The Meaning of John 13:1 Explained

John 13:1

KJV: Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

YLT: And before the feast of the passover, Jesus knowing that his hour hath come, that he may remove out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own who are in the world -- to the end he loved them.

Darby: Now before the feast of the passover, Jesus, knowing that his hour had come that he should depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, loved them to the end.

ASV: Now before the feast of the passover, Jesus knowing that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto his Father, having loved his own that were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

What does John 13:1 Mean?

Study Notes

before the feast
For order of events during the night of the last passover, .
sat down with the twelve
The order of events on the night of the Passover supper appears to have been:
(1) The taking by our Lord and the disciples of their places at the table;
(2) the contention who should be greatest;
(3) the feet washing;
(4) the identification Judas as the traitor;
(5) the withdrawal of Judas;
(6) the institution of the supper;
(7) the words of Jesus while still in the room Matthew 26:26-29 ; Luke 22:35-38 ; John 13:3-35 ; Matthew 14:1-31
(8) the words of Jesus between the room and the garden Matthew 26:31-35 ; Mark 14:26-31 ; John 15:16 ; John 15:17 it seems probable that the high-priestly prayer John 17:1-26 was uttered after they reached the garden;
(9) the agony in the garden;
(10) the betrayal and arrest;
(11) Jesus before Caiaphas; Peter's denial.

Verse Meaning

This verse contradicts the Synoptic accounts of the Passover (e.g, Mark 14:12) only if it introduces everything in chapters13-17. Evidently it introduces only the account of foot-washing that follows.
"As the first Passover had been the turning point in the redemption of the people of God, so the Cross would be the opening of a new era for believers." [1]
The word "world" (Gr. cosmos) is an important one in this section of the Gospel where it appears about40 times (ch13-17). The world represents the mass of lost humanity out of which Jesus has called His disciples and from which He would depart shortly when He returned to heaven. Jesus loved His own who believed on Him who would remain in the world. He loved them to the end (Gr. eis telos) or utmost, the demonstration of which was His sacrificial death on the cross. "The end" can also refer to the end of Jesus" earthly life, though this interpretation seems less fitting.
Jesus" realization that His hour had come ( John 12:23) led Him to prepare His disciples for that hour and what it would mean for them. The double emphasis on love sets the tone for the whole Upper Room Discourse.

Context Summary

John 13:1-11 - Jesus Glorifies Humble Service
In the Temple the laver preceded the brazen altar. It was kept filled with pure water for the constant washing of the priests; Exodus 30:18-21; Leviticus 16:4. We cannot have fellowship with Christ at Calvary or on Olivet unless we draw near with our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water.
The Synoptic Gospels tell us that on their way to the feast the disciples had yielded to contention and pride. It was needful that these should be put away, and our Lord's love was equal to the occasion. He loved them to the end of His life and to the end of love. Only such love could have made saints and apostles out of such material.
Jesus began a work which has never ceased, and which will continue "till all the ransomed Church of God be saved to sin no more." When we have contracted guilt, we have not to begin our whole life over again, but to go back to the place where we dropped the thread of obedience and begin there. [source]

Chapter Summary: John 13

1  Jesus washes the disciples' feet, and exhorts them to humility and charity
18  He foretells and discovers to John by a token, that Judas should betray him;
31  commands them to love one another;
36  and forewarns Peter of his denials

Greek Commentary for John 13:1

Now before the feast of the passover [προ δε της εορτης του πασχα]
Just before, John means, not twenty-four hours before, that is our Thursday evening (beginning of 15th of Nisan, sunset to sunset Jewish day), since Jesus was crucified on Friday 15th of Nisan. Hence Jesus ate the regular passover meal at the usual time. The whole feast, including the feast of unleavened bread, lasted eight days. For a discussion of the objections to this interpretation of John in connexion with the Synoptic Gospels one may consult my Harmony of the Gospels, pp. 279-84, and David Smith‘s In the Days of His Flesh, Appendix VIII. The passover feast began on the 15th Nisan at sunset, the passover lamb being slain the afternoon of 14th Nisan. There seems no real doubt that this meal in John 13:1-30 is the real passover meal described by the Synoptics also (Mark 14:18-21; Matthew 26:21-25; Luke 22:21-23), followed by the institution of the Lord‘s Supper. Thus understood John 13:1 here serves as an introduction to the great esoteric teaching of Christ to the apostles (John 13:2-17:26), called by Barnas Sears The Heart of Christ. This phrase goes with the principal verb ηγαπησεν — ēgapēsen (loved). Knowing Second perfect active participle, emphasizing the full consciousness of Christ. He was not stumbling into the dark as he faced “his hour” See John 18:4; John 19:28 for other examples of the insight and foresight (Bernard) of Jesus concerning his death. See on John 12:23 for use before by Jesus. That he should depart Sub-final use of ινα — hina with second aorist active subjunctive of μεταβαινω — metabainō old word, to go from one place to another, here (John 5:24; 1 John 3:14) to go from this world (John 8:23) back to the Father from whom he had come (John 14:12, John 14:28; John 16:10, John 16:28; John 17:5). His own which were in the world His own disciples (John 17:6, John 17:9, John 17:11), those left in the world when he goes to the Father, not the Jews as in John 1:11. See Acts 4:23; 1 Timothy 5:8 for the idiom. John pictures here the outgoing of Christ‘s very heart‘s love (chs. John 13-17) towards these men whom he had chosen and whom he loved “unto the end” (εις τελος — eis telos) as in Matthew 10:22; Luke 18:15, but here as in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 rather “to the uttermost.” The culmination of the crisis (“his hour”) naturally drew out the fulness of Christ‘s love for them as is shown in these great chapters (John 13-17). [source]
Before the Feast of the Passover []
This clause is to be construed with ἠγάπησεν , loved, at the close of this verse. Notice that John, in mentioning the Passover, here drops the explanatory phrase of the Jews (John 11:55). It is not the Passover of the Jews which Jesus is about to celebrate, which had degenerated into an empty form, but the national ordinance, according to its true spirit, and with a development of its higher meaning. [source]
Knowing [εἰδὼς]
Or, since he knew. [source]
His hour []
See on John 12:23, and compare John 2:4. [source]
That [ἵνα]
In order that; marking the departure as a divine decree. [source]
Depart [μεταβῇ]
The compounded preposition μετά , signifies passing over from one sphere into another. [source]
His own [τοὺς ἰδίους]
See on Acts 1:7. Compare John 17:6sqq.; Acts 4:23; Acts 24:23; 1 Timothy 5:8; John 1:11. [source]
He loved [ἠγάπησεν]
Notice that John uses the word indicating the discriminating affection: the love of choice and selection. See on John 5:20. [source]
Unto the end [εἰς τέλος]
Interpretations differ. The rendering of the A.V. and Rev. is of doubtful authority. The passages cited in support of this, Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13; Mark 13:13, may all be rendered to the uttermost. Morever, other formulas are used where the meaning to the end is unquestionable. In Revelation 2:26, the only other instance in John's writings where τέλος is used in an adverbial phrase the expression is ἄχρι τέλους , unto the end. Similarly Hebrews 6:11. In Hebrews 3:6, Hebrews 3:14, μέχρι τὲλους , unto the end. The phrase may mean at last, and so is rendered by many here, as Meyer, Lange, Thayer (Lex.). “At last He loved them;” that is, showed them the last proof of His love. This is the most probable rendering in Luke 18:5, on which see note. It may also mean to the uttermost, completely. So Westcott and Godet. But I am inclined, with Meyer, to shrink from the “inappropriate gradation” which is thus implied, as though Jesus' love now reached a higher degree than before ( ἀγαπήσας ). Hence I prefer the rendering at last, or finally He loved them, taking ἠγάπησεν , loved, in the sense of the manifestation of His love. This sense frequently attaches to the verb. See, for instance, 1 John 4:10(“love viewed in its historic manifestation” Westcott), and compare John 3:16; Ephesians 2:4; Ephesians 5:2, Ephesians 5:25; 2 Thessalonians 2:16; Revelation 3:9. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for John 13:1

