Places Study on Phrygia

Places Study on Phrygia

Acts 2: Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes,
Acts 16: Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,
Acts 18: And after he had spent some time there, he departed, and went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples.

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Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Phrygia
Phrygia (fryj'i-ah), dry, barren. A district of Asia Minor whose limits varied at different times. Within its limits were the cities of Laodicæa, Hierapolis, Colossæ, and Antioch of Pisidia. People from Phrygia were present at Pentecost, Acts 2:10; and the apostle Paul twice traversed the country. Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23. Some converts were made, and we find Paul "strengthening all the disciples." Acts 18:23. At the Council of Nice, a.d. 325, the Phrygian churches were represented by eight bishops, and still more attended the Council of Constantinople, a.d. 381.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Phrygia
Dry, an irregular and ill-defined district in Asia Minor. It was divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and the Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that is spoken of in the New Testament. The towns of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:14 ), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Phrygia
Originally a small kingdom in Asia Minor, Phrygia was divided in two when the Romans redrew the provincial boundaries in Asia Minor. Under the Roman administration the western part of Phrygia, which included the towns of Colossae, Laodicea and Hierapolis, fell within the province of Asia. The eastern part fell within the province of Galatia (Acts 2:10; Acts 16:6; Acts 18:23). (For maps see ASIA; GALATIA.)

Holman Bible Dictionary - Phrygia
(frihg' ihaw) Place name meaning, “parched.” In very ancient times the area immediately west of the Hellespont. Later, the people migrated into Asia Minor. During Roman times, Phrygia was a subregion of Galatia, and her people often were slaves or servants. The area remained relatively undefined but contained Antioch of Pisidia, Laodicea, and at times, Iconium. Some of the Phrygians were present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost and heard the gospel in their native language (Acts 2:10 ; compare Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 ). See Asia Minor.



Hitchcock's Bible Names - Phrygia
Dry; barren
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Phrygia
The W. part of the center of Asia Minor; varying in its definition at different times, and contributing parts to several Roman provinces (Acts 2:10). Paul passed through Phrygia in his second (Acts 16:6) and third (Acts 18:23) missionary journeys. An ethnological not political division. The Taurus range separated Phrygia from Pisidia on the S.; Caria, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia were on its W. and N.; Galatia, Cappadocia, and Lycaonia on the E. It is a tableland. The Phrygia meant in Scripture is the southern portion (called "greater Phrygia") of the region above, and contained Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colosse, and Iconium. It was peopled by an Indo Germanic race from Armenia, who formed the oldest population of Asia Minor.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Phrygia
PHRYGIA . The Phrygians were an Aryan race who seem to have had their first home in Thrace, and to have crossed into Asia through the same southward movement of tribes that brought the Hellenes into Greece. In Asia they occupied at one time the greater part of the country W. of the Halys, probably displacing a Semitic race from whom they may have learned the worship of Cybele. We must regard Homer’s Trojans as part of the Phrygian race, and the Trojan War as a contest between them and Greek settlers from Thessaly. In more historical times the name Phrygia applies to an inland region varying in extent at different times, but bounded at its widest by the Sangarius on the N., the Halys on the E., the Taurus range on the S. It thus covered the W. part of the great plateau of Asia Minor and the upper valleys of the rivers Mæander and Hermus. It was a region fruitful in oil and wine, exporting also wool, gold, marble, and salt.

When the Romans inherited the kingdom of Pergamus in b.c. 133, a part of Phrygia was included in the province of Asia, but the southern portion towards Pamphylla was not included. This portion was in the hands of the dependent king of Galatia when Augustus constituted Galatia a province in b.c. 25, and was therefore included in the new province which extended from Lycia on the S.W. almost to the mouth of the Halys on the N.E. Hence this portion of Phrygia, with its cities of Antioch and Iconium, came to be known as Phrygia Galatica.

This country was included by St. Paul in the work of his first missionary journey (Acts 13:14 to Acts 14:24 ). From Perga he and Barnabas made their way N. along the difficult mountain road to Antioch, here called ‘Pisidian Antioch’ (see Pisidia). On his second missionary journey St. Paul (now accompanied by Silas) began with the churches of Cilicia and then passed through Derbe and Lystra, where he took Timothy into his company. The narrative then proceeds ( Acts 16:6 ): ‘And they went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia [Gr. ‘the Phrygian and Galatian region’], having been forbidden [AV [Note: Authorized Version.] ‘and were forbidden’] of the Holy Ghost to speak the word in Asia; and when they were come over against Mysia they assayed to go into Bithynia; and the Spirit of Jesus suffered them not; and passing by Mysia they came down to Troas.’ The natural interpretation of this is that from Lystra they traversed Phrygia Galatica , from Antioch took the road leading N. to Dorylaion, where they would be near Bithynia, and from there were directed W. to Troas. Attempts have been made, however, to find here an evangelization of Galatia proper with its towns of Pessinus and Ancyra. But against this we must set (1) the form of the Greek phrase ‘the Phrygian and Galatian region’; (2) the strange silence of St. Luke about a work that must have taken a considerable time; (3) the geographical consideration that the travellers could not have crossed the desert of the Axylon straight from S. to N. and must in any case have used the road to Dorylaion. See, further, artt. Galatia and Galatians [Ep. To] for this and the further question whether the Epistle to the Galatians can have been written to the churches of Phrygia Galatica. If it was, we have an interesting glimpse of how in the churches first founded by St. Paul his authority was very soon (perhaps a.d. 50) assailed by Judaizers, who disputed his Apostolic credentials and declared his doctrine to be an imperfect form of Christianity, neglecting its Jewish basis.

The third missionary journey likewise began with ‘the region of Galatia and Phrygia’ (Acts 18:23 ), or ‘the Galatian region and Phrygia.’ Here the reference is probably to the same churches, but the order of words is doubtless meant to include the churches of Lycaonia first these were in the province of Galatia, but were not in Phrygia. The order is in any case strongly against the inclusion of Galatia proper. The journey was continued ‘through the upper country to Ephesus,’ i.e. along the direct route which passed through the higher country from Metropolis to Ephesus, instead of the high road which followed the valley of the Lycus.

A. E. Hillard.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Phrygia
(Φρυγία)

Phrygia, the land of the Phryges, was the western part of the central plateau of Asia Minor. Its boundaries were vague and varying. At one time it extended from the aegean to the Halys, and from the mountains of Bithynia to the Taurus, but it was gradually contracted on every side. To the early Greeks Phrygia was the home of a heroic and conquering race, who have left in the country drained by the upper Sangarius many astonishing monuments of their greatness.

‘In Phrygia once were gallant armies known

In ancient time, when Otreus filled the throne,

When godlike Migdon led his troops of horse’

(Hom. Il. iii. 185 f.).

But to the later Greeks and the Romans Phrygia was politically unimportant, and the once illustrious names of Midas and Manes were given to Phrygian slaves. The Kimmerian inundation in the 7th cent. broke the spirit of the race, who sank into a state of peaceful indolence, disturbed only by fits of wild religious excitement. Their land became an easy prey to every spoiler, and in 278 b.c. the Gauls took possession of N.E. Phrygia, which was henceforth known as Galatia. Attalus 1. of Pergamos (241-197 b.c.) seized the territory in which lay the towns of Kotiaion and Dorylaion, and which was thereafter called ‘Acquired Phrygia’ (Phrygia Epictetus). In the S.E. was Iconium (q.v._), which the natives continued to regard as Phrygian. while Roman writers assigned it to Lycaonia. In the S. was Pisidian Phrygia (Ptol. v. v. 4) or Phrygia towards Pisidia (πρὸς Πισιδίᾳ [Strabo, xii. pp. 557, 566]), the most important town of which was called Antioch towards Pisidia; but as Pisidia gradually extended northwards this Antioch ceased to be Phrygian and was called Pisidian Antioch (q.v._). Only in the S.W. did the Phrygians show any sign of expansion. Hierapolis was apparently once Lydian, and Laodicea Carian; but in the Roman period all the cities of the Lycus Valley were regarded as Phrygian. ‘The Gate of Phrygia’ was below the junction of the Lycus and Maeander; Polemon of Laodicea was known as ‘the Phrygian’; and ‘Phrygian powder’ was a Laodicean preparation.

