Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
UZAL . 1. A son of Joktan ( Genesis 10:27 , 1 Chronicles 1:21 ). 2. A place named in Ezekiel 27:19 (RVm [Note: Revised Version margin.] ‘from Uzal,’ AVm [Note: Authorized Version margin.] ‘ Meuzal ’) a difficult passage, the text being in disorder. Davidson ( Ezekiel, in loc .) suggests that, although the most serious objections occur to the rendering, it might read, ‘ Vedan and Javan of Uzal furnished their wares, etc.’ Uzal is thought to be the ancient name of San‘a , the capital of el-Yemen . The name San‘a may have been given by the Abyssinians, in whose tongue it means ‘fortress.’ The modern Jewish inhabitants, who occupy a separate quarter, are reported to have come from India. But although none of the pre-Islamic Jewish stock remains, they were influential in the century before Mohammed (Harris, el-Yemen , 313). Probably the name Azal or Izal , by which the town was then known, may have been due to their revival of the ancient name (Glaser, Skizze , ii. 427). In Arabic azal means ‘eternity.’ This may account for the Arabs’ belief that it is the world’s oldest city (Margoliouth in Hastings’ D B [Note: Dictionary of the Bible.] , s.v .). Iron is found in several districts of Central Arabia (Doughty, Arabia Deserta ). The steel made in San‘a is still highly esteemed, especially the sword- and dagger-blades (Harris, op. cit . 310 ff.).
Standing on the floor of a spacious valley, 7250 feet above the level of the sea, San‘a is dominated by a fortress on Jebel NujÃ»m , which rises abruptly to the east. The height renders the climate delightful. The gardens and orchards are luxurious and fruitful. A river bed lies through the city, and in the rainy season is full of water. In the dry months water is supplied by deep wells. The splendid palace of Ghumdan, and the adjoining temple dedicated to Zahrah, the Arabian Venus, were destroyed by Othman, the third Caliph. The same fate befell the famous Christian church built by Abraha el-Ashran, viceroy of el-Yemen under the Abyssinian king Aryat, for the building of which the Emperor of Rome is said to have sent marble and workmen (Harris, op. cit . 291 322). According to Ibn Khaldun, San‘a was the seat of the Himyarite kings for centuries before Islam.
Easton's Bible Dictionary
A wanderer, a descendant of Joktan (Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ), the founder apparently of one of the Arab tribes; the name also probably of the province they occupied and of their chief city.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
Joktan's sixth son (Genesis 10:27; 1 Chronicles 1:21). The capital of the Yemen (Arabia Felix) was originally Awzal (now San'a), anciently the most flourishing of Arab communities, its rivals being Sheba and Sephar. The Greek and Roman writers (Pliny, N. H. 12:16) call it Auzara, a city of the Gebanitae. Uzal is situated on an elevation, with a stream running through it from Mount Sawafee; it has a citadel. Transl. for "going to and fro," Ezekiel 27:19, "from Uzal." This is added to "Javan" to mark which Javan is meant, Genesis 10:27.
Morrish Bible Dictionary
Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 . His descendants are traced to Sana (the ancient name of which was Awzal), the capital of the Yemen in Southern Arabia.