The Meaning of Ephesians 4:2 Explained

Ephesians 4:2

KJV: With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;

YLT: with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, forbearing one another in love,

Darby: with all lowliness and meekness, with long-suffering, bearing with one another in love;

ASV: with all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in love;

What does Ephesians 4:2 Mean?

Verse Meaning

Three virtues contribute to unity in the church. Humility is a proper assessment of oneself in God"s program.
"To face oneself is the most humiliating thing in the world." [1]
A humble Jew or Gentile would regard his ethnic counterpart as equal with himself, not as inferior or superior to himself. Gentleness is the opposite of self-assertion. A gentle person is one whose emotions are under control.
". . . meekness is a virtue of the strong, those who could exert force to get their own way but choose not to." [2]
Meekness is "the absence of the disposition to assert personal rights, either in the presence of God or of men." [3]
Patience is endurance even under affliction. When wronged, the patient person does not retaliate (cf. Galatians 5:22; Colossians 1:11; Colossians 3:12; 2 Timothy 4:2).
"Makrothumia, patience, long-suffering is the spirit which bears insult and injury without bitterness and without complaint. It is the spirit which bears the sheer foolishness of men without irritation. It is the spirit which can suffer unpleasant people with graciousness and fools without complaint." [3]4
Believers should practice all these virtues with loving forbearance toward one another (cf. Romans 2:4).

Context Summary

Ephesians 4:1-10 - Keeping The "unity Of The Spirit"
Paul here admonishes lowliness in the presence of another's excellence; meekness in suffering injury; long-suffering under provocation; forbearance toward the trying mistakes and failures of others. Remember that the unity of the Church, as the body of Christ, is already made; but it is for us to maintain it. We must avoid whatever in word or deed would break it. There are seven different bonds of unity, but of these the greatest is the nature of God, which is transcendent, who is above all; penetrant, through all; and immanent, in all. Each saint has some grace or gift; use it. On the whole, after we reach maturity, we had better center on what we can do best.
What a magnificent conception is given in Ephesians 4:8-9 of the ascended Christ! The original conception was supplied by Deborah in her noble song. Descending from her morning vigil on Tabor, she summoned Barak to lead captive the foe who for so long had held the land in captivity. But in Jesus' ascension, a long procession of yet mightier foes was led captive by Him. Among them were Death, the Grave, and Hades, the underworld. It is from the hands of Jesus that even the rebellious may obtain their gifts. There is no depth to which Jesus will not go to save; no height to which He will not lift us [source]

Chapter Summary: Ephesians 4

1  He exhorts to unity;
7  and declares that God therefore gives various gifts unto men;
11  that his church might be edified,
16  and grow up in Christ
18  He calls them from the impurity of the Gentiles;
24  to put on the new man;
25  to cast off lying;
29  and corrupt communication

Greek Commentary for Ephesians 4:2

Lowiness - meekness []
See on Matthew 11:29; see on Matthew 5:5. [source]
Long-suffering []
See on James 5:7. [source]
Forbearing [ἀνεχόμενοι]
See on Luke 9:41. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for Ephesians 4:2

Luke 1:75 Holiness and righteousness [ὁσιότητι καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ]
The adjective ὅσιος ,holy, is properly what is confirmed by ancient sanction and precept. Ὁσία is used in classical Greek to denote the everlasting principles of right, not constituted by the laws or customs of men, but antedating them; such as the paying of the proper rites of sepulture. Compare the fine passage in the “Antigone” of Sophocles (453-55):“Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough,That thou, a mortal man, shouldst overpass The unwritten laws of God that know not change,-DIVIDER-
They are not of to-day nor yesterday,-DIVIDER-
But live forever, nor can man assignWhen first they sprang to being.”Hence ὁσιότης is concerned primarily with the eternal laws of God. It is “the divine consecration and inner truth of righteousness ” (Meyer). Throughout the New Testament its look is godward. In no case is it used of moral excellence as related to men, though it is to be carefully noted that δικαιοσύνη ,righteousness, is not restricted to rightness toward men. Compare Ephesians 4:24; true holiness; literally, holiness of the truth. [source]

