Easton's Bible Dictionary
Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall (John 18:28 ; 19:13 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary
(gab' buh tha) English transliteration of Greek transliteration of Aramaic place name meaning, “elevation.” A platform in front of the praetorium or governor's palace in Jerusalem, where Pilate sat in judgment over Jesus (John 19:13 ), pronouncing the sentence to crucify Jesus. Before announcing the decision, however, Pilate introduced Jesus as King of the Jews, giving the Jewish leaders one last chance to confess their Messiah. The Greek name for the place was lithostrotos , or “stone pavement.” The location is either the fortress Antonia or Herod's palace. Tourists see the Antonia site at the present Convent of the Sisters of Zion, but archaeologists have dated the pavement there later than Jesus' time.
Hitchcock's Bible Names
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
GABBATHA ( John 19:13 ). The meaning of this word is most uncertain; possibly ‘height’ or ‘ridge.’ It is used as the Heb. or Aramaic equivalent of the Gr. lithostrÃ´ton or ‘ pavement .’ There is no mention in any other place of either Gabbatha or ‘the Pavement.’ That it was, as has been suggested, a portable tessellated pavement such as Julius CÃ¦sar is said to have carried about with him, seems highly improbable. Tradition has identified as Gabbatha an extensive sheet of Roman pavement recently excavated near the Ecce Homo Arch. It certainly covered a large area, and the blocks of stone composing it are massive, the average size being 4 ft. Ã 3 ft. 6 in. and nearly 2 ft. thick. The pavement is in parts roughened for the passage of animals and chariots, but over most of the area it is smooth. The paved area was on a lofty place, the ground rapidly falling to east and west, and was in close proximity to, if not actually included within, the Antonia.
E. W. G. Masterman.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament
GABBATHA (Γαββαθᾶ) occurs only in John 19:13, as the ‘Hebrew’ or, more correctly, Aramaic equivalent of Λιθόστρωτος. For the etymology of the word see E. Nestle in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ii. 74 f., with the literature there cited. The word is apparently connected with a root גבב, of which the fundamental idea is that of something curved or convex. Hence it cannot be taken as identical in meaning with λιθόστρωτος, which implies a level tesselated surface. A surface of that kind on the summit of a hill, or with a rounded porch or an open cupola over it, beneath which might permanently stand, or be placed occasionally, the βῆμα or ‘judgment-seat,’ would best meet the conditions of the ease. Such a spot might well be known amongst one class of the people (the Romans and their associates) as the Pavement, and amongst another as Gabbatha. The latter name has not yet been found elsewhere than in the NT. For the attempts to identify the locality, and for the usages involved in the reference, see Pavement.
R. W. Moss.
GABRIEL is mentioned in Luke 1 as appearing to Zacharias to announce the future pregnancy of Elisabeth and the birth of John, and to Mary with a similar announcement of the birth of Jesus. To Zacharias he declares that he is wont to stand in the presence of God, and that he is sent by Him on the mission stated. When he is asked for a sign, he is competent to impose the severe sign of dumbness until the fulfilment of the prediction that has been made. The Gospel mention of Gabriel, then, is as a messenger of the signal favour of God, at least in connexion with the Messiah and His forerunner.
He has a somewhat similar function in the only OT passage in which he is mentioned, Daniel 8-10. Daniel was perplexed at the strange vision which he had seen. Pondering over it, he sees one ‘standing before him like the appearance of a man,’ and a voice is heard bidding Gabriel, for it is he, explain the vision. Daniel falls in a faint as the messenger approaches, and Gabriel lifts him up and explains the mysterious vision. Again he appears to the prophet under similar circumstances, and is now called ‘the man’ Gabriel. Still again Daniel has a similar experience (Daniel 10:5 ff.). The details are identical or in harmony with the account in previous chapters, but the name of the messenger is not given. It is, however, generally assumed that the author had Gabriel in mind. He asserts that he is a prince who presides over the interests of Israel, as other supernatural beings preside over other nations.
Gabriel belongs to the creations of the imagination of the Jews in post-exilic times. When God had to them become universal and correspondingly great and glorious, but without parallel spiritualization of His attributes, He was thought to require agents whom He might send as messengers, ‘angels’ to transmit His messages. These angels were at first nameless, later they received names. Gabriel was one of the most important of them—one of four, of seven, of seventy, according to different enumerations in Jewish writings. See Jewish Encyc. s.v.
O. H. Gates.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary
Aramaic name of a place in Jerusalem where Pilate had his judgment seat, and whither he caused Jesus to be brought forth, that he might condemn Him to death (John 19).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
John 19:13. Pilate came out of his own hall to his judgment seat on the "Pavement" (Chaldee Gabbatha ). Josephus (Ant. 15:8, sec. 5) implies that the temple was near the castle of Antonia, and (Ant. 15:11, sec. 5) that Herod's palace was near the castle. Therefore, Pilate's hall, which was part of the palace, was near the castle. From Ant. 6:1, sec. 8, it appears a pavement was near the castle; therefore it was near Pilate's hall. Thus, Josephus circuitously confirms John that near Pilate's residence there was a pavement. It was outside the judgment hall (Praetorium), for Pilate brought forth Jesus from the hall to it. Pilate's "judgment seat" (beema ) was on it, whereon he sentenced our Lord to crucifixion. Gabbatha is related to gibeah , a bore round hill, implying height and roundness; a rounded elevation with tesselated mosaic.
Morrish Bible Dictionary
The Aramaic name of the place of judgement in Jerusalem, where the Lord was condemned. The meaning of Gabbatha is 'elevated place' and its Greek name was λιθόστρωτος, 'the pavement.' It was doubtless a raised platform, with a tesselated pavement, which the Romans so often made. It would thus answer both descriptions. John 19:13 .
