Places Study on Phoenicia

Places Study on Phoenicia

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Easton's Bible Dictionary - Phoenicia
(Acts 21:2 ). (See PHENICIA .)

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Phoenicia
To the north of Palestine, along the narrow coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Range, was the land known in Bible times as Phoenicia. Today the land falls largely within the country known as Lebanon, though the Bible most commonly refers to it by the names of its chief towns, Tyre and Sidon (Ezra 3:7). Other important towns were Zarephath and Byblos (1 Kings 17:9). The wealth of the Phoenicians came partly from their fleets of merchant ships and partly from the large forests of cedar trees in the Lebanon Range (see LEBANON).

Phoenicia
(fee ni' cih uh) Place name meaning, “purple” or “crimson,” translation of Hebrew “Canaan,” land of purple.” The narrow land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Mountains between Tyre in the south and Arvad in the north. New Testament Phoenicia reached south to Dor. Great forest land enabled the people to build ships and become the dominant seafaring nation. The forests also provided timber for export, Phoenician cedars being the featured material of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 5:8-10 ).

Culture Phoenician religion was akin to that of the Canaanites, featuring fertility rites of Baal. See Canaan. Later, Baal's Greek counterpart Adonis (“my lord”) was worshiped in similar fashion to Tammuz. See Fertility Cults. The Phoenician princess Jezebel imported devotion to Baal to Israel. See Jezebel ; Elijah . Phoenicia introduced the alphabet to the western world, but little of their literature survived.

History City-states rather than central government dominated Phoenicia. Leading cities were Tyre, Sidon, Byblos (Gebal), and Berytos (Beirut). An early Neolithic race disappeared about 3000 B.C., being replaced by Semitic colonizers from the east. Invading armies from north (Hittites), east (Amorites and Assyrians), and south (Egyptians) dominated history until 1000 B.C. when King Hiram of Tyre established local rule (981-947 B.C.). See Hiram . They were able to take advantage of their location on the sea with natural harbors and their forests to establish farflung trade. Compare Ezekiel 27:1 . Their sailors established trading colonies to the west and south all along the Mediterranean coast. The most notable colony was Carthage on the North African coast.

Growth of Assyrian power about 750 B.C. led to Phoenicia's decline. The Persian Empire gave virtual independence to Phoenicia, using the Phoenician fleet against Egypt and Greece. Alexander the Great put an end to Phoenician political power, but the great cities retained economic power.

New Testament Jesus' ministry reached Tyre and Sidon (Matthew 15:21 ). Persecution beginning with Stephen's death, led the church to spread into Phoenicia (Acts 11:19 ; compare Acts 15:3 ; Acts 21:2-3 ). See Tyre ; Sidon.

Timothy Trammel



Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Phoenicia
(See PHOENICE.)

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Phoenicia, phNicians
PHŒNICIA, PHŒNICIANS . Phœnicia was the strip of coast land between Lebanon and the hills of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea. Its northern and southern limits are Indefinite, being differently defined by different ancient geographers.

The Semitic name of the country was ‘ Canaan ’ ( Kinachchi and Kinachna in the el-Amarna tablets, and Chna on Phœnician coins; cf. Canaanites). The name Phœnicia comes from a Gr. root signifying ‘blood-red,’ and was probably given on account of the colour of the soil. It was once thought to be derived from the Egyptian Fenkh , but that is now conceded to have been a designation of Asiatics in general (cf. W. Max Müller, Asien und Europa , 208 ff.).

The extent of the country may be roughly determined by its chief cities Arvad or Arados, on the island now called Ruad, eighty miles north of Sidon, Simyra, Arka, Gebal or Byblos, Biruta on the site of the modern Beyrout, Sidon, Sarepta, Tyre, Achzib, and Acco. The latter, the modern Acre, not far north of Mt. Carmel, was the most southerly of these cities.

The Phœnlcians are proved by their language and religion to have belonged to the Semitic race. Herodotus (l. 1 and vii. 89) records a tradition that they came from the Red Sea. Scholars now suppose that this refers really to the Persian Gulf, and that the Canaanites , of whom the Phœnicians were a part, came from North Arabia by way of the shore of the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates valley. This migration was probably a part of that movement of races which about b.c. 1700 gave Babylon the Kassite dynasty and Egypt its Hyksos kings (cf. Paton, Early Hist. of Syria and Pal . ch. v.). Perhaps the Canaanites were the last wave of Amorites (wh. see). Their chief cities may have been built by a previous race. Herodotus (li. 44) records a tradition which, if true, would carry the founding of the temple at Tyre back to b.c. 2730.

The civilization of the Phœnicians was a city civilization, and each city had its petty king. The history is therefore the record of a number of petty dynasties, often jealous of one another, and never powerful enough to resist a strong invader from without. Hemmed in between the mountains and the sea, they alone of the early Semites developed navigation, and became the merchantmen and the carriers of the ancient world. Their ships and shipping were important as early as b.c. 1400 (cf. KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] v. 150:61, 152:58). Herodotus tells (iv. 42) how Necho of Egypt, a contemporary of Jeremiah, employed Phœnicians to circumnavigate Africa, while Strabo (xvi. ii. 23) again testifies to their excellence in seamanship. According to Homer, they had intercourse with Greeks in the time of the Trojan war ( Il . vi. 290). Traces of their influence are found in Greece (cf. Barton, Semit . Or . 315 ff.), and their maritime skill led them later to found colonies, especially in Sicily, Carthage, and Cyprus.

For some reason Sidon so excelled the other cities in the eyes of Israelites and Greeks, that in the OT and Homer the Phœnicians are frequently called ‘Sidonians,’ even when, as in the case of Ahab’s marriage, Tyrians are really referred to (cf. Judges 10:6 ; Judges 10:12 ; Judges 18:7 , 1 Kings 5:6 ; 1 Kings 11:6 ; 1Ki 11:33 ; 1 Kings 16:31 , 2 Kings 23:13 ; Horn. Il . vi. 290, Od . iv. 618, xv. 118). The reason for this is obscure.

Phœnicia first appears in written history in the record of the Asiatic campaigns of Thothmes iii. of Egypt. In his earlier campaigns that king conquered the region between the Lebanon ranges. In his 7th expedition (b.c. 1471) he came out to the coast and conquered Arvad, the most northerly of the important Phœnician cities (cf. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt , ii. 196). There are reasons for supposing that Tyre had previously been added to his empire (Breasted Hist. of Egypt , 298). Probably the same is true of the rest of Phœnicia, for in the el-Amarna letters all the Phœnician cities were included in the Egyptian empire of Amenophis iii. and Amenophis iv. These letters show that under Amenophis iv. Rib-Adda was vassal king of Gebal, Ammunira of Biruta, Zimrida of Sidon, and Abimilki of Tyre. These kings were in constant feud with one another, with the people of Arvad, and with the Amorites beyond the Lebanon. They are constantly accusing one another (cf. Nos. 33 ff., 128 130, and 147 156). Under the XIXth dynasty Phœnicia was again invaded. Seti i. held Acco and Tyre (Breasted, Records , iii. 47), while Rameses ii. pushed northward to Biruta ( ib . iii. 123). In the reign of his successor Merenptah the cities from the Lebanon to Ashbelon revolted. Phœnicia was probably included in the revolt, for in the poem written to celebrate the re-subjugation of these lands, we read: ‘Plundered is Canaan with every evil’ (Breasted, Records , iii. 264, Hist . 470). In the XXth dynasty Rameses iii. (b.c. 1198 1167) still held the country from Arvad and southward (Breasted, Records , iv. 34, 37). It is probably because of this long Egyptian vassalage that Genesis 10:15 traces the descent of Sidon from Ham. By the end of the dynasty Phœnicia was again free, for in the fifth year of Rameses xii. (b.c. 1113) a certain Wenamon was despatched to Phœnicia for cedar from the Lebanon forests; and Dor, Tyre, and Gebal, the towns at which he touched, were not only independent but had small respect for a representative of Pharaoh (Breasted, ib . iv. 274 ff.). The king of Gebal was at this time Zakar-Bel. Probably the dynasty of Tyre traced to Josephus ( c. Apion . i. 18) was founded at the time of this emancipation from Egypt, and the era to which he refers ( Ant . VIII. iii. 1) then began.