In the Roman provincial system of government Asia Minor was cut and carved with but little regard for old national and historical distinctions. While the eastern part of Phrygia (with Iconium) and the southern (with Pisidia) were attached to the province of Galatia, the western part, which was much the larger, was included in the province of Asia. The former was called Phrygia Galatica and the latter Phrygia Asiana.

Phrygia was traversed by the great route of traffic and intercourse which joined the aegean with Syria and the Euphrates. Along this line the early Seleucids planted a series of Greek cities for the defence of their Empire and the diffusion of Hellenic culture. Here the Greek language gradually displaced the Phrygian, which was ‘perhaps similar in character to the Armenian’ (T. Mommsen, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, Eng. tr._, 1909, i. 328), but the latter continued to hold its ground in the rural districts down to the 3rd cent. of our era. A striking feature in the life of these cities was the presence of Jews in large numbers.

Their status is indicated by Josephus (Ant. XII. iii. 1). ‘The Jews also obtained honours from the kings of Asia, when they became their auxiliaries; for Seleucus Nicator made them citizens of those cities which he built in Asia … and gave them privileges equal to those of the Macedonians and Greeks, who were the inhabitants, insomuch that these privileges continue to this very day.’ Antiochus the Great (223-187 b.c.) ‘thought proper to remove 2000 families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon’ to Lydia and Phrygia (XII. iii. 4).

In these Hellenistic cities the Jews relaxed their strictness so much that the orthodox counted them degenerate. There is a bitter saying in the Talmud to the effect that the baths and wines of Phrygia had separated the ‘Ten Tribes’ from the brethren (A. Neubauer, La Géogr. du Talmud, 1868, p. 315). This very liberalism, however, probably made the reaction of the Jews on their environment all the greater, and St. Paul found in the cities of Phrygia numerous proselytes, whose minds proved the best soil for the seed of the evangel. The case of Timothy of Lystra, the son of a Greek father and a Jewish mother, uncircumcised and yet acquainted from his childhood with the Scriptures, was probably typical.

Phrygia was one of the first parts of Asia Minor to be generally Christianized. Not a few Christian monuments of the 2nd cent., and very many of the 3rd, have been found in the country. Eusebius (HE_ viii. 11) says that in the time of Diocletian there was a Phrygian city in which every single soul was Christian. The enthusiasm with which the pagan Phrygians were in the habit of throwing themselves into the worship of Cybele re-appeared in the Phrygian type of Christianity, which gave birth to Montanism with its spiritual ecstasies and prophetic visions.

For the difficult phrases τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν (Acts 16:6) and τὴν Γαλατικὴν χώραν καὶ Φρυγίαν (18:23) and the rival theories of the North and South Galatians see Galatia, and Galatians, Epistle to the, 5.

Literature.-C. Ritter, Die Erdkunde von Asien, 1822-59; W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, p. 74 f., St. Paul the Traveller, 1895, p. 194 f., Hist. Com. on Galatians, 1899, The Cities of St. Paul, 1907; G. and A. K. Körte, Gordion, 1904; C. v. Weizsacker, The Apostolic Age of the Christian Church, Eng. tr._, 1894-95, i. 273 f.; A. C. McGiffert, A History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age, 1897, p. 235; J. Moffatt, LNT_, 1911, p. 93 f.

James Strahan.