Luke 1:30 Grace [χάριν]
From the same root as χαίρω ,to rejoice. I. Primarily that which gives joy or pleasure; and hence outward beauty, loveliness, something which delights the beholder. Thus Homer, of Ulysses going to the assembly: “Athene shed down manly grace or beauty upon him” (“Odyssey,” ii., 12); and Septuagint, Proverbs 1:9; Proverbs 3:22. Substantially the same idea, agreeableness, is conveyed in Luke 4:22, respecting the gracious words, lit., words of grace, uttered by Christ. So Ephesians 4:29. II. As a beautiful or agreeable sentiment felt and expressed toward another; kindness, favor, good-will. 2 Corinthians 8:6, 2 Corinthians 8:7, 2 Corinthians 8:9; 2 Corinthians 9:8; Luke 1:30; Luke 2:40; Acts 2:47. So of the responsive sentiment of thankfulness. See Luke 6:32, Luke 6:33, Luke 6:34:; Luke 17:9; but mostly in the formula thanks to God; Romans 6:17; 1 Corinthians 15:57; 2 Corinthians 2:14; 2 Timothy 1:3. III. The substantial expression of good-will; a boon, a favor, a gift; but not in New Testament. See Romans 5:15, where the distinction is made between χάρις , grace, and δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι , a gift in grace. So a gratification or delight, in classical Greek only; as the delight in battle, in sleep, etc. IV. The higher Christian signification, based on the emphasis offreeness in the gift or favor, and, as commonly in New Testament, denoting the free, spontaneous, absolute loving-kindness of God toward men, and so contrasted with debt, law, works, sin. The word does not occur either in Matthew or Mark. [source]
Luke 1:30 Favour [χαριν]
Grace. Same root as χαιρω — chairō (rejoice) and χαριτοω — charitoō in Luke 1:28. To find favour is a common O.T. phrase. Χαρις — Charis is a very ancient and common word with a variety of applied meanings. They all come from the notion of sweetness, charm, loveliness, joy, delight, like words of grace, Luke 4:22, growing grace, Ephesians 4:29, with grace, Colossians 4:6. The notion of kindness is in it also, especially of God towards men as here. It is a favourite word for Christianity, the Gospel of the grace of God (Acts 20:24) in contrast with law or works (John 1:16). Gratitude is expressed also (Luke 6:32), especially to God (Romans 6:17). [source]
Luke 1:75 In holiness and righteousness [εν οσιοτητι και δικαιοσυνηι]
Not a usual combination (Ephesians 4:24; Titus 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:10). The Godward and the manward aspects of conduct (Bruce). οσιος — Hosios the eternal principles of right, δικαιος — dikaios the rule of conduct before men. [source]
Acts 20:32 The word of his grace [τωι λογωι της χαριτος αυτου]
The instrumentality through preaching and the Holy Spirit employed by God. Cf. Colossians 4:6; Ephesians 4:29. [source]
Acts 20:32 I commend [παρατιτεμαι]
Present middle indicative of παρατιτημι — paratithēmi old verb to place beside, middle, to deposit with one, to interest as in 1 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 2:2. Paul can now only do this, but he does it hopefully. Cf. 1 Peter 4:19. The word of his grace (τωι λογωι της χαριτος αυτου — tōi logōi tēs charitos autou). The instrumentality through preaching and the Holy Spirit employed by God. Cf. Colossians 4:6; Ephesians 4:29. Which is able to build up God works through the word of his grace and so it is able to build up (edify); a favourite Pauline word (1 Corinthians 3:10-14; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 2 Corinthians 5:1; Ephesians 2:20-22; 2 Timothy 3:15; etc.), and James 1:21. The very words “build” and “inheritance among the sanctified” will occur in Ephesians 1:11; Ephesians 3:18 and which some may recall on reading. Cf. Colossians 1:12. Stephen in Acts 7:5 used the word “inheritance” (κληρονομιαν — klēronomian), nowhere else in Acts, but in Ephesians 1:14, Ephesians 1:18; Ephesians 5:5. In Ephesians 1:18 the very expression occurs “his inheritance among the saints “ (την κληρονομιαν αυτου εν τοις αγιοις — tēn klēronomian autou en tois hagiois). [source]
Romans 7:5 In the flesh [ἐν τῇ σαρκί]
Σάρξ fleshoccurs in the classics in the physical sense only. Homer commonly uses it in the plural as denoting all the flesh or muscles of the body. Later the singular occurs in the same sense. Paul's use of this and other psychological terms must be determined largely by the Old-Testament usage as it appears in the Septuagint. 1. In the physical sense. The literal flesh. In the Septuagint τὰ κρέα flesh(plural) is used where the reference is to the parts of animals slain, and αἱ σάρκες , flesh (plural) where the reference is to flesh as the covering of the living body. Hence Paul uses κρέα in Romans 14:21; 1 Corinthians 8:13, of the flesh of sacrificed animals. Compare also the adjective σάρκιμος fleshy 2 Corinthians 3:3; and Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26, Sept. -DIVIDER-
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2. Kindred. Denoting natural or physical relationship, Romans 1:3; Romans 9:3-8; Romans 11:14; Galatians 4:23, Galatians 4:29; 1 Corinthians 10:18; Philemon 1:16. This usage forms a transition to the following sense: the whole human body. Flesh is the medium in and through which the natural relationship of man manifests itself. Kindred is conceived as based on community of bodily substance. Therefore:-DIVIDER-
3. The body itself. The whole being designated by the part, as being its main substance and characteristic, 1 Corinthians 6:16; 1 Corinthians 7:28; 2 Corinthians 4:11; 2 Corinthians 7:5; 2 Corinthians 10:3; 2 Corinthians 12:7. Romans 2:28; Galatians 6:13, etc. Paul follows the Septuagint in sometimes using σῶμα bodyand sometimes σάρξ fleshin this sense, so that the terms occasionally seem to be practically synonymous. Thus 1 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Corinthians 6:17, where the phrase one body is illustrated and confirmed by one flesh. See Genesis 2:24; Ephesians 5:28, Ephesians 5:31, where the two are apparently interchanged. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:10, 2 Corinthians 4:11; 1 Corinthians 5:3, and Colossians 2:5. Σάρξ , however, differs from σῶμα in that it can only signify the organism of an earthly, living being consisting of flesh and bones, and cannot denote “either an earthly organism that is not living, or a living organism that is not earthly” (Wendt, in Dickson). Σῶμα not thus limited. Thus it may denote the organism of the plant (1 Corinthians 15:37, 1 Corinthians 15:38) or the celestial bodies (1 Corinthians 15:40). Hence the two conceptions are related as general and special: σῶμα bodybeing the material organism apart from any definite matter (not from any sort of matter), σάρξ , flesh, the definite, earthly, animal organism. The two are synonymons when σῶμα is used, from the context, of an earthly, animal body. Compare Philemon 1:22; 2 Corinthians 5:1-8. -DIVIDER-
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Σῶμα bodyand not σάρξ fleshis used when the reference is to a metaphorical organism, as the church, Romans 12:4sqq.; 1 Corinthians 10:16; 12:12-27; Ephesians 1:23; Ephesians 2:16; Colossians 1:18, etc. -DIVIDER-
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The σάρξ is described as mortal (2 Corinthians 4:11); subject to infirmity (Galatians 4:13; 2 Corinthians 12:7); locally limited (Colossians 2:15); an object of fostering care (Ephesians 5:29). -DIVIDER-
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4. Living beings generally, including their mental nature, and with a correlated notion of weakness and perishableness. Thus the phrase πᾶσα σάρξ allflesh (Genesis 6:12; Isaiah 49:26; Isaiah 49:23). This accessory notion of weakness stands in contrast with God. In Paul the phrase all flesh is cited from the Old Testament (Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16) and is used independently (1 Corinthians 1:29). In all these instances before God is added. So in Galatians 1:16, flesh and blood implies a contrast of human with divine wisdom. Compare 1 Corinthians 15:50; Ephesians 6:12. This leads up to-DIVIDER-
5. Man “either as a creature in his natural state apart from Christ, or the creaturely side or aspect of the man in Christ.” Hence it is correlated with ἄνθρωπος man 1 Corinthians 3:3; Romans 6:19; 2 Corinthians 5:17. Compare Romans 6:6; Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9; Galatians 5:24. Thus the flesh would seem to be interchangeable with the old man. -DIVIDER-
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It has affections and lusts (Galatians 5:24); willings (Ephesians 2:3; Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7); a mind (Colossians 2:18); a body (Colossians 2:11). -DIVIDER-
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It is in sharp contrast with πνεῦμα spirit(Galatians 3:3, Galatians 3:19; Galatians 5:16, Galatians 5:17, Galatians 5:19-24; Galatians 6:8; Romans 8:4). The flesh and the spirit are thus antagonistic. Σάρξ fleshbefore or in contrast with his reception of the divine element whereby he becomes a new creature in Christ: the whole being of man as it exists and acts apart from the influence of the Spirit. It properly characterizes, therefore, not merely the lower forms of sensual gratification, but all - the highest developments of the life estranged from God, whether physical, intellectual, or aesthetic. -DIVIDER-
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It must be carefully noted:-DIVIDER-
1. That Paul does not identify flesh and sin. Compare, flesh of sin, Romans 8:3. See Romans 7:17, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Galatians 2:20. -DIVIDER-
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2. That Paul does not identify σάρξ withthe material body nor associate sin exclusively and predominantly with the body. The flesh is the flesh of the living man animated by the soul ( ψυχή ) as its principle of life, and is distinctly used as coordinate with ἄνθρωπος manAs in the Old Testament, “it embraces in an emphatic manner the nature of man, mental and corporeal, with its internal distinctions.” The spirit as well as the flesh is capable of defilement (2 Corinthians 7:1; compare 1 Corinthians 7:34). Christian life is to be transformed by the renewing of the mind (Romans 12:2; compare Ephesians 4:23). -DIVIDER-
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3. That Paul does not identify the material side of man with evil. The flesh is not the native seat and source of sin. It is only its organ, and the seat of sin's manifestation. Matter is not essentially evil. The logical consequence of this would be that no service of God is possible while the material organism remains. See Romans 12:1. The flesh is not necessarily sinful in itself; but as it has existed from the time of the introduction of sin through Adam, it is recognized by Paul as tainted with sin. Jesus appeared in the flesh, and yet was sinless (2 Corinthians 5:21).The motions of sins ( τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν )Motions used in earlier English for emotions or impulses. Thus Bacon: “He that standeth at a stay where others rise, can hardly avoid motions of envy” (“Essay” xiv.). The word is nearly synonymous with πάθος passion(Romans 1:26, note). From πάθειν tosuffer; a feeling which the mind undergoes, a passion, desire. Rev., sinful passions: which led to sins.Did work ( ἐνηργεῖτο )Rev., wrought. See 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 4:12; Ephesians 3:20; Galatians 5:6; Philemon 2:13; Colossians 1:29. Compare Mark 6:14, and see on power, John 1:12. [source]

Romans 7:22 The inward man [τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον]
The rational and moral I, the essence of the man which is conscious of itself as an ethical personality. Not to be confounded with the new man (Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10). It is substantially the same with the mind (Romans 7:23). [source]
Romans 7:23 The law of my mind [τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ νοός μου]
Νοῦς mindis a term distinctively characteristic of Paul, though not confined to him. See Luke 24:45; Revelation 13:18; Revelation 17:9. Paul's usage of this term is not based, like that of spirit and flesh, on the Septuagint, though the word occurs six times as the rendering of lebh heart, and once of ruach spirit. -DIVIDER-
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He uses it to throw into sharper relief the function of reflective intelligence and moral judgment which is expressed generally by καρδία heartkey to its Pauline usage is furnished by the contrast in 1 Corinthians 14:14-19, between speaking with a tongue and with the understanding ( τῷ νοΐ́ ), and between the spirit and the understanding (1 Corinthians 14:14). There it is the faculty of reflective intelligence which receives and is wrought upon by the Spirit. It is associated with γνωμή opinionresulting from its exercise, in 1 Corinthians 1:10; and with κρίνει judgethin Romans 14:5. -DIVIDER-
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Paul uses it mainly with an ethical reference - moral judgment as related to action. See Romans 12:2, where the renewing of the νοῦς mindis urged as a necessary preliminary to a right moral judgment (“that ye may prove,” etc.,). The νοῦς which does not exercise this judgment is ἀδόκιμος notapproved, reprobate. See note on reprobate, Romans 1:28, and compare note on 2 Timothy 3:8; note on Titus 1:15, where the νοῦς is associated with the conscience. See also on Ephesians 4:23. -DIVIDER-
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It stands related to πνεῦμα spiritas the faculty to the efficient power. It is “the faculty of moral judgment which perceives and approves what is good, but has not the power of practically controlling the life in conformity with its theoretical requirements.” In the portrayal of the struggle in this chapter there is no reference to the πνεῦμα spiritwhich, on the other hand, distinctively characterizes the christian state in ch. 8. In this chapter Paul employs only terms pertaining to the natural faculties of the human mind, and of these νοῦς mindis in the foreground. [source]

