The Meaning of Revelation 1:1 Explained

Revelation 1:1

KJV: The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

YLT: A revelation of Jesus Christ, that God gave to him, to shew to his servants what things it behoveth to come to pass quickly; and he did signify it, having sent through his messenger to his servant John,

Darby: Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave to him, to shew to his bondmen what must shortly take place; and he signified it, sending by his angel, to his bondman John,

ASV: The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show unto his servants, even the things which must shortly come to pass: and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John;

What does Revelation 1:1 Mean?

Verse Meaning

God wanted the bond-servants of Jesus Christ (cf. Revelation 22:6; Acts 2:18) to have this revelation of things that will happen soon.
"If we are having difficulty with this blessed closing book of God"s holy Word, let us surrender ourselves to Jesus Christ as His servants. The book was written to bondservants." [1]
The idea behind the Greek words translated "shortly" (en tachei) is probably that the events to be revealed will appear soon rather than speedily.
". . . the view that sees en tachei meaning "soon" and thereby focuses on the imminence of the predicted events is impressive. A major thrust of Revelation is its emphasis upon the shortness of time before the fulfillment. In the midst of persecution God"s people do not have long to wait for relief to come. To say that the relief will come "suddenly" offers no encouragement, but to say that it will come "soon" does....
"The presence of en tachei in Revelation 1:1 shows that for the first time the events predicted by Daniel and foreseen by Christ stood in readiness to be fulfilled. Therefore, John could speak of them as imminent, but earlier prophets could not." [2]
There are many similarities between how John wrote Revelation and how Daniel wrote the book that bears his name. Both prophecies deal with God"s sovereign rule over world history.
Jesus Christ communicated this revelation to an angel (Gabriel? cf. Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21-22; Luke 1:26-31) who passed it on to the Apostle John. This is the first of some67 references to angels (messengers) in Revelation. John used the traditional title of bond-servant (slave) to describe his relationship to Jesus Christ, as did all the other apostles (cf. Romans 1:1; Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:1; James 1:1; 2 Peter 1:1; Jude 1:1). The chain of communication was from God the Father to Jesus to an angel to John and to Christians.

Context Summary

Revelation 1:1-8 - The Revelation Of Jesus Christ
In His capacity as mediator, our Lord receives from the Father and transmits to His servants, that they may in turn transmit to the world of men, the great panorama of the future, known to Him from before the foundation of the world. Let us not miss the special benediction which is attached to the patient reading and consideration of this wonderful book.
The seven churches represent the one Church under different phases and possibly in successive stages of its history; the letters addressed to them are therefore universally applicable. Notice the august reference to the Holy Trinity-the eternal Father, the sevenfold Spirit, and our Lord. Our Lord bore a faithful witness even to death; that death was a birth into the risen life, as ours may be; all kings are His vassals.
How wonderful it is to be told in the next verse that He loves us, and has not only washed, but loosed us, as though He had broken the terrible entail. "He breaks the power of canceled sin." Jesus often comes with clouds. We cannot understand His dealings with us, yet those clouds are gold with His light. So He shall come at last. As Alpha He begins, but He never begins without carrying into full effect His purpose as our Omega. [source]

Chapter Summary: Revelation 1

1  The preface
4  John's salutation to the seven churches of Asia
7  The coming of Christ
8  His glorious power and majesty

Greek Commentary for Revelation 1:1

The Revelation [αποκαλυπσις]
Late and rare word outside of N.T. (once in Plutarch and so in the vernacular Koiné), only once in the Gospels (Luke 2:32), but in lxx and common in the Epistles (2 Thessalonians 1:7), though only here in this book besides the title, from αποκαλυπτω — apokaluptō old verb, to uncover, to unveil. In the Epistles αποκαλυπσις — apokalupsis is used for insight into truth (Ephesians 1:17) or for the revelation of God or Christ at the second coming of Christ (2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:7). It is interesting to compare αποκαλυπσις — apokalupsis with επιπανεια — epiphaneia (2 Thessalonians 2:8) and πανερωσις — phanerōsis (1 Corinthians 12:7). The precise meaning here turns on the genitive following. [source]
Of Jesus Christ [Ιησου Χριστου]
Hort takes it as objective genitive (revelation about Jesus Christ), but Swete rightly argues for the subjective genitive because of the next clause.Gave him (εδωκεν αυτοι — edōken autoi). It is the Son who received the revelation from the Father, as is usual (John 5:20-23 f., John 5:26, etc.).To shew First aorist active infinitive of δεικνυμι — deiknumi purpose of God in giving the revelation to Christ.Unto his servants (τοις δουλοις αυτου — tois doulois autou). Believers in general and not just to officials. Dative case. God‘s servants (or Christ‘s).Must shortly come to pass Second aorist middle infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai with δει — dei See this same adjunct “Having sent” (first aorist active participle of αποστελλω — apostellō Matthew 10:16 and again in Revelation 22:6 of God sending his angel) “signified” (first aorist active indicative of σημαινω — sēmainō from σημα — sēma sign or token, for which see John 12:33; Acts 11:28). See Revelation 12:1 for σημειον — sēmeion though σημαινω — sēmainō (only here in the Apocalypse) suits admirably the symbolic character of the book.By his angel Christ‘s angel as Christ is the subject of the verb εσημανεν — esēmanen as in Revelation 22:16 Christ sends his angel, though in Revelation 22:6 God sends.Unto his servant John (τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει — tōi doulōi autou Iōanei). Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Gave him [εδωκεν αυτοι]
It is the Son who received the revelation from the Father, as is usual (John 5:20-23 f., John 5:26, etc.). [source]
To shew [δειχαι]
First aorist active infinitive of δεικνυμι — deiknumi purpose of God in giving the revelation to Christ.Unto his servants (τοις δουλοις αυτου — tois doulois autou). Believers in general and not just to officials. Dative case. God‘s servants (or Christ‘s).Must shortly come to pass Second aorist middle infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai with δει — dei See this same adjunct “Having sent” (first aorist active participle of αποστελλω — apostellō Matthew 10:16 and again in Revelation 22:6 of God sending his angel) “signified” (first aorist active indicative of σημαινω — sēmainō from σημα — sēma sign or token, for which see John 12:33; Acts 11:28). See Revelation 12:1 for σημειον — sēmeion though σημαινω — sēmainō (only here in the Apocalypse) suits admirably the symbolic character of the book.By his angel Christ‘s angel as Christ is the subject of the verb εσημανεν — esēmanen as in Revelation 22:16 Christ sends his angel, though in Revelation 22:6 God sends.Unto his servant John (τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει — tōi doulōi autou Iōanei). Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Unto his servants [τοις δουλοις αυτου]
Believers in general and not just to officials. Dative case. God‘s servants (or Christ‘s). [source]
Must shortly come to pass [δει γενεσται εν ταχει]
Second aorist middle infinitive of γινομαι — ginomai with δει — dei See this same adjunct “Having sent” (first aorist active participle of αποστελλω — apostellō Matthew 10:16 and again in Revelation 22:6 of God sending his angel) “signified” (first aorist active indicative of σημαινω — sēmainō from σημα — sēma sign or token, for which see John 12:33; Acts 11:28). See Revelation 12:1 for σημειον — sēmeion though σημαινω — sēmainō (only here in the Apocalypse) suits admirably the symbolic character of the book.By his angel Christ‘s angel as Christ is the subject of the verb εσημανεν — esēmanen as in Revelation 22:16 Christ sends his angel, though in Revelation 22:6 God sends.Unto his servant John (τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει — tōi doulōi autou Iōanei). Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Sent and signified [εσημανεν αποστειλας]
“Having sent” (first aorist active participle of αποστελλω — apostellō Matthew 10:16 and again in Revelation 22:6 of God sending his angel) “signified” (first aorist active indicative of σημαινω — sēmainō from σημα — sēma sign or token, for which see John 12:33; Acts 11:28). See Revelation 12:1 for σημειον — sēmeion though σημαινω — sēmainō (only here in the Apocalypse) suits admirably the symbolic character of the book. [source]
By his angel [δια του αγγελου αυτου]
Christ‘s angel as Christ is the subject of the verb εσημανεν — esēmanen as in Revelation 22:16 Christ sends his angel, though in Revelation 22:6 God sends.Unto his servant John (τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει — tōi doulōi autou Iōanei). Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Unto his servant John [τωι δουλωι αυτου Ιωανει]
Dative case. John gives his name here, though not in Gospel or Epistles, because “prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). “The genesis of the Apocalypse has now been traced from its origin in the Mind of God to the moment when it reached its human interpreter” (Swete). “Jesus is the medium of all revelation” (Moffatt). [source]
Of Jesus Christ []
Not the manifestation or disclosure of Jesus Christ, but the revelation given by Him. [source]
The Revelation [ἀποκάλυψις]
The Greek word is transcribed in Apocalypse. The word occurs only once in the Gospels, Luke 2:32, where to lighten should be rendered for revelation. It is used there of our Lord, as a light to dispel the darkness under which the heathen were veiled. It occurs thirteen times in Paul's writings, and three times in first Peter. It is used in the following senses: (a.) The unveiling of something hidden, which gives light and knowledge to those who behold it. See Luke 2:32(above). Christianity itself is the revelation of a mystery (Romans 16:25). The participation of the Gentiles in the privileges of the new covenant was made known by revelation (Ephesians 3:3). Paul received the Gospel which he preached by revelation (Galatians 1:12), and went up to Jerusalem by revelation (Galatians 2:2). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) Christian insight into spiritual truth. Paul asks for Christians the spirit of revelation (Ephesians 1:17). Peculiar manifestations of the general gift of revelation are given in Christian assemblies (1 Corinthians 14:6, 1 Corinthians 14:26). Special revelations are granted to Paul (2 Corinthians 12:1, 2 Corinthians 12:7). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(c.) The second coming of the Lord (1 Peter 1:7, 1 Peter 1:13; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7) in which His glory shall be revealed (1 Peter 4:13), His righteous judgment made known (Romans 2:5), and His children revealed in full majesty (Romans 8:19). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The kindred verb ἀποκαλύπτω is used in similar connections. Following the categories given above,-DIVIDER-
(a.) Galatians 1:16; Galatians 3:23; Ephesians 3:5; 1 Peter 1:12. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) Matthew 11:25, Matthew 11:27; Matthew 16:17; Luke 10:21, Luke 10:22; 1 Corinthians 2:10; 1 Corinthians 14:30; Philemon 3:15. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(c.) Matthew 10:26; Luke 2:35; Luke 12:2; Luke 17:30; Romans 1:17, Romans 1:18; Romans 8:18; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 2 Thessalonians 2:6, 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 5:1. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The word is compounded with ἀπό fromand καλύπτω tocover. Hence, to remove the cover from anything; to unveil. So of Balaam, the Lord opened or unveiled his eyes ( ἀπεκάλυψεν τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς : Numbers 22:31, Sept.). So Boaz to Naomi's kinsman: “I thought to advertise thee:” Rev., “disclose it unto thee” ( ἀποκαλύψω τὸ οὖς σου : Rth 4:4 , Sept.). Lit., I will uncover thine ear. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The noun ἀποκάλυψις revelationoccurs only once in the Septuagint (1 Samuel 20:30), in the physical sense of uncovering. The verb is found in the Septuagint in Daniel 2:19, Daniel 2:22, Daniel 2:28. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In classical Greek, the verb is used by Herodotus (i., 119) of uncovering the head; and by Plato: thus, “reveal ( ἀποκαλύψας ) to me the power of Rhetoric” (“Gorgias,” 460): “Uncover your chest and back” (“Protagoras,” 352). Both the verb and the noun occur in Plutarch; the latter of uncovering the body, of waters, and of an error. The religious sense, however, is unknown to heathenism. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The following words should be compared with this: Ὀπτασία avision (Luke 1:22; Acts 26:19; 2 Corinthians 12:1). Ὅραμα avision (Matthew 17:9; Acts 9:10; Acts 16:9). Ὅρασις avision (Acts 2:17; Revelation 9:17. Of visible form, Revelation 4:3). These three cannot be accurately distinguished. They all denote the thing seen or shown, without anything to show whether it is understood or not. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
As distinguished from these, ἀποκάλυψις includes, along with the thing shown or seen, its interpretation or unveiling. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Ἐπιφάνεια appearing(hence our epiphany ), is used in profane Greek of the appearance of a higher power in order to aid men. In the New Testament by Paul only, and always of the second appearing of Christ in glory, except in 2 Timothy 1:10, where it signifies His first appearing in the flesh. See 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 Timothy 6:14; Titus 2:13. As distinguished from this, ἀπολάλυψις is the more comprehensive word. An apocalypse may include several ἐπιφάνειαι appearingsThe appearings are the media of the revealings. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Φανέρωσις manifestationonly twice in the New Testament; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 2 Corinthians 4:2. The kindred verb φανερόω tomake manifest, is of frequent occurrence. See on John 21:1. It is not easy, if possible, to show that this word has a less dignified sense than ἀποκάλυψις . The verb φανερόω is used of both the first and the second appearing of our Lord (1 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 1:2; 1 Peter 1:20; Colossians 3:4; 1 Peter 5:4). See also John 2:11; John 21:1. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Some distinguish between φανέρωσις as an external manifestation, to the senses, but single and isolated; while ἀποκάλυψις is an inward and abiding disclosure. According to these, the Apocalypse or unveiling, precedes and produces the φανέρωσις or manifestation. The Apocalypse contemplates the thing revealed; the manifestation, the persons to whom it is revealed. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The Revelation here is the unveiling of the divine mysteries.Of Jesus ChristNot the manifestation or disclosure of Jesus Christ, but the revelation given by Him.To shew ( δεῖξαι )Frequent in Revelation (Revelation 4:1; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:1). Construe with ἔδωκεν gavegave him to shew. Compare “I will give him to sit” (Revelation 3:21): “It was given to hurt” (Revelation 7:2): “It was given him to do;” (A.V. “had power to do;” Revelation 13:14).Servants ( δούλοις )Properly, bond-servants. See on Matthew 20:26; see on Mark 9:35.Must ( δεῖ )As the decree of the absolute and infallible God.Shortly come to pass ( γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει )For the phrase ἐν τάχει shortlysee Luke 18:8, where yet long delay is implied. Expressions like this must be understood, not according to human measurement of time, but rather as in 2 Peter 3:8. The idea is, before long, as time is computed by God. The aorist infinitive γενέσθαι is not begin to come to pass, but denotes a complete fulfilment: must shortly come to pass in their entirety. He sent ( ἀποστείλας )See on Matthew 10:2, Matthew 10:16.Signified ( ἐσήμανεν )From σῆμα asign. Hence, literally, give a sign or token. The verb occurs outside of John's writings only in Acts 11:28; Acts 25:27. See John 12:33; John 18:32; John 21:19. This is its only occurrence in Revelation. The word is appropriate to the symbolic character of the revelation, and so in John 12:33, where Christ predicts the mode of His death in a figure. Compare sign, Revelation 12:1.Angel ( ἀγγέλου )Strictly, a messenger. See Matthew 11:10; Luke 8:24; Luke 9:52. Compare the mediating angel in the visions of Daniel and Zechariah (Daniel 8:15, Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Daniel 10:10; Zechariah 1:19). See on John 1:51.ServantDesignating the prophetic office. See Isaiah 59:5; Amos 3:7; compare Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9.JohnJohn does not name himself in the Gospel or in the Epistles. Here “we are dealing with prophecy, and prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). Compare Daniel 8:1; Daniel 9:2. [source]

To shew [δεῖξαι]
Frequent in Revelation (Revelation 4:1; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9; Revelation 22:1). Construe with ἔδωκεν gavegave him to shew. Compare “I will give him to sit” (Revelation 3:21): “It was given to hurt” (Revelation 7:2): “It was given him to do;” (A.V. “had power to do;” Revelation 13:14). [source]
Servants [δούλοις]
Properly, bond-servants. See on Matthew 20:26; see on Mark 9:35. [source]
Must [δεῖ]
As the decree of the absolute and infallible God. [source]
Shortly come to pass [γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει]
For the phrase ἐν τάχει shortlysee Luke 18:8, where yet long delay is implied. Expressions like this must be understood, not according to human measurement of time, but rather as in 2 Peter 3:8. The idea is, before long, as time is computed by God. The aorist infinitive γενέσθαι is not begin to come to pass, but denotes a complete fulfilment: must shortly come to pass in their entirety. [source]
He sent [ἀποστείλας]
See on Matthew 10:2, Matthew 10:16. [source]
Signified [ἐσήμανεν]
From σῆμα asign. Hence, literally, give a sign or token. The verb occurs outside of John's writings only in Acts 11:28; Acts 25:27. See John 12:33; John 18:32; John 21:19. This is its only occurrence in Revelation. The word is appropriate to the symbolic character of the revelation, and so in John 12:33, where Christ predicts the mode of His death in a figure. Compare sign, Revelation 12:1. [source]
Angel [ἀγγέλου]
Strictly, a messenger. See Matthew 11:10; Luke 8:24; Luke 9:52. Compare the mediating angel in the visions of Daniel and Zechariah (Daniel 8:15, Daniel 8:16; Daniel 9:21; Daniel 10:10; Zechariah 1:19). See on John 1:51. [source]
Servant []
Designating the prophetic office. See Isaiah 59:5; Amos 3:7; compare Revelation 19:10; Revelation 22:9. [source]
John []
John does not name himself in the Gospel or in the Epistles. Here “we are dealing with prophecy, and prophecy requires the guarantee of the individual who is inspired to utter it” (Milligan). Compare Daniel 8:1; Daniel 9:2. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Revelation 1:1

