The Meaning of Luke 4:2 Explained

Luke 4:2

KJV: Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.

YLT: forty days being tempted by the Devil, and he did not eat anything in those days, and they having been ended, he afterward hungered,

Darby: forty days, tempted of the devil; and in those days he did not eat anything, and when they were finished he hungered.

ASV: during forty days, being tempted of the devil. And he did eat nothing in those days: and when they were completed, he hungered.

What does Luke 4:2 Mean?

Study Notes

Then was Jesus
The temptation of Christ, the "last Adam" 1 Corinthians 15:45 is best understood when contrasted with that of the "first man Adam." Adam was tempted in his place of lord of creation, a lordship with but one reservation, the knowledge of good and evil; Genesis 1:26 ; Genesis 2:16 ; Genesis 2:17 . Through the woman he was tempted to add that also to his dominion. Falling, he lost all. But Christ had taken the place of a lowly Servant, acting only from and in obedience to the Father.; Philippians 2:5-8 ; John 5:19 ; John 6:57 ; John 8:28 ; John 8:54 (See Scofield " Isaiah 41:8 ") that He might redeem a fallen race and a creation under the curse; Genesis 3:17-19 ; Romans 8:19-23 . Satan's one object in the threefold temptation was to induce Christ to act from Himself, in independency of His Father. The first two temptations were a challenge to Christ from the god of this world to prove Himself indeed the Son of God ( Matthew 4:3 ; Matthew 4:6 ). The third was the offer of the usurping prince of this world to divest himself of that which rightfully belonged to Christ as Son of man and Son of David, on the condition that He accept the sceptre on Satan's world-principles (cf. John 18:36 ). See Scofield " Revelation 13:8 ". Christ defeated Satan by a means open to His humblest follower, the intelligent use of the word of God ( Matthew 4:4 ; Matthew 4:7 ). In his second temptation Satan also used Scripture, but a promise available only to one in the path of obedience. The scene give emphasis to the vital importance of "rightly dividing the word of truth" 2 Timothy 2:15 .

Context Summary

Luke 4:1-13 - The Threefold Temptation
As the waters of Jordan bisect the Holy Land, so does our Lord's baptism bisect His holy life. In that act He had identified Himself with the world's sin; and now, as the High Priest who was to deal with sin and sinners, He must be "in all points" tempted and tested "like as we are."
He took into the wilderness a perfect humanity of flesh and blood, made in all points like His brethren, though without sin. He elected to fight His great fight, not by the use of the divine attributes, but as Son of man. Where the first Adam fell, the second must stand.
First, He could not use His native power for His own gratification. Second, He would abide strictly within the limitations of the world He had entered, Hebrews 2:16-17. Third, He would win His kingdom by the Cross. [source]

Chapter Summary: Luke 4

1  The fasting and temptation of Jesus
14  He begins to preach
16  The people of Nazareth marvel at words, but seek to kill him
33  He cures one possessed of a demon,
38  Peter's mother-in-law,
40  and various other sick persons
41  The demons acknowledge Jesus, and are reproved for it
42  He preaches through the cities of Galilee

Greek Commentary for Luke 4:2

Being tempted [πειραζομενος]
Present passive participle and naturally parallel with the imperfect passive ηγετο — ēgeto (was led) in Luke 4:1. This is another instance of poor verse division which should have come at the end of the sentence. See note on Matthew 4:1; note on Mark 1:13 for the words “tempt” and “devil.” The devil challenged the Son of man though also the Son of God. It was a contest between Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, and the slanderer of men. The devil had won with Adam and Eve. He has hopes of triumph over Jesus. The story of this conflict is given only in Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13. There is a mere mention of it in Mark 1:12. So then here is a specimen of the Logia of Jesus (Q), a non-Markan portion of Matthew and Luke, the earliest document about Christ. The narrative could come ultimately only from Christ himself. It is noteworthy that it bears all the marks of the high conception of Jesus as the Son of God found in the Gospel of John and in Paul and Hebrews, the rest of the New Testament in fact, for Mark, Matthew, Luke, Acts, Peter, and Jude follow in this same strain. The point is that modern criticism has revealed the Messianic consciousness of Jesus as God‘s Son at his Baptism and in his Temptations at the very beginning of his ministry and in the oldest known documents about Christ (The Logia, Mark‘s Gospel). [source]
He did eat nothing [ουκ επαγεν ουδεν]
Second aorist (constative) active indicative of the defective verb εστιω — esthiō Mark does not give the fast. Matthew 4:2 has the aorist active participle νηστευσας — nēsteusas which usually means a religious fast for purposes of devotion. That idea is not excluded by Luke‘s words. The entrance of Jesus upon his Messianic ministry was a fit time for this solemn and intense consecration. This mental and spiritual strain would naturally take away the appetite and there was probably nothing at hand to eat. The weakness from the absence of food gave the devil his special opportunity to tempt Jesus which he promptly seized.When they were completed (συντελεστεισων αυτων — suntelestheisōn autōn). Genitive absolute with the first aorist passive participle feminine plural because εμερων — hemerōn (days) is feminine. According to Luke the hunger (επεινασεν — epeinasen became hungry, ingressive aorist active indicative) came at the close of the forty days as in Matthew 4:2. [source]
When they were completed [συντελεστεισων αυτων]
Genitive absolute with the first aorist passive participle feminine plural because εμερων — hemerōn (days) is feminine. According to Luke the hunger (επεινασεν — epeinasen became hungry, ingressive aorist active indicative) came at the close of the forty days as in Matthew 4:2. [source]
Forty days []
This should be joined with the preceding words, indicating the duration of his stay in the wilderness, not of his temptation, as A. V., being forty days tempted. Read as Rev., in the wilderness during forty days. [source]
The devil []
See on Matthew 4:1. [source]
He did eat nothing []
Mark does not mention the fast. Matthew uses the word νηστεύσας ,having fasted, which, throughout the New Testament, is used of abstinence for religious purposes; a ritual act accompanying seasons of prayer. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Luke 4:2

