Easton's Bible Dictionary
Perhaps another name for Khetam, or "fortress," on the Shur or great wall of Egypt, which extended from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Suez. Here the Israelites made their third encampment (Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6 ). The camp was probably a little to the west of the modern town of Ismailia. Here the Israelites were commanded to change their route (Exodus 14:2 ), and "turn" towards the south, and encamp before Pi-hahiroth. (See EXODUS; PITHOM .)
Holman Bible Dictionary
(ee' tham) Place name meaning, “fort.” The second station in Israel's wilderness wandering out of Egypt (Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6-8 ). The nearby wilderness was called the wilderness of Etham (Numbers 33:8 ). Its precise location is not certain.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
An early stage in Israel's sojourn in the wilderness, not far from the Red Sea (Numbers 33:6-8). Etham is probably Pithom, the frontier city toward the wilderness. At this point the Israelites were told to change their direction of march and go southward, to the W. of the Bitter Lakes which separated them from the desert (Speaker's Commentary, Exodus 14:2). Had Etham been half way between Mukfar and Ajrud (Robinson, Chart), Pharaoh could not have overtaken them, whether he was at Zoan or Rameses, which was two days journey from Etham. The journey from Etham to Pihahiroth, generally identified with Ajrud, would occupy two or three days. E-tham, like Pi-thom, means "the house" or "temple of Turn." (See PIHAHIROTH.)
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible
ETHAM . Exodus 13:20 , Numbers 33:6 ; the next station to Succoth in the Exodus. The name is not known in Egyptian. It lay ‘in the edge of the wilderness,’ evidently at the E. end of the Wady Tumilat , and probably northward of the ‘Red Sea,’ whether that means the Bitter Lakes or the Gulf of Suez.
F. Ll. Griffith.
Morrish Bible Dictionary
The place of the second encampment of Israel 'in the edge of the wilderness.' Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6-8 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
A station of the Israelites soon after leaving Egypt, Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6 . It lay near the head of the west gulf of the Red Sea, and the wilderness east of it was often called by the same name.
Hitchcock's Bible Names
Their strength; their sign
is probably Pithom, the frontier city toward the wilderness. Had Etham
been half way between Mukfar and Ajrud (Robinson, Chart), Pharaoh could not have overtaken them, whether he was at Zoan or Rameses, which was two days journey from Etham
. The journey from Etham
to Pihahiroth, generally identified with Ajrud, would occupy two or three days
- Blessing, a beautiful valley between Tekoa and Etham
, where Jehoshaphat and all Judah held a thanksgiving for their miraculous victory over the Moabites and Ammonites, 2 Chronicles 20:26
- The nearby wilderness was called the wilderness of Etham
(Numbers 33:8 )
- " ( Exodus 13:20 ; Numbers 33:6,7 ) Etham
may be placed where the cultivable land ceases, near the Seba Biar or Seven Wells, about three miles from the western side of the ancient head of the gulf
They encamped in Etham
- A place in the wilderness of Shur or Etham
, three days' journey, Numbers 33:8-9, from the place at which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea
- (bitterness ), a place which lay in the wilderness of Shur or Etham
, three days journey distant, ( Exodus 15:23 ; Numbers 33:8 ) from the place at which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, and where was a spring of bitter water, sweetened subsequently by the casting in of a tree which "the Lord showed" to Moses
- " (Genesis 20:1 ) It is also called Etham
i. (Exodus 15:22,23 ) It was also called the wilderness of Etham
- When the Israelites came out of Egypt, and had arrived at the desert of Etham
, they found the water so bitter that neither themselves nor their cattle could drink of it, Exodus 15:23
- A desert or wilderness south of Palestine, and near the wilderness of Etham
, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt
- It extended from Mount Sinai on the south, to the southern border of the land of Canaan on the north; having the desert of Shur, with its subdivisions, the deserts of Etham
and Sin, on the west, and the eastern branch of the Red Sea, the desert of Zin and Mount Seir, on the east
- Some have identified it with Ajrud, a fortress between Etham
- " Israel, after marching from Rameses eastward to Succoth along the old canal, and thence to Etham
, were ordered by God to change their direction and go southward to Pihahiroth at, the W
- Partly hewn in the rock, partly built with masonry; all lined with cement; formed on successive levels with conduits from the upper to the lower; with flights of steps from the top to the bottom of each: in the sides of Etham
valley, with a dam across its opening, which forms the eastern side of the lowest pool
- In this region there are several smaller wildernesses, as Etham
, Paran, Shur, Zin
- (peace of caverns ), a desert or wilderness, bounded on the north by Palestine, on the east by the valley of Arabah, on the south by the desert of Sinai, and on the west by the wilderness of Etham
, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt
- In Numbers 33:8 the special designation occurs, "the wilderness of Etham
" (at the northern extremity of the Bitter Lakes)
Wanderings of the Israelites
, Exodus 13:20 . | Etham
, Numbers 33:6 . ...