Matthew 16:18 Thou art Peter [οὺ εἶ Πέτρος]
Christ responds to Peter's emphatic thou with another, equally emphatic. Peter says, “Thou art the Christ.” Christ replies, “Thou art Peter.” Πέτρος (Peter ) is used as a proper name, but without losing its meaning as a common noun. The name was bestowed on Simon at his first interview with Jesus (John 1:42) under the form of its Aramaic equivalent, CephasIn this passage attention is called, not to the giving of the name, but to its meaning. In classical Greek the word means a piece of rock, as in Homer, of Ajax throwing a stone at Hector (“Iliadvii., 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand a jagged stone (“Iliadxvi., 784).On this rock ( ἐπὶ ταύτῃ τῇ πέρᾳ )The word is feminine, and means a rock, as distinguished from a stone or a fragment of rock ( πέτρος , above). Used of a ledge of rocks or a rocky peak. In Homer (“Odyssey,” ix., 243), the rock ( πέτρην ) which Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, is a mass which two-and-twenty wagons could not remove; and the rock which he hurled at the retreating ships of Ulysses, created by its fall a wave in the sea which drove the ships back toward the land (“Odyssey,” ix., 484). The word refers neither to Christ as a rock, distinguished from Simon, a stone, nor to Peter's confession, but to Peter himself, in a sense defined by his previous confession, and as enlightened by the “Father in Heaven.” The reference of πέτρα to Christ is forced and unnatural. The obvious reference of the word is to Peter. The emphatic this naturally refers to the nearest antecedent; and besides, the metaphor is thus weakened, since Christ appears here, not as the foundation, but as the architect: “On this rock will I build.” Again, Christ is the great foundation, the “chief corner-stone,” but the New Testament writers recognize no impropriety in applying to the members of Christ's church certain terms which are applied to him. For instance, Peter himself (1 Peter 2:4), calls Christ a living stone, and, in 1 Peter 2:5, addresses the church as living stones. In Revelation 21:14, the names of the twelve apostles appear in the twelve foundation-stones of the heavenly city; and in Ephesians 2:20, it is said, “Ye are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets (i.e., laid by the apostles and prophets), Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone.” Equally untenable is the explanation which refers πέτρα to Simon's confession. Both the play upon the words and the natural reading of the passage are against it, and besides, it does not conform to the fact, since the church is built, not on confessions, but on confessors - living men. “The word πέτρα ,” says Edersheim, “was used in the same sense in Rabbinic language. According to the Rabbins, when God was about to build his world, he could not rear it on the generation of Enos, nor on that of the flood, who brought destruction upon the world; but when he beheld that Abraham would arise in the future, he said' 'Behold, I have found a rock to build on it, and to found the world,' whence, also, Abraham is called a rock, as it is said' 'Look unto the rock whence ye are hewn.' The parallel between Abraham and Peter might be carried even further. If, from a misunderstanding of the Lord's promise to Peter, later Christian legend represented the apostle as sitting at the gate of heaven, Jewish legend represents Abraham as sitting at the gate of Gehenna, so as to prevent all who had the seal of circumcision from falling into its abyss” (“Life and Times of Jesus”). The reference to Simon himself is confirmed by the actual relation of Peter to the early church, to the Jewish portion of which he was a foundation-stone. See Acts, Acts 1:15; Acts 2:14, Acts 2:37; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 5:15, Acts 5:29; Acts 9:34, Acts 9:40; Acts 10:25, Acts 10:26; Galatians 1:15.Church ( ἐκκλησίαν ) ἐκ out, καλέω , to call or summon. This is the first occurrence of this word in the New Testament. Originally an assembly of citizens, regularly summoned. So in New Testament, Acts 19:39. The Septuagint uses the word for the congregation of Israel, either as summoned for a definite purpose (Acts 7:38); but for this there is more commonly employed συναγωγή , of which synagogue is a transcription; σύν , together, ἄγω , to bring (Acts 13:43). In Christ's words to Peter the word ἐκκλησία acquires special emphasis from the opposition implied in it to the synagogue. The Christian community in the midst of Israel would be designated as ἐκκλησία , without being confounded with the συναγωγή , the Jewish community. See Acts 5:11; Acts 8:1; Acts 12:1; Acts 14:23, Acts 14:27, etc. Nevertheless συναγωγή is applied to a Christian assembly in James 2:2, while ἐπισυναγωγή (gathering or assembling together ) is found in 2 Thessalonians 2:1; Hebrews 10:25. Both in Hebrew and in New Testament usage ἐκκλησία implies more than a collective or national unity; rather a community based on a special religious idea and established in a special way. In the New Testament the term is used also in the narrower sense of a single church, or a church confined to a particular place. So of the church in the house of Aquila and Priscilla (Romans 16:5); the church at Corinth, the churches in Judea, the church at Jerusalem, etc.Gates of hell ( πύλαι ᾅδου )Rev., Hades. Hades was originally the name of the god who presided over the realm of the dead - Pluto or Dis. Hence the phrase, house of Hades. It is derived from ἀ , not, and; ἰδεῖν , to see; and signifies, therefore, the invisible land, the realm of shadow. It is the place to which all who depart this life descend, without reference to their moral character. By this word the Septuagint translated the Hebrew Sheol, which has a similar general meaning. The classical Hades embraced both good and bad men, though divided into Elysium, the abode of the virtuous, and Tartarus, the abode of the wicked. In these particulars it corresponds substantially with Sheol; both the godly and the wicked being represented as gathered into the latter. See Genesis 42:38; Psalm 9:17; Psalm 139:8; Isaiah 14:9; Isaiah 57:2; Ezekiel 32:27; Hosea 13:14. Hades and Sheol were alike conceived as a definite place, lower than the world. The passage of both good and bad into it was regarded as a descent. The Hebrew conception is that of a place of darkness; a cheerless home of a dull, joyless, shadowy life. See Psalm 6:5; Psalm 94:17; Psalm 115:17; Psalm 88:5, Psalm 88:6, Psalm 88:10; Job 10:21; Job 3:17-19; Job 14:10, Job 14:11; Ecclesiastes 9:5. Vagueness is its characteristic. In this the Hebrew's faith appears bare in contrast with that of the Greek and Roman. The pagan poets gave the popular mind definite pictures of Tartarus and Elysium; of Styx and Acheron; of happy plains where dead heroes held high discourse, and of black abysses where offenders underwent strange and ingenious tortures. There was, indeed, this difference between the Hebrew and the Pagan conceptions; that to the Pagan, Hades was the final home of its tenants, while Sheol was a temporary condition. Hence the patriarchs are described (Hebrews 11:16) as looking for a better, heavenly country; and the martyrs as enduring in hope of “a better resurrection.” Prophecy declared that the dead should arise and sing, when Sheol itself should be destroyed and its inmates brought forth, some to everlasting life, and others to shame and contempt (Isaiah 26:19; Hosea 13:14; Daniel 12:2). Paul represents this promise as made to the fathers by God, and as the hope of his countrymen (Acts 26:7). God was the God of the dead as well as of the living; present in the dark chambers of Sheol as well as in heaven (Psalm 139:8; Psalm 16:10). This is the underlying thought of that most touching and pathetic utterance of Job (Job 14:13-15), in which he breathes the wish that God would hide him with loving care in Hades, as a place of temporary concealment, where he will wait patiently, standing like a sentinel at his post, awaiting the divine voice calling him to a new and happier life. This, too, is the thought of the familiar and much-disputed passage, Job 19:23-27. His Redeemer, vindicator, avenger, shall arise after he shall have passed through the shadowy realm of Sheol. “A judgment in Hades, in which the judge will show himself his friend, in which all the tangled skein of his life will be unravelled by wise and kindly hands, and the insoluble problem of his strange and self-contradicting experience will at last be solved - this is what Job still looks for on that happy day when he shall see God for himself, and find his Goel (vindicator) in that Almighty Deliverer” (Cox, “Commentary on the Book of Job”). In the New Testament, Hades is the realm of the dead. It cannot be successfully maintained that it is, in particular, the place for sinners (so Cremer, “Biblico-Theological Lexicon”). The words about Capernaum (Matthew 11:23), which it is surprising to find Cremer citing in support of this position, are merely a rhetorical expression of a fall from the height of earthly glory to the deepest degradation, and have no more bearing upon the moral character of Hades than the words of Zophar (Job 11:7, Job 11:8) about the perfection of the Almighty. “It is high as heaven - deeper than Sheol. ” Hades is indeed coupled with Death (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14), but the association is natural, and indeed inevitable, apart from all moral distinctions. Death would naturally be followed by Hades in any case. In Revelation 20:13, Revelation 20:14, the general judgment is predicted, and not only Death and Hades, but the sea give tip their dead, and only those who are not written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:15). The rich man was in Hades (Luke 16:23), and in torments, but Lazarus was also in Hades, “in Abraham's bosom.” The details of this story “evidently represent the views current at the time among the Jews. According to them, the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life were the abode of the blessed. We read that the righteous in Eden see the wicked in Gehenna and rejoice; and similarly, that the wicked in Gehenna see the righteous sitting beatified in Eden, and their souls are troubled (Edersheim, “Life and Times of Jesus”). Christ also was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31). Moreover, the word γέεννα , hell (see on Matthew 5:22), is specially used to denote the place of future punishment. Hades, then, in the New Testament, is a broad and general conception, with an idea of locality bound up with it. It is the condition following death, which is blessed or the contrary, according to the moral character of the dead, and is therefore divided into different realms, represented by Paradise or Abraham's bosom, and Gehenna. The expression Gates of Hades is an orientalism for the court, throne, power, and dignity of the infernal kingdom. Hades is contemplated as a mighty city, with formidable, frowning portals. Some expositors introduce also the idea of the councils of the Satanic powers, with reference to the Eastern custom of holding such deliberations in the gates of cities. Compare the expression Sublime Porte, applied to the Ottoman court. The idea of a building is maintained in both members of the comparison. The kingdom or city of Hades confronts and assaults the church which Christ will build upon the rock. See Job 38:17; Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Isaiah 38:10. [source]
Matthew 14:30 Seeing the wind [βλεπων τον ανεμον]
Cf. Exodus 20:18 and Revelation 1:12 “to see the voice” “It is one thing to see a storm from the deck of a stout ship, another to see it in the midst of the waves” (Bruce). Peter was actually beginning to sink It was a dramatic moment that wrung from Peter the cry: “Lord, save me” (Κυριε σωσον με — Kurie sōson me), and do it quickly the aorist means. He could walk on the water till he saw the wind whirl the water round him. [source]
Matthew 24:29 Immediately [ευτεως]
This word, common in Mark‘s Gospel as ευτυς — euthus gives trouble if one stresses the time element. The problem is how much time intervenes between “the tribulation of those days” and the vivid symbolism of Matthew 24:29. The use of εν ταχει — en tachei in Revelation 1:1 should make one pause before he decides. Here we have a prophetic panorama like that with foreshortened perspective. The apocalyptic pictures in Matthew 24:29 also call for sobriety of judgment. One may compare Joel‘s prophecy as interpreted by Peter in Acts 21:16-22. Literalism is not appropriate in this apocalyptic eschatology. [source]
Matthew 16:19 The Keys of the kingdom [τας κλειδας της βασιλειας]
Here again we have the figure of a building with keys to open from the outside. The question is raised at once if Jesus does not here mean the same thing by “kingdom” that he did by “church” in Matthew 16:18. In Revelation 1:18; Revelation 3:7 Christ the Risen Lord has “the keys of death and of Hades.” He has also “the keys of the kingdom of heaven” which he here hands over to Peter as “gatekeeper” or “steward” Later after the Resurrection Christ will use this same language to all the disciples (John 20:23), showing that it was not a special prerogative of Peter. He is simply first among equals, primus inter pares, because on this occasion he was spokesman for the faith of all. It is a violent leap in logic to claim power to forgive sins, to pronounce absolution, by reason of the technical rabbinical language that Jesus employed about binding and loosing. Every preacher uses the keys of the kingdom when he proclaims the terms of salvation in Christ. The proclamation of these terms when accepted by faith in Christ has the sanction and approval of God the Father. The more personal we make these great words the nearer we come to the mind of Christ. The more ecclesiastical we make them the further we drift away from him. [source]
Luke 6:22 Son of Man []
The phrase is employed in the Old Testament as a circumlocution for man, with special reference to his frailty as contrasted with God (Numbers 23:19; Psalm 8:4; Job 25:6; Job 35:8; and eighty-nine times in Ezekiel). It had also a Messianic meaning (Daniel 7:13 sq.), to which our Lord referred in Matthew 24:30; Matthew 26:64. It was the title which Christ most frequently applied to himself; and there are but two instances in which it is applied to him by another, viz., by Stephen (Acts 7:56) and by John (Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14:); and when acquiescing in the title “Son of God,” addressed to himself, he sometimes immediately after substitutes “Son of Man” (John 1:50, John 1:51; Matthew 26:63, Matthew 26:64). The title asserts Christ's humanity - his absolute identification with our race: “his-DIVIDER-
having a genuine humanity which could deem nothing human strange, and could be touched with a feeling of the infirmities of the race which he was to judge” (Liddon, “Our Lord's Divinity”). It also exalts him as the representative ideal man. “All-DIVIDER-
human history tends to him and radiates from him; he is the point in which humanity finds its unity; as St. Irenaeus says, ' He recapitulates it.' He closes the earlier history of our race; he inaugurates its future. Nothing local, transient, individualizing, national, sectarian dwarfs the proportions of his world-embracing character. He rises above the parentage, the blood, the narrow horizon which bounded, as it seemed, his human life. He is the archetypal man, in whose presence distinction of race, intervals of ages, types of civilization, degrees of mental culture are as nothing” (Liddon). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
But the title means more. As Son of Man he asserts the authority of judgment over all flesh. By virtue of what he is as Son of Man, he must be more. “The absolute relation to the world which he attributes to himself demands an absolute relation to God … .He is the Son of Man, the Lord of the world, the Judge, only because he is the Son of God” (Luthardt). Christ's humanity can be explained only by his divinity. A humanity so unique demands a solution. Divested of all that is popularly called miraculous, viewed simply as a man, under the historical conditions of his life, he is a greater miracle than all his miracles combined. The solution is expressed in Hebrews 1:1-14. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Luke 6:22 For the Son of man‘s sake [ενεκα του υιου του αντρωπου]
Jesus foretold what will befall those who are loyal to him. The Acts of the Apostles is a commentary on this prophecy. This is Christ‘s common designation of himself, never of others save by Stephen (Acts 7:56) and in the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14). But both Son of God and Son of man apply to him (John 1:50, 52; Matthew 26:63.). Christ was a real man though the Son of God. He is also the representative man and has authority over all men. [source]
Luke 6:22 Cast out your name as evil [εχβαλωσιν το ονομα υμων ως πονηρον]
Second aorist active subjunctive of εκβαλλω — ekballō common verb. The verb is used in Aristophanes, Sophocles, and Plato of hissing an actor off the stage. The name of Christian or disciple or Nazarene came to be a byword of contempt as shown in the Acts. It was even unlawful in the Neronian persecution when Christianity was not a religio licita.For the Son of man‘s sake (ενεκα του υιου του αντρωπου — heneka tou huiou tou anthrōpou). Jesus foretold what will befall those who are loyal to him. The Acts of the Apostles is a commentary on this prophecy. This is Christ‘s common designation of himself, never of others save by Stephen (Acts 7:56) and in the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14). But both Son of God and Son of man apply to him (John 1:50, 52; Matthew 26:63.). Christ was a real man though the Son of God. He is also the representative man and has authority over all men. [source]
John 7:24 Appearance [ὄψιν]
Primarily, seeing or sight. In John 11:44; Revelation 1:16, face, and hence external appearance. The word occurs only in the three passages cited. [source]
John 5:27 The Son of man []
Better, a son of man. The article is wanting. The authority is assigned to Him as being very man. John uses the article everywhere with this phrase, except here and Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14. See on Luke 6:22. [source]
John 1:51 Son of man []
See on Luke 6:22. Notice the titles successively applied to our Lord in this chapter: the greater Successor of the Baptist, the Lamb of God, the Son of God, the Messiah, the King of Israel. These were all given by others. The title Son of man He applies to Himself. In John's Gospel, as in the Synoptists, this phrase is used only by Christ in speaking of Himself; and elsewhere only in Acts 7:56, where the name is applied to Him by Stephen. It occurs less frequently in John than in the Synoptists, being found in Matthew thirty times, in Mark thirteen, and in John twelve. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Jesus' use of the term here is explained in two ways. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
I. That He borrows the title from the Old Testament to designate Himself either: (a ) as a prophet, as in Ezekiel 2:1-3; Ezekiel 3:1, etc.; or (b ) as the Messiah, as prefigured in Daniel 7:13. This prophecy of Daniel had obtained such wide currency that the Messiah was called Anani, or the man of the clouds. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(a.) This is untenable, because in Ezekiel, as everywhere in the Old Testament, the phrase Son of man, or Sons of men, is used to describe man under his human limitations, as weak, fallible, and incompetent by himself to be a divine agent. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
(b.) The allusion to Daniel's prophecy is admitted; but Jesus does not mean to say, “I am the Messiah who is prefigured by Daniel.” A political meaning attached in popular conception to the term Messiah; and it is noticeable throughout John's Gospel that Jesus carefully avoids using that term before the people, but expresses the thing itself by circumlocution, in order to avoid the complication which the popular understanding would have introduced into his work. See John 8:24, John 8:25; John 10:24, John 10:25. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Moreover, the phrase Son of man was not generally applied to the Messiah. On the contrary, John 5:27and John 12:34show that it was set off against that term. Compare Matthew 16:13, Matthew 16:15. Son of God is the Messianic title, which, with one exception, appears in confessions (John 1:34, John 1:49; John 11:27; John 20:31). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In Daniel the reference is exclusively to the final stage of human affairs. The point is the final establishment of the divine kingdom. Moreover, Daniel does not say “the Son of man,” but “one like a Son of man.” Compare Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14, where also the article is omitted. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
II. The second, and correct explanation is that the phrase Son of man is the expression of Christ's self-consciousness as being related to humanity as a whole: denoting His real participation in human nature, and designating Himself as the representative man. It thus corresponds with the passage in Daniel, where the earthly kingdoms are represented by beasts, but the divine kingdom by a Son of man. Hence, too, the word ἄνθρωπος is purposely used (see on a man, John 1:30, and compare John 8:40). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
While the human element was thus emphasized in the phrase, the consciousness of Jesus, as thus expressed, did not exclude His divine nature and claims, but rather regarded these through the medium of His humanity. He showed Himself divine in being thus profoundly human. Hence two aspects of the phrase appear in John, as in the Synoptists. The one regards His earthly life and work, and involves His being despised; His accommodation to the conditions of human life; the partial veiling of His divine nature; the loving character of His mission; His liability to misinterpretation; and His outlook upon a consummation of agony. On the other hand, He is possessed of supreme authority; He is about His Father's work; He reveals glimpses of His divine nature through His humanity; His presence and mission entail serious responsibility upon those to whom He appeals; and He foresees a consummation of glory no less than of agony. See Matthew 8:20; Matthew 11:19; Matthew 12:8, Matthew 12:32; Matthew 13:37; Matthew 16:13; Matthew 20:18; Matthew 26:64; Mark 8:31, Mark 8:38; Mark 14:21; Luke 9:26, Luke 9:58; Luke 12:8; Luke 17:22; Luke 19:10; Luke 22:69. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The other aspect is related to the future. He has visions of another life of glory and dominion; though present in the flesh, His coming is still future, and will be followed by a judgment which is committed to Him, and by the final glory of His redeemed in His heavenly kingdom. See Matthew 10:23; Matthew 13:40sqq.; Matthew 16:27sqq.; Matthew 19:28; Matthew 24:27, Matthew 24:37, Matthew 24:44; Matthew 25:31sqq.; Mark 13:26; Luke 6:22; Luke 17:24, Luke 17:30; Luke 18:8; Luke 21:27. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

