Places Study on Cush

Places Study on Cush

Genesis 10: And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.
Genesis 10: And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtecha: and the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.
Genesis 10: And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth.
2 Samuel 18: Then said Joab to Cushi, Go tell the king what thou hast seen. And Cushi bowed himself unto Joab, and ran.
2 Samuel 18: Then said Ahimaaz the son of Zadok yet again to Joab, But howsoever, let me, I pray thee, also run after Cushi. And Joab said, Wherefore wilt thou run, my son, seeing that thou hast no tidings ready?
2 Samuel 18: But howsoever, said he, let me run. And he said unto him, Run. Then Ahimaaz ran by the way of the plain, and overran Cushi.
2 Samuel 18: And, behold, Cushi came; and Cushi said, Tidings, my lord the king: for the LORD hath avenged thee this day of all them that rose up against thee.
2 Samuel 18: And the king said unto Cushi, Is the young man Absalom safe? And Cushi answered, The enemies of my lord the king, and all that rise against thee to do thee hurt, be as that young man is.
1 Chronicles 1: The sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.
1 Chronicles 1: And the sons of Cush; Seba, and Havilah, and Sabta, and Raamah, and Sabtecha. And the sons of Raamah; Sheba, and Dedan.
1 Chronicles 1: And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be mighty upon the earth.
Psalms 7: {Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.} O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:
Isaiah 11: And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea.
Jeremiah 36: Therefore all the princes sent Jehudi the son of Nethaniah, the son of Shelemiah, the son of Cushi, unto Baruch, saying, Take in thine hand the roll wherein thou hast read in the ears of the people, and come. So Baruch the son of Neriah took the roll in his hand, and came unto them.
Habakkuk 3: I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction: and the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble.
Zephaniah 1: The word of the LORD which came unto Zephaniah the son of Cushi, the son of Gedaliah, the son of Amariah, the son of Hizkiah, in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah.

Chain Links

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Cush
(cuhssh) 1. A member of the tribe of Benjamin about whom the psalmist sang (Psalm 7:1 ). Nothing else is known of him. 2. Son of Ham and grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:8 ). Thus in this Table of Nations he is seen as the original ancestor of inhabitants of Cush, the land.

3. A nation situated south of Egypt with differing boundaries and perhaps including differing dark-skinned tribes (Jeremiah 13:23 ) at different periods of history. The Hebrew word Cush has been traditionally translated Ethiopia, following the Septuagint, or earliest Greek translation, but Cush was not identical with Ethiopia as presently known. Moses' wife came from Cush (Numbers 12:1 ), probably a woman distinct from Zipporah (Exodus 2:21 ). Cush was an enemy of Egypt for centuries, being controlled by strong pharaohs but gaining independence under weak pharaohs. Zerah, a general from Cush, fought against Asa, king of Judah (910-869) (2 Chronicles 14:9 ). Finally, Pi-ankhi of Cush conquered Egypt and established the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egyptian rulers (716-656) with their capital at Napata above the fourth cataract. Isaiah 18:1 may describe some of the political activity involved in Cush's establishing their power in Egypt. Tirhakah ( 2 Kings 19:9 ) was one of the last of the pharaohs from Cush. Isaiah promised that people who fled from Judah and were exiled in Cush would see God's deliverance (Isaiah 11:11 ; compare Zephaniah 3:10 ). Isaiah acted out judgment against Cush, probably as the rulers of Egypt (Isaiah 20:3-5 ; compare Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Psalm 68:31 ; Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:4-5 ,Ezekiel 30:4-5,30:9 ). In Ezekiel's day Cush represented the southern limit of Egyptian territory (Ezekiel 29:10 ). Cush's strength could not help Thebes escape from Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, in 663 B.C. Nahum used this historical example to pronounce doom on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria (Nahum 3:9 ). Ezekiel listed Cush as one of the allies of Gog and Magog in the great climatic battle (Ezekiel 38:5 ). The psalmist proclaimed that God's reputation had reached even unto Cush (Psalm 87:4 ). Job saw Cush as a rich source of minerals, especially topaz (Job 28:19 ).

By the time of Esther, Cush represented the southwestern limits of Persian power (Esther 1:1 ). Cambyses (530-522) conquered Cush for Persia.

Cush is mentioned in Genesis 2:13 as surrounded by the Gihon River. The Gihon is usually associated with Jerusalem as a spring ( 1 Kings 1:33 ). Some Bible students identify Cush here with the Kassites, the successors to the old Babylonian empire, who controlled Babylon between about 1530,1151 B.C. Such students connect this with Genesis 10:8 , where Cush is associated with Nimrod, whose kingdom centered in Babylon (Genesis 10:10 ). Other Bible students would see Gihon here as another name for the Nile River and Cush as referring to the land south of Egypt. A clear solution to this problem has not been found.



Easton's Bible Dictionary - Cush
Black.
A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Genesis 10:8 ; 1 Chronicles 1:10 ). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13 , RSV). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10 , A.V. "Ethiopia," Heb. Cush), with which it is generally associated (Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 18:1 ; Jeremiah 46:9 , etc.). It stands also associated with Elam (Isaiah 11:11 ), with Persia (Ezekiel 38:5 ), and with the Sabeans (Isaiah 45:14 ). From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks (29:10; comp 30:4-6) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah 3:10 , Heb. Cush). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh . The Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India." The Hamite races, soon after their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation.



A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Psalm 7 . "Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him.'"


Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Cush (1)
Cush, "the Benjamite," heading of Psalm 7. An enigmatic title for Saul the Benjamite, with an allusion to the similar sounding name of Saul's father, Kish. Cush or the Ethiopian expresses one black at heart, who" cannot change his skin" or heart (Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7). David in this Psalms 7:4 alludes to Saul's gratuitous enmity and his own sparing "him that without cause is mine enemy," namely, in the cave at Engedi, when Saul was in his power (1 Samuel 24).

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Cush (2)
Genesis 10:6-8; 1 Chronicles 1:8-10. Oldest son of Ham; his descendants were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtechah; Raamah's sons, Sheba and Dedan; Nimrod, mentioned after the rest as Cush's son, was probably a more remote descendant: Cush ethnologically includes not only Ethiopia (meaning the sunburnt, Nubia and N. Abyssinia.) in Africa, its chief representative, but the Cush of Asia, watered by the Gihon river of paradise (Genesis 2:13). Isaiah couples it with Elam (Isaiah 40:11), Ezekiel with Persia (Ezekiel 38:5). Also part of Arabia (Genesis 10:7; Isaiah 43:3, especially 2 Chronicles 21:16), Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:8-10), and still further E. Chuzistan in the region of Susiana, in S. Asia, was their first home. Thence the main body crossed over to Ethiopia. Cush's connection with Midian appears in Habakkuk 3:7, where Cush-an is joined to Midi-an.

But the Cushan there may be Israel's first oppressor, (See CHUSHAN RISHATHAIM; the name however shows a Cushite origin. The Babylonian inscriptions of the mounds of Chaldaea proper, the primitive seat of the Babylonian empire close to the Persian gulf, prove there was a Cush on the E. or Asiatic side of the Arabia, gulf, as well as on the W. or African side. So Homer (Odys., 1:23) speaks of the Ethiopians as divided, part towards the E., part toward the W. Nimrod's kingdom began with Babel or Babylon, from whence "he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh" (Genesis 10:11 margin). Two streams of Hamitic migration appear to have taken place:

(1) an earlier one of Nigritians through the Malayan region, the Mizraites spreading along the S. and E. coasts of the Mediterranean resembled the modern seafaring Malays.

(2) A later one of Cushites through Arabia, Babylonia, Susiana, eastward to W. of India.

Meroe of Ethiopia is called in the Assyrian inscriptions by the name Nimrod, which must therefore be a Cushite name. The writing and vocabulary at Ur or Umqueir, near the Persian gulf, is Hamitic rather than Semitic. Ideographic rather than phonetic writing characterizes the Turanian races. Massive architectural remains, and a religion of nature worship from the highest to the lowest (fetish) kind, are found in all the Mizraite and Cushite settlements; and the language is partly Turanian, partly Semitic. The 22nd Egyptian dynasty, to which Zerah the Cusbite who invaded Asa belonged, contains names of Babylonian origin, Shishak = Sheshak, Namuret = Nimrod, Tekhit = Tiglath. (See BABEL.)

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Cush
CUSH in OT designates Ethiopia , and is the only name used there for that region. It is the same as the Egyptian Kash or Kesh . Broadly speaking, it answers to the modern Nubia. More specifically, the Egyptian Kash extended southwards from the first Cataract at Syene ( Ezekiel 29:10 ), and in the periods of widest extension of the empire it embraced a portion of the Sudan. It was conquered and annexed by Egypt under the 12th Dynasty ( c [Note: circa, about.] . b.c. 2000) and remained normally a subject country. After the decline of the 22nd (Libyan) Dynasty, the Cushites became powerful and gradually encroached on northern Egypt, so that at length an Ethiopian dynasty was established (the 25th, 728 663), which was overthrown by the Assyrians. Within this period falls the attempt of Tirhakah, king of Cush, to defeat Sennacherib of Assyria in Palestine ( 2 Kings 19:9 ).

In Genesis 10:6 Cush is a son of Ham, though his descendants as given in v. 7 are mostly Arabian. Surprising also is the statement in 2 Chronicles 14:9 ff. that Zerah the Cushite invaded Judah in the days of Asa, at a time when the Cushites had no power in Egypt. An attempt has been made to solve these and other difficulties by the assumption of a second Cush in Arabia (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:16 ). Instructive references to the Cushite country and people are found in Amos 9:7 , Isaiah 18:1 f., Jeremiah 13:23 . Cushites were frequent in Palestine, probably descendants of slaves; see 2 Samuel 18:21 ff., Jeremiah 36:14 ; Jeremiah 38:7 ff. These were, however, possibly Arabian Cushites. For the explanation of the Cush of Genesis 10:8 ff., and possibly of Genesis 2:13 , see Cossæans.

J. F. McCurdy.

CUSH as a personal name occurs only in the title of Psalms 7:1-17 . He is described as a Benjamite, and was probably a follower of Saul who opposed David.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Cush
Cushan
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Cush
Cush (kŭsh). 1. A country near the Gihon, Genesis 2:13 (margin A. V., and the text of the R. V.), north of Assyria. 2. The country peopled by Cush or the Ethiopians, Genesis 10:6, lying to the south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and possibly extending its rule into southern Arabia. See Ethiopia.

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Cush
(black ), a Benjamite mentioned only in the title to ( Psalm 7:1 ) He was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe. (B.C. 1061).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Cush
1. Eldest son of Ham and grandson of Noah. Genesis 10:6-8 ; 1 Chronicles 1:8-10 . His descendants are called in the A.V. Ethiopians, though the Hebrew is the same: Cush . The district also occupied by the above people, Isaiah 11:11 , is mostly called in A.V. Ethiopia, q.v. It will be seen by the genealogy that the descendants of Cush were numerous:-

CUSH

|

|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|

SEBA. HAVILAH. SABTA. RAAMAH. SEBTECHA. NIMROD.

|

|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|

SHEBA DEDAN.

All these cannot be confined to Africa. Some were probably located in Arabia, and Nimrod is clearly associated with the East; so that though as a district Cush may usually refer to Africa, the Cushites must have had a much wider range. It seems clear too from Genesis 2:13 that even geographically the name Cush: or Ethiopia, was also applied to a region in Asia.

2. A Benjamite enemy of David. Psalm 7 title. Some consider that Shimei is referred to, as intimated in the margin , 2 Samuel 16:5 . Others think it is Saul.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Cush
1. The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Genesis 10:6-8 .

2. The countries peopled by the descendants of Cush, and generally called in the English Bible, Ethiopia, though not always. But under this name there seem to be included not less than three different countries:

A. The oriental Cush, comprehending the regions of Persis, Chusistan, and Susiana, in Persia. It lay chiefly to the eastward of the Tigris. Hither we may refer the river Gihon, Genesis 2:13 Zephaniah 3:10 . See EDEN .

B. The Hebrews also, in the opinion of many, used Cush and Cushan, Habakkuk 3:7 , to designate the southern parts of Arabia, and the coast of the Red sea. From this country originated Nimrod, who established himself in Mesopotamia, Genesis 10:8 . The "Ethiopian woman," too, whom Moses married during the march of the Israelites through the desert, came probably from this Cush, Exodus 2:16-21 Numbers 12:1 2 Chronicles 21:16 .

C. But, more commonly, Cush signifies Ethiopia proper, lying south and southeast of Egypt, and now called Abyssinia, Isaiah 18:1 20:3-5 Jeremiah 13:23 Ezekiel 29:10 Daniel 11:43 .

Smith's Bible Dictionary - Cush
(black ), a Benjamite mentioned only in the title to ( Psalm 7:1 ) He was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe. (B.C. 1061).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Cush
Cush appears to have been the ancient name of the land of Ethiopia in Africa. The name Cushite, or person of Cush, was sometimes used as a general term for all the dark-skinned peoples of Africa. For details see ETHIOPIA.