Romans 6:6 Old man [ὁ παλαιὸς ἄνθρωπος]
Only in Paul, and only three times; here, Ephesians 4:22; Colossians 3:9. Compare John 3:3; Titus 3:5. The old, unrenewed self. Paul views the Christian before his union with Christ, as, figuratively, another person. Somewhat in the same way he regards himself in ch. 7. [source]
Romans 15:23 Place [τόπον]
Scope, opportunity. So of Esau, Hebrews 12:17. Compare Romans 12:19; Ephesians 4:27. [source]
Romans 12:8 He that giveth [ὁ μεταδιδοὺς]
Earthly possessions. The preposition μετά indicates sharing with. He that imparteth. Compare Ephesians 4:28; Luke 3:11. [source]
Romans 1:17 For therein is the righteousness of God revealed [δικαιοσύνη γὰρ Θεοῦ ἐν ἀυτῷ ἀποκαλύπτεται]
Rev., more correctly, therein is revealed a righteousness of God. The absence of the article denotes that a peculiar kind of righteousness is meant. This statement contains the subject of the epistle: Righteousness is by faith. The subject is not stated formally nor independently, but as a proof that the Gospel is a power, etc. This word δικαιοσύνη righteousnessand its kindred words δίκαιος righteousand δικαιόω tomake righteous, play so important a part in this epistle that it is desirable to fix their meaning as accurately as possible. -DIVIDER-
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Classical Usage. In the Greek classics there appears an eternal, divine, unwritten principle of right, dwelling in the human consciousness, shaping both the physical and the moral ordering of the world, and personified as Themis ( Θέμις ). This word is used as a common noun in the phrase θέμις ἐστὶ itis right (fundamentally and eternally), like the Latin fas est. Thus Homer, of Penelope mourning for Ulysses, θέμις ἐστὶ γυναικός itis the sacred obligation of the wife (founded in her natural relation to her husband, ordained of heaven) to mourn (“Odyssey,” 14,130). So Antigone appeals to the unwritten law against the barbarity of refusing burial to her brother.“Nor did I deem thy edicts strong enough,That thou, a mortal man, shouldst overpass The unwritten laws of God that know not change.”Sophocles, “Antigone,” 453-455.See, also, “Odyssey,” 14,91; Aristophanes, “Clouds,” 140; “Antigone,” 880. This divine ordering requires that men should be shown or pointed to that which is according to it - a definite circle of duties and obligations which constitute right ( δίκη ). Thus what is δίκαιος righteousis properly the expression of the eternal Themis. While δίκη and θέμις are not to be distinguished as human and divine, δίκη has a more distinctively human, personal character, and comes into sharper definition. It introduces the distinction between absolute right and power. It imposes the recognition of a moral principle over against an absolutely constraining natural force. The conception of δίκη is strongly moral. Δίκαιος is right; δικαιοσύνη is rightness as characterizing the entire being of man. -DIVIDER-
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There is a religious background to the pagan conception. In the Homeric poems morality stands in a relation, loose and undeveloped indeed, but none the less real, to religion. This appears in the use of the oath in compacts; in the fear of the wrath of heaven for omission of sacrifices; in regarding refusal of hospitality as an offense against Zeus, the patron of strangers and suppliants. Certain tribes which are fierce and uncivilized are nevertheless described as δίκαιοι righteous“The characteristic stand-point of the Homeric ethics is that the spheres of law, of morals, and of religion are by no means separate, but lie side by side in undeveloped unity.” (Nagelsbach). -DIVIDER-
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In later Greek literature this conception advances, in some instances, far toward the christian ideal; as in the fourth book of Plato's “Laws,” where he asserts that God holds in His hand the beginning, middle, and end of all things; that justice always follows Him, and punishes those who fall short of His laws. Those who would be dear to God must be like Him. Without holiness no man is accepted of God. -DIVIDER-
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Nevertheless, however clearly the religious background and sanction of morality may be recognized, it is apparent that the basis of right is found, very largely, in established social usage. The word ethics points first to what is established by custom. While with Mr. Grote we must admit the peculiar emphasis on the individual in the Homeric poems, we cannot help observing a certain influence of social sentiment on morals. While there are cases like the suitors, Paris and Helen, where public opinion imposes no moral check, there are others where the force of public opinion is clearly visible, such as Penelope and Nausicaa. The Homeric view of homicide reveals no relation between moral sentiment and divine enactment. Murder is a breach of social law, a private and civil wrong, entailing no loss of character. Its penalty is a satisfaction to the feelings of friends, or a compensation for lost services. -DIVIDER-
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Later, we find this social aspect of morality even more strongly emphasized. “The city becomes the central and paramount source of obligation. The great, impersonal authority called 'the Laws' stands out separately, both as guide and sanction, distinct from religious duty or private sympathy” (Grote). Socrates is charged with impiety because he does not believe in the gods of the state, and Socrates himself agrees that that man does right who obeys what the citizens have agreed should be done, and who refrains from what they forbid. -DIVIDER-
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The social basis of righteousness also appears in the frequent contrast between δίκη and βία , right and force. A violation of right is that which forces its way over the social sanction. The social conception of δίκαιος is not lost, even when the idea is so apprehended as to border on the christian love of one's neighbor. There is a wrong toward the gods, but every wrong is not in itself such. The inner, personal relation to deity, the absolute and constraining appeal of divine character and law to conscience, the view of duty as one's right, and of personal right as something to be surrendered to the paramount claim of love - all these elements which distinguish the christian conception of righteousness - are thus in sharp contrast with a righteousness dictated by social claims which limit the individual desire or preference, but which leave untouched the tenacity of personal right, and place obligation behind legitimacy. -DIVIDER-
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It is desirable that the classical usage of these terms should be understood, in order to throw into sharper relief the Biblical usage, according to which God is the absolute and final standard of right, and every wrong is a sin against God (Psalm 51:4). Each man stands in direct and primary relation to the holy God as He is by the law of His own nature. Righteousness is union with God in character. To the Greek mind of the legendary age such a conception is both strange and essentially impossible, since the Greek divinity is only the Greek man exaggerated in his virtues and vices alike. According to the christian ideal, righteousness is character, and the norm of character is likeness to God. This idea includes all the social aspects of right. Love and duty toward God involve love and duty to the neighbor. -DIVIDER-
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Here must be noted a peculiar usage of δίκαιος righteousand δικαιοσύνη righteousnessin the Septuagint. They are at times interchanged with ἐλεημοσύνη mercyand ἔλεος kindnessThe Hebrew chesed kindness, though usually rendered by ἔλεος , is nine times translated by δικαιοσύνη righteousnessand once by δίκαιος righteousThe Hebrew tsedakah usually rendered by δικαιοσύνη , is nine times translated by ἐλεημοσύνη mercyand three times by ἔλεος kindnessCompare the Heb. and Sept. at Deuteronomy 6:25; Deuteronomy 24:13(15); Genesis 19:19; Genesis 24:27. This usage throws light on the reading δικαιοσύνην , Rev., righteousness (kindness? ), instead of ἐλεημοσύνην mercyA.V., alms, Matthew 6:1. Mr. Hatch (“Essays in Biblical Greek”) says that the meaning kindness is so clear in this passage that scribes, who were unaware of its existence, altered the text. He also thinks that this meaning gives a better sense than any other to Matthew 1:19“Joseph, being a kindly ( δίκαιος , A.V., just ) man.”-DIVIDER-
1. In the New Testament δίκαιος is used both of God and of Christ. Of God, 1 John 1:9; John 17:25; Revelation 16:5; Romans 3:26. Of Christ, 1 John 2:1; 1 John 3:7; Acts 3:14; Acts 7:52; Acts 22:14. In these passages the word characterizes God and Christ either in their essential quality or in their action; either as righteous according to the eternal norm of divine holiness (John 17:25; 1 John 3:7; Romans 3:26), or as holiness passes into righteous dealing with men (1 John 1:9). -DIVIDER-
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2. Δίκαιος is used of men, denoting their normal relation to the will and judgment of God. Hence it means virtuous, upright, pure in life, correct in thinking and feeling. It stands opposed to ἀνομία lawlessness ἁμαρτία sin ἀκαθαρσία impuritya contrast wanting in classical usage, where the conception of sin is vague. See Romans 6:13, Romans 6:16, Romans 6:18, Romans 6:20; Romans 8:10; 2 Corinthians 6:7, 2 Corinthians 6:14; Ephesians 5:9; Ephesians 6:14; Philemon 1:11; James 3:18. -DIVIDER-
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Where δικαιοσύνη righteousnessis joined with ὁσιότης holiness(Luke 1:75; Ephesians 4:24), it denotes right conduct toward men, as holiness denotes piety toward God. It appears in the wider sense of answering to the demands of God in general, Matthew 13:17; Matthew 10:41; Matthew 23:29; Acts 10:22, Acts 10:35; and in the narrower sense of perfectly answering the divine demands, guiltless. So of Christ, Acts 3:14; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 John 2:1. -DIVIDER-
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3. It is found in the classical sense of it is right, Philemon 1:7, or that which is right, Colossians 4:1. This, however, is included within the Christian conception. -DIVIDER-
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Δικαιοσύνη righteousnessis therefore that which fulfills the claims of δίκη right“It is the state commanded by God and standing the test of His judgment; the character and acts of a man approved of Him, in virtue of which the man corresponds with Him and His will as His ideal and standard” (Cremer). -DIVIDER-
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The medium of this righteousness is faith. Faith is said to be counted or reckoned for righteousness; i.e., righteousness is ascribed to it or recognized in it. Romans 4:3, Romans 4:6, Romans 4:9, Romans 4:22; Galatians 3:6; James 2:23. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
In this verse the righteousness revealed in the Gospel is described as a righteousness of God. This does not mean righteousness as an attribute of God, as in Romans 3:5; but righteousness as bestowed on man by God. The state of the justified man is due to God. The righteousness which becomes his is that which God declares to be righteousness and ascribes to him. Righteousness thus expresses the relation of being right into which God puts the man who believes. See further, on justified, Romans 2:13.Is revealed ( ἀποκαλύπτεται )Emphasizing the peculiar sense in which “righteousness” is used here. Righteousness as an attribute of God was revealed before the Gospel. Righteousness in this sense is a matter of special revelation through the Gospel. The present tense describes the Gospel in its continuous proclamation: is being revealed.From faith to faith ( ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν )Rev., by faith unto faith. According to the A.V. the idea is that of progress in faith itself; either from Old to New Testament faith, or, in the individual, from a lower to a higher degree of faith; and this idea, I think, must be held here, although it is true that it is introduced secondarily, since Paul is dealing principally with the truth that righteousness is by faith. We may rightly say that the revealed righteousness of God is unto faith, in the sense of with a view to produce faith; but we may also say that faith is a progressive principle; that the aim of God's justifying righteousness is life, and that the just lives by his faith (Galatians 2:20), and enters into “more abundant” life with the development of his faith. Compare 2 Corinthians 2:16; 2 Corinthians 3:18; 2 Corinthians 4:17; Romans 6:19; and the phrase, justification of life, Romans 5:18.sa40 [source]

