The Meaning of Luke 23:2 Explained

Luke 23:2

KJV: And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.

YLT: and began to accuse him, saying, 'This one we found perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying himself to be Christ a king.'

Darby: And they began to accuse him, saying, We have found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, saying that he himself is Christ, a king.

ASV: And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this man perverting our nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ a king.

What does Luke 23:2 Mean?

Context Summary

Luke 23:1-12 - Silent Under False Accusations
The Jewish Sanhedrin, hastily summoned at the hour of dawn, having elicited from Jesus the profession of His messiahship and deity, and having concluded on the death sentence, set themselves to induce Pilate, the Roman governor, to concur in their verdict. In order to do this, they urged that Jesus imperiled the Roman supremacy.
Pilate was accustomed to deal with men, and after careful examination, was satisfied that there was no ground for the death sentence. I find no fault. As God's Paschal Lamb, the Savior was searched to discover if there were spot, or blemish, or anything that could invalidate His claim to sinlessness. Only the sinless could save sinners. In his heart Pilate knew that our Lord should be acquitted, but his fear of the Jews deflected the verdict of his conscience. By sending the case to Herod, he hoped to get the right thing done, without incurring the odium incident to doing it. [source]

Chapter Summary: Luke 23

1  Jesus is accused before Pilate, and sent to Herod
8  Herod mocks him
12  Herod and Pilate become friends
13  Barabbas is desired of the people,
24  and is released by Pilate, and Jesus is given to be crucified
26  He tells the women, that lament him, the destruction of Jerusalem;
34  prays for his enemies
39  Two criminals are crucified with him
46  His death
50  His burial

Greek Commentary for Luke 23:2

Began to accuse [ηρχαντο κατηγορειν]
They went at it and kept it up. Luke mentions three, but neither of them includes their real reason nor do they mention their own condemnation of Jesus. They had indulged their hatred in doing it, but they no longer have the power of life and death. Hence they say nothing to Pilate of that. [source]
We found [ευραμεν]
Second aorist active indicative with first aorist vowel α — a Probably they mean that they had caught Jesus in the act of doing these things (in flagrante delicto) rather than discovery by formal trial.Perverting our nation (διαστρεποντα το ετνος ημων — diastrephonta to ethnos hēmōn). Present active participle of διαστρεπω — diastrephō old verb to turn this way and that, distort, disturb. In the N.T. only here and Acts 13:10. The Sanhedrin imply that the great popularity of Jesus was seditious.Forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, Note object infinitive διδοναι — didonai after the participle κωλυοντα — kōluonta Literally, hindering giving tribute to Caesar. This was a flat untruth. Their bright young students had tried desperately to get Jesus to say this very thing, but they had failed utterly (Luke 20:25).Saying that he himself is Christ a king (λεγοντα αυτον Χριστον βασιλεα ειναι — legonta hauton Christon basilea einai). Note the indirect discourse here after the participle λεγοντα — legonta with the accusative (αυτον — hauton where αυτον — auton could have been used), and the infinitive. This charge is true, but not in the sense meant by them. Jesus did claim to be the Christ and the king of the kingdom of God. But the Sanhedrin wanted Pilate to think that he set himself up as a rival to Caesar. Pilate would understand little from the word “Christ,” but “King” was a different matter. He was compelled to take notice of this charge else he himself would be accused to Caesar of winking at such a claim by Jesus. [source]
Perverting our nation [διαστρεποντα το ετνος ημων]
Present active participle of διαστρεπω — diastrephō old verb to turn this way and that, distort, disturb. In the N.T. only here and Acts 13:10. The Sanhedrin imply that the great popularity of Jesus was seditious. [source]
Forbidding to give tribute to Caesar []
, Note object infinitive διδοναι — didonai after the participle κωλυοντα — kōluonta Literally, hindering giving tribute to Caesar. This was a flat untruth. Their bright young students had tried desperately to get Jesus to say this very thing, but they had failed utterly (Luke 20:25).Saying that he himself is Christ a king (λεγοντα αυτον Χριστον βασιλεα ειναι — legonta hauton Christon basilea einai). Note the indirect discourse here after the participle λεγοντα — legonta with the accusative (αυτον — hauton where αυτον — auton could have been used), and the infinitive. This charge is true, but not in the sense meant by them. Jesus did claim to be the Christ and the king of the kingdom of God. But the Sanhedrin wanted Pilate to think that he set himself up as a rival to Caesar. Pilate would understand little from the word “Christ,” but “King” was a different matter. He was compelled to take notice of this charge else he himself would be accused to Caesar of winking at such a claim by Jesus. [source]
Saying that he himself is Christ a king [λεγοντα αυτον Χριστον βασιλεα ειναι]
Note the indirect discourse here after the participle λεγοντα — legonta with the accusative (αυτον — hauton where αυτον — auton could have been used), and the infinitive. This charge is true, but not in the sense meant by them. Jesus did claim to be the Christ and the king of the kingdom of God. But the Sanhedrin wanted Pilate to think that he set himself up as a rival to Caesar. Pilate would understand little from the word “Christ,” but “King” was a different matter. He was compelled to take notice of this charge else he himself would be accused to Caesar of winking at such a claim by Jesus. [source]
We found []
In a judicial sense: as the result of their examination before the council. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Luke 23:2