Sentence search

Phrygian - ) A native or inhabitant of Phrygia. ) Of or pertaining to Phrygia, or to its inhabitants
Phrygia - It was divided into two parts, the Greater Phrygia on the south, and the Lesser Phrygia on the west. It is the Greater Phrygia that is spoken of in the New Testament
Phrygia - Paul passed through Phrygia in his second (Acts 16:6) and third (Acts 18:23) missionary journeys. The Taurus range separated Phrygia from Pisidia on the S. The Phrygia meant in Scripture is the southern portion (called "greater Phrygia") of the region above, and contained Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colosse, and Iconium
Phrygia - Originally a small kingdom in Asia Minor, Phrygia was divided in two when the Romans redrew the provincial boundaries in Asia Minor. Under the Roman administration the western part of Phrygia, which included the towns of Colossae, Laodicea and Hierapolis, fell within the province of Asia
Phrygia - (Φρυγία)... Phrygia, the land of the Phryges, was the western part of the central plateau of Asia Minor. To the early Greeks Phrygia was the home of a heroic and conquering race, who have left in the country drained by the upper Sangarius many astonishing monuments of their greatness. ... ‘In Phrygia once were gallant armies known... In ancient time, when Otreus filled the throne,... When godlike Migdon led his troops of horse’... (Hom. ... But to the later Greeks and the Romans Phrygia was politically unimportant, and the once illustrious names of Midas and Manes were given to Phrygian slaves. Phrygia, which was henceforth known as Galatia. ) seized the territory in which lay the towns of Kotiaion and Dorylaion, and which was thereafter called ‘Acquired Phrygia’ (Phrygia Epictetus). _), which the natives continued to regard as Phrygian. was Pisidian Phrygia (Ptol. 4) or Phrygia towards Pisidia (πρὸς Πισιδίᾳ [Strabo, xii. 557, 566]), the most important town of which was called Antioch towards Pisidia; but as Pisidia gradually extended northwards this Antioch ceased to be Phrygian and was called Pisidian Antioch (q. did the Phrygians show any sign of expansion. Hierapolis was apparently once Lydian, and Laodicea Carian; but in the Roman period all the cities of the Lycus Valley were regarded as Phrygian. ‘The Gate of Phrygia’ was below the junction of the Lycus and Maeander; Polemon of Laodicea was known as ‘the Phrygian’; and ‘Phrygian powder’ was a Laodicean preparation. While the eastern part of Phrygia (with Iconium) and the southern (with Pisidia) were attached to the province of Galatia, the western part, which was much the larger, was included in the province of Asia. The former was called Phrygia Galatica and the latter Phrygia Asiana. ... Phrygia was traversed by the great route of traffic and intercourse which joined the aegean with Syria and the Euphrates. Here the Greek language gradually displaced the Phrygian, which was ‘perhaps similar in character to the Armenian’ (T. ) ‘thought proper to remove 2000 families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon’ to Lydia and Phrygia (XII. There is a bitter saying in the Talmud to the effect that the baths and wines of Phrygia had separated the ‘Ten Tribes’ from the brethren (A. Paul found in the cities of Phrygia numerous proselytes, whose minds proved the best soil for the seed of the evangel. ... Phrygia was one of the first parts of Asia Minor to be generally Christianized. 11) says that in the time of Diocletian there was a Phrygian city in which every single soul was Christian. The enthusiasm with which the pagan Phrygians were in the habit of throwing themselves into the worship of Cybele re-appeared in the Phrygian type of Christianity, which gave birth to Montanism with its spiritual ecstasies and prophetic visions
Lycaonia - It was separated from Phrygia, and bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Cilicia, and west by Pisidia and Phrygia
Laodicean - ) Of or pertaining to Laodicea, a city in Phrygia Major; like the Christians of Laodicea; lukewarm in religion
Corybant - ) One of the priests of Cybele in Phrygia
Lycaonia - A small province of Asia Minor, bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Isauria and Cilicia, and west by Phrygia. It appears to have been within the limits of Phrygia Major, but was erected into a Roman province by Augustus
Apollinaris Claudius, Saint - (2century) Bishop of Hierapolis, Phrygia
Laodicea - City in Phrygia, Asia MinOcr, one of the seven churches in Asia to whose bishop Saint John was commanded to write an epistle (Apocalypse 3)
Phrygia - Phrygia (fryj'i-ah), dry, barren. People from Phrygia were present at Pentecost, Acts 2:10; and the apostle Paul twice traversed the country. 325, the Phrygian churches were represented by eight bishops, and still more attended the Council of Constantinople, a
Pisidia - District of Asia Minor lying between Pamphylia and Phrygia, through which Paul passed
Ordian - ) Pertaining to Gordius, king of Phrygia, or to a knot tied by him; hence, intricate; complicated; inextricable
Phryg'ia - In fact there was no Roman province of Phrygia till considerably after the first establishment of Christianity in the peninsula of Asia Minor. ( Acts 16:6 ; 18:23 ) By Phrygia we must understand an extensive district in Asia Minor which contributed portions to several Roman provinces, and varying portions at different times. The Phrygians were a very ancient people, and were supposed to be among the aborigines of Asia Minor. Several bishops from Phrygia were present at the Councils of Nice, A
Phrygia - Phrygia . The Phrygians were an Aryan race who seem to have had their first home in Thrace, and to have crossed into Asia through the same southward movement of tribes that brought the Hellenes into Greece. We must regard Homer’s Trojans as part of the Phrygian race, and the Trojan War as a contest between them and Greek settlers from Thessaly. In more historical times the name Phrygia applies to an inland region varying in extent at different times, but bounded at its widest by the Sangarius on the N. 133, a part of Phrygia was included in the province of Asia, but the southern portion towards Pamphylla was not included. Hence this portion of Phrygia, with its cities of Antioch and Iconium, came to be known as Phrygia Galatica. The narrative then proceeds ( Acts 16:6 ): ‘And they went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia [Gr. ‘the Phrygian and Galatian region’], having been forbidden [AV [Note: Authorized Version. ’ The natural interpretation of this is that from Lystra they traversed Phrygia Galatica , from Antioch took the road leading N. But against this we must set (1) the form of the Greek phrase ‘the Phrygian and Galatian region’; (2) the strange silence of St. To] for this and the further question whether the Epistle to the Galatians can have been written to the churches of Phrygia Galatica. ... The third missionary journey likewise began with ‘the region of Galatia and Phrygia’ (Acts 18:23 ), or ‘the Galatian region and Phrygia. ’ Here the reference is probably to the same churches, but the order of words is doubtless meant to include the churches of Lycaonia first these were in the province of Galatia, but were not in Phrygia
Pisidia - by Phrygia, on the W. by Phrygia and Lycia, S
hi-Erap'Olis - (holy city ), a city of Phrygia, situated above the junction of the rivers Lycus and Maeander, near Colossae and Laodicea mentioned only in ( Colossians 4:13 ) as the seat of a church probably founded by Epaphras
Inscription of Abercius - Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis, Phrygia, composed his own epitaph, conveying a vivid impression of his visit to Rome, and giving valuable information about the importance of the Church of Rome in the 2century
Abercius, Inscription of - Abercius, Bishop of Hieropolis, Phrygia, composed his own epitaph, conveying a vivid impression of his visit to Rome, and giving valuable information about the importance of the Church of Rome in the 2century
Onesimus - (Greek: onesimos, advantageous, profitable) ... A native of Phrygia who robbed and fled from his master, Philemon, to Rome where he was converted to Christianity by Saint Paul, and thence sent back to his master with the "Epistle of Saint Paul to Philemon
Antioch, Pisidia - City, situated in Asia Minor, on the south slope of the mountains that separated Phrygia from Pisidia, two miles east of the ruins of Yalo-bach
Hierapolis - City of Phrygia in Asia Minor, for the saints of which Epaphras had a great zeal, or for whom he laboured much
Lycia - A province in the southwest of Asia Minor bounded west by Caria, east by Pamphylia, north by Phrygia and Pisidia, and south by the Mediterranean
Hierapolis - Sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the care of Epaphras (Colossians 4:12,13 )
Antioch in Pisidia - A Roman colony of Phrygia in Asia Minor, founded by Seleueus Nicator
Asia - Its boundaries were often changed; but generally it may be said to have comprised Phrygia, Mysia, Lydia, and Caria, in Asia Minor, and thus it must be understood in Acts 6:9; Acts 19:10. Sometimes, however, the name is used in a more restricted sense; and Phrygia is distinguished from Asia
Phrygians - Or CATAPhrygiaNS, a sect in the second century; so called, as being of the country of Phrygia
