Places Study on Pontus

Places Study on Pontus

Acts 2: Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,
Acts 18: And found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came unto them.
1 Peter 1: Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

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Pontus

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People's Dictionary of the Bible - Pontus
Pontus (pŏn'tus). A Roman province in the north of Asia Minor, along the coast of the Euxine Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was derived. It is three times mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 2:9; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1. There were many Jewish residents in the district.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Quem Terra, Pontus, Sidera
Hymn for Matins on those feasts of Our Lady which have no proper hymn for Matins. It is attributed to Fortunatus (530-609). There are 18 translations. The English title given above is by J. Neale.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Pontus
A province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern coast of the Euxine Sea, corresponding nearly to the modern province of Trebizond. In the time of the apostles it was a Roman province. Strangers from this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9 ), and to "strangers scattered throughout Pontus," among others, Peter addresses his first epistle (1 Peter 1:1 ). It was evidently the resort of many Jews of the Dispersion. Aquila was a native of Pontus (Acts 18:2 ).

Holman Bible Dictionary - Pontus
(pahn' tuhss) A province just south of the Black Sea in Asia Minor. The terrain varies from fertile plains along the shore to rugged mountains farther inland. The Greeks colonized the plains shortly after 700 B.C., but the mountains remained free of their influence. Mithradates founded the kingdom of Pontus in about 302 B.C. and it remained in his dynasty until 63 B.C. when Rome took over. Christianity spread to Pontus early. First Peter was addressed to the elect there (Isaiah 1:2 ). Citizens of Pontus were in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9 ). See Asia Minor.



Hitchcock's Bible Names - Pontus
The sea
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Pontus
Maritime district in the N.E. of Asia Minor, where many Jews were located: it was the native place of Aquila. Acts 2:9 ; Acts 18:2 ; 1 Peter 1:1 .

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Pontus
N. of Asia Minor, stretching along the Euxine sea (Ρontus , from whence its name). Acts 2:9-10; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1; which passages show many Jews resided there. Pompey defeated its great king Mithridates, and so gained the W. of Pontus for Rome, while the E. continued under native chieftains. Under Nero all Pontus became a Roman province. Berenice, great granddaughter of Herod the Great, married Poleme II, the last petty monarch. Paul saw her afterward with her brother Agrippa II at Caesarea.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Pontus
PONTUS . In the earliest times of which we have any knowledge, this name, meaning ‘sea’ in Greek, was used by Greeks to indicate vaguely country bordering on or near the Black Sea. From its importance for the corn supply of Greece, the Black Sea and the land around it came to be known as ‘the sea’ par excellence . As time went on the term gradually became confined to the country to the south of the Black Sea. It was not till about b.c. 302 that a kingdom was here formed. In that year, consequent upon the troubles due to the early death of Alexander the Great, a certain Mithradates was able to carve out for himself a kingdom beyond the river Halys in N.E. Asia Minor, and about b.c. 281 he assumed the title of king. It is not possible to define the exact extent of the territory ruled by this king and his descendants, but it is certain that it included part of the country previously called Cappadocia, some of the mountain tribes near the Black Sea coasts, and part of Pophiagonia; and also certain that its extent varied from time to time. The Mithradatic dynasty lasted till b.c. 63. In the preceding year the kingdom ceased to exist, and part of it was incorporated in the Roman Empire under the name Pontus, and this district henceforth constituted one-half of the combined province Bithynia-Pontus, which was put under one governor. The remaining portions of the old kingdom were distributed in other ways. The civil wars helped Pharnaces, a son of the last Mithradates, to acquire the whole of his father’s kingdom, but his brief reign ended in defeat by Julius Cæsar (b.c. 47). The narrowed kingdom of Pontus was re-constituted by Mark Antony in b.c. 39, and given in b.c. 36 to Polemon, who founded a dynasty, which ruled over this kingdom till a.d. 63. The daughter of this Polemon, Queen Tryphæna, is mentioned in the apocryphal book, The Acts of Paul and Thecla , as having been present at a great Imperial festival at Pisidian Antioch in the reign of the Emperor Claudius, whose blood-relation she was. This statement is no doubt founded on fact. These Acts relate that she protected the Christian maiden Thecla, and was converted, through her instrumentality, to Christianity. As tradition connects Bartholomew also with the Polemonian dynasty, it is probable that there were some Christians among them. In a.d. 63 the kingdom of Pontus had been brought to a sufficiently high pitch of civilization to be admitted into the Roman Empire; the western part was made a region of the province Galatia, and the eastern was added to Cappadocia. The dispossessed Polemon was given a Cilician kingdom, and it was as king of part of Cilicia that be (later than a.d. 63) married Berenice.

In the 1st cent. a.d., therefore, the name Pontus had various significations, and a strict nomenclature was available for their distinction. The province was Pontus, Polemon’s kingdom was Pontus Polemoniacus (incorporated into province Galatia a.d. 63), the part of Mithradates’ old kingdom incorporated in the province Galatia (b.c. 3 2) was Pontus Galaticus, and the regions that lay E. of Pontus Polemoniacus, between the Black Sea and Armenia, were known as Pontus Cappadocicus. (Into the difficult question of the institution of this fourth district we cannot enter here.) From about a.d. 78 to 106 P. Galaticus and P. Polemoniacus were included in the combined provinces Galatia and Cappadocia, and after a.d. 106 they constituted permanent parts of the province Cappadocia. In 1 Peter 1:1 Peterontus means clearly the Roman province. There is little doubt that the adjective Pontikos , applied to Aquila in Acts 18:2 , means that, though a Jew, he was a native of the Roman province, and it is interesting in connexion with this to mention that an inscription has recently been found referring to one Aquila at Sinope, one of the principal cities of the Roman province Pontus. The only remaining NT reference to Pontus ( Acts 2:9 ) cannot be so easily explained. It must be left uncertain whether the name Pontus there is used strictly of the province, or more loosely of the kingdom, or of the kingdom and the province together.

