The Meaning of 1 Corinthians 13:1 Explained

1 Corinthians 13:1

KJV: Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal.

YLT: If with the tongues of men and of messengers I speak, and have not love, I have become brass sounding, or a cymbal tinkling;

Darby: If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am become sounding brass or a clanging cymbal.

ASV: If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am become sounding brass, or a clanging cymbal.

What does 1 Corinthians 13:1 Mean?

Study Notes

angels See note, (See Scofield " Hebrews 1:4 ") .
charity i.e. love; and so in 1 Corinthians 13:2 ; 1 Corinthians 13:3 ; 1 Corinthians 13:4 ; 1 Corinthians 13:8 ; 1 Corinthians 13:13 .

Verse Meaning

Probably Paul began with tongues because of the Corinthians" fascination with this gift (cf. ch14). That is where the problem lay. He also built to a climax in 1 Corinthians 13:1-3 moving from the less to the more difficult actions. Evidently Paul used the first person because the Corinthians believed that they did speak with the tongues of men and of angels (cf. 1 Corinthians 14:14-15).
Speaking with the tongues of men and angels does not refer to simple eloquence, as the context makes clear (cf. 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 12:30). The tongues of men probably refer to languages humans speak. The tongues of angels probably refer to the more exalted and expressive language with which angels communicate with one another. They may refer to languages unknown to humans, namely, ecstatic utterance. However throughout this whole discussion of the gift of tongues there is no evidence that Paul regarded tongues as anything but languages. Throughout the whole New Testament, "tongues" means languages. [1]
Of course humans do not know the language of the angels, but it is an exalted language because angels are superior beings. The Corinthians evidently believed that they could speak in angelic languages. Some writers have concluded that "tongues of angels" is part of the hyperbole that appears in 1 Corinthians 13:2. [2] That Isaiah , there is really no such thing as angelic tongues; the phrase simple depicts exalted speech. Paul"s point seems to have been that even if one could speak in this exalted language and did not have love (i.e, act lovingly) his or her speech would be hollow and empty. To act lovingly, of course, means to seek actively the benefit of someone else. Gongs and cymbals were common in some of the popular pagan cults of the time. [3] They made much noise but no sense. Some Song of Solomon -called tongues-speakers today claim that their gibberish is the language of angels, but it needs to be interpreted coherently to qualify as a language. Usually this claim is just a way to justify speaking gibberish.

Context Summary

1 Corinthians 13:1-13 - The One Essential For All
With what wonder his amanuensis must have looked up, as the Apostle broke into this exquisite sonnet on love! His radiant spirit had caught a glimpse of the living Savior. Jesus sits for His portrait in these glowing sentences, and of Him every clause is true. Substitute His name for love throughout the chapter, and say whether it is not an exact likeness. With Paul love stands for that strong, sustained, and holy subordination of self for others, which begins in will and act and is afterward suffused by emotion, as a cloud lying in the pathway of the rising sun. But if you want the divine love, you must get it after the manner of the bay which opens its bosom to the incoming tide. God is love, and if you would love, you must abide in Him and He in you. Love is better than miracles, gifts, or philanthropy, 1 Corinthians 13:1-3. Love is the parent of all that is most delightful in the moral sphere, 1 Corinthians 13:4-7. Love is the best of all, because it is eternal. All else will perish. Our highest attainments will be as the babblings and playthings of childhood. But when we are in touch with the reality of things, love will be all in all. [source]

Chapter Summary: 1 Corinthians 13

1  All gifts,
3  however excellent, are of no worth without love
4  The praises thereof,
13  as love is greatest before hope and faith

Greek Commentary for 1 Corinthians 13:1

With the tongues [ταις γλωσσαις]
Instrumental case. Mentioned first because really least and because the Corinthians put undue emphasis on this gift. Plato (Symposium, 197) and many others have written on love, but Paul has here surpassed them all in this marvellous prose-poem. It comes like a sweet bell right between the jangling noise of the gifts in chapters 12 and 14. It is a pity to dissect this gem or to pull to pieces this fragrant rose, petal by petal. Fortunately Paul‘s language here calls for little comment, for it is the language of the heart. “The greatest, strongest, deepest thing Paul ever wrote” (Harnack). The condition (εαν — ean and present subjunctive, λαλω και μη εχω — lalō kai mē echō though the form is identical with present indicative) is of the third class, a supposable case. [source]
But have not love [αγαπην δε μη εχω]
This is the crux of the chapter. Love is the way par excellence of 1 Corinthians 12:31. It is not yet clearly certain that αγαπη — agapē (a back-formation from αγαπαω — agapaō) occurs before the lxx and the N.T. Plutarch used αγαπησις — agapēsis Deissmann (Bible Studies, p. 198) once suspected it on an inscription in Pisidia. It is still possible that it occurs in the papyri (Prayer to Isis). See Light from the Ancient East, p. 75 for details. The rarity of αγαπη — agapē made it easier for Christians to use this word for Christian love as opposed to ερως — erōs (sexual love). See also Moffatt‘s Love in the N.T. (1930) for further data. The word is rare in the Gospels, but common in Paul, John, Peter, Jude. Paul does not limit αγαπη — agapē at all (both toward God and man). Charity (Latin caritas) is wholly inadequate. “Intellect was worshipped in Greece, and power in Rome; but where did St. Paul learn the surpassing beauty of love?” (Robertson and Plummer). Whether Paul had ever seen Jesus in the flesh, he knows him in the spirit. One can substitute Jesus for love all through this panegyric. I am become (γεγονα — gegona). Second perfect indicative in the conclusion rather than the usual future indicative. It is put vividly, “I am already become.” Sounding brass (χαλχος ηχων — chalchos ēchōn). Old words. Brass was the earliest metal that men learned to use. Our word echoing is ηχων — ēchōn present active participle. Used in Luke 21:25 of the roaring of the sea. Only two examples in N.T. Clanging cymbal Cymbal old word, a hollow basin of brass. Αλαλαζω — Alalazō old onomatopoetic word to ring loudly, in lament (Mark 5:38), for any cause as here. Only two N.T. examples. [source]
I am become [γεγονα]
Second perfect indicative in the conclusion rather than the usual future indicative. It is put vividly, “I am already become.” Sounding brass Old words. Brass was the earliest metal that men learned to use. Our word echoing is ηχων — ēchōn present active participle. Used in Luke 21:25 of the roaring of the sea. Only two examples in N.T. [source]
Clanging cymbal [κυμβαλον αλαλαζον]
Cymbal old word, a hollow basin of brass. Αλαλαζω — Alalazō old onomatopoetic word to ring loudly, in lament (Mark 5:38), for any cause as here. Only two N.T. examples. [source]
Tongues []
Mentioned first because of the exaggerated importance which the Corinthians attached to this gift. [source]
Angels []
Referring to the ecstatic utterances of those who spoke with tongues. [source]
Charity [ἀγάπην]
Rev., love. The word does not occur in the classics, though the kindred verbs ἀγαπάω and ἀγαπάζω to love, are common. It first appears in the Septuagint, where, however, in all but two of the passages, it refers to the love of the sexes. Eleven of the passages are in Canticles. See, also, 2 Samuel 13:15, Sept. The change in the Rev. from charity to love, is a good and thoroughly defensible one. Charity follows the caritas of the Vulgate, and is not used consistently in the A.V. On the contrary, in the gospels, ἀγάπη is always rendered love, and mostly elsewhere, except in this epistle, where the word occurs but twice. Charity, in modern usage, has acquired the senses of tolerance and beneficence, which express only single phases of love. There is no more reason for saying “charity envieth not,” than for saying “God is charity;” “the charity of Christ constraineth us;” “the charity of God is shed abroad in our hearts.” The real objection to the change on the part of unscholarly partisans of the A.V. is the breaking of the familiar rhythm of the verses. [source]
Sounding brass [χαλκὸς ἠχῶν]
The metal is not properly brass, the alloy of copper and zinc, but copper, or bronze, the alloy of copper and tin, of which the Homeric weapons were made. Being the metal in common use, it came to be employed as a term for metal in general. Afterward it was distinguished; common copper being called black or red copper, and the celebrated Corinthian bronze being known as mixed copper. The word here does not mean a brazen instrument, but a piece of unwrought metal, which emitted a sound on being struck. In the streets of Seville one may see pedlers striking, together two pieces of brass instead of blowing a horn or ringing a bell. [source]
Tinkling cymbal [κύμβαλον ἀλαλάζον]
The verb rendered tinkling, alalazo originally meant to repeat the cry alala, as in battle. It is used by Mark (Mark 6:38) of the wailings of hired mourners. Hence, generally, to ring or clang. Rev., clanging. Κύμβαλον cymbalis derived from κύμβος ahollow or a cup. The cymbal consisted of two half-globes of metal, which were struck together. In middle-age Latin, cymbalum was the term for a church or convent-bell. Ducange defines: “a bell by which the monks are called to meals, and which is hung in the cloister.” The comparison is between the unmeaning clash of metal, and music; between ecstatic utterances which are jargon, and utterances inspired by love, which, though unintelligible to the hearers, may carry a meaning to the speaker himself and to God, 1 Corinthians 14:4, 1 Corinthians 14:7. [source]