Philemon - A rich citizen of Colosse, in Phrygia, to whom Paul wrote an epistle, on occasion of sending back to him his servant Onesimus
Gomer - They attacked the northern frontier of the Assyrian empire, besieged Sardis, invaded Lydia and Phrygia, and conquered Cappadocia
Asia - The Asia spoken of in the Bible is Asia Minor, a peninsula which lies between the Euxine or Black sea and the eastern part of the Mediterranean, and which formerly included the provinces of Phrygia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Caria, Lycia, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Galatia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia. Cicero speaks of proconsular Asia as containing the provinces of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia
Asia - In Acts 2:9,10 'Asia' does not include Cappadocia, Pontus, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, which are all included in Asia Minor. Again, in Acts 16:6 , Phrygia and Galatia are distinct from Asia: see also 1 Peter 1:1
Colosse - A city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, a branch of the Mæander, and twelve miles above Laodicea
Lyd'ia - (land of Lydus ), a maritime province in the west of Asia Minor bounded by Mysia on the north, Phrygia on the east, and Caria on the south
Lyd'ia - (land of Lydus ), a maritime province in the west of Asia Minor bounded by Mysia on the north, Phrygia on the east, and Caria on the south
Colos'se, - more properly Colos'sae, was a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, in the upper part of the basin of the Maeander, on the Lycus
Colosse - a city of Phrygia Minor, which stood on the river Lyceus, at an equal distance between Laodicea and Hierapolis. Of these cities, however, Laodicea was the greatest, for it was the metropolis of Phrygia, though Colosse is said to have been a great and wealthy place. The inhabitants of Phrygia, says Dr. Macknight, were famous for the worship of Bacchus, and Cybele the mother of the gods; whence the latter was called Phrygia mater, by way of eminence. That this salutary purpose might be effectually accomplished, Paul, accompanied by Silas and Timothy, went at different times into Phrygia, and preached the Gospel in many cities of that country with great success; but it is thought by many persons, that the Epistle to the Colossians contains internal marks of his never having been at Colosse when he wrote it. Paul had never been either at Laodicea or Colosse; but surely it is very improbable that he should have travelled twice into Phrygia for the purpose of preaching the Gospel, and not have gone either to Laodicea or Colosse, which were the two principal cities of that country; especially as in the second journey into those parts it is said, that he "went over all the country of Gallatia and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples;" and moreover, we know that it was the Apostle's practice to preach at the most considerable places of every district into which he went. Paul assures them, that since he had heard of their faith in Christ Jesus, and of their love to all Christians, he had not ceased to return thanks to God for them, and to pray that they might increase in spiritual knowledge, and abound in every good work; he describes the dignity of Christ, and declares the universality of the Gospel dispensation, which was a mystery formerly hidden, but now made manifest; and he mentions his own appointment, through the grace of God, to be the Apostle of the Gentiles; he expresses a tender concern for the Colossians and other Christians of Phrygia, and cautions them against being seduced from the simplicity of the Gospel, by the subtlety of Pagan philosophers, or the superstition of Judaizing Christians; he directs them to set their affections on things above, and forbids every species of licentiousness; he exhorts to a variety of Christian virtues, to meekness, veracity, humility, charity, and devotion; he enforces the duties of wives, husbands, children, fathers, servants, and masters; he inculcates the duty of prayer, and of prudent behaviour toward unbelievers; and after adding the salutations of several persons then at Rome, and desiring that this epistle might be read in the church of their neighbours the Laodiceans, he concludes with a salutation from himself, written, as usual, with his own hand
Mercurius - Ovid has a story of these two deities wandering in the adjacent country of Phrygia
Asia, Proconsular - A Roman province which embraced the western parts of the peninsula, Asia Minor, including Mysia, Lydia, Caria, and a great part of Phrygia; called proconsular to distinguish it from the continent of the same name
Patripassians - The author and head of the Patripassians was Praxias, a philosopher of Phrygia, in Asia
Philadelphia - A city on the borders of Lydia and Phrygia, about 25 miles southeast of Sardis
Phrygia - During Roman times, Phrygia was a subregion of Galatia, and her people often were slaves or servants. Some of the Phrygians were present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost and heard the gospel in their native language (Acts 2:10 ; compare Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 )
Hilary, Saint - Opposing the introduction of Arianism into Gaul, he was exiled to Phrygia, 356, where he assisted at the synod of Seleucia, 359; so well did he defend the Church against the Arians that the heretics had him sent back to Gaul, 361
Colosse - A city of Phrygia, situated on a hill near the junction of the Lycus with the Meander, and not far from the cities Hierapolis and Laodicea, Colossians 2:1 4:13,15
Galatia - On his third journey he went over "all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order" (Acts 18:23 )
Lycia - , Phrygia N
Colosse, or Colassae - City on the river Lycus in Phrygia of Asia Minor
Troas - a city of Phrygia, or of Mysia, upon the Hellespont, having the old city of Troy to the north, and that of Assos to the south
Bithynia - a country of Asia Minor, stretching along the shore of the Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea, from Mysia to Paphlagonia; having Phrygia and Galatia on the south
Pisidia - A province of Asia Minor, separated from the Mediterranean by Pamphylia, lying on Mount Taurus and the high table land north of it, and running up between Phrygia and Lycaonia as far as Antioch its capital
Pisid'ia - (pitchy ) was a district in Asia Minor north of Pamphylia, and reached to and was partly included in Phrygia. Thus Antioch in Pisidia was sometimes called a Phrygian town
Laodicea - The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Revelation 3:14 ), on the banks of the Lycus
Mercurius - Mythology represented Mercurius as having once visited Phrygia with Jupiter his father, and having been refused hospitality by all except Baucis and Philemon, two old peasants (Ovid, Metam
Menas, Saint - When the army was stationed at Cotyreus in Phrygia, he retired to the mountains and served God by fasting, vigils, and prayer
Mennas, Saint - When the army was stationed at Cotyreus in Phrygia, he retired to the mountains and served God by fasting, vigils, and prayer
Hierapolis - A city of Phrygia, situated on its western border, near the junction of the rivers Lycus and Meander, and not far from Colosses and Laodicea
Lydia - It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea
Lycia - a country of Asia Minor, having Phrygia on the north, Pamphylia on the east, the Mediterranean on the south, and Caria on the west
Pisidia - (pih ssih di' uh) Small area in the province of Galatia in southern Asia Minor bounded by Pamphylia, Phrygia, and Lyconia
Colossae - -The name was given to an ancient Phrygian city on the S. ) calls it ‘a great city of Phrygia,’ and Xenophon describes it as πόλιν οἰκουμένην εὐδαίμονα καὶ μεγάλην (Anab. Pliny, indeed, names it among the oppida celeberrima of Phrygia (Historia Naturalis (Pliny) v. Its permanent population consisted mostly of Phrygian natives and Greek colonists. ) transplanted 2000 Jewish families from Babylonia and Mesopotamia to Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. The freedom and prosperity which they enjoyed probably induced many others to follow them, and there is a bitter saying in the Babylonian Talmud that the wine and baths of Phrygia separated the ten tribes from their brethren (Shab. In his second journey he was debarred from speaking in Asia (Acts 16:6), the province to which Colossae politically belonged, and in his third tour ‘he went through the Galatic region and Phrygia [or Galatic and Phrygian region] in order, confirming the disciples,’ and ‘having passed through the upper country (τὰ ἀνωτερικὰ μέρη) he came to Ephesus’ (Acts 18:23; Acts 19:1). ’ About a century later, Theodoret, commenting on Colossians 2:18, says: ‘This disease (τοῦτο τὸ πάθος) remained long in Phrygia and Pisidia … and even to the present time oratories (εὐκτήρια) of the holy Michael may be seen among them and their neighbours. Ramsay, The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, London, 1895-97, vol
Pancratius, Saint - According to tradition he was born in Phrygia, brought to Rome, and, professing his Faith, was beheaded on the Via Aurelia, when only fourteen, but in what persecution is doubtful
Colossae - Or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a tributary of the Maeander