John 5:27 Because he is the Son of man [οτι υιος αντρωπου εστιν]
Rather, “because he is a son of man” (note absence of articles and so not as the Messiah), because the judge of men must partake of human nature himself (Westcott). Bernard insists that John is here giving his own reflections rather than the words of Jesus and uses υιος αντρωπου — huios anthrōpou in the same sense as ο υιος του αντρωπου — ho huios tou anthrōpou (always in the Gospels used by Jesus of himself). But that in my opinion is a wrong view since we have here ostensibly certainly the words of Jesus himself. So in Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14 υιον αντρωπου — huion anthrōpou means “a son of man.” [source]
John 11:43 He cried with a loud voice [πωνηι μεγαληι εκραυγασεν]
First aorist active indicative of κραυγαζω — kraugazō old and rare word from κραυγη — kraugē (Matthew 25:6). See Matthew 12:19. Occurs again in John 18:40; John 19:6, John 19:12. Only once in the lxx (Ezra 3:13) and with πωνηι μεγαληι — phōnēi megalēi (either locative or instrumental case makes sense) as here. For this “elevated (great) voice” see also Matthew 24:31; Mark 15:34, Mark 15:37; Revelation 1:10; Revelation 21:3. The loud voice was not for the benefit of Lazarus, but for the sake of the crowd standing around that they might see that Lazarus came forth simultaneously with the command of Jesus. Lazarus, come forth “Hither out.” No verb, only the two adverbs, deuro here alone in John. Lazarus heard and obeyed the summons. [source]
John 11:44 He that was dead came forth [εχηλτεν ο τετνηκως]
Literally, “Came out the dead man,” (effective aorist active indicative and perfect active articular participle of τνησκω — thnēskō). Just as he was and at once. Bound hand and foot Perfect passive participle of δεω — deō with the accusative loosely retained according to the common Greek idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 486), but literally “as to the feet and hands” (opposite order from the English). Probably the legs were bound separately. With grave-clothes Or “with bands.” Instrumental case of this late and rare word (in Plutarch, medical papyrus in the form κηρια — kēria and Proverbs 7:16). Only here in N.T. His face Old word, but προσωπον — prosōpon is usual in N.T. See Revelation 1:16 for another instance. Was bound about Past perfect passive of περιδεω — perideō old verb to bind around, only here in N.T. With a napkin Instrumental case of σουδαριον — soudarion (Latin word sudarium from sudor, sweat). In N.T. here, John 20:7; Luke 19:20; Acts 19:12. Our handkerchief. Loose him First aorist active imperative of λυω — luō From the various bands. Let him go Second aorist active imperative of απιημι — aphiēmi and present active infinitive. [source]
John 6:51 The living bread [ο αρτος ο ζων]
“The bread the living.” Repetition of the claim in John 6:35, John 6:41, John 6:48, but with a slight change from ζωης — zōēs to ζων — zōn (present active participle of ζαω — zaō). It is alive and can give life. See John 4:10 for living water. In Revelation 1:17 Jesus calls himself the Living One For ever Eternally like αιωνιον — aiōnion with ζωην — zōēn in John 6:47. I shall give Emphasis on εγω — egō (I). Superior so to Moses. Is my flesh See note on John 1:14 for σαρχ — sarx the Incarnation. This new idea creates far more difficulty to the hearers who cannot grasp Christ‘s idea of self-sacrifice. For the life of the world Over, in behalf of, υπερ — huper means, and in some connexions instead of as in John 11:50. See John 1:30 for the Baptist‘s picture of Christ as the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world. See also John 3:17; John 4:42; 1 John 3:16; Matthew 20:28; Galatians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:14.; Romans 5:8. Jesus has here presented to this Galilean multitude the central fact of his atoning death for the spiritual life of the world. [source]
Acts 19:10 So that all they which dwelt in Asia heard [ωστε παντας τους κατοικουντας την Ασιαν ακουσαι]
Actual result with ωστε — hōste and the infinitive with accusative of general reference as is common (also Acts 19:11) in the Koiné{[28928]}š (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 999f.). Paul apparently remained in Ephesus, but the gospel spread all over the province even to the Lycus Valley including the rest of the seven churches of Revelation 1:11; 2; 3. Demetrius in Acts 19:26 will confirm the tremendous influence of Paul‘s ministry in Ephesus on Asia. Forty years after this Pliny in his famous letter to Trajan from Bithynia will say of Christianity: “For the contagion of this superstition has not only spread through cities, but also through villages and country places.” It was during these years in Ephesus that Paul was greatly disturbed over the troubles in the Corinthian Church. He apparently wrote a letter to them now lost to us (1 Corinthians 5:9), received messages from the household of Chloe, a letter from the church, special messengers, sent Timothy, then Titus, may have made a hurried trip himself, wrote our First Corinthians, was planning to go after the return of Titus to Troas where he was to meet him after Pentecost, when all of a sudden the uproar raised by Demetrius hurried Paul away sooner than he had planned. Meanwhile Apollos had returned from Corinth to Ephesus and refused to go back (1 Corinthians 16:12). Paul doubtless had helpers like Epaphras and Philemon who carried the message over the province of Asia, Tychicus, and Trophimus of Asia who were with him on the last visit to Jerusalem (Acts 19:22, Acts 19:29; Acts 20:4). Paul‘s message reached Greeks, not merely Hellenists and God-fearers, but some of the Greeks in the upper circles of life in Ephesus. [source]
Acts 20:7 Upon the first day of the week [εν δε μιαι των σαββατων]
The cardinal μιαι — miāi used here for the ordinal πρωτηι — prōtēi (Mark 16:9) like the Hebrew ehadh as in Mark 16:2; Matthew 28:1; Luke 24:1; John 20:1 and in harmony with the Koiné{[28928]}š idiom (Robertson, Grammar, p. 671). Either the singular (Mark 16:9) σαββατου — sabbatou or the plural σαββατον — sabbaton as here was used for the week (sabbath to sabbath). For the first time here we have services mentioned on the first day of the week though in 1 Corinthians 16:2 it is implied by the collections stored on that day. In Revelation 1:10 the Lord‘s day seems to be the day of the week on which Jesus rose from the grave. Worship on the first day of the week instead of the seventh naturally arose in Gentile churches, though John 20:26 seems to mean that from the very start the disciples began to meet on the first (or eighth) day. But liberty was allowed as Paul makes plain in Romans 14:5. [source]
Romans 3:21 Is manifested [πεφανέρωται]
Rev., hath been manifested, rendering the perfect tense more strictly. Hath been manifested and now lies open to view. See on John 21:1, and see on revelation, Revelation 1:1The word implies a previous hiding. See Mark 4:22; Colossians 1:26, Colossians 1:27. [source]
1 Corinthians 1:7 Revelation [ἀποκάλυψιν]
See on Revelation 1:1.sa40 [source]
2 Corinthians 12:1 Revelations [ἀποκαλύψεις]
See on Revelation 1:1. [source]
2 Corinthians 12:1 Visions [οπτασιας]
Late word from οπταζω — optazō See Luke 1:22; note on Acts 26:19. Revelations of the Lord (apokalupseis Kuriou). Unveilings (from apokaluptō as in Revelation 1:1). See note on 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 14:26. Paul had both repeated visions of Christ (Acts 9:3; Acts 16:9; Acts 18:9; Acts 22:17; Acts 27:23.) and revelations. He claimed to speak by direct revelation (1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 1:12; Ephesians 3:3, etc.). [source]
2 Corinthians 12:1 Revelations of the Lord [apokalupseis Kuriou)]
Unveilings (from apokaluptō as in Revelation 1:1). See note on 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:7; 1 Corinthians 14:26. Paul had both repeated visions of Christ (Acts 9:3; Acts 16:9; Acts 18:9; Acts 22:17; Acts 27:23.) and revelations. He claimed to speak by direct revelation (1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; Galatians 1:12; Ephesians 3:3, etc.). [source]
Philippians 2:8 Became obedient unto death [γενόμενος - μέχρι]
Became, compare Revelation 1:18. Unto. The Rev. very judiciously inserts even; for the A.V. is open to the interpretation that Christ rendered obedience to death. Unto is up to the point of. Christ's obedience to God was rendered to the extent of laying down His life. [source]
1 Thessalonians 4:16 With the trump of God [ἐν σάλπιγγι θεοῦ]
For the trumpet heralding great manifestations of God, see Exodus 19:13, Exodus 19:16; Psalm 47:5; Isaiah 27:13; Zechariah 9:14; Zephaniah 1:16; Joel 2:1; Matthew 24:31; 1 Corinthians 15:52; Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1. Of God does not indicate the size or loudness of the trumpet, but merely that it is used in God's service. Comp. harps of God, Revelation 15:2; musical instruments of God, 1 Chronicles 16:42. The later Jews believed that God would use a trumpet to raise the dead. [source]
2 Thessalonians 1:7 When the Lord Jesus shall be revealed [ἐν τῇ ἀποκαλύψει τοῦ κυρίου Ἱησοῦ]
Lit. in the revelation of the Lord Jesus. For ἀποκάλυψις revelationsee on Revelation 1:1. [source]
1 Timothy 2:14 Was in the transgression [ἐν παραβάσει γέγονεν]
A.V. misses the force of γέγονεν. Γίνεσθαι ἐν often signifies the coming or falling into a condition, as Acts 12:11; Acts 22:17; Revelation 1:10; 1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 1 Thessalonians 2:5. Rend. hath fallen into transgression. [source]
Hebrews 9:2 Candlestick [λυχνία]
Rend. lampstand. See on Matthew 5:15; see on Revelation 1:12. Description in Exodus 25:31-37. Comp. Zechariah 4:1-14. [source]
Hebrews 13:11 Beasts [ζώων]
Lit. living creatures. The victims for the Day of Atonement were a bullock and two young goats for sin-offerings, and two rams for burnt-offerings. Only one goat, chosen by lot, was slain; the other served as the scape-goat. Ζῶον animalis not used elsewhere of a sacrificial victim, either in N.T. or lxx. The word in N.T. mostly in Revelation. See on Revelation 1:16; see on Revelation 4:6. [source]
Hebrews 4:12 Sharper than any two-edged sword [τομώτερος ὑπὲρ πᾶσαν μάχαιραν δίστομον]
Τομώτερος sharperfrom τέμνειν tocut, N.T.oolxx. The word of God has an incisive and penetrating quality. It lays bare self-delusions and moral sophisms. For the comparison of the word of God or of men to a sword, see Psalm 57:4; Psalm 59:7; Psalm 64:3; Ephesians 6:17. Philo calls his Logos ὁ τομεύς thecutter, as cutting chaos into distinct things, and so creating a kosmos. Ὑπὲρ thanis literally, above. Πᾶσαν anyis every. Δίσμοτον only here and Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12, lit. two-mouthed. In lxx always of a sword. See Judges 3:16; Psalm 149:6; Proverbs 5:4; Colossians 900); of rivers with two mouths (Polyb. xxxiv. 10,5). Στόμα mouthof the edge of a sword, Luke href="/desk/?q=lu+21:24&sr=1">Luke 21:24; Hebrews 11:34. Often in lxx, as Genesis 34:26; Joshua 10:28, Joshua 10:33, Joshua 10:35, Joshua 10:37, Joshua 10:39; Judges 1:8. So occasionally in Class., as Homer, Il. xv. 389. Κατεσθίειν or κατέσθειν todevour is used of the sword, Deuteronomy 32:42; 2 Samuel 2:26; Isaiah 31:8; Jeremiah 2:30, etc. Μάχαιρα swordin Class. a dirk or dagger: rarely, a carving knife; later, a bent sword or sabre as contrasted with a straight, thrusting sword, ξίφος (not in N.T. but occasionally in lxx). Ῥομφαία , Luke 2:35(see note), elsewhere only in Revelation, very often in lxx, is a large broadsword. In lxx of Goliath's sword, 1 Samuel 17:51 [source]
Hebrews 13:1 Let brotherly love continue [φιλαδελφία μενέτω]
Φιλαδελφία in Paul, Romans 12:10; 1 Thessalonians 4:9. As a proper name, Revelation 1:11; Revelation 3:7. It is not necessary to suppose that the admonition implies signs of estrangement among those addressed. Comp. Hebrews 3:13; Hebrews 6:10; Hebrews 10:24; Hebrews 12:12-15. [source]
Hebrews 12:19 Sound of a trumpet [σάλπιγγος ἤχῳ]
See Exodus 19:16, Exodus 19:19; Exodus 20:18. Ηχος a noise, almost entirely in Luke and Acts. See Luke 4:37; Acts 2:2; comp. lxx, 1 Samuel 14:19. Of the roar of the waves, Luke 21:25; comp. lxx, 76:17. A rumor or report, see on Luke href="/desk/?q=lu+4:37&sr=1">Luke 4:37, and comp. lxx, 1 Samuel 4:16; Psalm 9:6. It does not occur in the O.T. narrative of the giving of the law, where we have φωνή voicesee lxx, Exodus 19:13, Exodus 19:16, Exodus 19:19; Exodus 20:18. For φωνή σάλπιγγος voiceof a trumpet in N.T., see Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 8:13. Σάλπιγξ is a war-trumpet. [source]
1 John 3:14 From death [ἐκ τοῦ θανάτου]
Lit., out of the death. The article marks it as one of the two spheres in which men must be; death or life. The death, the life, present one of those sharp oppositions which are characteristic of the Epistle; as love, hatred; darkness, light; truth, a lie. Ὁ θάνατος thedeath, occurs in John's Epistles only here and in the next clause. In the Gospel, only John 5:24. Personified in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 9:6; Revelation 20:13. [source]
1 John 2:8 Shineth [φαίνει]
See on John 1:5. Compare Revelation 1:16; Revelation 8:12; Revelation 21:23; 2 Peter 1:19. See also Romans 13:11sqq.; Titus 2:11; Titus 3:4. [source]
1 John 2:28 When He shall appear [ὅταν φανερωθῇ]
The best texts read ἐὰν iffor when. So Rev., which gives also the proper passive force of φανερωθῇ , if He shall be manifested. Not expressing a doubt of the fact, but uncertainty as to the circumstances. On φανερόω tomake manifest, see on John 21:1. John never uses ἀποκαλύπτω toreveal, of the revelation of Christ. Indeed, neither the verb nor the kindred noun, ἀποκάλυψις , occurs in his writings except in John 12:38, which is a citation from Isaiah, and in Revelation 1:1. [source]
2 John 1:7 The deceiver and the antichrist [ο πλανος και ο αντιχριστος]
Article with each word, as in Revelation 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one par excellence in popular expectation (1 John 2:22), though many in reality (1 John 2:18; 3 John 1:7). [source]
2 John 1:7 Are gone forth [εχηλταν]
Second aorist active indicative of εχερχομαι — exerchomai perhaps an allusion to the crisis when they left the churches (1 John 2:19, same form).Even they that confess not (οι μη ομολογουντες — hoi mē homologountes). “The ones not confessing” (μη — mē regular negative with the participle). The articular participle describes the deceivers (πλανοι — planoi).That Jesus Christ cometh in the flesh “Jesus Christ coming in the flesh.” Present middle participle of ερχομαι — erchomai treating the Incarnation as a continuing fact which the Docetic Gnostics flatly denied. In 1 John 4:2 we have εληλυτοτα — elēluthota (perfect active participle) in this same construction with ομολογεω — homologeō because there the reference is to the definite historical fact of the Incarnation. There is no allusion here to the second coming of Christ.This (ουτος — houtos). See 1 John 2:18, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:20.The deceiver and the antichrist Article with each word, as in Revelation 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one par excellence in popular expectation (1 John 2:22), though many in reality (1 John 2:18; 3 John 1:7). [source]
2 John 1:7 That Jesus Christ cometh in the flesh [Ιησουν Χριστον ερχομενον εν σαρκι]
“Jesus Christ coming in the flesh.” Present middle participle of ερχομαι — erchomai treating the Incarnation as a continuing fact which the Docetic Gnostics flatly denied. In 1 John 4:2 we have εληλυτοτα — elēluthota (perfect active participle) in this same construction with ομολογεω — homologeō because there the reference is to the definite historical fact of the Incarnation. There is no allusion here to the second coming of Christ.This (ουτος — houtos). See 1 John 2:18, 1 John 2:22; 1 John 5:6, 1 John 5:20.The deceiver and the antichrist Article with each word, as in Revelation 1:17, to bring out sharply each separate phrase, though one individual is referred to. The one par excellence in popular expectation (1 John 2:22), though many in reality (1 John 2:18; 3 John 1:7). [source]
Revelation 8:2 Trumpets [σάλπιγγες]
See on Revelation 1:10. [source]
Revelation 5:6 Seven horns and seven eyes []
See remarks on the Apocalyptic imagery, Revelation 1:16. The horn is the emblem of might. See 1 Samuel 2:10; 1 Kings 22:11; Psalm 112:9; Daniel 7:7, Daniel 7:20sqq.; Luke 1:69. Compare Matthew 28:18. The eyes represent the discerning Spirit of God in its operation upon all created things. [source]
Revelation 3:7 The key of David []
See on Revelation 1:18, and compare Isaiah 22:22. David is the type of Christ, the supreme ruler of the kingdom of heaven. See Jeremiah 30:9; Ezekiel 34:23; Ezekiel 37:24. The house of David is the typical designation of the kingdom of Jesus Christ (Psalm 122:5). The holding of the keys, the symbols of power, thus belongs to Christ as Lord of the kingdom and Church of God. See on Matthew 16:19: He admits and excludes at His pleasure. [source]
Revelation 21:10 In the Spirit []
See on Revelation 1:10. [source]
Revelation 2:18 Son of God []
Compare Son of man, Revelation 1:13; Psalm 2:7; Revelation 19:13. [source]
Revelation 2:18 Who hath His eyes, etc. []
See on Revelation 1:14, Revelation 1:15. [source]
Revelation 2:17 A white stone [ψῆφον λευκὴν]
See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture. [source]