Reverse Greek Commentary Search for 1 Corinthians 13:1

Matthew 16:23 Savourest not [οὐ φρονεῖς]
Rev., better, mindest not. Thy thoughts and intents are not of God, but of men. Savourest follows the Vulgate sapis, from sapere, which means 1st, to have a taste or flavor of: 2d, to have sense or discernment. Hence used here as the rendering of φρονεῖν , to be minded. Thus Wyc., 1 Corinthians 13:11, “When I was a child I savoured ( ἐφρόνουν ) as a child.” The idea is, strictly, to partake of the quality or nature of. [source]
Mark 5:38 Wailing greatly [αλαλαζοντας πολλα]
An onomatopoetic word from Pindar down. The soldiers on entering battle cried Αλαλα — Alāla Used of clanging cymbals (1 Corinthians 13:1). Like ολολυζω — ololuzō in James 5:1. It is used here of the monotonous wail of the hired mourners. [source]
John 5:20 Loveth [φιλεῖ]
To love is expressed by two words in the New Testament, φιλέω and ἀγαπάω . Ἁγαπάω indicates a reasoning, discriminating attachment, founded in the conviction that its object is worthy of esteem, or entitled to it on account of benefits bestowed. Φιλέω represents a warmer, more instinctive sentiment, more closely allied to feeling, and implying more passion. Hence ἀγαπάω is represented by the Latin diligo, the fundamental idea of which is selection, the deliberate choice of one out of a number, on sufficient grounds, as an object of regard. Thus φιλέω emphasizes the affectional element of love, and ἀγαπάω the intelligent element. Socrates, in Xenophon's “Memorabilia,” advises his friend Aristarchus to alleviate the necessities of his dependents by furnishing means to set them at work. Aristarchus having acted upon his advice, Xenophon says that the women in his employ loved ( ἐφίλουν ) him as their protector, while he in turn loved ( ἠγάπα ) them because they were of use to him (“Memorabilia,” ii., 7, §12). Jesus' sentiment toward Martha and Mary is described by ἠγάπα , John 11:5. Men are bidden to love ( ἀγαπᾶν ) God (Matthew 22:37; 1 Corinthians 8:3); never φιλεῖν , since love to God implies an intelligent discernment of His attributes and not merely an affectionate sentiment. Both elements are combined in the Father's love for the Son (Matthew 3:17; John 3:35; John 4:20). Ἁγάπη is used throughout the panegyric of love in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, and an examination of that chapter will show how large a part the discriminating element plays in the Apostle's conception of love. The noun αγάπη nowhere appears in classical writings. As Trench remarks, it “is a word born within the bosom of revealed religion.”' Εράω , in which the idea of sensual passion predominates, is nowhere used in the New Testament. Trench has some interesting remarks on its tendency toward a higher set of associations in the Platonic writings (“Synonyms,” p. 42). [source]
John 1:30 A man [ἀνὴρ]
Three words are used in the New Testament for man: ἄῤῥην , or ἄρσην , ἀνήρ , and ἄνθρωπος . Ἄρσην marks merely the sexual distinction, male (Romans 1:27; Revelation 12:5, Revelation 12:13). Ἁνήρ denotes the man as distinguished from the woman, as male or as a husband (Acts 8:12; Matthew 1:16), or from a boy (Matthew 14:21). Also man as endowed with courage, intelligence, strength, and other noble attributes (1 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:13; James 3:2). Ἄνθρωπος is generic, without distinction of sex, a human being (John 16:21), though often used in connections which indicate or imply sex, as Matthew 19:10; Matthew 10:35. Used of mankind (Matthew 4:4), or of the people (Matthew 5:13, Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:5, Matthew 6:18; John 6:10). Of man as distinguished from animals or plants (Matthew 4:19; 2 Peter 2:16), and from God, Christ as divine and angels (Matthew 10:32; John 10:33; Luke 2:15). With the notion of weakness leading to sin, and with a contemptuous sense (1 Corinthians 2:5; 1 Peter 4:2; John 5:12; Romans 9:20). The more honorable and noble sense thus attaches to ἀνήρ rather than to ἄνθρωπος . Thus Herodotus says that when the Medes charged the Greeks, they fell in vast numbers, so that it was manifest to Xerxes that he had many men combatants ( ἄνθρωποι ) but few warriors ( ἄνθρωποι ) vii., 210. So Homer: “O friends, be men ( ἀνέρες ), and take on a stout heart” (“Iliad,” v., 529). Ἁνήρ is therefore used here of Jesus by the Baptist with a sense of dignity. Compare ἄνθρωπος , in John 1:6, where the word implies no disparagement, but is simply indefinite. In John ἀνήρ has mostly the sense of husband (John 4:16-18). See John 6:10. -DIVIDER-
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John 1:1 In the beginning [εν αρχηι]
Αρχη — Archē is definite, though anarthrous like our at home, in town, and the similar Hebrew ην — be reshith in Genesis 1:1. But Westcott notes that here John carries our thoughts beyond the beginning of creation in time to eternity. There is no argument here to prove the existence of God any more than in Genesis. It is simply assumed. Either God exists and is the Creator of the universe as scientists like Eddington and Jeans assume or matter is eternal or it has come out of nothing. Was Three times in this sentence John uses this imperfect of εγενετο — eimi to be which conveys no idea of origin for God or for the Logos, simply continuous existence. Quite a different verb The Word λεγω — Logos is from Λογος — legō old word in Homer to lay by, to collect, to put words side by side, to speak, to express an opinion. ανιμα μυνδι — Logos is common for reason as well as speech. Heraclitus used it for the principle which controls the universe. The Stoics employed it for the soul of the world There is a possible personification of “the Word of God” in Hebrews 4:12. But the personal pre-existence of Christ is taught by Paul (2 Corinthians 8:9; Philemon 2:6.; Colossians 1:17) and in Hebrews 1:2. and in John 17:5. This term suits John‘s purpose better than σαρχ εγενετο — sophia (wisdom) and is his answer to the Gnostics who either denied the actual humanity of Christ (Docetic Gnostics) or who separated the προς τον τεον — aeon Christ from the man Jesus (Cerinthian Gnostics). The pre-existent Logos “became flesh” Though existing eternally with God the Logos was in perfect fellowship with God. παρακλητον εχομεν προς τον πατερα — Pros with the accusative presents a plane of equality and intimacy, face to face with each other. In 1 John 2:1 we have a like use of προσωπον προς προσωπον — pros “We have a Paraclete with the Father” See προς — prosōpon pros prosōpon (face to face, 1 Corinthians 13:12), a triple use of το γνωστον της προς αλληλους συνητειας — pros There is a papyrus example of προς — pros in this sense παρα σοι — to gnōston tēs pros allēlous sunētheias “the knowledge of our intimacy with one another” (M.&M., Vocabulary) which answers the claim of Rendel Harris, Origin of Prologue, p. 8) that the use of και τεος ην ο λογος — pros here and in Mark 6:3 is a mere Aramaism. It is not a classic idiom, but this is Koiné, not old Attic. In John 17:5 John has ο τεος ην ο λογος — para soi the more common idiom. And the Word was God By exact and careful language John denied Sabellianism by not saying ο λογος — ho theos ēn ho logos That would mean that all of God was expressed in τεος — ho logos and the terms would be interchangeable, each having the article. The subject is made plain by the article Thus in the Trinity we see personal fellowship on an equality. [source]
Romans 11:25 In part [ἀπὸ μέρους]
Μέρος partis never used adverbially in the Gospels, Acts, and Revelation. In the Epistles it is rarely used in any other way. The only exceptions are 2 Corinthians 3:10; 2 Corinthians 9:3; Ephesians 4:9, Ephesians 4:16. Paul employs it in several combinations. With ἀπό from(1 Corinthians 1:14; 1 Corinthians 2:5), and ἐκ outof (1 Corinthians 12:27; 1 Corinthians 13:9, 1 Corinthians 13:10, 1 Corinthians 13:12), in which a thing is conceived as looked at from the part, either ( ἀπὸ ) as a simple point of view, or ( ἐκ ) as a standard according to which the whole is estimated. Thus 1 Corinthians 12:27, “members ἐκ μέρους severallyi.e., members from a part of the whole point of view. Also with ἐν inas Colossians 2:16, with respect to, literally, in the matter of. With ἀνά upthe idea being of a series or column of parts reckoned upward, part by part. Μέρος τι withregard to some part, partly, occurs 1 Corinthians 11:18; and κατὰ μέρος , reckoning part by part downward; according to part, particularly, Hebrews 9:5. Construe here with hath happened: has partially befallen. Not partial hardening, but hardening extending over a part. -DIVIDER-