Matthew 1:19 Not willing [ἐβουλήθη]
These two words, describing the working of Joseph's mind, and evidently intended to express different phases of thought, open the question of their distinctive meanings in the New Testament, where they frequently occur ( θέλω much oftener than βούλομαι ), and where the rendering, in so many eases by the same words, furnishes no clue to the distinction. The original words are often used synonymously in eases where no distinction is emphasized; but their use in other eases reveals a radical and recognized difference. An interchange is inadmissible when the greater force of the expression requires θέλειν . For instance, βαούλεσθαι , would be entirely inappropriate at Matthew 8:3, “I will, be thou cleansed;” or at Romans 7:15. The distinction, which is abundantly illustrated in Homer, is substantially maintained by the classical writers throughout, and in the New Testament. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Θέλειν is the stronger word, and expresses a purpose or determination or decree, the execution of which is, or is believed to be, in the power of him who wills. Βούλεσθαι expresses wish, inclination, or disposition, whether one desires to do a thing himself or wants some one else to do it. Θέλειν , therefore, denotes the active resolution, the will urging on to action. Βούλεσθαι is to have a mind, to desire, sometimes a little stronger, running into the sense of purpose. Θέλειν indicates the impulse of the will; βούλεσθαι , its tendency. Βούλεσθαι can always be rendered by θέλειν , but θέλειν cannot always be expressed by βούλεσθαι . -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Thus, Agamemnon says, “I would not ( οὐκ ἔθελον )-DIVIDER-
receive the ransom for the maid (i.e., Irefused to receive), because I greatly desire ( βούλομαι )-DIVIDER-
to have her at home” (Homer, “II.,” 1:112). So Demosthenes: “It is fitting that you should be willing ( ἐθέλειν ) to listen to those who wish ( βουλομένων ) to-DIVIDER-
advise” (“Olynth.,” 1:1). That is to say, It is in your power to determine whether or not you will listen to those who desire to advise you, but whose power to do so depends on your consent. Again: “If the gods will it ( θέλωσι ) and you wish it ( βούλησθε )”-DIVIDER-
(Demosth., “Olynth.,” 2:20). -DIVIDER-
In the New Testament, as observed above, though the words are often interchanged, the same distinction is recognized. Thus, Matthew 2:18, “Rachael would not ( ἤθελε ) be comforted;” obstinately and positively refused. Joseph, having the right and power under the (assumed) circumstances to make Mary a public example, resolved ( θέλων )-DIVIDER-
to spare her this exposure. Then the question arose - What should he do? On this he thought, and, having thought ( ἐνθυμηθέντος )his mind inclined (tendency), he was minded ( ἐβουλήθη )-DIVIDER-
to put her away secretly. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Some instances of the interchanged use of the two words are the following: Mark 15:15, “Pilate willing ”-DIVIDER-
( βουλόμενος ); compare Luke 23:20, “Pilate willing ”-DIVIDER-
( θέλων ). Acts 27:43, “The centurion willing ”-DIVIDER-
( βουλόμενος ) Matthew 27:17, “Whom will ye that I release” ( θέλετε ); so Matthew 27:21. John 18:39, “Will ye that I release” ( βούλεσθε ); Matthew 14:5, “When he would have put him to death” ( θέλων ). Mark 6:48, “He would have passed by them” ( ἤθελε ); Acts 19:30, “Paul would have entered” ( βουλόμενος ). Acts 18:27, “He was disposed to pass” ( βουλόμενος ). Titus 3:8, “I will that thou affirm” ( βούλομαι ) Mark 6:25, “I will that thou give me” ( θέλω ), etc., etc. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In the New Testament θέλω occurs in the following senses:1.A decree or determination of the will. (a ) Of God (Matthew 12:7; Romans 9:16, Romans 9:18; Acts 18:21; 1 Corinthians 4:19; 1 Corinthians 12:18; 1 Corinthians 15:38). (b ) Of Christ (Matthew 8:3; John 17:24; John 5:21; John 21:22). (c ) Of men (Acts 25:9). Festus, having the power to gratify the Jews, and determining to do so, says to Paul, who has the right to decide, “Wilt thou go up to Jerusalem?” John 6:67, Others of the disciples had decided to leave Jesus. Christ said to the twelve, “Will ye also go away?” Is that your determination? John 7:17, If any man sets his will, is determined to do God's will. John 8:44, The lusts of your father your will is set to do. Acts 24:6.2. A wish or desire. Very many of the passages, however, which are cited under this head (as by Grimm) may fairly be interpreted as implying something stronger than a wish; notably Mark 14:36, of Christ in Gethsemane. Our Lord would hardly have used what thou wilt in so feeble a sense as that of a desire or wish on God's part. Mark 10:43, “Whosoever will be great,” expresses more than the desire for greatness. It is the purpose of the life. Matthew 27:15, It was given to the Jews to decide what prisoner should be released. Luke 1:62, The name of the infant John was referred to Zacharias' decision. John 17:24, Surely Christ does more than desire that those whom the Father has given him shall be with him. Luke 9:54, It is for Jesus to command fire upon the Samaritan villages if he so wills. (See, also, John 15:7; 1 Corinthians 4:21; Matthew 16:25; Matthew 19:17; John 21:22; Matthew 13:28; Matthew 17:12.) In the sense of wish or desire may fairly be cited 2 Corinthians 11:12; Matthew 12:38; Luke 8:20; Luke 23:8; John 12:21; Galatians 4:20; Matthew 7:12; Mark 10:35.3. A liking (Mark 12:38; Luke 20:46; Matthew 27:43). (See note there.) Βούλομαι occurs in the following senses:1.Inclination or disposition (Acts 18:27; Acts 19:30; Acts 25:22; Acts 28:18; 2" translation="">2 Corinthians 1:15).2.Stronger, with the idea of purpose (1 Timothy 6:9; James 1:18; James 3:4; 1 Corinthians 12:11; Hebrews 6:17).In most, if not all of these cases, we might expect θέλειν ; but in this use of βούλομαι there is an implied emphasis on the element of free choice or self-determination, which imparts to the desire or inclination a decretory force. This element is in the human will by gift and consent. In the divine will it is inherent. At this point the Homeric usage may be compared in its occasional employment of βούλομαι to express determination, but only with reference to the gods, in whom to wish is to will. Thus, “Whether Apollo will ( βου.λεται ) ward off the plague” (“II.,” 1:67). “Apollo willed ( βούλετο ) victory to the Trojans” (“Il.,” 7:21).To make a public example ( δειγματίσαι )The word is kindred to δείκνυμι , to exhibit, display, point out. Here, therefore, to expose Mary to public shame (Wyc., publish her; Tynd., defame her). The word occurs in Colossians 2:15, of the victorious Saviour displaying the vanquished powers of evil as a general displays his trophies or captives in a triumphal procession. “He made a show of them openly.” A compound of the same word ( παραδειγματίζω ) appears in Hebrews 6:6, “They crucify the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame. ” [source]

