11:7 for “the beast coming up out of the abyss.” The imagery comes from Daniel 7:3. See also Revelation 17:8. This “wild beast from the sea,” as in Daniel 7:17, Daniel 7:23, is a vast empire used in the interest of brute force. This beast, like the dragon (Revelation 12:3), has ten horns and seven heads, but the horns are crowned, not the heads. The Roman Empire seems to be meant here (Revelation 17:9, Revelation 17:12). On “diadems” (διαδηματα — diadēmata) see Revelation 12:3, only ten here, not seven as there.Names of blasphemy See Revelation 17:3 for this same phrase. The meaning is made plain by the blasphemous titles assumed by the Roman emperors in the first and second centuries, as shown by the inscriptions in Ephesus, which have τεος — theos constantly applied to them. [source]
Revelation 13:6 Against God [προς τον τεον]
“Face to face with God” in sheer defiance, like Milton‘s picture of Satan in Paradise Lost. See Daniel 7:25; Daniel 8:10. The aorist ηνοιχεν — ēnoixen is probably constative, for he repeated the blasphemies, though the phrase This verse explains Revelation 13:5. The Roman emperors blasphemously assumed divine names in public documents. They directed their blasphemy against heaven itself (“his tabernacle,” την σκηνην αυτου — tēn skēnēn autou Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 21:3) and against “them that dwell in the heaven” (τους εν τωι ουρανωι σκηνουντας — tous en tōi ouranōi skēnountas), the same phrase of Revelation 12:12 (either angels or the redeemed or both). [source]
Revelation 16:9 With great heat [καυμα μεγα]
Cognate accusative retained with the passive verb. Old word (from καιω — kaiō to burn), in N.T. only Revelation 7:16 and here. For blaspheming the name of God see Revelation 13:6; James 2:7; Romans 2:24; 1 Timothy 6:1. They blamed God for the plagues.They repented not (ου μετενοησαν — ou metenoēsan). This solemn negative aorist of μετανοεω — metanoeō is a refrain like a funeral dirge (Revelation 9:20.; Revelation 16:11). In Revelation 11:13 some did repent because of the earthquake. Even deserved punishment may harden the heart.To give him glory Second aorist active infinitive of διδωμι — didōmi almost result. For the phrase see Revelation 11:13; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 19:7. [source]
Revelation 20:8 Which are in the four corners of the earth [τα εν ταις τεσσαρσι γωνιαις της γης]
Clearly the reign with Christ, if on earth, was not shared in by all on earth, for Satan finds a large and ready following on his release. See Revelation 7:1 (Isaiah 11:12) for “the four corners of the earth.”Gog and Magog (τον Γωγ και Μαγωγ — ton Gōg kai Magōg). Accusative in explanatory apposition with τα ετνη — ta ethnē (the nations). Magog is first mentioned in Genesis 10:2. The reference here seems to be Ezekiel 38:2, where both are mentioned. Josephus (Ant. I. 6. 1) identifies Magog with the Scythians, with Gog as their prince. In the rabbinical writings Gog and Magog appear as the enemies of the Messiah. Some early Christian writers thought of the Goths and Huns, but Augustine refuses to narrow the imagery and sees only the final protest of the world against Christianity.To gather them together to the war Second aorist active infinitive of purpose of συναγω — sunagō a congenial task for Satan after his confinement. See Revelation 16:14 for this very phrase and also Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:19.Of whom (ωναυτων — hōn- ως η αμμος της ταλασσης — autōn). Pleonasm or redundant pronoun as in Revelation 3:8 and often (of whom - of them).As the sand of the sea Already in Revelation 13:1. Clearly then the millennium, whatever it is, does not mean a period when Satan has no following on earth, for this vast host rallies at once to his standard. [source]
Revelation 20:10 Into the lake of fire and brimstone [εις την λιμνην του πυρος και τειου]
As in Revelation 19:20 with the two beasts, as he adds, “where are also the beast and the false prophet” Return to the prophetic future of Revelation 20:7, Revelation 20:8. For βασανιζω — basanizō see Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:10. For “day and night” (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos) see Revelation 4:8; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:11. For “for ever and ever” (εις τους αιωνας τον αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas ton aiōnōn) see Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 11:15, etc. The devil was cast down from heaven (Revelation 12:9), then imprisoned (Revelation 20:2.), now he received his final doom. [source]