Christianity was not brought to Pontus by St. Paul, if we can trust the silence of Acts, and it is best to do so. From 1Peter it is clear that about the year 80, the probable date of the Epistle, there were Christians in that country, and these converts from paganism to Christianity probably came there from the Asian coasts or from Rome. There is a well-known and valuable testimony to the prevalence of Christianity in the province, belonging to the period a.d. 111 113. At that time the younger Pliny was governor of the province Bithynia-Pontus, and addressed inquiries to the Emperor Trajan on the manner in which Christians ought to be treated by the administration. He reports that many men and women of all ages and of every rank in town and country were Christians, and that some had abandoned the faith 20 or 25 years before. After Pliny’s time Pontus continued to be a stronghold of Christianity. From here came the famous Marcion (born about 120 at Sinope), and of this province Aquila , a translator of the OT into Greek, was a native.

A. Souter.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Pontus
The sea, the northeastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Euxine Sea, west by Galatia and Paphlagonia, south by Cappadocia and part of Armenia, and east by Colchis. It was originally governed by kings, and was in its most flourishing state under Mithridates the Great, who waged a long and celebrated war with the Romans; but was at length subdued by Pompey; after which Pontus became a province of the Roman empire. The geographer Strabo was born in Amasia, its capital; and one of its principal towns, Trapezus, still flourishes under the name of Trebizond. Many Jews resided there, and from time to time "went up to Jerusalem unto the feast," Acts 2:9 . The devoted Aquila was a native of Pontus, Acts 18:2 ; and the gospel was planted there at an early period, 1 Peter 1:1 .

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pontus
(Πόντος)

To early Greek writers, Pontus vaguely denoted any coastland of the ‘Inhospitable Sea’-Πόντος ἄξενος, afterwards changed into Πόντος εὔξεινος-beyond the Bosporus. To Herodotus (vii. 95) it meant the southern littoral of the Euxine, and to Xenophon (Anab. V. vi. 15) the south-eastern. It had not a definite geographical meaning till the founding of the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates in the troubled period which followed the death of Alexander the Great.

‘The Macedonians obtained possession of Cappadocia after it had been divided by the Persians into two satrapies, and permitted, partly with and partly without the consent of the people, the satrapies to be altered to two kingdoms, one of which they called Cappadocia proper, … the other they called Pontus, but according to other writers Cappadocia on Pontus’ (ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία) (Strabo, XII. i. 4). Polybius names the kingdom ‘Cappadocia towards the Euxine’ (Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον) (v. xliii. 1). In popular usage the single word Pontus displaced the more cumbrous nomenclature.

This kingdom attained its greatest prosperity and power in the reign of Mithridates IV. Eupator (111-63 b.c.), who extended it to Heracleia on the border of Bithynia in the west and to Colchis and Lesser Armenia in the east (Strabo, XII. iii. 1); but his wars with the Romans ended in his overthrow. The western part of his kingdom was joined to Bithynia to form the double province Pontus-Bithynia, which existed for three centuries. The eastern part was broken up into possessions for a number of native dynasts, and one of the larger fragments passed in 36 b.c. from the family of Mithridates to Polemon of Laodicea, the founder of a new dynasty of Pontic kings, which lasted till a.d. 63. Other portions were added one by one to the province of Galatia, forming together Pontus Galaticus, whose chief towns were Amasia and Comana. In a.d. 63 the Romans, thinking that Polemon’s vassal kingdom had become civilized enough to be incorporated in the Empire, added part of it, including the cities of Trapezus and Neo-Caesarea, to the province of Galatia as Pontus Polemonaicus, a name which it retained for centuries. Polemon II. was consoled for his loss by receiving the kingdom of Cilicia Tracheia, and he afterwards married Berenice (q.v._), the sister of Herod Agrippa. Still another fragment of the old kingdom of Pontus was added to the province of Cappadocia, and called Pontus Cappadocicus. From a.d. 78-106 the provinces of Galatia and Cappadocia were united for administrative purposes. When they were separated again by Trajan, Pontus Galaticus and Pontus Polemonaicus were permanently joined to Cappadocia.

Philo (Leg. ad Gaium, 36) testifies that in his time the Jews had penetrated ἄχρι Βιθυνίας καὶ τῶν τοῦ Πόντου μυχῶν. Pontus stands in the list of countries from which Jews and proselytes came to Jerusalem to attend the Feast of Pentecost (Acts 2:9). As the geographical names in this list have their popular rather than their Imperial meaning, Pontus may either denote the province of Pontus alone, or may include Galatic and Polemonian Pontus; but Polemon’s kingdom was scarcely settled enough to be likely to attract Jewish colonists. ‘The elect who are strangers of the Dispersion in Pontus’ are named as the readers of the First Epistle of St. Peter (1:1), and here the language is strictly Roman, for the three provinces Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, together with the dual province Pontus-Bithynia, are meant to sum up the whole of Asia Minor north of the Taurus. The severance in this passage of Pontus from Bithynia, as well as the order in which the provinces are named, requires an explanation, and the best has been suggested by G. H. A. Ewald (Sieben Sendschreiben des neuen Bundes, 1870, p. 2f.). The order indicated is that of an actual Journey, which the bearer of the Epistle-probably Silvanus, the amanuensis (1 Peter 5:12)-is about to undertake. Landing at one of the seaports of Pontus (Sinope or Amisus) he will make a circuit of Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, and work his way through Bithynia to another port of the Euxine (cf. F. J. A. Hort, The First Epistle of St. Peter, I. 1-II. 17, 1898, p. 17).