Matthew 27:11 Art thou the King of the Jews? [Συ ει ο βασιλευς των Ιουδαιων]
This is what really mattered. Matthew does not give the charges made by the Sanhedrin (Luke 23:2) nor the private interview with Pilate (John 18:28-32). He could not ignore the accusation that Jesus claimed to be King of the Jews. Else he could be himself accused to Caesar for disloyalty. Rivals and pretenders were common all over the empire. So here was one more. By his answer (thou sayest) Jesus confesses that he is. So Pilate has a problem on his hands. What sort of a king does this one claim to be? Thou (συ — su) the King of the Jews? [source]
Matthew 16:18 The gates of Hades [πυλαι αιδου]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Matthew 16:18 On this rock [επι ταυτηι τηι πετραι]
What did Jesus mean by this word-play?I will build my church (οικοδομησω μου την εκκλησιαν — oikodomēsō mou tēn ekklēsian). It is the figure of a building and he uses the word εκκλησιαν — ekklēsian which occurs in the New Testament usually of a local organization, but sometimes in a more general sense. What is the sense here in which Jesus uses it? The word originally meant “assembly” (Acts 19:39), but it came to be applied to an “unassembled assembly” as in Acts 8:3 for the Christians persecuted by Saul from house to house. “And the name for the new Israel, εκκλησια — ekklēsia in His mouth is not an anachronism. It is an old familiar name for the congregation of Israel found in Deut. (Deuteronomy 18:16; Deuteronomy 23:2) and Psalms (Psalm 22:25), both books well known to Jesus” (Bruce). It is interesting to observe that in Psalms 89 most of the important words employed by Jesus on this occasion occur in the lxx text. So οικοδομησω — oikodomēsō in Psalm 89:5; εκκλησια — ekklēsia in Psalm 89:6; κατισχυω — katischuō in Psalm 89:22; Χριστος — Christos in Psalm 89:39, Psalm 89:52; αιδης — hāidēs in Psalm 89:49 (εκ χειρος αιδου — ek cheiros hāidou). If one is puzzled over the use of “building” with the word εκκλησια — ekklēsia it will be helpful to turn to 1 Peter 2:5. Peter, the very one to whom Jesus is here speaking, writing to the Christians in the five Roman provinces in Asia (1 Peter 1:1), says: “You are built a spiritual house” (οικοδομειστε οικος πνευματικος — oikodomeisthe oikos pneumatikos). It is difficult to resist the impression that Peter recalls the words of Jesus to him on this memorable occasion. Further on (1 Peter 2:9) he speaks of them as an elect race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, showing beyond controversy that Peter‘s use of building a spiritual house is general, not local. This is undoubtedly the picture in the mind of Christ here in Matthew 16:18. It is a great spiritual house, Christ‘s Israel, not the Jewish nation, which he describes. What is the rock on which Christ will build his vast temple? Not on Peter alone or mainly or primarily. Peter by his confession was furnished with the illustration for the rock on which His church will rest. It is the same kind of faith that Peter has just confessed. The perpetuity of this church general is guaranteed.The gates of Hades Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Matthew 16:18 shall not prevail against it [ου κατισχυσουσιν αυτης]
Each word here creates difficulty. Hades is technically the unseen world, the Hebrew Sheol, the land of the departed, that is death. Paul uses τανατε — thanate in 1 Corinthians 15:55 in quoting Hosea 13:14 for αιδη — hāidē It is not common in the papyri, but it is common on tombstones in Asia Minor, “doubtless a survival of its use in the old Greek religion” (Moulton and Milligan, Vocabulary). The ancient pagans divided Hades Christ was in Hades (Acts 2:27, Acts 2:31), not in Gehenna. We have here the figure of two buildings, the Church of Christ on the Rock, the House of Death (Hades). “In the Old Testament the ‹gates of Hades‘ (Sheol) never bears any other meaning (Isaiah 38:10; Wisd. 16:3; 3 Maccabees 5:51) than death,” McNeile claims. See also Psalm 9:13; Psalm 107:18; Job 38:17 It is not the picture of Hades attacking Christ‘s church, but of death‘s possible victory over the church. “The εκκλησια — ekklēsia is built upon the Messiahship of her master, and death, the gates of Hades, will not prevail against her by keeping Him imprisoned. It was a mysterious truth, which He will soon tell them in plain words (Matthew 16:21); it is echoed in Acts 2:24, Acts 2:31 ” (McNeile). Christ‘s church will prevail and survive because He will burst the gates of Hades and come forth conqueror. He will ever live and be the guarantor of the perpetuity of His people or church. The verb κατισχυω — katischuō (literally have strength against, ισχυω — ischuō from ισχυς — ischus and κατ — kaṫ) occurs also in Luke 21:36; Luke 23:23. It appears in the ancient Greek, the lxx, and in the papyri with the accusative and is used in the modern Greek with the sense of gaining the mastery over. The wealth of imagery in Matthew 16:18 makes it difficult to decide each detail, but the main point is clear. The εκκλησια — ekklēsia which consists of those confessing Christ as Peter has just done will not cease. The gates of Hades or bars of Sheol will not close down on it. Christ will rise and will keep his church alive. Sublime Porte used to be the title of Turkish power in Constantinople. [source]
Mark 15:2 Art thou the King of the Jews? [Συ ει ο βασιλευς των Ιουδαιων]
This is the only one of the charges made by the Sanhedrin to Pilate (Luke 23:2) that he notices. He does not believe this one to be true, but he has to pay attention to it or be liable to charges himself of passing over a man accused of rivalry and revolution against Caesar. John 18:28-32 gives the interview with Jesus that convinces Pilate that he is a harmless religious fanatic. See Matthew 26:11. [source]
Mark 15:13 Crucify him [Σταυρωσον αυτον]
Luke 23:21 repeats the verb. Matthew 27:22 has it, “Let him be crucified.” There was a chorus and a hubbub of confused voices all demanding crucifixion for Christ. Some of the voices beyond a doubt had joined in the hallelujahs to the Son of David in the triumphal entry. See notes on Matthew 27:23 for discussion of Mark 15:14. [source]
Luke 23:5 Stirreth up [ἀνασείει]
See on Mark 15:11. The increased urgency is shown by the use of a stronger word than perverteth (Luke 23:2). [source]
Luke 23:14 Perverteth [ἀποστρέφοντα]
Another compound of στρέφω , to turn; διαστρέφοντα is rendered by the same word in Luke 23:2. Probably the words are used without any intentional distinction of meaning. Διαστρέφοντα implies more of the idea of distraction (compare Wyc., turning upside down )turning different ways; while ἀποστρέφοντα emphasizes the turning away ( ἀπό ) of the people from their civil and religious allegiance. So Wyc., turning away. [source]
Luke 23:4 I find no fault [ουδεν ευρισκω αιτιον]
In the N.T. Luke alone uses this old adjective αιτιος — aitios (Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22; Acts 19:40) except Hebrews 5:9. It means one who is the author, the cause of or responsible for anything. Luke does not give the explanation of this sudden decision of Pilate that Jesus is innocent. Evidently he held a careful examination before he delivered his judgment on the case. That conversation is given in John 18:33-38. Pilate took Jesus inside the palace from the upper gallery (John 18:33) and then came out and rendered his decision to the Sanhedrin (John 18:38) who would not go into the palace of Pilate (John 18:28). [source]
Luke 23:5 He stirred up the people [ανασειει τον λαον]
This compound is rare, though old (Thucydides), to shake up (back and forth). This is a more vigorous repetition of the first charge (Luke 23:2, “perverting our nation”).Beginning from Galilee (αρχαμενος απο της Γαλιλαιας — arxamenos apo tēs Galilaias). These very words occur in the address of Peter to the group in the house of Cornelius (Acts 10:37). The idiomatic use of αρχαμενος — arxamenos appears also in Acts 1:22. Galilee (Grote) was the mother of seditious men (see Josephus). [source]
Luke 23:14 As one that perverteth the people [ως αποστρεποντα τον λαον]
Pilate here condenses the three charges in Luke 23:2 into one (Plummer). He uses a more common compound of στρεπω — strephō here, αποστρεπω — apostrephō to turn away from, to seduce, to mislead, whereas διαστρεπω — diastrephō in Luke 23:2 has more the notion of disturbing (turning this way and that). Note the use of ως — hōs with the particle, the alleged reason. Pilate understands the charge against Jesus to be that he is a revolutionary agitator and a dangerous rival to Caesar, treason in plain words. [source]
Luke 23:27 Followed [ηκολουτει]
Imperfect active, was following. Luke 23:27-32 are peculiar to Luke. [source]
Luke 5:1 Pressed upon him [επικεισται]
Luke in this paragraph (Luke 5:1-11; Mark 1:16-20; Matthew 4:18-22) does not follow the chronology of Mark as he usually does. It seems reasonably clear that the renewed call of the four fishermen came before the first tour of Galilee in Luke 4:42-44. It is here assumed that Luke is describing in his own way the incident given in Mark and Matthew above. Luke singles out Simon in a graphic way. This verb επικεισται — epikeisthai is an old one and means to λιε υπον — lie upon rest upon as of a stone on the tomb (John 11:38) or of fish on the burning coals (John 21:9). So it is used of a tempest (Acts 27:20) and of the urgent demands for Christ‘s crucifixion (Luke 23:23). Here it vividly pictures the eager crowds around Jesus. Εν τωι επικεισται — En tōi epikeisthai is a favourite idiom with Luke as we have already seen, εν — en with the articular infinitive in the locative case. [source]
John 19:17 His cross [τὸν σταυρὸν αὑτοῦ]
The best texts read αὑτῷ or ἑαυτῷ , “bearing the cross for Himself.” John does not mention the impressment of Simon of Cyrene for this service. Compare Matthew 27:32; Mark 15:21; Luke 23:26. [source]
John 19:16 Delivered []
Luke says, delivered to their will (Luke 23:25). Pilate pronounced no sentence, but disclaimed all responsibility for the act, and delivered Christ up to them ( αὐτοῖς ), they having invoked the responsibility upon themselves. See Matthew 27:24, Matthew 27:25. [source]
John 19:1 Scourged [ἐμαστίγωσεν]
Matthew and Mark use the Greek form of the Latin word flagellare, φραγελλόω , which occurs only in those two instances in the New Testament. John uses the more common Greek word, though he has φραγελλίον (flagellum ), scourge, at John 2:15. Matthew and Mark, however, both use μαστιγόω elsewhere (Matthew 10:17; Matthew 20:29; Mark 10:34). Its kindred noun, μάστιξ , occurs several times in the metaphorical sense of a plague. See on Mark 3:10, and compare Mark 5:29, Mark 5:34; Luke 7:21. The verb is used metaphorically only once, Hebrews 12:6. Scourging was the legal preliminary to crucifixion, but, in this case, was inflicted illegally before the sentence of crucifixion was pronounced, with a view of averting the extreme punishment, and of satisfying the Jews. (Luke 23:22). The punishment was horrible, the victim being bound to a low pillar or stake, and beaten, either with rods, or, in the case of slaves and provincials, with scourges, called scorpions, leather thongs tipped with leaden balls or sharp spikes. The severity of the infliction in Jesus' case is evident from His inability to bear His cross. [source]
John 16:20 Weep - lament - be sorrowful [κλαύσετε - θρηνήσετε - λυπηθήσεσθε]
Of these three words, the last is the most general in meaning, expressing every species of pain, of body or of soul, and not necessarily the outward manifestation of sorrow. Both the other words denote audible expressions of grief. Θρηνέω marks the more formal expression. It means to utter a dirge over the dead. Thus Homer, of the mourning over Hector in Troy:“On a fair couch they laid the corse, and placedSingers beside it leaders of the dirge ( θρηνων ), Who sang ( ἐθρήνεον ) a sorrowful, lamenting strain,-DIVIDER-
And all the women answered it with sobs.”“Iliad,” xxiv. 720-722. The verb occurs Matthew 11:17; Luke 7:32; Luke 23:27. Κλαίω means audible weeping, the crying of children, as distinguished from δακρύω , to shed tears, to weep silently, which occurs but once in the New Testament, of Jesus' weeping (John 11:35). See on Luke 7:32. [source]