Sentence search

Cush - (cuhssh) 1. A member of the tribe of Benjamin about whom the psalmist sang (Psalm 7:1 ). Nothing else is known of him. 2. Son of Ham and grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:8 ). Thus in this Table of Nations he is seen as the original ancestor of inhabitants of Cush, the land. ... 3. A nation situated south of Egypt with differing boundaries and perhaps including differing dark-skinned tribes (Jeremiah 13:23 ) at different periods of history. The Hebrew word Cush has been traditionally translated Ethiopia, following the Septuagint, or earliest Greek translation, but Cush was not identical with Ethiopia as presently known. Moses' wife came from Cush (Numbers 12:1 ), probably a woman distinct from Zipporah (Exodus 2:21 ). Cush was an enemy of Egypt for centuries, being controlled by strong pharaohs but gaining independence under weak pharaohs. Zerah, a general from Cush, fought against Asa, king of Judah (910-869) (2 Chronicles 14:9 ). Finally, Pi-ankhi of Cush conquered Egypt and established the twenty-fifth dynasty of Egyptian rulers (716-656) with their capital at Napata above the fourth cataract. Isaiah 18:1 may describe some of the political activity involved in Cush's establishing their power in Egypt. Tirhakah ( 2 Kings 19:9 ) was one of the last of the pharaohs from Cush. Isaiah promised that people who fled from Judah and were exiled in Cush would see God's deliverance (Isaiah 11:11 ; compare Zephaniah 3:10 ). Isaiah acted out judgment against Cush, probably as the rulers of Egypt (Isaiah 20:3-5 ; compare Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Psalm 68:31 ; Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:4-5 ,Ezekiel 30:4-5,30:9 ). In Ezekiel's day Cush represented the southern limit of Egyptian territory (Ezekiel 29:10 ). Cush's strength could not help Thebes escape from Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria, in 663 B. C. Nahum used this historical example to pronounce doom on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria (Nahum 3:9 ). Ezekiel listed Cush as one of the allies of Gog and Magog in the great climatic battle (Ezekiel 38:5 ). The psalmist proclaimed that God's reputation had reached even unto Cush (Psalm 87:4 ). Job saw Cush as a rich source of minerals, especially topaz (Job 28:19 ). ... By the time of Esther, Cush represented the southwestern limits of Persian power (Esther 1:1 ). Cambyses (530-522) conquered Cush for Persia. ... Cush is mentioned in Genesis 2:13 as surrounded by the Gihon River. The Gihon is usually associated with Jerusalem as a spring ( 1 Kings 1:33 ). Some Bible students identify Cush here with the Kassites, the successors to the old Babylonian empire, who controlled Babylon between about 1530,1151 B. C. Such students connect this with Genesis 10:8 , where Cush is associated with Nimrod, whose kingdom centered in Babylon (Genesis 10:10 ). Other Bible students would see Gihon here as another name for the Nile River and Cush as referring to the land south of Egypt. A clear solution to this problem has not been found. ... ...
Sabtah - One of the sons of Cush. (Genesis 10:7) And there is another son of Cush named Sabtecha—both derived from the same word, Sabah, to surround. ...
Cushan - (cyoo' sshan) A tent-dwelling people Habakkuk saw as experiencing God's wrath (Habakkuk 3:7 ). The parallel with Midian makes people think of an Arabian tribe, possibly nomads. Some identify Cushan with Cush, either as a territory controlled by Cush or as an otherwise unknown kingdom of Cush on the northeast shore of the Gulf of Aqabah near Midian. This would account for Cushites near Arabs (2 Chronicles 21:16 ). ... ...
Ethiopia - See Cush . ...
Cush - Cush appears to have been the ancient name of the land of Ethiopia in Africa. The name Cushite, or person of Cush, was sometimes used as a general term for all the dark-skinned peoples of Africa. For details see ETHIOPIA. ...
Ethiopia - One of the great kingdoms in Africa, sometimes called Cush in Scripture, from Cush, blackness. Blessed are the promises concerning the call of Ethiopia to the Lord, in the latter dispensations of the gospel. (Psalms 68:31; Psa 72:10-11; Isaiah 45:14)...
Sabtecha - the fifth son of Cush (id. ).
Cushan - CushAN ( Habakkuk 3:7 ) = Arabian (?) Cush (wh. see). ...
Cush - Cush (kŭsh). 1. A country near the Gihon, Genesis 2:13 (margin A. V. , and the text of the R. V. ), north of Assyria. 2. The country peopled by Cush or the Ethiopians, Genesis 10:6, lying to the south of Egypt, on the upper Nile, and possibly extending its rule into southern Arabia. See Ethiopia. ...
Cush - 1. The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Genesis 10:6-8 . ... 2. The countries peopled by the descendants of Cush, and generally called in the English Bible, Ethiopia, though not always. But under this name there seem to be included not less than three different countries: ... A. The oriental Cush, comprehending the regions of Persis, Chusistan, and Susiana, in Persia. It lay chiefly to the eastward of the Tigris. Hither we may refer the river Gihon, Genesis 2:13 Zephaniah 3:10 . See EDEN . ... B. The Hebrews also, in the opinion of many, used Cush and Cushan, Habakkuk 3:7 , to designate the southern parts of Arabia, and the coast of the Red sea. From this country originated Nimrod, who established himself in Mesopotamia, Genesis 10:8 . The "Ethiopian woman," too, whom Moses married during the march of the Israelites through the desert, came probably from this Cush, Exodus 2:16-21 Numbers 12:1 2 Chronicles 21:16 . ... C. But, more commonly, Cush signifies Ethiopia proper, lying south and southeast of Egypt, and now called Abyssinia, Isaiah 18:1 20:3-5 Jeremiah 13:23 Ezekiel 29:10 Daniel 11:43 . ...
Cushite - (n. ) A descendant of Cush, the son of Ham and grandson of Noah. ...
Sabteca - SABTECA . The youngest son of Cush according to Genesis 10:7 . The only identification at all plausible has been made with Samydake on the E. side of the Persian Gulf. But this is improbable, since that region did not come within the Cushite domain, as judged by the names of the other sons of Cush. Possibly Sabteca is a miswriting for Sabtah (wh. see). ... J. F. McCurdy. ...
Hav'Ilah - (circle ).
A son of Cush. (Genesis 10:7 ) ... A son of Joktan. (Genesis 10:29 )
Cush - 1. Eldest son of Ham and grandson of Noah. Genesis 10:6-8 ; 1 Chronicles 1:8-10 . His descendants are called in the A. V. Ethiopians, though the Hebrew is the same: Cush . The district also occupied by the above people, Isaiah 11:11 , is mostly called in A. V. Ethiopia, q. v. It will be seen by the genealogy that the descendants of Cush were numerous:-... Cush... |... |¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|... SEBA. HAVILAH. SABTA. RAAMAH. SEBTECHA. NIMROD. ... |... |¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯¯|... SHEBA DEDAN. ... All these cannot be confined to Africa. Some were probably located in Arabia, and Nimrod is clearly associated with the East; so that though as a district Cush may usually refer to Africa, the Cushites must have had a much wider range. It seems clear too from Genesis 2:13 that even geographically the name Cush: or Ethiopia, was also applied to a region in Asia. ... 2. A Benjamite enemy of David. Psalm 7 title. Some consider that Shimei is referred to, as intimated in the margin , 2 Samuel 16:5 . Others think it is Saul. ...
Sabta, Sabtah - Third son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . Where he was located is not known. ...
Cush - Black.
A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Genesis 10:8 ; 1 Chronicles 1:10 ). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Genesis 2:13 , RSV). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally applied to the countries south of the Israelites. It was the southern limit of Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10 , A. V. "Ethiopia," Heb. Cush), with which it is generally associated (Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 18:1 ; Jeremiah 46:9 , etc. ). It stands also associated with Elam (Isaiah 11:11 ), with Persia (Ezekiel 38:5 ), and with the Sabeans (Isaiah 45:14 ). From these facts it has been inferred that Cush included Arabia and the country on the west coast of the Red Sea. Rawlinson takes it to be the country still known as Khuzi-stan, on the east side of the Lower Tigris. But there are intimations which warrant the conclusion that there was also a Cush in Africa, the Ethiopia (so called by the Greeks) of Africa. Ezekiel speaks (29:10; comp 30:4-6) of it as lying south of Egypt. It was the country now known to us as Nubia and Abyssinia (Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah 3:10 , Heb. Cush). In ancient Egyptian inscriptions Ethiopia is termed Kesh . The Cushites appear to have spread along extensive tracts, stretching from the Upper Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India. " The Hamite races, soon after their arrival in Africa, began to spread north, east, and west. Three branches of the Cushite or Ethiopian stock, moving from Western Asia, settled in the regions contiguous to the Persian Gulf. One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians. Nimrod was a great Cushite chief. He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation. ... ... A Benjamite of this name is mentioned in the title of Psalm 7 . "Cush was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe, and had sought the friendship of David for the purpose of 'rewarding evil to him that was at peace with him. '" ...
Cossaeans - COSSÆANS . A name adapted from the Greek form of Bab. [Note: Babylonian. ] Kasshç , a semi-barbarous people inhabiting the mountain region between Elam and Media proper. They answer to Cush (wh. see) in Genesis 10:8 (and Genesis 2:13 ?) as distinguished from the African Cush. They were a powerful people between the 18th and the 12th centuries b. c. , during which time Babylonia was ruled by a Cossæan dynasty. ... J. F. McCurdy. ...
Raamah - Thunder.
One of the sons of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ). ... A country which traded with Tyre (Ezekiel 27:22 ).
Sab'Techa, - (striking ), ( Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ) the fifth in order of the sons of Cush. (B. C. 2218. )
Sabtecha, Sabtechah - Fifth son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . It is not known where he was located. ...
Sabth And Sabtecha - Sons of Cush, Genesis 10:7 . It cannot be decided whether they settled in Africa, Arabia, or southeastern Asia. ...
Ham - Ham, hot, or multitude. The son of Noah, known for his irreverence to his father, Genesis 9:22, and as the parent of Cush, Migraim, Phut, and Canaan, Genesis 10:6, who became the founders of large nations. Cush seems to have been the father of the peoples dwelling in Babylonia, southern Arabia, and Ethiopia; Nimrod was his son. Genesis 10:8. Mizraim, the Hebrew word for Egypt, was the ancestor of the Egyptians. Phut was also the ancestor of an African people, as appears from the association of his name with the descendants of Cush and the Lydians, Jeremiah 46:9 : see margin. Canaan was the ancestor of the Phœnicians and other tribes inhabiting Palestine. Egypt is called "the land of Ham. " Psalms 78:51; Psalms 105:23-27; Psalms 106:22. ...
Sab'Tah - (striking ), ( Genesis 10:7 ) or Sab'ta, (1 Chronicles 1:9 ) the third in order of the sons of Cush. (B. C. 2218. )
Havilah - the son of Cush, Genesis 10:7 . There must have been other, and perhaps many, Havilahs beside the original one, a part of the numerous and wide-spread posterity of Cush. By one and the first of these, it is probable that the western shores of the Persian Gulf were peopled; by another, the country of Colchis; and by another, the parts about the southern border of the Dead Sea and the confines of Judea, the country afterward inhabited by the Amalekites. ...
Nimrod - The son of Cush. (Genesis 10:8-9) The character given of this man is that of a mighty hunter before the Lord. ...
Cush - Cush in OT designates Ethiopia , and is the only name used there for that region. It is the same as the Egyptian Kash or Kesh . Broadly speaking, it answers to the modern Nubia. More specifically, the Egyptian Kash extended southwards from the first Cataract at Syene ( Ezekiel 29:10 ), and in the periods of widest extension of the empire it embraced a portion of the Sudan. It was conquered and annexed by Egypt under the 12th Dynasty ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 2000) and remained normally a subject country. After the decline of the 22nd (Libyan) Dynasty, the Cushites became powerful and gradually encroached on northern Egypt, so that at length an Ethiopian dynasty was established (the 25th, 728 663), which was overthrown by the Assyrians. Within this period falls the attempt of Tirhakah, king of Cush, to defeat Sennacherib of Assyria in Palestine ( 2 Kings 19:9 ). ... In Genesis 10:6 Cush is a son of Ham, though his descendants as given in v. 7 are mostly Arabian. Surprising also is the statement in 2 Chronicles 14:9 ff. that Zerah the Cushite invaded Judah in the days of Asa, at a time when the Cushites had no power in Egypt. An attempt has been made to solve these and other difficulties by the assumption of a second Cush in Arabia (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:16 ). Instructive references to the Cushite country and people are found in Amos 9:7 , Isaiah 18:1 f. , Jeremiah 13:23 . Cushites were frequent in Palestine, probably descendants of slaves; see 2 Samuel 18:21 ff. , Jeremiah 36:14 ; Jeremiah 38:7 ff. These were, however, possibly Arabian Cushites. For the explanation of the Cush of Genesis 10:8 ff. , and possibly of Genesis 2:13 , see Cossæans. ... J. F. McCurdy. ... Cush as a personal name occurs only in the title of Psalms 7:1-17 . He is described as a Benjamite, and was probably a follower of Saul who opposed David. ...
Sabta, Sabtah - SABTA, SABTAH . In the genealogical list of Genesis 10:7 a son of Cush, named between Havilah and other Arabian districts. It was probably a region on or near the east coast of Arabia, but in spite of several conjectures it has not been identified with any historical tribe or country. The relationship with Cush is to be accounted for on the ground that the Cushites were held to have extended across the Red Sea from Nubia north-eastward over the great peninsula. ... J. F. McCurdy. ...
Cush (1) - Cush, "the Benjamite," heading of Psalm 7. An enigmatic title for Saul the Benjamite, with an allusion to the similar sounding name of Saul's father, Kish. Cush or the Ethiopian expresses one black at heart, who" cannot change his skin" or heart (Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7). David in this Psalms 7:4 alludes to Saul's gratuitous enmity and his own sparing "him that without cause is mine enemy," namely, in the cave at Engedi, when Saul was in his power (1 Samuel 24). ...
se'ba - (pl. Sebaim ; in Authorized Version incorrectly rendered Sabeans) heads the list of the sons of Cush. Besides the mention of Seba in the lists of the pens of Cush, ( Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ) there are but three notices of the nation -- (Psalm 72:10 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; 45:14 ) These passages seem to show that Seba was a nation of Africa bordering on or included in Cush, and in Solomon's time independent and of political importance. It may perhaps be identified with the island of Meroe. Josephus says that Saba was the ancient name of the Ethiopian island and city of Meroe, but he writes Seba, in the notice of the Noachian settlements, Sabas. The island of Meroe lay between the Astaboras, the Atbara, the most northern tributary of the Nile, and the Astapus, the Bahr el-Azrak, "Blue River," the eastern of its two great confluents.
Sye'ne, - properly Seventh a town of Egypt, on the frontier of Cush or Ethiopia, (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ) represented by the present Aruan or Es-Suan.
Cushan - Probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush, the Arabian Cush (Habakkuk 3:7 ). Some have, however, supposed this to be the same as Chushan-rishathaim (Judges 3:8,10 ), i. e. , taking the latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan "of the two iniquities" (= oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry), a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur-ris-ilim (the father of Tiglathpileser I. ); but incorrectly, for the empire of Assyria was not yet founded. He held Israel in bondage for eight years. ...
Ethiopia - (ee' thi oh' pi uh) The region of Nubia just south of Egypt, from the first cataract of the Nile into the Sudan. Confusion has arisen between the names Ethiopia and Cush. The Old Testament Hebrew (and Egyptian) name for the region was Cush. The ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, rendered Cush by the Greek word Ethiopia, except where it could be taken as a personal name. English translations have generally followed the Septuagint in designating the land as Ethiopia and its inhabitants as Ethiopians. In some passages such as Genesis 2:13 and Isaiah 11:11 , various English versions alternate between Cush and Ethiopia. See Cush . The biblical Ethiopia should not be confused with the modern nation of the same name somewhat further to the southeast. In biblical times, Ethiopia was equivalent to Nubia, the region beyond the first cataract of the Nile south, or upstream, of Egypt. This region, with an abundance of natural resources, was known to the Egyptians as Cush and was occupied by them during periods of Egyptian strength. During the New Kingdom (1550-1070 B. C. ), Ethiopia was totally incorporated into the Egyptian Empire and ruled through an official called the “viceroy of Cush. ”... When Egyptian power waned, Nubia became independent under a line of rulers who imitated Egyptian culture. When Egypt fell into a period of chaos about 725 B. C. , Nubian kings extended their influence northward. In 715 B. C. , they succeeded in establishing control over all of Egypt and ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The most influential of these Ethiopian pharaohs was Taharqa (biblical Tirhakah), who rendered aid to Hezekiah of Judah during the Assyrian invasion of Sennacherib in 701 B. C. (2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ). ... The Assyrian Empire invaded Egypt in 671 B. C. , driving the Ethiopian pharaohs southward and eventually sacking the Egyptian capital Thebes (biblical No-Amon; Nahum 3:8 ) in 664 B. C. Thereafter, the realm of Ethiopian kings was confined to Nubia, which they ruled from Napata. Ethiopia continued to be an important political force and center of trade (Isaiah 45:14 ). Some time after 300 B. C. , Napata was abandoned and the capital moved further south to Meroe, where the kingdom continued for another six hundred years. Excavations in Nubia have revealed numerous pyramid tombs at Napata and Meroe as well as several temples to the Egyptian god Amun. ... In New Testament times, several queens of the kingdom of Meroe bore the title Candace. The Ethiopian eunuch to whom Philip explained the gospel was a minister of “the Candace, queen of the Ethiopians” (Acts 8:27 RSV). Candace should be understood as a title rather than a personal name. ... Daniel C. Browning, Jr. ... ...
Dedan - 1. Son of Raamah, son of Cush. His descendants are supposed to have located themselves on the Persian Gulf. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . ... 2. Descendant of Abraham and Keturah, probably inhabiting the borders of Idumaea. Genesis 25:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 . ... 3. District mentioned in Jeremiah 25:23 ; Jeremiah 49:8 ; Ezekiel 25:13 . It is more than once in these prophecies associated with Edom, so that it was probably connected with the descendants of Abraham. ... 4. In Ezekiel 27:15,20 ; Ezekiel 38:13 apparently another place of the same name is referred to, which probably alludes to the district where the descendants of Cush settled. ...
de'Dan - (low country ).
The name of a son of Raamah, son of Cush. (Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ) ... A son of Jokshan, son of Keturah. (Genesis 25:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) (B. C. after 1988. )