Romans 11:3 Life [ψυχήν]
From ψύχω tobreathe or blow. In classical usage it signifies life in the distinctness of individual existence, especially of man, occasionally of brutes. Hence, generally, the life of the individual. In the further development of the idea it becomes, instead of the body, the seat of the will, dispositions, desires, passions; and, combined with the σῶμα bodydenotes the constituent parts of humanity. Hence the morally endowed individuality of man which continues after death. Scripture. In the Old Testament, answering to nephesh primarily life, breath; therefore life in its distinct individuality; life as such, distinguished from other men and from inanimate nature. Not the principle of life, but that which bears in itself and manifests the life-principle. Hence spirit (ruach πνεῦμα ) in the Old Testament never signifies the individual. Soul ( ψυχή ), of itself, does not constitute personality, but only when it is the soul of a human being. Human personality is derived from spirit ( πνεῦμα ), and finds expression in soul or life ( ψυχή ). -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The New-Testament usage follows the Old, in denoting all individuals from the point of view of individual life. Thus the phrase πᾶσα ψυχή everysoul, i.e., every person (Romans 2:9; Romans 13:1), marking them off from inanimate nature. So Romans 11:3; Romans 16:4; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 12:15; Philemon 2:30; 1 Thessalonians 2:8, illustrate an Old-Testament usage whereby the soul is the seat of personality, and is employed instead of the personal pronoun, with a collateral notion of value as individual personality. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
These and other passages are opposed to the view which limits the term to a mere animal life-principle. See Ephesians 6:6; Colossians 3:23; the compounds σύμψυχοι withone soul; ἰσοψύχον like-minded(Philemon 1:27; Philemon 2:20), where personal interest and accord of feeling are indicated, and not lower elements of personality. See, especially 1 Thessalonians 5:23. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
As to the distinction between ψυχή souland πνεῦμα spiritit is to be said:-DIVIDER-
1. That there are cases where the meanings approach very closely, if they are not practically synonymous; especially where the individual life is referred to. See Luke 1:47; John 11:33, and John 12:27; Matthew 11:29, and 1 Corinthians 16:18. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. That the distinction is to be rejected which rests on the restriction of ψυχή to the principle of animal life. This cannot be maintained in the face of 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 2:14, in which latter the kindred adjective ψυχικός naturalhas reference to the faculty of discerning spiritual truth. In both cases the antithesis is πνεῦμα spiritin the ethical sense, requiring an enlargement of the conception of ψυχικός naturalbeyond that of σαρκικός fleshlyThat ψυχή soulmust not be distinguished from πνεῦμα ; spirit as being alone subject to the dominion of sin, since the πνεῦμα is described as being subject to such dominion. See 2 Corinthians 7:1. So 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 1 Corinthians 7:34, imply that the spirit needs sanctification. Compare Ephesians 4:23. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
4. Ψυχή soulis never used of God like πνεῦμα spiritIt is used of Christ, but always with reference to His humanity. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Whatever distinction there is, therefore, is not between a higher and a lower element in man. It is rather between two sides of the one immaterial nature which stands in contrast with the body. Spirit expresses the conception of that nature more generally, being used both of the earthly and of the non-earthly spirit, while soul designates it on the side of the creature. In this view ψυχή soulis akin to σάρξ , flesh, “not as respects the notion conveyed by them, but as respects their value as they both stand at the same stage of creatureliness in contradistinction to God.” Hence the distinction follows that of the Old Testament between soul and spirit as viewed from two different points: the soul regarded as an individual possession, distinguishing the holder from other men and from inanimate nature; the spirit regarded as coming directly from God and returning to Him. “The former indicates the life-principle simply as subsistent, the latter marks its relation to God.” Spirit and not soul is the point of contact with the regenerating forces of the Holy Spirit; the point from which the whole personality is moved round so as to face God. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
Ψυχή soulis thus:-DIVIDER-
1. The individual life, the seat of the personality. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
2. The subject of the life, the person in which it dwells. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
3. The mind as the sentient principle, the seat of sensation and desire. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
[source]

