Places Study on Kadesh-barnea

Places Study on Kadesh-barnea

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Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Kadesh Barnea
Ain el Weibeh in the Arabah, 10 miles N. of the place where Mount Hor abuts on that valley. Three fountains issue from the chalky rock. Here wady el Ghuweir affords access northwestwards through mountainous Edom; from here accordingly Moses sent to ask a passage through Edom by "the king's highway." Barnea = "son of wandering", i.e. Bedouin (Furst). "Country of convulsion," compare Psalms 29:8 (Speaker's Commentary). "The wilderness of Kadesh," i.e. the desert adjoining Kadesh; the northern part of the Paran wilderness was called Zin (Numbers 10:12; Numbers 13:21). The encampment from which the spies were sent and to which they returned (Numbers 13:26; Numbers 32:8); sometimes called Kadesh alone. Meribah Kadesh is the same (Ezekiel 47:19; Ezekiel 48:28 margin; Joshua 15:3; Joshua 15:23). The encampment at Kadesh is called Rithmah from retem , "the broom," the most conspicuous shrub of the desert (Numbers 33:18).

Probably the encampment at Rithmah was during Israel's first march toward Canaan; that at Kadesh was in the same locality, though on a different spot, 38 years afterward, in the 40th year, when they were about entering Canaan. The ancient name of Kadesh was En Mishpat (Genesis 14:7). El Ain (identified by some with Kadesh because this site is called Gadis and the neighbouring plain, Abu Retemet, is like Rithmah) is too far N.W., 70 miles from Mount Hor and 60 from Mount Seir; but Kadesh was only one march from Mount Hor (Numbers 20:16; Numbers 20:22; Numbers 33:37), "on the edge of Edom," "on its uttermost border"; on low ground (whereas El Ain is on high ground) from whence the spies "go up" to Canaan. A line drawn from E1 Ain to the river of Egypt (Joshua 15:21-27) would cut the middle of the Negeb, and so cut away part of Judah's inheritance. The true Kadesh must be more S.; Petra or Selah was too far in the heart of Edom to be Judah's frontier, and "in the uttermost border of Edom."

However, Palmer identifies Kadesh with El Ain as "one of the natural borders of the country; the Tih, a comparative desert, the Negeb or South, Palestine, and Syria forming an ascending scale of fertility." The encampment at Rithmah (Numbers 33:18-19) was in summer the second year after the Exodus (Numbers 13:20), that at Kadesh in the same district the first month of the 40th year (Numbers 20:1). At the first encampment Israel stayed probably for months; they waited for the spies 40 days (Numbers 13:25); Moses and the tabernacle remained (Numbers 14:44), while the people vainly tried to reverse God's sentence and to occupy Canaan (Deuteronomy 1:34-46): "ye abode in Kadesh many days" (a long indefinite time). Then Israel "compassed Mount Seir," i.e. wandered in the desert of Paran, until all that generation died (Deuteronomy 2:1).

In this period were the 17 stages, Numbers 33:19-36. Lastly, Israel again was at Kadesh in the first month of the 40th year, and stayed for three or four months (Numbers 20:1-22-28; Numbers 33:38). Here Miriam died and was buried. Here water failed, and Moses by impatient striking of the rock, attribution of the miracle to himself and Aaron ("must we fetch," etc.), and unbelief ("ye believed Me not, to sanctify Me") in the goodness of God to an unworthy people, dishonoured God, and he and Aaron were adjudged the penalty of not entering Canaan (Numbers 20:12-13; compare Psalms 106:32-33). From hence Moses sent to the king of Edom (Numbers 20:14, etc.).

On the messengers' return Israel turned from Edom, leaving Kadesh finally, and after Aaron's death at Mount Hor marched around Edom to Moab (Numbers 33:41-49). Kadesh ("holy") may have been named from the long presence of the sanctuary and priests. En Mishpat, "fountain of judgment," corresponds, judgment and sanctity emanating from the one divine source. Meribah Kadesh, "strife," is a perversion of judgment; the opposites in the one name marking graphically the sad events connected with Kadesh. Kadesh gradually sank to its original obscurity as a watering place for the nomads of the desert. The cliffs at the mouth of wady el Ghuweir near Ain el Weibeh, and in front of the host in marching eastward through Mount Seir, may have been the scene of Moses' striking the rock (cela , not tsuwr ) (Numbers 20:7 ff). Merely certain occurrences and enactments are recorded of the 38 years' wandering, in Numbers 15:1-19:22.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Kadesh-barnea
(kay' dehssh-bahr nee' uh) Place name meaning “consecrated.” The site where the Hebrews stayed for most of thirty-eight years after leaving Mount Sinai and before entering the Promised Land. The Old Testament locates it between the Wilderness of Paran and the Wilderness of Zin (Numbers 13:3-21 ,Numbers 13:3-21,13:26 ). Moses sent out the twelve spies into Canaan from Kadesh-Barnea (Numbers 13:3-21 ,Numbers 13:3-21,13:26 ) The Hebrews also attempted their abortive southern penetration into Canaan from there (Numbers 13:26 ; Numbers 14:40-45 ). Kadesh-Barnea is mentioned as a site where Abraham fought the Amalekites (Genesis 14:7 ) and as the southern border of the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:3 ).