Matthew 13:3 Parables [παραβολαῖς]
From παρά , beside, and βάλλω , to throw. A parable is a form of teaching in which one thing is thrown beside another. Hence its radical idea is comparison. Sir John Cheke renders biword, and the same idea is conveyed by the German Beispiela pattern or example; beibeside, and the old high German speldiscourse or narration. The word is used with a wide range in scripture, but always involves the idea of comparison:1.Of brief sayings, having an oracular or proverbial character. Thus Peter (Matthew 15:15), referring to the words “If the blind lead the blind,” etc., says, “declare unto us thisparable. ” Compare Luke 6:39. So of the patched garment (Luke 5:36), and the guest who assumes the highest place at the feast (Luke 14:7, Luke 14:11). Compare, also, Matthew 24:39; Mark 13:28.2.Of a proverb. The word for proverb ( παροιμία ) has the same idea at the root as parable. It is παρά , beside, οἶμος , a way or road. Either a trite, wayside saying (Trench), or a path by the side of the high road (Godet). See Luke 4:23; 1 Samuel 24:13. 3.Of a song or poem, in which an example is set up by way of comparison. See Micah 2:4; Habakkuk 2:6. -DIVIDER-
4.Of a word or discourse which is enigmatical or obscure until the meaning is developed by application or comparison. It occurs along with the words αἴνιγμα , enigma, and πρόβλημα , a problem, something put forth or proposed ( πρό , in front βάλλω , to throw ). See Psalm 49:4 (Sept. 48:4); Psalm 78:2 (Sept. 77:2); Proverbs 1:6, where we have παραβολὴν , parable; σκοτεινὸν λόγον , dark saying; and αἰνίγματα , enigmas. Used also of the sayings of Balaam (Numbers 23:7, Numbers 23:18; Numbers 24:3, Numbers 24:15).In this sense Christ uses parables symbolically to expound the mysteries of the kingdom of God; as utterances which conceal from one class what they reveal to another (Matthew 13:11-17), and in which familiar facts of the earthly life are used figuratively to expound truths of the higher life. The un-spiritual do not link these facts of the natural life with those of the supernatural, which are not discerned by them (1 Corinthians 2:14), and therefore they need an interpreter of the relation between the two. Such symbols assume the existence of a law common to the natural and spiritual worlds under which the symbol and the thing symbolized alike work; so that the one does not merely resemble the other superficially, but stands in actual coherence and harmony with it. Christ formulates such a law in connection with the parables of the Talents and the Sower. “To him that hath shall be given. From him that hath not shall be taken away.” That is a law of morals and religion, as of business and agriculture. One must have in order to make. Interest requires capital. Fruit requires not only seed but soil. Spiritual fruitfulness requires an honest and good heart. Similarly, the law of growth as set forth in the parable of the Mustard Seed, is a law common to nature and to the kingdom of God. The great forces in both kingdoms are germinal, enwrapped in small seeds which unfold from within by an inherent power of growth.5. A parable is also an example or type; furnishing a model or a warning; as the Good Samaritan, the Rich Fool, the Pharisee and the Publican. The element of comparison enters here as between the particular incident imagined or recounted, and all cases of a similar kind.The term parable, however, as employed in ordinary Christian phraseology, is limited to those utterances of Christ which are marked by a complete figurative history or narrative. It is thus defined by Goebel (“Parables of Jesus”). “A narrative moving within the sphere of physical or human life, not professing to describe an event which actually took place, but expressly imagined for the purpose of representing, in pictorial figure, a truth belonging to the sphere of religion, and therefore referring to the relation of man or mankind to God.” In form the New Testament parables resemble the fable. The distinction between them does not turn on the respective use of rational and irrational beings speaking and acting. There are fables where the actors are human. Nor does the fable always deal with the impossible, since there are fables in which an animal, for instance, does nothing contrary to its nature. The distinction lies in the religious character of the New Testament parable as contrasted with the secular character of the fable. While the parable exhibits the relations of man to God, the fable teaches lessons of worldly policy or natural morality and utility. “The parable is predominantly symbolic; the fable, for the most part, typical, and therefore presents its teaching only in the form of example, for which reason it chooses animals by preference, not as symbolic, but as typical figures; never symbolic in the sense in which the parable mostly is, because the higher invisible world, of which the parable sees and exhibits the symbol in the visible world of nature and man, lies far from it. Hence the parable can never work with fantastic figures like speaking animals, trees,” etc. (Goebel, condensed). -DIVIDER-
The parable differs from the allegory in that there is in the latter “an interpenetration of the thing signified and the thing signifying; the qualities and properties of the first being attributed to the last,” and the two being thus blended instead of being kept distinct and parallel. See, for example, the allegory of the Vine and the Branches (John 15) where Christ at once identifies himself with the figure' “I am the true vine.” Thus the allegory, unlike the parable, carries its own interpretation with it. -DIVIDER-
Parable and proverb are often used interchangeably in the;New Testament; the fundamental conception being, as we have seen, the same in both, the same Hebrew word representing both, and both being enigmatical. They differ rather in extent than in essence; the parable being a proverb expanded and carried into detail, and being necessarily figurative, which the proverb is not; though the range of the proverb is wider, since the parable expands only one particular case of a proverb. (See Trench, “Notes on the Parables,” Introd.) [source]