The first cities of Pontus to receive Christianity were doubtless those of the seaboard, from which it must have rapidly spread inland. Pliny the Younger was sent to administer Pontus and Bithynia in a.d. 111, and his correspondence with Trajan gives a clear idea of the changes already being wrought by the new religion-in his view a ‘superstitio prava immodica’-not only in the great towns but in remote country places (Ep. x. 97). His reference to renegades who professed to have renounced their Christian faith as much as twenty five years previously indicates that some parts of the province had been evangelized some time before a.d. 87 or 88. The First Epistle of Peter, even if it was not written till a.d. 80, carries the date of the introduction of Christianity into Pontus a good deal further back.

Aquila, the fellow-worker of St. Paul, was a native of Pontus (Acts 18:2). Another Aquila, the translator of the OT into Greek, who lived in the time of Hadrian, belonged to the same province. An inscription to an Aquila of Sinope (Sinub) has recently been found. Sinope was the birthplace of Marcion, whose father is said to have been a bishop.

Literature.-W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, Hist. Geography of Asia Minor, 1890; J. G. C. Anderson, ‘Exploration in Pontus,’ in Studia Pontica, 1903, and F. and E. Cumont, ‘Voyage d’exploration archéol. dans le Pont et la petite Arménie,’ ib., 1906.

James strahan.