A century later than the time of Wenamon, Hiram king of Tyre was an ally of David, and furnished cedar to build him a place (2 Samuel 5:11 ). Later he was the ally of Solomon, and aided him in the construction of the Temple ( 1Ki 5:1 ; 1 Kings 7:13 ; 1 Kings 9:11-12 ). In the following century king Ahab of Israel married Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre. Thus Phœnician influence found its way into Israel.

Shortly before the time of Ahab, the Assyrian king Ashur-nasir-pal (b.c. 884 860) had made a raid to the Mediterranean coast and exacted tribute from Tyre, Sidon, and Gebal ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] i. 109). His successor, Shalmaneser ii., records tribute from the same cities in his 21st year ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] i. 143). Later he took it also from Arvad ( ib . 173). Adad-nirari (b.c. 812 783) counted Tyre and Sidon among his subjects ( ib . 191). In the interval of Assyrian weakness which followed, Phœnicia became once more independent, and when the powerful Tiglath-pileser iii. (b.c. 745 727) again invaded the West, Tyre joined a coalition against him, but in the end Tyre and Gebal and Arvad paid tribute ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] ii. 21, 23, 31). Sidon is not mentioned. Probably it was subject to Tyre. Tyre at this period ruled over a part of Cyprus. Menander relates (Jos. [Note: Josephus.] Ant . IX. xiv. 2) that Shalmaneser iv. (727 722) overran Phœnicia and unsuccessfully besieged Tyre for five years. Perhaps the issue of the siege came in the reign of Sargon, for the statue of that king in Cyprus shows that this dependency of Tyre was ruled by him. Sennacherib (705 681) records the submission of Sidon, Sarepta, Achzib, and Acco ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] ii. 91). Tyre he did not disturb. Esarhaddon had to reduce Sidon by a siege, and changed its name to ‘Esarhaddonsburg’ ( Kar-Assurakhiddina ), but he failed to reduce Tyre ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] ii. 125 ff., 149; Rogers, Hist. Bab. [Note: Babylonian.] and Assyr [Note: ssyr Assyrian.] . ii. 226 ff.). Ashurbanipal (668 626) claims to have reduced Tyre and Arvad. At any rate he made an alliance with the king of Tyre ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek.] ii. 169, 171). Before the end of his reign, however, Phœnicia was again independent, Assyria having become weak. We next hear that king Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (604 562) unsuccessfully besieged Tyre for many years ( Ezekiel 26:1 ff; Ezekiel 29:17 ff.).

In the Persian period (how Phœnicia became subject to Persia our sources do not tell) Sidon again became the leading city, Tyre taking a second place. An inscription of Yabaw-melech, king of Gebal, probably belongs to this period ( CIS i. 1).

Sidon furnished the best ships for the fleet of Xerxes, Tyre the next best (Diod. Sic. xvi. xlvi.; Herod. vii. 44, 96, 98, viii. 67). Straton (Abd-Ashtart?) of Sidon in the next century effected Greek civilization (Ælian, Var. Hist . vii. 2; Athenæus, 531). About 350 his successor Tennes (Tabnith?) joined in an unsuccessful revolt against Persia, and Sidon was again besieged (Diod. Sic. xvi. xlii.).

After the battle of Issus (b.c. 333), all the Phœnician cities except Tyre opened their gates to Alexander the Great. Tyre resisted and again stood a siege of seven months (Diod. Sic. xvii. xll. ff.). During the next century, under the Ptolemys, a native dynasty flourished at Sidon, from which a number of inscriptions survive (cf. G. A. Cooke, North Sem. Inscr . 26 ff.; JAOS [Note: AOS Journ. of the Amer. Oriental Society.] xxiii. 156 ff.). The kings were Eshmunazar i., Tabnith, Bod-Ashtart, and Eshmunazar ii. Bod-Ashtart built a temple near Sidon, which has recently been excavated.

In the wars of the later Ptolemys and Seleucids the Phœnicians played an important part. Phœnicia belonged to the Seleucids after b.c. 197. In b.c. 65 it passed under Roman rule. The reference in Mark 7:26 to a woman who was a ‘ Syrophœnician ’ by race shows that the Evangelist recognized that the old stock survived. In b.c. 14 Augustus made Biruta a Roman colony. Claudius (a.d. 41 54) made Acco, then called Ptolemais (cf. Acts 21:7 ), a Roman colony. Septimius Severus (a.d. 193 211) performed a similar service for Tyre, and Elagabalus (218 222) for Sidon. Gradually the old race was merged with various conquerors.

In civilization the Phœnicians were for the most part borrowers from Babylonia and Egypt. What they borrowed they carried in their trading voyages all about the Mediterranean, and thus diffused culture and the arts of life. Perhaps they were pioneers in the art of seamanship, but of this we cannot be sure; they may have borrowed this from Crete or the Mycenæans. That they invented the alphabet and diffused it in their voyages, so that it was adopted by the Greeks and Romans, is generally conceded, but whether they obtained it by adapting Egyptian hieroglyphs, or Babylonian cuneiform characters, or from some other ancient form of writing, is still in dispute. In religion they closely resembled the other Semites (cf. W. R. Smith, RS [Note: S Religion of the Semites.] ; and Barton, Semit. Origins ). Baal and Ashtart were the principal divinities, and much prominence was given to sexual rites (cf. Lucian, de Syria Dea , § 6 ). Human sacrifice persisted long among them in spite of their contact with the highly civilized Greeks (cf. EBi [Note: Encyclopædia Biblica.] iii. col. 3189, 3190).

The best account that we have of the nature and extent of Phœnician traffic is contained in Ezekiel’s description (chs. 27, 28) of the trade of Tyre, which, as we have seen, had been the leading Phœnician city for a century or more before his time.

