The Meaning of Revelation 11:3 Explained

Revelation 11:3

KJV: And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

YLT: and I will give to My two witnesses, and they shall prophesy days, a thousand, two hundred, sixty, arrayed with sackcloth;

Darby: And I will give power to my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth.

ASV: And I will give unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth.

What does Revelation 11:3 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Who is speaking in this verse? The speaker seems to be the angel who spoke in Revelation 11:1-2, who here speaks for God (cf. Revelation 11:8).
God did not reveal the identity of the two witnesses. Many commentators believe they will be Moses and Elijah since these men were prophets and performed the kinds of miracles these witnesses will perform ( Revelation 11:6). [1] Others believe they will be Enoch and Elijah since God took these men to heaven without dying. [2] Another reason some believe one of these witnesses will be Elijah is Malachi 4:5, which predicts that Elijah will return before Messiah. [3] Other less literal interpreters think the two witnesses may represent not two individuals but the faithful witness of the church throughout its persecutions. [4] I agree with those who believe that they will be individuals living at this time rather than former prophets brought back to earth for this ministry (cf. Matthew 11:14). [5]
"Nor again can such allegorical interpretations as the Law and the Prophets, the Law and the Gospel, the Old Testament and the New, be maintained in view of all that follows." [6]
They will "prophesy," namely, communicate messages from God. Their ministry will last1 ,260 days (i.e, 42months of30 days per month, or three and a half years; Daniel 12:11). The fact that John sometimes described the Great Tribulation in terms of days, at other times in months, or at still other times in years is probably just for the sake of literary variety. These various ways of describing the period also support the view that the time period will be three and one-half literal years since all three descriptions describe a period exactly that long by Jewish reckoning. This period also appears to be the Great Tribulation (i.e, the last half of Daniel"s seventieth week), the focus of John"s vision in this chapter. [7] Some interpreters, including the early church fathers Victorinus, Hippolytus, and Augustine, believed that the two witnesses would minister in the first half of the Tribulation. [4] Nonetheless, the context strongly favors the last half of the Tribulation.
The two witnesses will wear "sackcloth," the dress that in biblical times signified approaching judgment and needed repentance (cf. Isaiah 22:12; Jeremiah 4:8; Jeremiah 6:26; Jonah 3:5-6; Jonah 3:8; Matthew 11:21).

Context Summary

Revelation 11:1-13 - The "two Witnesses"
We cannot in this brief note indicate the various interpretations of this chapter, but certain great principles underlie it, which are true of every age.
(1) During the darkest ages, men have been raised up to testify against the prevailing corruption of their time, and especially the corruption of the apostate Church. Their opponents have endeavored to silence their voice and blacken their character, but God has ever vindicated them and given life out of death. (2) Always when the enemies of the truth have deemed themselves triumphant, there has been a rekindling of gospel testimony. A few years before Luther appeared, a medal was struck to commemorate the extinction of so-called heresy. (3) Such witness-bearing as is suggested by the comparison with Zechariah's vision, is fed from the heart of Christ. He is the root of the martyr line; His Spirit is the life-breath of His witnesses. All through the centuries, commonly called Christian, though generally very un-Christian, there has been an unbroken succession of pure and noble souls who have stood for Jesus Christ even unto death. Let us dare to stand with them and our Lord, that He may not be ashamed of us at His coming. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 11

1  The two witnesses prophesy
6  They have power to shut heaven so that it rain not
7  The beast shall fight against them, and kill them
8  They lie unburied;
11  and after three and a half days rise again
14  The second woe is past
15  The seventh trumpet sounds