The actual site of Kadesh-Barnea has been much debated, but the two most frequently mentioned sites are Ein-Qedeis and Ein el-Qudeirat. Both of these sites are in the northern part of the Sinai Peninsula, and both have a spring. Most scholars today accept Ein el-Qudeirat because of its abundance of water (the largest springs and oasis in northern Sinai). Ein el-Qudeirat is located on the crossroads of two major roads of antiquity—the road from Edom to Egypt and the road from the Red Sea to the Negev and southern Canaan, later southern Judah. The location on the road from Egypt to Edom would fit well the biblical context of Kadesh-Barnea as the oasis home for the Hebrews during the wilderness wandering period. Likewise, the location of Kadesh-Barnea along the north-south road may explain the rationale for attempting the invasion of Canaan at Arad, since Arad lay north of Kadesh-Barnea on that road.

Excavations of Ein el-Qudeirat have shown major fortresses dating from the period of Solomon to the fall of the monarchy (tenth century B.C. to sixth century B.C.), but no remains from the period of the wilderness wandering have been found to date. This raises the question about the identity of the site of Kadesh-Barnea. The site has not been fully excavated, however, and as yet no better alternative site has come to light.

Joel F. Drinkard



Hitchcock's Bible Names - Kadesh-barnea
Holiness of an inconstant son
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Kadesh-barnea
Travellers are at a loss to determine whether the original Kabesh we read of Genesis 14:7 is the same with the Kadesh, Numbers 13:26. And it is not clearly accounted for, wherefore Barnea was added to it. The term Kadesh means holy. Barnea is a compound of Bar, a son—and Nuah, one who is moving about. Perhaps Barnea might have been given to Kadesh, from the frequent movings about of Israel while in the wilderness state. And in this sense the name was well-termed, and may be said of the church always on earth. Oh! that our journeyings might be ever to Kadesh, and always as Kadesh; for surely Moses said, so in Jesus it may be said of the church now, "ye are an holy people unto the Lord thy God." (Deuteronomy 7:6) It. was at Kadesh Miriam died. Here also was the memorable rebellion of Israel concerning water; and here the Lord's grace notwithstanding that rebellion. (See Numbers 20:1-13; Psalms 106:32-33)

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Kadesh-barnea
a station of the Israelites, to which they returned again after thirty-eight years, is said to be in the wilderness of Zin, Numbers 13:21 ; Numbers 20:1 ; Deuteronomy 32:51 ; but in the wilderness of Paran, Numbers 12:16 . In the Itinerary it is simply called Rithmah, "the wilderness." Dr. Hales observes, that Wells, Shaw, the authors of the "Universal History," &c, have greatly perplexed and obscured the geography of this Itinerary, by supporting that there were two places of this name distinct from each other. They consider the latter of them as situated on the western side of Mount Hor, toward the land of Canaan, and thus confound it with that Kadesh in the land of the Philistines, where Abraham sojourned, Genesis 16:13 ; Genesis 20:1 . But that it lay on the east side of Mount Hor, is evident; for why should Moses send messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, requesting permission to pass through his territories in the way to Canaan, if they were already at the verge of Palestine Numbers 20:14 ? This application, however, was necessary if his territories were situated between Canaan and the Israelites. The true situation of Kadesh is ascertained beyond a doubt, from its lying between Mount Hor and Ezion-Geber, on the Elanitic Gulf, Numbers 33:35-37 .

