The Meaning of Revelation 18:16 Explained

Revelation 18:16

KJV: And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!

YLT: and saying, Woe, woe, the great city, that was arrayed with fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and gilded in gold, and precious stone, and pearls -- because in one hour so much riches were made waste!

Darby: saying, Woe, woe, the great city, which was clothed with fine linen and purple and scarlet, and had ornaments of gold and precious stones and pearls!

ASV: saying, Woe, woe, the great city, she that was arrayed in fine linen and purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stone and pearl!

What does Revelation 18:16 Mean?

Verse Meaning

The description of the city here is very similar to that of the harlot in Revelation 17:4. One city is in view in both chapters. This dirge begins and ends the same way as that of the kings in Revelation 18:10 did. However the merchants bewail the city"s lost opulence and splendor whereas the kings grieved over its broken strength (cf. Ezekiel 16:23; Ezekiel 28:13).

Context Summary

Revelation 18:14-24 - Fallen Like A Stone Into The Sea
This section delineates the utter desolation which will ensue when the judgments of God have finished their mission against professing but unfaithful Christendom. How near we are at the present hour to their fulfillment, we dare not say. But it often seems as if we are living in the last days of "the times of the Gentiles," and very near the fulfillment of all that is written in this book. It is the universal comment that all religious values are being altered. The church systems, as such, give signs that they are losing their hold on the vast masses of the people, while the heart of man cries out as eagerly as ever for the living God. We can only heed the Lord's command to watch, and see to it that we may be found of Him in peace, and standing patiently at our post. In the meantime events in the distant East are symptomatic of the fig tree putting forth her leaves. See Matthew 24:32. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 18

1  Babylon is fallen
4  People commanded to depart out of her
9  The kings of the earth, with the merchants and mariners, lament over her
20  The saints rejoice for the judgments of God upon her

Greek Commentary for Revelation 18:16

For in one hour so great riches is made desolate [οτι μιαι ωραι ηρημωτη ο τοσουτος πλουτος]
The reason (οτι — hoti) for the “woe.” First aorist passive indicative of ερημοω — erēmoō for which verb see Revelation 17:16; Revelation 18:19. This is the dirge of the merchants. [source]
Decked [κεχρυσωμένη]
See on Revelation 17:4. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 18:16