Romans 12:19 But give place unto wrath [αλλα δοτε τοπον τηι οργηι]
Second aorist active imperative of διδωμι — didōmi to give. “Give room for the (note article as in Romans 5:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:16) wrath” of God instead of taking vengeance in your own hands. See note on Ephesians 4:27 for διδοτε τοπον — didote topon Paul quotes Deuteronomy 32:35 (the Hebrew rather than the lxx). So have Hebrews 10:30 and the Targum of Onkelos, but the relation between them and Paul we cannot tell. Socrates and Epictetus condemned personal vindictiveness as Paul does here. I will recompense (ανταποδωσω — antapodōsō). Future active of the double compound verb quoted also in Romans 11:35. [source]
Romans 6:6 Our old man [ο παλαιος ημων αντρωπος]
Only in Paul (here, Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 4:22). [source]
1 Corinthians 5:7 A new lump [νεον πυραμα]
Make a fresh start as a new community with the contamination removed. Νεος — Neos is the root for νεανισκος — neaniskos a young man, not yet old So new wine Καινος — Kainos is fresh as compared with the ancient See the distinction in Colossians 3:10; Ephesians 4:22.; 2 Corinthians 5:17. Unleavened (αζυμοι — azumoi). Without (α — a privative) leaven, the normal and ideal state of Christians. Rare word among the ancients (once in Plato). They are a new creation (καινη κτισις — kainē ktisis), “exemplifying Kant‘s maxim that you should treat a man as if he were what you would wish him to be” (Robertson and Plummer). For our passover also hath been sacrificed, even Christ First aorist passive indicative of τυω — thuō old verb to sacrifice. Euphony of consonants, τ — th to τ — t because of τη — ̇thē Reference to the death of Christ on the Cross as the Paschal Lamb (common use of πασχα — pascha as Mark 14:12; Luke 22:7), the figure used long before by the Baptist of Jesus (John 1:29). Paul means that the Lamb was already slain on Calvary and yet you have not gotten rid of the leaven. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:16 Our outward man [ο εχω ημων αντρωπος]
In Romans 7:22; Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 4:22., we have the inward man and the outward for the higher and the lower natures (the spirit and the flesh). “Here the decay Plato (Republ. ix, p. 589) has ο εντος αντρωπος — ho entos anthrōpos Cf. “the hidden man of the heart” (1 Peter 3:4). Day by day (ημεραι και ημεραι — hēmerāi kai hēmerāi). This precise idiom is not in lxx nor rest of N.T. It may be colloquial use of locative in repetition. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:16 our inward man [ο εσω ημων]
In Romans 7:22; Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 4:22., we have the inward man and the outward for the higher and the lower natures (the spirit and the flesh). “Here the decay Plato (Republ. ix, p. 589) has ο εντος αντρωπος — ho entos anthrōpos Cf. “the hidden man of the heart” (1 Peter 3:4). Day by day (ημεραι και ημεραι — hēmerāi kai hēmerāi). This precise idiom is not in lxx nor rest of N.T. It may be colloquial use of locative in repetition. [source]
Galatians 6:10 Let us do good [ἐργαζώμεθα τὸ ἀγαθὸν]
Let us work the good. For the distinctive force of ἐργάζεσθαι see on 3 John 1:5; and for ποιεῖν todo, see on John 3:21. Comp. Colossians 3:23where both verbs occur. Τὸ ἀγαθὸν is, of course, the morally good as distinguished from what is merely useful or profitable, but includes what is beneficent or kindly. See Philemon 1:14; Ephesians 4:28; 1 Thessalonians 3:6; Romans 5:7. Here, in a general sense, embracing all that is specified in Galatians 6:1, Galatians 6:2, Galatians 6:3, Galatians 6:10. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Long suffering [μακροθυμία]
See on be patient, James 5:7, and comp. Romans 2:4; 2 Corinthians 6:6; Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 1:11. [source]
Galatians 4:28 As Isaac was [κατὰ Ἱσαὰκ]
Lit. after the manner of Isaac. See Romans 9:7-9, and, for this use of κατὰ , 1 Peter 1:15; Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10. [source]
Galatians 3:27 (You) put on Christ [Χριστὸν ἐνεδύσασθε]
The phrase only here and Romans 13:14. The figurative use of the verb occurs only once in the Gospels, Luke 24:49, but often in Paul, 1 Corinthians 15:53; Ephesians 4:24; Colossians 3:10, Colossians 3:12, etc. Chrysostom (Hom. xiii. on Ephesians) remarks, “We say of friends, one puts on the other, meaning thereby much love and unceasing fellowship.” In lxx quite often in the figurative sense, as Judges 6:34; 1 Chronicles 12:18; 2 Chronicles 6:41; Job 8:22; Job 29:14; Psalm 108:1-13:18. Similarly in class., Plato, Rep. 620, of Thersites putting on the form of a monkey: Xen. Cyr. ii. 1,13, of insinuating one's self into the minds of hearers. So the Lat. induere: Cicero, De Off. iii. 10,43, to assume the part of a judge: Tac. Ann. xvi. 28, to take on the part of a traitor or enemy. To put on Christ implies making his character, feelings and works our own. Thus Chrysostom: “If Christ is Son of God, and thou hast put him on, having the Son in thyself and being made like unto him, thou hast been brought into one family and one nature.” And again: “He who is clothed appears to be that with which he is clothed.” [source]
Galatians 3:27 Did put on Christ [Χριστον ενεδυσαστε]
First aorist middle indicative of ενδυω — enduō As a badge or uniform of service like that of the soldier. This verb is common in the sense of putting on garments (literally and metaphorically as here). See further in Paul (Romans 13:14; Colossians 3:9.; Ephesians 4:22-24; Ephesians 6:11, Ephesians 6:14). In 1 Thessalonians 5:8 Paul speaks of “putting on the breastplate of righteousness.” He does not here mean that one enters into Christ and so is saved by means of baptism after the teaching of the mystery religions, but just the opposite. We are justified by faith in Christ, not by circumcision or by baptism. But baptism was the public profession and pledge, the soldier‘s sacramentum, oath of fealty to Christ, taking one‘s stand with Christ, the symbolic picture of the change wrought by faith already (Romans 6:4-6). [source]
Ephesians 5:4 Foolish talking [μωρολογία]
Only here in the New Testament. Talk which is both foolish and sinful. Compare corrupt communication, Ephesians 4:29. It is more than random or idle talk. “Words obtain a new earnestness when assumed into the ethical terminology of Christ's school. Nor, in seeking to enter fully into the meaning of this one, ought we to leave out of sight the greater emphasis which the words fool, foolish, folly obtain in Scripture than elsewhere they have or can have” (Trench). [source]
Ephesians 4:31 Wrath []
What is commanded in Ephesians 4:26is here forbidden, because viewed simply on the side of human passion. [source]
Ephesians 4:3 Bond of peace []
The bond which is peace. Compare Ephesians 2:14, our peace - made both one. Christ, our peace, is thus a bond of peace. Others, however, treat in the bond as parallel with in love of Ephesians 4:2, and cite Colossians 3:14, “love the bond of perfectness.” [source]
Ephesians 4:24 In righteousness and true holiness [ἐν δικιαιοσύνη καὶ ὁσιότητι τῆς ἀληθείας]
Rev., correctly, in righteousness and holiness of truth. See on Luke 1:75. Truth. Opposed to deceit, Ephesians 4:22, and likewise personified. Righteousness and holiness are attributes of truth. [source]
Ephesians 4:20 Have not learned [οὐχ ἐμάθετε]
Rev., giving the force of the aorist tense, did not learn; at the time of your conversion, when you were instructed in Christ's precepts. The phrase learn Christ occurs nowhere else. Christ does not stand for the doctrine of Christ; but Christ is the subject of His own message. See Ephesians 4:21. [source]
Ephesians 4:3 In the bond of peace [εν τωι συνδεσμωι της ειρηνης]
In Colossians 3:14 αγαπη — agapē (love) is the συνδεσμος — sundesmos (bond). But there is no peace without love (Ephesians 4:2). [source]
Ephesians 4:21 Even as truth is in Jesus [κατως εστιν αλητεια εν τωι Ιησου]
It is not clear what Paul‘s precise idea is here. The Cerinthian Gnostics did distinguish between the man Jesus and the aeon Christ. Paul here identifies Christ (Ephesians 4:20) and Jesus (Ephesians 4:21). At any rate he flatly affirms that there is “truth in Jesus” which is in direct opposition to the heathen manner of life and which is further explained by the epexegetical infinitives that follow (αποτεσται ανανεουσται δε και ενδυσασται — apothesthaiananeousthai dekai endusasthai). [source]
Ephesians 4:25 Putting away [αποτεμενοι]
Second aorist middle participle of αποτιτημι — apotithēmi (Ephesians 4:22). Lying (πσευδος — pseudos), truth (αλητειαν — alētheian) in direct contrast. Each one Partitive apposition with λαλειτε — laleite See Colossians 3:8 μη πσευδεστε — mē pseudesthe f0). [source]
Ephesians 5:33 Let the wife see that she fear [η γυνη ινα ποβηται]
There is no verb in the Greek for “let see” For this use of ινα — hina with the subjunctive as a practical imperative without a principal verb (an elliptical imperative) see note on Mark 5:23, Matthew 20:32, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 2 Corinthians 8:7, Ephesians 4:29 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 994). “Fear” (ποβηται — phobētai present middle subjunctive) here is “reverence.” [source]
Ephesians 6:11 Put on [ενδυσαστε]
Like Ephesians 3:12. See also Ephesians 4:24. [source]
Ephesians 2:10 Created [κτιστεντες]
First aorist passive participle of κτιζω — ktizō not the original creation as in Colossians 1:16; Ephesians 3:9, but the moral and spiritual renewal in Christ, the new birth, as in Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:24. For good works (επι εργοις αγατοις — epi ergois agathois). Probably the true dative of purpose here with επι — epi (Robertson, Grammar, p. 605). Purpose of the new creation in Christ. Which Attraction of the relative α — ha (accusative after προητοιμασεν — proētoimasen) to case of the antecedent εργοις — ergois Afore prepared (προητοιμασεν — proētoimasen). First aorist active indicative of προητοιμαζω — proētoimazō old verb to make ready beforehand. In N.T. only here and Romans 9:23. Good works by us were included in the eternal foreordination by God. That we should walk in them Expexegetic final clause explanatory of the election to good works. [source]
