The Meaning of Joshua 10:1 Explained

Joshua 10:1

KJV: Now it came to pass, when Adonizedek king of Jerusalem had heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

YLT: And it cometh to pass, when Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem heareth that Joshua hath captured Ai, and doth devote it (as he had done to Jericho and to her king so he hath done to Ai and to her king), and that the inhabitants of Gibeon have made peace with Israel, and are in their midst, --

Darby: And it came to pass when Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard that Joshua had taken Ai and had utterly destroyed it, that he had done to Ai and its king as he had done to Jericho and its king, and that the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them,

ASV: Now it came to pass, when Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem heard how Joshua had taken Ai, and had utterly destroyed it; as he had done to Jericho and her king, so he had done to Ai and her king; and how the inhabitants of Gibeon had made peace with Israel, and were among them;

What does Joshua 10:1 Mean?

Context Summary

Joshua 10:1-14 - "the Lord Fought For Israel"
The honor of Israel was implicated in this attack on their confederates, and Joshua went to their assistance. The deception which had been practiced on him did not alienate his help. Before he started he was assured of victory, but this did not make him slothful. See Joshua 10:7. But it was by his faith, courage and obedience that this and other victories were won. What may not one man do when God is with him! Paganini once broke all his strings but one; then, holding up his violin, he said, "One string and Paganini."
A terrific storm burst on the fugitives as they crossed the high ridge of Beth-horon and descended in full flight to the plain. We are not called upon to explain the miracle of the sun and moon. The prolongation of daylight was probably due to some cause like that which yields the after-glow of sunset and the optical refractions seen in high latitudes. [source]

Chapter Summary: Joshua 10

1  Five kings war against Gibeon
6  Joshua rescues it
10  God fights against them with hailstones
12  The sun and moon stand still at the word of Joshua
16  The five kings are murdered in a cave
22  They are brought forth
24  scornfully used
26  and hanged
28  Seven kings more are conquered
43  Joshua returns to Gilgal

What do the individual words in Joshua 10:1 mean?

And it came to pass when heard - Adoni-Zedek king of Jerusalem how had taken Joshua - Ai and had utterly destroyed it as he had done to Jericho and its king so to Ai and its king and how had made peace the inhabitants of Gibeon with Israel and were among them
וַיְהִי֩ כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ אֲדֹֽנִי־ צֶ֜דֶק מֶ֣לֶךְ יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם כִּֽי־ לָכַ֨ד יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ אֶת־ הָעַי֮ וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ֒ כַּאֲשֶׁ֨ר עָשָׂ֤ה לִֽירִיחוֹ֙ וּלְמַלְכָּ֔הּ כֵּן־ לָעַ֖י וּלְמַלְכָּ֑הּ וְכִ֨י הִשְׁלִ֜ימוּ יֹשְׁבֵ֤י גִבְעוֹן֙ אֶת־ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ בְּקִרְבָּֽם

וַיְהִי֩  And  it  came  to  pass 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Qal, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: אֶהְיֶה 
Sense: to be, become, come to pass, exist, happen, fall out.
כִשְׁמֹ֨עַ  when  heard 
Parse: Preposition-k, Verb, Qal, Infinitive construct
Root: שָׁמַע 
Sense: to hear, listen to, obey.
אֲדֹֽנִי־  - 
Parse:
צֶ֜דֶק  Adoni-Zedek 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: אֲדֹנִי־צֶדֶק  
Sense: Canaanite king slain by Joshua.
מֶ֣לֶךְ  king 
Parse: Noun, masculine singular construct
Root: מֶלֶךְ 
Sense: king.
יְרוּשָׁלִַ֗ם  of  Jerusalem 
Parse: Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: יְרוּשָׁלַםִ  
Sense: the chief city of Palestine and capital of the united kingdom and the nation of Judah after the split.
כִּֽי־  how 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: כִּי 
Sense: that, for, because, when, as though, as, because that, but, then, certainly, except, surely, since.
לָכַ֨ד  had  taken 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Perfect, third person masculine singular
Root: לָכַד  
Sense: to capture, take, seize.
יְהוֹשֻׁ֣עַ  Joshua 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יְהֹושֻׁעַ  
Sense: son of Nun of the tribe of Ephraim and successor to Moses as the leader of the children of Israel; led the conquest of Canaan.
אֶת־  - 
Parse: Direct object marker
Root: אֹות 
Sense: sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative.
הָעַי֮  Ai 
Parse: Article, Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: עַי 
Sense: a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan.
וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ֒  and  had  utterly  destroyed  it 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Hifil, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular, third person feminine singular
Root: חָרַם 
Sense: to ban, devote, destroy utterly, completely destroy, dedicate for destruction, exterminate.
עָשָׂ֤ה  he  had  done 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Perfect, third person masculine singular
Root: עָשָׂה 
Sense: to do, fashion, accomplish, make.
לִֽירִיחוֹ֙  to  Jericho 
Parse: Preposition-l, Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: יְרִחֹו 
Sense: a city 5 miles (8 km) west of the Jordan and 7 miles (.
וּלְמַלְכָּ֔הּ  and  its  king 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Preposition-l, Noun, masculine singular construct, third person feminine singular
Root: מֶלֶךְ 
Sense: king.
כֵּן־  so 
Parse: Adverb
Root: כֵּן 
Sense: so, therefore, thus.
לָעַ֖י  to  Ai 
Parse: Preposition-l, Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: עַי 
Sense: a city lying east of Bethel and beside Bethaven near Jericho and the 2nd city taken on the invasion of Canaan.
וּלְמַלְכָּ֑הּ  and  its  king 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Preposition-l, Noun, masculine singular construct, third person feminine singular
Root: מֶלֶךְ 
Sense: king.
וְכִ֨י  and  how 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Conjunction
Root: כִּי 
Sense: that, for, because, when, as though, as, because that, but, then, certainly, except, surely, since.
הִשְׁלִ֜ימוּ  had  made  peace 
Parse: Verb, Hifil, Perfect, third person common plural
Root: שָׁלֵם  
Sense: .
יֹשְׁבֵ֤י  the  inhabitants 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Participle, masculine plural construct
Root: יָשַׁב 
Sense: to dwell, remain, sit, abide.
גִבְעוֹן֙  of  Gibeon 
Parse: Proper Noun, feminine singular
Root: גִּבְעֹן  
Sense: a Levitical city of Benjamin, modern ‘el-Jib’, which lies 5 miles or 8 km from Jerusalem.
יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל  Israel 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: יִשְׂרָאֵל  
Sense: the second name for Jacob given to him by God after his wrestling with the angel at Peniel.
וַיִּֽהְי֖וּ  and  were 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Qal, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine plural
Root: אֶהְיֶה 
Sense: to be, become, come to pass, exist, happen, fall out.
בְּקִרְבָּֽם  among  them 
Parse: Preposition-b, Noun, masculine singular construct, third person masculine plural
Root: קֶרֶב  
Sense: midst, among, inner part, middle.