Mark 12:10 Scripture [γραφὴν]
A passage of scripture: hence frequently this scripture; another scripture; the same scripture. Luke 4:21; John 19:37; Acts 1:16. [source]
Mark 12:10 This scripture [την γραπην ταυτην]
This passage of scripture (Luke 4:21; John 19:37; Acts 1:16). It is a quotation from Psalm 118:22. See Matthew 21:42 for discussion. [source]
Mark 6:1 Into his own country [εις την πατριδα αυτου]
So Matthew 13:54. There is no real reason for identifying this visit to Nazareth with that recorded in Luke 4:26-31 at the beginning of the Galilean Ministry. He was rejected both times, but it is not incongruous that Jesus should give Nazareth a second chance. It was only natural for Jesus to visit his mother, brothers, and sisters again. Neither Mark nor Matthew mention Nazareth here by name, but it is plain that by πατριδα — patrida the region of Nazareth is meant. He had not lived in Bethlehem since his birth. [source]
Mark 1:21 And taught [εδιδασκεν]
Inchoative imperfect, began to teach as soon as he entered the synagogue in Capernaum on the sabbath. The synagogue in Capernaum afforded the best opening for the teaching of Jesus. He had now made Capernaum (Tell Hum) his headquarters after the rejection in Nazareth as explained in Luke 4:16-31 and Matthew 4:13-16. The ruins of this synagogue have been discovered and there is even talk of restoring the building since the stones are in a good state of preservation. Jesus both taught The service consisted of prayer, praise, reading of scripture, and exposition by any rabbi or other competent person. Often Paul was invited to speak at such meetings. In Luke 4:20 Jesus gave back the roll of Isaiah to the attendant or beadle (τωι υπηρετηι — tōi hupēretēi) whose business it was to bring out the precious manuscript and return it to its place. Jesus was a preacher of over a year when he began to teach in the Capernaum synagogue. His reputation had preceded him (Luke 4:14). [source]
Luke 1:30 Grace [χάριν]
From the same root as χαίρω ,to rejoice. I. Primarily that which gives joy or pleasure; and hence outward beauty, loveliness, something which delights the beholder. Thus Homer, of Ulysses going to the assembly: “Athene shed down manly grace or beauty upon him” (“Odyssey,” ii., 12); and Septuagint, Proverbs 1:9; Proverbs 3:22. Substantially the same idea, agreeableness, is conveyed in Luke 4:22, respecting the gracious words, lit., words of grace, uttered by Christ. So Ephesians 4:29. II. As a beautiful or agreeable sentiment felt and expressed toward another; kindness, favor, good-will. 2 Corinthians 8:6, 2 Corinthians 8:7, 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 9:8; Luke 1:30; Luke 2:40; Acts 2:47. So of the responsive sentiment of thankfulness. See Luke 6:32, Luke 6:33, Luke 6:34:; Luke 17:9; but mostly in the formula thanks to God; Romans 6:17; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Timothy 1:3. III. The substantial expression of good-will; a boon, a favor, a gift; but not in New Testament. See Romans 5:15, where the distinction is made between χάρις , grace, and δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι , a gift in grace. So a gratification or delight, in classical Greek only; as the delight in battle, in sleep, etc. IV. The higher Christian signification, based on the emphasis offreeness in the gift or favor, and, as commonly in New Testament, denoting the free, spontaneous, absolute loving-kindness of God toward men, and so contrasted with debt, law, works, sin. The word does not occur either in Matthew or Mark. [source]
Luke 4:17 Opened [ἀναπτύξας]
Lit., unrolled. Both this and the simple verb πτύσσω , to close (Luke 4:20), occur only once in the New Testament. The former word was used in medical language of the opening out of various parts of the body, and the latter of the rolling up of bandages. The use of these terms by Luke the physician is the more significant from the fact that elsewhere in the New Testament ἀνοίγω is used for the opening of a book (Revelation 5:2-5; Revelation 10:2, Revelation 10:8; Revelation 20:12); and εἰλίσσω , for rolling it up (Revelation 6:14). [source]
Luke 16:8 Unjust steward []
Lit., steward of injustice. See on forgetful hearer, James 1:25; and compare words of grace, Luke 4:22; unjust judge, Luke 18:6; son of his love, Colossians 1:13; lust of uncleanness, 2 Peter 2:10. The idiom is a Hebrew one. The phrase expresses Jesus' judgment on what the steward's master praised. [source]
Luke 1:30 Favour [χαριν]
Grace. Same root as χαιρω — chairō (rejoice) and χαριτοω — charitoō in Luke 1:28. To find favour is a common O.T. phrase. Χαρις — Charis is a very ancient and common word with a variety of applied meanings. They all come from the notion of sweetness, charm, loveliness, joy, delight, like words of grace, Luke 4:22, growing grace, Ephesians 4:29, with grace, Colossians 4:6. The notion of kindness is in it also, especially of God towards men as here. It is a favourite word for Christianity, the Gospel of the grace of God (Acts 20:24) in contrast with law or works (John 1:16). Gratitude is expressed also (Luke 6:32), especially to God (Romans 6:17). [source]
Luke 10:15 Unto Hades [εως αιδου]
See note on Matthew 16:18 for this word which is here in contrast to Heaven as in Isaiah 14:13-15. Hades is not Gehenna. “The desolation of the whole neighbourhood, and the difficulty of identifying even the site of these flourishing towns, is part of the fulfilment of this prophecy” (Plummer). Ragg notes the omission of Nazareth from this list of cities of neglected privilege and opportunity. “Is it the tender memories of boyhood that keep from His lips the name of the arch-rejector (Luke 4:28 sqq.) Nazareth?” [source]
Luke 22:56 Looking steadfastly [ατενισασα]
Favourite word in Luke (Luke 4:20, etc.) for gazing steadily at one.This man also (και ουτος — kai houtos). As if pointing to Peter and talking about him. The other Gospels (Mark 14:67; Matthew 26:69; John 18:25) make a direct address to Peter. Both could be true, as she turned to Peter. [source]
John 10:6 Parable [παροιμίαν]
The word occurs but once outside of John's writings (2 Peter 2:22). The usual word for parable is παραβολή , which is once rendered proverb in the A.V. (Luke 4:23, changed to parable by Rev.), and which occurs nowhere in John. For the distinction see on Matthew 13:3. [source]
John 1:46 Come out of Nazareth [ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ εἶναι]
Literally, “be out of;” a characteristic expression of John. See John 3:31; John 4:22; John 7:17, John 7:22; John 8:23; John 15:19; John 18:36, John 18:38, etc. It means more than to come out of: rather to come out of as that which is of; to be identified with something so as to come forth bearing its impress, moral or otherwise. See especially John 3:31: “He that is of the earth is of the earth;” i.e., partakes of its quality. Compare Christ's words to Nicodemus (John 3:6), and 1 Corinthians 15:47. In the Greek order, out of Nazareth stands first in the sentence as expressing the prominent thought in Nathanael's mind, surprise that Jesus should have come from Nazareth, a poor village, even the name of which does not occur in the Old Testament. Contrary to the popular explanation, there is no evidence that Nazareth was worse than other places, beyond the fact of the violence offered to Jesus by its people (Luke 4:28, Luke 4:29), and their obstinate unbelief in Him (Matthew 13:58; Mark 6:6). It was a proverb, however, that no prophet was to come from Galilee (John 7:52). -DIVIDER-