Revelation 2:12 The sharp sword with two edges []
See on Revelation 1:16. [source]
Revelation 19:15 Sword []
See on Revelation 1:16. [source]
Revelation 15:6 Girt round their breasts []
As the Lord in the vision of Revelation 1:13; where, however, μαστοῖς papsis used instead of στήθη breastsi0. [source]
Revelation 10:4 To write []
According to the injunction in Revelation 1:11. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Pillars of fire []
Compare Revelation 1:15. [source]
Revelation 1:5 Jesus Christ []
The Son. Placed after the Spirit because what is to follow in Revelation 1:5-8relates to Him. This is according to John's manner of arranging his thoughts so that a new sentence shall spring out of the final thought of the preceding sentence. Compare the Prologue of the Gospel, and Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:2, of this chapter. [source]
Revelation 1:3 At hand [ἐγγύς]
Lit., near. See on shortly, Revelation 1:1. [source]
Revelation 1:2 All things that he saw [ὅσα εἶδεν]
Lit., as many things as he saw. In the Gospel John uses the word εἶδεν sawonly twice of his own eye-witness (John 1:40; John 20:8). In Revelation it is constantly used of the seeing of visions. Compare Revelation 1:19. For the verb as denoting the immediate intuition of the seer, see on John 2:24. [source]
Revelation 1:19 Shall be [μέλλει γίνεσθαι]
Not the future of the verb to be, but are about ( μέλλει ) to come to pass ( γίνεσθαι ). Compare Revelation 1:1, “must come to pass.” Here the thought is not the prophetic necessity, but the sequence of events. [source]
Revelation 1:19 Write []
See on Revelation 1:11. Add therefore. [source]
Revelation 2:17 Of the hidden manna [τοῦ μάννα τοῦ κεκρυμμένου]
The allusion may be partly to the pot of manna which was laid up in the ark in the sanctuary. See Exodus 16:32-34; compare Hebrews 9:4. That the imagery of the ark was familiar to John appears from Revelation 11:19. This allusion however is indirect, for the manna laid up in the ark was not for food, but was a memorial of food once enjoyed. Two ideas seem to be combined in the figure: 1. Christ as the bread from heaven, the nourishment of the life of believers, the true manna, of which those who eat shall never die (John 6:31-43, John 6:48-51); hidden, in that He is withdrawn from sight, and the Christian's life is hid with Him in God (Colossians 3:3). 2. The satisfaction of the believer's desire when Christ shall be revealed. The hidden manna shall not remain for ever hidden. We shall see Christ as He is, and be like Him (1 John 3:2). Christ gives the manna in giving Himself “The seeing of Christ as He is, and, through this beatific vision, being made like to Him, is identical with the eating of the hidden manna, which shall, as it were, be then brought forth from the sanctuary, the holy of holies of God's immediate presence where it was withdrawn from sight so long, that all may partake of it; the glory of Christ, now shrouded and concealed, being then revealed to His people” (Trench). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
This is one of numerous illustrations of the dependence of Revelation upon Old Testament history and prophecy. “To such an extent is this the case,” says Professor Milligan, “that it may be doubted whether it contains a single figure not drawn from the Old Testament, or a single complete sentence not more or less built up of materials brought from the same source.” See, for instance, Balaam (Revelation 2:14); Jezebel (Revelation 2:20); Michael (Revelation 12:7, compare Daniel 10:13; Daniel 12:1); Abaddon (Revelation 9:11); Jerusalem, Mt. Zion, Babylon, the Euphrates, Sodom, Egypt (Revelation 21:2; Revelation 14:1; Revelation 16:19; Revelation 9:14; Revelation 11:8); Gog and Magog (Revelation 20:8, compare Revelation href="/desk/?q=re+2:7&sr=1">Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:17, Revelation 2:27, Revelation 2:28). Heaven is described under the figure of the tabernacle in the wilderness (Revelation 11:1, Revelation 11:19; Revelation 6:9; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 11:19; Revelation 4:6). The song of the redeemed is the song of Moses (Revelation 15:3). The plagues of Egypt appear in the blood, fire, thunder, darkness and locusts (Revelation 8:1-13). “The great earthquake of chapter 6 is taken from Haggai; the sun becoming black as sackcloth of hair and the moon becoming blood (Revelation 8:1-13) from Joel: the stars of heaven falling, the fig-tree casting her untimely figs, the heavens departing as a scroll (Revelation 8:1-13) from Isaiah: the scorpions of chapter 9 from Ezekiel: the gathering of the vine of the earth (chapter 14) from Joel, and the treading of the wine-press in the same chapter from Isaiah.” So too the details of a single vision are gathered out of different prophets or different parts of the same prophet. For instance, the vision of the glorified Redeemer (Revelation 1:12-20). The golden candlesticks are from Exodus and Zechariah; the garment down to the foot from Exodus and Daniel; the golden girdle and the hairs like wool from Isaiah and Daniel; the feet like burnished brass, and the voice like the sound of many waters, from Ezekiel; the two-edged sword from Isaiah and Psalms; the countenance like the sun from Exodus; the falling of the seer as dead from Exodus, Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel; the laying of Jesus' right hand on the seer from Daniel. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
“Not indeed that the writer binds himself to the Old Testament in a slavish spirit. He rather uses it with great freedom and independence, extending, intensifying, or transfiguring its descriptions at his pleasure. Yet the main source of his emblems cannot be mistaken. The sacred books of his people had been more than familiar to him. They had penetrated his whole being. They had lived within him as a germinating seed, capable of shooting up not only in the old forms, but in new forms of life and beauty. In the whole extent of sacred and religious literature there is to be found nowhere else such a perfect fusion of the revelation given to Israel with the mind of one who would either express Israel's ideas, or give utterance, by means of the symbols supplied by Israel's history, to the present and most elevated thoughts of the Christian faith “(this note is condensed from Professor Milligan's “Baird Lectures on the Revelation of St. John”).A white stone ( ψῆφον λευκὴν )See on counteth, Luke 14:28; and see on white, Luke 9:29. The foundation of the figure is not to be sought in Gentile but in Jewish customs. “White is everywhere the color and livery of heaven” (Trench). See Revelation 1:14; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 14:14; Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:11, Revelation 19:14; Revelation 20:11. It is the bright, glistering white. Compare Matthew 28:3; Luke 24:4; John 20:12; Revelation 20:11; Daniel 7:9. It is impossible to fix the meaning of the symbol with any certainty. The following are some of the principal views: The Urim and Thummim concealed within the High-Priest's breastplate of judgment. This is advocated by Trench, who supposes that the Urim was a peculiarly rare stone, possibly the diamond, and engraven with the ineffable name of God. The new name he regards as the new name of God or of Christ (Revelation 3:12); some revelation of the glory of God which can be communicated to His people only in the higher state of being, and which they only can understand who have actually received. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Professor Milligan supposes an allusion to the plate of gold worn on the High-Priest's forehead, and inscribed with the words “Holiness to the Lord,” but, somewhat strangely, runs the figure into the stone or pebble used in voting, and regards the white stone as carrying the idea of the believer's acquittal at the hands of God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Dean Plumptre sees in the stone the signet by which, in virtue of its form or of the characters inscribed on it, he who possessed it could claim from the friend who gave it, at any distance of time, a frank and hearty welcome; and adds to this an allusion to the custom of presenting such a token, with the guest's name upon it, of admission to the feast given to those who were invited to partake within the temple precincts - a feast which consisted wholly or in part of sacrificial meats. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, regarding the connection of the stone with the manna, refer to the use of the lot cast among the priests in order to determine which one should offer the sacrifice. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Others, to the writing of a candidate's name at an election by ballot upon a stone or bean. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In short, the commentators are utterly divided, and the true interpretation remains a matter of conjecture.A new nameSome explain the new name of God or of Christ (compare Revelation 3:12); others, of the recipient's own name. “A new name however, a revelation of his everlasting title as a son of God to glory in Christ, but consisting of and revealed in those personal marks and signs of God's peculiar adoption of himself, which he and none other is acquainted with” (Alford). Bengel says: “Wouldst thou know what kind of a new name thou wilt obtain? Overcome. Before that thou wilt ask in vain, and after that thou wilt soon read it inscribed on the white stone.” [source]