John 19:16 He delivered [παρεδωκεν]
Kappa aorist active of παραδιδωμι — paradidōmi the very verb used of the Sanhedrin when they handed Jesus over to Pilate (John 18:30, John 18:35). Now Pilate hands Jesus back to the Sanhedrin with full consent for his death (Luke 23:25). To be crucified Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of σταυροω — stauroō John does not give the dramatic episode in Matthew 27:24. when Pilate washed his hands and the Jews took Christ‘s blood on themselves and their children. But it is on Pilate also. [source]
John 19:17 Bearing the cross for himself [βασταζων αυτωι τον σταυρον]
Cf. Luke 14:27 for this very picture in the words of Jesus. The dative case of the reflexive pronoun αυτωι — hautōi “for himself” is in strict accord with Roman custom. “A criminal condemned to be crucified was required to carry his own cross” (Bernard). But apparently Jesus under the strain of the night before and the anguish of heart within him gave out so that Simon of Cyrene was impressed to carry it for Jesus (Mark 15:21.; Matthew 27:32.; Luke 23:26). See Mark 15:22.; Matthew 27:33.; Luke 23:33 for the meaning of “place of a skull” or Calvary and Golgotha in Hebrew (Aramaic). Luke has simply Κρανιον — Kranion (Skull), a skull-looking place. [source]
John 19:19 Pilate wrote a title also [εγραπσεν και τιτλον ο Πειλατος]
Only John tells us that Pilate himself wrote it and John alone uses the technical Latin word titlon (several times in inscriptions), for the board with the name of the criminal and the crime in which he is condemned; Mark (Mark 15:26) and Luke (Luke 23:28) use επιγραπη — epigraphē (superscription). Matthew (Matthew 27:37) has simply αιτιαν — aitian (accusation). The inscription in John is the fullest of the four and has all in any of them save the words “this is” (ουτος εστιν — houtos estin) in Matthew 27:37. [source]
John 16:20 Ye shall weep and lament [κλαυσετε και τρηνησετε]
Future active of κλαιω — klaiō and τρηνεω — thrēneō both old words (for κλαιω — klaiō see John 11:31, for τρηνεω — thrēneō see Matthew 11:17), both words used of the loud lamentations so common in the east. Shall rejoice Second future passive of χαιρω — chairō in violent contrast. Picture the women on the way to the Cross (Luke 23:27, εκοπτοντο και ετρηνουν — ekoptonto kai ethrēnoun two descriptive imperfects) and Mary Magdalene by the tomb (John 20:11, κλαιουσα — klaiousa). Ye shall be sorrowful First future passive of λυπεω — lupeō word for inward grief. See the change from sorrow to joy in John 20:14-16 when “they disbelieved for joy” (Luke 24:41). So violent was the reaction on the sudden appearance of Jesus. [source]
John 18:30 If this man were not an evil-doer [ει μη ην ουτος κακον ποιων]
Condition (negative) of second class (periphrastic imperfect indicative), assumed to be untrue, with the usual apodosis This is a pious pose of infallibility not in the Synoptics. They then proceeded to make the charges (Luke 23:2) as indeed John implies (John 18:31, John 18:33). Some MSS. here read κακοποιος — kakopoios (malefactor) as in 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 2:14, with which compare Luke‘s κακουργος — kakourgos (Luke 23:32.; so also 2 Timothy 2:9), both meaning evil-doer. Here the periphrastic present participle ποιων — poiōn with κακον — kakon emphasizes the idea that Jesus was a habitual evil-doer (Abbott). It was an insolent reply to Pilate (Bernard). [source]
John 18:33 Again [παλιν]
Back into the palace where Pilate was before. Called First aorist active indicative of πωνεω — phōneō Jesus was already inside the court (John 18:28). Pilate now summoned him to his presence since he saw that he had to handle the case. The charge that Jesus claimed to be a king compelled him to do so (Luke 23:2). Art thou the King of the Jews? This was the vital problem and each of the Gospels has the question (Mark 15:2; Matthew 27:1; Luke 23:3; John 18:33), though Luke alone (Luke 23:2) gives the specific accusation. Thou Emphatic. Jesus did claim to be the spiritual king of Israel as Nathanael said (John 1:49) and as the ecstatic crowd hailed him on the Triumphal Entry (John 12:13), but the Sanhedrin wish Pilate to understand this in a civil sense as a rival of Caesar as some of the Jews wanted Jesus to be (John 6:15) and as the Pharisees expected the Messiah to be. [source]
John 18:40 Cried out [εκραυγασαν]
First aorist active of κραυγαζω — kraugazō old and rare verb from κραυγη — kraugē outcry (Matthew 25:6), as in Matthew 12:19. Not this man Contemptuous use of ουτος — houtos The priests put the crowd up to this choice (Mark 15:11) and Pilate offered the alternative (Matthew 27:17, one MS. actually gives Jesus as the name of Barabbas also). The name αραββας — Barabbas in Aramaic simply means son of a father. A robber Old word from ληιζομαι — lēizomai to plunder, and so a brigand and possibly the leader of the band to which the two robbers belonged who were crucified with Jesus. Luke terms him an insurgent and murderer (Luke 23:19, Luke 23:25). They chose Barabbas in preference to Jesus and apparently Jesus died on the very cross planned for Barabbas. [source]
John 19:1 Took and scourged [ελαβεν και εμαστιγωσεν]
First aorist active indicative of λαμβανω — lambanō and μαστιγοω — mastigoō (from μαστιχ — mastix whip). For this redundant use of λαμβανω — lambanō see also John 19:6. It is the causative use of μαστιγοω — mastigoō for Pilate did not actually scourge Jesus. He simply ordered it done, perhaps to see if the mob would be satisfied with this penalty on the alleged pretender to royalty (Luke 23:22) whom Pilate had pronounced innocent (John 18:38), an illegal act therefore. It was a preliminary to crucifixion, but Jesus was not yet condemned. The Sanhedrin had previously mocked Jesus (Mark 14:65; Matthew 26:67.; Luke 22:63.) as the soldiers will do later (Mark 15:16-19; Matthew 27:27-30). This later mock coronation (Mark and Matthew) was after the condemnation. Plaited a crown of thorns Old verb πλεκω — plekō to weave, in the N.T. only here, Mark 15:17; Matthew 27:19. Not impossible for the mock coronation to be repeated. Arrayed him “Placed around him” (second aorist active indicative of περιβαλλω — periballō). In a purple garment Old adjective πορπυρεος — porphureos from πορπυρα — porphura purple cloth (Mark 15:17, Mark 15:20), dyed in purple, in the N.T. only here and Revelation 18:16. Jesus had been stripped of his outer garment ιματιον — himation (Matthew 27:28) and the scarlet cloak of one of the soldiers may have been put on him (Matthew 27:28). [source]