John 1:11 Unto his own [εις τα ιδια]
Neuter plural, “unto his own things,” the very idiom used in John 19:27 when the Beloved Disciple took the mother of Jesus “to his own home.” The world was “the own home” of the Logos who had made it. See also John 16:32; Acts 21:6. They that were his own In the narrower sense, “his intimates,” “his own family,” “his own friends” as in John 13:1. Jesus later said that a prophet is not without honour save in his own country (Mark 6:4; John 4:44), and the town of Nazareth where he lived rejected him (Luke 4:28.; Matthew 13:58). Probably here οι ιδιοι — hoi idioi means the Jewish people, the chosen people to whom Christ was sent first (Matthew 15:24), but in a wider sense the whole world is included in οι ιδιοι — hoi idioi Conder‘s The Hebrew Tragedy emphasizes the pathos of the situation that the house of Israel refused to welcome the Messiah when he did come, like a larger and sadder Enoch Arden experience. Received him not Second aorist active indicative of παραλαμβανω — paralambanō old verb to take to one‘s side, common verb to welcome, the very verb used by Jesus in John 14:3 of the welcome to his Father‘s house. Cf. κατελαβεν — katelaben in John 1:5. Israel slew the Heir (Hebrews 1:2) when he came, like the wicked husbandmen (Luke 20:14). [source]
John 10:6 This parable [ταυτην την παροιμιαν]
Old word for proverb from παρα — para (beside) and οιμος — oimos way, a wayside saying or saying by the way. As a proverb in N.T. in 2 Peter 2:22 (quotation from Proverbs 26:11), as a symbolic or figurative saying in John 16:25, John 16:29, as an allegory in John 10:6. Nowhere else in the N.T. Curiously enough in the N.T. παραβολη — parabolē occurs only in the Synoptics outside of Hebrews 9:9; Hebrews 11:19. Both are in the lxx. Παραβολη — Parabolē is used as a proverb (Luke 4:23) just as παροιμια — paroimia is in 2 Peter 2:22. Here clearly παροιμια — paroimia means an allegory which is one form of the parable. So there you are. Jesus spoke this παροιμια — paroimia to the Pharisees, “but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them” Second aorist active indicative of γινωσκω — ginōskō and note ην — ēn in indirect question as in John 2:25 and both the interrogative τινα — tina and the relative α — ha “Spake” (imperfect ελαλει — elalei) should be “Was speaking or had been speaking.” [source]
John 4:44 For Jesus himself testified [αυτος γαρ Ιησους εμαρτυρησεν]
John‘s explanation of the conduct of Jesus by quoting a proverb often used by Jesus (Mark 6:4; Matthew 13:57; Luke 4:24 in reference to Nazareth), but not necessarily used by Jesus on this occasion. A similar proverb has been found in Plutarch, Pliny, Seneca. A prophet hath no honour in his own country What is meant by πατριδι — patridi In the Synoptics (Luke 4:24; Mark 6:4; Matthew 13:57) the reference is to Nazareth where he was twice rejected. But what has John in mind in quoting it here? He probably knew the quotations in the Synoptics. Does John refer to Judea by “his own country”? If so, the application hardly fits for he had already explained that Jesus was leaving Judea because he was too popular there (John 4:1-3). If he means Galilee, he immediately mentions the cordial welcome accorded Jesus there (John 4:45). But even so this is probably John‘s meaning for he is speaking of the motive of Jesus in going into Galilee where he had not yet laboured and where he apparently had no such fame as in Judea and now in Samaria. [source]
Acts 7:55 Looked up steadfastly []
Compare Acts 1:10; Acts 3:4, Acts 3:12; Acts 6:15; and see on Luke 4:20. [source]
Acts 3:4 Fastening his eyes [ἀτενἵσας]
See on Luke 4:20; and compare Acts 1:10. [source]
Acts 23:1 Earnestly beholding []
See on Luke 4:20. Some, who hold that Paul's eyesight was defective, explain this steadfast look in connection with his imperfect vision. [source]
Acts 13:9 Set his eyes on him []
See on Luke 4:20. [source]
Acts 10:4 When he looked [ἀτενίσας]
Rev., more accurately, fastening his eyes. Compare Acts 7:55; and see on Luke 4:20. [source]
Acts 1:10 Looked steadfastly [ἀτενίζοντες ἦσαν]
See on Luke 4:20. [source]
Acts 1:10 Were looking steadfastly [ατενιζοντες ησαν]