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Romans 12:9 Without hypocrisy [ανυποκριτος]
Late double compound adjective for which see note on 2 Corinthians 6:6. Hypocritical or pretended love is no love at all as Paul describes αγαπη — agapē in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
Romans 13:10 The fulfilment of the law [πληρωμα νομου]
“The filling up or complement of the law” like πεπληρωκεν — peplērōken (perfect active indicative of πληροω — plēroō stands filled up) in Romans 13:8. See note on 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 for the fuller exposition of this verse. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:20 Children - be ye children [παιδία - νηπιάζετε]
The A.V. misses the distinction between children and babes, the stronger term for being unversed in malice. In understanding they are to be above mere children. In malice they are to be very babes. See on child, 1 Corinthians 13:11. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:31 Way []
To attain the higher gifts. The way of love as described in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. “Love is the fairest and best in himself, and the cause of what is fairest and best in all other things” (Plato, “Symposium,” 197). [source]
1 Corinthians 1:5 In all utterance and all knowledge [εν παντι λογωι και πασηι γνωσει]
One detail in explanation of the riches in Christ. The outward expression (λογωι — logōi) here is put before the inward knowledge (γνωσει — gnōsei) which should precede all speech. But we get at one‘s knowledge by means of his speech. Chapters 1 Corinthians 12-14 throw much light on this element in the spiritual gifts of the Corinthians (the gift of tongues, interpreting tongues, discernment) as summed up in 1 Corinthians 13:1, 1 Corinthians 13:2, the greater gifts of 1 Corinthians 12:31. It was a marvellously endowed church in spite of their perversions. [source]
1 Corinthians 14:1 Follow after love [διωκετε την αγαπην]
As if a veritable chase. Paul comes back to the idea in 1 Corinthians 12:31 (same use of ζηλουτε — zēloute) and proves the superiority of prophecy to the other spiritual gifts not counting faith, hope, love of 1 Corinthians 13:13. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:24 To God, even the Father [τωι τεωι και πατρι]
Better, “to the God and Father” or to “His God and Father.” The Kingdom belongs to the Father. When he shall have abolished (οταν καταργησηι — hotan katargēsēi). First aorist active subjunctive with οταν — hotan indefinite future time. Simply, “whenever he shall abolish,” no use in making it future perfect, merely aorist subjunctive. On καταργεω — katargeō see note on 1 Corinthians 6:13; note on 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 13:10; noteon 1 Corinthians 13:11.Rule All forms of power opposing the will of God. Constative aorist tense covering the whole period of conflict with final victory as climax. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:10 Divers kinds of tongues [γένη γλωσσῶν]
I. Passages Relating to the Gift of Tongues. Mark 16:17; Acts href="/desk/?q=ac+10:46&sr=1">Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; 1 Corinthians 12:10, 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 14:14-16,7; 14. Possibly Ephesians 5:18; 1 Peter 4:11. II. Terms Employed. New tongues (Mark 16:17): other or different tongues ( ἕτεραι , Acts 2:4): kinds ( γένη ) of tongues (1 Corinthians 12:10): simply tongues or tongue ( γλῶσσαι γλῶσσα , Acts href="/desk/?q=ac+2:4&sr=1">Acts 2:4; Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6; 1 Corinthians 14:2, 1 Corinthians 14:4, 1 Corinthians 14:13, 1 Corinthians 14:14, 1 Corinthians 14:19, 1 Corinthians 14:27): to pray in a tongue ( προσεύχεσθαι γλώσσῃ , 1 Corinthians 14:14, 1 Corinthians 14:15), equivalent to praying in the spirit as distinguished from praying with the understanding: tongues of men and angels (1 Corinthians 13:1). -DIVIDER-
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III. Recorded Facts in the New Testament. (1.) The first recorded bestowment of the gift was at Pentecost (Acts href="/desk/?q=ac+10:44-46&sr=1">Acts 10:44-46. (3.) Certain disciples at Ephesus, who received the Holy Spirit in the laying on of Paul's hands, spake with tongues and prophesied, Acts 19:6. -DIVIDER-
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IV. Meaning of the Term “Tongue.” The various explanations are: the tongue alone, inarticulately: rare, provincial, poetic, or archaic words: language or dialect. The last is the correct definition. It does not necessarily mean any of the known languages of men, but may mean the speaker's own tongue, shaped in a peculiar manner by the Spirit's influence; or an entirely new spiritual language. -DIVIDER-
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V. Nature of the Gift in the Corinthian Church. (1.) The gift itself was identical with that at Pentecost, at Caesarea, and at Ephesus, but differed in its manifestations, in that it required an interpreter. 1 Corinthians 12:10, 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 14:5, 1 Corinthians 14:13, 1 Corinthians 14:26, 1 Corinthians 14:27. (2.) It was closely connected with prophesying: 1 Corinthians 14:1-6, 1 Corinthians 14:22, 1 Corinthians 14:25; Acts 2:16-18; Acts 19:6. Compare 1 Thessalonians 5:19, 1 Thessalonians 5:20. It was distinguished from prophesying as an inferior gift, 1 Corinthians 14:4, 1 Corinthians 14:5; and as consisting in expressions of praise or devotion rather than of exhortation, warning, or prediction, 1 Corinthians 14:14-16. (3.) It was an ecstatic utterance, unintelligible to the hearers, and requiring interpretation, or a corresponding ecstatic condition on the part of the hearer in order to understand it. It was not for the edification of the hearer but of the speaker, and even the speaker did not always understand it, 1 Corinthians 14:2, 1 Corinthians 14:19. It therefore impressed unchristian bystanders as a barbarous utterance, the effect of madness or drunkenness, Acts 2:13, Acts 2:15; 1 Corinthians 14:11, 1 Corinthians 14:23. Hence it is distinguished from the utterance of the understanding, 1 Corinthians 14:4, 1618179127_28 1 Corinthians 14:19, 1 Corinthians 14:27. -DIVIDER-
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VI. Paul's Estimate of the Gift. He himself was a master of the gift (1 Corinthians 14:18), but he assigned it an inferior position (1 Corinthians 14:4, 1 Corinthians 14:5), and distinctly gave prophesying and speaking with the understanding the preference (1 Corinthians 14:2, 1 Corinthians 14:3, 1 Corinthians 14:5, 1 Corinthians 14:19, 1 Corinthians 14:22). -DIVIDER-
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VII. Results and Permanence. Being recognized distinctly as a gift of the Spirit, it must be inferred that it contributed in some way to the edification of the Church; but it led to occasional disorderly outbreaks (1 Corinthians 14:9, 1 Corinthians 14:11, 1 Corinthians 14:17, 1 Corinthians 14:20-23, 1 Corinthians 14:26-28, 1 Corinthians 14:33, 1 Corinthians 14:40). As a fact it soon passed away from the Church. It is not mentioned in the Catholic or Pastoral Epistles. A few allusions to it occur in the writings of the fathers of the second century. Ecstatic conditions and manifestations marked the Montanists at the close of the second century, and an account of such a case, in which a woman was the subject, is given by Tertullian. Similar phenomena have emerged at intervals in various sects, at times of great religious excitement, as among the Camisards in France, the early Quakers and Methodists, and especially the Irvingites. -DIVIDER-
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1 Corinthians 1:5 Ye were enriched in him [επλουτιστητε εν αυτωι]
First aorist passive indicative of πλουτιζω — ploutizō old causative verb from πλουτος — ploutos wealth, common in Attic writers, dropped out for centuries, reappeared in lxx. In N.T. only three times and alone in Paul (1 Corinthians 1:5; 2 Corinthians 6:10, 2 Corinthians 6:11). The Christian finds his real riches in Christ, one of Paul‘s pregnant phrases full of the truest mysticism. In all utterance and all knowledge (εν παντι λογωι και πασηι γνωσει — en panti logōi kai pasēi gnōsei). One detail in explanation of the riches in Christ. The outward expression (λογωι — logōi) here is put before the inward knowledge (γνωσει — gnōsei) which should precede all speech. But we get at one‘s knowledge by means of his speech. Chapters 1 Corinthians 12-14 throw much light on this element in the spiritual gifts of the Corinthians (the gift of tongues, interpreting tongues, discernment) as summed up in 1 Corinthians 13:1, 1 Corinthians 13:2, the greater gifts of 1 Corinthians 12:31. It was a marvellously endowed church in spite of their perversions. [source]