Sentence search

Pon'Tus, - a large district in the north of Asia Minor, extending along the coast of the Pontus Euxinus Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was derived. As to the annals of Pontus, the one brilliant passage of its history is the life of the great Mithridates. Under Nero the whole region was made of Roman province, bearing the name of Pontus
Pontus - (Πόντος)... To early Greek writers, Pontus vaguely denoted any coastland of the ‘Inhospitable Sea’-Πόντος ἄξενος, afterwards changed into Πόντος εὔξεινος-beyond the Bosporus. It had not a definite geographical meaning till the founding of the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates in the troubled period which followed the death of Alexander the Great. ... ‘The Macedonians obtained possession of Cappadocia after it had been divided by the Persians into two satrapies, and permitted, partly with and partly without the consent of the people, the satrapies to be altered to two kingdoms, one of which they called Cappadocia proper, … the other they called Pontus, but according to other writers Cappadocia on Pontus’ (ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία) (Strabo, XII. In popular usage the single word Pontus displaced the more cumbrous nomenclature. The western part of his kingdom was joined to Bithynia to form the double province Pontus-Bithynia, which existed for three centuries. Other portions were added one by one to the province of Galatia, forming together Pontus Galaticus, whose chief towns were Amasia and Comana. 63 the Romans, thinking that Polemon’s vassal kingdom had become civilized enough to be incorporated in the Empire, added part of it, including the cities of Trapezus and Neo-Caesarea, to the province of Galatia as Pontus Polemonaicus, a name which it retained for centuries. Still another fragment of the old kingdom of Pontus was added to the province of Cappadocia, and called Pontus Cappadocicus. When they were separated again by Trajan, Pontus Galaticus and Pontus Polemonaicus were permanently joined to Cappadocia. Pontus stands in the list of countries from which Jews and proselytes came to Jerusalem to attend the Feast of Pentecost (Acts 2:9). As the geographical names in this list have their popular rather than their Imperial meaning, Pontus may either denote the province of Pontus alone, or may include Galatic and Polemonian Pontus; but Polemon’s kingdom was scarcely settled enough to be likely to attract Jewish colonists. ‘The elect who are strangers of the Dispersion in Pontus’ are named as the readers of the First Epistle of St. Peter (1:1), and here the language is strictly Roman, for the three provinces Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, together with the dual province Pontus-Bithynia, are meant to sum up the whole of Asia Minor north of the Taurus. The severance in this passage of Pontus from Bithynia, as well as the order in which the provinces are named, requires an explanation, and the best has been suggested by G. Landing at one of the seaports of Pontus (Sinope or Amisus) he will make a circuit of Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, and work his way through Bithynia to another port of the Euxine (cf. ... The first cities of Pontus to receive Christianity were doubtless those of the seaboard, from which it must have rapidly spread inland. Pliny the Younger was sent to administer Pontus and Bithynia in a. 80, carries the date of the introduction of Christianity into Pontus a good deal further back. Paul, was a native of Pontus (Acts 18:2). Anderson, ‘Exploration in Pontus,’ in Studia Pontica, 1903, and F
Pontus - Pontus (pŏn'tus). A Roman province in the north of Asia Minor, along the coast of the Euxine Sea (Pontus), from which circumstance the name was derived
Pontus - Mithradates founded the kingdom of Pontus in about 302 B. Christianity spread to Pontus early. Citizens of Pontus were in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:9 )
Pontic - ) Of or pertaining to the Pontus, Euxine, or Black Sea
Pontus - Pontus . In the preceding year the kingdom ceased to exist, and part of it was incorporated in the Roman Empire under the name Pontus, and this district henceforth constituted one-half of the combined province Bithynia-Pontus, which was put under one governor. The narrowed kingdom of Pontus was re-constituted by Mark Antony in b. 63 the kingdom of Pontus had been brought to a sufficiently high pitch of civilization to be admitted into the Roman Empire; the western part was made a region of the province Galatia, and the eastern was added to Cappadocia. , therefore, the name Pontus had various significations, and a strict nomenclature was available for their distinction. The province was Pontus, Polemon’s kingdom was Pontus Polemoniacus (incorporated into province Galatia a. 3 2) was Pontus Galaticus, and the regions that lay E. of Pontus Polemoniacus, between the Black Sea and Armenia, were known as Pontus Cappadocicus. There is little doubt that the adjective Pontikos , applied to Aquila in Acts 18:2 , means that, though a Jew, he was a native of the Roman province, and it is interesting in connexion with this to mention that an inscription has recently been found referring to one Aquila at Sinope, one of the principal cities of the Roman province Pontus. The only remaining NT reference to Pontus ( Acts 2:9 ) cannot be so easily explained. It must be left uncertain whether the name Pontus there is used strictly of the province, or more loosely of the kingdom, or of the kingdom and the province together. ... Christianity was not brought to Pontus by St. At that time the younger Pliny was governor of the province Bithynia-Pontus, and addressed inquiries to the Emperor Trajan on the manner in which Christians ought to be treated by the administration. After Pliny’s time Pontus continued to be a stronghold of Christianity
Pontus - Strangers from this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9 ), and to "strangers scattered throughout Pontus," among others, Peter addresses his first epistle (1 Peter 1:1 ). Aquila was a native of Pontus (Acts 18:2 )
Pontus - of Pontus for Rome, while the E. Under Nero all Pontus became a Roman province
Chalybean - ) Of or pertaining to the Chalybes, an ancient people of Pontus in Asia Minor, celebrated for working in iron and steel
Alexander the Charcoal Burner, Saint - 250) Martyr, Bishop of Comana in Pontus
Pontus - It was originally governed by kings, and was in its most flourishing state under Mithridates the Great, who waged a long and celebrated war with the Romans; but was at length subdued by Pompey; after which Pontus became a province of the Roman empire. The devoted Aquila was a native of Pontus, Acts 18:2 ; and the gospel was planted there at an early period, 1 Peter 1:1
Remember, o Creator Lord - Its first verse is taken from the hymn "Jesu Redemptor omnium"; its second verse is a continuation of the hymns "Quem terra, Pontus, sidera," and "O gloriosa virginum," which have been attributed to Fortunatus (530-609)