George A. Barton

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Phoenicia
(AV_ ‘Phenice,’ Φοινίκη)

Phcenicia, the coast-land between Mt. Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea, was about 120 miles in length and rarely more than 12 in breadth. It presented to the eye a succession of hills and valleys, well-watered and fruitful; and it had the best harbours in the whole Syrian coast-line. It became the home of one of the great civilizations of the ancient world, achieving success chiefly owing to the skill of its people in the art of navigation, ‘in which the Phcenicians in general have always excelled all nations’ (Strabo, XVI. ii. 23). The OT (like Homer) styles them ‘Sidonians,’ from the name of their principal town (Judges 3:3, Deuteronomy 3:9, etc.). They established colonies and commercial agencies all along the Mediterranean, and exerted a great influence on Western culture. From the time of Alexander the Great onward, the country was one of the stakes in the chronic warfare between the Seleucids and the Ptolemys. In 65 b.c. Pompey made Syria-Phcenicia a Roman province under a proconsul or propraetor. He did not, however, deprive of autonomy the ancient cities of Tyre and Sidon, or the recently founded Tripolis. For centuries the people had been gradually adopting the language, manners, and customs of Greece. ‘From the beginning of the imperial period the sole rule of Greek is here an established fact’ (T. Mommsen, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, Eng. tr._, 1909, ii. 122).

No detailed account is given in the NT of the introduction of Christianity into Phcenicia, but hints are not wanting. The dispersion which followed Stephen’s death brought travellers thither, ‘speaking the word to none save only to Jews’ (Acts 11:19). St. Paul and Barnabas at the end of their first missionary tour ‘passed through Phcenicia and Samaria, telling the whole story (ἐκδιηγούμενοι) of the conversion of the Gentiles’ (Acts 15:3). At the end of the third journey St. Paul sailed for Phcenicia and spent a week among ‘the disciples’ of Tyre (Acts 21:2-6; see Tyre and Sidon). It should not be forgotten that many Phcenicians had come to Galilee to hear Christ Himself (Mark 3:8), that He returned their visit by going into ‘the borders of Tyre and Sidon’ (Mark 7:24), and that He expressed the conviction that the people of this country could have been more easily moved to repentance than those of the most highly favoured cities of His native land (Matthew 11:21).

Phcenicia continued to flourish under the Romans, but ceased to have any political importance, and gradually lost its national identity. The conflict between the old and the new civilizations lasted long, and down to the 2nd cent. a.d. Greek and Phcenician characters sometimes appear together on coins, while Latin was the language of government and law. In the end, however, it was neither of the Western tongues, but Aramaic, that displaced Phcenician, which was still spoken in North Africa till the 4th or 5th century. The fragmentary writings of Philo of Byblos-of the time of Hadrian-contain an interesting attempt to trace the mythology of Greece to that of Phcenicia, which was itself largely Babylonian.

Literature.-F. C. Movers, Die Phönizier, 1841-56; G. Rawlinson, Phcenicia, 1889; G. Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de l’orient4, 1886; E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums, 1884 ff.; W. von Landau, Die Bedeutung der Phönizier im Völkerleben, 1905; K. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria4, 1906.

James Strahan.