Revelation 1:3 And keep [και τηρουντες]
Present active participle of τηρεω — tēreō a common Johannine word (1 John 2:4, etc.). Cf. Matthew 7:24. “The content of the Apocalypse is not merely prediction; moral counsel and religious instruction are the primary burdens of its pages” (Moffatt).Written (γεγραμμενα — gegrammena). Perfect passive participle of γραπω — graphō the time is at hand (ο γαρ καιρος εγγυς — ho gar kairos eggus). Reason for listening and keeping. On καιρος — kairos see Matthew 12:1, time of crisis as in 1 Corinthians 7:29. How near εγγυς — eggus (at hand) is we do not know any more than we do about εν ταχει — en tachei (shortly) in Revelation 1:1. [source]
Revelation 1:3 Written [γεγραμμενα]
Perfect passive participle of γραπω — graphō the time is at hand Reason for listening and keeping. On καιρος — kairos see Matthew 12:1, time of crisis as in 1 Corinthians 7:29. How near εγγυς — eggus (at hand) is we do not know any more than we do about εν ταχει — en tachei (shortly) in Revelation 1:1. [source]
Revelation 1:5 Who is the faithful witness [ο μαρτυς ο πιστος]
“The witness the faithful,” nominative in apposition like πρωτοτοκος — prōtotokos and αρχων — archōn with the preceding ablative Ιησου Χριστου — Iēsou Christou with απο — apo a habit of John in this book (apparently on purpose) as in Revelation 2:13, Revelation 2:20; Revelation 3:12, etc. See this same phrase in Revelation 2:13; Revelation 3:14. The use of μαρτυς — martus of Jesus here is probably to the witness (Revelation 1:1) in this book (Revelation 22:16.), not to the witness of Jesus before Pilate (1 Timothy 6:13). [source]
Revelation 1:6 And he made [και εποιησεν]
Change from the participle construction, which would be και ποιησαντι — kai poiēsanti (first aorist active of ποιεω — poieō) like λυσαντι — lusanti just before, a Hebraism Charles calls it, but certainly an anacoluthon of which John is very fond, as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:2, Revelation 2:9, Revelation 2:20; Revelation 3:9; Revelation 7:14; Revelation 14:2.; Revelation 15:3. [source]
Revelation 1:3 He that readeth [ο αναγινωσκων]
Present active singular articular participle of αναγινωσκω — anaginōskō (as in Luke 4:16). Christians in their public worship followed the Jewish custom of public reading of the Scriptures (2 Corinthians 3:14.). The church reader Present active plural articular participle of ακουω — akouō (the audience).And keep Present active participle of τηρεω — tēreō a common Johannine word (1 John 2:4, etc.). Cf. Matthew 7:24. “The content of the Apocalypse is not merely prediction; moral counsel and religious instruction are the primary burdens of its pages” (Moffatt).Written (γεγραμμενα — gegrammena). Perfect passive participle of γραπω — graphō the time is at hand (ο γαρ καιρος εγγυς — ho gar kairos eggus). Reason for listening and keeping. On καιρος — kairos see Matthew 12:1, time of crisis as in 1 Corinthians 7:29. How near εγγυς — eggus (at hand) is we do not know any more than we do about εν ταχει — en tachei (shortly) in Revelation 1:1. [source]
Revelation 1:4 To the seven churches which are in Asia [ταις επτα εκκλησιαις ταις εν τηι Ασιαι]
Dative case as in a letter (Galatians 1:1). John is writing, but the revelation is from God and Christ through an angel. It is the Roman province of Asia which included the western part of Phrygia. There were churches also at Troas (Acts 20:5.) and at Colossal and Hierapolis (Colossians 1:1; Colossians 2:1; Colossians 4:13) and possibly at Magnesia and Tralles. But these seven were the best points of communication with seven districts (Ramsay) and, besides, seven is a favorite number of completion (like the full week) in the book (Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:16; Revelation 4:5; Revelation 5:1, Revelation 5:6; Revelation 8:2; Revelation 10:3; Revelation 11:13; Revelation 12:3; Revelation 13:1; Revelation 14:6.). [source]
Revelation 1:8 The Alpha and the Omega [το Αλπα και το Ο]
The first and the last letters of the Greek alphabet, each with its own neuter (grammatical gender) article. This description of the eternity of God recurs in Revelation 21:6 with the added explanation η αρχη και το τελος — hē archē kai to telos (the Beginning and the End) and of Christ in Revelation 22:13 with the still further explanation ο πρωτος και ο εσχατος — ho prōtos kai ho eschatos (the First and the Last). This last phrase appears also in Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8 without το Αλπα και το Ο — to Alpha kai to O The change of speaker here is unannounced, as in Revelation 16:15; Revelation 18:20. Only here and Revelation 21:5. is God introduced as the speaker. The eternity of God guarantees the prophecy just made. [source]
Revelation 1:10 On the Lord‘s Day [εν τηι κυριακηι ημεραι]
Deissmann has proven (Bible Studies, p. 217f.; Light, etc., p. 357ff.) from inscriptions and papyri that the word κυριακος — kuriakos was in common use for the sense “imperial” as imperial finance and imperial treasury and from papyri and ostraca that ημερα Σεβαστη — hēmera Sebastē (Augustus Day) was the first day of each month, Emperor‘s Day on which money payments were made (cf. 1 Corinthians 16:1.). It was easy, therefore, for the Christians to take this term, already in use, and apply it to the first day of the week in honour of the Lord Jesus Christ‘s resurrection on that day (Didache 14, Ignatius Magn. 9). In the N.T. the word occurs only here and 1 Corinthians 11:20 It has no reference to ημερα κυριου — hēmera kuriou (the day of judgment, 2 Peter 3:10).Behind me (οπισω μου — opisō mou). “The unexpected, overpowering entrance of the divine voice” (Vincent). Cf. Ezekiel 3:12.Voice Of Christ, as is plain in Revelation 1:12.As of a trumpet (ως σαλπιγγος — hōs salpiggos). So in Revelation 4:1 referring to this.Saying Present active participle genitive case agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos rather than λεγουσαν — legousan accusative agreeing with πωνην — phōnēn So on purpose, as is clear from Revelation 4:1, where λαλουσης — lalousēs also agrees with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos f0). [source]
Revelation 1:10 Voice [πωνην]
Of Christ, as is plain in Revelation 1:12.As of a trumpet (ως σαλπιγγος — hōs salpiggos). So in Revelation 4:1 referring to this.Saying Present active participle genitive case agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos rather than λεγουσαν — legousan accusative agreeing with πωνην — phōnēn So on purpose, as is clear from Revelation 4:1, where λαλουσης — lalousēs also agrees with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos f0). [source]
Revelation 1:13 One like unto a son of man [ομοιον υιον αντρωπου]
Note accusative here with ομοιον — homoion (object of ειδον — eidon) as in Revelation 14:14 and not the associative-instrumental as is usual (Revelation 1:15; Revelation 4:3, Revelation 4:6). Charles holds that ομοιον — homoion here has the sense of ως — hōs (as) and compares Revelation 4:6; Revelation 22:1 for proof. The absence of the article here shows also (Charles) that the idea is not “like the Son of man” for Christ is the Son of man. He is like “a son of man,” but not a man. [source]
Revelation 1:16 Proceeded [εκπορευομενη]
Present middle participle of εκπορευομαι — ekporeuomai old compound (Matthew 3:5) used loosely again like εχων — echōn sharp two-edged sword “A sword two-mouthed sharp.” ομπαια — Romphaia (as distinct from μαχαιρα — machaira) is a long sword, properly a Thracian javelin, in N.T. only Luke 2:35; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Hebrews 4:12. See στομα — stoma used with μαχαιρης — machairēs in Luke 21:24 (by the mouth of the sword).Countenance (οπσις — opsis). Old word (from οπτω — optō), in N.T. only here, John 7:24; John 11:44.As the sun shineth Brachylogy, “as the sun when it shines.” For παινει — phainei see John 1:5. [source]
Revelation 1:18 And I was dead [και εγενομην νεκρος]
“And I be came dead” (aorist middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai as in Revelation 1:9, Revelation 1:10, definite reference to the Cross). [source]
Revelation 1:19 Therefore [ουν]
In view of Christ‘s words about himself in Revelation 1:18 and the command in Revelation 1:11. [source]
Revelation 1:19 The things which are [α εισιν]
Plural verb (individualising the items) though α — ha is neuter plural, certainly the messages to the seven churches (1:20-3:22) in relation to the world in general, possibly also partly epexegetic or explanatory of α ειδες — ha eides things which shall come to pass hereafter Present middle infinitive with μελλει — mellei though both aorist and future are also used. Singular verb here (μελλει — mellei) blending in a single view the future. In a rough outline this part begins in Revelation 4:1 and goes to end of chapter 22, though the future appears also in chapters 2 and 3 and the present occurs in 4 to 22 and the elements in the vision of Christ (Revelation 1:13-18) reappear repeatedly. [source]
Revelation 1:16 In his right hand [εν τηι δεχιαι χειρι]
For safe keeping as in John 10:28.Seven stars (αστερας επτα — asteras hepta). Symbols of the seven churches (Revelation 1:20), seven planets rather than Pleiades or any other constellation like the bear.Proceeded Present middle participle of εκπορευομαι — ekporeuomai old compound (Matthew 3:5) used loosely again like εχων — echōn sharp two-edged sword “A sword two-mouthed sharp.” ομπαια — Romphaia (as distinct from μαχαιρα — machaira) is a long sword, properly a Thracian javelin, in N.T. only Luke 2:35; Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Hebrews 4:12. See στομα — stoma used with μαχαιρης — machairēs in Luke 21:24 (by the mouth of the sword).Countenance (οπσις — opsis). Old word (from οπτω — optō), in N.T. only here, John 7:24; John 11:44.As the sun shineth Brachylogy, “as the sun when it shines.” For παινει — phainei see John 1:5. [source]
Revelation 1:19 Which thou sawest [α ειδες]
The vision of the Glorified Christ in Revelation 1:13-18.The things which are (α εισιν — ha eisin). Plural verb (individualising the items) though α — ha is neuter plural, certainly the messages to the seven churches (1:20-3:22) in relation to the world in general, possibly also partly epexegetic or explanatory of α ειδες — ha eides things which shall come to pass hereafter (α μελλει γινεσται μετα ταυτα — ha mellei ginesthai meta tauta). Present middle infinitive with μελλει — mellei though both aorist and future are also used. Singular verb here (μελλει — mellei) blending in a single view the future. In a rough outline this part begins in Revelation 4:1 and goes to end of chapter 22, though the future appears also in chapters 2 and 3 and the present occurs in 4 to 22 and the elements in the vision of Christ (Revelation 1:13-18) reappear repeatedly. [source]
Revelation 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars [το μυστηριον των επτα αστερων]
On the word μυστηριον — mustērion see note on Matthew 13:11; and note on 2 Thessalonians 2:7; and note on Colossians 1:26. Here it means the inner meaning (the secret symbol) of a symbolic vision (Swete) as in Revelation 10:7; Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:7, Revelation 17:9; Daniel 2:47. Probably the accusative absolute (Charles), “as for the mystery” (Robertson, Grammar, pp. 490, 1130), as in Romans 8:3. This item is picked out of the previous vision (Revelation 1:16) as needing explanation at once and as affording a clue to what follows (Revelation 2:1, Revelation 2:5). [source]
Revelation 1:20 Which [ους]
Masculine accusative retained without attraction to case of αστερων — asterōn (genitive, ων — hōn).In my right hand (επι της δεχιας μου — epi tēs dexias mou). Or “upon,” but εν τηι — en tēi etc., in Revelation 1:16.And the seven golden candlesticks “The seven lampstands the golden,” identifying the stars of Revelation 1:16 with the lampstands of Revelation 1:12. The accusative case here is even more peculiar than the accusative absolute μυστηριον — mustērion since the genitive λυχνιων — luchniōn after μυστηριον — mustērion is what one would expect. Charles suggests that John did not revise his work.The angels of the seven churches (αγγελοι των επτα εκκλησιων — aggeloi tōn hepta ekklēsiōn). Anarthrous in the predicate (angels of, etc.). “The seven churches” mentioned in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11. Various views of αγγελος — aggelos here exist. The simplest is the etymological meaning of the word as messenger from αγγελλω — aggellō (Matthew 11:10) as messengers from the seven churches to Patmos or by John from Patmos to the churches (or both). Another view is that αγγελος — aggelos is the pastor of the church, the reading την γυναικα σου — tēn gunaika sou (thy wife) in Revelation 2:20 (if genuine) confirming this view. Some would even take it to be the bishop over the elders as επισχοπος — episcopos in Ignatius, but a separate αγγελος — aggelos in each church is against this idea. Some take it to be a symbol for the church itself or the spirit and genius of the church, though distinguished in this very verse from the churches themselves (the lampstands). Others take it to be the guardian angel of each church assuming angelic patrons to be taught in Matthew 18:10; Acts 12:15. Each view is encompassed with difficulties, perhaps fewer belonging to the view that the “angel” is the pastor.Are seven churches These seven churches (Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11) are themselves lampstands (Revelation 1:12) reflecting the light of Christ to the world (Matthew 5:14-16; John 8:12) in the midst of which Christ walks (Revelation 1:13). [source]
Revelation 1:20 In my right hand [επι της δεχιας μου]
Or “upon,” but εν τηι — en tēi etc., in Revelation 1:16. [source]
Revelation 1:20 Are seven churches [επτα εκκλησιαι εισιν]
These seven churches (Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11) are themselves lampstands (Revelation 1:12) reflecting the light of Christ to the world (Matthew 5:14-16; John 8:12) in the midst of which Christ walks (Revelation 1:13). [source]
Revelation 10:1 The rainbow [η ιρις]
See Revelation 4:3 for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.As the sun (ως ο ηλιος — hōs ho hēlios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in Revelation 1:16.As pillars of fire Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in Revelation 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος — stulos see Revelation 3:12; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Revelation 10:1 As the sun [ως ο ηλιος]
The very metaphor applied to Christ in Revelation 1:16. [source]
Revelation 10:1 As pillars of fire [ως στυλοι πυρος]
Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in Revelation 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος — stulos see Revelation 3:12; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Revelation 10:4 I was about to write [ημελλον γραπειν]
Imperfect active of μελλω — mellō (double augment as in John 4:47; John 12:33; John 18:32) and the present (inchoative) active infinitive of γραπω — graphō “I was on the point of beginning to write,” as commanded in Revelation 1:11, Revelation 1:19. [source]
Revelation 10:11 Thou must prophesy again [δει σε παλιν προπητευσαι]
Not a new commission (Revelation 1:19), though now renewed. C.f. Ezekiel 4:7; Ezekiel 6:2; Jeremiah 1:10. The παλιν — palin (again) points to what has preceded and also to what is to come in Revelation 11:15. Here it is predictive prophecy In the case, in regard to as in John 12:16 (with γραπω — graphō), not in the presence of (επι — epi with genitive, Mark 13:9) nor against (επι — epi with the accusative, Luke 22:53). For this list of peoples see Revelation 5:9, occurring seven times in the Apocalypse. [source]
Revelation 1:20 And the seven golden candlesticks [και τας επτα λυχνιας τας χρυσας]
“The seven lampstands the golden,” identifying the stars of Revelation 1:16 with the lampstands of Revelation 1:12. The accusative case here is even more peculiar than the accusative absolute μυστηριον — mustērion since the genitive λυχνιων — luchniōn after μυστηριον — mustērion is what one would expect. Charles suggests that John did not revise his work.The angels of the seven churches (αγγελοι των επτα εκκλησιων — aggeloi tōn hepta ekklēsiōn). Anarthrous in the predicate (angels of, etc.). “The seven churches” mentioned in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11. Various views of αγγελος — aggelos here exist. The simplest is the etymological meaning of the word as messenger from αγγελλω — aggellō (Matthew 11:10) as messengers from the seven churches to Patmos or by John from Patmos to the churches (or both). Another view is that αγγελος — aggelos is the pastor of the church, the reading την γυναικα σου — tēn gunaika sou (thy wife) in Revelation 2:20 (if genuine) confirming this view. Some would even take it to be the bishop over the elders as επισχοπος — episcopos in Ignatius, but a separate αγγελος — aggelos in each church is against this idea. Some take it to be a symbol for the church itself or the spirit and genius of the church, though distinguished in this very verse from the churches themselves (the lampstands). Others take it to be the guardian angel of each church assuming angelic patrons to be taught in Matthew 18:10; Acts 12:15. Each view is encompassed with difficulties, perhaps fewer belonging to the view that the “angel” is the pastor.Are seven churches These seven churches (Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11) are themselves lampstands (Revelation 1:12) reflecting the light of Christ to the world (Matthew 5:14-16; John 8:12) in the midst of which Christ walks (Revelation 1:13). [source]
Revelation 1:20 The angels of the seven churches [αγγελοι των επτα εκκλησιων]
Anarthrous in the predicate (angels of, etc.). “The seven churches” mentioned in Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:11. Various views of αγγελος — aggelos here exist. The simplest is the etymological meaning of the word as messenger from αγγελλω — aggellō (Matthew 11:10) as messengers from the seven churches to Patmos or by John from Patmos to the churches (or both). Another view is that αγγελος — aggelos is the pastor of the church, the reading την γυναικα σου — tēn gunaika sou (thy wife) in Revelation 2:20 (if genuine) confirming this view. Some would even take it to be the bishop over the elders as επισχοπος — episcopos in Ignatius, but a separate αγγελος — aggelos in each church is against this idea. Some take it to be a symbol for the church itself or the spirit and genius of the church, though distinguished in this very verse from the churches themselves (the lampstands). Others take it to be the guardian angel of each church assuming angelic patrons to be taught in Matthew 18:10; Acts 12:15. Each view is encompassed with difficulties, perhaps fewer belonging to the view that the “angel” is the pastor. [source]
Revelation 10:1 Coming down out of heaven [καταβαινοντα εκ του ουρανου]
Present active participle of καταβαινω — katabainō picturing the process of the descent as in Revelation 20:1 (cf. Revelation 3:12).Arrayed with a cloud (περιβεβλημενον νεπελην — peribeblēmenon nephelēn). Perfect passive participle of περιβαλλω — periballō with accusative case retained as in Revelation 7:9, Revelation 7:13. Not proof that this angel is Christ, though Christ will come on the clouds (Revelation 1:7) as he ascended on a cloud (Acts 1:9). God‘s chariot is in the clouds (Psalm 104:3), but this angel is a special messenger of God‘s.The rainbow See Revelation 4:3 for this word. The construction here is changed from the accusative to the nominative.As the sun (ως ο ηλιος — hōs ho hēlios). The very metaphor applied to Christ in Revelation 1:16.As pillars of fire Somewhat like the metaphor of Christ in Revelation 1:15, but still no proof that this angel is Christ. On στυλος — stulos see Revelation 3:12; Galatians 2:9. [source]
Revelation 10:2 Open [ηνεωιγμενον]
See Ezekiel 2:9. Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle of ανοιγω — anoigō in contrast to the closed book in Revelation 5:1. There also we have επι — epi (upon) την δεχιαν — tēn dexian (the right hand), for it was a large roll, but here the little open roll is held in the hand First aorist active indicative of τιτημι — tithēmi The size of the angel is colossal, for he bestrides both land and sea. Apparently there is no special point in the right foot (τον ποδα τον δεχιον — ton poda ton dexion) being on the sea (επι της ταλασσης — epi tēs thalassēs) and the left (τον ευωνυμον — ton euōnumon) upon the land (επι της γης — epi tēs gēs). It makes a bold and graphic picture.As a lion roareth Only instance of ωσπερ — hōsper in the Apocalypse, but ως — hōs in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of μυκαομαι — mukaomai an old onomatopoetic word from μυ — mu or μοο — moo (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin mugire, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in 1 Peter 5:8 we have ωρυομαι — ōruomai Homer uses μυκαομαι — mukaomai for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 5:2, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2, Revelation 7:10, etc. [source]
Revelation 14:2 As a voice of many waters [ως πωνην υδατων πολλων]
For which see Revelation 1:15. [source]
Revelation 14:13 Write [Γραπσον]
First aorist active imperative of γραπω — graphō as in Revelation 1:11. John‘s meditation is broken by this command. This new beatitude Probably “from henceforth” (απ αρτι — ap' arti) goes with “those who die in the Lord,” giving comfort to those facing persecution and death. [source]
Revelation 14:14 Like unto a son of man [ομοιον υιον αντρωπου]
Accusative here after ομοιον — homoion as in Revelation 1:13, instead of the usual associative instrumental (Revelation 13:4). [source]
Revelation 14:14 Having [εχων]
Nominative again after the ιδου — idou construction, just before, not after, ειδον — eidon golden crown Here a golden wreath, not the diadems of Revelation 19:12.A sharp sickle (δρεπανον οχυ — drepanon oxu). Old form δρεπανη — drepanē (from δρεπω — drepō to pluck), pruning-hook, in N.T. only in this chapter and Mark 4:29. Christ is come for reaping this time (Hebrews 9:28) for the harvesting of earth (Revelation 14:15-17). The priesthood of Christ is the chief idea in Revelation 1:12-20 and “as the true Imperator ” (Swete) in chapter Rev 19. [source]
Revelation 10:2 As a lion roareth [ωσπερ λεων μυκαται]
Only instance of ωσπερ — hōsper in the Apocalypse, but ως — hōs in the same sense several times. Present middle indicative of μυκαομαι — mukaomai an old onomatopoetic word from μυ — mu or μοο — moo (the sound which a cow utters), common for the lowing and bellowing of cattle, Latin mugire, but in Theocritus for the roaring of a lion as here, though in 1 Peter 5:8 we have ωρυομαι — ōruomai Homer uses μυκαομαι — mukaomai for the clangour of the shield and Aristophanes for thunder. It occurs here alone in the N.T. It does not mean that what the angel said was unintelligible, only loud. Cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 5:2, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:10; Revelation 7:2, Revelation 7:10, etc. [source]
Revelation 10:6 By him that liveth [εν τωι ζωντι]
This use of εν — en after ομνυω — omnuō instead of the usual accusative (James 5:12) is like the Hebrew (Matthew 5:34, Matthew 5:36). “The living one for ages of ages” is a common phrase in the Apocalypse for God as eternally existing (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 15:7). This oath proves that this angel is not Christ.Who created (ος εκτισεν — hos ektisen). First aorist active indicative of κτιζω — ktizō a reference to God‘s creative activity as seen in Genesis 1:1.; Exodus 20:11; Isaiah 37:16; Isaiah 42:5; Psalm 33:6; Psalm 145:6, etc.That there shall be time no longer Future indicative indirect discourse with οτι — hoti But this does not mean that χρονος — chronos (time), Einstein‘s “fourth dimension” (added to length, breadth, height), will cease to exist, but only that there will be no more delay in the fulfillment of the seventh trumpet (Revelation 10:7), in answer to the question, “How long?” (Psalm 6:10). [source]
Revelation 14:14 I saw one sitting [κατημενον]
No ειδον — eidon here, but the accusative follows the ειδον — eidon at the beginning, as νεπελη — nephelē is nominative after ιδου — idou as in Revelation 4:1, Revelation 4:4.Like unto a son of man (ομοιον υιον αντρωπου — homoion huion anthrōpou). Accusative here after ομοιον — homoion as in Revelation 1:13, instead of the usual associative instrumental (Revelation 13:4).Having Nominative again after the ιδου — idou construction, just before, not after, ειδον — eidon golden crown Here a golden wreath, not the diadems of Revelation 19:12.A sharp sickle (δρεπανον οχυ — drepanon oxu). Old form δρεπανη — drepanē (from δρεπω — drepō to pluck), pruning-hook, in N.T. only in this chapter and Mark 4:29. Christ is come for reaping this time (Hebrews 9:28) for the harvesting of earth (Revelation 14:15-17). The priesthood of Christ is the chief idea in Revelation 1:12-20 and “as the true Imperator ” (Swete) in chapter Rev 19. [source]