Steel - It has been inferred from a passage in (Jeremiah 15:12 ) that the "iron from the north" there spoken of denoted a superior kind of metal, hardened in an unusual manner, like the steel obtained from the Chalybes of the Pontus, the iron smiths of the ancient world. The hardening of iron for cutting instruments was practiced in Pontus, Lydia and Laconia
Bernice - king of Pontus or Cilicia; but eventually became mistress of both Vespasian and Titus: in all this keeping up the dissolute character of the Herods
Steel - Rather copper, which being mixed with "iron" by the Chalybes near the Euxine Pontus formed the hardest metal, "the northern iron and the steel
Bithynia - Peter, became Christians; for Peter (1 Peter 1:1) addresses them along with those of "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia. ... On the death of Mithridates king of Pontus, 63 B. of Pontus including Paphlagonia was joined to Bithynia. The Roman province is sometimes called "Pontus and Bithynia. " In Acts 2:9 Pontus alone is mentioned, in 1 Peter 1:1 both are mentioned
Cappadocia - ... Although the extent of Cappadocia varied through the centuries depending on the currently dominant empire, it lay south of Pontus and stretched about 300 miles from Galatia eastward toward Armenia, with Cilicia and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Those converted to Christianity that day must have given a good witness when they returned home because in 1 Peter 1:1 believers there are mentioned along with others in Pontus. The Christian message was probably carried to Pontus by way of the highway that went northward across Cappadocia from Tarsus through the narrow mountain pass known as the Cilician Gates
Aquila - A Jew born in Pontus, a tent-maker by occupation, who with his wife Priscilla joined the Christian church at Rome
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - (Greek: thauma, wonder; ergo, work) ... Confessor, Bishop of Neocaesarea, born Neocaesarea in Pontus (Asia Minor), 213; died there, 270. " He is also well known as a writer and some of his chief works are: "Oratio Panegyrica," in honor of Origen; "Tractatus ad Theopompum," on the passibility and impassibility of God; "Epistola Canonica," an explanation of the organization of the churches of Pontus under Gregory; and "Exposition of the Faith," showing Gregory's idea of the Trinity
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Saint - (Greek: thauma, wonder; ergo, work) ... Confessor, Bishop of Neocaesarea, born Neocaesarea in Pontus (Asia Minor), 213; died there, 270. " He is also well known as a writer and some of his chief works are: "Oratio Panegyrica," in honor of Origen; "Tractatus ad Theopompum," on the passibility and impassibility of God; "Epistola Canonica," an explanation of the organization of the churches of Pontus under Gregory; and "Exposition of the Faith," showing Gregory's idea of the Trinity
Thaumaturgus, Gregory, Saint - (Greek: thauma, wonder; ergo, work) ... Confessor, Bishop of Neocaesarea, born Neocaesarea in Pontus (Asia Minor), 213; died there, 270. " He is also well known as a writer and some of his chief works are: "Oratio Panegyrica," in honor of Origen; "Tractatus ad Theopompum," on the passibility and impassibility of God; "Epistola Canonica," an explanation of the organization of the churches of Pontus under Gregory; and "Exposition of the Faith," showing Gregory's idea of the Trinity
Cappadocia - Peter, who addresses his First Epistle to the dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Asia
Bernice - 48, she was married to Polemon, king of Pontus, but did not long continue with him
Ellasar - Others suggest it is located on the southern coast of the Black Sea near Pontus in Asia Minor
Bithynia - a country of Asia Minor, stretching along the shore of the Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea, from Mysia to Paphlagonia; having Phrygia and Galatia on the south
Macrina, the Elder - Macrina (1) , the Elder , the paternal grandmother of Basil and Gregory Nyssen, resident at and probably a native of Neocaesarea in Pontus. In the persecution of Galerius and Maximin, Macrina and her husband, to save their lives, left home with a slender equipment and escaped to a hill forest of Pontus, where they are said to have lived in safe retirement for seven years
aq'Uila - D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Cappadocia - The largest ancient province of Asia Minor; having Pontus on the north, mount Taurus, separating it from Cilicia and Syria, on the south, Galatia on the west, and the Euphrates and Armenia on the east
Bithynia - For administrative purposes it was generally united with the province of Pontus, which bounds it on the E
Aquila - A converted Jew of Pontus, husband of Priscilla, whom Paul first met at Corinth
Aquila - A Jew of Pontus whom Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens
Basilian Monks - Basil, in the fourth century, who, having retired into a desert in the province of Pontus, founded a monastery, and drew up rules, to the amount of some hundreds, for his disciples
Pilate - His name was Pontius as well as Pilate, perhaps, he might be of Pontus
Basil the Great, Saint - Influenced by his sister Macrina, he founded a monastery in Pontus near Annesi
John Chrysostom, Saint - 347;died Comana, Pontus, 407
Aquila - Eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met on his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2 )
Mesech - Associated with Tubal, the Tibareni of Pontus
Silas, Silvanus - Later in his ministry Silas teamed with Peter on missions in Pontus and Cappadocia
Asia Minor - Divided into two ecclesiastical provinces, Asia under Constantinople, and Pontus under Antioch, it included more than 300 episcopal sees, one for practically every town
Galatia - A large district in the centre of Asia Minor, having Bithynia on its north, Pontus on its east, Lycaonia and Cappadocia on its south, and Phrygia on its west
Galatia - A central province of Asia Minor, subject to the Roman rule, bounded by Bithynia and Paphlagonia on the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west
Gala'Tia - The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia
Cappadocia - Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N
Asia - In Acts 2:9,10 'Asia' does not include Cappadocia, Pontus, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, which are all included in Asia Minor
Ashkenaz - From the same source, likewise, the Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea, derived its name
Delos - 87 of a horrible massacre carried out by Mithradates, king of Pontus, who slaughtered 80,000 Italians there and in neighbouring islands
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - seven which he calls "Catholic Epistles," addressed to Lacedemon, Athens, Nicomedia, Gortyna and other churches in Crete, Amastris and other churches in Pontus, Cnossus and Rome; and one to "his most faithful sister Chrysophora. In most of them the bishop of the church addressed is mentioned with honour; Palmas in Pontus, Philip and Pinytus in Crete, Soter at Rome. Eusebius mentions two, Bacchylides and Elpistus, at whose instance that to the churches of Pontus was written. the "expositions of the divine Scriptures," which Eusebius tells us were contained in the letter of Dionysius to the churches of Pontus. We may see traces of the same heresy in the subjects treated of in the letter to the churches of Pontus (the home of Marcion), to which Dionysius gave instructions concerning marriage and chastity (marriage having been proscribed by Marcion), and which he also exhorted to receive back those who returned after any fall, whether into irregularity of living or into heretical error. 198, when we find Palmas of Pontus still alive, but a new bishop (Bacchylus) at Corinth