Asia - ), Phrygia Major was added to it. Cicero indicates its extent in the words: ‘Namque, ut opinor, Asia vestra constat ex Phrygia, Caria, Mysia, Lydia’ (Flac. Luke certainly uses ‘Asia’ in the popular Greek sense is Acts 2:9, where he names Asia and Phrygia together as distinct countries, whereas in Roman provincial language the greater part of Phrygia belonged to Asia. Only those who find ‘the Phrygian and Galatic region’ (Acts 16:6) in the north of Pisidian Antioch are obliged (like Conybeare-Howson, i. See Phrygia and Galatia
Mysia - a country of Asia Minor, having the Propontis on the north, Bithynia on the north-east and east, Phrygia on the south-east, Lydia (from which it was separated by the river Hermus) on the south, the AEgean Sea on the west, and the narrow strait, called the Hellespont, on the north- west
Gomer - the eldest son of Japheth, by whom a great part of Asia Minor was first peopled, and particularly that extensive tract which was called Phrygia, including the subdivisions of Mysia, Galatia, Bithynia, Lycaonia, &c
Goats' Hair - The hair of the goats of Asia, Phrygia, and Cilicia, is very bright and fine, and hangs to the ground; in beauty it almost equals silk, and is never sheared, but combed off
Galatia - After some fifty years’ raiding and warring, they found a permanent settlement in north-eastern Phrygia, where the population was un-warlike. They continued throughout these two centuries to be the ruling caste of the district, greatly outnumbered by the native Phrygian population, who, though in many respects an inferior race, had a powerful influence on the religion, customs, and habits of the Gauls, as subject races often have over their conquerors. The earlier sense of the term Galatia is, then, the country occupied by the Gaulish immigrants, the former north-eastern part of Phrygia, and the term Galatœ is used after the occupation to include the subject Phrygians as well as the Galatœ strictly so called ( e. 40, and at the same time gave Amyntas a kingdom comprising Pisidic Phrygia and Pisidia generally. This is the second sense in which the term Galatia is used in ancient documents, namely, the sphere of duty which included the ethnic districts, Papblagonia, Pontus Galaticus, Galatia (in the original narrower sense), Phrygia Galatica, and Lycaonia Galatica (with ‘the Added Land,’ part of the original Lycaonian tetrarchy). In Acts 16:6 the rules of the Greek language require us to translate: ‘the Phrygo-Galatic region’ or ‘the region which is both Phrygian and Galatian’; that is, ‘the region which according to one nomenclature is Phrygian, and according to another is Galatian. ’ This can be none other than that section of the province Galatia which was known as Phrygia Galatica, and which contained Pisidian Antioch and Iconium, exactly the places we should expect St. In Acts 18:23 the Greek may be translated either ‘the Galatico-Phrygian region’ or ‘the Galatian region and Phrygia,’ preferably the latter, as it is difficult otherwise to account for the order in the Greek. ‘The Galatian region,’ then, will cover Derbe and Lystra; ‘Phrygia’ will include Iconium and Pisidian Antioch
Pisidia - From the time of Diocletian we find the name Pisidia applied differently, namely, to a Roman province including Phrygia Galatica, Lycaonia, and the part of Phrygia round Apamea
Laodicea - An important city in the district of Phrygia in Asia Minor
Bithynia - 1 Peter 1:1 , a providence in the northern part of Asia Minor, on the shore of the Black sea, having Paphlagonia on the east, Phrygia and Galatia on the south, and Mysia on the southwest
Mysia - , and the equally ill-defined regions of Phrygia and Mysia on the S. The absence of landmarks between the land of the Mysians and that of the Phrygians gave rise to the saying, χωρὶς τὰ Μυσῶν καὶ Φρυγῶν ὁρίσματα. The river Caicus and Mount Temnos were usually taken as the southern limits, and the district of Phrygia Epictetus, which extends a considerable distance eastward-as far as Dorylaeum and Nakoleia-was at one time in the hands of the Mysians. For a discussion of the vexed question as to the apostles’ movements before they came to the borders of Bithynia and over against Mysia see Phrygia and Galatia. Paul and Silas were travelling from Pisidian Antioch northward through Phrygian Asia, Ramsay observes that they would be ‘over against Mysia’ when they reached such a point that a line drawn across the country at right angles to the general line of their route would touch Mysia (The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, p
Galatia - A large district in the centre of Asia Minor, having Bithynia on its north, Pontus on its east, Lycaonia and Cappadocia on its south, and Phrygia on its west
Galatia - A central province of Asia Minor, subject to the Roman rule, bounded by Bithynia and Paphlagonia on the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west
Iconium - The provinces of Asia Minor varied so much at different times, that Iconium is assigned by different writers to Phrygia, to Lycaonia, and to Pisidia
Gala'Tia - The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia
Gala'Tians, the Epistle to the, - Paul not long after his journey through Galatia and Phrygia, (Acts 18:23 ) and probably in the early portion of his two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which terminated with the Pentecost of A
Iconium, - About the beginning of the Christian era it was on the border of the two ethnic districts, Lycaonia and Phrygia. It was in reality the easternmost city of Phrygia, and the inhabitants considered themselves Phrygians, but ancient writers commonly speak of it as a city of Lycaonia (wh. Iconium could thus be spoken of as Lycaonian, Phrygian, or Galatic, according to the speaker’s point of view. According to the view now generally accepted by English-speaking scholars, it is comprehended in the ‘Phrygo-Galatic region’ of Acts 16:6 and the ‘Galatic region and Phrygia’ of Acts 18:23
Ashkenaz - It may farther be remarked on the identity of these countries, that the Prophet Jeremiah, predicting the capture of Babylon, and calling by name the countries which were to rise against it, exclaims, "Call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, (or Armenia,) Minni, and Ashkenaz:" which was literally fulfilled; as Xenophon informs us that Cyrus, after taking Sardis, became master of Phrygia on the Hellespont, and took along with him many soldiers of that country
Lycao'Nia - "Cappadocia is on the east, Galatia on the north, Phrygia on the west and Cilicia on the south "Among its chief cities are Derbe, Lystra and Iconium
Onesimus - Slaves were numerous in Phrygia, from whence Paul dwells on the relative duties of masters and slaves (Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1). Onesimus doubtless had heard the gospel before going to Rome, in Philemon's household, for at Paul's third missionary tour (Acts 18:23) there were in Phrygia believers
Asia - The following ethnic districts were in this province Mysia, Lydia, Western Phrygia, and Caria
Lycaonia - , Pisidia and Phrygia W
Colossae - COLOSSÆ was an ancient city of Phrygia (Roman province Asia), at one time of great importance, but dwindling later as its neighbour Laodicea prospered
Silas - 51, he accompanied Paul to visit the churches of Syria and Cilicia, and the towns and provinces of Lycaonia, Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia
Philip (st.) And st. James' Day - He suffered martyrdom at Hieropolis, a city of Phrygia,where he was crucified and stoned on the cross
Pothinus, Bishop of Lyons, Martyr - Of his episcopate we have no record beyond the account of his martyrdom by pagans, with 47 others, contained in the letter of the Christians of Lyons and Vienne to the churches of Asia and Phrygia, which Eusebius preserves
Laodicea - A large and opulent city of Asia Minor, the metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana
Apostolici - Apostolici , one of the names adopted by an ascetic sect in Phrygia, Cilicia, and Pamphylia
Paulinus, Bishop of Treves - Paulinus remained steadfast, and, after being condemned by the bishops, was driven into exile in Phrygia, to parts inhabited by heathen and heretics
Antioch in Pisidia - Antioch lay within Galatia, on the border area between the two smaller districts of Pisidia and Phrygia (Acts 13:14; Acts 16:6; for map see GALATIA)
Antioch - ... The other city, also found by Seleucus Nicator, was called Antioch of Pisidia, because it was attached to that province, although situated in Phrygia, Acts 13:14 14:19,21 2 Timothy 3:11
Hierapolis - All three were situated in the valley of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander, in Phrygia, Hierapolis on the north side being about 6 miles from the former and 12 miles from the latter
Epistle to the Colossians - 61-63) to the Christians of Colossal in Phrygia
Apostolic Fathers - PAPIAS, Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia
Iconium - Lying in a crescent of Phrygian hills at the western limit of the vast upland plain of Lycaonia, and watered by perennial streams which, through irrigation, make it to-day a garden-city, it must have been a place of importance from the earliest times. 19), says that Cyrus, travelling eastward, came ‘to Iconium, the last city of Phrygia; thence he pursued his route through Lycaonia. ’ The inhabitants always regarded themselves as of Phrygian, not of Lycaonian, extraction, and the strongest evidence that they were right was their use of the Phrygian language. On the South-Galatian theory, he paid the city two more visits, if, as Ramsay and others assume, Iconium is included in ‘the region of Phrygia and Galatia’ (Acts 16:6) and in ‘the region of Galatia and Phrygia’ (Acts 18:23)