John 19:2 Purple [πορφυροῦν]
An adjective. Found only here, John 19:5, and Revelation 18:16. Mark uses the noun πορφύρα , purple, which also occurs in Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12. See on Luke 16:19. Matthew has κοκκίνην , scarlet. [source]
John 19:1 Took and scourged [ελαβεν και εμαστιγωσεν]
First aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō and μαστιγοω — mastigoō (from μαστιχ — mastix whip). For this redundant use of λαμβανω — lambanō see also John 19:6. It is the causative use of μαστιγοω — mastigoō for Pilate did not actually scourge Jesus. He simply ordered it done, perhaps to see if the mob would be satisfied with this penalty on the alleged pretender to royalty (Luke 23:22) whom Pilate had pronounced innocent (John 18:38), an illegal act therefore. It was a preliminary to crucifixion, but Jesus was not yet condemned. The Sanhedrin had previously mocked Jesus (Mark 14:65; Matthew 26:67.; Luke 22:63.) as the soldiers will do later (Mark 15:16-19; Matthew 27:27-30). This later mock coronation (Mark and Matthew) was after the condemnation. Plaited a crown of thorns Old verb πλεκω — plekō to weave, in the N.T. only here, Mark 15:17; Matthew 27:19. Not impossible for the mock coronation to be repeated. Arrayed him “Placed around him” (second aorist active indicative of περιβαλλω — periballō). In a purple garment Old adjective πορπυρεος — porphureos from πορπυρα — porphura purple cloth (Mark 15:17, Mark 15:20), dyed in purple, in the N.T. only here and Revelation 18:16. Jesus had been stripped of his outer garment ιματιον — himation (Matthew 27:28) and the scarlet cloak of one of the soldiers may have been put on him (Matthew 27:28). [source]
Revelation 11:8 In [επι]
“Upon,” as in Revelation 11:6, with genitive Clearly Jerusalem in view of the closing clause (οπουεσταυρωτη — hopou- ητις — estaurōthē), though not here called “the holy city” as in Revelation 11:2, and though elsewhere in the Apocalypse Babylon (Rome) is so described (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:18, Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:21).Which Which very city, not “whichever.”Spiritually (πνευματικος — pneumatikōs). This late adverb from πνευματικος — pneumatikos (spiritual) occurs in the N.T. only twice, in 1 Corinthians 2:14 for the help of the Holy Spirit in interpreting God‘s message and here in a hidden or mystical (allegorical sense). For this use of οπου και ο κυριος αυτων εσταυρωτη — pneumatikos see 1 Corinthians 10:3. Judah is called Sodom in Isaiah 1:9.; Ezekiel 16:46, Ezekiel 16:55. See also Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:23. Egypt is not applied to Israel in the O.T., but is “an obvious symbol of oppression and slavery” (Swete).Where also their Lord was crucified First aorist passive indicative of stauroō to crucify, a reference to the fact of Christ‘s crucifixion in Jerusalem. This item is one of the sins of Jerusalem and the disciple is not greater than the Master (John 15:20). [source]
Revelation 11:8 Of the great city [της πολεως της μεγαλης]
Clearly Jerusalem in view of the closing clause (οπουεσταυρωτη — hopou- ητις — estaurōthē), though not here called “the holy city” as in Revelation 11:2, and though elsewhere in the Apocalypse Babylon (Rome) is so described (Revelation 14:8; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 18:2, Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:18, Revelation 18:19, Revelation 18:21). [source]
Revelation 12:12 Rejoice [ευπραινεστε]
Present middle imperative of ευπραινω — euphrainō as in Revelation 11:10; Revelation 18:20.O heavens (οι ουρανοι — hoi ouranoi). Plural here alone in the Apocalypse, though common elsewhere in the N.T. Satan is no longer in the heavens.They that dwell therein Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 12:12 Woe for the earth and for the sea [ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν]
The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.). [source]
Revelation 17:3 Upon a scarlet-coloured beast [επι τηριον κοκκινον]
Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19. [source]
Revelation 17:4 With gold and precious stone and pearls [χρυσιωι και λιτωι τιμιωι και μαργαριταις]
Instrumental case. Χρυσιωι — Chrusiōi is cognate with the participle. Λιτωι τιμιωι — Lithōi timiōi is collective (Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 21:19). There is a ζευγμα — zeugma also with μαργαριταις — margaritais (Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 21:21), for which word see Matthew 7:6. Probably John is thinking of the finery of the temple prostitutes in Asia Minor. [source]
Revelation 17:12 As kings [ως βασιλεις]
Compared to kings (see ως — hōs in Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:6; Revelation 9:7; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 14:3; Revelation 16:21) without identification with the emperors, though succeeding them with “quasi-imperial powers” with the beast.For one hour (μιαν ωραν — mian hōran). Accusative of extent of time, and that a brief time (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19) in comparison with the beast (Revelation 13:2). [source]
Revelation 17:12 For one hour [μιαν ωραν]
Accusative of extent of time, and that a brief time (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19) in comparison with the beast (Revelation 13:2). [source]
Revelation 12:12 They that dwell therein [οι εν αυτοις σκηνουντες]
Present active articular participle of σκηνοω — skēnoō (see Revelation 7:15; Revelation 13:6) to dwell (tabernacle) as of Christ in John 1:14 and of God in Revelation 21:3. The inhabitants of heaven (angels and saints) have cause to rejoice, and earth reason to mourn.Woe for the earth and for the sea (ουαι την γην και την ταλασσαν — ouai tēn gēn kai tēn thalassan). The accusative after ουαι — ouai as in Revelation 8:13, but nominative in Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 in place of the usual dative (Matthew 11:21; Matthew 18:7, etc.).Is gone down Second aorist (effective) active indicative of καταβαινω — katabainō “did go down.”But a short time (ολιγον καιρον — oligon kairon). Accusative of extent of time, “a little time.” The devil‘s departure from his warfare in the heavens reveals (ειδως — eidōs knowing, perfect active participle) to him that his time for doing harm to men is limited, and hence his great wrath (τυμον — thumon boiling rage). [source]