Sabta(h) - (ssab' tuh) Son of Cush and apparently the ancestor of citizens of Sabota, capital of Hadramaut about 270 miles north of Aden. Others identify it with an Ethiopian ruler about 700 B. C. Josephus identified it with Astaboras, modern Abare. ... ...
ra'Amah - (horse's mane ), a son of Cush and father of the Cushite Sheba and Dedan. ( Genesis 10:7 ) (B. C. after 2513. ) The tribe of Raamah became afterward renowned as traders. (Ezekiel 27:22 ) They were settled on the Persian Gulf.
Raamah - Raamah (râ'a-mah), trembling. A commercial country which traded with Tyre. Ezekiel 27:22. It furnished spices, gems, and gold, and was probably named after a son of Cush, whose descendants are believed to have settled upon the southwestern shore of the Persian Gulf. ...
Topaz - A precious stone of wine-yellow color, with occasional pale tinges of green or red. It was one of the twelve gems in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 , and was a highly prized product of Cush, or Southern Arabia, Job 28:19 ; Ezekiel 28:13 . ...
Sabeans - There are four persons who have been regarded as progenitors of the Sabeans. ... 1. Seba, son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 . ... 2. Sheba, grandson of Cush. Genesis 10:7 . ... 3. Sheba, descendant of Joktan. Genesis 10:28 . ... 4. Sheba, son of Jokshan. Genesis 25:3 . ... The first two are descendants of Ham, and the last two descendants of Shem. For their localities see SEBA and SHEBA. Some were marauders who swept away the oxen and asses of Job. Job 1:15 . In Isaiah 45:14 they were travelling merchants. In Joel 3:8 they are represented as a people 'far off,' to whom Judah will sell their enemies. These passages may not all refer to the same people. In Ezekiel 23:42 the chethib reads 'drunkards,' as in the margin of the A. V. and the text of the R. V. ...
Esar-Haddon - son of Sennacherib, and his successor in the kingdom of Assyria: called Sargon, or Saragon, Isaiah 20:1 . He reigned twenty- nine years. He made war with the Philistines, and took Azoth, by Tartan, his general: he attacked Egypt, Cush, and Edom, Isaiah 20, 34; designing, probably, to avenge the affront Sennacherib his father had received from Tirhakah, king of Cush, and the king of Egypt, who had been Hezekiah's confederates. He sent priests to the Cuthaeans, whom Salmaneser, king of Assyria, had planted in Samaria, instead of the Israelites: he took Jerusalem, and carried King Manasseh to Babylon, of which he had become master, perhaps, because there was no heir to Belesis, king of Babylon. He is said to have reigned twenty-nine or thirty years at Nineveh, and thirteen years at Babylon; in all forty-two years. He died A. M. 3336. ...
Seba -
One of the sons of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ). ... ... The name of a country and nation (Isaiah 43:3 ; 45:14 ) mentioned along with Egypt and Ethiopia, and therefore probably in north-eastern Africa. The ancient name of Meroe. The kings of Sheba and Seba are mentioned together in Psalm 72:10 .
Raamah - A Cushite race. Called son of Cush (Genesis 10:7; Septuagint translated Rhegma the same as that in Ptolemy 6:7, S. of the Persian gulf). Sheba and Dedan are Raamah's sons (Ezekiel 27:22). His locality must therefore be southern Arabia. Renowned as traders with Tyre and other peoples (Ezekiel 27:22). ...
Raamah - Fourth son of Cush, a son of Ham. He was father of Sheba and Dedan, whose descendants are supposed to have settled along the shores of the Persian Gulf. Merchants of Raamah traded with Tyre, who were doubtless connected with the above. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ; Ezekiel 27:22 . ...
Seba - SEBA . The eldest son of Cush in Genesis 10:7 ( 1 Chronicles 1:9 ), named along with Sheba in Psalms 72:10 , and with Egypt and Cush in Isaiah 43:8 ; Isaiah 45:14 . In the latter passage its people are referred to as of high stature. A comparison with Isaiah 18:2 points to a supposed connexion with the tall Cushites or Nubians, though there is no evidence which directly associates either the people or the country with Nubia proper, in the region of the Nile. More specific seem to be the references by Strabo and Ptolemy to a seaport Saba and Sabat , near the modern Massowa on the west of the Red Sea. This location, nearly opposite the ancient Sheba, gives some colour to the hypothesis that Seba is an African differentiation of Sheba (wh. see), the latter being naturally the parent community. ... J. F. McCurdy. ...
Cushite -
The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over Absalom (2 Samuel 18:32 ). ... ... The father of Shelemiah (Jeremiah 36:14 ). ... ... Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet (Zephaniah 1:1 ). ... ... Moses married a Cushite woman (Numbers 12:1 ). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush. ...
Nimrod - Firm, a descendant of Cush, the son of Ham. He was the first who claimed to be a "mighty one in the earth. " Babel was the beginning of his kingdom, which he gradually enlarged (Genesis 10:8-10 ). The "land of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6 ) is a designation of Assyria or of Shinar, which is a part of it. ...
Topaz - Heb. pitdah (Ezekiel 28:13 ; Revelation 21:20 ), a golden yellow or "green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19 ). It was the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Exodus 28:17 ). It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
Raama(h) - (ray' uh maw) Son of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ) and ancestor of Sheba and Dedan Arab tribes occupying southwest and west-central Arabia (1 Chronicles 1:9 ). Raamah and Sheba were trading partners of Tyre (Ezekiel 27:22 ). Raama is likely modern Negram in Yemen, though the earliest Greek translation identified Raamah with Regmah on the Persian Gulf. ... ...
Tir'Hakah, - (exalted? ) king of Ethiopia (Cush), the opponent of Sennacherib. ( 2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 ) He may be identified with Tarkos or Tarakos, who was the third and last king of the twenty-fifth dynasty, which was of Ethiopians. His accession was probably about B. C. 695. Possibly Tirhakah ruled over Ethiopia before becoming king of Egypt.
Cuthites - A people who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, and were thence transplanted into Samaria, in place of the Israelites who had before inhabited it. They came from the land of Cush, or Cutha, in the East; their first settlement being in the cities of the Medes, subdued by Shalmaneser and his predecessors. See 2 Kings 17:24,30 . ...
Shiggaion - From shaagah , "erred. " An erratic melody betokening excitement and agitation (Ewald). Hengstenberg refers it to the subject of the psalms, "the aberrations of the wicked" (Habakkuk 3:1). In consonance with this the Hebrew root of Shiggaion occurs in Saul's address to David (1 Samuel 26:21), "behold I have played the fool and erred exceedingly" (compare Psalms 119:21; Psalms 119:118). Psalm 7 refers to David's being accused by Saul (the Benjamite, Cush the Ethiopian unchangeably black at heart toward David: Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7; Cush similar to Kish, Saul's father) of plotting evil against him, whereas he returned good for evil in sparing Saul his deadly foe, when in his power (1 Samuel 24:7); "concerning the words" i. e. on account of the calumnies which men uttered against David to ingratiate themselves with the king, and which Saul gave ear to (1 Samuel 24:9; 1 Samuel 26:19). These David rebuts (Psalms 7:3-5). ...
Cushite - (cyoo' sshite) Citizen or inhabitant of Cush. See Amos 9:7 ). An unnamed Cushite served as Joab's messenger to bring the news of Absalom's death to David (2 Samuel 18:21-32 ). A eunuch under King Zedekiah who helped Jeremiah escape from a cistern into which the king had had him thrown (Jeremiah 38:6-12 ; Jeremiah 39:16 ). See Ebed-melech . ... ...
Kir - A wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus (2 Kings 16:9 ; Amos 1:5 ; 9:7 ). (Isaiah 22:6 ), who also was contemporary with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south of Elam.
Cub - CUB in Ezekiel 30:5 is almost certainly a corruption of Lub ( i. e. Lybia), as was read by LXX [Note: Septuagint. ] . The ‘Libya’ of AV [Note: Authorized Version. ] is a mistranslation of Put (see RV [Note: Revised Version. ] ). Cf. Nahum 3:9 , where Lybians are mentioned along with Cush (Ethiopia), Egypt, and Put, as here; also 2Ch 12:3 ; 2 Chronicles 16:8 . ...
Candace - CANDACE . Queen of Ethiopia. A eunuch belonging to her, in charge of her treasure, was baptized by Philip ( Acts 8:27 ). The name was borne by more than one queen of Ethiopia. The Candace who invaded Egypt in b. c. 22 (Strabo) is, of course, earlier than this. A Candace is perhaps named on one of the pyramids of Meroe. See Cush. ... F. Ll. Griffith. ...
Sabeans - Sabeans (sa-bç'anz). 1. Descendants of Seba. Isaiah 45:14. It should be simply "people of Seba," son of Cush. 2. In Joel 3:8 the descendants of Sheba, son of Joktan, are meant. Possibly a third tribe is spoken of in Job 1:15. The translation "Sabeans" in Ezekiel 23:42 is incorrect: read "drunkards," as in the margin and In the R. V. ...
Phut or Put - A son of Ham, Genesis 10:6 , whose posterity are named with Cush and Ludim as serving in Egyptian armies, and as part of the host of Gog, Jeremiah 46:9 Ezekiel 27:10 30:5 38:5 Nahum 3:9 . In several of these passages Phut is translated Libyans. Josephus identifies them with the Mauritanians, in Northern Africa towards the west. See LIBYA. ...
Ethiopia - ETHIOPIA is tr. [Note: translate or translation. ] of the Heb. Cush , which is derived from Kosh , the Egyp. name of Nubia (beginning at the First Cataract). The cultivable land in this region is very meagre. The scanty and barbarous population of the valley and the deserts on either side was divided in early times among different tribes, which were completely at the mercy of the Egyptians. Individually, however, the Sudanese were sturdy warriors, and were constantly employed by the Pharaohs as mercenary soldiers and police. In the time of the New Kingdom, Cush southward to Napata was a province of Egypt, dotted with Egyptian temples and governed by a viceroy. With the weakening of the Egyptian power Cush grew into a separate kingdom, with Napata as its capital. Its rulers were probably of Egyptian descent; they are represented as being entirely subservient to Ammon, i. e . to his priests, elected by him, acting only upon his oracles, and ready to abdicate or even to commit suicide at his command. We first hear of a king of Ethiopia about b. c. 730, when a certain Pankhi, reigning at Napata and already in possession of the Egyptian Thebaid, added most of Middle Egypt to his dominions and exacted homage from the princes of the Delta. A little later an Ethiopian dynasty (the XXVth) sat on the throne of the Pharaohs for nearly fifty years (b. c. 715 664). The last of these, Tahraku (Tirhakah [wh. see]), intrigued with the kinglets of Syria and Phœnicia against the Assyrians, but only to the ruin of himself and his dynasty. Tahraku and his successor Tandamane were driven into Ethiopia by the Assyrian invasions, and Egypt became independent under the powerful XXVIth Dynasty. For the Persian period it is known that Ethiopia, or part of it, was included in one satrapy with Egypt under Darius. In the 3rd cent. b. c. king Ergamenes freed himself from the power of the priests of Ammon by a great slaughter of them. From about this time forward Meroë, the southern residence, was the capital of Ethiopia. The worship of Ammon, however, as the national god of ‘Negroland,’ as Ethiopia was then called, still continued. In b. c. 24 the Romans invaded Ethiopia in answer to an attack on Egypt by queen Candace, and destroyed Napata, but the kingdom continued to be independent. The Egyptian culture of Ethiopia had by that time fallen into a very barbarous state. Inscriptions exist written in a peculiar character and in the native language, as yet undeciphered; others are in a debased form of Egyptian hieroglyphic. ... The name of Cush was familiar to the Hebrews through the part that its kings played in Egypt and Syria from b. c. 730 664, and recently discovered papyri prove that Jews were settled on the Ethiopian border at Syene in the 6th cent. b. c. See also Cush. ... F. Ll. Griffith. ...
Cuthah - The region of the Assyrian empire from whence Shalmaneser transported colonists, after the deportation of Israel from it. The seat of the worship of Nergal (2 Kings 17:24; 2 Kings 17:30). The name is akin to Cush, as the Chaldaeans said Athur for Ashur. (Cush. ) Its locality is probably Chuzistan in the region of Susiana E. of the Tigris. The mountainous region between Elam and Media was called Cuthah. It would be a natural policy to transplant some of the hardy mountaineers (called also Cossaei) from their own region, where they gave the Assyrians trouble, to Samaria. There is also a town Cuthah, now Towiba, close to Babylon. G. Smith and Rawlinson identify it with Tel Ibrahim. Intermixing with the ten tribes' remnant, they became progenitors of the Samaritans who are called "Cuthaeans" by the Jews. The Samaritans claimed kindred with the Sidonians, and these again with the Cuthaeans (Josephus, Ant. 11:8, section 6; 12:5, section 5; Chald. Paraphr. Genesis 10:19; 1 Chronicles 1:13). ...
Dedan - Low ground.
A son of Raamah (Genesis 10:7 ). His descendants are mentioned in Isaiah 21:13 , and Ezekiel 27:15 . They probably settled among the sons of Cush, on the north-west coast of the Persian Gulf. ... ... A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah (1 Chronicles 1:32 ). His descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the territory of Edom. They probably led a pastoral life.
Ethiopia - One of the great kingdoms in Africa, frequently mentioned in Scripture under the name of Cush, the various significations of which in the Old Testament have been mentioned under the article Isaiah 18:1-7 Zephaniah 3:10 . ... The name of Seba was given to the northern part of Ethiopia, afterwards Meroe, but the eldest son of Cush, Genesis 10:7 . This country was in some parts mountainous, and in others sandy; but was to a great extent well watered and fertile. Ebony, ivory, spices, gold, and precious stones were among its articles of traffic. Its history is much involved with that of Egypt, and the two countries are often mentioned together in Bible, Isaiah 20:3-6 43:3 45:15 Ezekiel 30:1-26 Daniel 11:43 . ... Zerah "the Ethiopian" who invaded Judah in the reign of Asa, B. C. 944,2 Chronicles 14:9-15 , is thought by some to have been an Egyptian king of an Ethiopia on both sides of the Red Sea; that is, of the Arabian as well as African Cush. This would explain how he could obtain access to the land of Palestine without passing through Egypt. But the whole question is involved in uncertainty. The Ethiopian queen Candace, whose treasurer is mentioned in Acts 8:27 , was probably queen of Meroe, where a succession of females reigned who all bore this name. As this courtier is said to have gone up to Jerusalem "to worship," he was probably a Jew by religion, if not by birth. There appear to have been many Jews in that country. The gospel gained adherents among them; and early in the forth century the entire Bible was translated into the ancient Ethiopic language, from the Greek. ...
Cush (2) - Genesis 10:6-8; 1 Chronicles 1:8-10. Oldest son of Ham; his descendants were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, Sabtechah; Raamah's sons, Sheba and Dedan; Nimrod, mentioned after the rest as Cush's son, was probably a more remote descendant: Cush ethnologically includes not only Ethiopia (meaning the sunburnt, Nubia and N. Abyssinia. ) in Africa, its chief representative, but the Cush of Asia, watered by the Gihon river of paradise (Genesis 2:13). Isaiah couples it with Elam (Isaiah 40:11), Ezekiel with Persia (Ezekiel 38:5). Also part of Arabia (Genesis 10:7; Isaiah 43:3, especially 2 Chronicles 21:16), Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:8-10), and still further E. Chuzistan in the region of Susiana, in S. Asia, was their first home. Thence the main body crossed over to Ethiopia. Cush's connection with Midian appears in Habakkuk 3:7, where Cush-an is joined to Midi-an. ... But the Cushan there may be Israel's first oppressor, (See CHUSHAN RISHATHAIM; the name however shows a Cushite origin. The Babylonian inscriptions of the mounds of Chaldaea proper, the primitive seat of the Babylonian empire close to the Persian gulf, prove there was a Cush on the E. or Asiatic side of the Arabia, gulf, as well as on the W. or African side. So Homer (Odys. , 1:23) speaks of the Ethiopians as divided, part towards the E. , part toward the W. Nimrod's kingdom began with Babel or Babylon, from whence "he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh" (Genesis 10:11 margin). Two streams of Hamitic migration appear to have taken place:... (1) an earlier one of Nigritians through the Malayan region, the Mizraites spreading along the S. and E. coasts of the Mediterranean resembled the modern seafaring Malays. ... (2) A later one of Cushites through Arabia, Babylonia, Susiana, eastward to W. of India. ... Meroe of Ethiopia is called in the Assyrian inscriptions by the name Nimrod, which must therefore be a Cushite name. The writing and vocabulary at Ur or Umqueir, near the Persian gulf, is Hamitic rather than Semitic. Ideographic rather than phonetic writing characterizes the Turanian races. Massive architectural remains, and a religion of nature worship from the highest to the lowest (fetish) kind, are found in all the Mizraite and Cushite settlements; and the language is partly Turanian, partly Semitic. The 22nd Egyptian dynasty, to which Zerah the Cusbite who invaded Asa belonged, contains names of Babylonian origin, Shishak = Sheshak, Namuret = Nimrod, Tekhit = Tiglath. (See BABEL. )...
Nim'Rod - (rebellion; or the valiant ), a son of Cush and grandson of Ham. The events of his life are recorded in ( Genesis 10:8 ) ff. , from which we learn (1) that he was a Cushite; (2) that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia) the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh; and (3) that he extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah and Resen.
Africa - By far the most frequent mention of Africa in the Bible has to do with Egypt (see EGYPT; GOSHEN; NILE). The land of Ethiopia is also mentioned frequently, sometimes under the name of Cush (see ETHIOPIA). Other African nations mentioned in the Bible are Libya (2 Chronicles 12:3; 2 Chronicles 16:8; Daniel 11:43), Put (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Ezekiel 38:5; Nahum 3:9), and Lud (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5). (For additional New Testament references to Africa see ALEXANDRIA; CYRENE. )...
Raamah - RAAMAH is called ( Genesis 10:7 = 1 Chronicles 1:9 [ Raama ]) a son of Cush, and father of Sheba and Dedan ( Genesis 10:28 ). The locality of this Arabian tribe is not yet ascertained. Opinion is divided between the Regma of Ptolemy, on the W. of the Persian Gulf, and the Rammanitœ of Strabo in S. Arabia, N. W. of Hadramaut (see Hazarmaveth) and E. of the ancient Sheba. The latter is the more probable identification. Raamah is also associated with Sheba in Ezekiel 27:22 as trading with Tyre. ... J. F. M‘Curdy. ...
Havilah - 1. Son of Cush, a descendant of Ham. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . ... 2. Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Genesis 10:29 ; 1 Chronicles 1:23 . ... 3. Land compassed by the river Pison, where there was fine gold and precious stones. Genesis 2:11 . It has not been identified. ... 4. District near or connected with that of theAmalekites, on the south of Palestine, reaching towards Shur 'that is over against Egypt. ' Genesis 25:18 ; 1 Samuel 15:7 . It was probably named from No. 2. ...