Philadelphia - Tmolus (Boz Dagh), where Lydia, Phrygia, and Mysia met. through Phrygia and the other S. The city was founded for the spread of the Greek language and culture in Lydia and Phrygia, but it made little impression upon the old deep-rooted Anatolian nature-religion
Montanists - They were so called from their leader Montamus, a Phrygian by birth: whence they are sometimes called Phrygians and CataPhrygians. Priscilla and Maximilla, two enthusiastic women of Phrygia, presently became his disciples, and in a short time he had a great number of followers
Ass - These animals were anciently found in Palestine, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Mesopatamia, Phrygia, and Lycaonia; but they rarely occur in those regions at the present time, and seem to be almost entirely confined to Tartary, some parts of Persia, and India, and Africa
Embroider - He makes needlework embroidery a later invention of Phrygia (so Pliny, 8:48)
Philemon - " Colossians 2:1 shows Paul had not in person visited Colosse, though he must have passed near it in going through Phrygia on his second missionary tour (Acts 16:6)
Philip - He is several times mentioned in the gospel in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis in Syria
Phil'ip - After this all is uncertain and apocryphal, According tradition he preached in Phrygia, and died at Hierapolis
Timothy - He was designated to the office of an evangelist (1 Timothy 4:14 ), and went with Paul in his journey through Phrygia, Galatia, and Mysia; also to Troas and Philippi and Berea (Acts 17:14 )
Philadel'Phia, - strictly Philadelphi'a ( brotherly love ), a town on the confines of Lydia and Phrygia Catacecaumene, 25 southeast of Sardis, and built by Attalus II
Colosse - Colosse was ethnologically in Phrygia, but politically then in the province of Asia. The foundation of the church must have been subsequent to Paul's visitation, "strengthening in order" all the churches of Galatia and Phrygia (Acts 18:24), for otherwise he must have visited the Colossians, which Colossians 2:1 implies he had not. Alexander the Great had garrisoned Phrygia with Babylonian Jews. ... The Phrygians' original tendency had been to a mystic worship, namely, that of Cybele; so, when Christianized, they readily gave heed to the incipient gnosticism of Judaizers
Lycia - by Phrygia and Pisidia, on the N
Laodicea - speaks only of that in Phrygia, upon the river Lycus, near Colosse
Noah - We may also mention the medals struck at Apamea in Phrygia, in the time of Septimus Severus, and bearing the name NO, an ark, a man and woman, a raven, and a dove with an olive branch in its mouth
Phil'ip the Evangelist - One tradition places the scene of his death at Hierapolis in Phrygia
Pisidia - by Phrygia, on the S. The name Pisidia was gradually extended northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia
Philip - He is said to have preached in Phrygia, and to have met his death at Hierapolis
Galatia - A province of Asia Minor, lying south and southeast of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, west of Pontus, north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northeast of Lycaonia and Phrygia
an'Tioch - ... IN PISIDIA , (Acts 13:14 ; 14:19,21 ; 2 Timothy 3:11 ) on the borders of Phrygia, corresponds to Yalobatch , which is distant from Aksher six hours over the mountains
Laodicea - Being some distance east of ‘the Gate of Phrygia,’ it is classed by Polybius (v. 13) among Phrygian cities, while Ptolemy sets it down as Carian. The physicians of Laodicea were skilful oculists, and a preparation for weak eyes, called ‘Phrygian powder’ (τέφρα φρυγία), was well known. If the first settlers were sent thither by the founder of the city, or by Antiochus the Great, who is said to have planted 2,000 Jewish families in Phrygia and Lydia (Jos. She who has innumerable flocks on her Phrygian hills, and whose fine black woollen fabrics are prized everywhere, has need of white garments to cover her own moral nakedness (Revelation 3:18). Her aesculapian school of medicine has no Phrygian powder for the healing of her spiritual blindness, which requires the eye-salve (collyrium) of another Physician (Revelation 3:18). , ‘written from Laodicea, which is the chiefest city of Phrygia Pacatiana,’ has no authority
Bithynia - , by the Propontis on the W, by Mysia, Phrygia, and Galatia on the S
Lycaonia - The Apostles, when persecuted at Iconium in Phrygia (or the Phrygian district of the vast province Galatia), crossed into Lycaonia (another district of the same province)
Apollos - The Greeks say that he was bishop of Duras; some, that he was bishop of Iconium, in Phrygia; and others of Caesarea
Montanus - Montanus (1) , a native of Ardabau, a village in Phrygia, who, in the latter half of the 2nd cent. It is found in a Phrygian inscription (Le Bas, 755) and in three others from neighbouring provinces (Boeckh—3662 Cyzicus, 4071 Ancyra, 4187 Amasia). Phrygia was a country in which heathen devotion exhibited itself in the most fanatical form, and it seemed to calm observers that the frenzied utterances of the Montanistic prophetesses were far less like any previous manifestation of the prophetic gift among Christians than they were to those heathen orgiasms which the church had been wont to ascribe to the operation of demons. ... Were the Gallic churches consulted by the orthodox, by the Montanists, or by both? and what answer did the Gallic Christians give? Eusebius only tells us that their judgment was pious and most orthodox, and that they subjoined letters which those who afterwards suffered martyrdom wrote while yet in prison to the brethren in Asia and Phrygia and also to Eleutherus, bp. To such a one there would be nothing incredible in special manifestations of God's Spirit displaying themselves in Phrygia, while the suggestion that the new prophesying was inspired by Satan might be repelled by its admitted orthodoxy, since all it professed to reveal tended to the glory of Christ and to the increase of Christian devotion. In Phrygia itself the Catholics seem to have called the new prophesying after its leader for the time being. Elsewhere it was called after its place of origin, the Phrygian heresy. In the West the name became by a solecism the CataPhrygian heresy. This council, and one which made a similar decision at another Phrygian town, Synnada, are mentioned also by. Epiphanius states that in his time the sect had many adherents in Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia, and a considerable number in Constantinople. The case submitted to Eleutherus no doubt informed him by letter of the events in Phrygia; but apparently no Montanist teachers visited the West at this time, and after the judgment of Eleutherus the whole transaction seems to have been forgotten at Rome. The magistrate, urging Achatius to sacrifice, presses him with the example of the CataPhrygians, "homines antiquae religionis," who had already conformed. Till then, being confounded by heathen rulers with other Christians, they could meet for worship, and, even when few in number, keep together; but Constantine's edict killed all the weaker sects, and among them the Montanists, everywhere except in Phrygia and neighbouring districts, where they were still numerous in Sozomen's time. 18) that, unlike Scythia, where one bishop ruled over the whole province, among these Phrygian heretics every village had its bishop. At last the orthodox zeal of Justinian took measures to crush out the remains of the sect in Phrygia, and the Montanists in despair gathered with wives and children into their places of worship, set them on fire, and there perished (Procop. Besides CataPhrygians they were often called from their headquarters, Pepuzans, which Epiphanius counts as a distinct heresy