Revelation 5:5 One of the elders [εις εκ των πρεσβυτερων]
“One from among the elders” of Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:10 No particular reason for one elder as the agent over another (Revelation 7:13). [source]
Revelation 5:8 He had taken [ελαβεν]
Here John drops back to the narrative tense (the second aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō), not the past perfect as the English rendering might indicate, merely “when he took.” For like vivid variation (not confusion) of tenses with ειληπεν — eilēphen see Revelation 3:3; Revelation 8:5; Revelation 11:17 and with ειρηκα — eirēka in Revelation 7:13.; Revelation 19:3. [source]
Revelation 6:11 A white robe [στολη λευκη]
Old word from στελλω — stellō to equip, an equipment in clothes, a flowing robe (Mark 12:38). For the white robe for martyrs see Revelation 3:4.; Revelation 4:4; Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 19:14. [source]
Revelation 7:1 After this [μετα τουτο]
Instead of the seventh seal (Revelation 8:1) being opened, two other episodes or preliminary visions occupy chapter 7 (the sealing of the servants of God Revelation 7:1-8 and the vision of the redeemed before the throne Revelation 7:9-17). [source]
Revelation 7:9 In white robes [ποινικες]
Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]
Revelation 7:10 Salvation [η σωτηρια]
As in Revelation 12:10; Revelation 19:1. Nominative absolute. Salvation here is regarded as an accomplished act on the part of those coming out of the great tribulation (Revelation 7:14) and the praise for it is given to God Both God and Christ are thus called σωτηρ — sōtēr as in the Pastoral Epistles, as to God (1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3; Titus 1:3; Titus 3:4) and to Christ (Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6). For η σωτηρια — hē sōtēria see John 4:22; Acts 4:12; Judges 1:3. [source]
Revelation 20:11 A great white throne [τρονον μεγαν λευκον]
Here μεγαν — megan (great) is added to the throne pictures in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 20:4. The scene is prepared for the last judgment often mentioned in the N.T. (Matt 25:31-46; Romans 14:10; 2 Corinthians 5:10). “The absolute purity of this Supreme Court is symbolized by the colour of the Throne” (Swete) as in Daniel 7:9; Psalm 9:1; Psalm 97:2. The name of God is not mentioned, but the Almighty Father sits upon the throne (Revelation 4:2., Revelation 4:9; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7, Revelation 5:13; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10, Revelation 7:15; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5), and the Son sits there with him (Hebrews 1:3) and works with the Father (John 5:19-21; John 10:30; Matthew 25:31.; Acts 17:31; 2 Corinthians 5:10; 2 Timothy 4:1). [source]
Revelation 22:1 A river of water of life [ποταμον υδατος ζωης]
For υδωρ ζωης — hudōr zōēs (water of life) see Revelation 7:17; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17; John 4:14. There was a river in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:10). The metaphor of river reappears in Zechariah 14:8; Ezekiel 47:9, and the fountain of life in Joel 3:18; Jeremiah 2:13; Proverbs 10:11; Proverbs 13:14; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 16:22; Psalm 36:10.Bright as crystal (λαμπρον ως κρυσταλλον — lampron hōs krustallon). See Revelation 4:6 for κρυσταλλον — krustallon and Revelation 15:6; Revelation 19:8; Revelation 22:16 for λαμπρον — lampron “Sparkling like rock crystal” (Swete), shimmering like mountain water over the rocks.Proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb Cf. Ezekiel 47:1; Zechariah 14:8. Already in Revelation 3:21 Christ is pictured as sharing the Father‘s throne as in Hebrews 1:3. See also Revelation 22:3. This phrase has no bearing on the doctrine of the Procession of the Holy Spirit. [source]
Revelation 22:14 They that wash their robes [οι πλυνοντες τας στολας αυτων]