1 Corinthians 15:24 When he shall have abolished [οταν καταργησηι]
First aorist active subjunctive with οταν — hotan indefinite future time. Simply, “whenever he shall abolish,” no use in making it future perfect, merely aorist subjunctive. On καταργεω — katargeō see note on 1 Corinthians 6:13; note on 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 13:10; noteon 1 Corinthians 13:11. [source]
1 Corinthians 10:29 For why is my liberty judged by another conscience? [ινα τι γαρ η ελευτερια μου κρινεται υπο αλλης συνειδησεωσ]
Supply γενηται — genētai (deliberative subjunctive) after τι — ti Paul deftly puts himself in the place of the strong brother at such a banquet who is expected to conform his conscience to that of the weak brother who makes the point about a particular piece of meat. It is an abridgment of one‘s personal liberty in the interest of the weak brother. Two individualities clash. The only reason is love which builds up (1 Corinthians 8:2 and all of chapter 1 Corinthians 13:1-13). There is this eternal collision between the forces of progress and reaction. If they work together, they must consider the welfare of each other. [source]
1 Corinthians 12:31 And a still more excellent way [και ετι κατ υπερβολην οδον]
In order to gain the greater gifts. “I show you a way par excellence,” beyond all comparison (superlative idea in this adjunct, not comparative), like κατ υπερβολην εις υπερβολην — kath' huperbolēn eis huperbolēn (2 Corinthians 4:17). υπερβολη — Huperbolē is old word from υπερβαλλω — huperballō to throw beyond, to surpass, to excel (2 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 1:19). “I show you a supremely excellent way.” Chapter 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 is this way, the way of love already laid down in 1 Corinthians 8:1 concerning the question of meats offered to idols (cf. 1 John 4:7). Poor division of chapters here. This verse belongs with chapter 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
2 Corinthians 3:18 With unveiled face [ανακεκαλυμμενωι προσωπωι]
Instrumental case of manner. Unlike and like Moses. Reflecting as in a mirror (κατοπτριζομενοι — katoptrizomenoi). Present middle participle of κατοπτριζω — katoptrizō late verb from κατοπτρον — katoptron mirror (κατα οπτρον — kataεγκατοπτρισασται εις το υδωρ — optron a thing to see with). In Philo (Legis Alleg. iii. 33) the word means beholding as in a mirror and that idea suits also the figure in 1 Corinthians 13:12. There is an inscription of third century b.c. with μεταμορπουμετα — egkatoptrisasthai eis to hudōr to look at one‘s reflection in the water. Plutarch uses the active for mirroring or reflecting and Chrysostom takes it so here. Either makes good sense. The point that Paul is making is that we shall not lose the glory as Moses did. But that is true if we keep on beholding or keep on reflecting (present tense). Only here in N.T. Are transformed Present passive (are being transformed) of metamorphoō late verb and in papyri. See note on Matthew 17:2; Mark 9:2 where it is translated “transfigured.” It is the word used for heathen mythological metamorphoses. Into the same image (tēn autēn eikona). Accusative retained with passive verb την αυτην εικονα — metamorphoumetha Into the likeness of God in Christ (1 Corinthians 15:48-53; Romans 8:17, Romans 8:29; Colossians 3:4; 1 John 3:2). As from the Lord the Spirit More likely, “as from the Spirit of the Lord.” [source]
2 Corinthians 3:18 Reflecting as in a mirror [κατοπτριζομενοι]
Present middle participle of κατοπτριζω — katoptrizō late verb from κατοπτρον — katoptron mirror In Philo (Legis Alleg. iii. 33) the word means beholding as in a mirror and that idea suits also the figure in 1 Corinthians 13:12. There is an inscription of third century b.c. with μεταμορπουμετα — egkatoptrisasthai eis to hudōr to look at one‘s reflection in the water. Plutarch uses the active for mirroring or reflecting and Chrysostom takes it so here. Either makes good sense. The point that Paul is making is that we shall not lose the glory as Moses did. But that is true if we keep on beholding or keep on reflecting (present tense). Only here in N.T. [source]
2 Corinthians 4:18 Temporal [προσκαιρα]
Rather temporary, for a season Late word. See note on Matthew 13:21. See 1 Corinthians 13:12; Hebrews 11:1. [source]
Galatians 5:6 By love [δἰ ἀγάπης]
Not that justification is through love; but the faith of the justified, which is their subjective principle of life, exhibits its living energy through love in which the whole law is fulfilled (Galatians 5:14). See 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Love [ἀγάπη]
Comp. love of the Spirit, Romans 15:30. In Class. φιλεῖν is the most general designation of love, denoting an inner inclination to persons or things, and standing opposed to μισεῖν or ἐχθαίρειν tohate. It occasionally acquires from the context a sensual flavor, as Hom. Od. xviii. 325; Hdt. iv. 176, thus running into the sense of ἐρᾶν which denotes sensual love. It is love to persons and things growing out of intercourse and amenities or attractive qualities. Στέργειν (not in N.T., lxx, Sirach 27:17) expresses a deep, quiet, appropriating, natural love, as distinguished from that which is called out by circumstances. Unlike φιλεῖν , it has a distinct moral significance, and is not applied to base inclinations opposed to a genuine manly nature. It is the word for love to parents, wife, children, king or country, as one's own. Aristotle (Nic. ix. 7,3) speaks of poets as loving ( στέργοντες ) their own poems as their children. See also Eurip. Med. 87. Ἁγαπᾶν is to love out of an intelligent estimate of the object of love. It answers to Lat. diligere, or Germ. schatzen to prize. It is not passionate and sensual as ἐρᾶν . It is not, like φιλεῖν , attachment to a person independently of his quality and created by close intercourse. It is less sentiment than consideration. While φιλεῖν contemplates the person, ἀγαπᾶν contemplates the attributes and character, and gives an account of its inclination. Ἁγαπᾶν is really the weaker expression for love, as that term is conventionally used. It is judicial rather than affectionate. Even in classical usage, however, the distinction between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν is often very subtle, and well-nigh impossible to express. In N.T. ἐπιθυμαῖν todesire or lust is used instead of ἐρᾶν . In lxx ἀγαπᾶν is far more common than φιλεῖν . Φιλεῖν occurs only 16 times in the sense of love, and 16 times in the sense of kiss; while ἀγαπᾶν is found nearly 300 times. It is used with a wide range, of the love of parent for child, of man for God, of God for man, of love to one's neighbor and to the stranger, of husband for wife, of love for God's house, and for mercy and truth; but also of the love of Samson for Delilah, of Hosea for his adulterous wife, of Amnon's love for Tamar, of Solomon's love for strange women, of loving a woman for her beauty. Also of loving vanity, unrighteousness, devouring words, cursing, death, silver. -DIVIDER-
-DIVIDER-
The noun ἀγάπη , oClass., was apparently created by the lxx, although it is found there only 19 times. It first comes into habitual use in Christian writings. In N.T. it is, practically, the only noun for love, although compound nouns expressing peculiar phases of love, as brotherly love, love of money, love of children, etc., are formed with φίλος , as φιλαδελφία, φιλαργυρία, φιλανθρωπία . Both verbs, φιλεῖν and ἀγαπᾶν occur, but ἀγαπᾶν more frequently. The attempt to carry out consistently the classical distinction between these two must be abandoned. Both are used of the love of parents and children, of the love of God for Christ, of Christ for men, of God for men, of men for Christ and of men for men. The love of man for God and of husband for wife, only ἀγαπᾶν . The distinction is rather between ἀγαπᾶν and ἐπιθυμεῖν than between ἀγαπᾶν and φιλεῖν . Love, in this passage, is that fruit of the Spirit which dominates all the others. See Galatians 5:13, Galatians 5:14. Comp. 1 Corinthians 13:1-13; 1 John 2:5, 1 John 2:9-11; 1 John 3:11, 1 John 3:14-16; 1 John 4:7-11, 1 John 4:16-21; 1 John 5:1-3. [source]