Acts 26:7 Instantly [ἐν ἐκτενείᾳ]
Only here in New Testament. Lit., in intensity. See on fervently, 1 Peter 1:22. Compare more earnestly, Luke 22:44; without ceasing, Acts 12:5;fervent, 1 Peter 4:8. See, also, on instantly and instant, Luke 7:4; Luke 23:23. [source]
Acts 13:8 To turn aside [διαστρεπσαι]
First aorist active infinitive of διαστρεπω — diastrephō old verb to turn or twist in two, to distort, to pervert (cf. Matthew 17:17; Luke 23:2). [source]
Acts 13:28 Though they found no cause of death [μηδεμιαν αιτιαν τανατου ευροντες]
Second aorist active with usual negative of the participle. As a matter of fact the Sanhedrin did charge Jesus with blasphemy, but could not prove it (Matthew 26:65; Matthew 27:24; Luke 23:22). At this time no Gospel had probably been written, but Paul knew that Jesus was innocent. He uses this same idiom about his own innocence (Acts 28:18). [source]
Acts 22:3 Instructed [πεπαιδευμενος]
Perfect passive participle again (each participle beginning a clause), this time of παιδευω — paideuō old verb to train a child (παις — pais) as in Acts 7:22 which see. In this sense also in 1 Timothy 1:20; Titus 2:12. Then to chastise as in Luke 23:16, Luke 23:22 (which see); 2 Timothy 2:25; Hebrews 12:6. [source]
Acts 15:2 When Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and questioning with them [Γενομενης στασεως και ζητησεως ουκ ολιγης τωι Παυλωι και αρναβαι προς αυτους]
Genitive absolute of second aorist middle participle of γινομαι — ginomai genitive singular agreeing with first substantive στασεως — staseōs Literally, “No little (litotes for much) strife and questioning coming to Paul and Barnabas (dative case) with them “ Paul and Barnabas were not willing to see this Gentile church brow-beaten and treated as heretics by these self-appointed regulators of Christian orthodoxy from Jerusalem. The work had developed under the leadership of Paul and Barnabas and they accepted full responsibility for it and stoutly resisted these Judaizers to the point of sedition (riot, outbreak in Luke 23:25; Acts 19:40) as in Acts 23:7. There is no evidence that the Judaizers had any supporters in the Antioch church so that they failed utterly to make any impression. Probably these Judaizers compelled Paul to think through afresh his whole gospel of grace and so they did Paul and the world a real service. If the Jews like Paul had to believe, it was plain that there was no virtue in circumcision (Galatians 2:15-21). It is not true that the early Christians had no disagreements. They had selfish avarice with Ananias and Sapphira, murmuring over the gifts to the widows, simony in the case of Simon Magus, violent objection to work in Caesarea, and now open strife over a great doctrine (grace vs. legalism). [source]
Acts 17:7 These all [ουτοι παντες]
Jason, the “brethren” of Acts 17:6, Paul and Silas, and all Christians everywhere. Contrary (απεναντι — apenanti). Late compound preposition (απο εν αντι — apoτων δογματων Καισαρος — enασιλεα ετερον λεγοντες ειναι Ιησουν — anti) found in Polybius, lxx, here only in the N.T. The decrees of Caesar This was a charge of treason and was a sure way to get a conviction. Probably the Julian Leges Majestatis are in mind rather than the definite decree of Claudius about the Jews (Acts 18:2). Saying that there is another king, one Jesus (ασιλεα ετερον — Basilea heteron legontes einai Iēsoun). Note the very order of the words in the Greek indirect discourse with the accusative and infinitive after legontes Basilea heteron comes first, a different king, another emperor than Caesar. This was the very charge that the smart student of the Pharisees and Herodians had tried to catch Jesus on (Mark 12:14). The Sanhedrin made it anyhow against Jesus to Pilate (Luke 23:2) and Pilate had to notice it. “Although the emperors never ventured to assume the title rex at Rome, in the Eastern provinces they were regularly termed basileus ” (Page). The Jews here, as before Pilate (John 19:15), renounce their dearest hope of a Messianic king. It is plain that Paul had preached about Jesus as the Messiah, King of the Kingdom of God over against the Roman Empire, a spiritual kingdom, to be sure, but the Jews here turn his language to his hurt as they did with Jesus. As a matter of fact Paul‘s preaching about the kingdom and the second coming of Christ was gravely misunderstood by the Christians at Thessalonica after his departure (1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:4; 2 Thessalonians 2). The Jews were quick to seize upon his language about Jesus Christ to his own injury. Clearly here in Thessalonica Paul had faced the power of the Roman Empire in a new way and pictured over against it the grandeur of the reign of Christ. [source]
Acts 17:7 The decrees of Caesar [λεγοντες]
This was a charge of treason and was a sure way to get a conviction. Probably the Julian Leges Majestatis are in mind rather than the definite decree of Claudius about the Jews (Acts 18:2). Saying that there is another king, one Jesus (ασιλεα ετερον — Basilea heteron legontes einai Iēsoun). Note the very order of the words in the Greek indirect discourse with the accusative and infinitive after legontes Basilea heteron comes first, a different king, another emperor than Caesar. This was the very charge that the smart student of the Pharisees and Herodians had tried to catch Jesus on (Mark 12:14). The Sanhedrin made it anyhow against Jesus to Pilate (Luke 23:2) and Pilate had to notice it. “Although the emperors never ventured to assume the title rex at Rome, in the Eastern provinces they were regularly termed basileus ” (Page). The Jews here, as before Pilate (John 19:15), renounce their dearest hope of a Messianic king. It is plain that Paul had preached about Jesus as the Messiah, King of the Kingdom of God over against the Roman Empire, a spiritual kingdom, to be sure, but the Jews here turn his language to his hurt as they did with Jesus. As a matter of fact Paul‘s preaching about the kingdom and the second coming of Christ was gravely misunderstood by the Christians at Thessalonica after his departure (1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:4; 2 Thessalonians 2). The Jews were quick to seize upon his language about Jesus Christ to his own injury. Clearly here in Thessalonica Paul had faced the power of the Roman Empire in a new way and pictured over against it the grandeur of the reign of Christ. [source]