Seba - Son of Cush, a son of Ham, and the territory where his descendants were located. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 ; Psalm 72:10 ; Isaiah 43:3 . The descendants have been traced to Meroe, on the west of Abyssinia, and Josephus says that Meroe was at one time called Saba, or Seba. Its ruins lie between lat. 16 and 17 N. It is, however, believed by some that this tribe first settled near the Persian Gulf (probably along with the descendants of SHEBA, another descendant of Ham), and afterwards migrated into Africa. See SABEANS. ...
Sabeans - This word represents two distinct people, who, in accordance with the original Hebrew, might have been more properly called Sebaeans and Shebaeans. ... 1. The first denotes the inhabitants of the country called Genesis 10:7 , their ancestor is said to be a son of Cush, the progenitor of the Ethiopians. In Isaiah 43:3 and Psalm 72:10 , Seba is mentioned as a distant and wealthy country; in the former passage, it is connected with Egypt and Ethiopia; and Meroe was one of the most important commercial cities of interior Africa. These Sabeans are described by Herodotus as men of uncommon size. Compare Isaiah 45:14 . A branch of this family, it is thought, located themselves near the head of the Persian Gulf; and the Sabeans mentioned in Job 1:15 were probably Cushites. See Cush and RAAMAH . ... 2. The inhabitants of the country called Genesis 10:28 1 Chronicles 1:22 . ... The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1-29 2 Chronicles 9:1-31 Matthew 12:42 , and made him presents of gold, ivory, and costly spices, was probably the mistress of this region; indeed, the Sabeans were celebrated, on account of their important commerce in these very products, among the Greeks also, Job 6:19 Isaiah 60:6 Jeremiah 6:20 Ezekiel 27:22 38:13 Psalm 72:10,15 Joel 3:8 . The tradition of this visit of the queen of Sheba to Solomon has maintained itself among the Arabs, who call her Balkis, and affirm that she became the wife of Solomon. ... Besides the Joktanite Sabaeans, two others of the same name are mentioned in the Bible. 1. A son of Jokshan, and grandson of Abraham and Keturah, Genesis 10:28 2 . A grandson of Cush. It is possible that these descendants of the Ethiopian Sheba may have had their residence in Africa; but the question of these two Shebas is obscure and difficult to determine. The Sebaeans and Shebaeans are both mentioned in the same prophecy, Psalm 72:10 , as coming to lay their offerings at the feet of Christ. ...
Cushi, Cushite - CushI, CushITE . The word Cûshî occurs with the article in Numbers 12:1 , 2 Samuel 18:21 ; without the article in Jeremiah 36:14 , Zephaniah 1:1 . Zephaniah 1:1 . With the article it is probably merely an expression of nationality, ‘the Cushite’ (see Cush). It was looked upon as a disgrace that Moses should have married a Cushite. 2. Without the article the word is used merely as a proper name. It is borne by (1) the great-grandfather of Jehudi, the latter one of Jehoiakim’s courtiers ( Jeremiah 36:14 ); (2) the father of the prophet Zephaniah ( Zephaniah 1:1 ). ...
Dedan - DEDAN . A north Arabian people, according to Genesis 10:7 descended from Cush, and according to Genesis 25:3 from Abraham through Keturah. The combination is not difficult to understand when we remember the Arabian affiliations of the Cushites (cf. Isaiah 21:13 ). In Ezekiel 25:13 Dedan is placed almost within the Edomite territory, which it must have bordered on the southeast (cf. Jeremiah 25:23 ; Jeremiah 49:8 ). The Dedanites were among the Arabian peoples who sent their native wares to the markets of Tyre ( Ezekiel 27:20 ). In Ezekiel 27:15 read ‘Rodan’ (Rhodians) for ‘Dedan. ’... J. F. McCurdy. ...
Ethiopia - This is the Greek and Roman name for Cush, a kingdom in Africa to the south of Egypt. The boundary between the two kingdoms is not well defined, indeed, it may have varied at different times. The first cataract, 24 N, is generally taken as its northern boundary: its extent southward is altogether unknown. Genesis 2:13 ; Esther 1:1 ; Ezekiel 29:10 . At times Ethiopia conquered Egypt: two of the kings mentioned in scripture were Ethiopians. 2 Chronicles 14:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 . In some of the prophecies they are mentioned as separate kingdoms. Nahum 3:9 . See EGYPT, LAND OF. ...
Ham - 1. Burnt, swarthy, black, A son of Noah, Genesis 5:32 7:13 9:18 10:1 . The impiety revealed in his conduct towards his father, drew upon him, or rather, according to the Bible statement, on his son Canaan, a prophetic malediction, Genesis 9:20-27 . Ham was the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan, that is, the ancestor of the Canaanites, Southern Arabians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, and the Africans in general, Genesis 10:6-20 . ... 2. A poetical name for Egypt, Psalm 78:51 106:22 . ... 3. An unknown place of the Zuzim, Genesis 14:5 . ...
lu'Bim - (dwellers in a thirsty land ),a nation mentioned as contributing, together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak's army, ( 2 Chronicles 12:3 ) and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah's army, (2 Chronicles 16:8 ) spoken of by Nahum, (Nahum 3:9 ) with Put or Phut, as helping No-amon (Thebes), of which Cush and Egypt were the strength. Upon the Egyptian monuments we find representations of a people called Rebu or Lebu, who correspond to the Lubim, and who may be placed on the African coast to the westward of Egypt, perhaps extending far beyond the Cyrenaica.
Havilah - HAVILAH . A son of Cush according to Genesis 10:7 , 1 Chronicles 1:9 , of Joktan according to Genesis 10:29 , 1 Chronicles 1:23 . The river Pison (see Eden [Garden of]) is said to compass the land of Havilah ( Genesis 2:11-12 ), and it formed one of the limits of the region occupied by the sons of Ishmael ( Genesis 25:18 ) in which also Saul smote the Amalekites ( 1 Samuel 15:8 ). It has been suggested that it formed the N. E. part of the Syrian desert, but it may with greater probability be identified with central and N. E. Arabia. ... L. W. King. ...
Sabean - (ssuh bee' uhn) Transliteration of two Hebrew national names. 1. Descendants of Seba, son of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ) expected to bring gifts signifying loyalty to Jerusalem (Psalm 72:10 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; compare Ezekiel 23:42 ). God could use the Sabeans to “pay for” Israel's ransom from captivity (Isaiah 43:3 ). These are often identified with people of Meroe in Upper Egypt between the white and blue Nile, thus the capital of Ethiopia. Other scholars locate it much further south, the territory east and southeast of Cush bordering on the Red Sea. Other scholars would identify at least some references here as identical with 2. below. ... 2. Descendants of Sheba, the son of Raamah (Genesis 10:7 ) or Joktan (Genesis 10:28 ; compare Genesis 25:3 ). The rich queen of Sheba visited Solomon (1 Kings 10:1 ). Sabeans destroyed Job's flocks and herds and servants (Job 1:15 ). They were known as “travelling merchants” (Job 6:19 REB; compare Psalm 72:10 ,Psalms 72:10,72:15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; Joel 3:8 ). This is usually equated with the city in southern Arabia, modern Marib in Yemen. Some scholars think this is too far south and seek biblical Sheba in northern Arabia near Medina on the wadi esh-Shaba. Sabeans could have become a general term for foreign or nomadic merchants. Sheba in southern Arabia gained riches through trade with nearby Africa and with India, whose goods they transported and sold to the empires to the north. Sheba produced and traded incense. ... ...
Sheba - 1. Son of Raamah, Genesis 10:7 . His posterity is supposed to have settled near the head of the Persian Gulf. See Cush and RAAMAH . ... 2. Son of Joktan, of the race of Shem, Genesis 10:28 . See SABEANS 2. ... 3. Son of Jokshan, and grandson of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:3 . He is supposed to have settled in Arabia Deserta. ... 4. A turbulent Benjamite, who after the death of Absalom made a fruitless effort to excite a rebellion in Israel against David. Being pursued, and besieged in Abel-beth-maachah, near the southern part of Lebanon, he was beheaded by the people of the city, 2 Samuel 20:1-26 . ...
Nimrod - (nihm' rahd) Personal name meaning, “we shall rebel. ” Son of Cush or Ethiopia (Genesis 10:8-10 ; 1 Chronicles 1:10 ). A hunter and builder of the kingdom of Babel who some Bible students have linked to Tukulti-Ninurta, an Assyrian king (about 1246-1206 B. C. ). The bible does not give sufficient information to connect him with any other known figure of history. Others think that Amenophis III of Egypt (about 1411-1375 B. C. ) or the heroic Gilgamesh might have been the ancient Nimrod. Regardless, extremely popular legends involve Nimrod as a ruler in both Assyrian and Egyptian lore. The prophet Micah called Assyria “the land of Nimrod” (1 Chronicles 5:6 ). Nimrod shows that the great Mesopotamian culture had its origin from the creative work of the God of Israel. ... ...
Zerah - (zee' ruh) Personal name meaning, “sunrise. ” 1. A twin born to Tamar and her father-in-law, Judah (Genesis 38:30 , Zarah KJV). One of his descendants was Achan, who was executed for taking forbidden booty (Joshua 7:1 ,Joshua 7:1,7:25 ). Zerah is included in Matthew's genealogy of Christ, although Perez was the direct ancestor (Joshua 1:3 ). 2 . Descendant of Esau and thus clan leader of Edomites (Genesis 36:13 ,Genesis 36:13,36:17 ). 3 . Ancestor of Edomite ruler (Genesis 36:33 ). 4 . Clan leader in tribe of Simeon (Numbers 26:13 ), apparently same as Zohar (Genesis 46:10 ): 5 . Levite (1Chronicles 6:21,1 Chronicles 6:41 ). 6 . Cushite general God defeated in answer to Asa's prayer about 900 B. C. (2 Chronicles 14:8-13 ). See Cush ; Ethiopia . ... ...
Dedan - 1. The grandson of Cush, Genesis 10:7 ; and ... 2. The son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah, Genesis 25:3 . Both were founders of tribes frequently named in Scripture. The descendants of the Cushite Dedan are supposed to have settled in southern Arabia, near the Persian gulf, in which there is an island called by the Arabs Dedan lived in the neighborhood of Idumaea, Jeremiah 49:8 . It is not clear, in all cases where the name occurs, which of the tribes is intended. It was probably the Cushite tribe, which was employed in trade. The "travelling companies" of Dedan are mentioned by Isaiah 21:13 . They are also named with the merchants of Tarshish by Ezekiel 38:13 , and were celebrated on account of their trade with the Phoenicians. ...
Nimrod - Rebellion, impiety, a son of Cush and grandson of Ham, proverbial from the earliest times as a mighty hunter, Genesis 10:8-10 1 Chronicles 1:10 . He seems to have feared neither God nor man; to gather around him a host of adventurers, and extended his conquests into the land of Shinar, where he founded or fortified Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh. According to one interpretation of Genesis 10:11 , he also founded Nineveh and the Assyrian empire; though this is usually understood to have been done by Asshur, when expelled by Nimrod from the land of Shinar, Micah 5:6 . Nimrod is supposed to have begun the tower of Babel; and his name is still preserved by a vast ruinous mound, on the site of ancient Babylon. See BABEL . ...
Havilah - 1. Genesis 10:7. ... 2. Descendants of Havilah, son of Cush, probably intermingled with the descendants of Havilah the Joktanite Havilah. So one people was formed, occupying Khawlan, the fertile region in the N. W. portion of Yemen or Arabia Felix. The Joktanite settlement was probably the earliest, the Arabs tracing the name Khawlan (which is another form of Havilah or Chavilah, with the ending n) to a descendant of Kahtan or Joktan. The region is fertile, abounding in myrrh, well watered, and populous. The Havilah bordering on the Ishmaelites "as thou goest to Assyria" (Genesis 25:18), also on Amalek (1 Samuel 15:7), seems distinct. This Havilah is not as the former Havilah in the heart of Yemen, but on the border of Arabia Petrea toward Yemen, between the Nabateans and the Hagarites; the country of the Chauloteans. ...
Syene - a city of Egypt, now called Assouan, situated at its southern extremity. Ezekiel 29:10 , describing the desolation to be brought upon Egypt, says, "Therefore thus saith the Lord, Behold, I will make the land of Egypt utterly desolate, from the tower of Syene even to the border of Cush," or Arabia or, as some read it, "from Migdol to Syene," implying, according to either version of the passage, the whole length of the country from north to south. The latitude of Syene, according to Bruce is 24 0'... 45'; that of Alexandria, 31 11' 33"; difference 7 10' 48", equal to four hundred and thirty geographical miles on the meridian, or about five hundred British miles; but the real length of the valley of Egypt, as it follows the windings of the Nile, is full six hundred miles. ...
Thomas - The apostle, Matthew 10:3 , called in Greek Didymus, that is, a twin, John 20:24 , was probably a Galilean, as well as the other apostles; but the place of his birth, and the circumstances of his calling, are unknown, Luke 6:13-15 . He appears to have been of an impulsive character, sincerely devoted to Christ, ready to act upon his convictions, and perhaps slow to be convinced, as he at first doubted our Lord's resurrection, John 11:16 ; 14:5-6 ; 20:19-29 . Several of the fathers inform us that he preached in the Indies; and others say that he preached in Cush, or Ethiopia, near the Caspian sea. ... There are nominal Christians in the East Indies, who bear the name of St. Thomas, because they report that this apostle preached the gospel there. They dwell in a peninsula of the Indus, on this side the gulf. ...
Tirhakah - TIRHAKAH , king of Cush ( 2 Kings 19:9 , Isaiah 37:9 ), marched out from Egypt against Sennacherib shortly before the mysterious destruction of the Assyrian army│(? b. c. 701). Herodotus preserves a version of the same event. Tirhakah was the third of the Ethiopian (25th) Dyn. , and reigned as king of Ethiopia and Egypt from about b. c. 691 665; towards the end of his reign (670 665) until his death he was engaged in constant struggles with the Assyrians, who endeavoured to establish their power in Egypt by means of the native princes as against the Ethiopian. Tirhakah was quite unable to resist the attacks of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal; even Thebes was sacked, but the Assyrians were equally unable to hold the country they bad won. The chronology of the reign is not clear: Tirhakah was not king at the time of Sennacherib’s expedition, but he may have commanded the army opposing it. Winckler places the later Assyrian attacks in 675 668. ... F. Ll. Griffith. ...
Seba - (See SHEBA. ) Son of Cush, i. e. Ethiopia (Genesis 10:7). A commercial and wealthy region of Ethiopia (Psalms 72:10; Isaiah 43:3; Isaiah 45:14 "men of stature". ) The Macrobian Ethiopians were reported to be the tallest and comeliest of men (Herodotus 3:20). Meroe, at the confluence of the Astaboras and Astapus, was called Seba, until Cambyses called it Meroe from his sister (Josephus, Ant. 2:10). Seba is distinct from Sheba , which is Semitic; Seba is Hamitic. The Sebaeans were an Ethiopian, ruling race, which dwelt about Meroe the capital, and were physically superior to the rest of the people. Shebek, or Sabacho or So, founded here an Ethiopian kingdom which ruled Egypt. Μeru means "an island" in Egyptian; Μeru-pet is "the island of Pet," the "bow", or else "Phut. " The Astaboras is the Atbara, the most northern tributary of the Nile, and the Astapus and Astasobas unite to form the Blue river; these bound the island Meroe. ...
Ham - 1. One of Noah's three sons: he was father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. Mizraim and Phut, in their descendants, were mainly connected with Egypt. Nothing personally is known of Ham except his disrespectful behaviour when his father was intoxicated, and which drew down the curse of Noah on Canaan. Genesis 5:32 ; Genesis 6:10 ; Genesis 9:18,22 ; Genesis 10:1,6,20 ; 1 Chronicles 1:4,8 . ... 2. The dwelling place of the above in Egypt was mostly designated 'the land of Ham. ' Psalm 78:51 ; Psalm 105:23,27 ; Psalm 106:22 . ... 3. A place somewhere on the east of the Dead Sea, where the Zuzims dwelt who were smitten by Chedorlaomer. Genesis 14:5 . ... 4. The Simeonites in searching for pasture for their flocks in the South came to a place where they of Ham had dwelt of old. 1 Chronicles 4:40 . Some suppose these to have been a colony from Egypt; others judge them to have been Canaanitish nomads. ...
Nimrod - Son or descendant of Cush, the son of Ham. He was 'mighty upon the earth,' and 'a mighty hunter,' using force and craft to bring man as well as beasts under his sway. The words 'before the Lord' probably signify imperial energy and usurped authority in independence of Jehovah. "The beginning of his kingdom was Babel" with other towns in the land of Shinar. And "out of that land went forth Asshur," or 'he went out to Assyria,' and built Nineveh and other cities. So that Nimrod and his descendants were those who founded both Babylon and Nineveh. Babylonia was also called the land of Nimrod, which shows that the descendants of Ham settled in the East as well as in Egypt in the South. Those in the East afterwards gave place in a great measure to the descendants of Shem. Genesis 10:8-11 ; 1 Chronicles 1:10 ; Micah 5:6 . ...
Dedan - Dedan (dç'dan). 1. A grandson of Cush, Genesis 10:7, and the name of a people, with a region of like name. 1 Chronicles 1:9. Dedan is thought to be the same as Daden, an island of the Persian Gulf; the inhabitants were noted merchants. Ezekiel 27:15; Ezekiel 38:13. 2. A people of northern Arabia, descended from Dedan, a descendant of Abraham and Keturah. Genesis 25:8; 1 Chronicles 1:32; Jeremiah 49:8; Jeremiah 49:25; Jeremiah 49:23; Ezekiel 25:13. The descendants of this Dedan lived near Idumæa. Jeremiah 49:8. It is not certain, but probable that the Cushite tribe engaged more extensively in trade. The "travelling companies" of Dedanim, A. V. plural of Dedan, R. V. "Dedanites," are noticed in Isaiah 21:13. They are also named with the merchants of Tarshish by Ezekiel 38:13, and were celebrated from their trade with the Phœnicians. ...
Ham - (hot; sunburnt ).
The name of one of the three sons of Noah, apparently the second in age. (B. C. 2448. ) Of the history of Ham nothing is related except his irreverence to his father and the curse which that patriarch pronounced. The sons of Ham are stated, to have been "Cush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan. " (Genesis 10:6 ) comp. 1 Chronicles 1:8 Egypt is recognized as the "land of Ham" in the Bible. ( Psalm 78:51 ; 105:23 ; 106:22 ) The other settlements of the sons of Ham are discussed under their respective names. The three most illustrious Hamite nations--the Cushites, the Phoenicians and the Egyptians--were greatly mixed with foreign peoples. Their architecture has a solid grandeur that we look for in vain elsewhere. ... According to the present text, (Genesis 14:5 ) Chedorlaomer and his allies smote the Zuzim in a place called Ham, probably in the territory of the Ammonites (Gilead), east of the Jordan.
