The Meaning of 2 Corinthians 1:2 Explained

2 Corinthians 1:2

KJV: Grace be to you and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

YLT: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ!

Darby: Grace to you, and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

ASV: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

What does 2 Corinthians 1:2 Mean?

Verse Meaning

This greeting expresses Paul"s wish that God"s grace and peace would be his readers" portion. He named these benefits in the introductions to each one of his epistles. He meant sustaining grace rather than saving grace and the peace of God compared to peace with God.
"In the protocol of salvation, recognized even in a salutation, grace always precedes peace. The former is the basis and foundation of the latter; therefore, the order cannot be changed. No man can have peace who has not previously experienced divine grace (cf. 2 Corinthians 8:9)." [1]
"Grace and peace, the favour of God and its fruits, comprehend all the benefits of redemption." [2]
The combination of grace and peace in Paul"s greeting here and elsewhere unites Greek and Semitic terms to form an unconventional greeting (cf. Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:3; Galatians 1:3; Ephesians 1:2; Philippians 1:2; Colossians 1:2; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:2; Philemon 1:3; 1 Peter 1:2; 2 Peter 1:2). Though the general structure of the salutation was typical of the day, the terms Paul used were uniquely Christian. [3]
The familiar language of this verse implies the deity of Jesus Christ. He Isaiah , along with God the Father, the source of grace and peace.
"This could not be so were He a created entity and not the co-eternal and consubstantial Son." [4]
Furthermore He is "Lord." The Septuagint, which uses this title to translate the name "Yahweh" in the Old Testament, may have influenced Paul to use it of Jesus Christ. The contemporary religious terminology of oriental Hellenism also used this title to denote deity. Whatever the influences on Paul may have been, the term "Lord" undoubtedly implied the deity of Christ. [5]

Context Summary

2 Corinthians 1:1-11 - Sharing Comfort In Affliction
This was a circular letter, including in its scope all the scattered communities in the district. Grace was the usual salutation of the West, Peace of the East. Here they meet. All our mercies emanate from the Father's heart, and all comfort comes from the Comforter. When next passing through great sorrow and trial, notice how near God comes and what He says. Try to learn His methods, to get His secret. Remember that you are being comforted in order to comfort others. God is training you to be, like Barnabas, a "son of consolation." The gains of trial are immense, because they furnish the experience from which others may profit. Often God ministers comfort by sending a friend, 2 Corinthians 7:5-7.
Either through persecution or through severe illness Paul had been brought to the gates of death, 2 Corinthians 1:8. His recovery was little less than a miracle, but throughout his trust never wavered. Dare to believe, like Paul, that God has delivered, doth deliver, and will deliver! Past, present, and coming deliverances blend in this sweet verse. What He hath done, He doth now, and will do. Only see to it that you have the sentence of death in yourself, and on yourself, and that you go out of yourself to God, in whom is all necessary help. In such hours we may also receive great help from the faith of our friends, 2 Corinthians 1:11. [source]

Chapter Summary: 2 Corinthians 1

1  Paul salutes the Corinthians;
3  he encourages them against troubles,
5  by the comforts and deliverances which God had given him,
8  so particularly in his late danger in Asia
12  And calling both his own conscience and theirs,
15  he excuses his not coming to them, as proceeding not of lightness,
23  but of his care for them

Greek Commentary for 2 Corinthians 1:2

Identical with 1 Corinthians 1:3 which see. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for 2 Corinthians 1:2