Greek Commentary for Revelation 11:3

I will give [δωσω]
Future active of διδωμι — didōmi The speaker may be God (Beckwith) or Christ (Swete) as in Revelation 2:13; Revelation 21:6 or his angel representative (Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12.). The idiom that follows is Hebraic instead of either the infinitive after διδωμι — didōmi as in Revelation 2:7; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 7:2; Revelation 13:7, Revelation 13:15; Revelation 16:8 or ινα — hina with the subjunctive (Revelation 9:5; Revelation 19:8) we have και προπητευσουσιν — kai prophēteusousin (and they shall prophesy). [source]
Unto my two witnesses [τοις δυσιν μαρτυσιν μου]
Dative case after δωσω — dōsō The article seems to point to two well-known characters, like Elijah, Elisha, but there is no possible way to determine who they are. All sorts of identifications have been attempted.Clothed (περιβλημενους — periblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō as often before (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1, etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative plural in ους — ̇ous while C has the nominative in οι — ̇oi Charles suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a primitive error in early MSS. for the dative περιβεβλεμενοις — peribeblemenois agreeing with μαρτυσιν — martusin sackcloth (σακκους — sakkous). Accusative retained with this passive verb as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. See Revelation 6:12 for σακκος — sakkos and also Matthew 3:4. The dress suited the message (Matthew 11:21). [source]
Clothed [περιβλημενους]
Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō as often before (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1, etc.). But Aleph A P Q here read the accusative plural in ους — ̇ous while C has the nominative in οι — ̇oi Charles suggests a mere slip for the nominative, but Hort suggests a primitive error in early MSS. for the dative περιβεβλεμενοις — peribeblemenois agreeing with μαρτυσιν — martusin sackcloth Accusative retained with this passive verb as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. See Revelation 6:12 for σακκος — sakkos and also Matthew 3:4. The dress suited the message (Matthew 11:21). [source]
Power []
Omit. [source]
Two witnesses []
The reader may profitably consult on this point the lectures of Professor Milligan on the Revelation of St. John. He maintains that the conception of the Apocalypse is powerfully molded by John's recollections of the life of Jesus; that there is a close parallelism between the Apocalypse and the delineation of the life of Christ contained in the fourth Gospel; and that the Apocalypse is, in the deeper conceptions which pervade it, a repetition of the Gospel. See pp. 59-69. [source]
They shall prophesy [προφητεύσουσιν]
See on prophet, Luke 7:26. Commonly explained of preaching repentance, though some take it in the later sense of foretelling future events. [source]
Clothed in sackcloth []
The garb of preachers of repentance. Compare Isaiah 22:12; Jeremiah 4:8; Jonah 3:5; Matthew 3:4. For sackcloth see on Luke 10:13. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 11:3

Revelation 5:11 Thousands [χιλιάδες]
Χιλιάς , a collective term like, μυριάς , meaning the number one thousand, is almost invariably used with men in Revelation. See Revelation 7:4; Revelation 11:13. Only once with a material object (Revelation 21:16). With inferior objects χίλιοι athousand is used. See Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:6. These words are the theme of Alford's noble hymn - “Ten thousand times ten thousandIn sparkling raiment bright, The armies of the ransomed saints-DIVIDER-
Throng up the steeps of light:-DIVIDER-
'Tis finished, all is finished,-DIVIDER-
Their fight with death and sin;-DIVIDER-
Fling open wide the golden gates,And let the victors in.” [source]