Matthew 10:2 Apostles [ἀποστόλων]
Compare disciples, Matthew 10:1. Apostles is the official term, used here for the first time. They were merely learners (disciples, μαθηταὶ ) until Christ gave them authority. From ἀποστέλλω , to send away. An apostle is one sent forth. Compare John 13:16 and Rev., one that is sent. Cremer (“Biblico-Theological Lexicon”) suggests that it was the rare occurrence of the word in profane Greek that made it all the more appropriate as the distinctive appellation of the twelve. Compare Luke 6:13; Acts 1:2. Also, John 17:18, I have sent. The word is once used of Christ (Hebrews 3:1), and in a very general sense to denote an:), one sent (2 Corinthians 8:23; Philemon 2:25). [source]
Matthew 21:3 The Lord [ὁ κύριος]
From κῦρος , supreme power, authority. Hence κύριος , one having authority, lord, owner, ruler. In classical Greek, used of the gods, and in inscriptions applied to different gods, as Hermes, Zeus, etc.; also of the head of the family, who is lord ( κύριος ) of the wife and children (1 Timothy 6:1, 1 Timothy 6:2; Titus 2:9; 1 Peter 2:18), and κύριος (Ephesians 6:9; Colossians 4:1). In the Septuagint it is used by Sarah of her husband (Genesis 3:6). Joseph is called lord of the country (Genesis 18:27; Exodus 4:10). In the New Testament it is a name for God (Matthew 1:20, Matthew 1:22, Matthew 1:24; Matthew 2:15; Acts 11:16; Acts 12:11, Acts 12:17; Revelation 1:8). As applied to Christ, it does not express his divine nature and power. These are indicated by some accompanying word or phrase, as my God (John 20:28); of all (Acts 10:36); to the glory of God the Father (Philemon 2:11); of glory (1 Corinthians 2:8); so that, as a title of Christ, Lord is used in the sense of Master or Ruler, or in address, Sir (Matthew 22:43, Matthew 22:45; Luke 2:11; Luke 6:46; John 13:13, John 13:14; 1 Corinthians 8:6). Ὁ κύριος , the Lord, is used of Christ by Matthew only once (Matthew 21:3) until after the resurrection (Matthew 28:6). In the other gospels and in the Acts it occurs far oftener. Nevertheless, in the progress of Christian thought in the New Testament, the meaning develops toward a specific designation of the divine Saviour, as may be seen in the phrases Jesus, Christ our Lord, Our Lord Jesus Christ, Our Lord, Jesus our Lord. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Matthew 1:22 “All this has happened” [τουτο δε ολον γεγονεν]
The Hebrew word for young woman is translated by virgin See note on Matthew 2:15, Matthew 2:23; Matthew 4:14-17; Matthew 8:17; Matthew 12:17-21; Matthew 13:35; Matthew 21:4.; John 12:38.; John 13:18; John 19:24, John 19:28, John 19:36. [source]
Matthew 26:17 To eat the passover [παγειν το πασχα]
There were two feasts rolled into one, the passover feast and the feast of unleavened bread. Either name was employed. Here the passover meal is meant, though in John 18:28 it is probable that the passover feast is referred to as the passover meal (the last supper) had already been observed. There is a famous controversy on the apparent disagreement between the Synoptic Gospels and the Fourth Gospel on the date of this last passover meal. My view is that the five passages in John (John 13:1., John 13:27; John 18:28; John 19:14, John 19:31) rightly interpreted agree with the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26:17, Matthew 26:20; Mark 14:12, Mark 14:17; Luke 22:7, Luke 22:14) that Jesus ate the passover meal at the regular time about 6 p.m. beginning of 15 Nisan. The passover lamb was slain on the afternoon of 14 Nisan and the meal eaten at sunset the beginning of 15 Nisan. According to this view Jesus ate the passover meal at the regular time and died on the cross the afternoon of 15 Nisan. See my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ, pp.279-284. The question of the disciples here assumes that they are to observe the regular passover meal. Note the deliberative subjunctive (ετοιμασωμεν — hetoimasōmen) after τελεις — theleis with ινα — hina For the asyndeton see Robertson, Grammar, p. 935. [source]
Mark 14:35 The hour [η ωρα]
Jesus had long looked forward to this “hour” and had often mentioned it (John 7:30; John 8:20; John 12:23, John 12:27; John 13:1). See again in Mark 14:41. Now he dreads it, surely a human trait that all can understand. [source]
Mark 7:3 Diligently [πυγμηι]
Instrumental case, with the fist, up to the elbow, rubbing one hand and arm with the other hand clenched. Aleph had πυκνα — pukna probably because of the difficulty about πυγμηι — pugmēi (kin to Latin pugnus). Schultess considers it a dry wash or rubbing of the hands without water as a ritualistic concession. The middle voice νιπσωνται — nipsōntai means their own hands. This verb is often used for parts of the body while λουω — louō is used of the whole body (John 13:10). On the tradition of the elders see note on Matthew 15:2. [source]
Luke 22:7 Must be sacrificed [εδει τυεσται]
This was Nisan 14 which began at sunset. Luke is a Gentile and this fact must be borne in mind. The lamb must be slain by the head of the family (Exodus 12:6). The controversy about the day when Christ ate the last passover meal has already been discussed (Matthew 26:17; Mark 14:12). The Synoptics clearly present this as a fact. Jesus was then crucified on Friday at the passover or Thursday (our time) at the regular hour 6 p.m. (beginning of Friday). The five passages in John (John 13:1.; John 13:27; John 18:28; John 19:14; John 19:31) rightly interpreted teach the same thing as shown in my Harmony of the Gospels for Students of the Life of Christ (pp.279-284). [source]
Luke 22:27 But I [Εγω δε]
Jesus dares to cite his own conduct, though their leader, to prove his point and to put a stop to their jealous contention for the chief place at this very feast, a wrangling that kept up till Jesus had to arise and give them the object lesson of humility by washing their feet (John 13:1-20). [source]
John 8:24 I am he [ἐγώ εἰμι]
He is inserted in the versions and is not in the text. By retaining it, we read, I am the Messiah. But the words are rather the solemn expression of His absolute divine being, as in John 8:58: “If ye believe not that I am.” See Deuteronomy 32:39; Isaiah 43:10; and compare John 8:28, John 8:58of this chapter, and John 13:19. [source]
John 2:4 Mine hour is not yet come []
Compare John 8:20; John 12:23; John 13:1. In every case the coming of the hour indicates some crisis in the personal life of the Lord, more commonly His passion. Here the hour of His Messianic manifestation (John 2:11). [source]
John 14:18 Comfortless [ὀρφανούς]
Literally, bereft or orphans. Only here and James 1:27, where it is rendered fatherless. Compare my little children (John 13:33). “He hath not left us without a rule (John 13:34); nor without an example (John 13:15); nor without a motive (John 14:15); nor without a strength (John 15:5); nor without a warning (John 15:2, John 15:6); nor without a Comforter (John 14:18); nor without a reward (John 14:2) (James Ford, “The Gospel of St. John Illustrated”). [source]
John 13:2 Supper being ended [δείπνου γενομένου]
The most approved reading is γινομένου , the present participle, denoting while a supper was in progress. Hence Rev., rightly, during supper. The A.V. is wrong, even if the reading of the Received Text be retained; for in John 13:12Jesus reclined again, and in John 13:26, the supper is still in progress. It should be, supper having begun, or having been served. It is important to note the absence of the definite article: a supper, as distinguished from the feast, which also is designated by a different word. [source]
John 2:24 Because He knew [διὰ τὸ αὐτὸν γινώσκειν]
Literally, on account of the fact of His knowing. John describes the Lord's knowledge by two words which it is important to distinguish. Γινώσκειν , as here, implies acquired knowledge; knowledge which is the result of discernment and which may be enlarged. This knowledge may be drawn from external facts (John 5:6; John 6:15) or from spiritual sympathy (John 10:14, John 10:27; John 17:25). Εἰδέναι (John 1:26) implies absolute knowledge: the knowledge of intuition and of satisfied conviction. Hence it is used of Christ's knowledge of divine things (John 3:11; John 5:32; John 7:29), Of the facts of His own being (John 6:6; John 8:14; John 13:1), and of external facts (John 6:61, John 6:64; John 13:11). In John 21:17the two words appear together. Peter says to Jesus, appealing to His absolute knowledge, “Thou knowest ( οἶδας ) all things:” appealing to his discernment, “Thou knowest or perceivest ( γινώσκεις ) that I love Thee.” [source]