Periphrastic imperfect active of ατενιζω — atenizō a late intensive verb (intensive α — a and τεινω — teinō to stretch). Common in Acts and also in Luke 4:20; Luke 22:56 as well as Acts 10:4, which see. [source]
Acts 11:6 When I had fastened my eyes [ατενισας]
This personal touch Peter adds from his own experience. See Luke 4:20 and Acts 3:4, Acts 3:12 for this striking verb atenizō to stretch the eyes towards, first aorist active participle here. [source]
Acts 13:5 They had also [ειχον δε και]
Imperfect active, descriptive. As their attendant (υπηρετην — hupēretēn). Literally, “under-rower” (υπο ηρετης — hupoχαζζαν — ēretēs) in the trireme. Probably here minister (chazzan) or assistant in the synagogue as in Luke 4:20. Cf. Matthew 5:25. It is not clear what John Mark did, though he was evidently selected by Barnabas as his cousin. He may have helped in the baptizing. There were probably others also in the company (Acts 13:13). The “also” may mean that Mark did some preaching. Barnabas was probably the leader in the work in these Jewish synagogues. [source]
Acts 13:9 Filled with the Holy Spirit [πιμπλημι]
First aorist (ingressive) passive participle of ατενισας — pimplēmi with the genitive case. A special influx of power to meet this emergency. Here was a cultured heathen, typical of the best in Roman life, who called forth all the powers of Paul plus the special help of the Holy Spirit to expose the wickedness of Elymas Barjesus. If one wonders why the Holy Spirit filled Paul for this emergency rather than Barnabas, when Barnabas was named first in Acts 13:2, he can recall the sovereignty of the Holy Spirit in his choice of agents (1 Corinthians 12:4-11) and also the special call of Paul by Christ (Acts 9:15; Acts 26:17.). Fastened his eyes (atenisas). As already in Luke 4:20; Luke 22:56; Acts 3:4, Acts 3:12; Acts 6:15; Acts 10:4. [source]
Acts 13:9 Fastened his eyes [atenisas)]
As already in Luke 4:20; Luke 22:56; Acts 3:4, Acts 3:12; Acts 6:15; Acts 10:4. [source]
Acts 13:16 Paul stood up [αναστας Παυλος]
The Jewish custom was to sit while speaking (Luke 4:20), but the Greek and Roman was to stand (Acts 17:22). It is possible as Lewin (Life of St. Paul, Vol. 1, p. 141) suggests that here Paul stepped upon the platform and then took his seat as he began to speak or he may have followed the Greek and Roman custom. Paul is the leader now and the more gifted speaker (Acts 14:12), so that he responds to the courteous invitation of the rulers. [source]
Acts 21:22 They will certainly hear [παντως ακουσονται]
Παντως — Pantōs is old adverb, by all means, altogether, wholly, certainly as here and Acts 28:4; Luke 4:23; 1 Corinthians 9:10. This future middle of ακουω — akouō is the usual form instead of ακουσω — akousō There was no way to conceal Paul‘s arrival nor was it wise to do so. B C and several cursives omit δει πλητος συνελτειν — dei plēthos sunelthein (The multitude must needs come together). [source]
Acts 28:4 Hanging from his hand [kremamenon ek tēs cheiros autou)]
Vivid picture of the snake dangling from Paul‘s hand. Present middle participle of τηριακη — kremamai late form for κρεμαμενον εκ της χειρος αυτου — kremannumi to hang up, to suspend (cf. Galatians 3:13). No doubt (κρεμαμαι — pantōs). Literally, By all means, old adverb. Cf. Acts 21:22; Luke 4:23; 1 Corinthians 9:22. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T. “They knew that he was a prisoner being taken to Rome on some grave charge, and inferred that the charge was murder” (Page). Though he hath escaped First aorist passive participle of παντως — diasōzō (same verb used in Acts 27:43, Acts 27:44; Acts 28:1), so-called concessive use of the participle (Robertson, Grammar, p. 1129). Yet Justice An abstraction personified like the Latin διασωζω — Justitia (Page). The natives speak of δικη — @Dikēn as a goddess, but we know nothing of such actual worship in Malta, though the Greeks worshipped abstractions as in Athens. Hath not suffered (Δικη — nouk eiasenn). Did not suffer. They look on Paul as a doomed man as good as dead. These people thought that calamity was proof of guilt, poor philosophy and worse theology. -DIVIDER-