Revelation 2:7 Will I give []
This phrase has a place in every one of these Epistles. The verb is John's habitual word for the privileges and functions of the Son, whether as bestowed upon Him by the Father, or dispensed by Him to His followers. See John 3:35; John 5:22, John 5:27, John 5:36; John 6:65; John 13:3; John 17:6. Compare Revelation 2:23; Revelation 3:8; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 11:3. [source]
Revelation 11:2 Forty and two months []
A period which appears in three forms in Revelation: forty-two months (Revelation 13:5); twelve hundred and sixty days (Revelation 11:3, Revelation 12:6); a time, times and half a time, or three years and a half (Revelation 12:14, compare Daniel 7:25; Daniel 12:7) [source]
Revelation 11:1 Like a rod [ομοιος ραβδωι]
See Revelation 2:27; Mark 6:8 for ραβδος — rabdos one said “Saying” (present active masculine participle of λεγω — legō) is all that the Greek has. The participle implies εδωκεν — edōken (he gave), not εδοτη — edothē a harsh construction seen in Genesis 22:20; Genesis 38:24, etc.Rise and measure (εγειρε και μετρησον — egeire kai metrēson). Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 11:1 Rise and measure [εγειρε και μετρησον]
Present active imperative of εγειρω — egeirō (intransitive, exclamatory use as in Mark 2:11) and first aorist active imperative of μετρεω — metreō In Ezekiel 42:2. the prophet measures the temple and that passage is probably in mind here. But modern scholars do not know how to interpret this interlude (Revelation 11:1-13) before the seventh trumpet (Revelation 11:15). Some (Wellhausen) take it to be a scrap from the Zealot party before the destruction of Jerusalem, which event Christ also foretold (Mark 13:2; Matthew 24:2; Luke 21:6) and which was also attributed to Stephen (Acts 6:14). Charles denies any possible literal interpretation and takes the language in a wholly eschatological sense. There are three points in the interlude, however understood: the chastisement of Jerusalem or Israel (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:2), the mission of the two witnesses (Revelation 11:3-12), the rescue of the remnant (Revelation 11:13). There is a heavenly sanctuary (Revelation 7:15; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 14:15, etc.), but here ναος — naos is on earth and yet not the actual temple in Jerusalem (unless so interpreted). Perhaps here it is the spiritual (Revelation 3:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Corinthians 3:16.; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 2:19.). For altar (τυσιαστηριον — thusiastērion) see Revelation 8:3. Perhaps measuring as applied to “them that worship therein” (τους προσκυνουντας εν αυτωι — tous proskunountas en autōi) implies a word like numbering, with an allusion to the 144,000 in chapter 7 (a zeugma). [source]
Revelation 11:2 Forty and two months [μηνας τεσσερακοντα και δυο]
Accusative of extent of time. This period in Daniel 7:25; Daniel 12:7. It occurs in three forms in the Apocalypse (forty-two months, here and Revelation 13:5; 1260 days, Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:6; time, times and half a time or 3-1/2 years, Revelation 12:14 and so in Daniel). This period, however its length may be construed, covers the duration of the triumph of the Gentiles, of the prophesying of the two witnesses, of the sojourn of the woman in the wilderness. [source]
Revelation 11:10 They shall send gifts to one another [πεμπω]
Future active of αλληλοις — pempō with dative εβασανισαν — allēlois Just as we see it done in Esther 9:19, Esther 9:22; Nehemiah 8:10, Nehemiah 8:12.Tormented (βασανιζω — ebasanisan). First aorist active indicative of οτι — basanizō for which see Revelation 9:5. This is the reason (hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer will have to endure the prophecies (Revelation 11:3.) and dread miracles (Revelation 11:5.) of these two prophets. “Such a sense of relief is perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 11:10 Tormented [βασανιζω]
First aorist active indicative of οτι — basanizō for which see Revelation 9:5. This is the reason (hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer will have to endure the prophecies (Revelation 11:3.) and dread miracles (Revelation 11:5.) of these two prophets. “Such a sense of relief is perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 16:19 Was divided into three parts [εγενετο εις τρια μερη]
“Came into three parts” In Revelation 11:3 a tenth part of the city fell. Babylon (Rome) is meant (Revelation 17:18). [source]
Revelation 11:2 Leave without [εκβαλε εχωτεν]
Literally, “cast without” (second aorist active imperative of εκβαλλω — ekballō not measure it Prohibition with μη — mē and the first aorist active (ingressive) subjunctive of μετρεω — metreō This outer court is left to its fate. In Herod‘s temple the outer court was marked off from the inner by “the middle wall of partition” Future active of πατεω — pateō here to trample with contempt as in Luke 21:24, even the holy city (Matthew 4:5; Isaiah 48:2; Nehemiah 11:1). Charles thinks that only the heavenly city can be so called here (Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10; Revelation 22:19) because of Luke 11:8 (Sodom and Gomorrah). But the language may be merely symbolical. See Daniel 9:24.Forty and two months Accusative of extent of time. This period in Daniel 7:25; Daniel 12:7. It occurs in three forms in the Apocalypse (forty-two months, here and Revelation 13:5; 1260 days, Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:6; time, times and half a time or 3-1/2 years, Revelation 12:14 and so in Daniel). This period, however its length may be construed, covers the duration of the triumph of the Gentiles, of the prophesying of the two witnesses, of the sojourn of the woman in the wilderness. [source]
Revelation 11:9 Do look upon [βλεπουσιν]
Present (vivid dramatic) active indicative of βλεπω — blepō days and a half Accusative of extent of time. ημισυ — Hēmisu is neuter singular though ημερας — hēmeras (days) is feminine as in Mark 6:23; Revelation 12:14. The days of the gloating over the dead bodies are as many as the years of the prophesying by the witnesses (Revelation 11:3), but there is no necessary correspondence (day for a year). This delight of the spectators “is represented as at once fiendish and childish” (Swete).Suffer not (ουκ απιουσιν — ouk aphiousin). Present active indicative of απιω — aphiō late form for απιημι — aphiēmi as in Mark 1:34 (cf. απεις — apheis in Revelation 2:20). This use of απιημι — aphiēmi with the infinitive is here alone in the Apocalypse, though common elsewhere (John 11:44, John 11:48; John 12:7; John 18:8).Their dead bodies “Their corpses,” plural here, though singular just before and in Revelation 11:8.To be laid in a tomb (τετηναι εις μνημα — tethēnai eis mnēma). First aorist passive of τιτημι — tithēmi to place. Μνημα — Mnēma (old word from μιμνησκω — mimnēskō to remind) is a memorial, a monument, a sepulchre, a tomb (Mark 5:3). “In a country where burial regularly took place on the day of death the time of exposure and indignity would be regarded long” (Beckwith). See Tobit 1:18ff. [source]