Revelation 15:6 The seven angels [οι επτα αγγελοι]
Those in Revelation 15:1.The seven plagues (τας επτα πληγας — tas hepta plēgas). The bowls are not given them till Revelation 15:7.Arrayed Perfect passive participle of ενδυω — enduō precious stone pure and bright Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often, literally “with a stone pure bright.” For both adjectives together see Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14. Some MSS. read λινον — linon (linen). For λιτον — lithon see Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Ezekiel 28:13.Girt (περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō See Revelation 1:13 for both participles. For στητος — stēthos (breast) see Luke 18:13.With golden girdles Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi as in Revelation 1:13. [source]
Revelation 15:6 Arrayed [ενδεδυμενοι]
Perfect passive participle of ενδυω — enduō precious stone pure and bright Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often, literally “with a stone pure bright.” For both adjectives together see Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14. Some MSS. read λινον — linon (linen). For λιτον — lithon see Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Ezekiel 28:13.Girt (περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō See Revelation 1:13 for both participles. For στητος — stēthos (breast) see Luke 18:13.With golden girdles Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi as in Revelation 1:13. [source]
Revelation 17:3 In the Spirit [εν πνευματι]
Probably his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible (Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2; Revelation 21:10), without Paul‘s uncertainty (2 Corinthians 12:2). Cf. Ezekiel 3:14.; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 11:24.Into a wilderness (εις ερημον — eis erēmon). In Isaiah 21:1 there is το οραμα της ερημου — to horama tēs erēmou (the vision of the deserted one, Babylon), and in Isaiah 14:23 Babylon is called ερημον — erēmon John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon, sees her fate. In Revelation 21:10 he sees the New Jerusalem from a high mountain.Sitting Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 18:8 In one day [εν μιαι ημεραι]
Symbolical term for suddenness like μιαι ωραι — miāi hōrāi in one hour (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19). John has in mind still Isaiah 47:7-9.Shall come (ηχουσιν — hēxousin). Future active of ηκω — hēkō Her plagues are named (death, mourning, famine).She shall be utterly burned Future passive of κατακαιω — katakaiō (perfective use of κατα — kata).With fire (εν πυρι — en puri). “In fire,” as in Revelation 17:16.Which judged her Articular first aorist active participle of κρινω — krinō referring to κυριος ο τεος — kurios ho theos (the Lord God). The doom of Babylon is certain because of the power of God. [source]
Revelation 18:10 Woe, woe, the great city [ουαι ουαι η πολις η μεγαλη]
Only example in the Apocalypse of the nominative with μιαι ωραι — ouai except Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19, though in Luke 6:25 and common in lxx (Isa 5:7, 11, etc.). For the dative see Revelation 8:13, once so “strong” Repeated in Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19, and like ποιαν ωραν — miāi hēmerāi (in one day) in Revelation 18:8. Some MSS. have here ο κρινας — mian hōran like η κρισις σου — poian hōran (accusative of extent of time) in Revelation 3:3. See Revelation 18:8 (ho krinas) for hē krisis sou (thy judgment). This is the dirge of the kings. [source]
Revelation 18:10 In one hour [μιαν ωραν]
Repeated in Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19, and like ποιαν ωραν — miāi hēmerāi (in one day) in Revelation 18:8. Some MSS. have here ο κρινας — mian hōran like η κρισις σου — poian hōran (accusative of extent of time) in Revelation 3:3. See Revelation 18:8 This is the dirge of the kings. [source]
Revelation 18:12 Of fine linen [βυσσινου]
Genitive case after γομον — gomon as are all the items to κοκκινου — kokkinou Old adjective from βυσσος — bussos (linen, Luke 16:19), here a garment of linen, in N.T. only Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14. [source]
Revelation 17:3 Sitting [κατημενην]
Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 17:4 In purple and scarlet [πορπυρουν και κοκκινον]
Accusative retained after this passive verb of clothing, as so often. Πορπυρους — Porphurous is old adjective for purple (from πορπυρα — porphura), in N.T. only here and John 19:2, John 19:5. See preceding verse for κοκκινος — kokkinos Perfect passive participle of χρυσοω — chrusoō old verb, to gild, to adorn with gold, here alone in N.T.With gold and precious stone and pearls (χρυσιωι και λιτωι τιμιωι και μαργαριταις — chrusiōi kai lithōi timiōi kai margaritais). Instrumental case. Χρυσιωι — Chrusiōi is cognate with the participle. Λιτωι τιμιωι — Lithōi timiōi is collective (Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 21:19). There is a ζευγμα — zeugma also with μαργαριταις — margaritais (Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Revelation 21:21), for which word see Matthew 7:6. Probably John is thinking of the finery of the temple prostitutes in Asia Minor.Full of abominations Agreeing with ποτηριον — potērion “cup” (neuter singular accusative). Some MSS. read γεμων — gemōn (nominative masculine like εχων — echōn in Revelation 17:3, quite irregular). For βδελυγματων — bdelugmatōn (genitive after γεμον — gemon) see Matthew 24:15; (Mark 13:14), common in the lxx for idol worship and its defilements (from βδελυσσω — bdelussō to render foul), both ceremonial and moral. See Jeremiah 15:7.Even the unclean things of her fornication (και τα ακαταρτα της πορνειας αυτης — kai ta akatharta tēs porneias autēs). Either the accusative after γεμον — gemon as in Revelation 17:3 (and full of the unclean things of her fornication) or the object of εχουσα — echousa like ποτηριον — potērion f0). [source]
Revelation 17:16 Shall make her desolate and naked [ηρημωμενην ποιησουσιν αυτην και γυμνην]