Present active articular participle of πλυνω — plunō See Revelation 7:14 for this very verb with στολας — stolas while in Revelation 3:4 the negative statement occurs. Cf. 1 Corinthians 6:11.That they may have the right (ινα εσται η εχουσια αυτων — hina estai hē exousia autōn). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the future middle of ειμι — eimi (a common construction in this book, Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:11; Revelation 9:5, Revelation 9:20; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 14:13), that there may be their right.”To come to the tree of life “Over the tree of life.” On εχουσια επι — exousia epi = “power over” see Revelation 6:8; Revelation 13:7; Revelation 16:9; Luke 9:1. On “the tree of life” see Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2.May enter in (εισελτωσιν — eiselthōsin). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of εισερχομαι — eiserchomai parallel with ινα εσται — hina estai (future).By the gates Associative instrumental case of πυλων — pulōn (Revelation 21:12), “by the gate towers.” [source]
Revelation 3:4 Did not defile [ουκ εμολυναν]
First aorist active indicative of μολυνω — molunō (1 Corinthians 8:7; 1 Peter 1:4), pollution.They shall walk (περιπατησουσιν — peripatēsousin). Future active of περιπατεω — peripateō promise of fellowship with Christ (μετ εμου — met' emou with me) “in white” (εν λευκοις — en leukois), as symbols of purity (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13) like the angel (Matthew 28:3), with possibly a reference to Enoch (Genesis 5:22). For they are worthy (οτι αχιοι εισιν — hoti axioi eisin). To walk with Christ, not worthy in the same sense as God and Christ (Revelation 4:11; Revelation 5:9), but in a relative sense. See Revelation 16:6 for bad sense of αχιος — axios f0). [source]
Revelation 3:5 In white garments [εν ιματιοις λευκοις]
Apparently the spiritual bodies in the risen life as in 2 Corinthians 5:1, 2 Corinthians 5:4 and often in Revelation (Revelation 3:4, Revelation 3:5; Revelation 6:11; Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.; Revelation 19:8).I will in no wise blot out (ου μη εχαλειπσω — ou mē exaleipsō). Strong double negative ου μη — ou mē and the first aorist active (or future) of εχαλειπω — exaleiphō old word, to wipe out (Acts 3:19).Of the book of life Ablative case with εκ — ek This divine register first occurs in Exodus 32:32. and often in the O.T. See Luke 10:20; Philemon 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27. The book is in Christ‘s hands (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27).His name (το ονομα αυτου — to onoma autou). The name of the one who overcomes (ο νικων — ho nikōn). Clear reminiscence of the words of Christ about confessing to the Father those who confess him here (Matthew 10:32; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Luke 12:8). Whether John knew the Synoptic Gospels (and why not?) he certainly knew such sayings of Jesus. [source]
Revelation 7:14 And they washed [και επλυναν]
First aorist active indicative of πλυνω — plunō old verb, to wash, in N.T. only Luke 5:2; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 22:14. This change of construction after οι ερχομενοι — hoi erchomenoi from οι πλυνησαντες — hoi plunēsantes to και επλυναν — kai eplunan is common in the Apocalypse, one of Charles‘s Hebraisms, like και εποιησεν — kai epoiēsen in Revelation 1:6 and και πλαναι — kai planāi in Revelation 2:20. [source]
Revelation 7:15 Therefore [δια τουτο]
Because of the washing described in Revelation 7:14. [source]
Revelation 7:17 Every tear [παν δακρυον]
Old word, with other form, δακρυ — dakru in Luke 7:38, Luke 7:44. Note repetition of εκ — ek with οπταλμων — ophthalmōn (out of their eyes). “Words like these of Revelation 7:15-17 must sound as a divine music in the ears of the persecuted. God will comfort as a mother comforts” (Baljon). [source]
Revelation 8:7 Was burnt up [κατεκαη]
Second aorist (effective) passive indicative of κατακαιω — katakaiō old verb to burn down (effective use of κατα — kata up, we say). Repeated here three times for dramatic effect. See Revelation 7:1-3 about the trees and Revelation 9:4 where the locusts are forbidden to injure the grass. [source]
Revelation 9:14 Loose [λυσον]
First aorist (ingressive) active imperative of λυω — luō “let loose.” Another group of four angels (Revelation 7:1) like Acts 12:4, described here “which are bound” Perfect passive articular participle of δεω — deō evidently the leaders of the demonic horsemen (Revelation 9:15.) as the four angels let loose the demonic locusts (Revelation 7:1.), both quaternions agents of God‘s wrath. [source]
Revelation 4:2 Was set [εκειτο]