Revelation 14:14 A sharp sickle [δρεπανον οχυ]
Old form δρεπανη — drepanē (from δρεπω — drepō to pluck), pruning-hook, in N.T. only in this chapter and Mark 4:29. Christ is come for reaping this time (Hebrews 9:28) for the harvesting of earth (Revelation 14:15-17). The priesthood of Christ is the chief idea in Revelation 1:12-20 and “as the true Imperator ” (Swete) in chapter Rev 19. [source]
Revelation 15:6 The seven angels [οι επτα αγγελοι]
Those in Revelation 15:1.The seven plagues (τας επτα πληγας — tas hepta plēgas). The bowls are not given them till Revelation 15:7.Arrayed Perfect passive participle of ενδυω — enduō precious stone pure and bright Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often, literally “with a stone pure bright.” For both adjectives together see Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14. Some MSS. read λινον — linon (linen). For λιτον — lithon see Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Ezekiel 28:13.Girt (περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō See Revelation 1:13 for both participles. For στητος — stēthos (breast) see Luke 18:13.With golden girdles Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi as in Revelation 1:13. [source]
Revelation 15:6 Arrayed [ενδεδυμενοι]
Perfect passive participle of ενδυω — enduō precious stone pure and bright Accusative case retained with verb of clothing as so often, literally “with a stone pure bright.” For both adjectives together see Revelation 19:8, Revelation 19:14. Some MSS. read λινον — linon (linen). For λιτον — lithon see Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:16; Ezekiel 28:13.Girt (περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō See Revelation 1:13 for both participles. For στητος — stēthos (breast) see Luke 18:13.With golden girdles Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi as in Revelation 1:13. [source]
Revelation 15:6 Girt [περιεζωσμενοι]
Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυω — perizōnnuō See Revelation 1:13 for both participles. For στητος — stēthos (breast) see Luke 18:13. [source]
Revelation 15:6 With golden girdles [ζωνας χρυσας]
Accusative case after the perfect passive participle περιεζωσμενοι — periezōsmenoi as in Revelation 1:13. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Three unclean spirits [πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα]
Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.” [source]
Revelation 17:12 As kings [ως βασιλεις]
Compared to kings (see ως — hōs in Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:6; Revelation 9:7; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 14:3; Revelation 16:21) without identification with the emperors, though succeeding them with “quasi-imperial powers” with the beast.For one hour (μιαν ωραν — mian hōran). Accusative of extent of time, and that a brief time (Revelation 18:10, Revelation 18:16, Revelation 18:19) in comparison with the beast (Revelation 13:2). [source]
Revelation 19:6 As it were the voice [ως πωνην]
Used here three times, as once in Revelation 19:1: once of a second great multitude (οχλου πολλου — ochlou pollou), not of angels as in Revelation 19:1, but the innumerable multitude of the redeemed of Revelation 7:9; then “of many waters” (υδατων πολλων — hudatōn pollōn) as in Revelation 1:15; Revelation 14:2 like “the roar of a cataract” (Swete); and once more “the voice of mighty thunders” (βροντων ισχυρων — brontōn ischurōn) as in Revelation 6:1; Revelation 10:3. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the dragon [του δρακοντος]
That is Satan (Revelation 12:3, Revelation 12:9).Of the beast (του τηριου — tou thēriou). The first beast (Revelation 13:1, Revelation 13:12) and then just the beast (Revelation 13:14.; Revelation 14:9, Revelation 14:11; Revelation 15:2; Revelation 16:2, Revelation 16:10), the brute force of the World-power represented by the Roman Empire” (Swete).Of the false prophet Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 16:13 Of the false prophet [του πσευδοπροπητου]
Cf. Matthew 7:15; Acts 13:6; 1 John 2:22; 1 John 4:3; 2 John 1:7. Identified with the second beast (Revelation 13:11-14) in Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10. So the sixth bowl introduces the dragon and his two subalterns of chapters Rev 12; 13 (the two beasts).Three unclean spirits (πνευματα τρια ακαταρτα — pneumata tria akatharta). Out of the mouths of each of the three evil powers (the dragon and the two beasts) comes an evil spirit. See the use of mouth in Revelation 1:16 (Revelation 9:17.; Revelation 11:5; Revelation 12:15; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21) as a chief seat of influence. In 2 Thessalonians 2:8 we have “the breath of his mouth” (the other sense of πνευμα — pneuma). For ακαταρτον — akatharton (unclean) with πνευμα — pneuma see Mark 1:23.; Mark 3:11; Mark 5:2.; Acts 5:16; Acts 8:7. Christ expelled unclean spirits, but His enemies send them forth” (Swete). See Zechariah 13:2 “the false prophets and the unclean spirits.”As it were frogs Cf. Exodus 8:5; Leviticus 11:10. Old word, here alone in N.T. Like loathsome frogs in form. [source]
Revelation 17:3 In the Spirit [εν πνευματι]
Probably his own spirit, though the Holy Spirit is possible (Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:2; Revelation 21:10), without Paul‘s uncertainty (2 Corinthians 12:2). Cf. Ezekiel 3:14.; Ezekiel 8:3; Ezekiel 11:24.Into a wilderness (εις ερημον — eis erēmon). In Isaiah 21:1 there is το οραμα της ερημου — to horama tēs erēmou (the vision of the deserted one, Babylon), and in Isaiah 14:23 Babylon is called ερημον — erēmon John may here picture this to be the fate of Rome or it may be that he himself, in the wilderness (desert) this side of Babylon, sees her fate. In Revelation 21:10 he sees the New Jerusalem from a high mountain.Sitting Present middle participle of κατημαι — kathēmai as in Revelation 17:1. “To manage and guide the beast” (Vincent).Upon a scarlet-coloured beast (επι τηριον κοκκινον — epi thērion kokkinon). Accusative with επι — epi here, though genitive in Revelation 17:1. Late adjective (from κοκκος — kokkos a parasite of the ilex coccifera), a crimson tint for splendour, in Revelation 17:3, Revelation 17:4; Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; Matthew 27:28; Hebrews 9:19.Full of names of blasphemy See Revelation 13:1 for “names of blasphemy” on the seven heads of the beast, but here they cover the whole body of the beast (the first beast of Revelation 13:1; Revelation 19:20). The harlot city (Rome) sits astride this beast with seven heads and ten horns (Roman world power). The beast is here personified with masculine participles instead of neuter, like τηριον — thērion (γεμοντα — gemonta accusative singular, εχων — echōn nominative singular, though some MSS. read εχοντα — echonta), construction according to sense in both instances. The verb γεμω — gemō always has the genitive after it in the Apocalypse (Revelation 4:6, Revelation 4:8; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 15:7; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 21:9) save here and apparently once in Revelation 17:4. [source]
Revelation 19:9 Write [Γραπσον]
First aorist active imperative of γραπω — graphō as in Revelation 1:11; Revelation 14:13. The speaker may be the angel guide of Revelation 17:1. [source]
Revelation 19:12 A flame of fire [πλοχ πυρος]
As in the opening vision of Christ in Revelation 1:14 (Revelation 2:18). [source]
Revelation 19:14 Followed [ηκολουτει]
Imperfect active and singular Note ενδεδυμενοι — endedumenoi here as in Revelation 1:13; Revelation 15:6. [source]
Revelation 19:15 A sharp sword [ρομπαια οχεια]
As in Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:15. [source]
Revelation 2:1 These things [ταδε]
This demonstrative seven times here, once with the message to each church (Revelation 2:1, Revelation 2:8, Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:18; Revelation 2:1, Revelation 2:7, Revelation 2:14), only once elsewhere in N.T. (Acts 21:11).He that holdeth (ο κρατων — ho kratōn). Present active articular participle of κρατεω — krateō a stronger word than εχων — echōn in Revelation 1:16, to which it refers.He that walketh Present active articular participle of περιπατεω — peripateō an allusion to Revelation 1:13. These two epithets are drawn from the picture of Christ in Revelation 1:13-18, and appropriately to conditions in Ephesus describe Christ‘s power over the churches as he moves among them. [source]
Revelation 2:1 He that holdeth [ο κρατων]
Present active articular participle of κρατεω — krateō a stronger word than εχων — echōn in Revelation 1:16, to which it refers. [source]
Revelation 2:1 He that walketh [ο περιπατων]
Present active articular participle of περιπατεω — peripateō an allusion to Revelation 1:13. These two epithets are drawn from the picture of Christ in Revelation 1:13-18, and appropriately to conditions in Ephesus describe Christ‘s power over the churches as he moves among them. [source]
Revelation 2:8 The first and the last [ο πρωτος και ο εσχατος]
Repeating the language of Revelation 1:17.Which was dead (ος εγενετο νεκρος — hos egeneto nekros). Rather, “who became dead” (second aorist middle indicative of γινομαι — ginomai) as in Revelation 1:18.And lived again First aorist (ingressive, came to life) active of ζαω — zaō Emphasis on the resurrection of Christ. [source]
Revelation 2:8 Which was dead [ος εγενετο νεκρος]
Rather, “who became dead” (second aorist middle indicative of γινομαι — ginomai) as in Revelation 1:18. [source]
Revelation 2:10 Fear not [μη ποβου]
As in Revelation 1:17. Worse things are about to come than poverty and blasphemy, perhaps prison and death, for the devil “is about to cast” (μελλει βαλλειν — mellei ballein), “is going to cast.” [source]
Revelation 2:12 The sharp two-edged sword [την ρομπαιαν την διστομον την οχειαν]
This item repeated from Revelation 1:16 in the same order of words with the article three times (the sword the two-mouthed the sharp) singling out each point. [source]
Revelation 2:16 I come [ερχομαι]
Futuristic present middle indicative, “I am coming” (imminent), as in Revelation 2:5 with ταχυ — tachu as in Revelation 3:11; Revelation 11:14; Revelation 22:7, Revelation 22:12, Revelation 22:20. As with εν ταχει — en tachei (Revelation 1:1), we do not know how soon “quickly” is meant to be understood. But it is a real threat.Against them (μετ αυτων — met' autōn). This proposition with πολεμεω — polemeō rather than κατα — kata (against) is common in the lxx, but in the N.T. only in Revelation 2:16; Revelation 12:7; Revelation 13:4; Revelation 17:14 and the verb itself nowhere else in N.T. except James 4:2. “An eternal roll of thunder from the throne” (Renan). “The glorified Christ is in this book a Warrior, who fights with the sharp sword of the word” (Swete).With Instrumental use of εν — en For the language see Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Revelation 19:15. [source]
Revelation 2:16 With [εν]
Instrumental use of εν — en For the language see Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12; Revelation 19:15. [source]
Revelation 2:18 The Son of God [ο υιος του τεου]
Here Jesus is represented as calling himself by this title as in John 11:4 and as he affirms on oath in Matthew 26:63. “The Word of God” occurs in Revelation 19:13.His eyes like a flame of fire (τους οπταλμους αυτου ως πλογα πυρος — tous ophthalmous autou hōs phloga puros). As in Revelation 1:14.His feet like burnished brass As in Revelation 1:15. [source]
Revelation 2:18 His eyes like a flame of fire [τους οπταλμους αυτου ως πλογα πυρος]
As in Revelation 1:14. [source]
Revelation 2:18 His feet like burnished brass [οι ποδες αυτου ομοιοι χαλκολιβανωι]
As in Revelation 1:15. [source]
Revelation 20:10 Into the lake of fire and brimstone [εις την λιμνην του πυρος και τειου]
As in Revelation 19:20 with the two beasts, as he adds, “where are also the beast and the false prophet” Return to the prophetic future of Revelation 20:7, Revelation 20:8. For βασανιζω — basanizō see Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:10. For “day and night” (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos) see Revelation 4:8; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:11. For “for ever and ever” (εις τους αιωνας τον αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas ton aiōnōn) see Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 11:15, etc. The devil was cast down from heaven (Revelation 12:9), then imprisoned (Revelation 20:2.), now he received his final doom. [source]
Revelation 20:10 They shall be tormented [βασανιστησονται]
Return to the prophetic future of Revelation 20:7, Revelation 20:8. For βασανιζω — basanizō see Revelation 9:5; Revelation 14:10. For “day and night” (ημερας και νυκτος — hēmeras kai nuktos) see Revelation 4:8; Revelation 7:15; Revelation 12:10; Revelation 14:11. For “for ever and ever” (εις τους αιωνας τον αιωνων — eis tous aiōnas ton aiōnōn) see Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:18; Revelation 4:9, Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:13; Revelation 7:12; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 11:15, etc. The devil was cast down from heaven (Revelation 12:9), then imprisoned (Revelation 20:2.), now he received his final doom. [source]
Revelation 20:13 Death and Hades [ο τανατος και ο αιδης]
“An inseparable pair” (Swete) as in Revelation 1:18; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 20:14. So in Matthew 16:18 “the gates of Hades” means the power of death. Etymologically Hades is the unseen world where all who die are as opposed to this visible world, but in actual use Hades is sometimes treated as the abode of the unrighteous (Luke 16:23). Charles thinks that this is true here, though there is nothing to show it apart from the personification of death and Hades and the casting of both into the lake of fire in Revelation 20:14. Here again “each man” (εκαστος — hekastos) receives judgment according to his deeds (Matthew 16:27; 1 Corinthians 3:13; 2 Corinthians 5:10; Romans 2:6; Romans 14:12; 1 Peter 1:17; Revelation 2:23). [source]
Revelation 21:10 He carried me away in the Spirit [απηνεγκεν με εν πνευματι]
See same language in Revelation 17:7 when John received a vision of the Harlot City in a wilderness. Here it is “to a mountain great and high” So it was with Ezekiel (Ezekiel 40:2) and so the devil took Jesus (Matthew 4:8). It was apparently not Mount Zion (Revelation 14:1), for the New Jerusalem is seen from this mountain. “The Seer is carried thither ‹in spirit‘ (cf. Revelation 1:10; Revelation 4:1); the Angel‘s δευρο — deuro is a και εδειχεν μοι — sursum cor to which his spirit under the influence of the ‹Spirit of revelation‘ (Ephesians 1:17) at once responds” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 21:15 To measure [ινα μετρησηι]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of μετρεω — metreō The rod of gold was in keeping with the dignity of the service of God (Revelation 1:12; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 8:3; Revelation 9:13; Revelation 15:7). [source]
Revelation 21:23 And the lamp thereof is the Lamb [και ο λυχνος αυτης το αρνιον]
Charles takes ο λυχνος — ho luchnos as predicate, “and the Lamb is the lamp thereof.” Bousset thinks that John means to compare Christ to the moon the lesser light (Genesis 1:16), but that contrast is not necessary. Swete sees Christ as the one lamp for all in contrast with the many λυχνιαι — luchniai of the churches on earth (Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:20). “No words could more clearly demonstrate the purely spiritual character of St. John‘s conception of the New Jerusalem” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 22:1 He shewed me [εδειχεν μοι]
The angel as in Revelation 21:9, Revelation 21:10 (cf. Revelation 1:1; Revelation 4:1). Now the interior of the city. [source]
Revelation 21:23 Did lighten it [επωτισεν αυτην]
First aorist active indicative of πωτιζω — phōtizō to illumine, old verb from πως — phōs (Luke 11:36). If the sun and moon did shine, they would give no added light in the presence of the Shekinah Glory of God. See Revelation 21:11 for “the glory of God.” Cf. Revelation 18:1; Revelation 21:3. “Their splendour is simply put to shame by the glory of God Himself” (Charles).And the lamp thereof is the Lamb (και ο λυχνος αυτης το αρνιον — kai ho luchnos autēs to arnion). Charles takes ο λυχνος — ho luchnos as predicate, “and the Lamb is the lamp thereof.” Bousset thinks that John means to compare Christ to the moon the lesser light (Genesis 1:16), but that contrast is not necessary. Swete sees Christ as the one lamp for all in contrast with the many λυχνιαι — luchniai of the churches on earth (Revelation 1:12, Revelation 1:20). “No words could more clearly demonstrate the purely spiritual character of St. John‘s conception of the New Jerusalem” (Swete). [source]
Revelation 22:6 These words [ουτοι οι λογοι]
The same words used in Revelation 21:5 by the angel there. Whatever the application there, here the angel seems to endorse as “faithful and true” (πιστοι και αλητινοι — pistoi kai alēthinoi) not merely the preceding vision (21:9-22:5), but the revelations of the entire book. The language added proves this: “Sent his angel to shew unto his servants the things which must shortly come to pass” (απεστειλεν τον αγγελον αυτου δειχαι τοις δουλοις αυτου α δει γενεσται εν ταχει — apesteilen ton aggelon autou deixai tois doulois autou ha dei genesthai en tachei), a direct reference to Revelation 1:1 concerning the purpose of Christ‘s revelation to John in this book. For “the God of the spirits of the prophets” (ο τεος των πνευματων των προπητων — ho theos tōn pneumatōn tōn prophētōn) see Revelation 19:10; 1 Corinthians 14:32. Probably the prophets‘ own spirits enlightened by the Holy Spirit (Revelation 10:7; Revelation 11:8; Revelation 22:9). [source]
Revelation 22:8 And 1 John [Καγω Ιωαννης]
Here John the Seer is the speaker. He had already given his name (Revelation 1:1, Revelation 1:4, Revelation 1:9). Here he claims to be the “one who hears and sees these things” (ο ακουων και βλεπων ταυτα — ho akouōn kai blepōn tauta). [source]
Revelation 22:8 I fell down to worship [επεσα προσκυνησαι]
Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω — piptō (with α — ̇a form) and the first aorist active infinitive of purpose of προσκυνεω — proskuneō It was a natural, though a wrong, thing to do, especially after Christ‘s own voice followed that of the angel “which shewed me these things” Genitive singular of the articular present active participle of δεικνυω — deiknuō Cf. Revelation 1:1; Revelation 4:1; Revelation 17:1; Revelation 21:9.; Revelation 22:1, Revelation 22:6. [source]
Revelation 22:13 I am the Alpha and the Omega [Εγω το Αλπα και το Ο]
Applied to God in Revelation 1:8; Revelation 21:6, and here alone to Christ, crowning proof in this book of Christ‘s deity. So in Revelation 21:6 God is termed, as Christ is here, η αρχη και το τελος — hē archē kai to telos (the beginning and the end), while ο πρωτος και ο εσχατος — ho prōtos kai ho eschatos (the first and the last) is applied only to Christ (Revelation 1:17; Revelation 2:8). Solemn assurance is thus given that Christ is qualified to be the Judge of Revelation 22:12 (cf. Matt 25:31-46). In Hebrews 12:2 Jesus is the αρχηγος και τελειωτης της πιστεως — archēgos kai teleiōtēs tēs pisteōs (the author and finisher of faith). Christ was the Creator of the universe for the Father. So now he is the Consummation of redemption. [source]
Revelation 22:16 I Jesus [Εγω Ιησους]
The last and most solemn attestation to the book that from Jesus (the historic Jesus known to the churches), in harmony with Revelation 1:1. [source]
Revelation 22:16 Have sent [επεμπσα]
First aorist active indicative of πεμπω — pempō used here in the same sense as αποστειλας — aposteilas in Revelation 1:1 as his personal messenger. It is the Jesus of history here speaking, who is also the Christ of theology and the Lamb of God.For the churches (επι ταις εκκλησιαις — epi tais ekklēsiais). For this use of επι — epi see Revelation 10:11; John 12:16. It is not just for the seven churches (Revelation 1:4), but for all the churches in the world then and now.I am the root and the offspring of David See Revelation 5:5 for “the root of David,” to which John now adds το γενος — to genos in the sense of “offspring” (Acts 17:28.), not of family or race (Acts 4:6; Acts 7:13). Cf. Matthew 22:42-45.The bright, the morning star (ο αστηρ ο λαμπρος ο πρωινος — ho astēr ho lampros ho prōinos). The Davidic King is called a star in Numbers 24:17; Luke 1:78. This “day-star” (πωσπορος — phōsphoros) is interpreted as Christ (2 Peter 1:19). In Revelation 2:28 the phrase “the morning star” occurs in Christ‘s words, which is here interpreted. Christ is the Light that was coming into the world (John 1:9; John 8:12). [source]
Revelation 3:1 That hath the seven Spirits of God [ο εχων τα επτα πνευματα του τεου]
For which picture of the Holy Spirit see Revelation 1:4.And the seven stars (και τους επτα αστερας — kai tous hepta asteras). As in Revelation 1:16, Revelation 1:20.A name that thou livest A name in contrast with reality. The οτι — hoti clause in apposition with ονομα — onoma thou art dead “The paradox of death under the name of life” (Swete). Not complete (a nucleus of life) death (Revelation 3:2), but rapidly dying. See the picture in James 2:17; 2 Corinthians 6:9; 2 Timothy 3:5. [source]
Revelation 3:1 And the seven stars [και τους επτα αστερας]
As in Revelation 1:16, Revelation 1:20. [source]
Revelation 3:7 He that hath the key of David [και ουδεις κλεισει]
This epithet comes from Isaiah 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal household holds the keys of power. Christ as the Messiah (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) has exclusive power in heaven, on earth, and in Hades (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 28:18; Romans 14:9; Philemon 2:9.; Revelation 1:18). Christ has power to admit and exclude of his own will (Matthew 25:10.; Ephesians 1:22; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 19:11-16; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:16). [source]
Revelation 3:12 The new Jerusalem [της καινης Ιερουσαλημ]
Not νεας — neas (young), but καινης — kainēs (fresh). See also Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10 and already Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22. Charles distinguishes between the Jerusalem before the final judgment and this new Jerusalem after that event. Perhaps so! In the Apocalypse always this form Ιερουσαλημ — Ierousalēm (Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10), but in John‘s Gospel ιεροσολυμα — Hierosoluma (Revelation 1:19, etc.). [source]
Revelation 3:3 Therefore [ουν]
Resumptive and coordinating as in Revelation 1:19; Revelation 2:5.Thou hast received (ειληπας — eilēphas). Perfect active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō “as a permanent deposit” (Vincent).Didst hear First aorist active indicative, the act of hearing at the time.And keep it (και τηρει — kai tērei). Present active imperative of τηρεω — tēreō “hold on to what thou hast.”And repent First aorist active imperative of μετανοεω — metanoeō “Turn at once.”If therefore thou shalt not watch (εαν ουν μη γρηγορησηις — ean oun mē grēgorēsēis). Condition of third class with εαν μη — ean mē and the first aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of γρηγορεω — grēgoreō “if then thou do not wake up.”I will come Certainly future active here, though probably aorist subjunctive in Revelation 2:25.As a thief (ως κλεπτης — hōs kleptēs). As Jesus had already said (Matthew 24:43; Luke 12:39), as Paul had said (1 Thessalonians 5:2), as Peter had said (2 Peter 3:10), as Jesus will say again (Revelation 16:15).Thou shalt not know Strong double negative ου μη — ou mē with second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω — ginōskō though some MSS. have the future middle indicative γνωσηι — gnōsēi hour A rare classical idiom (accusative) surviving in the Koiné rather than the genitive of time, somewhat like John 4:52; Acts 20:16 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 470f.). Indirect question with ποιαν — poian f0). [source]
Revelation 3:7 The holy, he that is true [ο αγιοσ ο αλητινος]