People's Dictionary of the Bible
Gabbatha (găb'ba-thah), platform. The place of Pilate's judgment-seat; called also "the pavement." John 19:13. The judgment-hall was the Prætorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, and the pavement, or Gabbatha, was a tesselated pavement outside the hall.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary
A memorable word in the believer's recollection, and rendered both solemn and sacred to the meditation, when frequently by faith the soul is looking over again the transactions at the hall of Pilate. The word Gabbatha our translators have thought proper to preserve, in our Testaments, in the original Hebrew; and yet have given the English of it, calling it Pavement. (John 19:13) It means an elevated spot; probably it formed a balustrade, or gallery, from whence to the court below, Pilate might more conveniently speak to the people. Let the reader figure to himself this gabbatha, with a seat for the Governor to sit above the people, and probably separated by railing. Let him fancy he sees the rabble below surrounding the sacred person of our Lord, and Crying out, "Away with him, away with him; crucify him." Let him behold the meek and suffering Lamb of God, silent, patient, and submissive. And while with that contempt which marked Pilate's character, we hear him say, "Shall I crucify your king?"the chief priests, unconscious of what they said, answered,"We have no king but Caesar;"thereby fulfilling the dying patriarch Jacob's prophecy (that "the sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;" Genesis 49:10 and thus proving from their own testimony, that the Shiloh was come.) Let all these interesting views be but in the reader's contemplation when he reads of these transactions, and he will have a lively idea of the Gabbatha of Pilate's palace.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary
a place in Pilate's palace, from whence he pronounced sentence of death upon Jesus Christ, John 19:13 . This was probably an eminence, or terrace, paved with marble, for the Hebrew means elevated.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
An elevated place, the name of a place in front of Pilate's palace, whence he pronounced sentence against our Savior, John 19:13 . In Greek it was called the pavement. It was not the usual judgment hall, which the Jews could not then enter, but some palace in the vicinity of the crowd without, John 18:28 ; 19:4,9,13 . It appears to have been a checkered marble pavement, or mosaic floor, on which his seat of judgment was erected. Such ornamented pavements had become common at that day among the wealthy Romans.
Smith's Bible Dictionary
(elevated; a platform ) the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a place, also called "Pavement," where the judgment-seat or bema was planted, from his place on which Pilate delivered our Lord to death. ( John 19:13 ) It was a tessellated platform outside the praetorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, for Pilate brought Jesus forth from thence to it.
(găb'ba-thah), platform. The judgment-hall was the Prætorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, and the pavement, or Gabbatha
, was a tesselated pavement outside the hall
( John 19:13 ). ’ There is no mention in any other place of either Gabbatha
or ‘the Pavement. Tradition has identified as Gabbatha
an extensive sheet of Roman pavement recently excavated near the Ecce Homo Arch
- The meaning of Gabbatha
is 'elevated place' and its Greek name was λιθόστρωτος, 'the pavement
- Pilate came out of his own hall to his judgment seat on the "Pavement" (Chaldee Gabbatha
is related to gibeah , a bore round hill, implying height and roundness; a rounded elevation with tesselated mosaic
- The word Gabbatha
our translators have thought proper to preserve, in our Testaments, in the original Hebrew; and yet have given the English of it, calling it Pavement. Let the reader figure to himself this Gabbatha
, with a seat for the Governor to sit above the people, and probably separated by railing. ) Let all these interesting views be but in the reader's contemplation when he reads of these transactions, and he will have a lively idea of the Gabbatha
of Pilate's palace
- 1: λιθόστρωτος (Strong's #3038 — Adjective — lithostrotos — lith-os'-tro-tos ) an adjective, denoting "paved with stones" (lithos, "a stone," and stronnuo, "to spread"), especially of tessellated work, is used as a noun in John 19:13 , of a place near the Praetorium in Jerusalem, called Gabbatha
, a Greek transliteration of an Aramaic word
- In the Hebrew it was called Gabbatha
, which signifies elevated or raised platform
- —The word occurs only in John 19:13 as one of the names by which was known the locality otherwise called Gabbatha
(wh. Of recent years beautiful pavements have been found in many places in Palestine; but so far there is no evidence outside the NT that any locality in Jerusalem was generally known as either Gabbatha
or the Pavement, and no attempted identification of the spot is quite satisfactory. ‘Gabbatha
’; EBi [Note: Bi Encyclopaedia Biblica
(Γαββαθᾶ) occurs only in John 19:13, as the ‘Hebrew’ or, more correctly, Aramaic equivalent of Λιθόστρωτος. Such a spot might well be known amongst one class of the people (the Romans and their associates) as the Pavement, and amongst another as Gabbatha
- Pilate gave way, caused his throne or tribunal to be brought on to the tessellated space in front of the prÃ¦torium (called ‘Gabbatha
’ in Aramaic), and there pronounced final judgment
Trial of Jesus
- 859, and Praetorium), the precise meaning of Gabbatha
(John 19:13, cf. Gabbatha
and Pavement), the problem whether Annas and Caiaphas had separate residences or stayed together in an official house, and the site of the meeting-place of the Sanhedrin (in the house of Caiaphas or elsewhere)
- In rich houses pavements of stone or marble were used; thus the Gabbatha
(Λιθόστρωτον) of John 19:13 was probably a hall paved with stone
Language of Christ
- Thus in John 19:13 it is said that ‘Pilate sat down in the judgment-seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew Gabbatha
’ (Ἐβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθά); and Γαββαθά is not Hebrew, but Aramaic