Imperfect middle of κειμαι — keimai old verb, used as passive of τιτημι — tithēmi As the vision opens John sees the throne already in place as the first thing in heaven. This bold imagery comes chiefly from 1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 6:1.; Ezekiel 1:26-28; Daniel 7:9. One should not forget that this language is glorious imagery, not actual objects in heaven. God is spirit. The picture of God on the throne is common in the O.T. and the N.T. (Matthew 5:34.; Matthew 23:22; Hebrews 1:3 and in nearly every chapter in the Revelation, Revelation 1:4, etc.). The use of κατημενος — kathēmenos (sitting) for the name of God is like the Hebrew avoidance of the name επι τον τρονον — Jahweh and is distinguished from the Son in Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:10.Upon the throne (Επι — epi ton thronon). επι του τρονου — Epi with the accusative, as in Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4.; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 20:4, but in Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:7; Revelation 6:16; Revelation 7:15 we have επι τωι τρονωι — epi tou thronou (genitive), while in Revelation 7:10; Revelation 19:4; Revelation 21:5 we have epi tōi thronōi (locative) with no great distinction in the resultant idea. [source]
Revelation 4:4 Four and twenty thrones [τρονοι εικοσι τεσσαρες]
So P Q, but Aleph A have accusative τρονους — thronous (supply ειδον — eidon from Revelation 4:1) and τεσσαρες — tessares (late accusative in ες — ̇es). This further circle of thrones beyond the great throne.I saw four and twenty elders (εικοσι τεσσαρας πρεσβυτερους — eikosi tessaras presbuterous). No ειδον — eidon in the text, but the accusative case calls for it. Twenty-four as a symbolic number occurs only in this book and only for these elders (Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 11:16; Revelation 19:4). We do not really know why this number is chosen, perhaps two elders for each tribe, perhaps the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles (Judaism and Christianity), perhaps the twenty-four courses of the sons of Aaron (1 Chron 24:1-19), perhaps some angelic rank (Colossians 1:16) of which we know nothing. Cf. Ephesians 2:6.Sitting Upon their thrones.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō (to throw around).In white garments Locative case here as in Revelation 3:5 (with εν — en), though accusative in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.Crowns of gold (στεπανους χρυσους — stephanous chrusous). Accusative case again like πρεσβυτερους — presbuterous after ειδον — eidon (Revelation 4:1), not ιδου — idou In Revelation 19:14 εχων — echōn (having) is added. John uses διαδημα — diadēma (diadem) for the kingly crown in Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12, but it is not certain that the old distinction between διαδεμ — diadem as the kingly crown and στεπανος — stephanos as the victor‘s wreath is always observed in late Greek. [source]
Revelation 4:4 Sitting [κατημενους]
Upon their thrones.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō (to throw around).In white garments Locative case here as in Revelation 3:5 (with εν — en), though accusative in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13.Crowns of gold (στεπανους χρυσους — stephanous chrusous). Accusative case again like πρεσβυτερους — presbuterous after ειδον — eidon (Revelation 4:1), not ιδου — idou In Revelation 19:14 εχων — echōn (having) is added. John uses διαδημα — diadēma (diadem) for the kingly crown in Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:12, but it is not certain that the old distinction between διαδεμ — diadem as the kingly crown and στεπανος — stephanos as the victor‘s wreath is always observed in late Greek. [source]
Revelation 4:6 Like crystal [ομοια κρυσταλλωι]
Associative-instrumental case after ομοια — homoia Old word, from κρυος — kruos (ice and sometimes used for ice), in N.T. only here and Revelation 22:1, not semi-opaque, but clear like rock-crystal.In the midst of the throne (εν μεσωι του τρονου — en mesōi tou thronou). As one looks from the front, really before.Round about the throne Merely an adverb in the locative case (Romans 15:19), as a preposition in N.T. only here, Revelation 5:11; Revelation 7:11. This seems to mean that on each of the four sides of the throne was one of the four living creatures either stationary or moving rapidly round (Ezekiel 1:12.).Four living creatures (τεσσερα ζωα — tessera zōa). Not τηρια — thēria (beasts), but living creatures. Certainly kin to the ζωα — zōa of Ezek 1; Ezekiel 2:1-10 which are cherubim (Ezekiel 10:2, Ezekiel 10:20), though here the details vary as to faces and wings with a significance of John‘s own, probably representing creation in contrast with the redeemed (the elders).Full of eyes Present active participle of γεμω — gemō to be full of, with the genitive, signifying here unlimited intelligence (Beckwith), the ceaseless vigilance of nature (Swete). [source]