Passage through the Red Sea, | Passage through the Red Sea ...
Exodus 14:22 , and three days' march | and three days' march in the ...
into the desert of Shur, Exodus 15:22 | desert of Etham
, Numbers 33:8 . ...
It will be noticed that in Numbers, Etham
is mentioned on both sides of the Red Sea. The desert of Etham
may have swept round the end of the Gulf of Suez, as in some maps
The rest were not in Palestine proper, but were the deserts through which the Israelites passed or were located in their wanderings: namely, Etham
, KADESH, PARAN, SIN, SINAI, and ZIN
- ) Their third station was Etham
(q. They were then led along the west shore of the Red Sea till they came to an extensive camping-ground "before Pi-hahiroth," about 40 miles from Etham
. This distance from Etham
may have taken three days to traverse, for the number of camping-places by no means indicates the number of days spent on the journey: e. ...
From 'Ayun Musa they went on for three days through a part of the barren "wilderness of Shur" (22), called also the "wilderness of Etham
" (Numbers 33:8 ; Compare Exodus 13:20 ), without finding water
- 3) mentions an Etham
50 furlongs from Jerusalem, where were the sources from which Solomon's pleasure grounds were watered, and Bethlehem and the temple supplied
, on the edge of the wilderness...
- Samson kept garrison in the rock of Etham
, Judges 15:8
- Israel's first camping place after leaving Egypt, half way between Rameses and Etham
, Succoth of the Βirket Τimseh ("the lake of crocodiles") on the road which led by the shortest way to the edge of the wilderness
The people were led from Rameses to Succoth, thence to Etham
, and to Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-zephon
Wanderings in the Wilderness
- A second relatively direct route to Kadesh-barnea appears to have been avoided by divine plan when they approached the border at Etham
and then were instructed to turn back to the seeming impossible situation “by the Sea” where God miraculously delivered them from the pharaoh's forces (Exodus 13:20-14:2 )
- After they set out from Rameses, in the land of Goshen, in the neighbourhood of Cairo, their first encampment was at Succoth, signifying "booths," or an "enclosure for cattle," after a stage of about thirty miles; their second, at Etham
, or Adsjerud, on the edge of the wilderness, about sixty miles farther; "for the Lord led them not by the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt: but God led the people about by the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea," or by a circuitous route to the land of promise, in order to train them and instruct them, in the solitudes of Arabia Petraea, Exodus 13:17-20 ; Deuteronomy 32:10 . Instead of proceeding from Etham
, round the head of the Red Sea, and coasting along its eastern shore, the Lord made them turn southward along its western shore, and, after a stage of about twenty or thirty miles, to encamp in the valley of Bedea, where there was an opening in the great chain of mountains that line the western coast, called Pi-hahiroth, the mouth of the ridge between Migdol westward, and the sea eastward, "over against Baal-zephon," on the eastern coast; to tempt Pharaoh, whose heart he finally hardened, to pursue them when they were "entangled in the land," and shut in by the wilderness on their rear and flanks, and by the sea in their front
- Their course was southeast as far as Etham
; but then, instead of keeping on directly to Sinai, they turned to the south, Exodus 14:2 , on the west side of the Red Sea, which they reached three days after starting, probably near Suez
- 13:20: “And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in the Etham
, in the edge of the wilderness
- At the end of the second day's journey the camping place was at Etham
, "in the edge of the wilderness
The first two days' march brought Israel from Rameses (the general name of the district, and the city built by Israel on the canal from the Nile to lake Timsah) by way of Succoth, to Etham
or Pithom, the frontier city of Egypt (Heroopolis) near the S