Galatians 5:10 Will be - minded [φρονήσετε]
The word denotes a general disposition of the mind rather than a specific act of thought directed at a given point. Comp. Philemon 3:15, Philemon 3:19; Philemon 4:2; Romans 8:5; Romans 11:20; 1 Corinthians 13:11: and φρόνημα mind Romans 8:6, Romans 8:7, Romans 8:27. In Class. often with εὖ well καλῶς honorably ὀρθῶς rightly κακῶς mischievously Τά τινος φρονεῖν is to be of one's party. [source]
Galatians 4:9 Rather are known of God []
Rather corrects the first statement, have known God, which might seem to attach too much to human agency in attaining the knowledge of God. The divine side of the process is thrown into the foreground by are known, etc. Known does not mean approved or acknowledged, but simply recognized. Saving knowledge is doubtless implied, but is not expressed in the word. The relation of knowledge between God and his sons proceeds from God. The Galatians had not arrived at the knowledge of God by intuition nor by any process of reasoning. “God knew them ere they knew him, and his knowing them was the cause of their knowing him” (Eadie). Comp. 1 Corinthians 13:12; 2 Timothy 2:19; Matthew 7:23. Dean Stanley remarks that “our knowledge of God is more his act than ours.” If God knows a man, that fact implies an activity of God which passes over to the man, so that he, as the subject of God's knowledge, comes into the knowledge of God. In N.T. γινώσκειν often implies a personal relation between the knower and the known, so that knowledge implies influence. See 1 Corinthians 2:8; John 1:10; John 2:24; John 17:3. For a parallel to this interchange between the active and the passive, see Philemon 3:12. [source]
Galatians 3:5 Worketh miracles [energōn dunameis)]
On the word ενεργων δυναμεις — energeō see note on 1 Thessalonians 2:13; note on 1 Corinthians 12:6. It is a great word for God‘s activities (Philemon 2:13). “In you” (Lightfoot) is preferable to “among you” for ενεργεω — en humin (1 Corinthians 13:10; Matthew 14:2). The principal verb for “doeth he it” (εν υμιν — poiei) is not expressed. Paul repeats the contrast in Galatians 3:2 about “works of the law” and “the hearing of faith.” [source]
Galatians 5:22 Love [αγαπη]
Late, almost Biblical word. First as in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, which see for discussion as superior to πιλια — philia and ερως — erōs Joy (χαρα — chara). Old word. See note on 1 Thessalonians 1:6. Peace See note on 1 Thessalonians 1:1. Long-suffering (makrothumia). See 2 Corinthians 6:6. Kindness See 2 Corinthians 6:6. Goodness (μακροτυμια — agathōsunē). See note on 2 Thessalonians 1:11. Faithfulness Same word as “faith.” See Matthew 23:23; 1 Corinthians 13:7, 1 Corinthians 13:13. Meekness (prautēs). See 1 Corinthians 4:21; note on 2 Corinthians 10:1.Temperance See Acts 24:25. Old word from egkratēs one holding control or holding in. In N.T. only in these passages and 2 Peter 1:6. Paul has a better list than the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice, long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Peace [eirēnē)]
See note on 1 Thessalonians 1:1. Long-suffering (makrothumia). See 2 Corinthians 6:6. Kindness See 2 Corinthians 6:6. Goodness (μακροτυμια — agathōsunē). See note on 2 Thessalonians 1:11. Faithfulness Same word as “faith.” See Matthew 23:23; 1 Corinthians 13:7, 1 Corinthians 13:13. Meekness (prautēs). See 1 Corinthians 4:21; note on 2 Corinthians 10:1.Temperance See Acts 24:25. Old word from egkratēs one holding control or holding in. In N.T. only in these passages and 2 Peter 1:6. Paul has a better list than the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice, long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Kindness [ειρηνη]
See 2 Corinthians 6:6. Goodness (μακροτυμια — agathōsunē). See note on 2 Thessalonians 1:11. Faithfulness Same word as “faith.” See Matthew 23:23; 1 Corinthians 13:7, 1 Corinthians 13:13. Meekness (prautēs). See 1 Corinthians 4:21; note on 2 Corinthians 10:1.Temperance See Acts 24:25. Old word from egkratēs one holding control or holding in. In N.T. only in these passages and 2 Peter 1:6. Paul has a better list than the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice, long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence. [source]
Galatians 5:22 Faithfulness [pistis)]
Same word as “faith.” See Matthew 23:23; 1 Corinthians 13:7, 1 Corinthians 13:13. Meekness (prautēs). See 1 Corinthians 4:21; note on 2 Corinthians 10:1.Temperance See Acts 24:25. Old word from egkratēs one holding control or holding in. In N.T. only in these passages and 2 Peter 1:6. Paul has a better list than the four cardinal virtues of the Stoics (temperance, prudence, fortitude, justice), though they are included with better notes struck. Temperance is alike, but kindness is better than justice, long-suffering than fortitude, love than prudence. [source]
Philippians 1:10 Things which are excellent [τὰ διαφέροντα]
Unnecessary difficulty has been made in the explanation of this phrase. Love displays itself in knowledge and discernment. In proportion as it abounds it sharpens the moral perceptions for the discernment of what is best. The passage is on the line of 1 Corinthians 12:31, “Covet earnestly the best gifts,” and the “more excellent way” to attain these gifts is love (1 Corinthians 13:1-13). See on Romans 2:18, where the same phrase occurs, but with a different meaning. Some explain things which are morally different. [source]
Philippians 1:16 Of love [εχ αγαπης]
Out of love to Paul as well as to Christ. Put 1 Corinthians 13:1-13 here as a flash-light. [source]
Philippians 2:1 Of love [αγαπης]
Objective genitive, “in love” (undefined as in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13). Fellowship (κοινωνια — Koinéōnia). Partnership in the Holy Spirit “whose first fruit is love” (Galatians 5:22). Any tender mercies Common use of this word for the nobler ςισχερα — viscera and so for the higher emotions. But τις — tis is masculine singular and σπλαγχνα — splagchna is neuter plural. Lightfoot suggests an error of an early transcriber or even of the amanuensis in writing ει τις — ei tis instead of ει τινα — ei tina f0). [source]
Philippians 2:1 Comfort [παρακλησις]
Rather, “ground of appeal to you in Christ.” See note on 1 Corinthians 1:10; Ephesians 4:1. Consolation (παραμυτιον — paramuthion). Old word from παραμυτεομαι — paramutheomai persuasive address, incentive. Of love Objective genitive, “in love” (undefined as in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13). Fellowship (κοινωνια — Koinéōnia). Partnership in the Holy Spirit “whose first fruit is love” (Galatians 5:22). Any tender mercies Common use of this word for the nobler ςισχερα — viscera and so for the higher emotions. But τις — tis is masculine singular and σπλαγχνα — splagchna is neuter plural. Lightfoot suggests an error of an early transcriber or even of the amanuensis in writing ει τις — ei tis instead of ει τινα — ei tina f0). [source]