Revelation 4:6 Round about the throne [κυκλωι του τρονου]
Merely an adverb in the locative case (Romans 15:19), as a preposition in N.T. only here, Revelation 5:11; Revelation 7:11. This seems to mean that on each of the four sides of the throne was one of the four living creatures either stationary or moving rapidly round (Ezekiel 1:12.).Four living creatures (τεσσερα ζωα — tessera zōa). Not τηρια — thēria (beasts), but living creatures. Certainly kin to the ζωα — zōa of Ezek 1; Ezekiel 2:1-10 which are cherubim (Ezekiel 10:2, Ezekiel 10:20), though here the details vary as to faces and wings with a significance of John‘s own, probably representing creation in contrast with the redeemed (the elders).Full of eyes Present active participle of γεμω — gemō to be full of, with the genitive, signifying here unlimited intelligence (Beckwith), the ceaseless vigilance of nature (Swete). [source]
Revelation 7:9 Standing [εστωτες]
Same form in Revelation 7:1, only nominative masculine plural referring to οχλος — ochlos (masculine singular), construction according to sense like the plural λεγοντων — legontōn with οχλου — ochlou in Revelation 19:1.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō but in the accusative plural (not nominative like εστωτες — hestōtes), a common variation in this book when preceded by ειδον — eidon and ιδου — idou as in Revelation 4:4 (τρονοι πρεσβυτερους — thronoiπεριβεβλημενοι — presbuterous). Charles regards this as a mere slip which would have been changed to στολας λευκας — peribeblēmenoi if John had read the MS. over.In white robes Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]
Revelation 7:10 With a great voice [πωνηι μεγαληι]
As in Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2. “The polyglott multitude shouts its praises as with one voice” (Swete).Salvation (η σωτηρια — hē sōtēria). As in Revelation 12:10; Revelation 19:1. Nominative absolute. Salvation here is regarded as an accomplished act on the part of those coming out of the great tribulation (Revelation 7:14) and the praise for it is given to God (τωι τεωι — tōi theōi dative case) and to the Lamb (τωι αρνιωι — tōi arniōi dative also). Both God and Christ are thus called σωτηρ — sōtēr as in the Pastoral Epistles, as to God (1 Timothy 1:1; 1 Timothy 2:3; Titus 1:3; Titus 3:4) and to Christ (Titus 1:4; Titus 2:13; Titus 3:6). For η σωτηρια — hē sōtēria see John 4:22; Acts 4:12; Judges 1:3. [source]
Revelation 7:14 My lord [Κυριε μου]
“An address of reverence to a heavenly being” (Vincent), not an act of worship on John‘s part.Thou knowest (συ οιδας — su oidas). “At once a confession of ignorance, and an appeal for information” (Swete), not of full confidence like συ οιδας — su oidas in John 21:15.They which come out of the great tribulation Present middle participle with the idea of continued repetition. “The martyrs are still arriving from the scene of the great tribulation” (Charles). Apparently some great crisis is contemplated (Matthew 13:19.; Matthew 24:21; Mark 13:10), though the whole series may be in mind and so may anticipate final judgment.And they washed (και επλυναν — kai eplunan). First aorist active indicative of πλυνω — plunō old verb, to wash, in N.T. only Luke 5:2; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 22:14. This change of construction after οι ερχομενοι — hoi erchomenoi from οι πλυνησαντες — hoi plunēsantes to και επλυναν — kai eplunan is common in the Apocalypse, one of Charles‘s Hebraisms, like και εποιησεν — kai epoiēsen in Revelation 1:6 and και πλαναι — kai planāi in Revelation 2:20.Made them white First aorist active indicative of λευκαινω — leukainō to whiten, old verb from λευκος — leukos (Revelation 7:13), in N.T. only here and Mark 9:3. “Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character and compares the word habit used of dress” (Vincent). The language here comes partly from Genesis 49:11 and partly from Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:14. For the cleansing power of Christ‘s blood see also Romans 3:25; Romans 5:9; Colossians 1:20: Ephesians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:2; Hebrews 9:14; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 22:14. “The aorists look back to the life on earth when the cleansing was effected” (Swete). See Philemon 2:12. for both divine and human aspects of salvation.In the blood of the Lamb (εν τωι αιματι του αρνιου — en tōi haimati tou arniou). There is power alone in the blood of Christ to cleanse from sin (1 John 1:7), not in the blood of the martyrs themselves. The result is “white,” not “red,” as one might imagine. [source]