Acts 17:7 Saying that there is another king, one Jesus [ασιλεα ετερον]
Note the very order of the words in the Greek indirect discourse with the accusative and infinitive after legontes Basilea heteron comes first, a different king, another emperor than Caesar. This was the very charge that the smart student of the Pharisees and Herodians had tried to catch Jesus on (Mark 12:14). The Sanhedrin made it anyhow against Jesus to Pilate (Luke 23:2) and Pilate had to notice it. “Although the emperors never ventured to assume the title rex at Rome, in the Eastern provinces they were regularly termed basileus ” (Page). The Jews here, as before Pilate (John 19:15), renounce their dearest hope of a Messianic king. It is plain that Paul had preached about Jesus as the Messiah, King of the Kingdom of God over against the Roman Empire, a spiritual kingdom, to be sure, but the Jews here turn his language to his hurt as they did with Jesus. As a matter of fact Paul‘s preaching about the kingdom and the second coming of Christ was gravely misunderstood by the Christians at Thessalonica after his departure (1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:4; 2 Thessalonians 2). The Jews were quick to seize upon his language about Jesus Christ to his own injury. Clearly here in Thessalonica Paul had faced the power of the Roman Empire in a new way and pictured over against it the grandeur of the reign of Christ. [source]
Acts 19:40 There being no cause for it [μηδενος αιτιου υπαρχοντος]
Genitive absolute with αιτιος — aitios common adjective (cf. αιτια — aitia cause) though in N.T. only here and Hebrews 5:9; Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22. And as touching it (περι ου — peri hou). “Concerning which.” But what? No clear antecedent, only the general idea. Give an account of this concourse Rationem reddere. They will have to explain matters to the proconsul. Συστροπη — Sustrophē (from συν — sun together, στρεπω — strephō to turn) is a late word for a conspiracy (Acts 23:12) and a disorderly riot as here (Polybius). In Acts 28:12 συστρεπω — sustrephō is used of gathering up a bundle of sticks and of men combining in Matthew 17:22. Seneca says that there was nothing on which the Romans looked with such jealousy as a tumultuous meeting. [source]
Acts 22:3 Born [γεγεννημενος]
Perfect passive participle of γενναω — gennaō See above in Acts 21:39 for the claim of Tarsus as his birth-place. He was a Hellenistic Jew, not an Aramaean Jew (cf. Acts 6:1). Brought up (ανατετραμμενος — anatethrammenos). Perfect passive participle again of ανατρεπω — anatrephō to nurse up, to nourish up, common old verb, but in the N.T. only here, Acts 7:20., and MSS. in Luke 4:16. The implication is that Paul was sent to Jerusalem while still young, “from my youth” (Acts 26:4), how young we do not know, possibly thirteen or fourteen years old. He apparently had not seen Jesus in the flesh (2 Corinthians 5:16). At the feet of Gamaliel The rabbis usually sat on a raised seat with the pupils in a circle around either on lower seats or on the ground. Paul was thus nourished in Pharisaic Judaism as interpreted by Gamaliel, one of the lights of Judaism. For remarks on Gamaliel see chapter Acts 5:34. He was one of the seven Rabbis to whom the Jews gave the highest title αββαν — Rabban (our Rabbi). αββι — Rabbi (my teacher) was next, the lowest being αβ — Rab (teacher). “As Aquinas among the schoolmen was called Doctor Angelicus, and Bonaventura Doctor Seraphicus, so Gamaliel was called the Beauty of the Law ” (Conybeare and Howson). Instructed (πεπαιδευμενος — pepaideumenos). Perfect passive participle again (each participle beginning a clause), this time of παιδευω — paideuō old verb to train a child (παις — pais) as in Acts 7:22 which see. In this sense also in 1 Timothy 1:20; Titus 2:12. Then to chastise as in Luke 23:16, Luke 23:22 (which see); 2 Timothy 2:25; Hebrews 12:6. According to the strict manner Old word, only here in N.T. Mathematical accuracy, minute exactness as seen in the adjective in Acts 26:5. See also Romans 10:2; Galatians 1:4; Philemon 3:4-7. Of our fathers (πατρωιου — patrōiou). Old adjective from πατερ — pater only here and Acts 24:14 in N.T. Means descending from father to son, especially property and other inherited privileges. Πατρικος — Patrikos (patrician) refers more to personal attributes and affiliations. Being zealous for God Not adjective, but substantive zealot (same word used by James of the thousands of Jewish Christians in Jerusalem, Acts 21:20 which see) with objective genitive του τεου — tou theou (for God). See also Acts 21:14; Acts 28:17; 2 Timothy 1:3 where he makes a similar claim. So did Peter (Acts 3:13; Acts 5:30) and Stephen (Acts 7:32). Paul definitely claims, whatever freedom he demanded for Gentile Christians, to be personally “a zealot for God” “even as ye all are this day” In his conciliation he went to the limit and puts himself by the side of the mob in their zeal for the law, mistaken as they were about him. He was generous surely to interpret their fanatical frenzy as zeal for God. But Paul is sincere as he proceeds to show by appeal to his own conduct. [source]
Acts 22:3 At the feet of Gamaliel [προς τους ποδας Γαμαλιηλ]
The rabbis usually sat on a raised seat with the pupils in a circle around either on lower seats or on the ground. Paul was thus nourished in Pharisaic Judaism as interpreted by Gamaliel, one of the lights of Judaism. For remarks on Gamaliel see chapter Acts 5:34. He was one of the seven Rabbis to whom the Jews gave the highest title αββαν — Rabban (our Rabbi). αββι — Rabbi (my teacher) was next, the lowest being αβ — Rab (teacher). “As Aquinas among the schoolmen was called Doctor Angelicus, and Bonaventura Doctor Seraphicus, so Gamaliel was called the Beauty of the Law ” (Conybeare and Howson). Instructed (πεπαιδευμενος — pepaideumenos). Perfect passive participle again (each participle beginning a clause), this time of παιδευω — paideuō old verb to train a child (παις — pais) as in Acts 7:22 which see. In this sense also in 1 Timothy 1:20; Titus 2:12. Then to chastise as in Luke 23:16, Luke 23:22 (which see); 2 Timothy 2:25; Hebrews 12:6. According to the strict manner Old word, only here in N.T. Mathematical accuracy, minute exactness as