John 14:31 But that the world may know, etc. []
The connection in this verse is much disputed. Some explain, Arise, let us go hence, that the world may know that I love the Father, and that even as the Father commanded me so I do. Others, So I do, that the world may know - and even as the Father, etc. Others, again, take the opening phrase as elliptical, supplying either, he cometh, i.e., Satan, in order that the world may know - and that as the Father, etc.; or, I surrender myself to suffering and death that the world may know, etc. In this case, Arise, etc., will form, as in A.V. and Rev., an independent sentence. I incline to adopt this. The phrase ἀλλ ' ἵνα , but in order that, with an ellipsis, is common in John. See John 1:8, John 1:31; John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25; 1 John 2:19. [source]
John 13:25 Lying [ἐπιπεσὼν]
This word is, literally, to fall upon, and is so rendered in almost every instance in the New Testament. In Mark 3:10, it is applied to the multitudes pressing upon Christ. It occurs, however, nowhere else in John, and therefore some of the best authorities read ἀναπεσὼν , leaning back, a verb which John uses several times in the Gospel, as in John 13:12. So Rev. Whichever of the two is read, it points out the distinction, which the A.V. misses by the translation lying, between ἦν ἀνακείμενος (John 13:23), which describes the reclining position of John throughout the meal, and the sudden change of posture pictured by ἀναπεσὼν , leaning back. The distinction is enforced by the different preposition in each case: reclining in ( ἐν ) Jesus' bosom, and leaning back ( ἀνά ). Again, the words bosom and breast represent different words in the Greek; κόλπος representing more generally the bend formed by the front part of the reclining person, the lap, and στῆθος the breast proper. The verb ἀναπίπτω , to lean back, always in the New Testament describes a change of position. It is used of a rower bending back for a fresh stroke. Plato, in the well-known passage of the “Phaedrus,” in which the soul is described under the figure of two horses and a charioteer, says that when the charioteer beholds the vision of love he is afraid, and falls backward ( ἀνέπεσεν ), so that he brings the steeds upon their haunches. [source]
John 10:11 Giveth his life [τὴν ψυχὴν αὐτοῦ τίθησιν]
The phrase is peculiar to John, occurring in the Gospel and First Epistle. It is explained in two ways: either (1) as laying down as a pledge, paying as a price, according to the classical usage of the word τίθημι . So Demosthenes, to pay interest or the alien tax. Or (2) according to John 13:4, as laying aside his life like a garment. The latter seems preferable. Τίθημι , in the sense of to pay down a price, does not occur in the New Testament, unless this phrase, to lay down the life, be so explained. In John 13:4, layeth aside His garments ( τίδησι τὰ ἱμάτια ) is followed, in John 13:12, by had taken His garments ( ἔλαβε τὰ ἱμάτια ). So, in this chapter, giveth ( τίδησιν ) His life (John 10:11), and I lay down ( τίδημι ) my life (John 10:17, John 10:18), are followed by λαβεῖν “to take it again.” The phrases τὴν ψυχὴν Helaid down His life, and τὰς ψυχὰς θεῖναι tolay down our lives, occur in 1 John 3:16. The verb is used in the sense of laying aside in the classics, as to lay aside war, shields, etc. Compare Matthew 20:28, δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν , to give His life. [source]
John 1:8 He [εκεινος]
“That one,” i.e. John. He was a light (John 5:35) as all believers are (Matthew 5:14), but not “the light” But came No verb in the Greek, to be supplied by repeating ηλτεν — ēlthen of John 1:7. See similar ellipses in John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25. In Johannine fashion we have the final ινα — hina clause of John 1:7 repeated. [source]
John 1:11 Unto his own [εις τα ιδια]
Neuter plural, “unto his own things,” the very idiom used in John 19:27 when the Beloved Disciple took the mother of Jesus “to his own home.” The world was “the own home” of the Logos who had made it. See also John 16:32; Acts 21:6. They that were his own In the narrower sense, “his intimates,” “his own family,” “his own friends” as in John 13:1. Jesus later said that a prophet is not without honour save in his own country (Mark 6:4; John 4:44), and the town of Nazareth where he lived rejected him (Luke 4:28.; Matthew 13:58). Probably here οι ιδιοι — hoi idioi means the Jewish people, the chosen people to whom Christ was sent first (Matthew 15:24), but in a wider sense the whole world is included in οι ιδιοι — hoi idioi Conder‘s The Hebrew Tragedy emphasizes the pathos of the situation that the house of Israel refused to welcome the Messiah when he did come, like a larger and sadder Enoch Arden experience. Received him not Second aorist active indicative of παραλαμβανω — paralambanō old verb to take to one‘s side, common verb to welcome, the very verb used by Jesus in John 14:3 of the welcome to his Father‘s house. Cf. κατελαβεν — katelaben in John 1:5. Israel slew the Heir (Hebrews 1:2) when he came, like the wicked husbandmen (Luke 20:14). [source]
John 11:28 Called Mary [επωνησεν Μαριαμ]
First aorist active indicative of πωνεω — phōneō Out of the house and away from the crowd. Secretly Old adverb from λατρος — lathros To tell her the glad news. The Master “The Teacher.” So they loved to call him as he was (John 13:13). Is here “Is present.” Calleth thee This rouses Mary. [source]
John 12:4 Judas Iscariot [Ιουδας ο Ισκαριωτης]
See ο Ισκαριωτης — ho Iskariōtēs in John 14:22. See John 6:71; John 13:1 for like description of Judas save that in John 6:71 the father‘s name is given in the genitive, Σιμωνος — Simōnos and Ισκαριωτου — Iskariōtou (agreeing with the father), but in John 13:1 Ισκαριωτης — Iskariōtēs agrees with Ιουδας — Ioudas not with Σιμωνος — Simōnos Clearly then both father and son were called “Iscariot” or man of Kerioth in the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:25). Judas is the only one of the twelve not a Galilean. One of his disciples Likewise in John 6:71, only there εκ — ek is used after εις — heis as some MSS. have here. This is the shameful fact that clung to the name of Judas. Which should betray him John does not say in John 6:71 Μελλω — Mellō here simply points to the act as future, not as necessary. Note the contrast between Mary and Judas. “Mary in her devotion unconsciously provides for the honour of the dead. Judas in his selfishness unconsciously brings about the death itself” (Westcott). [source]
John 12:23 The hour is come [εληλυτεν η ωρα]
The predestined hour, seen from the start (John 2:4), mentioned by John (John 7:30; John 8:20) as not yet come and later as known by Jesus as come (John 13:1), twice again used by Jesus as already come (in the prayer of Jesus, John 17:1; Mark 14:41, just before the betrayal in the Garden). The request from the Greeks for this interview stirs the heart of Jesus to its depths. That the Son of man should be glorified Purpose clause with ινα — hina (not in the sense of οτε — hote when) and the first aorist passive subjunctive of δοχαζω — doxazō same sense as in John 12:16, John 13:31. The Cross must come before Greeks can really come to Jesus with understanding. But this request shows that interest in Jesus now extends beyond the Jewish circles. [source]
John 13:3 Knowing [ειδως]
Repeated from John 13:1, accenting the full consciousness of Jesus. Had given So Aleph B L W, aorist active instead of δεδωκεν — dedōken (perfect active) of διδωμι — didōmi Cf. John 3:31 for a similar statement with εν — en instead of εις — eis See Matthew 11:27 (Luke 10:22) and Matthew 28:18 for like claim by Jesus to complete power. And that he came forth from God, and goeth unto God See plain statement by Jesus on this point in John 16:28. The use of προς τον τεον — pros ton theon recalls the same words in John 1:1. Jesus is fully conscious of his deity and Messianic dignity when he performs this humble act. [source]