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea
Called also En-Mishpat, Genesis 14:7 , the name of a fountain, a city, and the desert around, Psalm 29:3 , in the southern border of the promised land. It is said, in Numbers 20:16 , to lie in the "uttermost border of Edom," and was probably situated very near the great valley El-Arabah, south of the Dead Sea. Dr. Robinson found a watering place answering well to the indications in Scripture, on the western border of El-Arabah, about twenty-seven miles from the Dead Sea. Kadesh was twice visited by the Israelites in their wanderings; once soon after they left mount Sinai, and again thirty-eight years after. At the first visit the mission and return of the twelve spies took place, the rebellion of the people, and their presumptuous effort to enter Canaan by the pass Zephath, immediately north of Kadesh, Numbers 13:1-14:45 . At their second visit occurred the death of Miriam, the murmuring of the people for water, the miraculous supply, the sin of Aaron and Moses in smiting the rock, and the fruitless request for a passage through Edom, Numbers 20:1-22 . The southern border of Judah reached to Kadesh-barnea, Joshua 12:22 15:3 .

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Kadesh-barnea
The town of Kadesh-barnea (or Kadesh) was the main settlement in the far south of Palestine. It was an oasis town between the Wilderness of Zin to the north, the Wilderness of Paran to the south, the Wilderness of Shur to the west, and the Arabah to the east (Genesis 16:7; Genesis 16:14; Genesis 20:1; Numbers 13:26; Numbers 20:1; see PALESTINE).