Sentence search

Phenice - Phoenicia
Phenicia or Phenice - See Phoenicia, PHENICIA, or PHENICE
Sidon - The Mediterranean seaports of Tyre and Sidon were the two most important towns of Phoenicia. The Bible frequently mentions the two towns together as a way of referring to Phoenicia in general (Ezra 3:7; Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:4; Zechariah 9:2; Mark 7:24). For example, Tyre, being the larger and more prosperous port, may have symbolized the greed and arrogance that Phoenicia as a whole developed because of its international shipping activity (Isaiah 23:1; Isaiah 23:8; Isaiah 23:17; Ezekiel 27:3; Ezekiel 27:25; Ezekiel 28:5; Ezekiel 28:9; Ezekiel 28:16). In the same way Sidon, being a dominant religious centre, fittingly symbolized the corrupt Phoenician religion that at times troubled Israel (Judges 10:6; 1 Kings 16:31-33). (For details of Sidon’s commerce, religion and history see Phoenicia
Helbah - Fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher (Judges 1:31 ), in the plain of Phoenicia
Sinim, the Land of - (Isaiah 49:12 ), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Genesis 10:17 ) is intended
Hel'Bah - (fertile ), a town of Asher, probably on the plain of Phoenicia not far from Sidon
Phenice, Phenicia - (fih ni' cih, feh nihc' ih uh) KJV alternate forms of Phoenicia (Phenice, Acts 11:19 ; Acts 15:3 ; Acts 27:12 ; Phenicia, Acts 21:2 )
ge'Bal - (mountain ), a maritime town of Phoenicia, near Tyre, ( Ezekiel 27:9 ) known by the Greeks as Byblus
Balm of Gilead - Exported from Gilead to Egypt and Phoenicia (Genesis 37:25 ; Ezekiel 27:17 )
Arkite - Tribe descended from Canaan, son of Ham; it probably resided in Arca, in the north of Phoenicia, about 15 miles north of Tripoli, now called Tell Arka
Phoenicia - New Testament Phoenicia reached south to Dor. The forests also provided timber for export, Phoenician cedars being the featured material of Solomon's Temple (1 Kings 5:8-10 ). ... Culture Phoenician religion was akin to that of the Canaanites, featuring fertility rites of Baal. The Phoenician princess Jezebel imported devotion to Baal to Israel. Phoenicia introduced the alphabet to the western world, but little of their literature survived. ... History City-states rather than central government dominated Phoenicia. led to Phoenicia's decline. The Persian Empire gave virtual independence to Phoenicia, using the Phoenician fleet against Egypt and Greece. Alexander the Great put an end to Phoenician political power, but the great cities retained economic power. Persecution beginning with Stephen's death, led the church to spread into Phoenicia (Acts 11:19 ; compare Acts 15:3 ; Acts 21:2-3 )
Zemarites - Bochart conjectures Samyra, a city of Phoenicia, on the sea coast, on the river Eleutherus; its ruins still are called Samra
Pheni'ce - [See PHOENICE ; Phoenicia]
Patara - Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open sea to the coast of Phoenicia
Patara - Paul coming from Rhodes at the end of his third missionary journey here found a ship going to Phoenicia, and in it completed his voyage
Dor - Ancient royal city of Canaan, on the most southern border of the coast of Phoenicia
Patara - Paul, in passing from Philippi to Jerusalem, found here a ship for Phoenicia, in which he embarked, Acts 21:1
ar'Kite, the, - from Arka , one of the families of the Canaanites, ( Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:16 ) and from the context evidently located in the north of Phoenicia
Arkites - of Phoenicia, called subsequently Caesarea Libani (at the base of Lebanon) from being Alexander Severus' birthplace; well known to the crusaders
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - The native name of Phoenicia was Kenaan (Canaan) or Kna , signifying lowland, so named in contrast to the ad joining Aram, i. The length of coast to which the name of Phoenicia was applied varied at different times.
What may be termed Phoenicia proper was a narrow undulating plain, extending from the pass of Ras el-Beyad or Abyad , the Promontorium Album of the ancients, about six miles south of Tyre, to the Nahr el-Auly , the ancient Bostrenus, two miles north of Sidon. ... A longer district, which afterward became entitled to the name of Phoenicia, extended up the coast to a point marked by the island of Aradus, and by Antaradus toward the north; the southern boundary remaining the same as in Phoenicia proper. Phoenicia, thus defined is estimated to have been about 120 miles in length; while its breadth, between Lebanon and the sea, never exceeded 20 miles, and was generally much less. The whole of Phoenicia proper is well watered by various streams from the adjoining hills. --The Phoenicians spoke a branch of the Semitic language so closely allied to Hebrew that Phoenician and Hebrew, though different dialects, may practically be regarded as the same language. Concerning the original race to which the Phoenicians belonged, nothing can be known with certainty, because they are found already established along the Mediterranean Sea at the earliest dawn of authentic history, and for centuries afterward there is no record of their origin. , that the Phoenicians were of the same race as the Canaanites. --In regard to Phoenician trade, connected with the Israelites, it must be recollected that up to the time of David not one of the twelve tribes seems to have possessed a single harbor on the seacoast; it was impossible there fore that they could become a commercial people. ( 2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Kings 5:9,17,18 ) The religion of the Phoenicians, opposed to Monotheism, was a pantheistical personification of the forces of nature and in its most philosophical shadowing forth of the supreme powers it may be said to have represented the male and female principles of production. Their worship was a constant temptation for the Hebrews to Polytheism and idolatry -- ... Because undoubtedly the Phoenicians, as a great commercial people, were more generally intelligent, and as we should now say civilized, than the inland agricultural population of Palestine. ... The Phoenician religion had in other respects an injurious effect on the people of Palestine, being in some points essentially demoralizing, For example, it mentioned the dreadful superstition of burning children as sacrifices to a Phoenician god. Again, parts of the Phoenician religion, especially the worship of Astarte, fended to encourage dissoluteness in the relations of the sexes, and even to sanctify impurities of the most abominable description. The only other fact respecting the Phoenicians that need be mentioned here is that the invention of letters was universally asserted by the Greeks and Romans to have been communicated by the Phoenicians to the Greeks. For further details respecting the Phoenicians see TYRE and ZIDON . Phoenicia is now a land of ruins
Berothai - Near Beyrut are Assyrian tablets of a king (Shalmaneser), who overran Phoenicia
Accho - Sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judges 1:31 )
Gebal - Maritime city of Phoenicia
Cinnamon - Imported into Judaea by the Phoenicians. It reached Phoenicia overland from China by way of Persia
Phenicia - (Acts 21:2 ) = Phenice (11:19; 15:3; RSV, Phoenicia), Gr. "In the Egyptian inscriptions Phoenicia is called Keft, the inhabitants being Kefa; and since Keft-ur, or 'Greater Phoenicia,' was the name given to the delta of the Nile from the Phoenician colonies settled upon it, the Philistines who came from Caphtor or Keft-ur must have been of Phoenician origin" (Compare Deuteronomy 2:23 ; Jeremiah 47:4 ; Amos 9:7 ). ... Phoenicia lay in the very centre of the old world, and was the natural entrepot for commerce with foreign nations. " "The trade routes from all Asia converged on the Phoenician coast; the centres of commerce on the Euphrates and Tigris forwarding their goods by way of Tyre to the Nile, to Arabia, and to the west; and, on the other hand, the productions of the vast regions bordering the Mediterranean passing through the Canaanite capital to the eastern world. The far-reaching commercial activity of the Phoenicians, especially with Tarshish and the western world, enriched them with vast wealth, which introduced boundless luxury and developed among them a great activity in all manner of arts and manufactures. ) ... The Phoenicians were the most enterprising merchants of the old world, establishing colonies at various places, of which Carthage was the chief. The Royal Engineers found, buried deeply among the rubbish of many centuries, great stones, costly and hewed stones, forming the foundation of the sanctuary wall; while Phoenician fragments of pottery and Phoenician marks painted on the massive blocks seem to proclaim that the stones were prepared in the quarry by the cunning workmen of Hiram, the king of Tyre. ) ... The Phoenicians have been usually regarded as the inventors of alphabetic writing. The recent discovery, however, of inscriptions in Southern Arabia (Yemen and Hadramaut), known as Hemyaritic, in connection with various philogical considerations, has led some to the conclusion that the Phoenician alphabet was derived from the Mineans (admitting the antiquity of the kingdom of Ma'in, Judges 10:12 ; 2 Chronicles 26:7 ). Thus the Phoenician alphabet ceases to be the mother alphabet. ) ... "The Phoenicians were renowned in ancient times for the manufacture of glass, and some of the specimens of this work that have been preserved are still the wonder of mankind. In the matter of shipping, whether ship-building be thought of or traffic upon the sea, the Phoenicians surpassed all other nations. " "The name Phoenicia is of uncertain origin, though it may be derived from Fenkhu, the name given in the Egyptian inscriptions to the natives of Palestine. Among the chief Phoenician cities were Tyre and Sidon, Gebal north of Beirut, Arvad or Arados and Zemar