Separate articles (four in all) for each item in this description. “The holy, the genuine.” Asyndeton in the Greek. Latin Vulgate, Sanctus et Verus. αγιος — Hosea hagios is ascribed to God in Revelation 4:8; Revelation 6:10 (both αλητινος — hagios and αλητινος — alēthinos as here), but to Christ in Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; John 6:69; Acts 4:27, Acts 4:30; 1 John 2:20, a recognized title of the Messiah as the consecrated one set apart. Swete notes that αλητης — alēthinos is verus as distinguished from verax So it is applied to God in Revelation 6:10 and to Christ in Revelation 3:14; Revelation 19:11 as in John 1:9; John 6:32; John 15:1.He that hath the key of David (και ουδεις κλεισει — ho echōn tēn klein Daueid). This epithet comes from Isaiah 22:22, where Eliakim as the chief steward of the royal household holds the keys of power. Christ as the Messiah (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16) has exclusive power in heaven, on earth, and in Hades (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 28:18; Romans 14:9; Philemon 2:9.; Revelation 1:18). Christ has power to admit and exclude of his own will (Matthew 25:10.; Ephesians 1:22; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 19:11-16; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:16).And none shall shut Charles calls the structure Hebrew (future active indicative of ο ανοιγων — kleiō), and not Greek because it does not correspond to the present articular participle just before και ουδεις ανοιγει — ho anoigōn (the one opening), but it occurs often in this book as in the very next clause, “and none openeth” (κλειων — kai oudeis anoigei) over against κλειει — kleiōn (present active participle, opening) though here some MSS. read kleiei (present active indicative, open). [source]
Revelation 3:12 A pillar [στυλον]
Old word for column, in N.T. only here, Revelation 10:1; Galatians 2:9; 1 Timothy 3:15. Metaphorical and personal use with a double significance of being firmly fixed and giving stability to the building. Philadelphia was a city of earthquakes. “Temple” Strong double negative ου μη — ou mē with the second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομαι — erchomai The subject is ο νικων — ho nikōn (the one overcoming). “Fixity of character is at last achieved” (Charles). He, like the στυλος — stulos (pillar), remains in place.Upon him Upon ο νικων — ho nikōn (the victor), not upon the pillar He receives this triple name (of God, of the city of God, of Christ) on his forehead (Revelation 14:1; Revelation 7:3; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 22:4) just as the high-priest wore the name of Jehovah upon his forehead (Exodus 28:36, Exodus 28:38), the new name (Revelation 2:17), without any magical or talismanic power, but as proof of ownership by God, as a citizen of the New Jerusalem, with the new symbol of the glorious personality of Christ (Revelation 19:12), in contrast with the mark of the beast on others (Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:17). For citizenship in God‘s city see Galatians 4:26; Philemon 3:20; Hebrews 11:10; Hebrews 12:22; Hebrews 13:14.The new Jerusalem (της καινης Ιερουσαλημ — tēs kainēs Ierousalēm). Not νεας — neas (young), but καινης — kainēs (fresh). See also Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10 and already Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22. Charles distinguishes between the Jerusalem before the final judgment and this new Jerusalem after that event. Perhaps so! In the Apocalypse always this form Ιερουσαλημ — Ierousalēm (Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10), but in John‘s Gospel ιεροσολυμα — Hierosoluma (Revelation 1:19, etc.).Which cometh down Nominative case in apposition with the preceding genitive πολεως — poleōs as in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 2:20, etc.Mine own new name (το ονομα μου το καινον — to onoma mou to kainon). For which see Revelation 2:17; Revelation 19:12, Revelation 19:16. Christ himself will receive a new name along with all else in the future world (Gressmann). [source]
Revelation 3:14 The beginning of the creation of God [η αρχη της κτισεως του τεου]
Not the first of creatures as the Arians held and Unitarians do now, but the originating source of creation through whom God works (Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18, a passage probably known to the Laodiceans, John 1:3; Hebrews 1:2, as is made clear by Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:13). [source]
Revelation 4:1 After these things [μετα ταυτα]
Change in the panorama, not chronology (Revelation 7:1, Revelation 7:9; Revelation 15:5; Revelation 18:1; Revelation 19:1). This vision is of heaven, not of earth as was true of chapters Rev 1; 2. The first vision of Christ and the messages to the seven churches began in Revelation 1:12. This new vision of the throne in heaven (Revelation 4:1-11) succeeds that to which it here alludes. [source]
Revelation 4:1 The first [η πρωτη]
Reference is to Revelation 1:10. [source]
Revelation 4:1 Come up [αναβα]
Short Koiné form for αναβητι — anabēthi (second aorist active imperative second person singular of αναβαινω — anabainō).Hither (ωδε — hōde). Originally “here,” but vernacular use (John 6:25; John 10:27).I will show Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 3:12 Upon him [επ αυτον]
Upon ο νικων — ho nikōn (the victor), not upon the pillar He receives this triple name (of God, of the city of God, of Christ) on his forehead (Revelation 14:1; Revelation 7:3; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 22:4) just as the high-priest wore the name of Jehovah upon his forehead (Exodus 28:36, Exodus 28:38), the new name (Revelation 2:17), without any magical or talismanic power, but as proof of ownership by God, as a citizen of the New Jerusalem, with the new symbol of the glorious personality of Christ (Revelation 19:12), in contrast with the mark of the beast on others (Revelation 13:17; Revelation 14:17). For citizenship in God‘s city see Galatians 4:26; Philemon 3:20; Hebrews 11:10; Hebrews 12:22; Hebrews 13:14.The new Jerusalem (της καινης Ιερουσαλημ — tēs kainēs Ierousalēm). Not νεας — neas (young), but καινης — kainēs (fresh). See also Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10 and already Galatians 4:26; Hebrews 12:22. Charles distinguishes between the Jerusalem before the final judgment and this new Jerusalem after that event. Perhaps so! In the Apocalypse always this form Ιερουσαλημ — Ierousalēm (Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2, Revelation 21:10), but in John‘s Gospel ιεροσολυμα — Hierosoluma (Revelation 1:19, etc.).Which cometh down Nominative case in apposition with the preceding genitive πολεως — poleōs as in Revelation 1:5; Revelation 2:20, etc.Mine own new name (το ονομα μου το καινον — to onoma mou to kainon). For which see Revelation 2:17; Revelation 19:12, Revelation 19:16. Christ himself will receive a new name along with all else in the future world (Gressmann). [source]
Revelation 3:14 The Amen [ο Αμην]
Personal (masculine article) name here alone, though in Isaiah 65:16 we have “the God of Amen” understood in the lxx as “the God of truth” Here applied to Christ. See Revelation 1:5 for ο μαρτυς ο πιστος — ho martus ho pistos (the faithful witness) and Revelation 3:7 for ο αλητινος — ho alēthinos (the genuine), “whose testimony never falls short of the truth” (Swete).The beginning of the creation of God (η αρχη της κτισεως του τεου — hē archē tēs ktiseōs tou theou). Not the first of creatures as the Arians held and Unitarians do now, but the originating source of creation through whom God works (Colossians 1:15, Colossians 1:18, a passage probably known to the Laodiceans, John 1:3; Hebrews 1:2, as is made clear by Revelation 1:18; Revelation 2:8; Revelation 3:21; Revelation 5:13). [source]
Revelation 3:18 To buy [αγορασαι]
First aorist active infinitive of αγοραζω — agorazō (from αγορα — agora market-place), rich as they think themselves to be.From me (παρ εμου — par' emou). From my side, emphatic.Refined by fire Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 3:18 Refined by fire [πεπυρωμενον εκ πυρος]
Perfect passive participle of πυροω — puroō (as in Revelation 1:15) and the metaphor carried on by εκ πυρος — ek puros “fired by fire.” Purity by removing dross (Psalm 66:10) like 1 Peter 1:7.That thou mayest become rich (ινα πλουτησηις — hina ploutēsēis). Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the ingressive first aorist active of πλουτεω — plouteō spiritual riches.That thou mayest clothe thyself Purpose clause with ινα — hina and second aorist middle (direct) subjunctive of περιβαλλω — periballō to fling round one as in Revelation 3:5.Be not made manifest (μη πανερωτηι — mē phanerōthēi). Continued purpose clause with negative μη — mē and first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō (γυμνοτητος — gumnotētos). Late and rare word from γυμνος — gumnos naked, in N.T. only here, 2 Corinthians 11:27; Romans 8:35. Cf. Revelation 16:15; Revelation 20:13; 2 Corinthians 5:2.Eye-salve Diminutive of κολλυρα — kollura (coarse bread of cylindrical shape), object of αγορασαι — agorasai name for a famous Phrygian powder for the eyes made in Laodicea (Charles), Latin collyrium (used for eye-salve by Horace and Juvenal).To anoint (εγχρισαι — egchrisai). First aorist active infinitive (epexegetic) of εγχριω — egchriō late compound (εν χριω — enινα βλεπηις — chriō Strabo, Epictetus), to rub in, here only in N.T.That thou mayest see Another purpose clause with hina and the present active subjunctive (keep on seeing). [source]
Revelation 4:1 I will show [δειχω]
Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 4:2 Straightway I was in the Spirit [ευτεως εγενομην εν πνευματι]
But John had already “come to be in the Spirit” (Revelation 1:10, the very same phrase). Perhaps here effective aorist middle indicative while ingressive aorist in Revelation 1:10 (sequel or result, not entrance), “At once I found myself in the Spirit” (Swete), not “I came to be in the Spirit” as in Revelation 1:10. [source]
Revelation 4:7 Like a lion [ομοιον λεοντι]
Associative-instrumental case again. In Ezek (Revelation 1:6, Revelation 1:10) each ζωον — zōon has four faces, but here each has a different face. “The four forms represent whatever is noblest, strongest, wisest, and swiftest in nature” (Swete). But it is not necessary to try to find a symbolism in each face here like the early baseless identification with the Four Evangelists (the lion for Mark, the man for Matthew, the calf for Luke, the eagle for John). Μοσχος — Moschos is first a sprout, then the young of animals, then a calf (bullock or heifer) as in Luke 15:23, Luke 15:27, Luke 15:30, or a full-grown ox (Ezekiel 1:10). [source]
Revelation 4:1 I saw [ειδον]
Second aorist active indicative of οραω — horaō Exclamation of vivid emotion as John looked. No effect on the structure and nominative case τυρα — thura (door) follows it.Opened (ηνεωιγμενη — ēneōigmenē). Perfect (triple reduplication) passive participle of ανοιγω — anoigō as in Revelation 3:8 (door of opportunity) and Revelation 3:20 (door of the heart), here the door of revelation (Swete).In heaven As in Ezekiel 1:1; Mark 1:10; John 1:51. In Revelation always in singular except Revelation 12:12.The first (η πρωτη — hē prōtē). Reference is to Revelation 1:10.Speaking From λαλεω — laleō rather λεγουσης — legousēs of Revelation 1:10 from λεγω — legō both agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos (trumpet).Saying (λεγων — legōn). Present active participle of λεγω — legō repeating the idea of λαλουσης — lalousēs but in the nominative masculine singular construed with πωνη — phōnē (feminine singular), construction according to sense because of the person behind the voice as in Revelation 11:15; Revelation 19:14.Come up Short Koiné form for αναβητι — anabēthi (second aorist active imperative second person singular of αναβαινω — anabainō).Hither (ωδε — hōde). Originally “here,” but vernacular use (John 6:25; John 10:27).I will show Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 4:1 In heaven [εν τωι ουρανωι]
As in Ezekiel 1:1; Mark 1:10; John 1:51. In Revelation always in singular except Revelation 12:12.The first (η πρωτη — hē prōtē). Reference is to Revelation 1:10.Speaking From λαλεω — laleō rather λεγουσης — legousēs of Revelation 1:10 from λεγω — legō both agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos (trumpet).Saying (λεγων — legōn). Present active participle of λεγω — legō repeating the idea of λαλουσης — lalousēs but in the nominative masculine singular construed with πωνη — phōnē (feminine singular), construction according to sense because of the person behind the voice as in Revelation 11:15; Revelation 19:14.Come up Short Koiné form for αναβητι — anabēthi (second aorist active imperative second person singular of αναβαινω — anabainō).Hither (ωδε — hōde). Originally “here,” but vernacular use (John 6:25; John 10:27).I will show Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 4:1 Speaking [λαλουσης]
From λαλεω — laleō rather λεγουσης — legousēs of Revelation 1:10 from λεγω — legō both agreeing with σαλπιγγος — salpiggos (trumpet).Saying (λεγων — legōn). Present active participle of λεγω — legō repeating the idea of λαλουσης — lalousēs but in the nominative masculine singular construed with πωνη — phōnē (feminine singular), construction according to sense because of the person behind the voice as in Revelation 11:15; Revelation 19:14.Come up Short Koiné form for αναβητι — anabēthi (second aorist active imperative second person singular of αναβαινω — anabainō).Hither (ωδε — hōde). Originally “here,” but vernacular use (John 6:25; John 10:27).I will show Future active of δεικνυμι — deiknumi in same sense in Revelation 1:1.Hereafter (μετα ταυτα — meta tauta). Some editors (Westcott and Hort) connect these words with the beginning of Revelation 4:2. [source]
Revelation 5:4 I wept much [εγω εκλαιον πολυ]
Imperfect active of κλαιω — klaiō picturesque, descriptive, I kept on weeping much; natural tense in these vivid visions (Revelation 1:12; Revelation 2:14; Revelation 5:4, Revelation 5:14; Revelation 6:8, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 10:10; Revelation 19:14; Revelation 21:15). Perhaps weeping aloud. [source]
Revelation 5:6 In the midst [εν μεσωι]
See Revelation 4:6 for this idiom. It is not quite clear where the Lamb was standing in the vision, whether close to the throne or in the space between the throne and the elders (perhaps implied by “came” in Revelation 5:7, but nearness to the throne is implied by Revelation 14:1; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 10:11).A Lamb (αρνιον — arnion). Elsewhere in the N.T. ο αμνος — ho amnos is used of Christ (John 1:29, John 1:36; Acts 8:32; 1 Peter 1:19 like Isaiah 53:7), but in the Apocalypse το αρνιον — to arnion occurs for the Crucified Christ 29 times in twelve chapters.Standing Second perfect active (intransitive of ιστημι — histēmi) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like αρνιον — arnion), though some MSS. read εστηκως — hestēkōs (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of ειδον — eidon construction according to sense).As though it had been slain (ως εσπαγμενον — hōs esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11).Having Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 5:6 Seven eyes [οπταλμους επτα]
Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9). [source]
Revelation 5:6 Standing [εστηκος]
Second perfect active (intransitive of ιστημι — histēmi) neuter accusative singular (grammatical gender like αρνιον — arnion), though some MSS. read εστηκως — hestēkōs (natural gender masculine and nominative in spite of ειδον — eidon construction according to sense).As though it had been slain (ως εσπαγμενον — hōs esphagmenon). Perfect passive predicate participle of σπαζω — sphazō old word, in N.T. only in Revelation 5:6, Revelation 5:9, Revelation 5:12; Revelation 6:4, Revelation 6:9; Revelation 13:3; Revelation 18:24; 1 John 3:12. ως — Hōs (as if) is used because the Lamb is now alive, but (in appearance) with the marks of the sacrifice. The Christ as the Lamb is both sacrifice and Priest (Hebrews 9:12.; Hebrews 10:11).Having Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 5:6 Having [εχων]
Construction according to sense again with masculine nominative participle instead of εχοντα — echonta (masculine accusative singular) or εχον — echon (neuter accusative singular). Seven horns Fulness of power (the All-powerful one) is symbolized by seven.Seven eyes (οπταλμους επτα — ophthalmous hepta). Like Zechariah 3:9; Zechariah 4:10 and denotes here, as there, omniscience. Here they are identified with the seven Spirits of Christ, while in Revelation 1:4 the seven Spirits are clearly the Holy Spirit of God (Revelation 3:1), and blaze like torches (Revelation 4:5), like the eyes of Christ (Revelation 1:14). The Holy Spirit is both Spirit of God and of Christ (Romans 8:9).Sent forth Perfect passive predicate participle of αποστελλω — apostellō masculine plural (agreeing with οι — hoi and οπταλμους — ophthalmous in gender), but some MSS. have απεσταλμενα — apestalmena agreeing with the nearer πνευματα — pneumata f0). [source]
Revelation 6:4 To take peace from the earth [λαβειν την ειρηνην εκ της γης]
Second aorist active infinitive of λαμβανω — lambanō and here the nominative case, the subject of εδοτη — edothē (see Revelation 6:2), “to take peace out of the earth.” Alas, how many red horses have been ridden through the ages.And that they should slay one another (και ινα αλληλους σπαχουσιν — kai hina allēlous sphaxousin). Epexegetical explanatory purpose clause with ινα — hina and the future active of σπαζω — sphazō (Revelation 5:6) instead of the more usual subjunctive (Revelation 6:2). Cf. Robertson, Grammar, p. 998f. This is what war does to perfection, makes cannon fodder (cf. John 14:27) of men.A great sword Μαχαιρα — Machaira may be a knife carried in a sheath at the girdle (John 18:10) or a long sword in battle as here. ομπαια — Romphaia also a large sword, is the only other word for sword in the N.T. (Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:16; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21). [source]
Revelation 6:4 A great sword [μαχαιρα μεγαλη]
Μαχαιρα — Machaira may be a knife carried in a sheath at the girdle (John 18:10) or a long sword in battle as here. ομπαια — Romphaia also a large sword, is the only other word for sword in the N.T. (Revelation 1:16; Revelation 2:12, Revelation 2:16; Revelation 6:8; Revelation 19:15, Revelation 19:21). [source]
Revelation 6:8 His name was Death [ονομα αυτωι ο τανατος]
Anacoluthon in grammatical structure like that in John 3:1 (cf. Revelation 2:26) and common enough. Death is the name of this fourth rider (so personified) and there is with Death “his inseparable comrade, Hades (Revelation 1:16; Revelation 20:13.)” (Swete). Hades Imperfect active of ακολουτεω — akoloutheō kept step with death, whether on the same horse or on another horse by his side or on foot John does not say.Over the fourth part of the earth Partitive genitive γης — gēs after τεταρτον — tetarton Wider authority First aorist active infinitive of αποκτεινω — apokteinō explanation of the εχουσια — exousia (authority). The four scourges of Ezekiel 14:21 are here reproduced with instrumental εν — en with the inanimate things (ρομπαιαι λιμωι τανατωι — romphaiāiυπο — limōi thanatōi) and τηριων — hupo for the beasts (τανατωι — thēriōn). Death here (λοιμος — thanatōi) seems to mean pestilence as the Hebrew does (λιμος — loimos - cf. limos famine). Cf. the “black death” for a plague. [source]
Revelation 7:2 The seal of the living God [σπραγιδα τεου ζωντος]
Here the signet ring, like that used by an Oriental monarch, to give validity to the official documents. The use of ζωντος — zōntos with τεου — theou accents the eternal life of God (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 15:7) as opposed to the ephemeral pagan gods. [source]
Revelation 7:3 Upon their foreheads [επι των μετωπων]
From Ezekiel 9:4. Old word For “the servants of God” (tous doulous tou theou) who are to be thus marked linked with angels in the service of God see Revelation 1:1; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6. [source]
Revelation 9:2 As the smoke of a great furnace [ως καπνος καμινου μεγαλης]
The plague of demonic locusts is here turned loose. Καμινος — Kaminos is old word for a smelting-furnace, already in Revelation 1:15.Were darkened (εσκοτωτη — eskotōthē). First aorist passive indicative of σκοτοω — skotoō old causative verb from σκοτος — skotos in N.T. only here, Revelation 16:10; Ephesians 4:18.By reason of “Out of,” as a result of (Revelation 8:13). [source]
Revelation 6:17 The great day [η ημερα η μεγαλη]
The phrase occurs in the O.T. prophets (Joel 2:11, Joel 2:31; Zephaniah 1:14. Cf. Judges 1:6) and is here combined with “of their wrath” (της οργης αυτων — tēs orgēs autōn) as in Zephaniah 1:15, Zephaniah 1:18; Zephaniah 2:3; Romans 2:5. “Their” (αυτων — autōn) means the wrath of God and of the Lamb put here on an equality as in Revelation 1:17., Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:13; 1 Thessalonians 3:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:16. Beckwith holds that this language about the great day having come “is the mistaken cry of men in terror caused by the portents which are bursting upon them.” There is something, to be sure, to be said for this view which denies that John commits himself to the position that this is the end of the ages. [source]
Revelation 7:2 From the sun-rising [απο ανατολης ηλιου]
Same phrase in Revelation 16:12. From the east, though why is not told. Swete suggests it is because Palestine is east of Patmos. The plural απο ανατολων — apo anatolōn occurs in Matthew 2:1 without ηλιου — hēliou (sun).The seal of the living God (σπραγιδα τεου ζωντος — sphragida theou zōntos). Here the signet ring, like that used by an Oriental monarch, to give validity to the official documents. The use of ζωντος — zōntos with τεου — theou accents the eternal life of God (Revelation 1:18; Revelation 10:6; Revelation 15:7) as opposed to the ephemeral pagan gods.To whom it was given For εδοτη — edothē see Revelation 6:2, Revelation 6:4, etc. The repetition of αυτοις — autois in addition to οις — hois (both dative) is a redundant Hebraism (in vernacular Koiné to some extent) often in the Apocalypse (Revelation 3:8). The angels are here identified with the winds as the angels of the churches with the churches (Revelation 1:20).To hurt (αδικησαι — adikēsai). First aorist active infinitive of αδικεω — adikeō subject of εδοτη — edothē common use of αδικεω — adikeō in this sense of to hurt in the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:11; Revelation 6:6 already), in Luke 10:19 also. The injury is to come by letting loose the winds, not by withholding them. [source]
Revelation 7:3 Till we shall have sealed [αχρι σπραγισωμεν]
Temporal clause of indefinite action for the future with αχρι — achri (sometimes αχρις ου — achris hou or αχρις ου αν — achris hou an) and the aorist subjunctive as in Revelation 15:8; Revelation 20:3, Revelation 20:5 or the future indicative (Revelation 17:7), usually with the notion of ascent (up to) rather than extent like μεχρι — mechri (modal) sometimes occurs, but it is not necessary. But there is no futurum exactum idea in the aorist subjunctive, simply “till we seal,” not “till we shall have sealed.”Upon their foreheads (επι των μετωπων — epi tōn metōpōn). From Ezekiel 9:4. Old word (μετα ωπς — metaτους δουλους του τεου — ōps after the eye, above the eye, the space above or between the eyes), in N.T. only in the Apocalypse (Revelation 7:3; Revelation 9:4; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 14:1, Revelation 14:9; Revelation 17:5; Revelation 20:4; Revelation 22:4). For “the servants of God” (tous doulous tou theou) who are to be thus marked linked with angels in the service of God see Revelation 1:1; Revelation 2:20; Revelation 19:2, Revelation 19:5; Revelation 22:3, Revelation 22:6. [source]
Revelation 9:7 Unto horses [ιπποις]
Associative-instrumental case, as is the rule with ομοιος — homoios (Revelation 1:15; Revelation 2:18; Revelation 4:6.; Revelation 9:10, Revelation 9:19; Revelation 11:1; Revelation 13:2, Revelation 13:11), but with the accusative in Revelation 1:13; Revelation 14:14. So also ομοιοι χρυσωι — homoioi chrusōi (like gold) in this same verse.Prepared for war (ητοιμασμενοις εις πολεμον — hētoimasmenois eis polemon). Perfect passive participle of ετοιμαζω — hetoimazō This imagery of war-horses is like that in Joel 2:4. “The likeness of a locust to a horse, especially to a horse equipped with armour, is so striking that the insect is named in German heupferd (hay horse), and in Italian cavalett a little horse” (Vincent).As it were crowns Not actual crowns, but what looked like crowns of gold, as conquerors, as indeed they were (Revelation 4:4; Revelation 6:2; Revelation 12:1; Revelation 14:14). These locusts of the abyss have another peculiar feature.As men‘s faces (ως προσωπα αντρωπων — hōs prosōpa anthrōpōn). Human-looking faces in these demonic locusts to give added terror, “suggesting the intelligence and capacity of man” (Swete). Vincent actually sees “a distinct resemblance to the human countenance in the face of the locust.” [source]