Ethiopia - Hebrew; Cush . (See Cush; BABYLON. ) Isaiah 11:11. S. of Egypt. Now Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan, and N. Abyssinia. In a stricter sense the kingdom of Meroe from the junction of the Blue and the White Nile to the border of Egypt. Syene on the N. marked the boundary from Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10; Ezekiel 30:6). The Red Sea was on the Ethiopia, the Libyan desert on the W. The native name was Ethaush; the Greek "Ethiopia" means the land of the sunburnt. Compare Jeremiah 13:23, "can the Ethiopian change his skin?" "The rivers of Ethiopia" (Zephaniah 3:10) are the two branches of the Nile and the Astabbras (Tacazze). The Nile forms a series of cataracts here. The dispersed Israelites shall be brought as an offering by the nations to the Lord (Zephaniah 3:8-9; Isaiah 66:20; Isaiah 60:9), from both the African and the Babylonian Cush, where the ten tribes were scattered in Peter's time (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:13; Isaiah 11:11, "from Cush and from Shinar". )... The Falashas of Abyssinia are probably of the ten tribes. In Isaiah 18:1, "the land shadowing with wings" is Ethiopia shadowing (protecting) with its two wings (Egyptian and Ethiopian forces) the Jews, "a nation scattered and peeled" (loaded with indignity, made bald) though once "terrible" when God put a terror of them into surrounding nations (Exodus 23:27; Joshua 2:9), "a nation meted out and trodden down whose land the (Assyrian) rivers (i. e. armies, Isaiah 8:7-8) have spoiled"; the Jews, not the Ethiopians. Ethiopia had sent her ambassadors to Jerusalem where they now were (Isaiah 18:2), Tirhakah their king shortly afterward being the ally whose diversion in that city's favor saved it from Sennacherib (Isaiah 36:37). Isaiah announces Sennacherib's coming overthrow to the Ethiopian ambassadors and desires them to carry the tidings to their own land (compare Isaiah 17:12-14; not "woe" but "ho," calling attention (Isaiah 18:1-2); go, take back the tidings of what God is about, to do against Assyria, the common foe of both Ethiopia and Judah. ... Queen Candace reigned in this Nile-formed is land region; the name is the official designation of a female dynasty shortly before our Lord's time (Acts 8:27). The "vessels of bulrushes" or papyrus boats are peculiarly suited to the Upper Nile, as being capable of carriage on the shoulders at the rocks and cataracts. Ethiopia" is often used when Upper Egypt and Ethiopia are meant. It is the Thebaid or Upper Egypt, not Ethiopia by itself, that was peopled and cultivated, when most of Lower Egypt was a marsh. Thus Ethiopia and Egypt are said (Nahum 3:9) to be the "strength" of "populous No" or Thebes. Zerah the Ethiopian who attacked Asa at Mareshah on the S. of Palestine, and Tirhakah the Ethiopian who advanced toward Judah against Sennacherib, were doubtless rulers of Upper Egypt and Ethiopia combined. Tirhakah's name is found only on a Theban temple, and his connection with Ethiopia is marked by several monuments there being ascribed to him. ... An Azerch-Amen reigned in Ethiopia, we know from the monuments; perhaps = Zerah (Rawlinson). Hincks identifies him with Osorkon I, king of Egypt, second of the 22nd dynasty (See ASA) (2 Chronicles 14:9). Tirhakah was third of the 25th dynasty of Egypt, an Ethiopian dynasty. So or Sevechus or Sabacho was another of this dynasty; the ally of Hoshea king of Israel against Shalmaneser (2 Kings 17:3-4). Osirtasin I (Sesostris, Herodotus, 2:110), of the 12th dynasty, was the first Egyptian king who ruled Ethiopia. While the shepherd kings ruled Lower Egypt the 13th native dynasty retired to the Ethiopian capital Napara. Shishak's army was largely composed of Ethiopians (2 Chronicles 12:3). ... The monuments confirm Isaiah 20:4; Nahum 3:5; Nahum 3:8-9, by representing Sargon as warring with Egypt and making the Pharaoh tributary; they also make Ethiopia closely united to Egypt. Probably he was provoked by the help which So had given to his rebel tributary Hoshea. The inscriptions tell us Sargon destroyed No-Amon or Thebes in part, which was the capital of Upper Egypt, with which Ethiopia was joined. Esarhaddon, according to the monuments, conquered Egypt and Ethiopia Meroe was the emporium where the produce of the distant S. was gathered for transport either by the Nile or by caravans to northern Africa; compare Isaiah 45:14. ...
Ethio'Pia - (burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia , and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe. ( Ezekiel 29:10 ) The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race. (Genesis 10:6 ) They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour's birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in (Acts 8:27 )
Havilah - The sand region.
A land mentioned in Genesis 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom. ... ... A district in Arabia-Felix. It is uncertain whether the tribe gave its name to this region or derived its name from it, and whether it was originally a Cushite ( Genesis 10:7 ) or a Joktanite tribe (10:29; comp 25:18), or whether there were both a Cushite and a Joktanite Havilah. It is the opinion of Kalisch, however, that Havilah "in both instances designates the same country, extending at least from the Persian to the Arabian Gulf, and on account of its vast extent easily divided into two distinct parts. " This opinion may be well vindicated. ... ... One of the sons of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ). ... ... A son of Joktan (Genesis 10:29 ; 1 Chronicles 1:23 ). ...
Chushan-Rishathaim - Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Judges 3:8 ). We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A. V. , "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan. It is mentioned among the countries which took part in the attack upon Egypt in the reign of Rameses III. (of the Twentieth Dynasty), but as its king is not one of the princes stated to have been conquered by the Pharaoh, it would seem that he did not actually enter Egypt. As the reign of Rameses III. corresponds with the Israelitish occupation of Canaan, it is probable that the Egyptian monuments refer to the oppression of the Israelites by Chushan-rishathaim. Canaan was still regarded as a province of Egypt, so that, in attacking it Chushan-rishathaim would have been considered to be attacking Egypt. ...
Ham - ("hot". )... 1. The Egyptian. (See KEM. ) (Egypt is singularly the land of Ham, Psalms 78:51; Psalms 105:23), "black"; the sun-burnt and those whose soil is black, as Ethiopia means. Father (i. e. ancestor) of Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (See EGYPT), Phut (Libya), and Canaan. These mean races. not individuals. Egypt being the first civilized was singled out as the chief country of Hamite settlements. (On the Hamitic or Cushite origin of Babylon, alleged by Scripture and confirmed by the vocabulary in ancient remains. (See Cush; BABEL. ) Solid grandeur characterizes the Hamitic architecture, as in the earliest of Egypt, Babylonia, and S. Arabia. The first steps in the arts and sciences seemingly are due to the Hamites. The earliest empires were theirs, their power of organization being great. Material rather than moral greatness was theirs. Hence their civilization, though early, decayed sooner than that of the Semitic and Japhetic races. ... Egypt, fenced on the N. by a sea without good harbours, on the E. and W. by deserts, held its sway the longest. The Hamites of S. Arabia were at a very early date overcome by the Joktanites, and the Babylonians yielded to the Medes. Ammon, the god of N. Africa, is related to Ham. Ham is supposed to be youngest of Noah's sons from Genesis 9:24, but "younger (Hebrew: little) son" there probably means Noah's grandson, namely, Canaan, not Ham. Shem is put first, having the spiritual eminence of being father of the promised seed. The names Shem (the man of name or renown), Ham (the settler in hot Africa), and Japbet (father of fair descendants, or of those who spread abroad), may not have been their original names, but derived from subsequent facts of their history. ... 2. A place where Chedorlaomer smote the Zuzim (Genesis 14:5). If Zuzim be the same as Zamzummim, who dwelt in the territory afterward occupied by Ammon (Deuteronomy 2:19-21), Ham answers to Rabbath Ammon. Septuagint and Vulgate read baheem for b'Ηam , i. e. "with them", but KJV seems correct. ... 3. Simeonites went to the eastern entrance of the valley of Gedor in quest of pasture, and dispossessed the previous inhabitants, being men "of Ham" (1 Chronicles 4:40). Perhaps an Egyptian settlement, Egypt being closely connected with this southern part of Palestine. ...
Gihon - 1. Genesis 2:13. (See EDEN. ) The Septuagint, Jeremiah 2:18, identify it with the Nile; but the writer of Genesis, so well acquainted with Egypt, would never have connected the Nile with the Euphrates. The Cush which the Gihon "compassed" was the Asiatic not the African Cush (Genesis 10:7-10); The Septuagint being Alexandrian Jews, to glorify their adopted country, made the Nile one of the rivers of paradise. ... 2. A fountain near Jerusalem, where Solomon was anointed king (1 Kings 1:33; 1 Kings 1:38; 1 Kings 1:45). The "down" in going and "up" in returning show it was below the city. Manasseh built a wall outside the city of David from the W. of Gihon in the valley (nachal ), "wady", or "torrent", the word employed for the valley of Kedron or Jehoshaphat E. of Jerusalem; ge being employed for the valley of Hinnom S. W. of Jerusalem) to the entrance of the fish gate. " Hezekiah stopped its upper source, at some distance off, at a higher level (2 Chronicles 32:30), and "brought it straight down to the W. side of the city of David" (2 Chronicles 33:14). The Targum of Jonathan, Arable and Syriac, has Siloam for Gihon in 1 Kings 1. A wall from W. of Gihon to the fish gate (near the Jaffa gate, Jerome) would be the course of a wall enclosing the city of David (2 Chronicles 33:14). ... An aqueduct discovered lately (1872) runs from near the Damascus gate, on the Bezetha hill, to the souterrain at the convent of the Sisters of Zion. It probably brought the water from the pool N. of the tombs of the kings (probably the "upper pool," 2 Kings 18:17; Isaiah 7:3; Isaiah 36:2, and "upper watercourse of Gihon" stopped by Hezekiah) to the pool of Bethesda. Siloam was the lower Gihon. It is suggested that the city of David was on the eastern hill, so Hezekiah by bringing it W. of the city of David brought it within the city, and so out of the enemy's reach. Psalms 48:2 confirms the view that mount Zion was to the N. of Moriah, the temple hill: "the joy of the whole earth is mount Zion, on the sides of the N. the city of the great Kine. "...
Ethiopia - Country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Genesis 2:13 ; 2 Kings 19:9 ; Esther 1:1 ; Job 28:19 ; Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile. It corresponds generally with what is now known as the Soudan (i. e. , the land of the blacks). This country was known to the Hebrews, and is described in Isaiah 18:1 ; Zephaniah 3:10 . They carried on some commercial intercourse with it (Isaiah 45:14 ). Its inhabitants were descendants of Ham (Genesis 10:6 ; Jeremiah 13:23 ; Isaiah 18:2 , "scattered and peeled," A. V. ; but in RSV, "tall and smooth"). Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes them as "the tallest and handsomest of men. " They are frequently represented on Egyptian monuments, and they are all of the type of the true negro. As might be expected, the history of this country is interwoven with that of Egypt. ... Ethiopia is spoken of in prophecy (Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Ezekiel 30:4-9 ; Daniel 11:43 ; Nahum 3:8-10 ; Habakkuk 3:7 ; Zephaniah 2:12 ). ... ...
Havilah - (hav' ih luh) Place name meaning, “sandy stretch. ” Biblical name for the sand-dominated region to the south covering what we call Arabia without necessarily designating a particular geographical or political area. The river from Eden is described as flowing “around the whole land of Havilah” (Genesis 2:11 NAS), a land noted for gold and other precious stones. The Table of Nations lists Havilah as a son of Cush or Ethiopia, showing Havilah's political ties ( Genesis 10:7 ). Some Bible students think the name is preserved in modern Haulan in southwest Arabia. Havilah is also mentioned in the Table of Nations as a son of Joktan, the grandson of Shem (Genesis 10:29 ). The descendants of Ishmael, Abraham's son, lived in Havilah (Genesis 25:18 ). Saul defeated the Amalekites from “Havilah as you go to Shur, which is east of Egypt” (1 Samuel 15:7 NAS), a description whose meaning Bible students continue to debate. Some seek to change the Hebrew text slightly. Others look for a Havilah further north and west than Havilah is usually located. Others talk of the fluid boundaries of the area. Thus Havilah refers to an area or areas in Arabia, but the precise location is not known. ... ...
Dedan - Son of Raamah, son of Cush (Genesis 10:7), brother of Sheba. A second Dedan is son of Jokshan, son of Keturah (Genesis 25:3), and is brother of a second Sheba. The recurrence of the same names points to an intermarriage between the Cushite (Ethiopian, rather Hamitic) Dedan and the Semitic Dedan, which is referred to as Edomite (Jeremiah 49:8; Jeremiah 25:23; Ezekiel 25:13; Isaiah 21:13, "ye traveling companies (merchant caravans) of Dedanim". )... The Cushite Dedan near the head of the Persian gulf and Chaldaea, the avenue of commerce to India, is referred to in Ezekiel 27:15, as the names in the context prove; but Ezekiel 27:20 Dedan is connected with N. W. Arabia, and associated with Assyria (Ezekiel 27:23), i. e. the Semitic or Edomite Dedan, yet also connected with the Cushite "Sheba and Raamah" (Ezekiel 27:22) on the Persian gulf. The Semitic Sabeans, descended from Sheba tenth son of Joktan, dwelt in S. W. Arabia, from the Red Sea to the straits of Bab el Mandeb. Ezekiel thus recounts the two channels of merchandise, Raamah on the Persian gulf, and Sheba on the Red Sea in Arabia. The name Dedan still remains in Dadan, an island on the border of the Persian gulf. (See RAAMAH)...
Sheba - 1. Son of Raamah, a son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . His descendants are generally held to have settled on the shores of the Persian Gulf. ... 2. Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Genesis 10:28 ; 1 Chronicles 1:22 . His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. The metropolis of the district was at or near the modern Mareb, about 15 45' N, 45 35' E . ... 3. Son of Jokshan, a son of Abraham and Keturah. Genesis 25:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 . Some judge his descendants to have settled 'far north'; others place them 'somewhere in Arabia. ' (The name 'Sheba' occurs also in Job 6:19 ; Psalm 72:10,15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22,23 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers. )... 4. The country from whence the queen came who visited Solomon. She brought gold, precious stones, and a great store of spices. The Lord spoke of her as 'the queen of the south. ' 1 Kings 10:1-13 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1,3,9,12 ; Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 . The 'south' well agrees with the locality of the descendants of Sheba, the son of Joktan. ...
Ham - or CHAM, חם , son of Noah, and brother to Shem and Japheth, is believed to have been Noah's youngest son. Ham, says Dr. Hales, signifies burnt, or black, and this name was peculiarly significant of the regions allotted to his family. To the Cushites, or children of his eldest son, Cush, were allotted the hot southern regions of Asia, along the coasts of the Persian Gulf, Susiana or Chusistan, Arabia, &c; to the sons of Canaan, Palestine and Syria; to the sons of Misraim, Egypt and Libya, in Africa. The Hamites, in general, like the Canaanites of old, were a sea-faring race, and sooner arrived at civilization and the luxuries of life than their simpler pastoral and agricultural brethren of the other two families. The first great empires of Assyria and Egypt were founded by them; and the republics of Tyre, Sidon, and Carthage, were early distinguished for their commerce: but they sooner also fell to decay; and Egypt, which was one of the first, became the last and "basest of the kingdoms," Ezekiel 29:15 ; and has been successively in subjection to the Shemites, and Japhethites; as have also the settlements of the other branches of the Hamites. See CANAAN . ...
Sheba - 1. Son of Raamah, a son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 ; 1 Chronicles 1:9 . His descendants are generally held to have settled on the shores of the Persian Gulf. ... 2. Son of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. Genesis 10:28 ; 1 Chronicles 1:22 . His descendants have been traced to Southern Arabia, or Arabia Felix. The metropolis of the district was at or near the modern Mareb, about 15 45' N, 45 35' E . ... 3. Son of Jokshan, a son of Abraham and Keturah. Genesis 25:3 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 . Some judge his descendants to have settled 'far north'; others place them 'somewhere in Arabia. ' (The name 'Sheba' occurs also in Job 6:19 ; Psalm 72:10,15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22,23 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers. )... 4. The country from whence the queen came who visited Solomon. She brought gold, precious stones, and a great store of spices. The Lord spoke of her as 'the queen of the south. ' 1 Kings 10:1-13 ; 2 Chronicles 9:1,3,9,12 ; Matthew 12:42 ; Luke 11:31 . The 'south' well agrees with the locality of the descendants of Sheba, the son of Joktan. ...
Mighty - MI'GHTY, a. Having great bodily strength or physical power very strong or vigorous as a mighty arm. ... 1. Very strong valiant bold as a mighty man of valor. Judges 6 . 2. Very powerful having great command. Cush begat Nimrod he began to be a mighty one on the earth. Genesis 10 ... 3. Very strong in numbers as a mighty nation. Genesis 18 4. Very strong or great in corporeal power very able. Wo to them that are mighty to drink wine. Isaiah 5 ... 5. Violent very loud as mighty thunderings. Exodus 9; Psalms 68 6. Vehement rushing with violence as a mighty wind or tempest. Exodus 10; Revelation 6 7. Very great vast as mighty waters. Nehemiah 9 8. Very great or strong as mighty power. 2 Chronicles 26 9. Very forcible efficacious as, great is truth and mighty. 10. Very great or eminent in intellect or acquirements as the mighty Scaliger and Selden. 11. Great wonderful performed with great power as mighty works. Matthew 11 12. Very severe and distressing as a mighty famine. Luke 15 13. Very great, large or populous as a mighty city. Revelation 18 14. Important momentous. I'll sing of heroes and of kings, ... In mighty numbers mighty things. ... MI'GHTY, adv. In a great degree very as might wise mighty thoughtful. Colloquial. ...
Remphan - We nowhere meet with the name of this idol in the sacred Scriptures but in one place, and that is in Stephen's address before the Sanhedrim. (Acts 7:43) And in this very passage which Stephen is quoting, it is from the writings of the prophet Amos 5:25-26 -but it is remarkable that Stephen doth not quote it as the original is, or even the translation, but in the place of Chiun substitutes Remphan. However it is very evident, from the name of Moloch, and the days of Amos's ministry what species of idolatry it was to which the whole referred. If the reader will look at a passage much about the same period, 2 Kings 17:29-30, he will find that the fashion of the day respecting idolatry was at the height. "Every nation, (we are told,) made gods of their own. " The men of Babylon made Succoth-benoth; and the men of Cush made Nergal; and the men of Hamath made Ashima; and the Avites made Nibhaz and Tartak; and the Sepharvites burnt their children in the fire to Adrammelech, and Anammalach, the gods of Sepharvaim. It is probable that Adram, and Anam, or On, were the ancient idols of Egypt: Potipherah was the priest of the latter. (Genesis 41:45) What an awful portrait of human depravity doth the whole afford! See Succothbenoth. See Moloch. ...
Shishak - A king of Egypt, who declared war against Rehoboam king of Judah in the fifth year of his reign. He entered Judah, B. C. 971, with an innumerable multitude of people out of Egypt, the countries of Lubim, of Suchim, and of Cush, captured the strongest places in the country, and carried away from Jerusalem the treasures of the Lord's house and of the king's palace, as well as the golden bucklers of Solomon. ... Jeroboam having secured the friendship of Shishak, his territories were not invaded, 1 Kings 11:40 14:25,26 2 Chronicles 12:2-9 . Shishak is generally believed to have been the Sesonchis of secular history, the first king of the twenty-second or Budastine line. He dethroned the dynasty into which Solomon married, 1 Kings 3:1 , and made many foreign conquests. In the palace-temple of Karnak in Egypt, the walls of which are yet standing, Sesonchis is represented in a large basrelief, dragging captive kings in triumph before the three chief Theban gods. Each country or city is personified, and its name written in an oval above it. One of these figures, with Jewish features, has an inscription, which Campollion interprets, "kingdom of Judah. " Several other symbols are thought to denote as many walled towns of Judah, captured by Shishak. See PHARAOH . ...