Acts 28:4 No doubt [κρεμαμαι]
Literally, By all means, old adverb. Cf. Acts 21:22; Luke 4:23; 1 Corinthians 9:22. Only by Luke and Paul in the N.T. “They knew that he was a prisoner being taken to Rome on some grave charge, and inferred that the charge was murder” (Page). [source]
Acts 3:4 Fastening his eyes [ατενισας]
First aorist (ingressive) active participle of ατενιζω — atenizō For this verb see note on Luke 4:20 and note on Acts 1:10. Peter fixed his eyes on the beggar and invited him to look (βλεπσον — blepson) on them. [source]
1 Corinthians 4:1 Ministers of Christ [υπηρετας Χριστου]
Paul and all ministers (διακονους — diakonous) of the New Covenant (1 Corinthians 3:5) are under-rowers, subordinate rowers of Christ, only here in Paul‘s Epistles, though in the Gospels (Luke 4:20 the attendant in the synagogue) and the Acts (Acts 13:5) of John Mark. The so (ουτως — houtōs) gathers up the preceding argument (3:5-23) and applies it directly by the as (ως — hōs) that follows. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:7 Steadfastly behold [ἀτενίσαι]
See on Luke 4:20. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:7 Look steadfastly [ατενισαι]
Late verb from ατενης — atenēs (stretched, intent, τεινω — teinō and α — a intensive) as in Luke 4:20; Acts 3:4. Was passing away (καταργουμενην — katargoumenēn). Late verb, to render of no effect, and present passive participle here as in 1 Corinthians 2:6. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:7 Engraven on stones [εντετυπωμενη λιτοις]
Perfect passive participle of εντυποω — entupoō late verb, to imprint a figure Used by Aristeas (67) of the “inlaid” work on the table sent by Ptolemy Philadelphus to Jerusalem. Λιτοις — Lithois in locative case. Came with glory (εγενητη εν δοχηι — egenēthē en doxēi). In glory. As it did, condition of first class, assumed as true. See Exodus 34:29, Exodus 34:35. Look steadfastly Late verb from ατενης — atenēs (stretched, intent, τεινω — teinō and α — a intensive) as in Luke 4:20; Acts 3:4. Was passing away (καταργουμενην — katargoumenēn). Late verb, to render of no effect, and present passive participle here as in 1 Corinthians 2:6. [source]
Galatians 2:16 But by faith [ἐὰν μὴ]
As the Greek stands, it would read, “Is not justified by the works of the law save through faith.” So, unfortunately, Rev. This would mean, as the Romish interpreters, not through works of the law except they be done through faith in Christ, and would ascribe justification to works which grow out of faith. Paul means that justification is by faith alone. The use of ἐὰν μὴ is to be thus explained: A man is not justified by the works of the law: (he is not justified) except by faith in Jesus Christ. Ἑὰν μὴ retains its exceptive force, but the exception refers only to the verb. Comp. εἰ μὴ in Matthew 12:4; Luke 4:26, Luke 4:27; Galatians 1:19; Revelation 21:27. [source]
1 Timothy 5:18 The Scripture [ἡ γραφή]
Comp. 2 Timothy 3:16. To the Jews ἡ γραφή signified the O.T. canon of Scripture; but in most cases ἡ γραφή is used of a particular passage of Scripture which is indicated in the context. See John 7:38, John 7:42; Acts 1:16; Acts 8:32, Acts 8:35; Romans 4:3; Romans 9:17; Romans 10:11; Galatians 3:8. Where the reference is to the sacred writings as a whole, the plural γραφαὶ or αἱ γραφαὶ is used, as Matthew 21:42; Luke 24:32; John 5:39; Romans 15:4. Once γραφαὶ ἅγιαι holyScriptures, Romans 1:2. Ἑτέρα γραφὴ anotheror a different Scripture, John 19:37; ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη this Scripture, Luke 4:21; πᾶσα γραφὴ everyScripture, 2 Timothy 3:16. See on writings, John 2:22. The passage cited here is Deuteronomy 25:4, also by Paul, 1 Corinthians 9:9. [source]
Hebrews 11:27 Not fearing [μη ποβητεις]