Revelation 11:10 Rejoice [χαιρουσιν]
Present active indicative of χαιρω — chairō them Locative (or dative) case with επι — epi as in Revelation 10:11.Make merry (ευπραινονται — euphrainontai). Present middle indicative of ευπραινω — euphrainō old verb (ευ πρην — euδωρα πεμπσουσιν αλληλοις — phrēn jolly mind), as in Luke 15:32; Revelation 12:12; Revelation 18:20. Jubilant jollification over the cessation of the activity of the two prophets.They shall send gifts to one another Future active of αλληλοις — pempō with dative εβασανισαν — allēlois Just as we see it done in Esther 9:19, Esther 9:22; Nehemiah 8:10, Nehemiah 8:12.Tormented (βασανιζω — ebasanisan). First aorist active indicative of οτι — basanizō for which see Revelation 9:5. This is the reason (hoti) of the fiendish glee of Jew and Gentile, who no longer will have to endure the prophecies (Revelation 11:3.) and dread miracles (Revelation 11:5.) of these two prophets. “Such a sense of relief is perhaps not seldom felt today by bad men when a preacher of righteousness or a signal example of goodness is removed” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 2:7 The spirit [το πνευμα]
The Holy Spirit as in Revelation 14:13; Revelation 22:17. Both Christ and the Holy Spirit deliver this message. “The Spirit of Christ in the prophet is the interpreter of Christ‘s voice” (Swete).To him that overcometh (τωι νικωντι — tōi nikōnti). Dative of the present (continuous victory) active articular participle of νικαω — nikaō a common Johannine verb (John 16:33; 1 John 2:13; 1 John 4:4; 1 John 5:4.; Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:11, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:26; Revelation 3:5, Revelation 3:12, Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:5; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 17:14; Revelation 21:7). Faith is dominant in Paul, victory in John, faith is victory (1 John 5:4). So in each promise to these churches.I will give Future active of διδωμι — didōmi as in Revelation 2:10, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:23, Revelation 2:26, Revelation 2:28; Revelation 3:8, Revelation 3:21; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 21:6.To eat (παγειν — phagein). Second aorist active infinitive of εστιω — esthiō the tree of life (εκ του χυλου της ζωης — ek tou xulou tēs zōēs). Note εκ — ek with the ablative with παγειν — phagein like our “eat of” (from or part of). From Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22. Again in Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14 as here for immortality. This tree is now in the Garden of God. For the water of life see Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17 (Cf. John 4:10, John 4:13.).Which The χυλον — xulon (tree).In the Paradise of God (εν τωι παραδεισωι του τεου — en tōi paradeisōi tou theou). Persian word, for which see Luke 23:43; 2 Corinthians 12:4. The abode of God and the home of the redeemed with Christ, not a mere intermediate state. It was originally a garden of delight and finally heaven itself (Trench), as here. [source]
Revelation 3:5 Shall be arrayed [περιβαλειται]
Future middle indicative of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling around one, here and in Revelation 4:4 with εν — en and the locative, but usually in this book with the accusative of the thing, retained in the passive or with the middle (Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:13). [source]
Revelation 7:9 In white robes [ποινικες]
Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]
Revelation 2:7 I will give [δωσω]
Future active of διδωμι — didōmi as in Revelation 2:10, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:23, Revelation 2:26, Revelation 2:28; Revelation 3:8, Revelation 3:21; Revelation 6:4; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 21:6.To eat (παγειν — phagein). Second aorist active infinitive of εστιω — esthiō the tree of life (εκ του χυλου της ζωης — ek tou xulou tēs zōēs). Note εκ — ek with the ablative with παγειν — phagein like our “eat of” (from or part of). From Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22. Again in Revelation 22:2, Revelation 22:14 as here for immortality. This tree is now in the Garden of God. For the water of life see Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:17 (Cf. John 4:10, John 4:13.).Which The χυλον — xulon (tree).In the Paradise of God (εν τωι παραδεισωι του τεου — en tōi paradeisōi tou theou). Persian word, for which see Luke 23:43; 2 Corinthians 12:4. The abode of God and the home of the redeemed with Christ, not a mere intermediate state. It was originally a garden of delight and finally heaven itself (Trench), as here. [source]
Revelation 7:9 Standing [εστωτες]
Same form in Revelation 7:1, only nominative masculine plural referring to οχλος — ochlos (masculine singular), construction according to sense like the plural λεγοντων — legontōn with οχλου — ochlou in Revelation 19:1.Arrayed (περιβεβλημενους — peribeblēmenous). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō but in the accusative plural (not nominative like εστωτες — hestōtes), a common variation in this book when preceded by ειδον — eidon and ιδου — idou as in Revelation 4:4 (τρονοι πρεσβυτερους — thronoiπεριβεβλημενοι — presbuterous). Charles regards this as a mere slip which would have been changed to στολας λευκας — peribeblēmenoi if John had read the MS. over.In white robes Predicate accusative retained with this passive verb of clothing as in Revelation 7:13; Revelation 10:1; Revelation 11:3; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Revelation 19:13.Palms (ιδου — phoinikes). Nominative again, back to construction with ειδον — idou not eidon Old word, in N.T. only here for palm branches and John 12:13 for palm trees. Both these and the white robes are signs of victory and joy. [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 11:3 mean?