seen in the adjective in Acts 26:5. See also Romans 10:2; Galatians 1:4; Philemon 3:4-7. Of our fathers (πατρωιου — patrōiou). Old adjective from πατερ — pater only here and Acts 24:14 in N.T. Means descending from father to son, especially property and other inherited privileges. Πατρικος — Patrikos (patrician) refers more to personal attributes and affiliations. Being zealous for God Not adjective, but substantive zealot (same word used by James of the thousands of Jewish Christians in Jerusalem, Acts 21:20 which see) with objective genitive του τεου — tou theou (for God). See also Acts 21:14; Acts 28:17; 2 Timothy 1:3 where he makes a similar claim. So did Peter (Acts 3:13; Acts 5:30) and Stephen (Acts 7:32). Paul definitely claims, whatever freedom he demanded for Gentile Christians, to be personally “a zealot for God” “even as ye all are this day” In his conciliation he went to the limit and puts himself by the side of the mob in their zeal for the law, mistaken as they were about him. He was generous surely to interpret their fanatical frenzy as zeal for God. But Paul is sincere as he proceeds to show by appeal to his own conduct. [source]
1 Timothy 6:12 Lay hold [ἐπιλαβοῦ]
oP. Frequent in Luke and Acts. Occasionally in this strong sense, as Luke 20:20; Luke 23:26; Acts 18:17, but not usually. See Mark 8:23; Luke 9:47; Acts 9:27. [source]
Hebrews 5:9 Having been made perfect [τελειωτεις]
First aorist passive participle of τελειοω — teleioō the completion of the process of training mentioned by this same verb in Hebrews 2:10 “by means of sufferings” Common adjective from αιτια — aitia (cause), causing, often in Greek with σωτηριας — sōtērias (Aeschines, Philo), in N.T. only here, Luke 23:4, Luke 23:14, Luke 23:22; Acts 19:40. See same idea in Hebrews 2:10 See Isaiah 45:17. [source]
1 John 5:15 Whatsoever we ask [ο εαν αιτωμετα]
Indefinite relative clause with modal εαν — ean (= αν — an) and the present middle (as for ourselves) subjunctive of αιτεω — aiteō This clause, like ημων — hēmōn is also the object of ακουει — akouei know that we have Repetition of οιδαμεν — oidamen the confidence of possession by anticipation.The petitions (τα αιτηματα — ta aitēmata). Old word, from αιτεω — aiteō requests, here only in John, elsewhere in N.T. Luke 23:24; Philemon 4:6. We have the answer already as in Mark 11:24.We have asked Perfect active indicative of αιτεω — aiteō the asking abiding. [source]
1 John 5:15 The petitions [τα αιτηματα]
Old word, from αιτεω — aiteō requests, here only in John, elsewhere in N.T. Luke 23:24; Philemon 4:6. We have the answer already as in Mark 11:24. [source]
Revelation 1:7 Shall mourn [κοπσονται]
Future middle (direct) of κοπτω — koptō old verb, to cut, “they shall cut themselves,” as was common for mourners (Matthew 11:17; Luke 8:52; Luke 23:27). From Zechariah 12:12. See also Revelation 18:9. [source]
Revelation 1:13 Girt about [περιεζωσμενον]
Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυμι — perizōnnumi accusative singular agreeing with ομοιον — homoion the breasts Old word for breasts of a woman (Luke 11:27; Luke 23:29) and nipples of a man, as here. High girding like this was a mark of dignity as of the high priest (Josephus, Ant. III. 7. 2). For προς — pros with the locative see Mark 5:11. [source]
Revelation 1:7 Shall see [οπσεται]
Future middle of οραω — horaō a reminiscence of Zechariah 12:10 according to the text of Theodotion (Aquila and Symmachus) rather than the lxx and like that of Matthew 24:30 (similar combination of Daniel and Zechariah) and Matthew 26:64. This picture of the victorious Christ in his return occurs also in Revelation 14:14, Revelation 14:18-20; Revelation 19:11-21; Revelation 20:7-10.And they which (και οιτινες — kai hoitines). “And the very ones who,” Romans and Jews, all who shared in this act.Pierced First aorist active indicative of εκκεντεω — ekkenteō late compound (Aristotle, Polybius, lxx), from εκ — ek and κεντεω — kenteō (to stab, to pierce), in N.T., only here and John 19:37, in both cases from Zechariah 12:10, but not the lxx text (apparently proof that John used the original Hebrew or the translation of Theodotion and Aquila).Shall mourn (κοπσονται — kopsontai). Future middle (direct) of κοπτω — koptō old verb, to cut, “they shall cut themselves,” as was common for mourners (Matthew 11:17; Luke 8:52; Luke 23:27). From Zechariah 12:12. See also Revelation 18:9.Tribes Not just the Jewish tribes, but the spiritual Israel of Jews and Gentiles as in Revelation 7:4-8. No nation had then accepted Christ as Lord and Saviour, nor has any yet done so. [source]
Revelation 1:7 Pierced [εχεκεντησαν]
First aorist active indicative of εκκεντεω — ekkenteō late compound (Aristotle, Polybius, lxx), from εκ — ek and κεντεω — kenteō (to stab, to pierce), in N.T., only here and John 19:37, in both cases from Zechariah 12:10, but not the lxx text (apparently proof that John used the original Hebrew or the translation of Theodotion and Aquila).Shall mourn (κοπσονται — kopsontai). Future middle (direct) of κοπτω — koptō old verb, to cut, “they shall cut themselves,” as was common for mourners (Matthew 11:17; Luke 8:52; Luke 23:27). From Zechariah 12:12. See also Revelation 18:9.Tribes Not just the Jewish tribes, but the spiritual Israel of Jews and Gentiles as in Revelation 7:4-8. No nation had then accepted Christ as Lord and Saviour, nor has any yet done so. [source]
Revelation 1:13 Clothed [ενδεδυμενον]
Perfect passive participle of ενδυω — enduō accusative case agreeing with ομοιον — homoion garment down to the foot Old adjective ποδηρης — podērēs (from πους — pous foot, and αιρω — airō), here only in N.T., accusative singular retained with the passive participle as often with verbs of clothing. Supply χιτωνα — chitōna or εστητα — esthēta (garment).Girt about (περιεζωσμενον — periezōsmenon). Perfect passive participle of περιζωννυμι — perizōnnumi accusative singular agreeing with ομοιον — homoion the breasts (προς τοις μαστοις — pros tois mastois). Old word for breasts of a woman (Luke 11:27; Luke 23:29) and nipples of a man, as here. High girding like this was a mark of dignity as of the high priest (Josephus, Ant. III. 7. 2). For προς — pros with the locative see Mark 5:11.With a golden girdle Accusative case again retained with the passive participle (verb of clothing). Note also χρυσαν — chrusān (vernacular Koiné) rather than the old form, χρυσην — chrusēn f0). [source]