Tam'Muz - A festival in honor of Adonis was celebrated at Byblus in Phoenicia and in most of the Grecian cities, and even by the Jews when they degenerated into idolatry
Gebal - A seaport and district of Phoenicia north of Beyroot, called Byblos by the Greeks, now Jebail; population, 2,000
Cyprus - , 148 miles long, about 40 broad for the most part, facing Phoenicia and Lebanon on the E. In sailing from Rhodes and Patara Paul's ship "sighted" Cyprus, leaving it on the left in going to Phoenicia (Acts 21:3). of it, to be under lee of land, and to take advantage of the current, which flows northward along Phoenicia and westward along Cilicia (Acts 27:4)
Palestine - He places it between Phoenicia and Egypt
Elath - Elath would then be the mainland base to which goods were transferred for loading onto pack animals for the long caravan travels northward to Judah, Israel, Syria, or Phoenicia or for travels eastward to Assyria or Babylonia or westward to Egypt
Carmel - )... According to the beliefs of Baalism that Jezebel introduced into Israel from Phoenicia, Mt Carmel was a sacred Baal site
Ship - This was one reason why the Phoenicians became a famous seafaring nation in Old Testament times (Ezekiel 27:2; Ezekiel 27:25; Ezekiel 28:2; see Phoenicia). ... In the time of the Israelite monarchy, King Hiram of Phoenicia and King Solomon of Israel established a fleet of ships to operate between the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber and India. Because of the Israelites’ lack of seafaring experience, Solomon had to rely on the Phoenician seamen to guide and teach his men. ... God’s judgment on the greedy commercial giant Phoenicia (Tyre) was pictured by the prophet Ezekiel as the sinking of a great ship
Ptol'Emee, - He stood in the favor of Antiochus, and received from him the government of Phoenicia and Coele-Syria
Philis'Tia - It was, moreover, a commercial country: from its position it must have been at all times the great thoroughfare between Phoenicia and Syria in the north and Egypt and Arabia in the south
Gebal - The fine sarcophagus of King Ahiram found there contained the earliest evidence we have of the Phoenician alphabet. Tyre replaced Gebal as the strongest city of Phoenicia
Tin - " (Kenrick, "Phoenicia," p
Rib-Lah -
Riblah in the land of Hamath, a place on the great road between Palestine and Babylonia, at which the kings of Babylonia were accustomed to remain while directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia
Palm Tree - " The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i
Zidon, Sidon - Eldest son of Canaan, son of Ham, and the city in Phoenicia founded by his descendants. In scripture Tyre is nearly always mentioned first, though it is probable that in early days Zidon had the supremacy, which led to the district of Phoenicia being called Sidon, and the people thereof Zidonians
Missionaries of la Salette - Settling in the diocese of Sherbrooke, Quebec in 1902, they were placed in charge of a parish at Stanstead, Quebec, and in the Archdiocese of New York, a parish at Phoenicia, Ulster County, was entrusted to them
la Salette, Missionaries of - Settling in the diocese of Sherbrooke, Quebec in 1902, they were placed in charge of a parish at Stanstead, Quebec, and in the Archdiocese of New York, a parish at Phoenicia, Ulster County, was entrusted to them
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - Except the priests of Palestine Arabia, Phoenicia, and Achaia, the world consents to his condemnation
Mediterranean Sea, the - Most of the important nations of ancient times were either on the Mediterranean's shores or operated in its 2,200 miles of water: Israel, Syria, Greece, Rome, Egypt, Philistia, and Phoenicia. Only with the aid of the Phoenicians was Solomon able to assemble and operate a fleet of ships at Ezion Geber on the Red Sea. Phoenicians were famous in the ancient world for their capacity as sailors and pilots. The extensive use of the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians was continued by the Romans, who called it “Our Sea. See Phoenicia ; Tyre ; Transportation and Travel
Jabin - Joshua suddenly fell upon them and "chased them unto great Zidon (then the metropolis of Phoenicia, but later in David's time outstripped by Tyre), and Misrephoth Maim and unto the valley of Mizpeh eastward, until they left them none remaining
Shalmaneser - Hezekiah king of Judah successfully resisted him, 2 Kings 18:7 : but he appears to have ravaged Moab, Isaiah 10:9,15,16,23 ; and is said in Josephus to have conquered Phoenicia, with the exception of insular Tyre, which he besieged in vain for five years
Syria - ... The valley between the ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon was called Coele-Syria and Phoenicia were subject to the king of Babylon, and they afterwards were tributary to the Persian monarchs
Dispensations - It is made an objection to the Jewish dispensation that it was restricted to one nation; but its influence extended beyond Israel to the adjoining nations, Egypt famed for wisdom, the Canaanites for war, Phoenicia for commerce, and ultimately to Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome. ... Judea's position at the head of the Mediterranean, near Phoenicia, Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, adapted it for a worldwide influence
Palm Tree - " The word Phoenicia, which occurs twice in the New Testament -- (Acts 11:19 ; 15:3 ) --is in all probability derived from the Greek word for a palm. ) It is curious that this tree, once so abundant in Judea, is now comparatively rare, except in the Philistine plain and in the old Phoenicia about Beyrout
Ahab - Before coming to Israel’s throne, he had married Jezebel, daughter of the king-priest of Phoenicia, in a political alliance that had disastrous consequences for Israel. ... Besides accepting the Baal worship that Jezebel brought with her from Phoenicia, Ahab gave it official status in Israel by building a Baal temple in his capital city (1 Kings 16:29-33)
Gad - Syrian god known from inscriptions from Phoenicia and Palmyra and used in biblical names such as Baal-gad (Joshua 11:17 ) and Migdal-gad (Joshua 15:37 )
Sidon And Tyre - (ssi' dahn, teere) Phoenician cities located on the coastal plain between the mountains of Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea (Genesis 10:15 ). , Ahab married Jezebel, the daughter of the Phoenician king, bringing Baal worship to Israel's court. See Phoenicia
Menahem - Situated on the western bank of the Euphrates on the great trade road from Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia to Mesopotamia, it was important for Menahem to secure it
Golden Calf - ... Ancient Near Eastern Background and Biblical References Living bulls were important in the religion of some regions of ancient Egypt, and bull images appear in the art and religious texts of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, and Syria
Caesarea - Being situated on the main north-south coastal road that linked Phoenicia and Egypt, the city developed into a prosperous centre for inland and overseas trade
Hiram - ... Hiram was the son of Abibaal (“my father is Baal”) and was nineteen years old when he succeeded his father as king of Tyre on the Phoenician coast, just north of Israel. See David ; Phoenicia ; Solomon ; Tyre
Syria - Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris
Island - Scripture mentions many islands by name: Arvad (Ezekiel 27:8 ,Ezekiel 27:8,27:11 ) is an island two miles offshore from northern Phoenicia. Tyre (Ezekiel 26:2 ) was a famous Phoenician island city
Javan - ... Some germs of civilization probably passed into Greece through Jewish slaves imported from Phoenicia