Galatia - Defeating them in a series of battles, which are commemorated in the famous Pergamene sculptures, he compelled them to form a permanent settlement with definite boundaries in north-eastern Phrygia. ’... The term ‘Galatians,’ which at first denoted only the Gaulish invaders, was in course of time extended to their Phrygian subjects, and the ‘Galatian’ slaves who were sold in the ancient markets had really no Celtic blood in their veins. As a military aristocracy, whose only trade was war, they left agriculture, commerce, and all the peaceful crafts to the Phrygian natives. The unwarlike Phrygians whom they subdued were in one respect inflexible, and, as in so many instances, ‘victi victoribus leges dederunt. ’ If the Phrygian religion, with its frenzy of devotion, its weird music, its orgiastic dances, its sensuous rites, made a profound impression even upon the cultured Greeks, one need not wonder that the simple Gallic barbarians were fascinated by the cult of Cybele, and that their chiefs were soon found by the side of the native rulers in the great temple of Pessinus. Galatia proper (the country of the three Galatian tribes), part of Phrygia (including Antioch and Iconium), Pisidia, Isauria, and part of Lycaonia (with Lystra and Derbe). In these cities, planted in the moat civilized and progressive part of central Asia Minor-the region traversed by the great route of traffic and inter-course between Ephesus and Syrian Antioch-many Greeks, Romans, and Jews swelled the native Phrygian and Lycaonian populace. Paul’s first mission north of Taurus was conducted in the Greek-speaking cities of Antioch and Iconium (which were Phrygian), Lystra and Derbe (which were Lycaonian)-all in the Provincia Galatia, but far from Galatia proper. Paul and Silas ‘went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia (τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν), having been forbidden of the Holy Ghost to speak the word in Asia’ (Acts 16:6), and in the third tour ‘they went through, the region of Galatia and Phrygia (τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν) in order, stablishing all the churches’ (18:23). the regio which is ethnically Phrygian and politically Galatian, accounting for the variation by the fact that in the one instance the district was traversed from west to east, and in the other from east to west. 19) that in the present contest ‘the region of Phrygia and Galatia’ can only mean ‘the borderland of Phrygia and Galatia northward of Antioch, through which the travellers passed after “having been forbidden to speak the word in Asia. ‘It could be taken for granted, therefore, in spite of the silence of Acts, which in 16:6 mentions merely a journey of the missionaries through these regions, that Paul and Silas on this occasion preached in Phrygia arid a portion of North Galatia; and that the disciples … whom Paul met on the third missionary journey to several places of the same regions (Acts 18:23) had been converted by the preaching of Paul and Silas on the second journey. ) does not include Galatia proper, and among the Jews who made the journey to Jerusalem at Pentecost there were Asians and Phrygians but apparently no Galatians (Acts 2:9). And just as he includes the Phrygian churches of the Lycus valley-Colossae, Laodicea, and Hierapolis (Colossians 1:2; Colossians 2:1)-the Church of Troas (Acts 20:6-12), and the Churches of the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:11), in the province of ‘Asia,’ so he reckons the Churches founded by St. Paul in Lycaonia and Eastern Phrygia as belonging to the province of ‘Galatia
Galatians, Epistle to the - Luke sometimes uses popular non-political names like ‘Phrygia’ or ‘Mysia’ (Acts 2:10 ; Acts 16:3 ); but St. ’ To call the inhabitants of the four cities ‘Phrygians’ or ‘Lycaonians’ would be as discourteous as to call them ‘slaves’ or ‘barbarians. going through) the region of Phrygia and Galatia,’ lit. ‘the Phrygian and Galatic region’ [so all the best MSS read these last words]. This ‘region,’ then (probably a technical term for the subdivision of a province), was a single district to which the epithets ‘Phrygian’ and ‘Galatic’ could both be applied; that is, it was that district which was part of the old country of Phrygia, and also part of the Roman province of Galatia. But no part of the old Galatia overlapped Phrygia, and the only district satisfying the requirements is the region around Pisidian Antioch and Iconium; therefore in Acts 16:6 a detour to N. Attempts to translate this passage, even as read by the best MSS, as if it were ‘Phrygia and the Galatic region,’ as the AV [Note: Authorized Version. Paul went in succession through ‘the Galatic region’ and through ‘Phrygia’ (or ‘[the] Phrygian [region]’). The second is the ‘Phrygian region’ [of Galatia], i
Dispersion - Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia
Laodicea - A city of Phrygia
Fable - Ramsay points out that Phrygia was a favourable soil, the Jews there being particularly lax
Lycaonia - by Phrygia, Pisidia, and Isauria; but its limits were very uncertain and liable to change, especially in the N. Driven eastward by the Phrygians, they were always, under the away of some stronger power, which cut and carved their territory without ever asking their leave. Galatian theory is to be accepted, he passed through Galatic Lycaonia four times (Acts 14:6; Acts 21; Acts 16:1; Acts 18:23); he addressed the mixed population of its cities-Lycaonians, Greeks, and Jews-as all alike ‘Galatians’; and the Christians of Lycaonian and Phrygian Galatia, not the inhabitants of Galatia proper, are the ‘foolish Galatians’ (Galatians 3:1) about whom he was so ‘perplexed’ (Galatians 4:20)
Miltiades, 2nd Cent. Christian Writer - After the death of Montanus, his sect seems to have been known in Phrygia by the name of its leader for the time being; and in an anti-Montanist document preserved by Eusebius, v
Diana - iii in Ramsay’s Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Oxford, 1895). of his Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, Oxford, 1895; on Artemis, see L
Abercius, Bishop of Hierapolis - of Hierapolis in Phrygia in the time of M. , as "a testimony, brief, clear, emphatic, of the truth for which Avircius had contended—the one great figure on the Catholic side produced by the Phrygian church during this period," a man whose wide experience of men and cities might in itself have well marked him out as such a champion. ), also Ramsay's Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia , ii
Hierapolis - Hierapolis was probably an old Lydian city, but in the Roman period it was always regarded as Phrygian. ’ Theodoret (Commentary on Psalms 116) says that ‘the Apostle Philip controverted the error of the Phrygians. 84, and Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i
Derbe - A third visit is probably implied by the statement that ‘he went through the region of Galatia and Phrygia in order, stablishing all the disciples’ (Acts 18:23)
Galatia - a province of the Lesser Asia, bounded on the west by Phrygia, on the east by the river Haylys, on the north by Paphlagonia, and on the south by Lycaonia
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - of Hierapolis, in Phrygia A. (5) Writings against the Phrygian heresy, published when Montanus was first propounding his heresy; i
Antioch - The boundaries of Pisidia gradually moved northward till it included most of Southern Phrygia, and then ‘Antioch of Pisidia’ became the usual designation of the city. Luke as belonging to the Phrygio-Galatic region (τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν, Acts 16:6), Phrygian being a geographical term and Galatic a political, the one used by the Greeks and the other by the Roman government. In Acts 18:23 the region is simply called ‘Phrygian,’ and if, as many think, Φρυγίαν is here to be taken as a noun, the sense is still much the same (see Galatia and Phrygia). Antiochus the Great settled 2000 Jewish families in Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. While the native Phrygian type or religious feeling was more eastern than western, and thus had a certain natural affinity with the Semitic type, the Phrygian Jews, whose laxity gave deep offence to the rigidly orthodox, no doubt increased their power among their neighbours by their freedom from bigotry
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - But the letters of the martyrs to Eleutherus do not appear, from Eusebius, to have had any different purport from those sent also to the churches of Asia and Phrygia, nor does their object seem to have been to seek a judgment, but rather to express one, in virtue, we may suppose, of the weight carried in those days by the utterances of martyrs
Sardis - It was thus an ideal capital in days of primitive warfare between Lydia and Phrygia
Eutychius - Eutychius was born at Theium in Phrygia c
Antioch - It was actually in the ethnic district of Phrygia, and in the Roman province of Galatia (that region of it called Phrygia Galatica)
Antiochus - , he was a great colonizer, and induced 2000 Jewish families to go from Mesopotamia into Lydia and Phrygia, thus laying the foundation for the influential Jewish Dispersion in those regions
Galatia - The large central province, which the Romans named Galatia, included parts of the ancient regions of Galatia in the north, Phrygia in the south-west, Pisidia in the south and Lycaonia in the south-east... Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - The emperor Constantius received from Saturninus an account of this gathering, and at once resolved to banish to Phrygia Hilary and one of his allies, St. The energies of Hilary in Gaul were chiefly concerned with the Arians, but his acts (though by no means all his writings) in Phrygia with the semi-Arians. It was probably composed before his banishment to Phrygia in 356. It is a letter from Hilary, an exile in Phrygia, to his brother-bishops in Gaul, who had asked for an explanation of the numerous professions of faith which the Orientals seemed to be putting forth
Paul - "They went throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia. (Galatians 4:13-15 ) Having gone through Phrygia and Galatia, he intended to visit, the western coast; but "they were forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach the "word" there. When he left Antioch, he "went over all the country of Galatia and Phrygia in order, strengthening all the disciples," and giving orders concerning the collection for the saints. He came down to Ephesus from the upper districts of Phrygia