Sheba (2) - from whom the country derives its name. ... 1. Grandson of Cush and son of Raamah (Genesis 10:7). ... 2. Son of Joktan (Genesis 10:28). ... 3. Grandson of Abraham by Keturah; son of Jokshan (Genesis 25:3). This is an instance of the intermingling of the early descendants of Shem and Ham. SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8). The Sabeans were famed for myrrh, frankincense, and cinnamon, their chief city being Mariaba (Strabo 16:777), named also Seba, the one being the city the other the fortress (near the famous dyke el 'Arim, built to store water and avert mountain torrents. )... This was afterward the celebrated Himyeritic Arab kingdom, called from the ruling family of Himyer. The Cushite Sheba and his brother Dedan settled along the Persian gulf, but afterward were combined with the Joktanite Sabean kingdom. (See RAAMAH. ) The buildings of Mariaba or Seba are of massive masonry, and evidently of Cushite origin. The Joktanites (Semitics) were the early colonists of southern Arabia. The Himyerites Strabo first mentions in the expedition of A. Gellius (24 B. C. ); the Arabs however place Himyer high in their list. Himyer may mean "the red man," related to the "Red Sea" and "Phoenician. " The kingdom probably was called "Sheba" (Seba means "turned red"), its reigning family Himyer; the old name was preserved until the founding of the modern Himyeritic kingdom about a century B. C. ... "The queen of Sheba" (1 Kings 10:1-2; 1 Kings 10:10) ruled in Arabia, not Ethiopia, as the Abyssinian church allege; Sheba being in the extreme Sheba of Arabia, "she came (a distance of nearly a thousand miles) from the uttermost parts of the earth," as then known, to hear the wisdom of Solomon (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). Four principal Arab peoples are named: the Sabeans, Atramitae or Hadramaut, Katabeni or Kahtan or Joktan, and the Mimaei. SHEBA. A town of Simeon (Joshua 19:2). Possibly the SHEMA of Joshua 15:26. Now Saawe (Knobel). Or Sheba is a transcriber's error, repeating the end of Βeer-sheba ; for the number of names in Joshua 19:2-6 including Sheba is 14, whereas 13 is the number stated, and in 1 Chronicles 4:28 Sheba is omitted in the list of Simeon. But Conder (Palestine Exploration, January 1875) identifies Sheba with Tell el Seba, two miles of Beersheba, and on the line to Moladah (Joshua 19:2); its well is a quarter of a mile W. of it. ...
Dedan - (dee' dan) Personal and place name of unknown meaning. 1. The original ancestor of an Arabian tribe listed in the table of nations as a son of Cush (Genesis 10:27 ). See Genesis 25:3 ). Here as in Genesis 10:27 , Dedan's brother is Sheba. Three otherwise unknown Arabian tribes descended from Dedan, according to Genesis 25:3 . 3 . The Arabian tribe centered at al-Alula, 70 miles southwest of Tema and 400 miles from Jerusalem. It was a station on the caravan road between Tema and Medina. Jeremiah pronounced judgment against the Arabian tribes (Jeremiah 25:23 ), perhaps looking to Nebuchadnezzar's raid in Arabia in 599-598 B. C. Nabonidus, king of Babylon (556-539), left control of his kingdom to his son Belshazzar and worked in Arabia for a period, controlling Dedan among other cities. Dedan was a caravan center for incense trade (Isaiah 21:13 ). Isaiah warned the traders from Dedan to avoid the regular caravan stations and spend the night in the wilderness. Neighbors from Tema would have to meet their food needs. Jeremiah warned merchants from Dedan working or staying in Edom to flee the country because God was bringing judgment on it (Jeremiah 49:8 ). Ezekiel warned Edom that their soldiers fleeing even to Dedan would be struck down (Ezekiel 25:13 ). In judging Tyre, Ezekiel noted they, too, traded with Dedan (Ezekiel 27:15 ,Ezekiel 27:15,27:20 ). Compare Ezekiel 38:13 . ... ...
Phut - Third among Ham's sons (Genesis 10:6; 1 Chronicles 1:8). The Coptic for Libya is Ρhaiat . Jerome (Traditional Hebrew) mentions a river of Mauritania and the adjoining region as called Phut. It is generally connected with Egypt and Ethiopia; in Genesis the order is, from the S. advancing northwards, Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim, Phut (a dependency of Egypt), Canaan (Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 30:5; Nahum 3:9; Isaiah 66:9 where "Phut" should be read for "Pul"). But in Ezekiel 27:10; Ezekiel 38:5, Phut is associated with Persia, Lud, and Ethiopia; however this is no proof of geographical connection, it is merely an enumeration of regions from whence mercenaries came. ... The people of Phut dwelt close to Egypt and Ethiopia,and served in Egypt's armies with shield and bow. The Egyptian monuments mention a people, "Pet," whose emblem was the unstrung bow, and who dwelt in what is now Nubia, between Egypt and Ethiopia. Herodotus (iii. 21-22) narrates that the king of Ethiopia unstrung a bow and gave it to Cambyses' messengers, saying that when the king of Persia could pull a bow so easily he might come against the Ethiopians with an army stronger than theirs. The Naphtuhim are distinct, living W. of the Delta; the ΙΧ Νa-petu , or "nine bows". (See NAPHTUHIM. ) Phut is Τo-pet or Nubia; and Τo-meru-pet "the island of the bow," answering to Meroe. The bow of Libya was strung, that of Ethiopia unstrung. ...
Ethiopians - Some of the descendants of Cush, the son of Ham. Theyare represented on the Egyptian monuments as darker in colour than the Egyptians. Without being black they may have been the darkest of any people known to the Israelites, as the question is asked: "Can the Ethiopian change his skin?" Jeremiah 13:23 . As 'Ham' signifies 'black,' he was probably a dark man, and it is implied in Song of Solomon 1:6 that the sun causes the complexion to be black or dark, therefore the farther south in Africa (to the Equator), the darker would be the skin. This, with degraded habits, had changed the features of those in the centre of Africa, from the more cultivated sons of Ham in the north. The Ethiopians appear to have been nearly as far advanced in the arts and sciences as the Egyptians, but some of the monuments in the south are by Egyptian kings. As far south as Aboo-Simbel, about 22 20' N, are two temples hewn in the rock, which rank in interest next to the ruins at Thebes; these are attributed to Rameses 2 king of Egypt, with colossal statues of himself cut out of the solid rock. It was an Ethiopian who befriended Jeremiah and drew him out of the pit, for which his life was spared. Jeremiah 38:7,10,12 ; Jeremiah 39:16 . It was a pious Ethiopian, of great authority with his queen, to whom Philip preached of Jesus, and then baptised him. Acts 8:27 . ...
Nimrod - NIMROD ( Genesis 10:8-12 , 1 Chronicles 1:10 , Micah 5:6 ). A legendary personage, described in Genesis 10:8 ff. as the first of the ‘heroes,’ ‘a mighty hunter before the Lord,’ the ruler of four ancient Babylonian cities, and the founder of the Assyrian Empire. In the statement that he was begotten by Cush, we have probably a reference to the Kash or Kasshu who conquered Babylonia about the 17th cent. b. c. , and set up a dynasty which lasted 600 years: the rise of Assyria is said to date from the decline of Babylonia under the later Kassite kings. The nearest Babylonian parallel to the figure of Nimrod as yet discovered is Gilgamesh , the tyrant of Erech, whose adventures are recorded in the famous series of tablets to which the Deluge-story belongs, and who is supposed to be the hero so often represented on seals and palace-reliefs in victorious combat with a lion. It was at one time hoped that the actual name Nimrod might be recovered from the ideogram commonly read as iz. du. bar; and though this expectation has been dispelled by the discovery of the true pronunciation Gitgamesh , there is enough general resemblance to warrant the belief that the original of the Biblical Nimrod belongs to Babylonian lore. The combination of warlike prowess with a passion for the chase is illustrated by the numerous hunting scenes sculptured on the monuments; and it may well be imagined that to the Hebrew mind Nimrod became an ideal personation of the proud monarchs who ruled the mighty empires on the Euphrates and the Tigris. ... J. Skinner. ...
Joktan, - JOKTAN , according to the genealogical tables in Genesis and 1 Chron. , was one of the two sons of Eber, and the father of thirteen sons or races ( Genesis 10:25-30 , 1 Chronicles 1:19-23 ); In the first table it is added that his descendants dwelt from Mesha to Sephar. Though the names of the majority of his sons have not been satisfactorily identified, it is clear that he is represented as the ancestor of the older Arabian tribes. The list of his sons is probably not to be taken as a scientific or geographical classification of the tribes or districts of Arabia, but rather as an attempt on the part of the writer to incorporate in the tables such names of Arabian races as were familiar to him and to his readers. It will be noted that Seba and Havilah occur also as the sons of Cush ( Genesis 10:7 ), the peculiar interest attaching to them having doubtless given rise to a variety of traditions with regard to their origin and racial affinities. The name of Joktan himself, like the names of many of his sons, has not yet been identified or explained. Its identification by the native Arab genealogists with Kahtân , the name of an Arabian tribe or district, is without foundation; there appears to have been no real connexion between the names, their slight similarity in sound having probably suggested their identification. The supposition that Joktan was a purely artificial name devised for the younger son of Eber, in order to serve as a link between the Hebrew and Arab stocks, amounts to little more than a confession that the origin of the name is unknown. ... L. W. King. ...
Egypt, Land of - The conformation of Egypt is peculiar. The Nile forms at the Mediterranean what is called the Delta (from the Greek letter Δ inverted); it had formerly seven mouths, Isaiah 11:15 , but now there are only two branches. On each side of the valley in which the river runs is a range of hills, outside of which is mostly desert. The Nile valley is rarely more than twelve miles wide. The Delta and the valley are very productive. As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven;" for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil. Canals convey the water to more distant parts. The land is watered 'by the foot,' that is, by removing the soil, and letting the water flow. ... The Delta, and as far south as Noph (Memphis, 29 51' N), is Lower Egypt: and from Noph southward to the first Cataract (24 N) is Upper Egypt. The emblematic crowns representing the two districts were not the same; but the two were united in one crown when a king reigned over all Egypt. As there were many changes by different dynasties the same boundaries may not always have been preserved. Cush, or ETHIOPIA,extended much farther south, but is often mentioned in scripture along with Egypt: Psalm 68:31 ; Isaiah 11:11 ; Isaiah 20:4 ; Isaiah 43:3 ; Isaiah 45:14 ; Nahum 3:9 . Ethiopian kings appear to have reigned in Egypt, and are included in their list of kings. ...
Nimrod - He is generally supposed to have been the immediate son of Cush, and the youngest, or sixth, from the Scriptural phrase, "Cush begat Nimrod," after the mention of his five sons, Genesis 10:8 . But the phrase is used with considerable latitude, like "father" and "son," in Scripture. "And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar: out of that land he went forth to invade Assyria; and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resin, between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city," Genesis 10:8-12 . Though the main body of the Cushites was miraculously dispersed and sent by Providence to their destinations along the sea coasts of Asia and Africa, yet Nimrod remained behind, and founded an empire in Babylonia, according to Berosus, by usurping the property of the Arphaxadites in the land of Shinar; where "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel," or Babylon, and other towns: and, not satisfied with this, he next invaded Assur, or Assyria, east of the Tigris, where he built Nineveh, and several other towns. The marginal reading of our English Bible, "He went out into Assyria," or to invade Assyria, is here adopted in preference to that in the text: "And out of that land went forth Ashur, and builded Nineveh," &c. The meaning of the word Nineveh may lead us to his original name, Nin, signifying "a son," the most celebrated of the sons of Cush. That of Nimrod, or "Rebel," was probably a parody, or nickname, given him by the oppressed Shemites, of which we have several instances in Scripture. Thus nahash, the brazen "serpent" in the wilderness, was called by Hezekiah, in contempt, nehushtan, "a piece of brass," when he broke it in pieces, because it was perverted into an object of idolatrous worship by the Jews, 2 Kings 18:4 . Nimrod, that arch rebel, who first subverted the patriarchal government, introduced also the Zabian idolatry, or worship of the heavenly host; and, after his death, was deified by his subjects, and supposed to be translated into the constellations of Orion, attended by his hounds, Sirius and Canicula, and still pursuing his favourite game, the great bear; supposed also to be translated into ursa major, near the north pole; as admirably described by Homer,—... Αρκτον θ ', ην και αμαζαν επικλησιν καλεουσιν , Η τ ' αυτου στρεφεται , και τ ' ‘Ωρεωνα δοκευει . Iliad v. 485. ... "And the bear, surnamed also the wain, by the Egyptians, who is turning herself about there, and watching Orion. " Homer also introduces the shade of Orion, as hunting in the Elysian fields,—... Τον δε μετ ', ‘Ωριωνα πελωριον εισενοησα Θηρας ομου ειλευντα , κατ ' ασφοδελον λειμωνα Τους αυτος κατεπεφνεν εν οιοπολοισιν ορεσσι Χερσιν εχων ροπαλον παγχαλκεον , αιεν ααγες . Odyss. v. 571. ... "Next, I observed the mighty Orion ... Chasing wild beasts through an asphodel mead, Which himself had slain on the solitary mountains: Holding in his hands a solid brazen mace, ever unbroken. " ... The Grecian name of this "mighty hunter" may furnish a satisfactory clue to the name given him by the impious adulation of the Babylonians and Assyrians. ‘Ωριων nearly resembles ‘Ουριαν , the oblique case of ‘Ουριας , which is the Septuagint rendering of Uriah, a proper name in Scripture, 2 Samuel 11:6-21 . But Uriah, signifying "the light of the Lord," was an appropriate appellation of that most brilliant constellation. He was also called Baal, Beel, Bel, or Belus, signifying "lord," or "master," by the Phenicians, Assyrians, and Greeks; and Bala Rama, by the Hindus. ... At a village called Bala-deva, or Baldeo in the vulgar dialect, thirteen miles east by south from Muttra, in Hindustan, there is a very ancient statue of Bala Rama, in which he is represented with a ploughshare in his left hand, and a thick cudgel in his right, and his shoulders covered with the skin of a tiger. Captain Wilford supposes that the ploughshare was designed to hook his enemies: but may it not more naturally denote the constellation of the great bear, which strikingly represents the figure of a plough in its seven bright stars; and was probably so denominated by the earliest astronomers, before the introduction of the Zabian idolatry, as a celestial symbol of agriculture? The thick cudgel corresponds to the brazen mace of Homer. And it is highly probable that the Assyrian Nimrod, or Hindu Bala, was also the prototype of the Grecian Hercules, with his club and lion's skin. ... Nimrod is said to have been "a mighty hunter before the Lord;" which the Jerusalem paraphrast interprets of a sinful hunting after the sons of men to turn them off from the true religion. But it may as well be taken in a more literal sense, for hunting of wild beasts; inasmuch as the circumstance of his being a mighty hunter is mentioned with great propriety to introduce the account of his setting up his kingdom; the exercise of hunting being looked upon in ancient times as a means of acquiring the rudiments of war; for which reason the principal heroes of Heathen antiquity, as Theseus, Nestor, &c, were, as Xenophon tells us, bred up to hunting. Beside, it may be supposed, that by this practice Nimrod drew together a great company of robust young men to attend him in his sport, and by that means increased his power. And by destroying the wild beasts, which, in the comparatively defenceless state of society in those early ages, were no doubt very dangerous enemies, he might, perhaps, render himself farther popular; thereby engaging numbers to join with him, and to promote his chief design of subduing men, and making himself master of many nations. ...
Sabeans - or "men of stature," Isaiah 45:14 . These men were probably the Sabeans of Arabia Felix, or of Asia. They submitted to Cyrus. The Sabeans of Arabia were descended from Saba; but as there are several of this name, who were all heads of peoples, or of tribes, we must distinguish several kinds of Sabeans. ... 1. Those Sabeans who seized the flocks of Job 1:15 , were, probably, a people of Arabia Deserta, about Bozra; or, perhaps, a flying troop of Sabeans which infested that country. ... 2. Sabeans, descendants from Sheba, son of Cush. Genesis 10:7 , are probably of Arabia Felix: they were famous for spices; the poets gave them the epithet of soft and effeminate, and say they were governed by women:... Medis, levibusque Sabaeis ... Imperat hic sexus. ... [This sex governs the Medes, and the gentle Sabeans. ] Several are of opinion, that from them came the queen of Sheba, 1 Kings 10:1-2 ; and that of these Sabeans the psalmist speaks, Psalms 72:10 , "The kings of Arabia and Sheba shall give gifts;" and Jeremiah 6:20 : "What are the perfumes of Sheba to me?" and Isaiah 60:6 : "All who come from Sheba shall offer gold and perfumes. "... 3. Sabeans, sons of Shebah, son of Reumah. Genesis 10:7 , probably dwelt in Arabia Felix. Probably it is of these Ezekiel speaks, Ezekiel 27:22 , who came with their merchandise to the fairs of Tyre: and Joel 3:8 : "I will deliver up your children to the tribe of Judah, who shall sell them to the Sabeans, a very distant nation. "... 4. Sabeans, descendants from Joktan, may very well be those mentioned by Ezekiel 27:23 : "Saba, Assur, and Chelmad, thy dealers. " They are thought to have inhabited beyond the Euphrates; whence they are connected with Asshur and Chilmad, Genesis 10:28 ; 1 Chronicles 1:22 . ... 5. Sabeans are also placed in Africa, in the isle of Meroe. Josephus brings the queen of Sheba from thence, and pretends that it had the name of Sheba, or Saba, before that of Meroe. ...
Ethiopia - Apart from Egypt, Ethiopia is the most frequently mentioned African country in the Bible. It was sometimes called Cush and its people were dark-skinned. It bordered Egypt to Egypt’s south and, like Egypt, was centred on the Nile River. The region it occupied is today the northern part of Sudan (Isaiah 18:1-2; Jeremiah 13:23; Ezekiel 29:10; for map of the region see EGYPT). ... To most of the people of Palestine, Ethiopia was the southernmost country they knew of. Writers frequently used its name poetically to symbolize the unlimited extent of God’s sovereign rule (Psalms 68:31; Isaiah 11:11; Ezekiel 30:4-5; Zephaniah 3:10). ... Individuals from Ethiopia feature occasionally in the Old Testament story. During Israel’s journey from Egypt to Canaan, Moses married an Ethiopian woman, probably after his first wife had died (Numbers 12:1). In later times an Ethiopian who worked in the palace of the Judean king saved the life of God’s prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 38:7-13; Jeremiah 39:15-18). ... Ethiopia features in the biblical record mainly during the period of the divided Israelite kingdom, when it attacked Judah on at least two occasions (2 Chronicles 12:2-4; 2 Chronicles 14:9-15). Later it gained control over Upper Egypt, and for about half a century exercised a strong influence over Egypt. It even challenged Assyria, which was the leading power of the time (2 Kings 19:8-9; Nahum 3:8-9). The challenge brought little success and soon Ethiopia, along with its ally Egypt, suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Assyria (Isaiah 20:3-6). It subsequently fell under the control of Babylon, and then under the control of Persia (Esther 1:1). ... In pre-New Testament times, Ethiopia was one of the many countries where Jews settled and established communities. Some Ethiopians attended the Jewish synagogues and became worshippers of the God of Israel (see DISPERSION; PROSELYTE). One of these worshippers of God, or ‘God-fearers’, was among the first non-Jewish people to become Christians in the time of the early church (Acts 8:27-38). ...
