The Meaning of Joshua 10:12 Explained

Joshua 10:12

KJV: Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon.

YLT: Then speaketh Joshua to Jehovah in the day of Jehovah's giving up the Amorites before the sons of Israel, and he saith, before the eyes of Israel, 'Sun -- in Gibeon stand still; and moon -- in the valley of Ajalon;'

Darby: Then spoke Joshua to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah gave up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand still upon Gibeon; And thou, moon, in the valley of Ajalon!

ASV: Then spake Joshua to Jehovah in the day when Jehovah delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel; and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; And thou, Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.

What does Joshua 10:12 Mean?

Context Summary

Joshua 10:1-14 - "the Lord Fought For Israel"
The honor of Israel was implicated in this attack on their confederates, and Joshua went to their assistance. The deception which had been practiced on him did not alienate his help. Before he started he was assured of victory, but this did not make him slothful. See Joshua 10:7. But it was by his faith, courage and obedience that this and other victories were won. What may not one man do when God is with him! Paganini once broke all his strings but one; then, holding up his violin, he said, "One string and Paganini."
A terrific storm burst on the fugitives as they crossed the high ridge of Beth-horon and descended in full flight to the plain. We are not called upon to explain the miracle of the sun and moon. The prolongation of daylight was probably due to some cause like that which yields the after-glow of sunset and the optical refractions seen in high latitudes. [source]

Chapter Summary: Joshua 10

1  Five kings war against Gibeon
6  Joshua rescues it
10  God fights against them with hailstones
12  The sun and moon stand still at the word of Joshua
16  The five kings are murdered in a cave
22  They are brought forth
24  scornfully used
26  and hanged
28  Seven kings more are conquered
43  Joshua returns to Gilgal

What do the individual words in Joshua 10:12 mean?

Then spoke Joshua to Yahweh in the day when delivered up Yahweh - the Amorites before the sons of Israel and he said in the sight of Israel Sun over Gibeon stand still and Moon in the Valley of Aijalon
אָ֣ז יְדַבֵּ֤ר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֙ לַֽיהוָ֔ה בְּי֗וֹם תֵּ֤ת יְהוָה֙ אֶת־ הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י לִפְנֵ֖י בְּנֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀ לְעֵינֵ֣י יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ בְּגִבְע֣וֹן דּ֔וֹם וְיָרֵ֖חַ בְּעֵ֥מֶק אַיָּלֽוֹן

יְדַבֵּ֤ר  spoke 
Parse: Verb, Piel, Imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: דָּבַר 
Sense: to speak, declare, converse, command, promise, warn, threaten, sing.
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ֙  Joshua 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יְהֹושֻׁעַ  
Sense: son of Nun of the tribe of Ephraim and successor to Moses as the leader of the children of Israel; led the conquest of Canaan.
לַֽיהוָ֔ה  to  Yahweh 
Parse: Preposition-l, Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יהוה 
Sense: the proper name of the one true God.
בְּי֗וֹם  in  the  day 
Parse: Preposition-b, Noun, masculine singular
Root: יׄום 
Sense: day, time, year.
תֵּ֤ת  when  delivered  up 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Infinitive construct
Root: יָתַן 
Sense: to give, put, set.
יְהוָה֙  Yahweh 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יהוה 
Sense: the proper name of the one true God.
אֶת־  - 
Parse: Direct object marker
Root: אֹות 
Sense: sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative.
הָ֣אֱמֹרִ֔י  the  Amorites 
Parse: Article, Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: אֱמֹרִי  
Sense: one of the peoples of east Canaan and beyond the Jordan, dispossessed by the Israelite incursion from Egypt.
לִפְנֵ֖י  before 
Parse: Preposition-l, Noun, common plural construct
Root: לִפְנֵי 
Sense: face.
בְּנֵ֣י  the  sons 
Parse: Noun, masculine plural construct
Root: בֵּן 
Sense: son, grandson, child, member of a group.
יִשְׂרָאֵ֑ל  of  Israel 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יִשְׂרָאֵל  
Sense: the second name for Jacob given to him by God after his wrestling with the angel at Peniel.
וַיֹּ֣אמֶר ׀  and  he  said 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Qal, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: אָמַר 
Sense: to say, speak, utter.
לְעֵינֵ֣י  in  the  sight 
Parse: Preposition-l, Noun, cdc
Root: עֹונָה 
Sense: eye.
יִשְׂרָאֵ֗ל  of  Israel 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יִשְׂרָאֵל  
Sense: the second name for Jacob given to him by God after his wrestling with the angel at Peniel.
שֶׁ֚מֶשׁ  Sun 
Parse: Noun, common singular
Root: שֶׁמֶשׁ  
Sense: sun.
בְּגִבְע֣וֹן  over  Gibeon 
Parse: Preposition-b, Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: גִּבְעֹן  
Sense: a Levitical city of Benjamin, modern ‘el-Jib’, which lies 5 miles or 8 km from Jerusalem.
דּ֔וֹם  stand  still 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Imperative, masculine singular
Root: דָּמַם 
Sense: to be silent, be still, wait, be dumb, grow dumb.
וְיָרֵ֖חַ  and  Moon 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Noun, masculine singular
Root: יָרֵחַ  
Sense: moon.
בְּעֵ֥מֶק  in  the  Valley 
Parse: Preposition-b, Noun, masculine singular construct
Root: עֵמֶק  
Sense: valley, vale, lowland, open country.
אַיָּלֽוֹן  of  Aijalon 
Parse: Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: אַיָּלֹון  
Sense: Levitical city in Dan, 4 miles or 25 km NW of Jerusalem, later ruled by the Amorites, then the Benjamites of Judah, then by the Philistines.