en-Mishpat - The location is usually called Kadesh-barnea and identified with the oasis now called ain Hudeirat. See Kadesh-barnea
Kadesh - (kay' dehssh) See Kadesh-barnea
Kedesh Naphtali - (Joshua 19:37)... See Kadesh-barnea
Paran - It was located south of Kadesh-barnea and west of Ezion-geber. (For map and other details see Kadesh-barnea
Kadesh-Barnea - Moses sent out the twelve spies into Canaan from Kadesh-barnea (Numbers 13:3-21 ,Numbers 13:3-21,13:26 ) The Hebrews also attempted their abortive southern penetration into Canaan from there (Numbers 13:26 ; Numbers 14:40-45 ). Kadesh-barnea is mentioned as a site where Abraham fought the Amalekites (Genesis 14:7 ) and as the southern border of the tribe of Judah (Joshua 15:3 ). ... The actual site of Kadesh-barnea has been much debated, but the two most frequently mentioned sites are Ein-Qedeis and Ein el-Qudeirat. The location on the road from Egypt to Edom would fit well the biblical context of Kadesh-barnea as the oasis home for the Hebrews during the wilderness wandering period. Likewise, the location of Kadesh-barnea along the north-south road may explain the rationale for attempting the invasion of Canaan at Arad, since Arad lay north of Kadesh-barnea on that road. This raises the question about the identity of the site of Kadesh-barnea
en-Mishpat - A name for Kadesh probably Kadesh-barnea
Hazar-Addar - Village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 34:4 ), in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea
Kadesh-Meribah - The same town as Kadesh-barnea. See Kadesh-barnea
Hazar-Addar - A place on the southern border of Canaan, west of Kadesh-barnea ( Numbers 34:4 )
Esh'Col, the Valley - or The brook of, a wady in the neighborhood of Hebron (Mamre), explored by the spies who were sent by Moses from Kadesh-barnea
Kedesh - It is probably to be distinguished from Kadesh-barnea
Zin - It lay south-west of the Dead Sea, between the Dead Sea and Kadesh-barnea (Numbers 20:1-2; Numbers 27:14; Numbers 33:36; Numbers 34:3-5)
Zin - It formed part of the great wilderness of Paran, Numbers 13:26 ; and in its north-east corner was Kadesh-barnea, memorable for the death of Miriam, the mission of the twelve spies into Canaan, the murmuring of the Israelites, the rock flowing with water, and the unholy passion of Moses, Numbers 13:21 20:1-13 27:14
Zin - The wilderness of Zin, stretching from Kadesh-barnea to the Dead Sea, formed part of the southern border of Canaan and later Judah (Numbers 34:3-4 ; Joshua 15:1 ,Joshua 15:1,15:3 )
Kedesh - Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea. See Kadesh-barnea
Kadesh - Kadesh, sacred, or Kadesh-barnea (kâ'desh-bär'ne-ah). In Scripture it is sometimes called Kadesh alone, and sometimes Kadesh-barnea, and is identical with Meribah-kadesh, Ezekiel 47:19; Joshua 15:3; Joshua 15:23; with En-Mishpat = the fountain of judgment, Genesis 14:7; and with Rithmah = the broom, Numbers 33:18, thus called from a shrub growing in the desert
Arabia Petraea - In this country was Kadesh-barnea, Gerar, Beersheba, Paran, Arad, Hasmona, Oboth, Dedan, etc
Kadesh - KADESH or Kadesh-barnea was a place of note in olden time ( Genesis 14:7 ; Genesis 16:14 ). ... Kadesh-barnea lay on the south boundary of the Amorite highlands (Deuteronomy 1:18 ), ‘in the uttermost border’ of Edom ( Numbers 20:6 )
Kerioth-Hezron - Hezron would be identified with the city of Hazor mentioned in Joshua 15:23 , a city in the south of Judah near Kadesh-barnea (Joshua 15:3 )
Kedesh - Supposed by some to refer to Kadesh-barnea
Miriam - She was buried at Kadesh-barnea (Numbers 20:1)
Kedesh - A town on the southern boundary of Judah, Joshua 15:23; perhaps identical with Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea
ke'Desh -
In the extreme south of Judah, (Joshua 15:23 ) same as Kadesh and Kadesh-barnea
Kedesh - Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q
Kadesh or Kadesh-Barnea - The southern border of Judah reached to Kadesh-barnea, Joshua 12:22 15:3
Wanderings in the Wilderness - ... The itinerary from the border of Egypt to the oasis of Kadesh-barnea is relatively clear. A second relatively direct route to Kadesh-barnea appears to have been avoided by divine plan when they approached the border at Etham and then were instructed to turn back to the seeming impossible situation “by the Sea” where God miraculously delivered them from the pharaoh's forces (Exodus 13:20-14:2 ). A later reference to the distance between Mount Sinai (Horeb) and Kadesh-barnea (Deuteronomy 1:2 ) seems to suggest that the early itinerary took them basically along the major trade route used by the Amalekites between modern Suez at the northern end of the Gulf of Suez and the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba (Elath and Ezion-geber) and then northward into the extensive clustering of oases at Kadesh that would become their tribal center and the location of the tabernacle during the next 38 years
Fight - At Kadesh-barnea, Israel refused to permit the Lord to become their Captain and to fight their battles
Arabah - Israel traversed the Arabah when they went to Kadesh-barnea, and again when they returned to the south to avoid passing through the land of Edom ( Numbers 20:21 ; Numbers 21:4 , Deuteronomy 2:6 )
Kadesh - Holy, or Kadesh-barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from Horeb
Kadesh - Holy, or Kadesh-barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from Horeb
Allotment - Judah claimed all land west of the Dead Sea from Kadesh-barnea and the wilderness of Zin to the Sorek valley, including the cities of Beth-shemesh, Ekron, and Timnah
Wanderings of the Israelites - The passage quoted above speaks of the wanderings occupying forty years, yet it was after their first visit to Kadesh-barnea in the 2nd year that their real 'wanderings' began. ... The third part of their journey was from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea, some eighty miles farther north. ... From Ezion-gaber they turned and travelled northward again and arrived at Kadesh or Kadesh-barnea a second time, no stations being mentioned between those two distant places
Miriam -
ka'Desh, ka'Desh-Bar'ne-a - ( Numbers 13:3,26 ; 14:29-33 ; 20:1 ; 2:14) It is probable that the term "Kadesh," though applied to signify a "city," yet had also a wider application to a region in which Kadesh-meribah certainly, and Kadesh-barnea probably, indicates a precise spot
Caleb -
Wilderness - ” It tells the tragic story of Kadesh-barnea in the wilderness of Paran and the spy committee who persuaded the people not to attack the Promised Land from the south, so that a whole generation died in the desert (Numbers 13-14 )
Exodus - ... Breaking up at this time from Sinai, they marched northwards through the desert of Paran, or perhaps along the eastern arm of the Red Sea and north through El-Arabah, to Kadesh-barnea, near the southeast border of Canaan. From Kadesh-barnea, spies were sent out to view the promised land, and brought back an evil report, probably in August of the same year
Kadesh-Barnea - The town of Kadesh-barnea (or Kadesh) was the main settlement in the far south of Palestine
Judah, Tribe And Kingdom - For some of its important towns see BEERSHEBA; BETHLEHEM; HEBRON; Kadesh-barnea; KIRIATH-JEARIM; LACHISH
Arabia -
Moses - At Kadesh-barnea, Moses having encouraged the people to proceed, saying, "Behold, the Lord thy God hath set the land before thee, go up and possess it, as the Lord God of thy fathers hath said unto you: fear not," Deuteronomy 1:19-21 ; they betrayed great diffidence, and proposed to Moses to send spies to search out the land, and point out to them the way they should enter, and the course they should take. ... On the return of the Israelites, after many years' wandering, to the same disastrous station of Kadesh-barnea, even Moses himself was guilty of an offence, in which his brother Aaron was involved, and for which both were excluded, as a punishment, from entering the promised land
Joshua -