Revelation 7:14 They which come out of the great tribulation [οι ερχομενοι εκ της τλιπσεως της μεγαλης]
Present middle participle with the idea of continued repetition. “The martyrs are still arriving from the scene of the great tribulation” (Charles). Apparently some great crisis is contemplated (Matthew 13:19.; Matthew 24:21; Mark 13:10), though the whole series may be in mind and so may anticipate final judgment.And they washed (και επλυναν — kai eplunan). First aorist active indicative of πλυνω — plunō old verb, to wash, in N.T. only Luke 5:2; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 22:14. This change of construction after οι ερχομενοι — hoi erchomenoi from οι πλυνησαντες — hoi plunēsantes to και επλυναν — kai eplunan is common in the Apocalypse, one of Charles‘s Hebraisms, like και εποιησεν — kai epoiēsen in Revelation 1:6 and και πλαναι — kai planāi in Revelation 2:20.Made them white First aorist active indicative of λευκαινω — leukainō to whiten, old verb from λευκος — leukos (Revelation 7:13), in N.T. only here and Mark 9:3. “Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character and compares the word habit used of dress” (Vincent). The language here comes partly from Genesis 49:11 and partly from Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:14. For the cleansing power of Christ‘s blood see also Romans 3:25; Romans 5:9; Colossians 1:20: Ephesians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:2; Hebrews 9:14; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 22:14. “The aorists look back to the life on earth when the cleansing was effected” (Swete). See Philemon 2:12. for both divine and human aspects of salvation.In the blood of the Lamb (εν τωι αιματι του αρνιου — en tōi haimati tou arniou). There is power alone in the blood of Christ to cleanse from sin (1 John 1:7), not in the blood of the martyrs themselves. The result is “white,” not “red,” as one might imagine. [source]
Revelation 7:14 Made them white [ελευκαναν]
First aorist active indicative of λευκαινω — leukainō to whiten, old verb from λευκος — leukos (Revelation 7:13), in N.T. only here and Mark 9:3. “Milligan remarks that robes are the expression of character and compares the word habit used of dress” (Vincent). The language here comes partly from Genesis 49:11 and partly from Exodus 19:10, Exodus 19:14. For the cleansing power of Christ‘s blood see also Romans 3:25; Romans 5:9; Colossians 1:20: Ephesians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:2; Hebrews 9:14; 1 John 1:7; Revelation 1:5; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 22:14. “The aorists look back to the life on earth when the cleansing was effected” (Swete). See Philemon 2:12. for both divine and human aspects of salvation.In the blood of the Lamb (εν τωι αιματι του αρνιου — en tōi haimati tou arniou). There is power alone in the blood of Christ to cleanse from sin (1 John 1:7), not in the blood of the martyrs themselves. The result is “white,” not “red,” as one might imagine. [source]
Revelation 7:15 They serve him [λατρευουσιν αυτωι]
Dative case with λατρευω — latreuō (present active indicative, old verb, originally to serve for hire λατρον — latron then service in general, then religious service to God, Matthew 4:10, then in particular ritual worship of the priests, Hebrews 8:5). All the redeemed are priests (Revelation 16:5, Revelation 16:10) in the heavenly temple (Revelation 6:9) as here. But this service is that of spiritual worship, not of external rites (Romans 12:1; Philemon 3:3).Day and night (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos). Genitive of time, “by day and night,” as in Revelation 4:8 of the praise of the four living creatures.Shall spread his tabernacle over them Future (change of tense from present in λατρευουσιν — latreuousin) active of σκηνοω — skēnoō old verb from σκηνος — skēnos (tent, tabernacle), used in John 1:14 of the earthly life of Christ, elsewhere in N.T. only in Rev (Revelation 7:14; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6; Revelation 21:3). In Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6 of those who dwell in tents, here of God spreading his tent “over” (επ αυτους — ep' autous) the redeemed in heaven, in Revelation 21:3 of God tabernacling “with” (μετ αυτων — met' autōn) the redeemed, in both instances a picture of sacred fellowship, and “the further idea of God‘s Presence as a protection from all fear of evil” (Swete) like the overshadowing of Israel by the Shekinah and a possible allusion also to the tents (σκηναι — skēnai) of the feast of tabernacles and to the tent of meeting where God met Moses (Exodus 33:7-11). [source]