John 13:18 Not of you all [ου περι παντων]
As in John 13:11, he here refers to Judas whose treachery is no surprise to Jesus (John 6:64, John 6:70). Whom I have chosen Indirect question, unless τινας — tinas is here used as a relative like ους — hous The first aorist middle indicative of εκλεγω — eklegō is the same form used in John 6:70. Jesus refers to the choice (Luke 6:13 εκλεχαμενος — eklexamenos this very word again) of the twelve from among the large group of disciples. [source]
John 13:18 He that eateth [πληροω]
Present active participle of old verb to gnaw, to chew, to eat, in N.T. only in John (John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:57, John 6:58; John 13:18) and Matthew 26:38. lxx has here ο τρωγων — ho esthiōn Lifted up his heel against me First aorist active indicative of επηρεν επ εμε την πτερναν αυτου — epairō επαιρω — Pterna old word for heel, only here in N.T. The metaphor is that of kicking with the heel or tripping with the heel like a wrestler. It was a gross breach of hospitality to eat bread with any one and then turn against him so. The Arabs hold to it yet. [source]
John 13:1 Now before the feast of the passover [προ δε της εορτης του πασχα]
Just before, John means, not twenty-four hours before, that is our Thursday evening (beginning of 15th of Nisan, sunset to sunset Jewish day), since Jesus was crucified on Friday 15th of Nisan. Hence Jesus ate the regular passover meal at the usual time. The whole feast, including the feast of unleavened bread, lasted eight days. For a discussion of the objections to this interpretation of John in connexion with the Synoptic Gospels one may consult my Harmony of the Gospels, pp. 279-84, and David Smith‘s In the Days of His Flesh, Appendix VIII. The passover feast began on the 15th Nisan at sunset, the passover lamb being slain the afternoon of 14th Nisan. There seems no real doubt that this meal in John 13:1-30 is the real passover meal described by the Synoptics also (Mark 14:18-21; Matthew 26:21-25; Luke 22:21-23), followed by the institution of the Lord‘s Supper. Thus understood John 13:1 here serves as an introduction to the great esoteric teaching of Christ to the apostles (John 13:2-17:26), called by Barnas Sears The Heart of Christ. This phrase goes with the principal verb ηγαπησεν — ēgapēsen (loved). Knowing Second perfect active participle, emphasizing the full consciousness of Christ. He was not stumbling into the dark as he faced “his hour” See John 18:4; John 19:28 for other examples of the insight and foresight (Bernard) of Jesus concerning his death. See on John 12:23 for use before by Jesus. That he should depart Sub-final use of ινα — hina with second aorist active subjunctive of μεταβαινω — metabainō old word, to go from one place to another, here (John 5:24; 1 John 3:14) to go from this world (John 8:23) back to the Father from whom he had come (John 14:12, John 14:28; John 16:10, John 16:28; John 17:5). His own which were in the world His own disciples (John 17:6, John 17:9, John 17:11), those left in the world when he goes to the Father, not the Jews as in John 1:11. See Acts 4:23; 1 Timothy 5:8 for the idiom. John pictures here the outgoing of Christ‘s very heart‘s love (chs. John 13-17) towards these men whom he had chosen and whom he loved “unto the end” (εις τελος — eis telos) as in Matthew 10:22; Luke 18:15, but here as in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 rather “to the uttermost.” The culmination of the crisis (“his hour”) naturally drew out the fulness of Christ‘s love for them as is shown in these great chapters (John 13-17). [source]
John 13:18 That the scripture might be fulfilled [Τατ τε σχριπτυρε μιγτ βε φυλφιλλεδ]
See the same clause in John 17:12. Purpose clause with αλλ ινα η γραπη πληρωτηι — hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of ινα — plēroō This treachery of Judas was according to the eternal counsels of God (John 12:4), but none the less Judas is responsible for his guilt. For a like elliptical clause see John 9:3; John 15:25. The quotation is from the Hebrew of Psalm 41:9. He that eateth Present active participle of old verb to gnaw, to chew, to eat, in N.T. only in John (John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:57, John 6:58; John 13:18) and Matthew 26:38. lxx has here ο τρωγων — ho esthiōn Lifted up his heel against me First aorist active indicative of επηρεν επ εμε την πτερναν αυτου — epairō επαιρω — Pterna old word for heel, only here in N.T. The metaphor is that of kicking with the heel or tripping with the heel like a wrestler. It was a gross breach of hospitality to eat bread with any one and then turn against him so. The Arabs hold to it yet. [source]
John 14:31 But that the world may know [αλλ ινα γνωι ο κοσμος]
Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the second aorist active subjunctive of γινωσκω — ginōskō Elliptical construction (cf. John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25). “But I surrendered myself to death,” etc., before ινα — hina Arise, let us go hence Imperative present middle of αγωμεν — egeirō and the volitive (hortatory) subjunctive agōmen (the word used in John 11:7, John 11:16) of going to meet death. Apparently the group arose and walked out into the night and the rest of the talk (chs. 15 and 16) and prayer (ch. 17) was in the shadows on the way to Gethsemane. [source]
John 15:3 Already ye are clean [ηδη υμεις καταροι εστε]
Potentially cleansed (Westcott) as in John 13:10 which see and John 17:19. [source]
John 15:15 No longer [ουκετι]
As he had done in John 13:16. He was their Rabbi (John 1:38; John 13:13) and Lord (John 13:13). Paul gloried in calling himself Christ‘s δουλος — doulos (bond-slave). Servants Bond-servants, slaves. I have called you friends Perfect active indicative, permanent state of new dignity. They will prove worthy of it by continued obedience to Christ as Lord, by being good δουλοι — douloi Abraham was called the Friend of God (James 2:23). Are we friends of Christ? [source]
John 15:16 But I chose you [αλλ εγω εχελεχαμην υμας]
First aorist middle indicative of εκλεγω — eklegō See this same verb and tense used for the choice of the disciples by Christ (John 6:70; John 13:18; John 15:19). Jesus recognizes his own responsibility in the choice after a night of prayer (Luke 6:13). So Paul was “a vessel of choice” Appointed First aorist active indicative Second aorist active subjunctive of διδωμι — didōmi with ινα — hina (purpose clause). Cf. John 14:13 for the same purpose and promise, but with ποιησω — poiēsō (I shall do). See also John 16:23, John 16:26. [source]
John 15:17 That ye may love one another [ινα αγαπατε αλληλους]
Repetition of John 13:34; John 15:12. This very night the disciples had been guilty of jealousy and wrangling (Luke 22:24; John 13:5, John 13:15). [source]
John 15:25 But this cometh to pass [αλλ]
Ellipsis in the Greek (no verb), as in John 9:3; John 13:18. In their law Cf. John 8:17; John 10:34 for this standpoint. “Law” The hatred of the Jews toward Jesus the promised Messiah (John 1:11) is “part of the mysterious purpose of God” (Bernard) as shown by ινα πληρωτηι — hina plērōthēi (first aorist passive subjunctive of πληροω — plēroō to fulfill). Without a cause Adverbial accusative of δωρεα — dōrea from διδωμι — didōmi gratuitously, then unnecessarily or gratis (in two Koiné tablets, Nageli) as here and Galatians 2:21. [source]
John 16:4 Have I spoken [λελαληκα]
Perfect active indicative as in John 15:11; John 16:1. Solemn repetition. When their hour is come Indefinite temporal clause, οταν — hotan with the second aorist active subjunctive of ερχομαι — erchomai “whenever their hour comes.” The time appointed for these things. Now that Simply “that” (declarative conjunction in indirect discourse. Forewarned is to be forearmed. Cf. John 13:19. From the beginning As in John 6:64 but practically like απ αρχης — ap' archēs in John 15:27. While Christ was with them, he was the object of attack (John 15:18). [source]
John 15:20 Remember [μνημονευετε]