Asher - Asher's territorial allotment was in Phoenicia in the far northwest reaching to Tyre and Sidon on the Mediterranean coast (Joshua 19:24-31 )
Photius, Bishop of Tyre - Photius at the same time undertook to clear Phoenicia of all clergy tainted with Nestorianism (Martin, u
Glass - In Egypt and Phoenicia glass was opaque and was used chiefly to make ornamental objects—especially beads, jewelry, and small bottles. The Egyptians and Phoenicians made small bottles for perfume by welding sticks of glass round a core of sand and clay built around a bar of metal
Ahab - Phoenicia in general. Menander mentions a drought in Phoenicia; compare 1 Kings 17. ... The close relation of the northern kingdom with Tyre in David's and Solomon's time, and the temporal advantage of commercial intercourse with that great mart of the nations, led to an intimacy which, as too often happens in amalgamation between the church and the world, ended in Phoenicia seducing Israel to Baal and Astarte, instead of Israel drawing Phoenicia to Jehovah; compare 2 Corinthians 6:14-18
Edesius - On their return to Phoenicia by way of the Red Sea, they landed "at a certain port," where there was "a safe haven," and there suffered from the barbarous assault of the "Indians," who murdered all the ship's company except the two youths, who were conveyed as prizes to the king
Elijah - Therefore, to show the powerlessness of Baal, Elijah announced a three-year drought throughout Israel and Phoenicia. God’s miraculous provisions of food, both in Israel and in Phoenicia, showed that he, not Baal, was the God of nature (1 Kings 17:1-4; 1 Kings 17:9; 1 Kings 17:16; cf
Cup - Solomon and the Assyrians probably derived their art mainly from Phoenicia
Riblah - Riblah or Riblathah in the land of Hamath, on the high road between Palestine and Babylon, where the Babylonian kings remained in directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia; where Jehoahaz was put in chains by Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:33), and Zedekiah, after seeing his sons slain, had his own eyes put out (Jeremiah 39:5-7; literally, Jeremiah 39:9-10), and other leading captives were slain, probably by the Assyrian death of impaling (Jeremiah 39:24; Jeremiah 39:27), as depicted on the monuments
Nebuchadnezzar - The Egyptians met him at Carchemish, where a furious battle was fought, resulting in the complete rout of the Egyptians, who were driven back (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ), and Syria and Phoenicia brought under the sway of Babylon (B. Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, and inflicted chastisement on Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar now set himself to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon (Daniel 4:30 ), and to add to the greatness and prosperity of his kingdom by constructing canals and aqueducts and reservoirs surpassing in grandeur and magnificence everything of the kind mentioned in history (Daniel 2:37 )
Lebanon - Lebanon was the name of a mountain range north of Israel between Phoenicia and Syria. It ran parallel to the coast, leaving only a narrow coastal plain for the Phoenician cities, most important of which were Tyre and Sidon (see Phoenicia)
Nebuchadnezzar - "... Became master of Coelo-Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine. ... Next, Phoenicia revolted. )... Phoenicia submitted to him (Ezekiel 26-28; Josephus, Ap. of the various kingdoms wheresoever he turned his arms, Egypt, Nineveh, Arabia, Phoenicia, Tyre
Gaza - Amos charged that along with the city of Tyre, in Phoenicia, Gaza engaged in slave trade with the Edomites (Amos 1:6-10 )
Ptolemies - He and his successors ruled an empire that included at times Cyrenaica, Palestine, Phoenicia, Cyprus and some parts of western Asia Minor and the Aegean
Jehu - After Jezebel of Phoenicia had married King Ahab of Israel, she set about establishing her Phoenician Baalism as Israel’s official religion
Hadad - Phoenicia (this accords with 2 Samuel 8:5, 'the Syrians of Damascus came to support Hadadezer,' being his vassals); he contended against David king of Judea in many battles; in the last, which was by the Euphrates, he suffered defeat (making his third defeat: 2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 8:5; 2 Samuel 10:18), showing himself a prince of the greatest prowess
Hiram - finns, and Phoenicians in Gilead, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Ituraeans, and Nabathaeans; and made an expedition against Suron (Huram?) king of Tyre and Phoenicia, and compelled them all to pay tribute to the Jews. " This confirms 2 Samuel 8; 9, and adds particulars drawn probably from Phoenician or other non-Israelite sources
Banking - banking had spread eastward to the sea-traders of Phoenicia on the northern coast of Palestine. Banking spread to the Phoenician trade centers by 1000 B
Banking - banking had spread eastward to the sea-traders of Phoenicia on the northern coast of Palestine. Banking spread to the Phoenician trade centers by 1000 B
Elijah - Thence he resorted to Zarephath, in Phoenicia; where one miracle provided him with sustenance and another restored to life the child of his hostess
Pharaoh - , Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia revolted; so he sent his son Nebuchadnezzar to recover those countries. He took Gaza of the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:1), and made himself master of Philistia and most of Phoenicia; attacked Sidon, and fought by sea with Tyre; and "so firmly did he think himself established in his kingdom that he believed not even a god could east hint down" (Herodotus ii
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - The Chronicle of Edessa speaks of him as an archimandrite, without specifying his monastery, which was at Gabala in Phoenicia
Publican - Levi's post was on the great road between Damascus and the seaports of Phoenicia
Coelicolae - The Coelicolae of Africa, like their congeners the Θεοσεβεῖς of Phoenicia and Palestine, and the Hypsistarii of Cappadocia, were soon stamped or died out
zi'Don, - (Genesis 10:15,19 ; Joshua 11:8 ; 19:28 ; Judges 1:31 ; 18:28 ; Isaiah 23:2,4,12 ; Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ; Ezekiel 28:21,22 ; Joel 3:4 ) ( Joel 4:4 ); Zechariah 9:2 ; Matthew 11:21,22 ; 15:21 ; Mark 3:8 ; 1:24,31 ; Luke 6:17 ; 10:13,14 An ancient and wealthy city of Phoenicia, on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, less than twenty English miles to the north of Tyre. This view is confirmed by Zidonians being used as the generic name of Phoenicians or Canaanites. When the people called "Zidonians" are mentioned, it sometimes seems that the Phoenicians of the plain of Zidon are meant. (Jeremiah 25:22 ; 27:3 ) During the Persian domination Zidon seems to have attained its highest point of prosperity; and it is recorded that, toward the close of that period, it far excelled all other Phoenician cities in wealth and importance
Assyria, History And Religion of - ... As Tiglath-pileser, also called Pul, arrived on the coast of Phoenicia, Menahem of Israel (2 Kings 15:19 ) and Rezin of Aram-Damascus brought tribute and became vassals of Assyria. A number of states in Phoenicia and Palestine were also in rebellion, led by Hezekiah of Judah. , he reasserted control over the city-states of Phoenicia, sacked Joppa and Ashkelon, and invaded Judah where Hezekiah had made considerable military preparations (2 Kings 20:20 ; 2Chronicles 32:1-8,2 Chronicles 32:30 ; Isaiah 22:8-11 ). He warred with nomadic tribes to the north and quelled a rebellion in Phoenicia, while Manasseh of Judah remained a loyal vassal. Phoenician attempts at revolt were also crushed
Solomon - One profitable operation was a sea-land trading partnership he established with Hiram of Phoenicia. Goods from the Mediterranean were collected at Hiram’s port of Tyre, carried overland to Israel’s Red Sea port of Ezion-geber, then shipped east (1 Kings 9:26-28; 1 Kings 10:22; for map see Phoenicia)
Galilee - of Zebulun) was inhabited by a mixed race of Jews and Gentiles of the bordering Phoenician race (Judges 1:30; 1 Kings 9:11). The northern boundary reached from Dan westward to Phoenicia (Luke 8:26). 1); in fact, the whole mountain range between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia
Nebuchadnezzar - Having been successful, he marched against the governor of Phoenicia, and Jehoiakim king of Judah, tributary of Necho king of Egypt. ... Nabopolassar dying, Nebuchadnezzar, who was then either in Egypt or in Judea, hastened to Babylon, leaving to his generals the care of bringing to Chaldea the captives taken in Syria, Judea, Phoenicia, and Egypt; for according to Berosus, he had subdued all these countries