Dispersion - So we find Aquila from Pontus, Barnabas of Cyprus, Apollos of Alexandria, Clement probably of Rome. Forty years after Peter's martyrdom, Pliny, Roman governor of Pontus and Bithynia, writing to the emperor Trajan, says: "the contagion (Christianity) has seized not only cities, but the smaller towns and country, so that the temples are nearly forsaken and the sacred rites intermitted
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - With Basil he lived for a time as a hermit in a secluded part of Pontus; returning to Nazianzus, he was ordained by his father, 361
Bithynia - ), and after the expulsion of Mithridates of Pontus (64 b. ), Pompey formed the dual province of Bithynia et Pontus, which was governed by a proconsul, residing at Nicomedeia
Galatia - They then occupied the northern part of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Pontus and Bithynia, on the east by Tavium and Pessinus in the west
Aquila - This person was a native of Pontus in Asia Minor, and was converted by St
Galatia - , and Bithynia and Pontus N
Aerians - a sect which arose about the middle of the fourth century, being the followers of Aerius, (who must be distinguished from Arius and Aetius,) a monk and a presbyter of Sebastia, in Pontus
Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea - A coldness grew up between Eusebius and Basil, leading to Basil's three years' retirement to Pontus
Theodorus of Amasea - In winter quarters at Amasea the capital of Pontus, his refusal to join his comrades in sacrifice declared him a Christian
Macedonius ii, Patriarch of Constantinople - Thereupon Anastasius had him carried off by night and taken to Chalcedon, to be conducted thence to Eucaïta in Pontus, the place of the exile of his predecessor. 517, at Gangra, where he had retired for fear of the Huns, who ravaged all Cappadocia, Galatia, and Pontus
Aquila And Priscilla - ... Aquila was a Jew, born in Pontus (as was the Aquila who translated the Old Testament into Greek); the name is Latin, assumed as Jews often took a Roman name, when thrown into much intercourse with Romans
Paulus Edessenus - But Paul still refused to submit, and was at length deposed and banished to Euchaita in Pontus, July 522
Marcionites - Marcion was of Pontus, the son of a bishop, and at first made profession of the monastical life; but he was excommunicated by his own father, who would never admit him again into communion with the church, not even on his repentance
Armenia - a considerable country of Asia, having Colchis and Iberia on the north, Media on the east, Mesopotamia on the south, Pontus and Cappadocia on the west, and the Euphrates and Syria on the south-west
Galatia - A province of Asia Minor, lying south and southeast of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, west of Pontus, north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northeast of Lycaonia and Phrygia
Lycaonia - Later the whole or part of it belonged successively to the Pergamenian kings, the Galatians, Cappadocia, and Pontus
Forty Martyrs, the - Basil obtained some for their monastery near the village of Annesi in Pontus, where already a church had been built in their honour (Greg
Aerius, Founder of the Heretical Sect of the Aerians - He was the early friend and fellow-disciple of Eustathius of Sebaste in Pontus
Asterius, Bishop of Amasea - of Amasea in Pontus, a contemporary of St
Iron (2) - )... In Jeremiah 15:12 "shall iron break the northern iron and the steel?" Rather "can common iron break the northern iron and copper combined into the hardest metal?" The northern Chalybes near the Euxine Pontus made this mixture like our steel
Monachism - Greek monasticism received impetus from Saint Basil, who founded a monastery at Neo-Cresarea, in Pontus, c
Monasticism - Greek monasticism received impetus from Saint Basil, who founded a monastery at Neo-Cresarea, in Pontus, c
Galatia - This is the second sense in which the term Galatia is used in ancient documents, namely, the sphere of duty which included the ethnic districts, Papblagonia, Pontus Galaticus, Galatia (in the original narrower sense), Phrygia Galatica, and Lycaonia Galatica (with ‘the Added Land,’ part of the original Lycaonian tetrarchy). The bearer of the letter evidently landed at some port on the Black Sea, perhaps Sinope, and visited the provinces in the order in which they appear in the address of the letter: Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, taking ship again at the Black Sea for Rome
Metals - In Jeremiah 15:12, "shall iron break the northern iron and the steel?" the metal meant is copper mixed with iron by the Chalybes near the Pontus far N
Aquila And Priscilla - Aquila was a Jew of Eastern origin ‘a man of Pontus by race’ ( Acts 18:2 )
Peter, First Epistle of - This was addressed to believing Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - Macrina, his paternal grandmother, and her husband, were compelled to leave their home in Pontus, of which country they were natives, and to take refuge among the woods and mountains of that province, where they are reported to have passed seven years (Greg. Gregory Nazianzen speaks of this elder Basil in terms of the highest commendation as one who was regarded by the whole of Pontus as "the common instructor of virtue" ( Or. ] Basil was indebted for the care of his earliest years to his grandmother Macrina, who brought him up at her country house, not far from Neocaesarea in the province of Pontus (Bas. On his retirement to Pontus, Basil devoted all his worldly possessions to the service of the poor, retaining them, however, in his own hands, and by degrees divesting himself of them as occasion required. He repeatedly made missionary journeys through Pontus; his preaching resulting in the founding of many coenobitic industrial communities and monasteries for both sexes, and in the restoration of the purity of the orthodox faith (Rufin. Throughout Pontus and Cappadocia Basil was the means of the erection of numerous hospitals for the poor, houses of refuge for virgins, orphanages, and other homes of beneficence. A schism was imminent, but Basil, refusing to strengthen the heretical party by creating divisions among the orthodox, retired with his friend Gregory to Pontus, where he devoted himself to the care of the monasteries he had founded (Greg. He was metropolitan of Cappadocia, and exarch of Pontus
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - He retired to a monastery in Pontus, almost certainly that on the river Iris presided over by his brother Basil, and in close vicinity to Annesi, where was the female convent of which his sister Macrina was the superior. At Pontus, c. Towards the close of his residence in Pontus, a. The miserable Demosthenes [See Basilius] had been recently appointed vicar of Pontus to do all in his power to crush the adherents of the Nicene faith. The people at Ibora on the borders of Pontus, having lost their bishop by death, elected Gregory to the vacant see. Among these Gregory Nyssen appears, together with his metropolitan Helladius of Caesarea and Otreius of Melitene, for the diocese of Pontus (Cod