Ephesians 2:21 Each several building [πασα οικοδομη]
So without article Aleph B D G K L. Οικοδομη — Oikodomē is a late word from οικος — oikos and δεμω — demō to build for building up (edification) as in Ephesians 4:29, then for the building itself as here (Mark 13:1.). Ordinary Greek idiom here calls for “every building,” not for “all the building” (Robertson, Grammar, p. 772), though it is not perfectly clear what that means. Each believer is called a ναος τεου — naos theou (1 Corinthians 3:16). One may note the plural in Mark 13:1 (οικοδομαι — oikodomai) of the various parts of the temple. Perhaps that is the idea here without precise definition of each οικοδομη — oikodomē But there are examples of πας — pās without the article where “all” is the idea as in πασης κτισεως — pāsēs ktiseōs (all creation) in Colossians 1:15. [source]
Ephesians 5:33 Do ye also severally love [και υμεις οι κατ ενα εκαστος αγαπατω]
An unusual idiom. The verb αγαπατω — agapātō (present active imperative) agrees with εκαστος — hekastos and so is third singular instead of αγαπατε — agapāte (second plural) like υμεις — humeis The use of οι κατ ενα — hoi kath' hena after υμεις — humeis = “ye one by one” and then εκαστος — hekastos takes up (individualizes) the “one” in partitive apposition and in the third person. Let the wife see that she fear (η γυνη ινα ποβηται — hē gunē hina phobētai). There is no verb in the Greek for “let see” (βλεπετω — blepetō). For this use of ινα — hina with the subjunctive as a practical imperative without a principal verb (an elliptical imperative) see note on Mark 5:23, Matthew 20:32, 1 Corinthians 7:29, 2 Corinthians 8:7, Ephesians 4:29 (Robertson, Grammar, p. 994). “Fear” (ποβηται — phobētai present middle subjunctive) here is “reverence.” [source]
Colossians 4:6 Seasoned with salt [ἅλατι ἠρτυμένος]
Both words only here in Paul. The metaphor is from the office of salt in rendering palatable. Both in Greek and Latin authors, salt was used to express the pungency and wittiness of speech. Horace speaks of having praised a poet for rubbing the city with abundant salt, i.e., for having wittily satirized certain parties so as to make them smart as if rubbed with salt, and so as to excite the laughter of those who are not hit (“Satires,” 1 x., 3). Lightfoot gives some interesting citations from Plutarch, in which, as here, grace and salt are combined. Thus: “The many call salt χάριτας gracesbecause, mingled with most things, it makes them agreeable and pleasant to the taste.” Seasoned is, literally, prepared. It is not likely that the fact has any connection with this expression, but it is interesting to recall Herodotus' story of a salt lake in the neighborhood of Colossae, which has been identified, and which still supplies the whole surrounding country with salt (vii., 30). The exhortation to well-seasoned and becoming speech is expanded in Ephesians 4:29; Ephesians 5:4, in a warning against corrupt communication. [source]
Colossians 3:8 Put off [ἀπόθεσθε]
Compare Romans 13:12; Ephesians 4:22, Ephesians 4:25; Hebrews 12:1; James 1:21; 1 Peter 2:1. [source]
Colossians 3:16 Admonishing []
See on Colossians 1:28. The participles teaching and admonishing are used as imperatives, as Romans 12:9-13, Romans 12:16-19; Ephesians 4:2, Ephesians 4:3; Hebrews 13:5; 1 Peter 3:1, 1 Peter 3:7, 1 Peter 3:9, 1 Peter 3:16. [source]
Colossians 3:10 After the image []
Construe with renewed. Compare Ephesians 4:24, and see Genesis 1:26, Genesis 1:27. [source]
Colossians 3:10 Is renewed [ἀνακαινούμενον]
Rev., better, giving the force of the present participle, is being renewed: in process of continuous renewal. The word καινός newwhich enters into the composition of the verb, gives the idea of quality. Compare 2 Corinthians 4:16, and the contrast in Ephesians 4:22. [source]
Colossians 1:18 The head of the body [η κεπαλη του σωματος]
Jesus is first also in the spiritual realm as he is in nature (Colossians 1:18-20). Paul is fond of the metaphor of the body (σωμα — sōma) for believers of which body Christ is the head (κεπαλη — kephalē) as seen already in 1 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Corinthians 12:12, 1 Corinthians 12:27; Romans 12:5. See further Colossians 1:24: Colossians 2:19; Ephesians 1:22.; Ephesians 4:2, Ephesians 4:15; Ephesians 5:30. [source]
Colossians 3:9 The old man [τον παλαιον αντρωπον]
Here Paul brings in another metaphor (mixes his metaphors as he often does), that of the old life of sin regarded as “the ancient man” of sin already crucified (Romans 6:6) and dropped now once and for all as a mode of life (aorist tense). See same figure in Ephesians 4:22. Παλαιος — Palaios is ancient in contrast with νεος — neos (young, new) as in Matthew 9:17 or καινος — kainos (fresh, unused) as in Matthew 13:52. [source]
Colossians 3:8 Put ye also away [αποτεστε και υμεις]
Second aorist middle imperative of old verb αποτιτημι — apotithēmi to put away, lay aside like old clothes. This metaphor of clothing Paul now uses with several verbs All these (τα παντα — ta panta). The whole bunch of filthy rags (anger οργην — orgēn wrath τυμον — thumon malice κακιαν — kakian railing βλασπημιαν — blasphēmian shameful speaking αισχρολογιαν — aischrologian). See somewhat similar lists of vices in Colossians 3:5; Galatians 5:20; Ephesians 4:29-31. These words have all been discussed except αισχρολογιαν — aischrologian an old word for low and obscene speech which occurs here only in the N.T. It is made from αισχρολογος — aischrologos (αισχρος — aischros as in 1 Corinthians 11:6 and that from αισχος — aischos disgrace). Note also the addition of “out of your mouth” (εκ του στοματος υμων — ek tou stomatos humōn). The word was used for both abusive and filthy talk and Lightfoot combines both ideas as often happens. Such language should never come out of the mouth of a Christian living the new life in Christ. [source]
Colossians 3:8 All these [τα παντα]
The whole bunch of filthy rags (anger οργην — orgēn wrath τυμον — thumon malice κακιαν — kakian railing βλασπημιαν — blasphēmian shameful speaking αισχρολογιαν — aischrologian). See somewhat similar lists of vices in Colossians 3:5; Galatians 5:20; Ephesians 4:29-31. These words have all been discussed except αισχρολογιαν — aischrologian an old word for low and obscene speech which occurs here only in the N.T. It is made from αισχρολογος — aischrologos Note also the addition of “out of your mouth” The word was used for both abusive and filthy talk and Lightfoot combines both ideas as often happens. Such language should never come out of the mouth of a Christian living the new life in Christ. [source]
Colossians 3:9 Seeing that ye have put off [απεκδυσαμενοι]
First aorist middle participle (causal sense of the circumstantial participle) of the double compound verb απεκδυομαι — apekduomai for which see note on Colossians 2:15. The απο — apo has the perfective sense (wholly), “having stripped clean off.” The same metaphor as αποτεστε — apothesthe in Colossians 3:8. The old man (τον παλαιον αντρωπον — ton palaion anthrōpon). Here Paul brings in another metaphor (mixes his metaphors as he often does), that of the old life of sin regarded as “the ancient man” of sin already crucified (Romans 6:6) and dropped now once and for all as a mode of life (aorist tense). See same figure in Ephesians 4:22. Παλαιος — Palaios is ancient in contrast with νεος — neos (young, new) as in Matthew 9:17 or καινος — kainos (fresh, unused) as in Matthew 13:52. With his doings Practice must square with profession. [source]
Colossians 3:10 The new man [τον νεον]
“The new (young as opposed to old παλαιον — palaion) man” (though αντρωπον — anthrōpon is not here expressed, but understood from the preceding phrase). In Ephesians 4:24 Paul has ενδυσασται τον καινον — endusasthai ton kainon (fresh as opposed to worn out) αντρωπον — anthrōpon Which is being renewed (τον ανακαινουμενον — ton anakainoumenon). Present passive articular participle of ανακαινοω — anakainoō Paul apparently coined this word on the analogy of ανανεομαι — ananeomai Ανακαινιζω — Anakainizō already existed (Hebrews 6:6). Paul also uses ανακαινωσις — anakainōsis (Romans 12:2; Titus 3:5) found nowhere before him. By this word Paul adds the meaning of καινος — kainos to that of νεος — neos just before. It is a continual refreshment (καινος — kainos) of the new (νεος — neos young) man in Christ Jesus. Unto knowledge “Unto full (additional) knowledge,” one of the keywords in this Epistle. After the image (κατ εικονα — kat' eikona). An allusion to Genesis 1:26, Genesis 1:28. The restoration of the image of God in us is gradual and progressive (2 Corinthians 3:18), but will be complete in the final result (Romans 8:29; 1 John 3:2). [source]
Colossians 3:12 As God‘s elect [ως εκλεκτοι του τεου]
Same phrase in Romans 8:33; Titus 1:1. In the Gospels a distinction exists between κλητος — klētos and εκλεκτος — eklektos (Matthew 24:22, Matthew 24:24, Matthew 24:31), but no distinction appears in Paul‘s writings. Here further described as “holy and beloved” The items in the new clothing for the new man in Christ Paul now gives in contrast with what was put off (Colossians 3:8). The garments include a heart of compassion (σπλαγχνα οικτιρμου — splagchna oiktirmou the nobler viscera as the seat of emotion as in Luke 1:78; Philemon 1:8), kindness (χρηστοτητα — chrēstotēta as in Galatians 5:22), humility (ταπεινοπροσυνην — tapeinophrosunēn in the good sense as in Philemon 2:3), meekness (πραυτητα — prautēta in Galatians 5:23 and in Ephesians 4:2 also with ταπεινοπροσυνη — tapeinophrosunē), long-suffering (μακροτυμιαν — makrothumian in Galatians 5:22; Colossians 1:11; James 5:10). [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:6 Nor seeking glory of men [ουτε ζητουντες εχ αντρωπων δοχαν]
“Upon the repudiation of covetousness follows naturally the repudiation of worldly ambition” (Milligan). See Acts 20:19; 2 Corinthians 4:5; Ephesians 4:2. This third disclaimer is as strong as the other two. Paul and his associates had not tried to extract praise or glory out of (εχ — ex) men. [source]
1 Thessalonians 1:3 Work - labor - patience [ἔπργου - κόπου - ὑπομονῆς]