Kings, Books of - ... When Omri’s son and successor Ahab married Jezebel of Phoenicia, the Baalism of Phoenicia threatened to become Israel’s national religion
Lebanon - The plain of Phoenicia, two miles wide, runs at the base of Lebanon between it and the sea. It was under the Phoenicians in Solomon's time and subsequently (1 Kings 5:2-6; Ezra 3:7)
Joppa - The Phoenician form of the term comes from the name Jafe, the daughter of Aeolus, god of the winds. ... Phoenicia gained control of Joppa by the time of Jonah
Ahab - ... Ahab's marriage to a Phoenician princess had both commercial and political benefits. Politically, it removed any military threat from Phoenicia
Sidon - An ancient mercantile city of Phoenicia, in the narrow plain between Lebanon and the Mediterranean, where the mountains recede two miles from the sea; 20 miles N. Sidonians is the generic name of the Phoenicians or Canaanites (Joshua 13:6; Judges 18:7); in Judges 18:28 Laish is said to be "far from Sidon," whereas Tyre, 20 miles nearer, would have been specified if it had then been a city of leading importance
Gal'Ilee - The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain at Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from Dan westward across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the Phoenicians. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia
Pamphilus, Presbyter of Caesarea - Pamphilus was a native of Phoenicia, and, if we accept the doubtful authority of Metaphrastes, born at Berytus, of a wealthy and honourable family
Lebanon - It is frequently featured in the Old Testament, in a general way, as the northern boundry of Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:24 ; Joshua 1:4 ), dividing it from Phoenicia and Syria. Along with the older port of Sidon, it was one of the centers of Phoenician civilization. ... Many foreign powers have controlled the Phoenician city-states
Philistines - ... They were partially subdued by Esar-haddon king of Assyria and afterwards by Psammetichus king of Egypt; and there is great probability that they were reduced by Nebuchadnezzar, as well as the other people of Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, during the siege of Tyre
Sozomen, Author of a History - Thence he seems to have gone to Berytus, a city of Phoenicia, to be trained in civil law at its famous school
Taxes - The contract sum for those of Phoenicia, Judea and Samaria had been estimated at about 8000 talents
Month - The three latter names are found only in Solomon's reign, when there was much intercourse with Phoenicia; they are probably Phoenician in origin
Assyria - 729, and invaded Phoenicia, took the city of Samaria, and, B. Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks. This Chyniladon is supposed by Newton to be the Nebuchadonosor mentioned in the book of Judith, Judges 1:1-15 , who made war upon Arphaxad, king of the Medes; and, though deserted by his auxiliaries of Cilicia, Damascus, Syria, Phoenicia, Moab, Ammon, and Egypt, routed the army of the Medes, and slew Arphaxad
Philistia - It was the commercial thoroughfare between Phoenicia and Syria on the N. (See Phoenicia
Dress - Dyed robes were imported from foreign countries, particularly from Phoenicia (Zephaniah 1:8 )
Assyria - From an early period Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected Philistia and Idumea
Colour - ... Purple, a colour obtained from the secretion of a species of shell-fish (the Murex trunculus) which was found in the Mediterranean, and particularly on the coasts of Phoenicia and Asia Minor. The Phoenicians excelled in the art of dyeing this colour (2 Chronicles 2:7 )
Palmtree - ... Phoenicia (Acts 11:19) takes its name from the palm; compare Phenice in Crete, Acts 27:12
Leb'Anon, - (2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ); Habb 2:17 Along the base of Lebanon runs the irregular plain of Phoenicia --nowhere more than two miles wide, and often interrupted by bold rocky spurs that dip into the sea. (Joshua 13:2-6 ; Judges 3:1-3 ) During the Jewish monarchy it appears to have been subject of the Phoenicians
Containers And Vessels - Most of that found in Palestine originated in Phoenicia. Discovered probably in Phoenicia, blown glass became the vessels of choice in Palestine during the Roman period
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - His doctrinal views seem also to have received some modification during this period, for at its close the banished heretic suddenly reappeared as the unanimous choice of the bishops of the province of Phoenicia for the vacant metropolitical see of Tyre, their choice being ratified by the leading members of the episcopate of Pontus and Palestine and accepted with warm commendation by Proclus of Constantinople
Jezebel - By her marriage to King Ahab of Israel, Jezebel helped to join Phoenicia and Israel together in a political and religious alliance. She was daughter of the king-priest of the Phoenician cities Tyre and Sidon, and set out to make Phoenician Baalism the official religion of Israel
Lycia - From these ports ships sailed east to Phoenicia, south to Egypt and west to Greece and Italy
Phoenicia - To the north of Palestine, along the narrow coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Range, was the land known in Bible times as Phoenicia. The wealth of the Phoenicians came partly from their fleets of merchant ships and partly from the large forests of cedar trees in the Lebanon Range (see LEBANON)
Rahab (1) - The flax she spread on her roof and the scarlet line make it likely she manufactured linen and dyed, as did the Phoenicians; compare Joshua 7:21 the "Babylonian garment," implying a trade in such articles with Mesopotamia. Jericho, near the fords of Jordan, would be an emporium between Phoenicia and Babylon and Egypt
Canaan - The territory stretched along the Mediterranean coast from Phoenicia (Sidon) in the north to Philistia (Gaza) in the south, and extended inland to the hills of Syria and the valley of the Jordan River (Genesis 10:15-19)
Canaan, History And Religion of - Canaan's identity as merchants probably goes back to a time when Canaan was limited to the area of Phoenicia, the rather small and narrow country along the seacoast of Canaan. Phoenicia was particularly known for a special purple dye produced from crushed mollusks. See Amorites ; Anath ; Asherah ; Baal ; El ; Elijah ; Israel ; Phoenicia ; Ugarit
Damascus - Nicholaus of Damascus says Hadad (so he named him) reigned over "all Syria except Phoenicia," and began the war by attacking David, and was defeated in a last engagement at the Euphrates River. These state that in spite of his having the help of the Phoenicians, Hittites and Hamathites, he was unable to oppose Assyria, which slew 20,000 of his men in just one battle
Monotheism - Competition between the people of Israel and the people of Phoenicia was highlighted by a competition for loyalty of the people between the Lord and Baal
Colors - The peoples of Crete, Phoenicia, and Canaan produced the dye from mollusks taken from the Mediterranean Sea
Elisha - At the time of the ministry of Elijah and Elisha, Israel’s ancient religion was threatened by the Baalism that Jezebel had brought with her from Phoenicia. Through her husband, King Ahab of Israel, Jezebel had tried to establish Phoenician Baalism as the official religion of Israel (1 Kings 16:30-33)
Medes - ) The Median empire then was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or by a line half way between the Tigris and Euphrates; Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea falling to Babylon
Calendars - In Phoenicia, Canaan, and Israel, however, the fall date was chosen, probably for the reason that harvesting marked the end of one agricultural cycle and prepared for the next. The other Canaanite months are known from Phoenician inscriptions
Language - The Hebrew or Canaanites dialect, Isaiah 19:18 , was spoken in Palestine, and probably with little variation in Phoenicia and the Phoenician colonies, as for instance, at Carthage and other places. The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. It flourished in its purest form in Palestine, among the Phoenicians and Hebrews, until the period of the Babylonish exile; soon after which it declined, and finally was succeeded by a kind of Hebraeo-Aramaean dialect, such as was spoken in the time of our Savior among the Jews. ... The remains of the ancient Hebrew tongue are contained in the Old Testament and in the few Phoenician and Punic words and inscriptions that have been here and there discovered
Ptolemae'us, - (Daniel 11:14,15 ) The Romans interfered, and in order to retain the provinces of Coele-Syria, Phoenicia and Judea, Antiochus "gave him [Ptolemy] a young maiden" [his daughter Cleopatra as his betrothed wife]