Future active of ποιεω — poieō and perfect passive predicate accusative participle of ερημοω — erēmoō old verb (from ερημος — erēmos desolate), again in Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19. Γυμνην — Gumnēn (naked) is predicate adjective.Shall eat her flesh (τας σαρκας αυτης παγονται — tas sarkas autēs phagontai). Future middle of the defective verb εστιω — esthiō to eat. Note plural σαρκας — sarkas portions of flesh (James 5:3) as in Psalm 27:2; Micah 3:3.Shall burn her utterly with fire Future active of κατακαιω — katakaiō to burn down (perfective use of καιω — kaiō). John wrote before the days of Alaric, Genseric, Ricimer, Totila, with their hordes which devastated Rome and the west in the fifth and sixth centuries. “No reader of the Decline and Fall can be at a loss for materials which will at once illustrate and justify the general trend of St. John‘s prophecy” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 18:12 Purple [πορπυρας]
Fabric colored with purple dye So the uncials here. Το σηρικον — To sērikon (the silken fabric) occurs in Plutarch, Strabo, Arrian, Lucian, only here in N.T. Probably from the name of the Indian or Chinese people (οι Σηρες — hoi Sēres) from whom the fabric came after Alexander invaded India. Silk was a costly article among the Romans, and for women as a rule.Scarlet See Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16.All thyine wood (παν χυλον τυινον — pan xulon thuinon). Now accusative again without γομον — gomon dependence. An odoriferous North African citrus tree, prized for the colouring of the wood for dining-tables, like a peacock‘s tail or the stripes of a tiger or panther. Here only in N.T.Of ivory Old adjective (from ελεπας — elephas elephant) agreeing with σκευος — skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T. Cf. Ahab‘s ivory palace (1 Kings 22:39).Of marble (μαρμαρου — marmarou). Old word (from μαρμαιρω — marmairō to glisten), genitive after σκευος — skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T. [source]
Revelation 18:12 Scarlet [κοκκινου]
See Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16.All thyine wood (παν χυλον τυινον — pan xulon thuinon). Now accusative again without γομον — gomon dependence. An odoriferous North African citrus tree, prized for the colouring of the wood for dining-tables, like a peacock‘s tail or the stripes of a tiger or panther. Here only in N.T.Of ivory Old adjective (from ελεπας — elephas elephant) agreeing with σκευος — skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T. Cf. Ahab‘s ivory palace (1 Kings 22:39).Of marble (μαρμαρου — marmarou). Old word (from μαρμαιρω — marmairō to glisten), genitive after σκευος — skeuos (vessel), here only in N.T. [source]
Revelation 18:19 They cast dust [εβαλον χουν]
Second aorist active of βαλλω — ballō Χους — Chous is old word (from χεω — cheō to pour) for heap of earth, dust, in N.T. only here and Mark 6:11. Cf. Ezekiel 27:30; Luke 10:13. This is the dirge of the sea-folk (cf. Revelation 18:10, and Revelation 18:16). [source]
Revelation 19:8 In fine linen, bright and pure [βυσσινον λαμπρον καταρον]
See Revelation 19:14 for the same raiment on those accompanying “The Word of God” and for the seven angels in Revelation 15:6. See by contrast the garments of the harlot (Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16). For βυσσινον — bussinon see Revelation 18:16.The righteous acts of the saints (τα δικαιωματα των αγιων — ta dikaiōmata tōn hagiōn). This is the explanation (γαρ — gar) of the bridal dress and explains why there is work for the Bride as well as for Christ (Philemon 2:12.). See Revelation 15:4 for δικαιωμα — dikaiōma (also Romans 5:18). [source]
Revelation 3:5 Shall be arrayed [περιβαλειται]
Future middle indicative of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling around one, here and in Revelation 4:4 with εν — en and the locative, but usually in this book with the accusative of the thing, retained in the passive or with the middle (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:13). [source]
Revelation 7:9 Standing [εστωτες]
Same form in Revelation 7:1, only nominative masculine plural referring to οχλος — ochlos (masculine singular), construction according to sense like the plural λεγοντων — legontōn with οχλου — ochlou in Revelation 19:1.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō but in the accusative plural (not nominative like εστωτες — hestōtes), a common variation in this book when preceded by ειδον — eidon and ιδου — idou as in Revelation 4:4 (τρονοι πρεσβυτερους — thronoiπεριβεβλημενοι — presbuterous). Charles regards this as a mere slip which would have been changed to στολας λευκας — peribeblēmenoi if John had read the MS. over.In white robes Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]
Revelation 7:9 In white robes [ποινικες]
Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]
Revelation 8:13 Flying in mid-heaven [πετομενου εν μεσουρανηματι]
Like the angel in Revelation 14:6 and the birds in Revelation 19:17. Μεσουρανημα — Mesouranēma (from μεσουρανεω — mesouraneō to be in mid-heaven) is a late word (Plutarch, papyri) for the sun at noon, in N.T. only these three examples. This eagle is flying where all can see, and crying so that all can hear.Woe, woe, woe (ουαι ουαι ουαι — ouaiουαι — ouaiτους κατοικουντας — ouai). Triple because three trumpets yet to come. In Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 the double κατοικεω — ouai is merely for emphasis.For them that dwell on the earth Accusative of the articular present active participle of εκ — katoikeō is unusual (Aleph Q here and also in Revelation 12:12) as in Matthew 11:21. There is even a nominative in Revelation 18:10.By reason of the other voices (των τριων αγγελων των μελλοντων σαλπιζειν — ek tōn loipōn phōnōn). “As a result of (ek) the rest of the voices.” There is more and worse to come, “of the three angels who are yet to sound” (tōn triōn aggelōn tōn mellontōn salpizein). [source]
Revelation 8:13 Woe, woe, woe [ουαι ουαι ουαι]
Triple because three trumpets yet to come. In Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19 the double κατοικεω — ouai is merely for emphasis. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 18:16 mean?