Ἔργον workmay mean either the act, the simple transaction, or the process of dealing with anything, or the result of the dealing, - as a book or a picture is called a work. Κόπος laborfrom κόπτειν tostrike or hew; hence, laborious, painful exertion. Ὑπομονὴ patiencepatient endurance and faithful persistence in toil and suffering. See on 2 Peter 1:6; see on James 5:7. The genitives, of faith, love, hope, mark the generating principles of the work and labor and patience, which set their stamp upon each; thus, work which springs from faith, and is characteristic of faith. The phrase patience of hope is found only here; but see Romans 5:4; Romans 8:25; Romans 15:4; 1 Corinthians 8:7; Hebrews 7:11, Hebrews 7:12. ὑπομονὴ in lxx, see 1 Chronicles 29:15; Job 14:19; Psalm 9:18; Psalm 38:7; Jeremiah href="/desk/?q=jer+4:8&sr=1">Jeremiah 4:8. We have here the great triad of Christian graces, corresponding to 1 Corinthians 8:1-13. Hope is prominent throughout the two Epistles. The triad appears, 1 Thessalonians 5:8; Galatians 5:5, Galatians 5:6; 1 Corinthians 8:13; Ephesians 4:2-5; Colossians 1:4, Colossians 1:5; Hebrews 10:22-24; 1 Peter 1:21-22. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:8; 2 Thessalonians 3:5, 2 Thessalonians 3:8; 1 Corinthians 15:10, 1 Corinthians 15:58; 2 Corinthians 11:27; Revelation 2:2. [source]
2 Thessalonians 2:11 A lie [τῷ ψεύδει]
Properly, the lie. The article gives the generic sense, falsehood in all its forms. Comp. John 8:44; Romans 1:25; Ephesians 4:25. Comp. the contrast of truth and unrighteousness in 2 Thessalonians 2:12. All wrongdoing has an element of falsity. [source]
1 Timothy 6:18 Ready to distribute [εὐμεταδότους]
N.T.oolxx, oClass. For the verb μεταδιδόναι toimpart to the poor, see Luke 3:11; Ephesians 4:28. [source]
1 Timothy 6:18 Do good [ἀγαθοεργεῖν]
In this uncontracted form, N.T.oolxx, oClass. Comp. Acts 14:17. The usual word is ἀγαθοποιεῖν , see Mark 3:4; Luke 6:9, Luke 6:33, Luke 6:35; 1 Peter 2:15. oP. who has ἐργάζεσθαι τὸ ἀγαθὸν towork that which is good, Romans 2:10; Galatians 6:10; Ephesians 4:28. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 Conversation [ἀναστροφῇ]
Comp. Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22; James 3:13. A favorite word with Peter. See on 1 Peter 1:15. [source]
1 Timothy 3:6 Of the devil [τοῦ διαβόλου]
See on Matthew 4:1, and see on Satan, 1 Thessalonians 2:18. Paul uses διάβολος only twice, Ephesians 4:27; Ephesians 6:11. Commonly Satan. The use of διάβολος as an adjective is peculiar to the Pastorals (see 1 Timothy 3:11; 2 Timothy 3:3; Titus 2:3), and occurs nowhere else in N.T., and not in lxx. The phrase judgment of the devil probably means the accusing judgment of the devil, and not the judgment passed upon the devil. In Revelation 12:10Satan is called the accuser of the brethren. In 1 Corinthians 5:5; 1 Timothy 1:20, men are given over to Satan for judgment. In 1 Timothy 3:7the genitive διαβόλου isclearly subjective. In this chapter it appears that a Christian can fall into the reproach of the devil (comp. Judges 1:9; 2 Peter 2:11), the snare of the devil (comp. 2 Timothy 2:26), and the judgment of the devil. [source]
1 Timothy 1:10 The sound doctrine [τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ]
A phrase peculiar to the Pastorals. Ὑγιαίνειν tobe in good health, Luke 5:31; Luke 7:10; 3 John 1:2. oP. Quite frequent in lxx, and invariably in the literal sense. Often in salutations or dismissals. See 9:19; 2Samuel href="/desk/?q=2sa+14:8&sr=1">2 Samuel 14:8; Exodus 4:18. In the Pastorals, the verb, which occurs eight times, is six times associated with διδασκαλία teachingor λόγοι wordsand twice with ἐν τῇ πίστει or τῇ πίστει inthe faith. The sound teaching (comp. διδαχή teaching 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 1:9) which is thus commended is Paul's, who teaches in Christ's name and by his authority (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:2, 2 Timothy 2:8). In all the three letters it is called ἀλη.θεια or ἡ ἀλήθεια thetruth, the knowledge ( ἐπίγνωσις ) of which is bound up with salvation. See 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Timothy 2:25; 2 Timothy 3:7; Titus 1:1. As truth it is sound or healthful. It is the object of faith. To be sound in the faith is, practically, to follow ( παρακολουθεῖν ) sound teaching or the truth. The subjective characteristic of Christians is εὐσέβεια or θεοσέβεια godlinessor piety (1 Timothy 2:2, 1 Timothy 2:10; 1 Timothy 3:16; 1 Timothy 4:7, 1 Timothy 4:8; 1 Timothy 6:6, 1 Timothy 6:11); and the teaching and knowledge of the truth are represented as κατ ' εὐσέβειαν accordingto godliness (1 Timothy 6:3; Titus 1:1). Comp. εὐσεβεῖν toshow piety, 1 Timothy 5:4. εὐσεβῶς ζῇν to live godly, 2 Timothy 3:12; Titus 2:12; and βίον διάγειν ἐν πάσῃ εὐσεβείᾳ tolead a life in all godliness, 1 Timothy 2:2. The contents of this sound teaching which is according to godliness are not theoretical or dogmatic truth, but Christian ethics, with faith and love. See 1 Timothy 1:14; 1 Timothy 2:15; 1 Timothy 4:12; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 3:10; Titus 2:2. Ἁλήθεια truthis used of moral things, rather than in the high religious sense of Paul. Comp., for instance, Romans 3:7; Romans 9:1; 1 Corinthians 5:8; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 11:10; Galatians 2:5; Ephesians 4:21, Ephesians 4:24; and 2 Timothy 2:25, 2 Timothy 2:26; 2 Timothy 3:7(comp. 2 Timothy 3:1-9); 2 Timothy 4:3, 2 Timothy 4:4; Titus 1:12(comp. Titus 1:11, Titus 1:15); Titus 2:4(comp. Titus 2:1, Titus 2:3); Titus 3:1. Whoever grasps the truth has faith (2 Timothy 1:13; 2 Timothy 2:18; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:3f.). That the ethical character of faith is emphasized, appears from the numerous expressions regarding the false teachers, as 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 5:8, 1 Timothy 5:12; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21. There is a tendency to objectify faith, regarding it as something believed rather than as the act of believing. See 1 Timothy 1:19; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10, 1 Timothy 6:21; Titus 1:4. In comparing the ideal of righteousness (1 Timothy 1:9) with that of Paul, note that it is not denied that Christ is the source of true righteousness; but according to Paul, the man who is not under the law is the man who lives by faith in Christ. Paul emphasizes this. It is faith in Christ which sets one free from the law. Here, the man for whom the law is not made (1 Timothy 1:9) is the man who is ethically conformed to the norm of sound teaching. The two conceptions do not exclude each other: the sound teaching is according to the gospel (1 Timothy 1:11), but the point of emphasis is shifted.| [source]
1 Timothy 1:3 That thou mightest charge [ινα παραγγειληις]
Subfinal clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of παραγγελλω — paraggellō old verb, to transmit a message along (παρα — para) from one to another. See 2 Thessalonians 3:4, 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 2 Thessalonians 3:10. Lock considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like Ephesians 4:29; Ephesians 5:33. [source]
1 Timothy 2:8 The men [τους ανδρας]
Accusative of general reference with the infinitive προσευχεσται — proseuchesthai The men in contrast to “women” Standing to pray. Note also οσιους — hosious used as feminine (so in Plato) with χειρας — cheiras instead of οσιας — hosias The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up “clean hands” (morally and spiritually clean). See Luke 24:50. Adverb οσιως — hosiōs in 1 Thessalonians 2:10 and οσιοτης — hosiotēs in Ephesians 4:24. Without wrath and disputing See note on Philemon 2:14. [source]
1 Timothy 2:8 Lifting up holy hands [επαιροντας οσιους χειρας]
Standing to pray. Note also οσιους — hosious used as feminine (so in Plato) with χειρας — cheiras instead of οσιας — hosias The point here is that only men should lead in public prayer who can lift up “clean hands” (morally and spiritually clean). See Luke 24:50. Adverb οσιως — hosiōs in 1 Thessalonians 2:10 and οσιοτης — hosiotēs in Ephesians 4:24. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 An ensample [τυπος]
Old word from τυπτω — tuptō a type. Pauline use of the word (1 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Philemon 3:17; Titus 2:7). To them that believe (των πιστων — tōn pistōn). Objective genitive. In word In conversation as well as in public speech. In manner of life (εν αναστροπηι — en anastrophēi). “In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). In purity Old word from αγνευω — hagneuō Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:2, Numbers 6:21). Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2 in N.T. [source]
1 Timothy 1:3 To tarry [προσμειναι]
First aorist active infinitive of προσμενω — prosmenō old verb, attributed by Luke to Paul in Acts 13:43. That thou mightest charge (ινα παραγγειληις — hina paraggeilēis). Subfinal clause with ινα — hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of παραγγελλω — paraggellō old verb, to transmit a message along (παρα — para) from one to another. See 2 Thessalonians 3:4, 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 2 Thessalonians 3:10. Lock considers this idiom here an elliptical imperative like Ephesians 4:29; Ephesians 5:33. Certain men Dative case. Expressly vague (no names as in 1 Timothy 1:20), though Paul doubtless has certain persons in Ephesus in mind. Not to teach a different doctrine (μη ετεροδιδασκαλειν — mē heterodidaskalein). Earliest known use of this compound like κακοδιδασκαλειν — kakodidaskalein of Clement of Rome. Only other N.T. example in 1 Timothy 6:3. Eusebius has ετεροδιδασκαλος — heterodidaskalos Same idea in Galatians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Romans 16:17. Perhaps coined by Paul. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 Thy youth [σου της νεοτητος]