Present active imperative of μνημονευω — mnēmoneuō old verb from μνημων — mnēmōn in John again in John 16:4, John 16:21. See John 13:16 for this word. If they persecuted me Condition of first class. They certainly did persecute (first aorist active of διωκω — diōkō to chase like a wild beast like the Latin persequor, our “persecute”) Jesus (John 5:16). They will persecute those like Jesus. Cf. John 16:33; Mark 10:30; Luke 21:12; 1 Corinthians 4:12; 2 Corinthians 4:9; Galatians 4:29; 2 Timothy 3:12 for proof that this prophecy came true. But the alternative is true and is stated by Jesus with a like condition of the first class, “if they kept my word” The world does praise the word of Jesus, but dreads to follow it. [source]
John 17:12 I kept [ετηρουν]
Imperfect active of τηρεω — tēreō “I continued to keep.” I guarded First aorist (constative) active of πυλασσω — phulassō Christ was the sentinel The very phrase for antichrist (2 Thessalonians 2:3). Note play on απωλετο — apōleto perished (second aorist middle indicative of απολλυμι — apollumi). It means the son marked by final loss, not annihilation, but meeting one‘s destiny (Acts 2:25). A sad and terrible exception (Mark 14:21). The scripture It is not clear whether this is John‘s own comment or the word of Jesus. Not in John 18:9. The Scripture referred to is probably Psalm 41:9 quoted in John 13:18 with the same formula ινα πληρωτηι — hina plērōthēi which see there. [source]
John 18:4 Knowing all the things that were coming upon him [ειδως παντα τα ερχομενα επ αυτον]
Mentioned already in John 13:1. He was not taken by surprise. The surrender and death of Jesus were voluntary acts, though the guilt of Judas and the rest remains. [source]
John 18:6 Fell to the ground [επεσαν χαμαι]
Second aorist active indicative of πιπτω — piptō with first aorist ending (-αν — an). This recoil made them stumble. But why did they step back? Was it the former claim of Jesus (I am, εγω ειμι — egō eimi) to be on an equality with God (John 8:58; John 13:19) or mere embarrassment and confusion or supernatural power exerted by Jesus? B adds Ιησους — Iēsous which must mean simply: “I am Jesus.” [source]
John 19:28 Are now finished [ηδη τετελεσται]
Perfect passive indicative of τελεω — teleō See same form in John 19:30. As in John 13:1, where Jesus is fully conscious (knowing, ειδως — eidōs) of the meaning of his atoning death. Might be accomplished First aorist passive subjunctive of τελειοω — teleioō rather than the usual πληρωτηι — plērōthēi (John 19:24) with ινα — hina John sees the thirst of Jesus in Psalm 69:21. Jesus, of course, did not make the outcry in any mechanical way. Thirst is one of the severest agonies of crucifixion. For the “perfecting” of the Messiah by physical suffering see Hebrews 2:10; Hebrews 5:7. [source]
John 2:4 Woman [γυναι]
Vocative case of γυνη — gunē and with no idea of censure as is plain from its use by Jesus in John 19:26. But the use of γυναι — gunai instead of μητερ — mēter (Mother) does show her she can no longer exercise maternal authority and not at all in his Messianic work. That is always a difficult lesson for mothers and fathers to learn, when to let go. What have I to do with thee? There are a number of examples of this ethical dative in the lxx (Judges 11:12; 2Sam 16:10; 1Kings 17:18; 2Kings 3:13; 2Chron 35:21) and in the N.T. (Mark 1:24; Mark 5:7; Matthew 8:29; Matthew 27:19; Luke 8:28). Some divergence of thought is usually indicated. Literally the phrase means, “What is it to me and to thee?” In this instance F.C. Burkitt (Journal of Theol. Studies, July, 1912) interprets it to mean, “What is it to us?” That is certainly possible and suits the next clause also. Mine hour is not yet come This phrase marks a crisis whenever it occurs, especially of his death (John 7:30; John 8:20; John 12:23; John 13:1; John 17:1). Here apparently it means the hour for public manifestation of the Messiahship, though a narrower sense would be for Christ‘s intervention about the failure of the wine. The Fourth Gospel is written on the plane of eternity (W. M. Ramsay) and that standpoint exists here in this first sign of the Messiah. [source]
John 6:54 He that eateth [ο τρωγων]
Present active participle for continual or habitual eating like πιστευετε — pisteuete in John 6:29. The verb τρωγω — trōgō is an old one for eating fruit or vegetables and the feeding of animals. In the N.T. it occurs only in John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:58; John 13:18; Matthew 24:38. Elsewhere in the Gospels always εστιω — esthiō or επαγον — ephagon (defective verb with εστιω — esthiō). No distinction is made here between επαγον — ephagon (John 6:48, John 6:50, John 6:52, John 6:53, John 6:58) and τρωγω — trōgō (John 6:54, John 6:56, John 6:57, John 6:58). Some men understand Jesus here to be speaking of the Lord‘s Supper by prophetic forecast or rather they think that John has put into the mouth of Jesus the sacramental conception of Christianity by making participation in the bread and wine the means of securing eternal life. To me that is a violent misinterpretation of the Gospel and an utter misrepresentation of Christ. It is a grossly literal interpretation of the mystical symbolism of the language of Jesus which these Jews also misunderstood. Christ uses bold imagery to picture spiritual appropriation of himself who is to give his life-blood for the life of the world (John 6:51). It would have been hopeless confusion for these Jews if Jesus had used the symbolism of the Lord‘s Supper. It would be real dishonesty for John to use this discourse as a propaganda for sacramentalism. The language of Jesus can only have a spiritual meaning as he unfolds himself as the true manna. [source]
John 7:3 His brethren [οι αδελποι αυτου]
“His brothers” (half-brothers actually), who “were not believing on him” Depart hence Second aorist active imperative of μεταβαινω — metabainō to pass to another place (John 5:24; John 13:1). It was impertinence on their part. That thy disciples also may behold Final clause with ινα — hina and the future active indicative of τεωρεω — theōreō Jesus had many disciples in Judea at the start (John 2:23; John 4:1) and had left it because of the jealousy of the Pharisees over his success (John 4:3). The brothers may have heard of the great defection in the synagogue in Capernaum (John 6:66), but the advice is clearly ironical. Which thou doest To what works they refer by this language we do not know. But Jesus had been away from Galilee for some months and from Judea for a year and a half. Perhaps the brothers of Jesus may actually have been eager to rush Jesus into the hostile atmosphere of Jerusalem again. [source]
John 7:30 They sought therefore [εζητουν ουν]
Imperfect active of ζητεω — zēteō inchoative or conative, they began to seek. Either makes sense. The subject is naturally some of the Jerusalemites (Westcott) rather than some of the leaders (Bernard). To take him First aorist active infinitive, Doric form from πιαζω — piazō from the usual πιεζω — piezō occasionally so in the papyri, but πιαζω — piazō always in N.T. except Luke 6:38. And Here = “but.” Laid his hand Second aorist active indicative of επιβαλλω — epiballō to cast upon. Old and common idiom for arresting one to make him a prisoner (Matthew 26:50). See repetition in John 7:44. His hour In John 13:1 we read that “the hour” had come, but that was “not yet” “John is at pains to point out at every point that the persecution and death of Jesus followed a predestined course” (Bernard), as in John 2:4; John 7:6, John 7:8; John 8:10; John 10:39; John 13:1, etc. Was not yet come Past perfect active of ερχομαι — erchomai as John looks back on the story. [source]
John 8:24 For except ye believe [εαν γαρ μη πιστευσητε]
Negative condition of third class with εαν μη — ean mē and ingressive aorist active subjunctive of πιστευω — pisteuō “For unless ye come to believe.” That I am he Indirect discourse, but with no word in the predicate after the copula ειμι — eimi Jesus can mean either “that I am from above” (John 8:23), “that I am the one sent from the Father or the Messiah” (John 7:18, John 7:28), “that I am the Light of the World” (John 8:12), “that I am the Deliverer from the bondage of sin” (John 8:28, John 8:31., and John 8:36), “that I am” without supplying a predicate in the absolute sense as the Jews (Deuteronomy 32:39) used the language of Jehovah (cf. Isaiah 43:10 where the very words occur ινα πιστευσητεοτι εγω ειμι — hina pisteusēte -εγω ειμι — hoti egō eimi). The phrase egō eimi occurs three times here (John 8:24, John 8:28, John 8:58) and also in John 13:19. Jesus seems to claim absolute divine being as in John 8:58. [source]