saying Woe woe the city - great having been clothed with fine linen and purple scarlet having been adorned with gold stone precious pearl
λέγοντες Οὐαὶ οὐαί πόλις μεγάλη περιβεβλημένη βύσσινον καὶ πορφυροῦν κόκκινον κεχρυσωμένη ἐν χρυσίῳ λίθῳ τιμίῳ μαργαρίτῃ

λέγοντες  saying 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
Οὐαὶ  Woe 
Parse: Interjection
Root: οὐαί  
Sense: alas, woe.
οὐαί  woe 
Parse: Interjection
Root: οὐαί  
Sense: alas, woe.
πόλις  city 
Parse: Noun, Vocative Feminine Singular
Root: πόλις  
Sense: a city.
  - 
Parse: Article, Vocative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
μεγάλη  great 
Parse: Adjective, Vocative Feminine Singular
Root: μέγας  
Sense: great.
περιβεβλημένη  having  been  clothed  with 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Middle or Passive, Vocative Feminine Singular
Root: παρεμβάλλω 
Sense: to throw around, to put around.
βύσσινον  fine  linen 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: βύσσινος 
Sense: a fine linen (garment).
πορφυροῦν  purple 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: πορφύρεος 
Sense: purple, dyed in purple, made of purple fabric.
κόκκινον  scarlet 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: κόκκινος  
Sense: crimson, scarlet coloured.
κεχρυσωμένη  having  been  adorned 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Middle or Passive, Vocative Feminine Singular
Root: χρυσόω  
Sense: to adorn with gold, to gild.
χρυσίῳ  gold 
Parse: Noun, Dative Neuter Singular
Root: χρυσίον  
Sense: gold, both that which lies imbedded in the earth and is dug out of it.
λίθῳ  stone 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: λίθος  
Sense: a stone.
τιμίῳ  precious 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: τίμιος  
Sense: as of great price, precious.
μαργαρίτῃ  pearl 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: μαργαρίτης  
Sense: a pearl.

What are the major concepts related to Revelation 18:16?

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