Genitive case of old word (from νεος — neos) as in Mark 10:20. Be thou (γινου — ginou). Present middle imperative of γινομαι — ginomai “Keep on becoming thou.” An ensample Old word from τυπτω — tuptō a type. Pauline use of the word (1 Thessalonians 1:7; 2 Thessalonians 3:9; Philemon 3:17; Titus 2:7). To them that believe (των πιστων — tōn pistōn). Objective genitive. In word In conversation as well as in public speech. In manner of life (εν αναστροπηι — en anastrophēi). “In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). In purity Old word from αγνευω — hagneuō Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:2, Numbers 6:21). Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2 in N.T. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 In word [εν λογωι]
In conversation as well as in public speech. In manner of life (εν αναστροπηι — en anastrophēi). “In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). In purity Old word from αγνευω — hagneuō Sinlessness of life. Used of a Nazirite (Numbers 6:2, Numbers 6:21). Only here and 1 Timothy 5:2 in N.T. [source]
1 Timothy 4:12 In manner of life [εν αναστροπηι]
“In bearing” (Galatians 1:13; Ephesians 4:22). [source]
2 Timothy 2:19 Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity []
The second inscription, concerning the purity of the church. For of Christ rend. of the Lord ( κυρίου ). Ὁνομάζων namethonly here in Pastorals. It means to give a name to, to style, as Mark 3:14; Luke 6:14; 1 Corinthians 5:11: to pronounce a name as having a special virtue, as in incantation, as Acts 19:13: to utter a name as acknowledging and appropriating what the name involves, as a confession of faith and allegiance. So here. Comp. Romans 15:20; 1 Corinthians 5:11; Isaiah 26:13. For ὄνομα namesee on 2 Thessalonians 1:12. Ἁποστήτω ἀπὸ ἀδικίας departfrom iniquity. For the verb, see on 1 Timothy 4:1. Mostly in Luke and Acts. Comp. Numbers 16:26; Isaiah 52:11. Whatever may be implied in God's election, it does not relieve Christians of the duty of strict attention to their moral character and conduct. Comp. Philemon 2:12. The gift of grace (Ephesians 2:8) is exhibited in making one a coworker with God (1 Corinthians 3:9). The salvation bestowed by grace is to be “carried out” (Philemon 2:12) by man with the aid of grace (Romans 6:8-19; 2 Corinthians 6:1). What this includes and requires appears in Philemon 3:10; Philemon 4:1-7; Ephesians 4:13-16, Ephesians 4:22ff.; Colossians 2:6, Colossians 2:7. [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 Against that day [εις εκεινην την ημεραν]
The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 Yet I am not ashamed [αλλ ουκ επαισχυνομαι]
Plain reference to the exhortation to Timothy in 2 Timothy 1:8. Him whom I have believed (ωι πεπιστευκα — hōi pepisteuka). Dative case of the relative (ωι — hōi) with the perfect active of πιστευω — pisteuō the antecedent to the relative not expressed. It is not an indirect question. Paul knows Jesus Christ whom he has trusted. I am persuaded See 2 Timothy 1:5. To guard (πυλαχαι — phulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of πυλασσω — phulassō the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παρατηκην — parathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss. That which I have committed unto him Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 I am persuaded [πεπεισμαι]
See 2 Timothy 1:5. To guard (πυλαχαι — phulaxai). First aorist active infinitive of πυλασσω — phulassō the very word used in 1 Timothy 6:20 with παρατηκην — parathēkēn as here, to guard against robbery or any loss. That which I have committed unto him Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
2 Timothy 1:12 That which I have committed unto him [την παρατηκην μου]
Literally, “my deposit,” as in a bank, the bank of heaven which no burglar can break (Matthew 6:19.). See this word also in 2 Timothy 1:14. Some MSS. have the more common παρακατατηκη — parakatathēkē (a sort of double deposit, παρα — para beside, down, κατα — kata). Against that day (εις εκεινην την ημεραν — eis ekeinēn tēn hēmeran). The day of Christ‘s second coming. See also 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8; 2 Thessalonians 1:10, and often in the Gospels. Elsewhere, the day of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 5:2; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 2 Corinthians 1:14), the day of Christ or Jesus Christ (Philemon 1:6, Philemon 1:10; Philemon 2:16), the day (1 Thessalonians 5:4; 1 Corinthians 3:13; Romans 13:12), the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:20), the day of judgment (Romans 2:5, Romans 2:16). [source]
Titus 1:14 Who turn away from the truth [αποστρεπομενων]
Present middle (direct) participle of αποστρεπω — apostrephō “men turning themselves away from the truth” (accusative according to regular idiom). “The truth” (1 Timothy 4:3) is the gospel (Ephesians 4:21). [source]
James 1:21 Wherefore [διο]
Because of this principle. See Ephesians 4:25. [source]
James 1:21 Putting away [αποτεμενοι]
Second aorist middle participle of αποτιτημι — apotithēmi to put off, metaphor of removing clothing as in Romans 13:12; Colossians 3:8; Ephesians 4:22, Ephesians 4:25; 1 Peter 2:1.Filthiness (ρυπαριαν — ruparian). Late word (Plutarch) from ρυπαρος — ruparos dirty (James 2:2), here only in N.T. Surely a dirty garment.Overflowing of wickedness Περισσεια — Perisseia is a late word (from περισσος — perissos abundant, exceeding), only four times in N.T., in 2 Corinthians 8:2 with χαρας — charas (of joy), in Romans 5:17 with χαριτος — charitos (of grace). Κακια — Kakia (from κακος — kakos evil) can be either general like ρυπαρια — ruparia (filthiness, naughtiness), or special like “malice.” But any of either sense is a “superfluity.”With meekness (εν πρατητι — en praūtēti). In docility. “The contrast is with οργη — orgē rather than κακιας — kakias ” (Ropes).The implanted word This old verbal adjective (from εμπυω — emphuō to implant, to grow in), only here in N.T., meaning properly ingrown, inborn, not εμπυτευτον — emphuteuton (engrafted). It is “the rooted word” (James 1:18), sown in the heart as the soil or garden of God (Matt 13:3-23; Matthew 15:13; 1 Corinthians 3:6).Able to save (δυναμενον σωσαι — dunamenon sōsai). Cf. 1 Peter 1:9; James 2:14; James 4:12; James 5:20; Romans 1:16. Ultimate salvation (effective aorist active infinitive σωσαι — sōsai from σωζω — sōzō). [source]
1 Peter 2:1 Putting away therefore [αποτεμενοι ουν]
Second aorist middle participle of αποτιτημι — apotithēmi old and common verb, in metaphorical sense either to cleanse defilements (1 Peter 3:21; James 1:21) or to put off clothing (Romans 13:12; Colossians 3:5.; Ephesians 4:22). Either sense suits here. Therefore (ουν — oun) because of the new birth (1 Peter 1:23) and the new life demanded. [source]
1 Peter 3:4 But the hidden man of the heart [αλλ ο κρυπτος της καρδιας αντρωπος]
Here αντρωπος — anthrōpos is in contrast with κοσμος — kosmos just before. See Paul‘s use of αντρωπος — anthrōpos for the outer and old, the inner and new man (2 Corinthians 4:16; Romans 7:22; Colossians 3:9; Ephesians 3:16; Ephesians 4:22, Ephesians 4:24). See also the Jew εν κρυπτωι — en kruptōi (Romans 2:29) and what Jesus said about God seeing “in secret” (Matthew 6:4, Matthew 6:6). [source]
1 John 4:3 Is come in the flesh []
Omit. Render, confesseth not Jesus. So Rev. An ancient reading is λύει τὸν Ἱησοῦν annullethor destroyeth Jesus.” The simple Jesus emphasizes the humanity of our Lord considered in itself. See Romans 3:26; Romans 10:9; 2 Corinthians 11:4; Ephesians 4:21; Hebrews 2:9. [source]
Revelation 22:15 Every one that loveth and maketh a lie [πας πιλων και ποιων πσευδος]
An interpretation of πασιν τοις πσευδεσιν — pāsin tois pseudesin (all liars) of Revelation 21:8 and of ποιων πσευδος — poiōn pseudos (doing a lie) of Revelation 21:27. Satan is the father of lying (John 8:44) and Satan‘s home is a congenial place for those who love and practise lying (2 Thessalonians 2:12). See 1 John 1:6 for not doing the truth and see also Romans 1:25; Ephesians 4:25. [source]
Revelation 22:15 The dogs [οι κυνες]
Not literal dogs, but the morally impure (Deuteronomy 23:18; 2 Kings 8:13; Psalm 22:17, Psalm 22:21; Matthew 7:6; Mark 7:27; Philemon 3:3). Dogs in the Oriental cities are the scavengers and excite unspeakable contempt.The sorcerers (οι παρμακοι — hoi pharmakoi). As in Revelation 21:8, where are listed “the fornicators and the murderers and the idolaters,” all “outside” the holy city here as there “in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone, the second death.” Both are pictures (symbolic language) of hell, the eternal absence from fellowship with God. Another time Jesus spoke of “the outer darkness” (εις το σκοτος το εχωτερον — eis to skotos to exōteron Matthew 8:12; Matthew 22:13; Matthew 25:30), outside of lighted house, as the abode of the damned. Another symbol is the worm that dies not (Mark 9:48).Every one that loveth and maketh a lie An interpretation of πασιν τοις πσευδεσιν — pāsin tois pseudesin (all liars) of Revelation 21:8 and of ποιων πσευδος — poiōn pseudos (doing a lie) of Revelation 21:27. Satan is the father of lying (John 8:44) and Satan‘s home is a congenial place for those who love and practise lying (2 Thessalonians 2:12). See 1 John 1:6 for not doing the truth and see also Romans 1:25; Ephesians 4:25. [source]

What do the individual words in Ephesians 4:2 mean?

with all humility and gentleness patience bearing with one another in love
μετὰ πάσης ταπεινοφροσύνης καὶ πραΰτητος μακροθυμίας ἀνεχόμενοι ἀλλήλων ἐν ἀγάπῃ

ταπεινοφροσύνης  humility 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: ταπεινοφροσύνη  
Sense: the having a humble opinion of one’s self.
πραΰτητος  gentleness 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: πραΰτης  
Sense: mildness of disposition, gentleness of spirit, meekness.
μακροθυμίας  patience 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Feminine Singular
Root: μακροθυμία  
Sense: patience, endurance, constancy, steadfastness, perseverance.
ἀνεχόμενοι  bearing  with 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Middle or Passive, Nominative Masculine Plural
Root: ἀνέχομαι  
Sense: to hold up.
ἀλλήλων  one  another 
Parse: Personal / Reciprocal Pronoun, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἀλλήλων  
Sense: one another, reciprocally, mutually.
ἀγάπῃ  love 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀγάπη  
Sense: brotherly love, affection, good will, love, benevolence.