Luke, the Gospel According to - Luke may have first become connected with Paul in tending him in the sickness which detained him in Phrygia and Galatia (Galatians 4:13, "because of an infirmity of my flesh I preached," owing to his detention by sickness, (contrary to his original intention he preached there). Thus Paul's allusion to Luke's being a "physician" is appropriate in writing to the Colossians as they were in Phrygia, the quarter wherein Luke ministered to his sickness
Galatians, the Epistle to the - Accustomed, when pagan, to the mystic worship of Cybele prevalent in the neighboring Phrygia, they the more readily were led to believe that the full privileges of Christianity could only be attained by submitting to elaborate ceremonial symbolism (Galatians 4:9-11; Galatians 5:7-12)
Novatianus And Novatianism - Novatian the founder of Novatianism is said by Philostorgius to have been a Phrygian by birth a notion which may have originated in the popularity of his system in Phrygia and its neighbourhood (Lightfoot's Colossians p. The two earliest, at least, proved their essential oneness, uniting their ranks in Phrygia in the 4th cent. A few obscure Phrygian bishops, however, convened a synod at Pazum or Pazacoma, and agreed to celebrate the same day as that on which the Jews keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Italy, and Spain the sect seems to have taken as firm root as in Phrygia and central Asia Minor
Thyatira - Some of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus the Great deported from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Jos
Tarsus - His third tour also began with a journey from Syrian Antioch to the region of Phrygia and Galatia (Acts 18:23), no doubt via Tarsus, which he then probably saw for the last time
Philip - Of the later connexion with Hierapolis already alluded to we have now interesting confirmation in the discovery of an inscription showing that the church there was dedicated to the memory ‘of the holy and glorious Apostle and theologian Philip’ (τοῦ ἀγίου κὲ ἑνδεξου ἀποστόλου κἑ θεολόγου Φιλίππου: see Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - Basil of Ancyra denounced him to the civil power for his supposed complicity in the treasonable designs of Gallus, and he was banished to Pepuza in Phrygia
Peter, the Epistles of - Men of Cappadocia, as well as of "Pontus" and "Asia" (including Mysia, Lydia, Curia, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia), were among Peter's hearers on Pentecost; these brought home to their native lands the first tidings of the gospel. ... In Phrygia Paul preached when visiting twice the neighbouring Galatia
Galatians, Epistle to the - The events seem best to agree thus: on Paul's second missionary journey he went throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia
Fornication - The temples had their courtesans (ἱερόδουλοι; sec Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, i
Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylaeum - of Dorylaeum in Phrygia Salutaris, the constant supporter of orthodoxy against Nestorius and Eutyches alike
Dead, the - This conception seems to find expression in a symbol found on early Christian tombs in Phrygia, viz
Trade And Commerce - Cicero, in spite of his good government of the large province of Cilicia (the name included in his time Cilicia, Cilicia Tracheia, Pamphylia, Lycia, Pisidia, Isaurica, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and part of Galatia [Ramsay, Historical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, London, 1899, map opposite to p. The best known case is that of a merchant Flavius Zeuxis of Hierapolis in Phrygia, an inland city, be it observed, who voyaged from Asia to Rome seventy-two times (CIG [Note: IG Corpus Inscrip
Roman Law in the nt - he visited first that part of Lycaonia which was not part of the subject kingdom but was incorporated in the province Galatia, and then he went through Phrygia or ‘the Phrygian’ [region] (ct. ] Acts 16:6, τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν, which by the grammatical construction must mean ‘the region which was both Phrygian and Galatic,’ i. that part of Phrygia which was incorporated in the province Galatia; cf
Galatians, Letter to the - In Acts 16:6 Paul then went through the “region of Phrygia and Galatia,” as he did also in Acts 18:23 (third missionary journey)
Philemon Epistle to - 18 suggests, without actually indicating, that the slave, like many runaways, had purloined enough to defray expenses; (2) at Caesarea, the Apostle must have always looked forward to Rome (Acts 23:11; Acts 25:11) and therefore would not be contemplating an early visit to Phrygia; (3) Philippians 2:24 (certainly written from Rome) shows that St
Asia Minor, Cities of - As the chief city of the wealthy province of Phrygia, Laodicea boasted of a large number of banks
no'ah - There is a medal of Apamea in Phrygia, struck as late as the time of Septimius Severus, in which the Phrygian deluge is commemorated
no'ah - There is a medal of Apamea in Phrygia, struck as late as the time of Septimius Severus, in which the Phrygian deluge is commemorated
Trade And Commerce - Cicero, in spite of his good government of the large province of Cilicia (the name included in his time Cilicia, Cilicia Tracheia, Pamphylia, Lycia, Pisidia, Isaurica, Lycaonia, Phrygia, and part of Galatia [Ramsay, Historical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, London, 1899, map opposite to p. The best known case is that of a merchant Flavius Zeuxis of Hierapolis in Phrygia, an inland city, be it observed, who voyaged from Asia to Rome seventy-two times (CIG [Note: IG Corpus Inscrip
Ephesus - Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, 1895, i
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - In the same year Hilary of Poictiers was banished to Phrygia
Prayer - ... The epitaph of Abercius (Avircius Marcellus), who was bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia Salutaris c
Paul - Thence they went through Phrygia and Galatia; and, being desirous of going into Asia Propria, or the Proconsular Asia, they were forbidden by the Holy Ghost. He passed through Galatia, and Phrygia, A
Stoics - The earliest teachers came from Cyprus, Cilicia, Babylon, Palestine, Syria, and Phrygia, and the universities of Tarsus, Rhodes, and Alexandria were its strongholds
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - But, apprehended in Asia Minor by some imperial officers, he was banished by the emperor's orders to Midaeus or Migde in Phrygia; Aetius to Pepuza
Ephesians, Book of - 45-48, established Christianity in Cilicia, Pamphylia, and Phrygia
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - He stood high in the confidence of the emperor Justinian, by whom he was commissioned in 542 as "Teacher of the heathen" in the four provinces of Asia, Caria, Phrygia, and Lydia
Paul - But he longed to enter into "regions beyond," and still went forward through Phrygia and Galatia (16:6)
Idol - This horrid consecrated pollution prevailed in Phoenicia, Syria, Phrygia, Assyria, and Babylonia, and still in Hindu idolatry
Revelation of John, the - The epistle of the churches of Lyons and Vienne to those of Asia and Phrygia (in Eusebius, H
Serpent - The same learned writer discovers traces of the serpent worship among the Hyperboreans, at Rhodes, named Ophiusa, in Phrygia, and upon the Hellespont, in the island Cyprus, in Crete, among the Athenians, in the name of Cecrops, among the natives of Thebes in Boeotia, among the Lacedaemonians, in Italy, in Syria, &c, and in the names of many places, as well as the people where the Ophites settled
Vespasian - The army crossed Asia Minor by Cappadocia and Phrygia
Roman Empire - His father by favour of the Romans had been given Phrygia also, but this the Romans took from the son in his minority
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - of Hierapolis in Phrygia (Eus. 48), "Papias, or (as it is very frequently written in inscriptions) Pappias, is a common Phrygian name
Polycarp - The author of the Martyrium Polycarpi explains it (4): ‘But one man, Quintus by name, a Phrygian newly arrived from Phrygia, when he saw the wild beasts, turned coward
Monophysitism - of Dorylaeum in Phrygia, brought a complaint against the abbot Eutyches as a disturber of the public peace
Papias - ... Hierapolis, Papias’ home in South Phrygia, was well within the province of Asia and near the main road to Ephesus from the East, while it actually lay on another road running N
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - ... The story of the martyrdom of Polycarp is told in a letter still extant, purporting to be addressed by the church of Smyrna to the church sojourning (παροικούση ) in Philomelium (a town of Phrygia) and to all the παροικίαι of the holy Catholic Church in every place. Quintus Phrygian by nation who had presented himself voluntarily for martyrdom on sight of the wild beasts lost courage and yielded to the proconsul's entreaties
John, Gospel of (Critical) - The Apostolic Fathers... (1) Papias was bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - That Irenaeus wrote the epistle of the Gallican confessors to the churches of Asia Minor and Phrygia, which so vividly describes the persecution (ap
Jews - Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces