Places Study on Pergamum

Places Study on Pergamum

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Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Pergamum
The town of Pergamum was in the province of Asia, on the west coast of Asia Minor (Revelation 1:4; Revelation 1:11; for map see ASIA). The Bible does not record how or when the church there was founded, but it does mention difficulties that the church experienced towards the end of the first century. The difficulties were mainly connected with the religious system known as Emperor worship, which in the province of Asia had its headquarters in Pergamum (cf. Revelation 2:13). (Concerning Emperor worship see ROME.)

On the whole the Christians in Pergamum stood firm and refused to join in the Emperor worship. At least one of their number was martyred (Revelation 2:12-13). There were some, however, who taught and practised Nicolaitan teaching, which encouraged Christians to join in idolatrous feasts and to practise immorality. Jesus declared he would judge those who denied him in this way, and reward those who refused to compromise with the State religion (Revelation 2:14-17).

Holman Bible Dictionary - Pergamum
(puhr' guh mum) Place name meaning, “citadel.” A wealthy ancient city in the district of Mysia in Asia Minor. See Asia Minor.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Pergamum
PERGAMUM , or PERGAMUS , was an ancient city of Mysia, the seat of an independent kingdom from about b.c. 280 to b.c. 133, and the capital of the Roman province of Asia from b.c. 133 until the 2nd cent. a.d. It lay in the Caicus valley about 15 miles from the sea, and its acropolis rose between two tributary streams 3 miles N. of the Caicus. As the capital of a kingdom, Pergamus had acquired a somewhat factitious importance. It stood on no great trade route, and under the Romans it slowly lost all but the official pre-eminence in the province. Its kings had been champions of Greek civilization and arts, and it still remained a centre of conservative culture. But Ephesus was now the centre of trade, and it was at Ephesus that West and East met together, creating a medley of all philosophies and all religions. At Pergamus there were splendid temples of Zeus and Athene, where these gods were worshipped in the ordinary Greek way, but others also of Dlonysos and Asklepios.

The only allusion to Pergamus in the NT is in the Apocalypse, where (Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 2:12 ) it is included among the seven churches of Asia. The message to it speaks of Pergamus as the place ‘where Satan’s seat is.’ While it is possible that this refers to it as the chief seat of heathen worship in general, it is more probable that it refers to the worship of Rome and Augustus, participation in which had become a test of loyalty, and therefore a frequent ground of Christian martyrdom. Christians would be brought to Pergamus for trial from any northern part of the province, and the mention of one martyr, Antipas , as having suffered there does not prove that he belonged to Pergamus. The Church at Pergamus is charged with having ‘them that hold the doctrine of Balaam , who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication’; and also ‘them that hold the doctrine of the Nic olaitans.’ We must gather from this that a definite section of the church at Pergamus maintained that, Inasmuch as heathen ceremonies’ meant nothing’ (cf. Co 8:4; 10:19), they were at liberty to join in idolatrous feasts, and thus to maintain their social position and justify their loyalty in the sight of the law. The allusion in 2:17 to ‘a w hite stone , and in the stone a new name written,’ may be an allusion to a practice of keeping secret a new name taken at baptism in a place where it was dangerous to be known as a Christian. From its official and religious character there can be little doubt that Antipas was but one of many martyred at Pergamus.

Pergamus was the seat of a bishopric, but its subsequent history is obscure. It retains its name in the form Bergama . The German Government has been conducting excavations on the site since 1878, and in 1901 a Pergamon Museum was opened in Berlin. The name of Pergamus survives in the word ‘parchment,’ i.e . Pergamena. It is said that king Eumenes, the founder of the library, invented the use of this preparation of sheep-skin or goat-skin for the purposes of writing.

A. E. Hillard.

Sentence search

Antipas, Saint - Martyr (92), died Pergamum. In the reign of Domitian he was Bishop of Pergamum, where he suffered martyrdom
Per'Gamum - (Revelation 1:11 ) Pergamum is the form usual in the classic writers
Pergamum - The town of Pergamum was in the province of Asia, on the west coast of Asia Minor (Revelation 1:4; Revelation 1:11; for map see ASIA). The difficulties were mainly connected with the religious system known as Emperor worship, which in the province of Asia had its headquarters in Pergamum (cf. )... On the whole the Christians in Pergamum stood firm and refused to join in the Emperor worship
Attalus - King of Pergamum (b
Antipas - A martyr of the church of Pergamum, mentioned only in Revelation 2:13 , unless some credit is to be given to the late accounts of his martyrdom
Pergamos - Pergamum), height, elevation
Parchment - word "parchment" is a form of pergamena, an adjective signifying "of Pergamum," the city in Asia Minor where "parchment" was either invented or brought into use
Asia - Its first capital was Pergamum, but the capital was later changed to Ephesus
Per'Gamos - (in Revised Version Pergamum ) ( height, elevation ), a city of Mysia, about 3 miles to the north of the river Caicus, and 20 miles from its present mouth
Asia - Ephesus, Pergamum, and Smyrna were its principal cities
Asia - ); (4) the kingdom of Pergamum (Livy); (5) the Roman province Asia; (6) the Asiatic continent (Pliny). of Pergamum (133 b. Pergamum, so long a royal city, naturally became the capital of the province, and officially retained this position till the beginning of the 2nd cent
Nicolaitans - ’ They are mentioned twice in the NT (Revelation 2:6; Revelation 2:15) as a party at Ephesus and also at Pergamum, whose tenets were similar, it seems, in the judgment of the writer, to those of Balaam (q
Ephesus - Rome gave the city to the king of Pergamum as a reward for his military assistance. , at the death of the last Pergamum ruler, the city came under direct Roman control
Stone - psephizo, "to count"), Acts 26:10 , RV (AV, "voice"); (b) a (white) "stone" to be given to the overcomer in the church at Pergamum, Revelation 2:17 (twice); a white "stone" was often used in the social life and judicial customs of the ancients; festal days were noted by a white "stone," days of calamity by a black; in the courts a white "stone" indicated acquittal, a black condemnation
Worthy, Worthily - ) shows from various inscriptions that the phrase "worthily of the god" was very popular at Pergamum
Pergamum - Pergamum , or PERGAMUS , was an ancient city of Mysia, the seat of an independent kingdom from about b
Library - , the city of Pergamum was supposedly forced by a shortage of papyrus to invent “parchment” (also called vellum), a specially treated animal skin which was stretched thin until it became translucent. ... The second largest Hellenistic library was established at Pergamum (Revelation 1:11 ) by Eumenes II (197-158 B
Revelation, Theology of - Revelation was written from exile by John (1:1) as a circular letter to the churches of Asia Minor (1:4) during the reign of Domitian, when growing persecution had already led to at least one martyrdom, at Pergamum (2:12-13), portending a worse crisis. Pergamum had been the regional pioneering city for the imperial cult. Christ's imminent warning to some at Pergamum, for example, borrows the image of his coming to make war with the sword of his mouth, from eschatology (2:12,16; cf. Of course, the emperor was no more the final antichrist than the Lord's "war" against the Nicolaitan element in the church at Pergamum was the second coming
Jezebel - In Revelation 2:13 he says that Satan had his throne at Pergamum
Emperor-Worship - A temple was dedicated at Pergamum to Rome and Augustus with a gild of choristers ‘for the God Augustus and the Goddess Rome. Knowledge of the history of Caesarism makes it clear why Pergamum is described as ‘Satan’s seat’ (Revelation 2:13), At Pergamum, the administrative capital of the province, the first temple to Augustus was built. ‘Satan’ is a symbolic expression for whatever was the great obstacle and hostile influence to Christianity; hence Pergamum was Satan’s seat par excellence (see
Stone - to the Church in Pergamum Christ promises to him that overcometh (Revelation 2:17). to the Church in Pergamum the author of the Apocalypse represents Jesus Christ as promising a ‘white stone’ to the victor in the good fight of faith (Revelation 2:17)
Asia Minor, Cities of - Cities of Asia Minor important to the New Testament accounts included Alexandria Troas, Assos, Ephesus, Miletus, Patara, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Thyatira, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colassae, Attalia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and Tarsus. ... Cities of the Interior Located fifteen miles inland overlooking the Caicus River, Pergamum contained the first temple in Asia dedicated to a Roman Emperor, Augustus, in 29 B
Smyrna - Its claim to be the chief city of Asia was contested by Ephesus and Pergamum, but in beauty it was easily first
Revelation, the Book of - To be sure, a faithful Christian in Pergamum had suffered death ( Revelation 2:13 ), and the church in Smyrna was warned of a time of impending persecution (Revelation 2:10 ); but the persecutions described in the Revelation were still largely anticipated at the time of John's writing. ... Letters to the Seven Churches (2:1–3:22) The letters to the churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea have a fairly consistent format. ... The church at Ephesus (Revelation 2:1-7 ) is told to return to her first love; the church at Smyrna (Revelation 2:8-11 ), to be faithful unto death; the churches of Pergamum (Revelation 2:12-17 ) and Thyatira (Revelation 2:18-29 ) must beware of false teaching and the immoral deeds that so often accompany erroneous theology
Faithfulness - The Church at Smyrna was exhorted to be ‘faithful unto death’ (Revelation 2:10), and the Church at Pergamum was commended for faithfulness even in the days when ‘witnessing’ for Christ became ‘martyrdom’ in the later meaning of that word (Revelation 2:13)
Luke (2) - An instance in Asia Minor was that between Smyrna, Ephesus, and Pergamum
Image - ‘Satan’s throne’ at Pergamum, Revelation 2:13)
Tarsus - Paul, is a place about which much more might be known than is known if only the necessary money were forthcoming to excavate the ancient city in the way that Pompeii, Olympia, Pergamum, and other cities have been excavated
Alexandria - The Library was in two portions; and, in the siege of Alexandria by Julius Cæsar, the part stored in the Museum was burned; a loss, however, which was largely made up by the presentation to Cleopatra, by Mark Antony, of the Royal Library of Pergamum
Roman Empire - The Romans did not take over Asia at this time, but strengthened the power of the king of Pergamum and that of the State of Rhodes, to keep Antiochus out. The province of Asia was constituted on the death of Attalus, king of Pergamum, in 133 b
Martyr - ... The date of the death of Antipas of Pergamum (Revelation 2:13) was, according to legend, in the reign of Domitian, when he was burnt to death in a brazen bull
Rome And the Roman Empire - John may refer to emperor worship in Pergamum, where the first Asian temple to a Roman emperor was erected, in his references to the place “where Satan's throne is” (perhaps meaning the altar of Zeus; Revelation 2:13 NRSV)
Peter, Second Epistle of - Gnosticism, but there are features in common with the practices of the Nicolaitans of the Churches of Pergamum and Thyatira ( Revelation 2:13-24 ), though no mention is made of idolatry
Gods, Pagan - A huge altar to Zeus at Pergamum is probably the “Satan's throne” of Revelation 2:13
Peter Epistles of - _ Perhaps the Christians’ troubles described in Revelation may have been brought on by certain local authorities acting on their own initiative and being zealous for the cult of the Emperor which had been prominent in Asia since the time of Augustus, its chief seat being at Pergamum (Dio Cassius, li
Papias - through Asia to Smyrna and Pergamum