What do the individual words in Revelation 1:1 mean?

[The] revelation of Jesus Christ which gave Him - God to show to the bond-servants of Him what things it behooves to take place in quickness And He signified [it] having sent through the angel to the servant John
Ἀποκάλυψις Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἣν ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ Θεός δεῖξαι τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ δεῖ γενέσθαι ἐν τάχει καὶ ἐσήμανεν ἀποστείλας διὰ τοῦ ἀγγέλου τῷ δούλῳ Ἰωάννῃ

Ἀποκάλυψις  [The]  revelation 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀποκάλυψις  
Sense: a laying bear, making naked.
Ἰησοῦ  of  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
Χριστοῦ  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
ἔδωκεν  gave 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Θεός  God 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
δεῖξαι  to  show 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Infinitive Active
Root: δείκνυμι 
Sense: to show, expose to the eyes.
τοῖς  to  the 
Parse: Article, Dative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
δούλοις  bond-servants 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Plural
Root: δοῦλοσ1 
Sense: a slave, bondman, man of servile condition.
αὐτοῦ  of  Him 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
  what  things 
Parse: Personal / Relative Pronoun, Accusative Neuter Plural
Root: ὅς 
Sense: who, which, what, that.
δεῖ  it  behooves 
Parse: Verb, Present Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: δεῖ  
Sense: it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is right and proper.
γενέσθαι  to  take  place 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Infinitive Middle
Root: γίνομαι  
Sense: to become, i.
τάχει  quickness 
Parse: Noun, Dative Neuter Singular
Root: τάχος  
Sense: quickness, speed.
ἐσήμανεν  He  signified  [it] 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: σημαίνω  
Sense: to give a sign, to signify, indicate.
ἀποστείλας  having  sent 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἀποστέλλω 
Sense: to order (one) to go to a place appointed.
διὰ  through 
Parse: Preposition
Root: διά  
Sense: through.
ἀγγέλου  angel 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: ἄγγελος  
Sense: a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God.
τῷ  to  the 
Parse: Article, Dative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
δούλῳ  servant 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: δοῦλοσ1 
Sense: a slave, bondman, man of servile condition.
Ἰωάννῃ  John 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰωάννης 
Sense: John the Baptist was the son of Zacharias and Elisabeth, the forerunner of Christ.