What do the individual words in Luke 23:2 mean?

They began then to accuse Him saying This [man] we found misleading the nation of us and forbidding tribute to Caesar to be given declaring Himself Christ a king to be
ἤρξαντο δὲ κατηγορεῖν αὐτοῦ λέγοντες Τοῦτον εὕραμεν διαστρέφοντα τὸ ἔθνος ἡμῶν καὶ κωλύοντα φόρους Καίσαρι διδόναι λέγοντα ἑαυτὸν Χριστὸν βασιλέα εἶναι

ἤρξαντο  They  began 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Middle, 3rd Person Plural
Root: ἄρχω  
Sense: to be the first to do (anything), to begin.
κατηγορεῖν  to  accuse 
Parse: Verb, Present Infinitive Active
Root: κατηγορέω  
Sense: to accuse.
λέγοντες  saying 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
Τοῦτον  This  [man] 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
εὕραμεν  we  found 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 1st Person Plural
Root: εὑρίσκω  
Sense: to come upon, hit upon, to meet with.
διαστρέφοντα  misleading 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: διαστρέφω  
Sense: to distort, turn aside.
ἔθνος  nation 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: ἔθνος  
Sense: a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or living together.
ἡμῶν  of  us 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 1st Person Plural
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
κωλύοντα  forbidding 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: κωλύω  
Sense: to hinder, prevent forbid.
φόρους  tribute 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: φόρος  
Sense: tribute, esp.
Καίσαρι  to  Caesar 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: Καῖσαρ  
Sense: the surname of Julius Caesar, which adopted by Octavius Augustus and his successors afterwards became a title, and was appropriated by the Roman emperors as part of their title.
διδόναι  to  be  given 
Parse: Verb, Present Infinitive Active
Root: διδῶ 
Sense: to give.
λέγοντα  declaring 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: λέγω 
Sense: to say, to speak.
ἑαυτὸν  Himself 
Parse: Reflexive Pronoun, Accusative Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἑαυτοῦ  
Sense: himself, herself, itself, themselves.
Χριστὸν  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.
βασιλέα  a  king 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: βασιλεύς  
Sense: leader of the people, prince, commander, lord of the land, king.
εἶναι  to  be 
Parse: Verb, Present Infinitive Active
Root: εἰμί  
Sense: to be, to exist, to happen, to be present.