Revelation 7:15 Shall spread his tabernacle over them [σκηνωσει επ αυτους]
Future (change of tense from present in λατρευουσιν — latreuousin) active of σκηνοω — skēnoō old verb from σκηνος — skēnos (tent, tabernacle), used in John 1:14 of the earthly life of Christ, elsewhere in N.T. only in Rev (Revelation 7:14; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6; Revelation 21:3). In Revelation 12:12; Revelation 13:6 of those who dwell in tents, here of God spreading his tent “over” (επ αυτους — ep' autous) the redeemed in heaven, in Revelation 21:3 of God tabernacling “with” (μετ αυτων — met' autōn) the redeemed, in both instances a picture of sacred fellowship, and “the further idea of God‘s Presence as a protection from all fear of evil” (Swete) like the overshadowing of Israel by the Shekinah and a possible allusion also to the tents (σκηναι — skēnai) of the feast of tabernacles and to the tent of meeting where God met Moses (Exodus 33:7-11). [source]
Revelation 7:17 Shall be their shepherd [παιμανει αυτους]
“Shall shepherd them,” future active of ποιμαινω — poimainō (from ποιμην — poimēn shepherd), in John 21:16; Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2; Revelation 2:27; Revelation 7:17; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15. Jesus is still the Good Shepherd of his sheep (John 10:11, John 10:14.). Cf. Psalm 23:1.Shall guide them (οδη γησει αυτους — hodē gēsei autous). Future active of οδηγεω — hodēgeō old word (from οδηγος — hodēgos guide, Matthew 15:14), used of God‘s guidance of Israel (Exodus 15:13), of God‘s guidance of individual lives (Psalm 5:9), of the guidance of the Holy Spirit (John 16:13), of Christ‘s own guidance here (cf. John 14:4; Revelation 14:4).Unto fountains of waters of life The language is like that in Isaiah 49:10; Jeremiah 2:13. Note the order, “to life‘s water springs” (Swete) like the Vulgate ad vitae fontes aquarum, with emphasis on ζωης — zōēs (life‘s). For this idea see also John 4:12, John 4:14; John 7:38.; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17. No special emphasis on the plural here or in Revelation 8:10; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:4.And God shall wipe away (και εχαλειπσει ο τεος — kai exaleipsei ho theos). Repeated in Revelation 21:4 from Isaiah 25:8. Future active of εχαλειπω — exaleiphō old compound, to wipe out (εχ — ex), off, away, already in Revelation 3:5 for erasing a name and in Acts 3:19 for removing the stain (guilt) of sin.Every tear Old word, with other form, δακρυ — dakru in Luke 7:38, Luke 7:44. Note repetition of εκ — ek with οπταλμων — ophthalmōn (out of their eyes). “Words like these of Revelation 7:15-17 must sound as a divine music in the ears of the persecuted. God will comfort as a mother comforts” (Baljon). [source]
Revelation 7:17 Unto fountains of waters of life [επι ζωης πηγας υδατων]
The language is like that in Isaiah 49:10; Jeremiah 2:13. Note the order, “to life‘s water springs” (Swete) like the Vulgate ad vitae fontes aquarum, with emphasis on ζωης — zōēs (life‘s). For this idea see also John 4:12, John 4:14; John 7:38.; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:17. No special emphasis on the plural here or in Revelation 8:10; Revelation 14:7; Revelation 16:4.And God shall wipe away (και εχαλειπσει ο τεος — kai exaleipsei ho theos). Repeated in Revelation 21:4 from Isaiah 25:8. Future active of εχαλειπω — exaleiphō old compound, to wipe out (εχ — ex), off, away, already in Revelation 3:5 for erasing a name and in Acts 3:19 for removing the stain (guilt) of sin.Every tear Old word, with other form, δακρυ — dakru in Luke 7:38, Luke 7:44. Note repetition of εκ — ek with οπταλμων — ophthalmōn (out of their eyes). “Words like these of Revelation 7:15-17 must sound as a divine music in the ears of the persecuted. God will comfort as a mother comforts” (Baljon). [source]
Revelation 8:7 Hail and fire mingled with blood [χαλαζα και πυρ μεμιγμενα εν αιματι]