Acts 20:35 I have shewed you all things [πάντα ὑπέδειξα ὑμῖν]
The verb means to shew by example. Thus, Luke 6:47, “I will shew you to whom he is like,” is followed by the illustration of the man who built upon the rock. So Acts 9:16. God will shew Paul by practical experience how great things he must suffer. The kindred noun ὑπόδειγμα is always rendered example or pattern. See John 13:15; James 5:10, etc.; and note on 2 Peter 2:6. Rev., correctly, In all things I gave you an example. [source]
Acts 20:35 I gave you an example [υπεδειχα]
First aorist active indicative of υποδεικνυμι — hupodeiknumi old verb to show under one‘s eyes, to give object lesson, by deed as well as by word (Luke 6:47). υποδειγμα — Hupodeigma means example (John 13:15; James 5:10). So Paul appeals to his example in 1 Corinthians 11:1; Philemon 3:17. Παντα — Panta is accusative plural of general reference (in all things). [source]
Acts 14:4 But the multitude of the city was divided [εσχιστη δε το πλητος της πολεως]
First aorist passive indicative of σχιζω — schizō old verb to split, to make a schism or factions as Sadducees and Pharisees (Acts 23:7). This division was within the Gentile populace. Part held Common demonstrative of contrast The Jewish leaders made some impression on the Gentiles as at Antioch in Pisidia and later at Thessalonica (Acts 17:4.). This is the first time in the Acts that Paul and Barnabas are termed “apostles” (see also Acts 13:14). Elsewhere in the Acts the word is restricted to the twelve. Certainly Luke does not here employ it in that technical sense. To have followed Jesus in his ministry and to have seen the Risen Christ was essential to the technical use (Acts 1:22.). Whether Barnabas had seen the Risen Christ we do not know, but certainly Paul had (1 Corinthians 9:1.; 1 Corinthians 15:8). Paul claimed to be an apostle on a par with the twelve (Galatians 1:1, Galatians 1:16-18). The word originally means simply one sent (John 13:16) like messengers of the churches with the collection (2 Corinthians 8:23). The Jews used it of those sent from Jerusalem to collect the temple tribute. Paul applies the word to James the Lord‘s brother (Galatians 1:19), to Epaphroditus (Philemon 2:25) as the messenger of the church in Philippi, to Silvanus and Timothy (1 Thessalonians 2:6; Acts 18:5), apparently to Apollos (1 Corinthians 4:9), and to Andronicus and Junias (Romans 16:6.). He even calls the Judaizers “false apostles” (2 Corinthians 11:13). [source]
Acts 4:23 To their own company [προς τους ιδιους]
Their own people as in John 1:11; John 13:1; Acts 24:23; 1 Timothy 5:8; Titus 3:14, not merely the apostles (all the disciples). In spite of Peter‘s courageous defiance he and John told the brotherhood all that had been said by the Sanhedrin. They had real apprehension of the outcome. [source]
Romans 4:5 Believeth on Him [πιστεύοντι ἐπὶ τὸν]
The verb πιστεύω tobelieve is used in the New Testament as follows: 1. Transitively, with the accusative and dative: to entrust something to one, Luke 16:11; John 2:24. In the passive, to be entrusted with something, Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 9:17; Galatians 2:7. With the simple accusative, to believe a thing, John 11:26; 1 John 4:16. -DIVIDER-
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2. With the infinitive, Acts 15:11. -DIVIDER-
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3. With ὅτι that Matthew 9:28; Mark 11:24; James 2:19. Especially frequent in John: John 4:21; John 11:27, John 11:42; John 13:19; John 14:10, John 14:11; John 16:27, John 16:30, etc. -DIVIDER-
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4. With the simple dative, meaning to believe a person or thing, that they are true or speak the truth, John 2:22; John 4:21; John 5:46. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:22, John 2:23; see on John 8:31; see on John 10:37. -DIVIDER-
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5. With the preposition ἐν inNot frequent, and questioned in some of the passages cited for illustration. In John 3:15, ἐν αὐτῷ inHim, is probably to be construed with have eternal life. The formula occurs nowhere else in John. In Mark 1:15we find πιστεύετε ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ believein the gospel. The kindred noun πίστις faithoccurs in this combination. Thus Galatians 3:26, though some join in Christ Jesus with sons. See also Ephesians 1:15; Colossians 1:4; 1 Timothy 3:13; 2 Timothy 3:15; Romans 3:25. This preposition indicates the sphere in which faith moves, rather than the object to which it is directed, though instances occur in the Septuagint where it plainly indicates the direction of faith, Psalm 78:22; Jeremiah 12:6. -DIVIDER-
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6. With the preposition ἐπί uponon to, unto. a. With the accusative, Romans 4:5; Acts 9:42; Acts 11:17; Acts 16:31; Acts 22:19. The preposition carries the idea of mental direction with a view to resting upon, which latter idea is conveyed by the same preposition. b. With the dative, 1 Timothy 1:16; Luke 24:25; compare Romans 9:33; Romans 10:11; 1 Peter 2:6. The dative expresses absolute superposition. Christ as the object of faith, is the basis on which faith rests. -DIVIDER-
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7. With the preposition εἰς into Matthew 18:6; John 2:11; Acts 19:4; Romans 10:14; Galatians 2:16; Philemon 1:29, etc. The preposition conveys the idea of the absolute transference of trust from one's self to another. Literally the phrase means to believe into. See on John 1:12; see on John 2:23; see on John 9:35; see on John 12:44.Is counted for righteousness ( λογίζεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην )Rev., is reckoned. See on Romans 4:3. The preposition εἰς has the force of as, not the telic meaning with a view to, or in order that he may be (righteous); nor strictly, in the place of righteousness. Faith is not a substitute for righteousness, since righteousness is involved in faith. When a man is reckoned righteous through faith, it is not a legal fiction. He is not indeed a perfect man, but God does not reckon something which has no real existence. Faith is the germ of righteousness, of life in God. God recognizes no true life apart from holiness, and “he that believeth on the Son hath life.” He is not merely regarded in the law's eye as living. God accepts the germ, not in place of the fruit, but as containing the fruit. “Abraham believed God … . No soul comes into such a relation of trust without having God's investment upon it; and whatever there may be in God's righteousness - love, truth, sacrifice - will be rightfully imputed or counted to be in it, because, being united to Him, it will have them coming over derivatively from Him” (Bushnell). The idea of logical sequence is inherent in λογίζεται isreckoned - the sequence of character upon faith. Where there is faith there is, logically, righteousness, and the righteousness is from faith unto faith (Romans 1:17). Nevertheless, in the highest development of the righteousness of faith, it will remain true that the man is justified, not by the works of righteousness, which are the fruit of faith, but by the faith which, in making him a partaker of the life and righteousness of God, generates and inspires the works. Observe that the believer's own faith is reckoned as righteousness. “In no passage in Paul's writings or in other parts of the New Testament, where the phrase to reckon for or the verb to reckon alone is used, is there a declaration that anything belonging to one person is imputed, accounted, or reckoned to another, or a formal statement that Christ's righteousness is imputed to believers” (President Dwight, “Notes on Meyer”). -DIVIDER-
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[source]