Evagrius Ponticus, Anchoret And Writer - Evagrius (12) Ponticus , anchoret and writer, born at Ibora in Pontus Galaticus, according to Tillemont, in 345
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - of Neocaesarea in Pontus, c. 30), who adds that "they made such improvement that both, though very young, were honoured with the episcopate in the churches of Pontus. They refer to the circumstances which followed the ravages of the Goths and Boradi in Pontus, and Asia Minor generally, during the reign of Gallienus. The prevailing disorder tempted numerous Christians in Pontus to flagrant acts of impiety and disloyalty. of Pontus, who had asked his advice, c
Aquila - Paul, a native of Pontus, and probably, according to the more definite tradition, of Sinope
Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. - Under the emperor Julian they were strong enough to declare in synod at Zele in Pontus their separation from both Arians and orthodox
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - The work of rebuilding was placed in the hands of a Jew Aquila of Pontus and the Jews petitioned for permission to rebuild their temple. , the followers of SATURNINUS in Syria, of BASILIDES, CARPOCRATES, and VALENTINUS in Egypt, of MARCION in Pontus (Eus
Asia - The four provinces named-Bithynia and Pontus, though here separated, being really one-sum up the whole of Asia Minor north of Taurus
Province - For the Imperial period we have the correspondence between Pliny, governor of Bithynia-Pontus, and the Emperor Trajan (c. , were eleven in number-Asia, Africa, Hispania Baetica, Gallia Narbonensis, Sardinia et Corsica, Sicilia, Macedonia, Achaea, Creta et Cyrenae, Cyprus, Bithynia et Pontus
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - ... But in the midst of various trifling irritations of domestic duty, which went far to mar the life he had marked out for himself, Gregory heard from Basil, who had resolved to found a coenobitic system in Pontus, and asked his friend to join him. >From Caesarea he again wrote to Gregory, after which Gregory set out for Pontus. It is not clear how long he remained in Pontus. In any case he came to Nazianzus, and received letters from Basil asking him to return to Pontus ( Ep. ... While Gregory was thus employed at Nazianzus, Basil returned from Pontus to Caesarea, where Eusebius had been made bishop, and was ordained against his will. Invited by the bishop to fill the place vacated by Basil's retirement to Pontus, he does not hesitate to assert that the treatment of Basil was unjust and to demand reconciliation with his friend as the price of his own influence ( Epp
Jude, the Epistle of - ... As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses
Pius i., Bishop of Rome - Marcion of Pontus, who took up the teaching of Cerdo and developed from it his own peculiar system, arrived there after the death of Hyginus (Epiph
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - His doctrinal views seem also to have received some modification during this period, for at its close the banished heretic suddenly reappeared as the unanimous choice of the bishops of the province of Phoenicia for the vacant metropolitical see of Tyre, their choice being ratified by the leading members of the episcopate of Pontus and Palestine and accepted with warm commendation by Proclus of Constantinople
Caligula - To his kinsmen Polemo and Cotys, Gaius gave Pontus Polemoniacus and Lesser Armenia respectively
Theodotion, Otherwise Theodotus - 215), referring to the word "virgin " παρθένος ) in Is 7:14, affirms that the passage is to be read "not as certain of those who now venture to misinterpret the Scripture, 'Behold, the damsel ( νεᾶνις ) shall be with child and shall bear a son'; as Theodotion of Ephesus interpreted it and Aquila of Pontus, both Jewish proselytes; following whom the Ebionites pretend that he was begotten of Joseph
Victor, Bishop of Rome - Synods were held on the subject in various parts—in Palestine under Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem, in Pontus under Palmas, in Gaul under Irenaeus, in Corinth under its bishop, Bachillus, at Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, and elsewhere, by all of which synodical letters were issued, unanimous in disapproval of the Asian custom, and in declaring that "on the Lord's Day only the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord from the dead was accomplished, and that on that day only we keep the close of the paschal fast" (Eus
Roman Empire - -Soon after, the Romans had to meet one of the direst enemies in all their long history, Mithradates (120-63), king of Pontus, south of the Black Sea. He reduced Pontus and thereafter Syria (64) to the state of Roman provinces. To Polemo was gifted Pontus Polemoniacus, and to Cotys, younger brother of RhCEmetalces, lesser Armenia. His reign saw the addition of two provinces to the Roman Empire, Pontus Polemoniacus and Alpes Cottiae
Galatia - Thereafter they came under the influence of the kings of Pontus, but Mithridates the Great (120-63 b. , Komana Pontica (forming with Amasia the district of Pontus Galaticus [Ptolemy, v. 34, and Pontus Polemoniacus (the kingdom of Polemon II. 81), The evidence for a definite usage, however, is scanty, ‘Pontus Galaticus’ (which occurs in Ptolemy and inscriptions) not being quite a parallel ease; and other explanations of the phrase ‘Galatic region’ are certainly admissible (Moffatt, Introd
Macrina, the Younger - Devout women, some of high rank, soon gathered round them, while the birth and high connexions of Macrina and her mother attracted the daughters of the most aristocratic families in Pontus and Cappadocia to the community ( ib
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - The first of these was made by Aquila, a native of Sinope in Pontus, who had become a proselyte to Judaism
Trajan - Plinius Caecilius Secundus, governor of the province Bithynia-Pontus about 111-113
Roman Law in the nt - The senatorial provinces mentioned in the NT are: Macedonia (senatorial after the time of Claudius); Achaia; Asia (the western part of Asia Minor); Bithynia-Pontus, a united province in NT times (part of ancient Pontus was joined to Galatia, part given to the Polemonian kingdom; see below, c); Cyprus (see above); Crete-Cyrene, a joint province. Another such kingdom was that of Polemo (Πολέμων) to the east of Pontus; this kingdom existed up to a
Tarsus - Tarsus took Caesar’s side in the Civil War, and in memory of a visit which the dictator paid it in his march from Egypt to Pontus it either received or assumed the name of Juliopolis
Laodicea - Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, Armenia, 1842, i
