People's Dictionary of the Bible
Pharpar (fär'par), swift. A river of Damascus—Abana and Pharpar—alluded to by Naaman. 2 Kings 5:12, See Abana.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
- Abana, And Pharpar
Rivers of Damascus, 2 Kings 5:12 . The Abana, (or, Amana), was undoubtedly the present Barada, the Chrysorrhoas of the Greeks. It is a clear, cold, and swift mountain stream, rising in Anti-Lebanon, north east of Hermon, flowing south east into the plain, and near Damascus turning eastward, skirting the northern wall of the city, and terminating 20 miles east in one of three large lakes. It is a perennial river, and so copious, that though no less than nine or ten branches or canals are drawn off from it to irrigate the plain and supply the city and the villages around it, the stream is a large one to the end.
The only other independent river of any size in the territory of Damascus is the Awaj, which crosses the plain south of Damascus, and enters the southernmost of the three lakes above referred to. This is supposed to be the Pharpar of the Bible. As these rivers of Damascus were never dry, but made the region they watered like the Garden of Eden for fertility and beauty, Naaman might well contrast them with most of "the waters of Israel," which dry up under the summer sun. See AMANA .
Easton's Bible Dictionary
Swift, one of the rivers of Damascus (2 Kings 5:12 ). It has been identified with the 'Awaj, "a small lively river." The whole of the district watered by the 'Awaj is called the Wady el-'Ajam, i.e., "the valley of the Persians", so called for some unknown reason. This river empties itself into the lake or marsh Bahret Hijaneh, on the east of Damascus. One of its branches bears the modern name of Wady Barbar, which is probably a corruption of Pharpar.
Holman Bible Dictionary
(fahr' pahr) A river associated with Damascus (2 Kings 5:12 ). The river is perhaps the Nahr el A'waj which flows from Mount Hermon, passing about ten miles south of Damascus, or else the Nahr Taura.
Hitchcock's Bible Names
That produces fruit
Morrish Bible Dictionary
One of the two rivers of Damascus which the proud Naaman declared to be better than the waters of the Jordan. The Barada is associated with Abana, thus leaving only the Awaj for the Pharpar. This has its source in Hermon, then runs for about 40 miles, ending in a lake or swamp. It is in the district of Damascus, but does not approach the city nearer than about eight miles. 2 Kings 5:12 .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
("swift" or else "crooked"). One of the chief rivers of Syria, eight miles from Damascus 2 Kings 5:12); the Awaj, as the Abana is the Baruda. The ridge jebel Aswad separates Pharpar from Damascus. Pharpar rising on the S.E. side of Hermon ends in the bahret Hijaneh, the most southern of the three lakes or swamps of Damascus, due E. 40 miles from its source. Smaller than the Barada, and sometimes dried up in its lower course, which the Barada never is.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary
See ABANA .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
A river of Damascus. See in ABANA, and Pharpar.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
PHARPAR. A river of Damascus mentioned with the Abanah ( 2 Kings 5:12 ) by Naaman as contrasting favourably with the Jordan. Its identification is by no means so certain as that of Abanah with the Barada . The most probable is that suggested by Thomson, namely, the ‘Awaj , a river rising east of Hermon. A wady near, but not tributary to, one of its sources is called the Wady Barbar , which may possibly be a reminiscence of the ancient name. The principal obstacle to this identification is the distance of the river from the city; but Naaman was perhaps thinking as much of the fertile plain of Damascus as of the city itself. Other identifications have been with either the river flowing from ‘Ain Fijeh , or else one or other of the canals fed by the Barada.
R. A. S. Macalister.
(fär'par), swift. A river of Damascus—Abana and Pharpar
—alluded to by Naaman
- See in ABANA, and Pharpar
- The ridge jebel Aswad separates Pharpar
from Damascus. Pharpar
rising on the S
- Naaman, the leper, on being directed to wash in the river Jordan, says, 2 Kings 5:12 , "Are not Abana and Pharpar
, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel?" Probably the Abana is a branch of the Barrady, or Chrysorrhoas, which derives its source from the foot of Mount Libanus, eastward; runs round and through Damascus, and continues its course till lost in the wilderness, four or five leagues south of the city. Benjamin of Tudela will have that part of Barrady which runs through Damascus to be the Abana, and the streams which water the gardens without the city, to be Pharpar
; but perhaps the Pharpar
is the same with Orontes, the most noted river of Syria, which taking its rise a little to the north or north-east of Damascus, glides through a delightful plain, till, after passing Antioch, and running about two hundred miles to the north-west, it loses itself in the Mediterranean sea, 2 Kings 5:12
- (swift ), the second of the "two rivers of Damascus" --Abana and Pharpar
--alluded to by Naaman
- The Barada is associated with Abana, thus leaving only the Awaj for the Pharpar
- One of its branches bears the modern name of Wady Barbar, which is probably a corruption of Pharpar
- " ( 2 Kings 5:12 ) The Barada and the Awaj are now the chief streams of Damascus, the former representing the Abana and the latter the Pharpar
of the text
- The Pharpar
mentioned with it in 2 Kings 5:12 is further from Damascus, and answers to the Awaj. Hence, we see the significance of Naaman's boast, "Are not Abana and Pharpar
, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel?"...
These rivers render the environs of Damascus though bordering on a desert one of the loveliest spots on earth; whereas the Israelite streams, excepting Jordan, are dry for a large part of the year, and running in deep channels but little fertilize the land through which they flow
- Oneof the rivers of Damascus, which the proud Naaman declared were better than all the waters of Israel, 2 Kings 5:12 ; the other is Pharpar
- From both ranges numerous rivers descend—the Eleutherus, Leontes, Jordan, Abana, and Pharpar
(which see); and the cold-flowing waters of the springs and streams of Lebanon were and are still proverbial
- Two other streams the Wady Helbon upon the north and the Awaj, which flows direct from Hermon upon the south, increase the fertility of the Damascene plain, and contend for the honor of representing the "Pharpar
" of Scripture
- The plain is well watered by the Barada, the Chrysorrhoas (or "Golden Stream" of the Greeks, the Abana of Scripture; now El Aʾwaj, "the Crooked"), and the Pharpar
- Eastward in the glens of Antilibanus flow toward Damascus Abana (Barada) and Pharpar
(nahr el Awaj)
- A center to Syria and Palestine; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the Syrian Abana and Pharpar
of Damascus, the Orontes of Antioch, and the Leontes
The city is beautifully situated (33 30' N, 36 18' E ) at the foot of the south-east range of Antilibanus on a large plain, watered by the two rivers Barada and Awaj (the Abana and Pharpar
of 2 Kings 5:12 ), the former of which runs through the city, and may be said to be the life of the place
- The modern city is delightfully situated about fifty miles from the sea, in a fertile and extensive plain, watered by the river which the Greeks called Chrysorrhoras, or "Golden River," but which is known by the name of Barrady, and of which the ancient Abana and Pharpar
are supposed to have been branches
The Awaj is probably the scriptural Pharpar
- In the reign of Jehoram, the Syrian general Naaman came to be cleansed of leprosy ( 2 Kings 5:1-27 ), and Elisha’s directions led to his famous depreciating comparison of the muddy Jordan with the clear-flowing Abanah and Pharpar
- Sundry divines in our age have become weary of the old-fashioned well of which our fathers drank, and would fain have us go to their Abana and Pharpar
, but we are still firm in the belief that the water from the rock has no rival, and we shall not, we hope, forsake it for any other
This, the part known to Naaman in his invasions, is the least attractive part of its course, and unfavorably contrasted with Abana and Pharpar
of his native land (2 Kings 5:12)