Colossians 3:14 Charity []
See on 1 Corinthians 13:1. [source]
Colossians 1:9 Knowledge [ἐπίγνωσιν]
See on Romans 3:20; see on Philemon 1:6. Full knowledge. See Romans 1:21, Romans 1:28; 1 Corinthians 13:12, where Paul contrasts γινώσκειν toknow γνῶσις knowledgewith ἐπιγινώσκειν toknow fully, ἐπίγνωσις fullknowledge. Here appropriate to the knowledge of God in Christ as the perfection of knowledge. [source]
Colossians 3:16 Psalms []
See the parallel passage, Ephesians 5:19. A psalm was originally a song accompanied by a stringed instrument. See on 1 Corinthians 14:15. The idea of accompaniment passed away in usage, and the psalm, in New-Testament phraseology, is an Old-Testament psalm, or a composition having that character. A hymn is a song of praise, and a song ( ᾠδή ode) is the general term for a song of any kind. Hymns would probably be distinctively Christian. It is supposed by some that Paul embodies fragments of hymns in his epistles, as 1 Corinthians 13:1-13; Ephesians 5:14; 1 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 2:11-14. James 1:17, and Revelation 1:5, Revelation 1:6; Revelation 15:3, are also supposed to be of this character. In both instances of his use of ᾠδή songPaul adds the term spiritual. The term may, as Trench suggests, denote sacred poems which are neither psalms nor hymns, as Herbert's “Temple,” or Keble's “Christian Year.” This is the more likely, as the use of these different compositions is not restricted to singing nor to public worship. They are to be used in mutual christian teaching and admonition. [source]
Colossians 1:5 For the hope [διὰ τὴν ἐλπίδα]
The A.V. connects with we give thanks (Colossians 1:3). But the two are too far apart, and Paul's introductory thanksgiving is habitually grounded on the spiritual condition of his readers, not on something objective. See Romans 1:8; 1 Corinthians 1:4; Ephesians 1:15. Better connect with what immediately precedes, love which ye have, and render as Rev., because of the hope, etc. Faith works by love, and the ground of their love is found in the hope set before them. Compare Romans 8:24. The motive is subordinate, but legitimate. “The hope laid up in heaven is not the deepest reason or motive for faith and love, but both are made more vivid when it is strong. It is not the light at which their lamps are lit, but it is the odorous oil which feeds their flame” (Maclaren). Hope. See on 1 Peter 1:3. In the New Testament the word signifies both the sentiment of hope and the thing hoped for. Here the latter. Compare Titus 2:13; Galatians 5:5; Hebrews 6:18; also Romans 8:24, where both meanings appear. Lightfoot observes that the sense oscillates between the subjective feeling and the objective realization. The combination of faith, hope, and love is a favorite one with Paul. See 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Corinthians 13:13; Romans 5:1-5; Romans 12:6-12. [source]
Colossians 1:5 Because of the hope [δια την ελπιδα]
See note on Romans 8:24. It is not clear whether this phrase is to be linked with ευχα ιστουμεν — eucha istoumen at the beginning of Colossians 1:3 or (more likely) with την αγαπην — tēn agapēn just before. Note also here πιστις — pistis (faith), αγαπη — agapē (love), ελπις — elpis (hope), though not grouped together so sharply as in 1 Corinthians 13:13. Here hope is objective, the goal ahead. [source]
Colossians 3:14 Put on love [την αγαπην]
See Luke 3:20. The verb has to be supplied Neuter singular of the relative and not feminine like αγαπη — agapē (the antecedent) nor masculine like συνδεσμος — sundesmos in the predicate. However, there are similar examples of ο εστιν — ho estin in the sense of quod est (id est), “that is,” in Mark 14:42; Mark 15:42, without agreement in gender and number. So also Ephesians 5:5 where ο εστιν — ho estin = “which thing.” The bond of perfectness See note on Colossians 2:19 for συνδεσμος — sundesmos Here it is apparently the girdle that holds the various garments together. The genitive (τελειοτητος — teleiotētos) is probably that of apposition with the girdle of love. In a succinct way Paul has here put the idea about love set forth so wonderfully in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
Colossians 3:14 The bond of perfectness [συνδεσμος της τελειοτητος]
See note on Colossians 2:19 for συνδεσμος — sundesmos Here it is apparently the girdle that holds the various garments together. The genitive (τελειοτητος — teleiotētos) is probably that of apposition with the girdle of love. In a succinct way Paul has here put the idea about love set forth so wonderfully in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13. [source]
1 Thessalonians 5:8 Putting on [ἐνδυσάμενοι]
The son of day clothes himself for the day's work or battle. The same association of ideas as in 1 Thessalonians 5:6, 1 Thessalonians 5:8, is found in Romans 13:12-14; Revelation 16:15; 1 Peter 1:13. Comp. lxx, Ephesians href="/desk/?q=eph+6:14&sr=1">Ephesians 6:14. The figures are not original with Paul. See Isaiah 59:17; Wisd. 5:18,19. Notice that only defensive armor is mentioned, in accordance with the darkness and uncertainty of the last time; and that the fundamental elements of Christian character, faith, hope, and love, are brought forward again as in 1 Thessalonians 1:3; 1 Corinthians 13:13. For the figure of the armed soldier, comp. also Romans 13:12; 2 Corinthians 10:4. [source]
1 Timothy 2:4 Come to the knowledge of the truth [εἰς ἐπίγνωσιν ἀληθείας ἐλθεῖν]
The phrase only here and 2 Timothy 3:7. Ἑπίγνωσις is a favorite Pauline word. See on Romans 3:20; see on Colossians 1:9; see on 1 Timothy 2:4; see on 1 Timothy 4:3. It signifies advanced or full knowledge. The difference between the simple γνῶσις and the compound word is illustrated in Romans 1:21, Romans 1:28, and 1 Corinthians 13:12. In N.T. always of the knowledge of things ethical or divine, and never ascribed to God. For ἀλήθεια truthsee on sound doctrine, 1 Timothy 1:10. It appears 14 times in the Pastorals, and always without a defining genitive. So, often in Paul, but several times with a defining genitive, as truth of God, of Christ, of the gospel. The logical relation in the writer's mind between salvation and the knowledge of the truth is not quite clear. Knowledge of the truth may be regarded as the means of salvation, or it may be the ideal goal of the whole saving work. See 1 Corinthians 13:12; Philemon 3:8; John 17:3. The latter is more in accord with the general drift of teaching in these Epistles. [source]
2 Timothy 2:19 The Lord knoweth them that are his [ἔγνω κύριος τοὺς ὄντας αὐτοῦ]
The first inscription: God knows his own. Comp. Numbers 16:5; 1 Corinthians 13:12. For ἔγνω knowethsee on Galatians 4:9. Them that are his, his ἐκλεκτοὶ chosensee 2 Timothy 2:10; Titus 1:1; Romans 8:33; Colossians 3:12; 1 Peter 2:9: Revelation 17:14. Not, however, in any hard, predestinarian sense. Comp. John 10:14; Matthew 7:23; Luke 13:25, Luke 13:27. [source]