Negative μη — mē with first aorist passive participle of ποβεω — phobeō here used transitively with the accusative as in Matthew 10:26. Moses did flee from Egypt after slaying the Egyptian (Exodus 2:15), but the author omits that slaughter and ignores it as the dominant motive in the flight of Moses. Τυμον — Thumon (wrath) is common in the N.T. (Luke 4:28), though here only in Hebrews. He endured First aorist (constative) active indicative of καρτερεω — kartereō old word from καρτερος — karteros strong, here only in N.T. Moses had made his choice before slaying the Egyptian. He stuck to its resolutely. As seeing him who is invisible This is the secret of his choice and of his loyalty to God and to God‘s people. This is the secret of loyalty in any minister today who is the interpreter of God to man (2 Corinthians 4:16-18). [source]
James 2:25 Sent them out [ἐκβαλοῦσα]
Better, thrust them forth, implying haste and fear. Compare Mark 1:12; Luke 4:29; Acts 16:37. [source]
James 2:2 If there come in [εαν εισελτηι]
Condition of third class (supposable case) with εαν — ean and second (ingressive) aorist active subjunctive of εισερχομαι — eiserchomai your synagogue The common word for the gathering of Jews for worship (Luke 12:11) and particularly for the building where they met (Luke 4:15, Luke 4:20, Luke 4:28, etc.). Here the first is the probable meaning as it clearly is in Hebrews 10:25 “A gold-fingered man,” “wearing a gold ring.” The word occurs nowhere else, but Lucian has χρυσοχειρ — chrusocheir (gold-handed) and Epictetus has χρυσους δακτυλιους — chrusous daktulious (golden seal-rings). “Hannibal, after the battle of Cannae, sent as a great trophy to Carthage, three bushels of gold-rings from the fingers of Roman knights slain in battle” (Vincent).In fine clothing “In bright (brilliant) clothing” as in Matthew 11:8; Luke 23:11; Acts 10:30. In contrast with “vile clothing” υπαρος — Ruparos (late word from ρυπος — rupos filth, 1 Peter 3:21) means filthy, dirty. In N.T. only here and Revelation 22:11 (filthy).Poor man (πτωχος — ptōchos). Beggarly mendicant (Matthew 19:21), the opposite of πλουσιος — plousios (rich). [source]
Revelation 11:6 To shut up the heaven []
As Elijah, 1 Kings 17:1; Luke 4:25; James 5:17. [source]
Revelation 11:6 To shut the heaven [κλεισαι τον ουρανον]
First aorist active infinitive of κλειω — kleiō As Elijah did by prayer (1 Kings 17:1; Luke 4:25; James 5:17). [source]
Revelation 11:6 During the days [τας ημερας]
Accusative of extent of time. In Luke 4:25; James 5:17 the period of the drouth in Elijah‘s time was three and a half years, just the period here. [source]
Revelation 11:6 That it rain not [ινα μη υετος βρεχηι]
Sub-final use of ινα μη — hina mē with the present active subjunctive of βρεχω — brechō old verb to rain (Matthew 5:45), here with υετος — huetos as subject.During the days (τας ημερας — tas hēmeras). Accusative of extent of time. In Luke 4:25; James 5:17 the period of the drouth in Elijah‘s time was three and a half years, just the period here.Of their prophecy Not here the gift of prophecy (1 Corinthians 12:10) or a particular prophecy or collection of prophecies (Revelation 1:3; Revelation 22:7.), but “the execution of the prophetic office” (Swete).Over the waters (επι των υδατων — epi tōn hudatōn). “Upon the waters.” As Moses had (Exodus 7:20).Into blood As already stated in Revelation 8:8 about the third trumpet and now again here.To smite (παταχαι — pataxai). First aorist active infinitive of πατασσω — patassō used here with εχουσιαν εχουσιν — exousian echousin (they have power), as is στρεπειν — strephein (to turn).With every plague In 1 Kings 4:8, but with reference to the plagues in Egypt.As often as they shall desire (οσακις εαν τελησωσιν — hosakis ean thelēsōsin). Indefinite temporal clause with οσακις — hosakis and modal εαν — ean (= αν — an) and the first aorist active subjunctive of τελω — thelō “as often as they will.” [source]