Arabia Felix - The happy, lies still farther south and east, being bounded east by the Persian Gulf, south by the ocean between Africa and India, and west by the Red Sea. As this region did not immediately adjoin the Holy Land, it is not so frequently mentioned as the former ones. The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. This country abounded with riches, and particularly with spices, and is now called Hedjaz, Yemen, etc. It is much celebrated in modern times by reason of the cities of Mecca and Medina being situated in it. ... There are, according to native historians, two races of Arabs: those who derive their descent from the primitive inhabitants of the land, Joktan, etc. , and those who claim Ishmael as their ancestor. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Genesis 10:25,26 . Ishmael, Genesis 25:13-15 , and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:2 , together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The changes of forty centuries render it impossible to distinguish either of these parent sources in the numerous Arab tribes descended from them. These tribes have traditions and peculiarities of their own, and incessant feuds; yet as a whole they are but one people, distinct from all others. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts. The latter are migratory, dwelling in tents and removing according to the convenience of water and pasturage, and are often robbers. Each tribe is divided up into little communities, of which a sheik or patriarch is the head. Such are the Bedaween. ... In ancient times the Arabs were idolaters and star-worshippers. They are now nominally Mohammedans, but then religion sits but lightly on them. Isolated from other nations, and with slight exceptions free from all foreign control the preserve their ancient manners with singular fidelity, and the study of these throws much light upon Bible narratives. Their language also is still spoken with great purity; and as it is near akin to the Hebrew, it furnishes invaluable aid in the study of the Old Testament. ...
Chaldeans, Chaldees - After the mention of Ur of the Chaldees in Genesis 11:28,31 ; Genesis 15:7 ; and the Chaldeans who fell upon Job's camels (Job 1:17 ) we do not read of them for some fifteen hundred years, when God sent them to punish Judah. 2 Kings 24:2 . Then, however, they cannot be distinguished from the Babylonians. Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon was called a Chaldean, Ezra 5:12 , and on the taking of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar it was the Chaldeans who destroyed the city, 2 Kings 25 ; and in 2 Chronicles 36:17 Nebuchadnezzar is called 'the king of the Chaldees. ' It is evident therefore that the Babylonians are called Chaldees; and at one time the Assyrians were associated with the Babylonians. We read "Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not, till the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness. " Isaiah 23:13 . This passage has been variously interpreted. The meaning appears to be that it was the Chaldeans that were going to destroy Tyre. They were a people that had not been reckoned among the nations until the Assyrians, consolidated them into a nation. They had formerly dwelt in the wilderness (as when they fell upon Job's camels, Job 1:17 ). This was the people that would bring Tyre to ruin. Lowth translates the verse thus: "Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was of no account; (the Assyrian founded it for the inhabitants of the desert; they raised the watch towers, they set up the palaces thereof): this people hath reduced her to a ruin. " Herodotus says "the Assyrians built the towers and temples of Babylon. " Isaiah 48:14,20 ; Jeremiah 21:4,9,10 ; Ezekiel 23:14 ; Daniel 5:30 ; Daniel 9:1 . ... It has been judged that the Hebrew word Kasdim, translated 'Chaldeans,' is from the Assyrian word Kasadu , 'to conquer,' and is applied to those who 'conquered' the Chaldean plain. The earlier inhabitants had an agglutinative language, such as the descendants of Cush would have: whereas the Chaldeans spoken of in the O. T. were a Semitic race, who then possessed the land. At first they were a number of tribes in South Babylonia, but were afterwards united and increased. They became merged by the mixing of races, intercourse, etc. , so as not to be distinguishable from the Babylonians. ...
Japheth - Wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Genesis 9:27 . Some, however, derive the name from Yaphah , "To be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order ( Genesis 5:32 ; 6:10 ; 7:13 ), perhaps first by birth (10:21; comp 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark (1 Peter 3:20 ). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east of Europe and the north of Asia (Genesis 10:2-5 ). An act of filial piety (9:20-27) was the occasion of Noah's prophecy of the extension of his posterity. After the Flood the earth was re-peopled by the descendants of Noah, "the sons of Japheth" (Genesis 10:2 ), "the sons of Ham" (6), and "the sons of Shem" (22). It is important to notice that modern ethnological science, reasoning from a careful analysis of facts, has arrived at the conclusion that there is a three-fold division of the human family, corresponding in a remarkable way with the great ethnological chapter of the book of Genesis (10). The three great races thus distinguished are called the Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian (Allophylian). "Setting aside the cases where the ethnic names employed are of doubtful application, it cannot reasonably be questioned that the author [of Genesis 10 ] has in his account of the sons of Japheth classed together the Cymry or Celts (Gomer), the Medes (Madai), and the Ionians or Greeks (Javan), thereby anticipating what has become known in modern times as the 'Indo-European Theory,' or the essential unity of the Aryan (Asiatic) race with the principal races of Europe, indicated by the Celts and the Ionians. Nor can it be doubted that he has thrown together under the one head of 'children of Shem' the Assyrians (Asshur), the Syrians (Aram), the Hebrews (Eber), and the Joktanian Arabs (Joktan), four of the principal races which modern ethnology recognizes under the heading of 'Semitic. ' Again, under the heading of 'sons of Ham,' the author has arranged 'Cush', i. e. , the Ethiopians; 'Mizraim,' the people of Egypt; 'Sheba and Dedan,' or certain of the Southern Arabs; and 'Nimrod,' or the ancient people of Babylon, four races between which the latest linguistic researches have established a close affinity" (Rawlinson's Hist. Illustrations). ... ...
Gihon - A stream.
One of the four rivers of Eden (Genesis 2:13 ). It has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus, or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern name of the Arras, discharges itself into the Caspian Sea. It was the Asiatic and not the African "Cush" which the Gihon compassed (Genesis 10:7-10 ). (See EDEN . ) ... ... The only natural spring of water in or near Jerusalem is the "Fountain of the Virgin" (q. v. ), which rises outside the city walls on the west bank of the Kidron valley. On the occasion of the approach of the Assyrian army under Sennacherib, Hezekiah, in order to prevent the besiegers from finding water, "stopped the upper water course of Gihon, and brought it straight down to the west side of the city of David" ( 2 Chronicles 32:30 ; 33:14 ). This "fountain" or spring is therefore to be regarded as the "upper water course of Gihon. " From this "fountain" a tunnel cut through the ridge which forms the south part of the temple hill conveys the water to the Pool of Siloam, which lies on the opposite side of this ridge at the head of the Tyropoeon ("cheesemakers'") valley, or valley of the son of Hinnom, now filled up by rubbish. The length of this tunnel is about 1,750 feet. In 1880 an inscription was accidentally discovered on the wall of the tunnel about nineteen feet from where it opens into the Pool of Siloam. This inscription was executed in all probability by Hezekiah's workmen. It briefly narrates the history of the excavation. It may, however, be possible that this tunnel was executed in the time of Solomon. If the "waters of Shiloah that go softly" (Isaiah 8:6 ) refers to the gentle stream that still flows through the tunnel into the Pool of Siloam, then this excavation must have existed before the time of Hezekiah. In the upper part of the Tyropoeoan valley there are two pools still existing, the first, called Birket el-Mamilla, to the west of the Jaffa gate; the second, to the south of the first, called Birket es-Sultan. It is the opinion of some that the former was the "upper" and the latter the "lower" Pool of Gihon (2 Kings 18:17 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; 36:2 ; 22:9 ). (See CONDUIT; SILOAM . ) ...
Eden - A province in Asia, in which was Paradise. "The Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed," Genesis 2:8 . The topography of Eden is thus described: "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pison," etc. ... This obscure passage has received many different explanations and applications, none of which are fully satisfactory; and now it is impossible to say with certainty where Eden lay. Most writers have sought for it in some elevated and central region, the heights of which would give rise to various rivers flowing off in different directions through lower grounds to their outlets. Such a region exists in the high lands of Armenia, west of Mount Ararat and 5,000 feet above the sea. Here, within a circle but a few miles in diameter, four large rivers rise: the Euphrates, and Tigris, or Hiddekel, flowing south into the Persian Gulf; the Araxes, flowing northeast into the Caspian Sea; and the Phasis, or the Halys, flowing northwest into the Black Sea. This fourth river may have been the Pishon of Eden; and the Araxes may well be the Gihon, since both words mean the same, and describe its dart-like swiftness. This elevated country, still beautiful and fertile, may have been the land of Eden; and in its choicest portion, towards the east, the garden may once have smiled. ... Another location of Eden is now preferred by many interpreters-near the spot where the Euphrates and Tigris from a junction after their long wanderings, a hundred and twenty miles north of the Persian gulf, and where the river Ulai flows in from the northeast. This region may have been greatly changed by the lapse of many thousand years, and may now bear little resemblance to the luxuriant and beautiful plain of primeval times. Yet long after the flood the plain of Shinar in the same region attracted the admiration of the sons of Cush, Genesis 10:8-10 ; 11:2 . As two of the rivers of Eden bear the familiar names of the Euphrates and Tigris, it seems probable that it was in one or the other of the regions above named. Wherever it was, it is there no more since the fall and the curse. The first chapters of the Bible show Paradise withdrawn from man's view, and no pilgrimage can discover it upon earth. The last chapters of the Bible restore to our view a more glorious and enduring Paradise: "Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life. " ...
Ham - HAM . The original (?) use of the name as = Egypt appears in Psalms 78:51 ; Psalms 105:23 ; Psalms 105:27 ; Psalms 106:22 . It has been derived from an Egyptian word kem , ‘black,’ in allusion to the dark soil of Egypt as compared with the desert sands (but see Ham [Land of]). Hâm came to be considered the eponymous ancestor of a number of other peoples, supposed to have been connected with Egypt ( Genesis 10:6-20 ). His ‘sons’ ( Genesis 10:6 ) are the peoples most closely connected either geographically or politically. Great difficulty is caused by the fusion (in J [Note: Jahwist. ] ) of two quite distinct traditions in Genesis 9:1-29 ; Genesis 10:1-32 . (i. ) Noah and his family being the sole survivors of the Flood, the whole earth was populated by their descendants ( Genesis 9:18 f. ), and the three sons people the whole of the known world the middle, the southern, and the northern portions respectively (ch. 10). (ii. ) Canaan , and not Hâm, appears to be Noah’s son, for it is he who is cursed ( Genesis 9:20-27 ). The purpose of the story is to explain the subjugation of the people represented under the name ‘Canaan’ to the people represented under the names ‘Shem’ and ‘Japheth. ’ To combine the two traditions a redactor has added the words, ‘and Hâm is the father of Canaan’ in Genesis 9:18 , and ‘Hâm the father of’ in Genesis 9:22 . (1. ) The peoples connected, geographically, with Hâm include Egypt (Mizraim), and the country S. of it (Cush), the Libyans (Put), and ‘ Canaan ’ (see Canaanites). The descendants of these four respectively are so described in most cases from their geographical position, but at least one nation, the Caphtorim, from its political connexion with Egypt (see Driver on Genesis 9:14 ). (ii. ) In the second tradition Shem, Japheth, and Canaan stand not for large divisions of the world, but for certain much smaller divisions within the limits of Palestine . ‘ Shem ’ evidently stands for the Hebrews, or for some portion of them (see Genesis 10:21 in the other tradition), and ‘Japheth’ for some unknown portion of the population of Palestine who dwelt ‘in the tents of Shem’ ( Genesis 9:27 ), i. e. in close conjunction with the Hebrews. ‘Canaan’ (in the other tradition, Genesis 10:19 ) inhabited the coast lands on the W. , and the Arabah on the S. E. But there is no evidence that the peoples in these districts were ever in complete subjection to the Hebrews such as is implied in ‘a slave of slaves’ ( Genesis 9:25 ). Some think that the three names represent three grades or castes [cf. the three grades in Babylonia, who hold distinct legal positions in the Code of Hammurabi amelu (‘gentleman’), mushkenu (‘commoner,’ or ‘poor man’), and ardu (‘slave’)]. ... A. H. M’Neile. ... HAM . According to Genesis 14:5 , the district inhabited by the Zuzim (wh. see). The locality is unknown. ... J. F. M’Curdy. ...
Dispersion - (Gr. diaspora, "scattered," James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ) of the Jews. At various times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the outmost parts of heaven" (Deuteronomy 30:4 ). ...
Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. The ten tribes, after existing as a separate kingdom for two hundred and fifty-five years, were carried captive (B. C. 721) by Shalmaneser (or Sargon), king of Assyria. They never returned to their own land as a distinct people, although many individuals from among these tribes, there can be no doubt, joined with the bands that returned from Babylon on the proclamation of Cyrus. ... ... Many Jews migrated to Egypt and took up their abode there. This migration began in the days of Solomon (2 Kings 18:21,24 ; Isaiah 30:7 ). Alexander the Great placed a large number of Jews in Alexandria, which he had founded, and conferred on them equal rights with the Egyptians. Ptolemy Philadelphus, it is said, caused the Jewish Scriptures to be translated into Greek (the work began B. C. 284), for the use of the Alexandrian Jews. The Jews in Egypt continued for many ages to exercise a powerful influence on the public interests of that country. From Egypt they spread along the coast of Africa to Cyrene (Acts 2:10 ) and to Ethiopia (8:27). ... ... After the time of Seleucus Nicator (B. C. 280), one of the captains of Alexander the Great, large numbers of Jews migrated into Syria, where they enjoyed equal rights with the Macedonians. From Syria they found their way into Asia Minor. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia. ... ... From Asia Minor many Jews moved into Greece and Macedonia, chiefly for purposes of commerce. In the apostles' time they were found in considerable numbers in all the principal cities. From the time of Pompey the Great (B. C. 63) numbers of Jews from Palestine and Greece went to Rome, where they had a separate quarter of the city assigned to them. Here they enjoyed considerable freedom. ... Thus were the Jews everywhere scattered abroad. This, in the overruling providence of God, ultimately contributed in a great degree toward opening the way for the spread of the gospel into all lands. ... Dispersion, from the plain of Shinar. This was occasioned by the confusion of tongues at Babel (Genesis 11:9 ). They were scattered abroad "every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations" (Genesis 10:5,20,31 ). ... The tenth chapter of Genesis gives us an account of the principal nations of the earth in their migrations from the plain of Shinar, which was their common residence after the Flood. In general, it may be said that the descendants of Japheth were scattered over the north, those of Shem over the central regions, and those of Ham over the extreme south. The following table shows how the different families were dispersed: ... | - Japheth | - Gomer | Cimmerians, Armenians | - Magog | Caucasians, Scythians | - Madal | Medes and Persian tribes | - Javan | - Elishah | Greeks | - Tarshish | Etruscans, Romans | - Chittim | Cyprians, Macedonians | - Dodanim | Rhodians | - Tubal | Tibareni, Tartars | - Mechech | Moschi, Muscovites | - Tiras | Thracians | | - Shem | - Elam | Persian tribes | - Asshur | Assyrian | - Arphaxad | - Abraham | - Isaac | - Jacob | Hebrews | - Esau | Edomites | - Ishmael | Mingled with Arab tribes | - Lud | Lydians | - Aram | Syrians | | - Ham | - Cush | Ethiopans | - Mizrain | Egyptians | - Phut | Lybians, Mauritanians | - Canaan | Canaanites, Phoenicians ...
Eden - ("delight". ) ("Paradise",) the Septuagint translation of "garden," a park and pleasure ground. From the Zendic pairidaeza , a hedging round. In N. W. Mesopotamia an Eden is mentioned near the Tigris (2 Kings 19:12; Isaiah 37:12; Ezekiel 27:23). Another, in Coelosyria, near Damascus (Amos 1:5). The primitive Eden was somewhere in the locality containing the conjoined Euphrates and the Tigris (or Hiddekel) which branch off northward into those two rivers, and southward branch into two channels again below Bassera, before failing into the sea, Gihon the E. channel, and Pison the W. Havilah, near the W. channel, would thus be N. E. Arabia; and Cush (or Ethiopia), near the E. channel, would be Kissia, Chuzestan, or Susiana. The united rivers are called the Shat-el-Arab. Eden, was but a temporary nursery for the human family: from there people, if they had remained innocent, would have spread out in every direction until the whole earth became "the garden of the Lord. "... God's purpose, though deferred, will, in His own time, be realized by the Second Adam, the Lord Jesus from heaven. The rivers are named as they were after the flood, which must have altered the face of the ancient Eden. The four took their rise in it, as their center, which is not true of the present Tigris ("arrow") and Euphrates ("the good and fertile". ) Armenia's highlands are the traditional cradle of the race; thence probably, from Eden as their source, flowed the two eastern rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, and the two western ones through the regions answering to Arabia and Egypt. Man was to dress and keep the garden, for without human culture, grain and other plants will degenerate. As nature was made for man, his calling was to ennoble it, and to make paradise, which though so lovely, was susceptible of development, a transparent mirror of the Creator's glory. ... It was designed also as the scene of man's own spiritual development by its two trees, of life and of knowledge. Here also the "beasts of the field," i. e. that live on its produce (game and tame cattle, as distinguished from "beasts of the earth"), were brought to him to develop that intellect which constitutes his lordship and superiority to the brutes. His inner thought in observing their natures found expression in names appropriate. The Paradise regained can never be lost by those who overcome through the Lord Jesus (Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:14). The traditions of almost all nations have preserved the truth, in some form, that there was an original abode of man's innocence; the Greek and Latin garden of the Hesperides; the Hindu golden Mount Meru; the Chinese enchanted gardens; the Medo-Persian Ormuzd's mountain Albordj (compare Ezekiel 28:13; Joel 2:3). ... The Hindus' tradition tells of a "first age of the world when justice, in the form of a bull, kept herself firm on her four feet, virtue reigned, man free from disease saw all his wishes accomplished, and attained an age of 400 years. " In the Teutonic Edda, Fab. 7, etc. , corruption is represented as suddenly produced by strange women's blandishments who deprived men of their pristine integrity. In the Tibetan, Mongolian, and Singhalese traditions, a covetous temper works the sad change. The Babylonians, Egyptians, and Chinese had the tradition of man's life once reaching thousands of years. The Greeks and Romans made it from 800 to 1,000 years. ...