John 11:2 Anointed [ἀλείψασα]
Three words for anointing are found in the New Testament: ἀλείφω, χρίω , and its compounds, and μυρίζω . The last is used but once, Mark 14:8, of anointing the Lord's body for burying. Between the two others the distinction is strictly maintained. Χρίω , which occurs five times, is used in every case but one of the anointing of the Son by the Father With the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38; Hebrews 1:9). In the remaining instance (2 Corinthians 1:21) of enduing Christians with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Thus the word is confined to sacred anointing. Ἁλείφω is used of all actual anointings. See Matthew 6:17; Mark 6:13; Luke 7:38; James 5:14. The same distinction is generally maintained in the Septuagint, though with a few exceptions, as Numbers 3:3. [source]
John 6:27 Work not for [μη εργαζεστε]
Prohibition with μη — mē and present middle imperative of εργαζομαι — ergazomai old verb from εργον — ergon work. The meat The act of eating (Romans 14:17), corrosion (Matthew 6:19), the thing eaten as here (2 Corinthians 9:10). See note on John 4:32. Which perisheth Present middle participle of apollumi They were already hungry again. Unto eternal life Mystical metaphor quite beyond this crowd hungry only for more loaves and fishes. Bernard thinks that John has here put together various sayings of Christ to make one discourse, a gratuitous interpretation. Will give Future active indicative of εις ζωην αιωνιον — didōmi The outcome is still future and will be decided by their attitude towards the Son of man (John 6:51). For him the Father, even God, hath sealed Literally, “For this one the Father sealed, God.” First aorist active indicative of διδωμι — sphragizō to seal. See elsewhere in John 3:33 (attestation by man). Sealing by God is rare in N.T. (2 Corinthians 1:22; Ephesians 1:13; Ephesians 4:30). It is not clear to what item, if any single one, John refers when the Father set his seal of approval on the Son. It was done at his baptism when the Holy Spirit came upon him and the Father spoke to him. Cf. John 5:37. [source]
Romans 9:1 In Christ []
Not by Christ, as the formula of an oath, Christ being never used by the apostles in such a formula, but God. Romans 1:9; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Philemon 1:8. For this favorite expression of Paul, see Galatians 2:17; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Corinthians 2:14, 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 12:19, etc. [source]
Romans 11:3 Life [ψυχήν]
From ψύχω tobreathe or blow. In classical usage it signifies life in the distinctness of individual existence, especially of man, occasionally of brutes. Hence, generally, the life of the individual. In the further development of the idea it becomes, instead of the body, the seat of the will, dispositions, desires, passions; and, combined with the σῶμα bodydenotes the constituent parts of humanity. Hence the morally endowed individuality of man which continues after death. Scripture. In the Old Testament, answering to nephesh primarily life, breath; therefore life in its distinct individuality; life as such, distinguished from other men and from inanimate nature. Not the principle of life, but that which bears in itself and manifests the life-principle. Hence spirit (ruach πνεῦμα ) in the Old Testament never signifies the individual. Soul ( ψυχή ), of itself, does not constitute personality, but only when it is the soul of a human being. Human personality is derived from spirit ( πνεῦμα ), and finds expression in soul or life ( ψυχή ). -DIVIDER-
The New-Testament usage follows the Old, in denoting all individuals from the point of view of individual life. Thus the phrase πᾶσα ψυχή everysoul, i.e., every person (Romans 2:9; Romans 13:1), marking them off from inanimate nature. So Romans 11:3; Romans 16:4; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 12:15; Philemon 2:30; 1 Thessalonians 2:8, illustrate an Old-Testament usage whereby the soul is the seat of personality, and is employed instead of the personal pronoun, with a collateral notion of value as individual personality. -DIVIDER-
These and other passages are opposed to the view which limits the term to a mere animal life-principle. See Ephesians 6:6; Colossians 3:23; the compounds σύμψυχοι withone soul; ἰσοψύχον like-minded(Philemon 1:27; Philemon 2:20), where personal interest and accord of feeling are indicated, and not lower elements of personality. See, especially 1 Thessalonians 5:23. -DIVIDER-
As to the distinction between ψυχή souland πνεῦμα spiritit is to be said:-DIVIDER-
1. That there are cases where the meanings approach very closely, if they are not practically synonymous; especially where the individual life is referred to. See Luke 1:47; John 11:33, and John 12:27; Matthew 11:29, and 1 Corinthians 16:18. -DIVIDER-
2. That the distinction is to be rejected which rests on the restriction of ψυχή to the principle of animal life. This cannot be maintained in the face of 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 2:14, in which latter the kindred adjective ψυχικός naturalhas reference to the faculty of discerning spiritual truth. In both cases the antithesis is πνεῦμα spiritin the ethical sense, requiring an enlargement of the conception of ψυχικός naturalbeyond that of σαρκικός fleshlyThat ψυχή soulmust not be distinguished from πνεῦμα ; spirit as being alone subject to the dominion of sin, since the πνεῦμα is described as being subject to such dominion. See 2 Corinthians 7:1. So 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 1 Corinthians 7:34, imply that the spirit needs sanctification. Compare Ephesians 4:23. -DIVIDER-
4. Ψυχή soulis never used of God like πνεῦμα spiritIt is used of Christ, but always with reference to His humanity. -DIVIDER-
Whatever distinction there is, therefore, is not between a higher and a lower element in man. It is rather between two sides of the one immaterial nature which stands in contrast with the body. Spirit expresses the conception of that nature more generally, being used both of the earthly and of the non-earthly spirit, while soul designates it on the side of the creature. In this view ψυχή soulis akin to σάρξ , flesh, “not as respects the notion conveyed by them, but as respects their value as they both stand at the same stage of creatureliness in contradistinction to God.” Hence the distinction follows that of the Old Testament between soul and spirit as viewed from two different points: the soul regarded as an individual possession, distinguishing the holder from other men and from inanimate nature; the spirit regarded as coming directly from God and returning to Him. “The former indicates the life-principle simply as subsistent, the latter marks its relation to God.” Spirit and not soul is the point of contact with the regenerating forces of the Holy Spirit; the point from which the whole personality is moved round so as to face God. -DIVIDER-
Ψυχή soulis thus:-DIVIDER-
1. The individual life, the seat of the personality. -DIVIDER-
2. The subject of the life, the person in which it dwells. -DIVIDER-
3. The mind as the sentient principle, the seat of sensation and desire. -DIVIDER-