Hebrews 5:14 Strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age [τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή]
This rendering is clumsy. Rend. solid food is for full-grown men. For τελείων full-grownsee on 1 Corinthians 2:6. Often by Paul, as here, in contrast with νήπιοι immatureChristians. See 1 Corinthians 2:6; 1 Corinthians 3:1; 1 Corinthians 13:11; Ephesians 4:4. Paul has the verb νηπιάζειν tobe a child in 1 Corinthians 14:20. [source]
James 1:23 In a glass [ἐν ἐσόπτρῳ]
Better, Rev., a mirror; a metallic mirror. The word occurs only here and 1 Corinthians 13:12. [source]
James 1:23 His natural face [γενεσις]
“The face of his birth” (origin, lineage, nativity). For this use of εν εσοπτρωι — genesis see James 3:6; Matthew 1:1, Matthew 1:18; Luke 1:13.In a mirror (εισ οπτω — en esoptrōi). Old word (from κατοπτριζομαι — eisoptō) in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 13:12. The mirrors of the ancients were not of glass, but of polished metal (of silver or usually of copper and tin). See katoptrizomai in 2 Corinthians 3:18. [source]
James 1:23 In a mirror [εισ οπτω]
Old word (from κατοπτριζομαι — eisoptō) in N.T. only here and 1 Corinthians 13:12. The mirrors of the ancients were not of glass, but of polished metal (of silver or usually of copper and tin). See katoptrizomai in 2 Corinthians 3:18. [source]
2 Peter 1:6 Charity [ἀγάπην]
There seems at first an infelicity in the rendering of the Rev., in your love of the brethren love. But this is only apparent. In the former word Peter contemplates Christian fellow-believers as naturally and properly holding the first place in our affections (compare Galatians 6:10, “Especially unto them which are of the household of faith ”)But he follows this with the broader affection which should characterize Christians, and which Paul lauds in 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, the love of men as men. It may be remarked here that the entire rejection by the Rev. of charity as the rendering of ἀγάπη is wholesome and defensible. Charity has acquired two peculiar meanings, both of which are indeed included or implied in love, but neither of which expresses more than a single phase of love - tolerance and beneficence. The A. V. in the great majority of cases translates love; always in the Gospels, and mostly elsewhere. There is no more reason for saying “charity suffereth long,” than for saying, “the charity of God is shed abroad in our hearts,” or “God is charity. ” [source]
2 Peter 1:7 Love [την αγαπην]
By deliberate choice (Matthew 5:44). Love for Christ as the crown of all (1 Peter 1:8) and so for all men. Love is the climax as Paul has it (1 Corinthians 13:13). [source]
1 John 3:2 If he shall be manifested [εαν πανερωτηι]
As in 1 John 2:28, which see. The subject may be Christ as in 1 John 3:9, or the future manifestation just mentioned. Either makes sense, probably “it” here better than “he.”Like him (ομοιοι αυτωι — homoioi autōi). Αυτωι — Autōi is associative instrumental case after ομοιοι — homoioi This is our destiny and glory (Romans 8:29), to be like Jesus who is like God (2 Corinthians 4:6).We shall see him even as he is Future middle indicative of οραω — horaō The transforming power of this vision of Christ (1 Corinthians 13:12) is the consummation of the glorious process begun at the new birth (2 Corinthians 3:18). [source]
1 John 3:2 We shall see him even as he is [οπσομετα αυτον κατως εστιν]
Future middle indicative of οραω — horaō The transforming power of this vision of Christ (1 Corinthians 13:12) is the consummation of the glorious process begun at the new birth (2 Corinthians 3:18). [source]
1 John 4:18 Casteth out fear [εχω βαλλει τον ποβον]
“Drives fear out” so that it does not exist in real love. See εκβαλλω εχω — ekballō exō in John 6:37; John 9:34.; John 12:31; John 15:6 to turn out-of-doors, a powerful metaphor. Perfect love harbours no suspicion and no dread (1 Corinthians 13:1-13). [source]
1 John 3:2 It is not yet made manifest [ουπω επανερωτη]
First aorist passive indicative of πανεροω — phaneroō For the aorist indicative with ουπω — oupō with a future outlook Brooke notes Mark 11:2; 1 Corinthians 8:2; Hebrews 12:4; Revelation 17:10, Revelation 17:12.What we shall be (τι εσομετα — ti esometha). Not τινες — tines (who), but τι — ti (what) neuter singular predicate nominative. “This what suggests something unspeakable, contained in the likeness of God” (Bengel).If he shall be manifested As in 1 John 2:28, which see. The subject may be Christ as in 1 John 3:9, or the future manifestation just mentioned. Either makes sense, probably “it” here better than “he.”Like him (ομοιοι αυτωι — homoioi autōi). Αυτωι — Autōi is associative instrumental case after ομοιοι — homoioi This is our destiny and glory (Romans 8:29), to be like Jesus who is like God (2 Corinthians 4:6).We shall see him even as he is Future middle indicative of οραω — horaō The transforming power of this vision of Christ (1 Corinthians 13:12) is the consummation of the glorious process begun at the new birth (2 Corinthians 3:18). [source]
1 John 4:18 Perfect love [η τελεια αγαπη]
There is such a thing, perfect because it has been perfected (1 John 4:12, 1 John 4:17). Cf. James 1:4.Casteth out fear (εχω βαλλει τον ποβον — exō ballei ton phobon). “Drives fear out” so that it does not exist in real love. See εκβαλλω εχω — ekballō exō in John 6:37; John 9:34.; John 12:31; John 15:6 to turn out-of-doors, a powerful metaphor. Perfect love harbours no suspicion and no dread (1 Corinthians 13:1-13).Hath punishment Old word, in N.T. only here and Matthew 25:46. Τιμωρια — Timōria has only the idea of penalty, κολασις — kolasis has also that of discipline, while παιδεια — paideia has that of chastisement (Hebrews 12:7). The one who still dreads Bengel graphically describes different types of men: “sine timore et amore; cum timore sine amore; cum timore et amore; sine timore cum amore ” [source]
Revelation 22:4 They shall see his face [οπσονται το προσωπον αυτου]
Future active of οραω — horaō This vision of God was withheld from Moses (Exodus 33:20, Exodus 33:23), but promised by Jesus to the pure in heart (Matthew 5:8) and mentioned in Hebrews 12:14 as possible only to the holy, and promised in Psalm 17:15. Even here on earth we can see God in the face of Christ (2 Corinthians 4:6), but now in the New Jerusalem we can see Christ face to face (1 Corinthians 13:12), even as he is after we are made really like him (2 Corinthians 3:18; Romans 8:29; 1 John 3:2). It is anthropomorphic language, to be sure, but it touches the essential reality of religion. “The supreme felicity is reached, immediate presence with God and the Lamb” (Beckwith). [source]