1 Corinthians 1:1 Called to be an apostle []
See on Romans 1:1. Compare 1 Timothy 1:1. Not distinguishing him from other apostles. Compare Matthew 4:21; John 6:70; but Paul was called no less directly than these by Jesus Christ. Galatians 1:12-16. John does not use the word apostle, but gives the idea, John 13:18. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:28 In the church [en tēi ekklēsiāi)]
The general sense of αποστολους — ekklēsia as in Matthew 16:18 and later in Colossians 1:18, Colossians 1:24; Ephesians 5:23, Ephesians 5:32; Hebrews 12:23. See list also in Ephesians 4:11. See note on Matthew 10:2 for προπητας — apostolous the official title given the twelve by Jesus, and claimed by Paul though not one of the twelve. Prophets (διδασκαλους — prophētas). For-speakers for God and Christ. See the list of prophets and teachers in Acts 13:1 with Barnabas first and Saul last. Prophets are needed today if men will let God‘s Spirit use them, men moved to utter the deep things of God. Teachers Old word from αποστολος — didaskō to teach. Used to the Baptist (Luke 3:12), to Jesus (John 3:10; John 13:13), and of Paul by himself along with επειτα δυναμεις — apostolos (1 Timothy 2:7). It is a calamity when the preacher is no longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See note on Ephesians 4:11. Then miracles (δυναμεισ ιαμητων γλωσσων — epeita dunameis). Here a change is made from the concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in Romans 12:7. See these words (γλωσσων — dunameisαντιλημπσεις — iamētōnαντιλαμβανομαι — glōssōn) in 1 Corinthians 12:9, 1 Corinthians 12:10 with κυβερνησεις — glōssōn last again. But these two new terms (helps, governments). Helps Old word, from Κυβερνητης — antilambanomai to lay hold of. In lxx, common in papyri, here only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help rendered to the poor and the sick. Governments (επισχοποι — kubernēseis). Old word from πρεσβυτεροι — kubernaō (cf. οι προισταμενοι — Kubernētēs in Acts 27:11) like Latin gubernare, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has in mind bishops (οι ηγουμενοι — episcopoi) or elders (presbuteroi), the outstanding leaders (hoi proistamenoi in 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Romans 12:8; hoi hēgoumenoi in Acts 15:22; Hebrews 13:7, Hebrews 13:17, Hebrews 13:24). Curiously enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not named specifically are the two that survive today. See note on Philemon 1:1 for both officers. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:28 Teachers [διδασκω]
Old word from αποστολος — didaskō to teach. Used to the Baptist (Luke 3:12), to Jesus (John 3:10; John 13:13), and of Paul by himself along with επειτα δυναμεις — apostolos (1 Timothy 2:7). It is a calamity when the preacher is no longer a teacher, but only an exhorter. See note on Ephesians 4:11. Then miracles (δυναμεισ ιαμητων γλωσσων — epeita dunameis). Here a change is made from the concrete to the abstract. See the reverse in Romans 12:7. See these words (γλωσσων — dunameisαντιλημπσεις — iamētōnαντιλαμβανομαι — glōssōn) in 1 Corinthians 12:9, 1 Corinthians 12:10 with κυβερνησεις — glōssōn last again. But these two new terms (helps, governments). Helps Old word, from Κυβερνητης — antilambanomai to lay hold of. In lxx, common in papyri, here only in N.T. Probably refers to the work of the deacons, help rendered to the poor and the sick. Governments (επισχοποι — kubernēseis). Old word from πρεσβυτεροι — kubernaō (cf. οι προισταμενοι — Kubernētēs in Acts 27:11) like Latin gubernare, our govern. So a governing. Probably Paul has in mind bishops (οι ηγουμενοι — episcopoi) or elders (presbuteroi), the outstanding leaders (hoi proistamenoi in 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Romans 12:8; hoi hēgoumenoi in Acts 15:22; Hebrews 13:7, Hebrews 13:17, Hebrews 13:24). Curiously enough, these two offices (pastors and deacons) which are not named specifically are the two that survive today. See note on Philemon 1:1 for both officers. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:16 To the uttermost [εἰς τέλος]
This is not the meaning of the phrase in N.T. It is to the end: see Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13; Luke 18:5; John 13:1. The wrath of God had not come upon them to the uttermost. The meaning is that the divine wrath had reached the point where it passed into judgment. [source]
Hebrews 4:11 Lest any man fall after the same example of unbelief [ἵνα μὴ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τις ὑποδείγματι πέσῃ τῆς ἀπειθείας]
Πέσῃ fallis to be taken absolutely; not, fall into the same example. Υ̓πόδειγμα examplemostly in Hebrews. Rejected as unclassical by the Attic rhetoricians. Originally a sign which suggests something: a partial suggestion as distinct from a complete expression. See Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 9:23. Thus Christ's washing of the disciples' feet (John 13:15) was a typical suggestion of the whole field and duty of ministry. See on 1 Peter 2:6. It is not easy to give the exact force of ἐν inStrictly speaking, the “example of disobedience” is conceived as that in which the falling takes place. The fall is viewed in the sphere of example. Comp. 1Corinthians href="/desk/?q=1co+2:7&sr=1">1 Corinthians 2:7. Rend. that no man fall in the same example of disobedience: the same as that in which they fell. [source]
Hebrews 4:11 Let us therefore give diligence [σπουδασωμεν ουν]
Volitive subjunctive aorist of σπουδαζω — spoudazō old verb to hasten (2 Timothy 4:9), to be eager and alert (1 Thessalonians 2:17). The exhortation has a warning like that in Hebrews 4:1. That no man fall Negative purpose with ινα μη — hina mē and the second aorist active subjunctive of πιπτω — piptō to fall. After the same example of disobedience The unbelief is like that seen in the Israelites (Hebrews 3:12, Hebrews 3:18; Hebrews 4:2). υποδειγμα — Hupodeigma is a late word from υποδεικνυμι — hupodeiknumi (Matthew 3:7) and means a copy (John 13:15; James 5:10). The Israelites set a terrible example and it is so easy to copy the bad examples. [source]
Hebrews 8:5 Serve [λατρευουσιν]
Present active indicative of λατρευω — latreuō for which verb see note on Matthew 4:10. A copy Dative case after λατρευουσιν — latreuousin See note on John 13:15 and note on Hebrews 4:11 for this interesting word. Shadow Dative case. Old word for which see note on Matthew 4:16; note on Mark 4:32; and note on Colossians 2:17. See same idea in Hebrews 9:23. For difference between σκια — skia and εικων — eikōn see Hebrews 10:1. Here “copy and shadow” form a practical hendiadys for “a shadowy outline” (Moffatt). Is warned of God Perfect passive indicative of χρηματιζω — chrēmatizō old verb (from χρημα — chrēma business) for which see note on Matthew 2:12, note on Matthew 2:22, and note on Luke 2:26. The word “God” is not used, but it is implied as in Acts 10:22; Hebrews 12:25. So in lxx, Josephus, and the papyri. For saith he Argument from God‘s command (Exodus 25:40). See that thou make Common Greek idiom with present active imperative of οραω — horaō and the volitive future of ποιεω — poieō without ινα — hina (asyndeton, Robertson, Grammar, p. 949). The pattern The very word used in Exodus 25:40 and quoted also by Stephen in Acts 7:44. For τυπος — tupos see note on John 20:25; note on Romans 6:17, and etc. The tabernacle was to be patterned after the heavenly model. [source]
James 5:10 For an example [υποδειγμα]
Late word for the old παραδειγμα — paradeigma from υποδεικνυμι — hupodeiknumi to copy under, to teach (Luke 6:47), here for copy to be imitated as in John 13:15, as a warning (Hebrews 4:11). Here predicate accusative with τους προπητας — tous prophētas (the prophets) as the direct object of λαβετε — labete (second aorist active imperative of λαμβανω — lambanō). [source]
1 Peter 5:5 Gird yourselves with humility [την ταπεινοπροσυνην εγκομβωσαστε]
First aorist middle imperative of εγκομβοομαι — egkomboomai late and rare verb (in Apollodorus, fourth cent. b.c.), here only in N.T., from εν — en and κομβος — kombos (knot, like the knot of a girdle). Εγκομβωμα — Egkombōma was the white scarf or apron of slaves. It is quite probable that Peter here is thinking of what Jesus did (John 13:4.) when he girded himself with a towel and taught the disciples, Peter in particular (John 13:9.), the lesson of humility (John 13:15). Peter had at last learned the lesson (John 21:15-19). [source]
1 Peter 5:5 All [παντες]
All ages, sexes, classes.Gird yourselves with humility (την ταπεινοπροσυνην εγκομβωσαστε — tēn tapeinophrosunēn egkombōsasthe). First aorist middle imperative of εγκομβοομαι — egkomboomai late and rare verb (in Apollodorus, fourth cent. b.c.), here only in N.T., from εν — en and κομβος — kombos (knot, like the knot of a girdle). Εγκομβωμα — Egkombōma was the white scarf or apron of slaves. It is quite probable that Peter here is thinking of what Jesus did (John 13:4.) when he girded himself with a towel and taught the disciples, Peter in particular (John 13:9.), the lesson of humility (John 13:15). Peter had at last learned the lesson (John 21:15-19).The proud Dative plural of υπερηπανος — huperēphanos (James 4:6; Romans 1:30) after αντιτασσεται — antitassetai (present middle indicative of αντιτασσω — antitassō as in James 4:6 (quoted there as here from Proverbs 3:34). [source]
2 Peter 2:6 Having made them [τετεικως]
Perfect active participle of τιτημι — tithēmi example For which see James 5:10; John 13:15. Cf. 1 Peter 2:21.Unto those that should live ungodly (μελλοντων ασεβεσιν — mellontōn asebesin). Rather, “unto ungodly men of things about to be” (see Hebrews 11:20 for this use of μελλοντων — mellontōn). But Aleph A C K L read ασεβειν — asebein (present active infinitive) with μελλοντων — mellontōn = ασεβησοντων — asebēsontōn (future active participle of ασεβεω — asebeō), from which we have our translation. [source]
2 Peter 2:6 The cities of Sodom and Gomorrah [πολεις Σοδομων και Γομορρας]
Genitive of apposition after πολεις — poleis (cities), though it makes sense as possessive genitive, for Judges 1:7 speaks of the cities around these two. The third example, the cities of the plain. See Genesis 19:24.Condemned them (κατεκρινεν — katekrinen). First aorist active indicative of κατακρινω — katakrinō still part of the protasis with ει — ei an overthrow (καταστροπηι — katastrophēi). Instrumental case or even dative like τανατωι — thanatōi with κατακρινω — katakrinō in Matthew 20:18. But Westcott and Hort reject the word here because not in B C Coptic.Having made them Perfect active participle of τιτημι — tithēmi example For which see James 5:10; John 13:15. Cf. 1 Peter 2:21.Unto those that should live ungodly (μελλοντων ασεβεσιν — mellontōn asebesin). Rather, “unto ungodly men of things about to be” (see Hebrews 11:20 for this use of μελλοντων — mellontōn). But Aleph A C K L read ασεβειν — asebein (present active infinitive) with μελλοντων — mellontōn = ασεβησοντων — asebēsontōn (future active participle of ασεβεω — asebeō), from which we have our translation. [source]
1 John 2:19 But they went [αλλ]
Ellipsis of the verb εχηλταν — exēlthan above, a common habit (ellipse) in John s Gospel (John 1:8; John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25). [source]
1 John 2:19 For if they had been of us [ει γαρ εχ ημων ησαν]
Condition of second class with ει — ei and imperfect tense (no aorist for ειμι — eimi).They would have continued (μεμενηκεισαν αν — memenēkeisan an). Past perfect of μενω — menō to remain, without augment, with αν — an in apodosis of second-class condition.With us In fellowship, for which see μετα — meta in 1 John 1:3. They had lost the inner fellowship and then apparently voluntarily broke the outward.But they went (αλλ — all'). Ellipsis of the verb εχηλταν — exēlthan above, a common habit (ellipse) in John s Gospel (John 1:8; John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25).That they might be made manifest Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō for which verb see John 21:1; Colossians 3:4. See 2 Corinthians 3:3 for the personal construction with οτι — hoti as here.They all are not (ουκ εισιν παντες — ouk eisin pantes). Not just some, but all, as in 1 John 2:21; 1 John 3:5. These antichrists are thus revealed in their true light. [source]
1 John 2:19 With us [μετ ημων]
In fellowship, for which see μετα — meta in 1 John 1:3. They had lost the inner fellowship and then apparently voluntarily broke the outward.But they went (αλλ — all'). Ellipsis of the verb εχηλταν — exēlthan above, a common habit (ellipse) in John s Gospel (John 1:8; John 9:3; John 13:18; John 15:25).That they might be made manifest Purpose clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist passive subjunctive of πανεροω — phaneroō for which verb see John 21:1; Colossians 3:4. See 2 Corinthians 3:3 for the personal construction with οτι — hoti as here.They all are not (ουκ εισιν παντες — ouk eisin pantes). Not just some, but all, as in 1 John 2:21; 1 John 3:5. These antichrists are thus revealed in their true light. [source]
Revelation 1:5 Unto Him that loved [τῳ ἀγαπήσαντι]
The true reading is ἀγαπῶντι thatloveth. So Rev. Christ's love is ever present See John 13:1. [source]