Romans 1:21 Heart [καρδία]
The heart is, first, the physical organ, the center of the circulation of the blood. Hence, the seat and center of physical life. In the former sense it does not occur in the New Testament. As denoting the vigor and sense of physical life, see Acts 14:17; James 5:5; Luke 21:34. It is used fifty-two times by Paul. Never used like ψυχή , soul, to denote the individual subject of personal life, so that it can be exchanged with the personal pronoun (Acts 2:43; Acts 3:23; Romans 13:1); nor like πνεῦμα spiritto denote the divinely-given principle of life. -DIVIDER-
It is the central seat and organ of the personal life ( ψυχή ) of man regarded in and by himself. Hence it is commonly accompanied with the possessive pronouns, my, his, thy, etc. -DIVIDER-
Like our heart it denotes the seat of feeling as contrasted with intelligence. 2 Corinthians 2:4; Romans 9:2; Romans 10:1; 2 Corinthians 6:11; Philemon 1:7. But it is not limited to this. It is also the seat of mental action, feeling, thinking, willing. It is used - -DIVIDER-
1. Of intelligence, Romans 1:21; 2 Corinthians 3:15; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Ephesians 1:18. -DIVIDER-
2. Of moral choice, 1 Corinthians 7:37; 2 Corinthians 9:7. -DIVIDER-
3. As giving impulse and character to action, Romans 6:17; Ephesians 6:5; Colossians 3:22; 1 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 2:22. The work of the law is written on the heart, Romans 2:15. The Corinthian Church is inscribed as Christ's epistle on hearts of flesh, 2 Corinthians 3:2-3. -DIVIDER-
4. Specially, it is the seat of the divine Spirit, Galatians 4:6; Romans 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:22. It is the sphere of His various operations, directing, comforting, establishing, etc., Philemon 4:7; Colossians 3:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Thessalonians 3:5. It is the seat of faith, and the organ of spiritual praise, Romans 10:9; Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16. -DIVIDER-
It is equivalent to the inner man, Ephesians 3:16, Ephesians 3:17. Its characteristic is being hidden, Romans 2:28, Romans 2:29; Romans 8:27; 1 Corinthians 4:5; 1 Corinthians 14:25. -DIVIDER-
It is contrasted with the face, 1 Thessalonians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 5:12; and with the mouth, Romans 10:8. -DIVIDER-

Romans 15:28 Have sealed [σπραγισαμενος]
First aorist middle participle (antecedent action, having sealed) of σπραγιζω — sphragizō old verb from σπραγις — sphragis a seal (Romans 4:11), to stamp with a seal for security (Matthew 27:66) or for confirmation (2 Corinthians 1:22) and here in a metaphorical sense. Paul was keenly sensitive that this collection should be actually conveyed to Jerusalem free from all suspicion (2 Corinthians 8:18-23). [source]
Romans 6:14 Shall not have dominion [ου κυριευσει]
Future active indicative of κυριευω — kurieuō old verb from κυριος — kurios “shall not lord it over you,” even if not yet wholly dead. Cf. 2 Corinthians 1:24. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:31 I protest by that glorying in you [νη την υμετεραν καυχησιν]
No word for “I protest.” Paul takes solemn oath by the use of νη — nē (common in Attic) with the accusative. Only here in N.T., but in lxx (Genesis 42:15f.). For other solemn oaths by Paul see 2 Corinthians 1:18; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Corinthians 11:10.; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Romans 9:1. For καυχησις — kauchēsis see note on 1 Thessalonians 2:19. The possessive pronoun (υμετεραν — humeteran) is objective as εμην — emēn in 1 Corinthians 11:24. [source]
2 Corinthians 5:5 Earnest of the Spirit []
See on 2 Corinthians 1:22, and compare Romans 8:11. Of the Spirit is appositional, the Spirit as the earnest. [source]
2 Corinthians 2:1 In heaviness [ἐν λύπῃ]
Meaning, apparently, the apostle's own sorrowful state of mind. This is wrong. He refers to the sorrow which his coming would bring to the Church. Compare to spare, 2 Corinthians 1:23. Rev., with sorrow. [source]
2 Corinthians 2:14 The savor of His knowledge []
According to the Greek usage, savor and knowledge are in apposition, so that the knowledge of Christ is symbolized as an odor communicating its nature and efficacy through the apostle's work, “permeating the world as a cloud of frankincense” (Stanley). For a similar usage see on 2 Corinthians 1:22. The idea of the Roman triumph is still preserved in this figure. On these occasions the temples were all thrown open, garlands of flowers decorated every shrine and image, and incense smoked on every altar, so that the victor was greeted with a cloud of perfume. Compare Aeschylus on the festivities at the return of Agamemnon from Troy:“The altars blaze with gifts;And here and there, heaven high the torch uplifts Flame, - medicated with persuasions mild,-DIVIDER-
With foul admixture unbeguiled - -DIVIDER-
Of holy unguent, from the clotted chrism-DIVIDER-
Brought from the palace, safe in its abysm.”“Agamemnon,” 91-96, Browning's Translation. [source]