What do the individual words in 1 Corinthians 13:1 mean?

If in the tongues - of men I speak and of angels love however not have I have become a brass sounding or a cymbal clanging
Ἐὰν ταῖς γλώσσαις τῶν ἀνθρώπων λαλῶ καὶ ἀγγέλων ἀγάπην δὲ μὴ ἔχω γέγονα χαλκὸς ἠχῶν κύμβαλον ἀλαλάζον

ταῖς  in  the 
Parse: Article, Dative Feminine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
γλώσσαις  tongues 
Parse: Noun, Dative Feminine Plural
Root: γλῶσσα  
Sense: the tongue, a member of the body, an organ of speech. 2 a tongue.
τῶν  - 
Parse: Article, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root:  
Sense: this, that, these, etc.
ἀνθρώπων  of  men 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἄνθρωπος  
Sense: a human being, whether male or female.
λαλῶ  I  speak 
Parse: Verb, Present Subjunctive Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: ἀπολαλέω 
Sense: to utter a voice or emit a sound.
ἀγγέλων  of  angels 
Parse: Noun, Genitive Masculine Plural
Root: ἄγγελος  
Sense: a messenger, envoy, one who is sent, an angel, a messenger from God.
ἀγάπην  love 
Parse: Noun, Accusative Feminine Singular
Root: ἀγάπη  
Sense: brotherly love, affection, good will, love, benevolence.
δὲ  however 
Parse: Conjunction
Root: δέ  
Sense: but, moreover, and, etc.
γέγονα  I  have  become 
Parse: Verb, Perfect Indicative Active, 1st Person Singular
Root: γίνομαι  
Sense: to become, i.
χαλκὸς  a  brass 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: χαλκός  
Sense: brass.
ἠχῶν  sounding 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Masculine Singular
Root: ἠχέω  
Sense: to sound.
κύμβαλον  a  cymbal 
Parse: Noun, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: κύμβαλον  
Sense: a cymbal, i.
ἀλαλάζον  clanging 
Parse: Verb, Present Participle Active, Nominative Neuter Singular
Root: ἀλαλάζω  
Sense: to repeat frequently the cry “alala” as soldiers used to do on entering into battle.