What do the individual words in Luke 4:2 mean?

days forty being tempted by the devil And not He ate nothing in the days those having ended they He was hungry
ἡμέρας τεσσεράκοντα πειραζόμενος ὑπὸ τοῦ διαβόλου Καὶ οὐκ ἔφαγεν οὐδὲν ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις συντελεσθεισῶν αὐτῶν ἐπείνασεν

ἡμέρας  days 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: ἡμέρα  
Sense: the day, used of the natural day, or the interval between sunrise and sunset, as distinguished from and contrasted with the night.
τεσσεράκοντα  forty 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Feminine Plural
Root: τεσσαράκοντα 
Sense: forty.
πειραζόμενος  being  tempted 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Middle or Passive, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: πειράζω  
Sense: to try whether a thing can be done.
διαβόλου  devil 
Parse: Adjective, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: διάβολος  
Sense: prone to slander, slanderous, accusing falsely.
ἔφαγεν  He  ate 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἐσθίω  
Sense: to eat.
οὐδὲν  nothing 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: οὐδείς 
Sense: no one, nothing.
ἡμέραις  days 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Plural
Root: ἡμέρα  
Sense: the day, used of the natural day, or the interval between sunrise and sunset, as distinguished from and contrasted with the night.
ἐκείναις  those 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Dative Feminine Plural
Root: ἐκεῖνος  
Sense: he, she it, etc.
συντελεσθεισῶν  having  ended 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Passive, Genitive Feminine Plural
Root: συντελέω  
Sense: to end together or at the same time.
ἐπείνασεν  He  was  hungry 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: πεινάω  
Sense: to hunger, be hungry.