The Meaning of 1 Samuel 17:42 Explained

1 Samuel 17:42

KJV: And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him: for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair countenance.

YLT: and the Philistine looketh attentively, and seeth David, and despiseth him, for he was a youth, and ruddy, with a fair appearance.

Darby: And when the Philistine looked about and saw David, he disdained him; for he was a youth, and ruddy, and besides of a beautiful countenance.

ASV: And when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, he disdained him; for he was but a youth, and ruddy, and withal of a fair countenance.

What does 1 Samuel 17:42 Mean?

Context Summary

1 Samuel 17:41-54 - He Wins The Lord's Battle
David did not wait until his enemy had crossed the valley, but hastened to the streamlet to select the pebbles needed for his sling. Goliath scouted such a champion and cursed him. To this boasting and blaspheming, David opposed the name of Jehovah of Hosts-the unseen hosts of heaven, the twelve legions of angels, of which our Lord spoke. That God-the God of Israel-would assuredly take up the challenge, and vindicate His servant's faith. Thus all Gentile nations would see that the God of Israel was a living reality, while Israel also would learn the too-long-forgotten lesson that Jehovah saveth not by sword nor spear.
So confident was the Philistine that he did not trouble to draw his sword nor let down the visor of his helmet. One thrust of his heavy spear, he reckoned, was all that would be required. But in a moment more Goliath was lying helpless on the ground. It is thus that God's champions, in every age, have gone out against giant wrongs, as Luther against Tetzel, or Garrison against slavery; and it is thus that we may confidently over-throw the inbred sins that claim supremacy over our lives. [source]

Chapter Summary: 1 Samuel 17

1  The armies of the Israelites and Philistines being ready to battle
4  Goliath challenges a combat
12  David, sent by his father to visit his brothers, takes the challenge
28  Eliab chides him
30  He is brought to Saul
32  shows the reason of his confidence
38  and slays the giant
55  Saul takes notice of David

What do the individual words in 1 Samuel 17:42 mean?

And when looked about the Philistine and saw - David and he disdained him for he was [only] a youth and ruddy and a fair good-looking
וַיַּבֵּ֧ט הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֛י וַיִּרְאֶ֥ה אֶת־ דָּוִ֖ד וַיִּבְזֵ֑הוּ כִּֽי־ הָיָ֣ה נַ֔עַר וְאַדְמֹנִ֖י עִם־ יְפֵ֥ה מַרְאֶֽה

וַיַּבֵּ֧ט  And  when  looked  about 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Hifil, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: נָבַט  
Sense: to look, regard.
הַפְּלִשְׁתִּ֛י  the  Philistine 
Parse: Article, Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: פְּלִשְׁתִּי  
Sense: an inhabitant of Philistia; descendants of Mizraim who immigrated from Caphtor (Crete?) to the western seacoast of Canaan.
וַיִּרְאֶ֥ה  and  saw 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Qal, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular
Root: רָאָה 
Sense: to see, look at, inspect, perceive, consider.
אֶת־  - 
Parse: Direct object marker
Root: אֹות 
Sense: sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative.
דָּוִ֖ד  David 
Parse: Proper Noun, masculine singular
Root: דָּוִד  
Sense: youngest son of Jesse and second king of Israel.
וַיִּבְזֵ֑הוּ  and  he  disdained  him 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Verb, Qal, Consecutive imperfect, third person masculine singular, third person masculine singular
Root: בָּזָה 
Sense: to despise, hold in contempt, disdain.
הָיָ֣ה  he  was  [only] 
Parse: Verb, Qal, Perfect, third person masculine singular
Root: אֶהְיֶה 
Sense: to be, become, come to pass, exist, happen, fall out.
נַ֔עַר  a  youth 
Parse: Noun, masculine singular
Root: נַעַר  
Sense: a boy, lad, servant, youth, retainer.
וְאַדְמֹנִ֖י  and  ruddy 
Parse: Conjunctive waw, Adjective, masculine singular
Root: אַדְמֹונִי  
Sense: red, ruddy (of Esau as infant).
יְפֵ֥ה  a  fair 
Parse: Adjective, masculine singular construct
Root: יָפֶה  
Sense: fair, beautiful, handsome.
מַרְאֶֽה  good-looking 
Parse: Noun, masculine singular
Root: מַרְאֶה  
Sense: sight, appearance, vision.