What do the individual words in John 13:1 mean?

Before now the feast of the Passover knowing - Jesus that had come His - hour that He would depart out of the world this to the Father having loved the own who [were] in the world to [the] end He loved them
Πρὸ δὲ τῆς ἑορτῆς τοῦ πάσχα εἰδὼς Ἰησοῦς ὅτι ἦλθεν αὐτοῦ ὥρα ἵνα μεταβῇ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου πρὸς τὸν Πατέρα ἀγαπήσας τοὺς ἰδίους τοὺς ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ εἰς τέλος ἠγάπησεν αὐτούς

Πρὸ  Before 
Parse: Preposition
Root: πρό  
Sense: before.
δὲ  now 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
ἑορτῆς  feast 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ἑορτή  
Sense: a feast day, festival.
τοῦ  of  the 
Parse: Article, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
πάσχα  Passover 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Neuter Singular
Root: πάσχα  
Sense: the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people’s deliverance of old from Egypt).
εἰδὼς  knowing 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: οἶδα  
Sense: to see.
  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
Ἰησοῦς  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
ὅτι  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ὅτι  
Sense: that, because, since.
ἦλθεν  had  come 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἔρχομαι  
Sense: to come.
αὐτοῦ  His 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular
Root: αὐτός  
Sense: himself, herself, themselves, itself.
  - 
Parse: Article, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ὥρα  hour 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: ὥρα  
Sense: a certain definite time or season fixed by natural law and returning with the revolving year.
ἵνα  that 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: ἵνα  
Sense: that, in order that, so that.
μεταβῇ  He  would  depart 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Subjunctive Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: μεταβαίνω  
Sense: to pass over from one place to another, to remove, depart.
ἐκ  out  of 
Parse: Preposition
Root: ἐκ 
Sense: out of, from, by, away from.
κόσμου  world 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: κόσμος  
Sense: an apt and harmonious arrangement or constitution, order, government.
τούτου  this 
Parse: Demonstrative Pronoun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: οὗτος  
Sense: this.
Πατέρα  Father 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Masculine Singular
Root: προπάτωρ 
Sense: generator or male ancestor.
ἀγαπήσας  having  loved 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἀγαπάω  
Sense: of persons.
ἰδίους  own 
Parse: Adjective, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root: ἴδιος  
Sense: pertaining to one’s self, one’s own, belonging to one’s self.
τοὺς  who  [were] 
Parse: Article, Accusative Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
κόσμῳ  world 
Parse: Noun, Dative Masculine Singular
Root: κόσμος  
Sense: an apt and harmonious arrangement or constitution, order, government.
τέλος  [the]  end 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Neuter Singular
Root: τέλος  
Sense: end.
ἠγάπησεν  He  loved 
Parse: Verb, Aorist Indicative Active, 3rd Person Singular
Root: ἀγαπάω  
Sense: of persons.