2 Corinthians 1:21 Establishes [βεβαιων]
Present active participle from βεβαιος — bebaios firm. An apt metaphor in Corinth where confirmation of a bargain often took place (βεβαιωσις — bebaiōsis) as Deissmann shows (Bible Studies, p. 109) and as 2 Corinthians 1:22 makes plain. [source]
2 Corinthians 11:31 I am not lying [ου πσευδομαι]
The list seems so absurd and foolish that Paul takes solemn oath about it (cf. 2 Corinthians 1:23). For the doxology see note on Romans 1:25, note on Romans 9:5. [source]
2 Corinthians 5:4 That what is mortal may be swallowed up of life [ινα καταποτηι το τνητον υπο της ζωης]
“Only what is mortal perishes; the personality, consisting of soul and body, survives,” (Plummer). See note on 2 Corinthians 1:22 for “the earnest of the spirit.” [source]
Ephesians 1:13 Ye were sealed [ἐσφραγίσθητε]
See on John 3:33; see on Revelation 22:10. Sealed with the assurance of the Holy Spirit. Romans 8:16; 2 Corinthians 1:22; 2 Timothy 2:19. [source]
Ephesians 1:14 Earnest []
See on 2 Corinthians 1:22. [source]
Ephesians 1:13 In whom [εν ωι]
Repeated third time (once in Ephesians 1:11, twice in Ephesians 1:13), and note ο — ho or ος — hos in Ephesians 1:14. Ye were sealed (εσπραγιστητε — esphragisthēte). First aorist passive indicative of σπραγιζω — sphragizō old verb, to set a seal on one as a mark or stamp, sometimes the marks of ownership or of worship of deities like στιγματα — stigmata (Galatians 6:17). Marked and authenticated as God‘s heritage as in Ephesians 4:30. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:22 for the very use of the metaphor here applied to the Holy Spirit even with the word αρραβων — arrabōn (earnest). Spirit In the instrumental case. [source]
Ephesians 1:13 Ye were sealed [εσπραγιστητε]
First aorist passive indicative of σπραγιζω — sphragizō old verb, to set a seal on one as a mark or stamp, sometimes the marks of ownership or of worship of deities like στιγματα — stigmata (Galatians 6:17). Marked and authenticated as God‘s heritage as in Ephesians 4:30. See note on 2 Corinthians 1:22 for the very use of the metaphor here applied to the Holy Spirit even with the word αρραβων — arrabōn (earnest). [source]
Ephesians 1:14 An earnest [αρραβων]
See note on 2 Corinthians 1:22 for discussion of αρραβων — arrabōn Here “of promise” (της επαγγελιας — tēs epaggelias) is added to the Holy Spirit to show that Gentiles are also included in God‘s promise of salvation. [source]
Philippians 3:12 Not as though [οὐχ ὅτι]
Lit., not that, as Rev. By this I do not mean to say that. For similar usage, see John 7:22; 2 Corinthians 1:24; Phlippians 4:17. [source]
Philippians 3:10 The power of his resurrection [την δυναμιν της αναστασεως αυτου]
Power (Lightfoot) in the sense of assurance to believers in immortality (1 Corinthians 15:14.; Romans 8:11), in the triumph over sin (Romans 4:24.), in the dignity of the body (1 Corinthians 6:13.; Phlippians 3:21), in stimulating the moral and spiritual life (Galatians 2:20; Romans 6:4.; Colossians 2:12; Ephesians 2:5). See Westcott‘s The Gospel of the Resurrection, ii, 31. The fellowship of his sufferings (την κοινωνιαν των πατηματων αυτου — tēn Koinéōnian tōn pathēmatōn autou). Partnership in (objective genitive) his sufferings, an honour prized by Paul (2 Corinthians 1:24). Becoming conformed to his death Present passive participle of συμμορπιζω — summorphizō late verb from συμμορπος — summorphos found only here and ecclesiastical writers quoting it. The Latin Vulgate uses configuro. See note on Romans 6:4 for συμπυτοι — sumphutoi in like sense and 2 Corinthians 4:10. “The agony of Gethsemane, not less than the agony of Calvary, will be reproduced however faintly in the faithful servant of Christ” (Lightfoot). “In this passage we have the deepest secrets of the Apostle‘s Christian experience unveiled” (Kennedy). [source]
Philippians 3:10 The fellowship of his sufferings [την κοινωνιαν των πατηματων αυτου]
Partnership in (objective genitive) his sufferings, an honour prized by Paul (2 Corinthians 1:24). [source]
Philippians 3:12 Not that [ουχ οτι]
To guard against a misunderstanding as in John 6:26; John 12:6; 2 Corinthians 1:24; Phlippians 4:11, Phlippians 4:17. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:5 God is witness [θεὸς μάρτυς]
Comp. Romans 1:9; 2 Corinthians 1:23; Philemon 1:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:10. God or the Lord is witness is a common O.T. formula: see Genesis 31:44, Genesis 31:50; 1 Samuel 12:5, 1 Samuel 12:6; 1 Samuel 20:23, 1 Samuel 20:42; Wisd. 1:6. For testimony to his conduct, he appeals to the Thessalonians (as ye know )testimony to his motives, he appeals to God. Comp. 1 Thessalonians 2:10, where there is the double appeal. [source]
1 Thessalonians 2:5 Nor a cloke of covetousness [ουτε προπασει πλεονεχιας]
Pretext This is the charge of self-interest rather than the mere desire to please people. Pretext of greediness is Frame‘s translation. Πλεονεχια — Pleonexia is merely “having more” from πλεονεκτης — pleonektēs one eager for more, and πλεονεκτεω — pleonekteō to have more, then to over-reach, all old words, all with bad meaning as the result of the desire for more. In a preacher this sin is especially fatal. Paul feels so strongly his innocence of this charge that he calls God as witness as in 2 Corinthians 1:23; Romans 9:1; Philemon 1:8, a solemn oath for his own veracity. [source]
2 Thessalonians 3:9 Not because we have not the right [ουχ οτι ουκ εχομεν εχουσιαν]
Paul is sensitive on his right to receive adequate support (1 Thessalonians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 9:4 where he uses the same word εχουσιαν — exousian in the long defence of this right, 1 Corinthians 9:1-27). So he here puts in this limitation to avoid misapprehension. He did allow churches to help him where he would not be misunderstood (2 Corinthians 11:7-11; Philemon 4:15.). Paul uses ουχ οτι — ouch hoti elsewhere to avoid misunderstanding (2 Corinthians 1:24; 2 Corinthians 3:5; Philemon 4:17). [source]

What do the individual words in 2 Corinthians 1:2 mean?

Grace to you and peace from God [the] Father of us [the] Lord Jesus Christ
Χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ Θεοῦ Πατρὸς ἡμῶν Κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ

Χάρις  Grace 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: χάρις  
Sense: grace.
ὑμῖν  to  you 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Dative 2nd Person Plural
Root: σύ  
Sense: you.
εἰρήνη  peace 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Feminine Singular
Root: εἰρήνη  
Sense: a state of national tranquillity.
Θεοῦ  God 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: θεός  
Sense: a god or goddess, a general name of deities or divinities.
Πατρὸς  [the]  Father 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: προπάτωρ 
Sense: generator or male ancestor.
ἡμῶν  of  us 
Parse: Personal / Possessive Pronoun, Genitive 1st Person Plural
Root: ἐγώ  
Sense: I, me, my.
Κυρίου  [the]  Lord 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: κύριος  
Sense: he to whom a person or thing belongs, about which he has power of deciding; master, lord.
Ἰησοῦ  Jesus 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Ἰησοῦς  
Sense: Joshua was the famous captain of the Israelites, Moses’ successor.
Χριστοῦ  Christ 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Singular
Root: Χριστός  
Sense: Christ was the Messiah, the Son of God.