Matthew, the Gospel of - The place of writing was probably some place along the coast of Phoenicia or Syria such as Antioch. This is because of Matthew's several references to Gentiles, a reference to Phoenicia and Syria, and the terms (in the Greek text) used for coins (Matthew 17:24 ,Matthew 17:24,17:27 )
Joel - Judgment was pronounced against Phoenicia and Philistia (Joel 3:4 ) and eventually upon all nations as they were judged by God in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, which literally means “The Lord judges” (Joel 3:2 , 3:12 )
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - Peter tells us that the pagans esteemed Lucius as the favourite of Serapis, because he denied the divinity of the Son; and dwells on the brave confessorship (1) of 19 priests and deacons whom Magnus, after vain attempts to make them Arianize, transported to the pagan city of Heliopolis in Phoenicia, sending also into penal servitude 23 monks and others who expressed their sympathy; (2) of 7 Egyptian bishops exiled to Diocaesarea, a city inhabited by Jews, while some other prelates were "handed over to the curia," their official immunity from onerous curial obligations being annulled in requital of their steadfastness in the faith
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - Even here the bishops of Egypt, Cyprus, and Arabia recognized Paulinus, and demanded the banishment of Flavian, who was supported by the bishops of Palestine, Phoenicia, and Syria (Socr
Egypt - The writers are Phoenicians, Amorites, and Philistines, but in no instance Hittites, though Hittites are mentioned. , the last of this dynasty, from the kings and governors of Phoenicia and Palestine
Daniel - Berosus speaks of Nabopolassar's "satrap of Egypt, Coelosyria, and Phoenicia
Canaan - By heathen writers, the Holy Land has been variously termed Palestine, Syria, and Phoenicia
Eusebius, Bishop of Samosata - 13) through Phoenicia and Palestine, ordaining presbyters and deacons, and must thus have become known to Basil, who on the death of Eusebius of Caesarea wrote to Gregory (Bas
Antiochus - , went forth with great fury, on the way took Arad in Judah, devastated Phoenicia (according to Porphyry), "planting the tabernacles of his palace between the seas" (the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean), attacked the temple of Nanae at Elymais, ("the desire of women," the Syrian Venus; but the antitypical reference is to Messiah, whom Antichrist shall try to supplant,) to replenish his treasury, so as to renew the war with the Jews
Palesti'na - As lying next the sea, and as being also the high road from Egypt to Phoenicia and the richer regions no of it, the Philistine plain became sooner known to the western world than the country farther inland, and was called by them Syria Palestina-Philistine Syria. Above this is the ancient Phoenicia
Babel - So the Babylonian empire was extended over the whole Euphrates valley to the Taurus range, over Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Idumaea; and the Jews passed as tributaries under Babylon, as they had been under Assyria. He reigned 43 years, during which he recovered Syria and Palestine, destroyed Jerusalem, and carried away the Jews to Babylon, reduced Phoenicia and Tyre, and ravaged Egypt; above all he was the great builder of the most beautiful monuments of his country and city
Assur - He himself overran Cappadocia, Armenia, Azerbijan, Media Magna, the Kurd mountains, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia
Pentateuch - The Greek alphabet borrows its names of letters and order from the Semitic; those names have a meaning in Semitic, none in Greek Tradition made Cadmus ("the Eastern") introduce them into Greece from Phoenicia (Herodot
Apostle - Stephen, several of the leading men among the Christians were dispersed; some of them travelled through the regions of Judea and Samaria, and others to Damascus, Phoenicia, the Island of Cyprus, and various parts of Syria; but the twelve Apostles remained, with undaunted firmness, at Jerusalem, avowing their attachment to the persecuted interest of Christ, and consulting how they might best provide for the emergencies of the church, in its infant and oppressed state
Palestine - ... The Carmel range divides the Plain of Sharon from the narrow coastal plain of Phoenicia
Canaan - The Phoenicians were Semitic (from Shem), but the Canaanites preceded them in Palestine and Lower Syria. Sidon, Area, Arvad, and Zemara or Simra (Genesis 15:19-21) originally were Canaanite; afterward they fell under the Phoenicians, who were immigrants into Syria from the shores of the Persian gulf, peaceable traffickers, skillful in navigation and the arts, and unwar-like except by sea. Mythology connects the Phoenicians' ancestors Agenor and Phoenix with Belus and Babylon, also with Egyptus, Danaus (the Ethiop), and Libya. Inscriptions represent the Khatta or Hittites as the dominant Scythic race, which gave way slowly before the Aramaean Jews and the Phoenician immigrants. ; the plain of Sharon and seashore between Jaffa and Carmel; that of Esdraelon, or Jezreel, behind the bay of Acta; that of Phoenicia containing Tyre and Sidon (Numbers 13:29). So we find them in the upper Jordan valley at Bethshean, Esdraelon (Jezreel), Taanach, Ibleam, Megiddo, the Sharon plain, Dor, the Phoenician Accho and Sidon (Joshua 17:16; Judges 1:19; Judges 4:3. It lay midway between the oldest world kingdoms, on one side Egypt and Ethiopia, on the other Babylon, Assyria, and India; then it had close by the Phoenicians, the great traffickers by sea, and the Ishmaelites the chief inland traders
Idol - ... The Phoenicians anointed stones (often aerolites, as that "which fell down from Jupiter," sacred to Diana of Ephesus, Acts 19:35) to various gods, like the stone anointed by Jacob (Genesis 28:18; Genesis 28:22) at Bethel, called therefore Baetylia (compare also Genesis 31:45). Chamman, is a synonym of Baal the sun god in the Phoenician and Palmyrene inscriptions, and so is applied to his statues or lofty, obelisk like, columns (Isaiah 17:8; Isaiah 27:9 margin). The Phoenician Adon or Adonis, the Ammonite Moloch or Milcom, the Moabite Chemosh, the Assyrian and Babylonian Bel, and the Syrian Hadad, the Egyptian Ra, are essentially the same sun god. This horrid consecrated pollution prevailed in Phoenicia, Syria, Phrygia, Assyria, and Babylonia, and still in Hindu idolatry
Ships, Sailors, And Navigation - During this period the Phoenicians gained a reputation as the ablest of seamen and maritime traders. The Phoenician shipwrights should be credited with many of these important innovations. Ultimately, however, the sailing ship with a rounded hull and a single square sail became the primary cargo ship from Phoenicia to Italy. The Phoenician shipwrights increased the height of their vessels to accommodate three-level rowing. In both Phoenician and Greek navies of the period, the primary innovation was the construction of larger and larger vessels, though the exact nature of oaring is not clearly understood
Antiochus - Tryphon, thus abandoned, retired to Dora, in Phoenicia, whither Antiochus pursued him with an army of 120,000 foot, 800 horse, and a powerful fleet
Egypt - History also records their having sway over Phoenicia, and carrying on severe wars with the Hittites, with whom they at length made a treaty, which is given in full on the monuments. The writers were Phoenicians, Philistines, and Amorites, but not Hittites, though these are mentioned on the tablets
Palestine - In his inscriptions, and those of Thothmes III, Τu-netz , "Holy Land," occurs, whether meaning "Phoenicia" or "Palestine"
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - Other bishops and priests, from Thrace, Coelesyria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt, are said by Julius in his subsequent synodal letter to have been present to complain of injuries suffered from the Eusebian party
Tatianus - To Babylonia they owed astronomy, to Persia magic, to Egypt geometry, to Phoenicia instruction by letters. In proof of this, Tatian appeals to the Chaldeans, Phoenicians, and Egyptians. Berosus, the Babylonian historian, "a most competent authority," spoke of the wars of Nebuchadnezzar against the Phoenicians and Jews which happened 70 years before the Persian rule, and long after the age of Moses. Phoenician historians, such as Theodotus, Hypsicrates, and Mochus had referred to events connected with Hiram of Tyre, whose date was somewhere about the Trojan war
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - 399, for the destruction of the temples in Phoenicia, which was carried out at the cost of some Christian ladies of Constantinople, who also supplied funds for missionary exertions in that country ( ib
Clementine Literature - , with the heading "from Tripoli in Phoenicia"; and the 14th homily headed "book xiv