Like the plague of hail and fire in Exodus 9:24. The first four trumpets are very much like the plagues in Egypt, this one like a semitropical thunderstorm (Swete) with blood like the first plague (Exodus 7:17.; Psalm 106:35). The old feminine word χαλαζα — chalaza (hail) is from the verb χαλαω — chalaō to let down (Mark 2:4), in N.T. only in Revelation 8:7; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 16:21. The perfect passive participle μεμιγμενα — memigmena (from μιγνυμι — mignumi to mix) is neuter plural because of πυρ — pur (fire).Were cast (εβλητη — eblēthē). First aorist passive singular because χαλαζα — chalaza and πυρ — pur treated as neuter plural. “The storm flung itself on the earth” (Swete).Was burnt up Second aorist (effective) passive indicative of κατακαιω — katakaiō old verb to burn down (effective use of κατα — kata up, we say). Repeated here three times for dramatic effect. See Revelation 7:1-3 about the trees and Revelation 9:4 where the locusts are forbidden to injure the grass. [source]
Revelation 9:14 Which had the trumpet [ο εχων την σαλπιγγα]
Nominative case in apposition with αγγελωι — aggelōi (dative), the same anomalous phenomenon in Revelation 2:20; Revelation 3:12; Revelation 14:12. Swete treats it as a parenthesis, like Revelation 4:1; Revelation 11:15.Loose (λυσον — luson). First aorist (ingressive) active imperative of λυω — luō “let loose.” Another group of four angels (Revelation 7:1) like Acts 12:4, described here “which are bound” (τους δεδεμενους — tous dedemenous). Perfect passive articular participle of δεω — deō evidently the leaders of the demonic horsemen (Revelation 9:15.) as the four angels let loose the demonic locusts (Revelation 7:1.), both quaternions agents of God‘s wrath.At the great river Euphrates A regular epithet of the Euphrates (Revelation 16:12; Genesis 15:18; Deuteronomy 1:7). It rises in Armenia and joins the Tigris in lower Babylonia, a total length of nearly 1800 miles, the eastern boundary of the Roman Empire next to Parthia. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 7:1 mean?

After these things I saw four angels standing upon the four corners of the earth holding the winds so that no would blow wind on the nor sea any tree
Μετὰ τοῦτο εἶδον τέσσαρας ἀγγέλους ἑστῶτας ἐπὶ τὰς τέσσαρας γωνίας τῆς γῆς κρατοῦντας τοὺς ἀνέμους ἵνα μὴ πνέῃ ἄνεμος ἐπὶ τῆς μήτε θαλάσσης πᾶν δένδρον

Μετὰ  After 
Parse: Preposition
Root: μετά  
Sense: with, after, behind.
τοῦτο  these  things 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
εἶδον  I  saw 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: εἶδον 
Sense: to see with the eyes.
τέσσαρας  four 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: τέσσαρες  
Sense: four.
ἀγγέλους  angels 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ἄγγελος  
Sense: a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God.
ἑστῶτας  standing 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ἵστημι  
Sense: to cause or make to stand, to place, put, set.
ἐπὶ  upon 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐπί  
Sense: upon, on, at, by, before.
τέσσαρας  four 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: τέσσαρες  
Sense: four.
γωνίας  corners 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: γωνία  
Sense: corner.
τῆς  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
γῆς  earth 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: γῆ  
Sense: arable land.
κρατοῦντας  holding 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: κρατέω  
Sense: to have power, be powerful.
ἀνέμους  winds 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ἄνεμος  
Sense: wind, a violent agitation and stream of air.
ἵνα  so  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ἵνα  
Sense: that, in order that, so that.
μὴ  no 
Parse: Adverb
Root: μή 
Sense: no, not lest.
πνέῃ  would  blow 
Parse: Verb, Present Subjunctive Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: πνέω  
Sense: to breathe, to blow.
ἄνεμος  wind 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἄνεμος  
Sense: wind, a violent agitation and stream of air.
μήτε  nor 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: μήτε  
Sense: and not, neither … nor, not so.
θαλάσσης  sea 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: θάλασσα  
Sense: the sea.
πᾶν  any 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: πᾶς  
Sense: individually.
δένδρον  tree 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: δένδρον  
Sense: a tree.