And I will grant to the two witnesses of me they will prophesy days a thousand two hundred sixty clothed in sackcloth
καὶ δώσω τοῖς δυσὶν μάρτυσίν μου προφητεύσουσιν ἡμέρας χιλίας διακοσίας ἑξήκοντα περιβεβλημένοι σάκκους

δώσω  I  will  grant 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
τοῖς  to  the 
Parse: Article, Dative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
δυσὶν  two 
Parse: Adjective, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: δύο 
Sense: the two, the twain.
μάρτυσίν  witnesses 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: μάρτυς 
Sense: a witness.
μου  of  me 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 1st Person Singular
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
προφητεύσουσιν  they  will  prophesy 
Parse: Verb, Future Indicative Active, 3rd Person Plural
Root: προφητεύω  
Sense: to prophesy, to be a prophet, speak forth by divine inspirations, to predict.
ἡμέρας  days 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: ἡμέρα  
Sense: the day, used of the natural day, or the interval between sunrise and sunset, as distinguished from and contrasted with the night.
χιλίας  a  thousand 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: χίλιοι  
Sense: a thousand.
διακοσίας  two  hundred 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: διακόσιοι  
Sense: two hundred.
ἑξήκοντα  sixty 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: ἑξήκοντα  
Sense: sixty.
περιβεβλημένοι  clothed  in 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Middle or Passive, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: παρεμβάλλω 
Sense: to throw around, to put around.
σάκκους  sackcloth 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: σάκκος  
Sense: a sack.