Sabbath - Pliny the younger, proconsul of Pontus near the close of the first century, in a letter to the emperor Trajan, remarks that the Christians were "accustomed on a stated day to meet together before daylight, and to repeat a hymn to Christ as God, and to bind themselves by a solemn bond not to commit any wickedness," etc
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - Here, for 3 years, he enjoyed the intercourse of Macarius the younger and subsequently of Evagrius of Pontus
Peter Epistles of - -The apostle Peter greets Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. They are dwelling in different parts of Asia Minor-Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. The bearer of the Epistle is thought of as starting his journey from the eastern portion of the province of Bithynia-Pontus, and swinging in a circle back to the western end of it
Aquila And Priscilla - The careful description of Aquila as ‘a Jew, a man of Pontus by race’ (Acts 18:2), rather implies that Priscilla his wife was not a Jewess; because her name is usually put first, it is thought that she was of higher social standing than her husband
Peter, the Epistles of - Pontus was the country of the Christian Jew Aquila. Men of Cappadocia, as well as of "Pontus" and "Asia" (including Mysia, Lydia, Curia, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia), were among Peter's hearers on Pentecost; these brought home to their native lands the first tidings of the gospel
Christian - Peter writes to ‘the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia’ ( 1 Peter 1:1 ); and, without suggesting that ‘Christian’ was a name which the Church had yet adopted as its own, he assumes that it was perfectly familiar to the ‘elect’ themselves over a vast region of the Dispersion; and further implies that by this time, the time probably of Nero’s persecution (a
Babylon - On the occasion of the gathering at Jerusalem in Acts 2:9-11 mention is made of the Parthians, Medes and Elamites; and when Peter commences his epistle, supposing he was in the district of Babylon, he naturally puts Pontus first and then passes on to Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Asia Minor, Cities of - Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia comprised the eastern provinces, while Bitnia and Pontus bordered the Black Sea to the north
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - Authorized Version loosely translates ‘to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus,’ and wrongly transfers ἐκλεκτοῖς to the verse following
Ephesus - the inhabitants sided with Mithridates, king of Pontus, and slaughtered all resident Romans
Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste - of Sebaste (the modern Siwas ) in Pontus, on the N
Peter - Peter is supposed to have preached to the Jews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; and at length, coming to Rome, was crucified with his head downward
Nero - Two provinces were added to the Roman Empire-Pontus Polemoniacus in Northern Asia Minor, by the gift of Polemo, and the Alpes Cottiae, on the death of Cottius (Suet
Assyria - Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks
John, the Epistles of - the Christians beyond the Euphrates, outside the Roman empire, "the church at Babylon elected together with" (1 Peter 5:13) the churches in the Ephesian region, where Peter sent his epistles (1 Peter 1:1; Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, Bithynia)
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - He states that he was a native of Pontus who had made many disciples out of every nation, and refers for a more detailed refutation to a separate treatise of his own, one sentence of which has been preserved by Irenaeus (iv. Irenaeus also states that Marcion came from Pontus
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - They alleged that, though the condition was complied with in the imperial city, yet no small part of the Orientals, especially in the provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Oriens, would not be compelled by sword, fire, or torments to comply, and they implored the pope not to be more exacting than his predecessors
Apostle - Peter, as it seems, preached to the dispersed Jews in Pontus and Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; at length, coming to Rome, he was crucified with his head downward, as he had desired
Dispersion - The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad
Dispersion - The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - The course of the Halys generally formed the borders of the district of Pontus
Division of the Earth - Riphat, the second son of Gomer, seems to have given name to the Riphean mountains of the north of Asia; and Togarmah, the third son, may be traced in the Trocmi of Strabo, the Trogmi of Cicero, and Trogmades of the council of Chalcedon, inhabiting the confines of Pontus and Cappadocia
Election - Peter gives manifest prominence to the doctrine of election when, in the opening words of his First Epistle, he addresses the Jewish Christians of Pontus and other Asiatic provinces as ‘the elect who are sojourners’ there (ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, κτλ
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - They first appeared in Thessaly in the time of Pompey, and in that of Valerian devastated Macedonia, Greece, Pontus, Asia, and Illyricum
Trade And Commerce - 2 1/2 per cent) duty was also in use, for example, in the province of Asia, in the Bithynia-Pontus and Paphlagonia group, and in the ‘Three Gauls’ (Gallia Lugudunensis, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Aquitanica)
Peter - Ecclesiastes, 1) makes Peter bishop of Antioch, then to have preached in Pontus (from 1 Peter 1:1), then to have gone to Rome to refute Simon Magus (from Justin's story of a statue found at Rome to Semosanctus, the Sabine Hercules, which was confounded with Simon Magus), and to have been bishop there for 25 years (!) and to have been crucified with head downward, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and buried in the Vatican near the triumphal way
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - ), in which he expresses abhorrence of the "capitula," which he considers so unlike Cyril both in style and doctrine that he cannot believe they are his, and calls upon Firmus, if they reach Pontus, to get them abjured by the bishops of the province, without naming the supposed author
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - Andrew, and describing apostle's doings when he passed from Pontus into Greece
Trade And Commerce - 2 1/2 per cent) duty was also in use, for example, in the province of Asia, in the Bithynia-Pontus and Paphlagonia group, and in the ‘Three Gauls’ (Gallia Lugudunensis, Gallia Belgica, Gallia Aquitanica)
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 30), but taking his library, he travelled through Thrace, Pontus, Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch
Donatus And Donatism - Two of their bishops, Rogatian and Pontus, waited on the emperor; and left with full permission to return to their country
Eutyches And Eutychianism - Egypt, Thrace, and Palestine ranged themselves with Dioscorus and the emperor; Syria, Pontus, Asia, Rome, protested against the treatment of Flavian and the acquittal of Eutyches