Pharaoh - PHARAOH. The later Egyptian royal title, Per-‘o , Great House,’ adopted into Hebrew. Originally designating the royal establishment in Egypt, it graduailly became the appellative title of the king, and from the 22nd Dyn. ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 950) onwards was regularly attached to the king’s name in popular speech. The Hebrew Pharaoh-necho and Pharaoh-hophra are thus precise renderings of Egyptian. Shishak also was entitled Per-‘o Sheshonk in Egyptian, but apparently Hebrew had not yet adopted the novel fashion, and so gave his name without Pharaoh ( 1 Kings 11:40 ; 1 Kings 14:24 ). Tirhakah is not entitled Pharaoh as in Egyptian documents, but is more accurately described as king of Cush ( 2 Kings 19:9 ). ... The following Pharaohs are referred to without their names being specified: 1 . Pharaoh of Abram ( Genesis 12:10-20 ), impossible to identify. The title Pharaoh and the mention of camels appear to be anachronisms in the story. 2. Pharaoh of Joseph ( Genesis 39:1-23 etc. ). The proper names in the story, viz. Potiphar, Potiphera, Asenath, Zaphenath-paneah are at once recognizable (when the vocalization is discounted) as typical names (Petepre, Esnelt, Zepnetefonkh) of the late period beginning with the 22nd Dyn. ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 950), and ending in the reign of Darius ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 500). It has been conjectured that the Pharaoh of Joseph was one of the Hyksos kings, but it is not advisable to press for historical identifications in this beautiful legend. 3. and 4. The Pharaohs of the Oppression and the Exodus. The name of Raamses , given to a store-city built by the Hebrews ( Exodus 1:11 ), points to one of the kings named Ramesses in the 19th 20th Dyn. as the Pharaoh of the Oppression. The chief of these was Ramesses ii. ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 1350), after whom several towns were named. He was perhaps the greatest builder in Egyptian history. His son Mineptah might be the Pharaoh of the Exodus: but from the fifth year of Mineptah there is an Egyptian record of the destruction of ‘Israel,’ who, it would seem, were already in Palestine. At present it is impossible to ascertain the proportion of historical truth contained in the legends of the Exodus 5:1-23 . 1 Chronicles 4:18 , ‘Bithiah, daughter of Pharaoh’: no clue to identity. Bithiah is Heb. , and not like an Egyp. name. 6. 1 Kings 3:1 ; 1Ki 9:16 ; 1 Kings 9:24 ; 1 Kings 11:1 , Pharaoh, the father-in-law of Solomon, must be one of the feeble kings of the end of the 21st Dynasty. 7. 1 Kings 11:18 , the Pharaoh who befriended Hadad the Edomite in the last days of Solomon, and gave him the sister of his queen Tahpenes: not identified. (At this point in the narrative Shishak comes in: he is never called Pharaoh, see above. ) 8. Pharaoh, king of Egypt in 2 Kings 18:21 , Isaiah 36:6 etc. , perhaps as a general term for the Egyptian king, not pointing to any individual. In the time of Sennacherib and Hezekiah, Tirhakah or some earlier king of the Ethiopian Dynasty would be on the throne. 9. For Jeremiah 37:1-21 , Ezekiel 29:1-21 , see Hophra. ... F. Ll. Griffith. ...
Egyptians - The ancient Egyptians were descendants of Ham, but his descendants were numerous and diverse. As far as the name implies, Egypt naturally associates itself with Mizraim; but it is judged that the Egyptians of the times of the most ancient monuments were of the Circasian type, and apparently descended rather from Cush than from Mizraim. The examination of the mummies of the old empire show that their structure does not agree with that of the Negroes, who were also descendants of Ham. The ancient Egyptians are classed among the white races: the Ethiopians were darker, and those farther south stilldarker. The Copts in modern Egypt are considered to be the descendants of the ancient race. ... It is proved by the monuments that the ancient Egyptians were a highly civilised and educated people from the beginning: they did not rise from some lower scale, as is sought to be taught of man generally in modern days; but, as far as can be discovered, their first great works are among their best. If man has been found brutal and degraded it is because he has fallen from the intelligent condition in which Adam and Eve were created. Before the flood we read that the use of brass, or copper, and iron had been discovered, and there are proofs that many other arts were known in Egypt. The sciences also were cultivated, including Astronomy. The great Hall of columns at Karnak, by Seti 1 (dynasty xix. ) is an illustration of the size of their temples. ... The Egyptians were also a religious people, and though their religion was, alas, idolatry, yet it was an idolatry far more seemly and moral than that practised by the cultured Greeks and Romans. It was earlier, and hence nearer a source of knowledge of God. Romans 1:21 . In theory they speak of one god: 'the only living in substance,' and 'the only eternal substance,' and though they speak of two, 'father and son,' as some interpret, yet it did not destroy the unity of their god, 'the one in one. ' From this they treated each of his attributes as separate gods; and they had also gods distinct from these. Then they had a number of sacred animals, from the cat to the crocodile, which were said to be symbols of their gods. The bull Apis represented the god Osiris; it was selected with great care, and strictly guarded. It is supposed that it was the remembrance of this Apis that caused the Israelites to choose the form of a calf for their golden idol; and we learn from Ezekiel 20:6-8 that Israel had fallen into idolatry when in Egypt. ... The Egyptians believed in a future state. One of their illustrations represents the heart of a deceased person being weighed against a figure of the goddess of truth. Two gods superintend the weighing. On the right is the deceased with uplifted hands, introduced by two goddesses. The ibis-headed god has a tablet in hand, recording the result. Next to him is the god Typhon, as a hippopotamus — the Cerberus of the Greeks — accusing the deceased, and demanding her punishment. Osiris is the presiding judge with his crook and whip. If the trial was satisfactory the soul passed into other scenes; if the reverse it passed into some lower animal. Thus did Satan delude these cultivated descendants of Ham !... Their mode of writing, or rather drawing, their language was by hieroglyphics. Most of the figures represented animals, birds, the human figure,or familiar things, which first represented the objects drawn, to which also ideas and sounds were attached. M. Champollion found in the inscriptions 864 different designs! The three major styles are as follows: ... 1. Most ancient style. The letters were cut into stone. ... 2. Hieratic style. As above, but they were written on papyrus by the priests. ... 3. Enchorial or Demotic style (at a much later period), for popular correspondence. ... ...
Asa - the son and successor of Abijam, king of Judah, began to reign in the year of the world 3049, and before Christ 955. He reigned forty-one years at Jerusalem, and did right in the sight of the Lord. He purged Jerusalem from the infamous practices attending the worship of idols; and he deprived his mother of her office and dignity of queen, because she erected an idol to Astarte, which he burnt in the valley of Hinnom, 1 Kings 15:8 , &c. ... The Scripture reproaches Asa with not destroying the high places, which, perhaps, he thought it politic to tolerate, to avoid the greater evil of idolatry. He carried into the house of the Lord the gold and silver vessels which his father Abijam had vowed to consecrate. He fortified several cities, and repaired others, encouraging his people to this labour while the kingdom was at peace; and the Lord favoured them with his protection. After this he levied three hundred thousand men in Judah, armed with shields and pikes; and two hundred and eighty thousand men in Benjamin, armed with shields and bows, all men of courage and valour. About this time, Zerah, king of Ethiopia, or rather of Cush, which is part of Arabia, marched against Asa with a million of foot, and three hundred chariots of war, and advanced as far as Mareshah. This probably happened in the fifteenth year of Asa's reign, and in the year of the world 3064, ... 2 Chronicles 15:10 . Asa advanced to meet Zerah, and encamped in the plain of Zephathah, or rather Zephatah, near Mareshah, and having prayed to the Lord, God struck the forces of Zerah with such a panic that they began to flee. Asa and his army pursued them to Geran, and slew of them a great number. After this, Asa's army returned to Jerusalem, laden with booty. ... The prophet Azariah met them, and said, "Hear ye me, Asa, and all Judah and Benjamin, The Lord is with you while ye be with him, and if ye seek him he will be found of you; but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you. — Be ye strong, therefore, and let not your hands be weak: for your work shall be rewarded," 2 Chronicles 15:2 ; 2 Chronicles 15:7 . After this exhortation, Asa, being animated with new courage, destroyed the idols of Judah, Benjamin, and Mount Ephraim; repaired the altar of burnt-offerings; and assembled Judah and Benjamin, with many from the tribes of Simeon, Ephraim, and Manasseh, and on the third day, in the fifteenth year of his reign, celebrated a solemn festival. Of the cattle taken from Zerah, they sacrificed seven hundred oxen, and seven thousand sheep; they renewed the covenant with the Lord; and, with cymbals and trumpets sounding, they swore to the covenant, and declared that whoever should forsake the true worship of God, should be put to death. The Lord gave them peace; and, according to the Chronicles, the kingdom of Judah had rest till the thirty-fifth year of Asa. Concerning this year, however, there are difficulties; and some think that we should read the twenty-fifth, instead of the thirty-fifth; since Baasha, who made war on Asa, lived no longer than the twenty-sixth year of Asa, 1 Kings 16:8 . ... In this year Baasha, king of Israel, began to fortify Ramah, on the frontiers of the two kingdoms of Judah and Israel, that he might prevent the Israelites from resorting to the kingdom of Judah, and the temple of the Lord at Jerusalem. When Asa was informed of this, he sent to Benhadad, king of Damascus, all the gold and silver of his palace, and of the temple, to induce him to break his alliance with Baasha, and to assist him against the king of Israel. Benhadad accepted Asa's presents, and invaded Baasha's country, where he took several cities belonging to the tribe of Naphtali. This obliged Baasha to retire from Ramah, that he might defend his dominions nearer home. Asa immediately ordered his people to Ramah, carried off all the materials prepared by Baasha, and employed them in building Geba and Mizpah. This application to Benhadad for assistance was inexcusable. It implied, that Asa distrusted God's power and goodness, which he had so lately experienced. Therefore the Prophet Hanani was sent to reprove him for his conduct. Asa, however, was so exasperated at his rebukes that he put the Prophet in chains, and at the same time ordered the execution of several persons in Judah. Toward the latter part of his life, he was incommoded with swellings in his feet, which, gradually rising upwards, killed him. The Scripture reproaches him with having had recourse to physicians, rather than to the Lord. He was buried in the sepulchre which he had provided for himself in the city of David; and after his death they placed on the bed great quantities of perfumes and spices, with which his body was burned. His bones and ashes were then collected, and put into his grave. ...
Nimrod - Cush's son or descendant, Ham's grandson (Genesis 10:8). "Nimrod began to be a mighty one in the earth," i. e. he was the first of Noah's descendants who became renowned for bold and daring deeds, the Septuagint "giant" (compare Genesis 6:4; Genesis 6:13; Isaiah 13:3). "He was a mighty hunter before Jehovah," so that it passed into a proverb or the refrain of ballads in describing hunters and warriors, "even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before Jehovah. " Not a mere Hebrew superlative, but as in Genesis 27:7 "bless thee before Jehovah," i. e. as in His presence, Psalms 56:13 "walk before God. " Septuagint translated "against Jehovah"; so in Numbers 16:2 lipneey , "before," means opposition. The Hebrew name Nimrod means "let us rebel," given by his contemporaries to Nimrod as one who ever had in his mouth such words to stir up his band to rebellion. Nimrod subverted the existing patriarchal order of society by setting up a chieftainship based on personal valor and maintained by aggression. The chase is an image of war and a training for it. ... The increase of ferocious beasts after the flood and Nimrod's success in destroying them soon gathered a band to him. From being a hunter of beasts he became a hunter of men. "In defiance of Jehovah," as virtually" before Jehovah" (Proverbs 15:11) means, Nimrod, a Hamite intruded into Shem's portion, violently set up an empire of conquest, beginning with Babel, ever after the symbol of the world power in its hostility to God. From that land he went forth to Asshur and builded Nineveh. The later Babylonians spoke Semitic, but the oldest inscriptions are Turanian or Cushite. Tradition points to Babylon's Cushite origin by making Belus son of Poseidon (the sea) and Libya (Ethiopia): Diodorus Siculus i. 28. Oannes the fish god, Babylon's civilizer, rose out of the Red Sea (Syncellus, Chronog. 28). "Cush" appears in the Babylonian names Cissia, Cuthah, Chuzistan (Susiana). Babylon's earliest alphabet in oldest inscriptions resembles that of Egypt and Ethiopia; common words occur, as Mirikh, the Meroe of Ethiopia, the Mars of Babylon. ... Though Arabic is Semitic, the Mahras' language in southern Arabia is non-Semitic, and is the modern representative of the ancient Himyaric whose empire dates as far back as 1750 B. C. The Mahras is akin to the Abyssinian Galla language, representing the Cushite or Ethiopic of old; and the primitive Babylonian Sir H. Rawlinson from inscriptions decides to resemble both. The writing too is pictorial, as in the earliest ages of Egypt. The Egyptian and Ethiopic hyk (in hyk-sos , the "shepherd kings"), a "king," in Babylonian and Susianian is khak . "Tyrhak" is common to the royal lists of Susiana and Ethiopia, as "Nimrod" is to those of Babylon and Egypt. Ra is the Cushite supreme god of Babylon as Ra is the sun god in Egypt. (See BABEL. ) Nimrod was the Bel, Belus, or Baal, i. e. lord of Babel, its founder. Worshipped (as the monuments testify) as Bilu Nipra or Bel Nimrod, i. e, the god of the chase; the Talmudical Nopher, now Niffer. Josephus (Ant. 1:4) and the tortures represent him as building, in defiance of Jehovah, the Babel tower. ... If so (which his rebellious character makes likely) he abandoned Babel for a time after the miraculous confusion of tongues, and went and founded Nineveh. Eastern tradition pictures hint a heaven-storming giant chained by God, among the constellations, as Orion, Hebrew Κeciyl , "fool" or "wicked. " Sargon in an inscription says: "350 kings of Assyria hunted the people of Bilu-Nipru"; probably meaning the Babylon of Nimrod, nipru "hunter", another form of Nebrod which is the Septuagint form of Nimrod. His going to Assyria (Genesis 10:10-11-12) accords with Micah's designating Assyria "the hind of Nimrod" (Micah 5:6). Also his name appears in the palace mound of Nimrud. The fourfold group of cities which Nimrod founded in Babylonia answer to the fourfold group in Assyria. So Κiprit Αrba , "king of the four races," is an early title of the first monarchs of Babylon; Chedorlaomer appears at the head of four peoples; "king of the four regions" occurs in Nineveh inscriptions too; after Sargon's days four cities had the pre-eminence (Rawlinson, 1:435, 438,4 47). ... The early seat of empire was in the southern part of Babylonia, where Niffer represents either Babel or Calneh, Warka Erech, Mugheir Ur, Senkereh Ellasar. The founder (about 2200 B. C. ) or embellisher of those towns is called Kinzi Akkad, containing the name Accad of Genesis 10:1. Tradition mentions a Belus king of Nineveh, earlier than Ninus; Shamas Iva (1860 B. C. ), son of Ismi Dagon king of Babylon, founded a temple at Kileh Shergat (Asshur); so that the Scripture account of Babylon originating the Assyrian cities long before the Assyrian empire of the 13th century B. C. is confirmed. (Layard, Nineveh 2:231). Sir H. Rawlinson conjectures that Nimrod denotes not an individual but the "settlers," and that Rehoboth, Calah, etc. , are but sites of buildings afterward erected; but the proverb concerning Nimrod and the history imply an individual; the Birs (temple) Nimrud, the Sukr (dam across the Tigris) el Nimrud, and the mound Nimrud, all attest the universal recognition of him as the founder of the empire. ...
Aaron - (awehr' uhn) Moses' brother; Israel's first high priest. He figures prominently in Exodus through Numbers and then is mentioned in Deuteronomy 9-10 ; Joshua 21:1 ; Judges 20:1 ; 1 Samuel 12:1 ; 1 Chronicles 6:1 ; 1 Chronicles 15:1 ; 1 Chronicles 23-24 ; 2 Chronicles 13:1 ; 2 Chronicles 26:1 ; 2 Chronicles 29:1 ; 2 Chronicles 31:1 ; 2 Chronicles 35:1 ; Ezra 7:1 ; Nehemiah 10:1 ; Nehemiah 12:1 ; Psalm 77:20 ; Psalm 99:6 ; Psalm 105:26 ; Psalm 106:16 ; Psalm 115:10 , Psalm 115:12 ; Psalm 135:19 ; Micah 6:4 . ... Aaron's parents Amram and Jochebed were from the tribe of Levi, Israel's tribe of priests. Miriam was his sister. See Exodus 6:16-26 . With his wife Elisheba, Aaron had four sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. The first two perished when they offered sacrifices with fire that God had not commanded them to make (Leviticus 10:1-2 ; Leviticus 16:1-2 ). Two priestly lines developed from the remaining sons: (1) Ithamar through Eli to Abiathar and (2) Eleazar to Zadok (1 Samuel 14:3 ; 1 Samuel 22:20 ; 1 Kings 2:26-27 ; 1 Chronicles 6:50-53 ). ... Aaron experienced the joy of starting Israel's formal priesthood, being consecrated to the office (Exodus 28-29 ; Leviticus 8-9 ), wearing the first priestly garments, and initiating the sacrificial system (Leviticus 1-7 ). He also bore the burdens of his office as his sons were killed for their disobedience (Leviticus 10:1-2 ), and he could not mourn for them (Leviticus 10:6-7 ). He also bore the special rules of conduct, clothing, and ritual cleanness (Leviticus 27:1-22:33 ). ... He could not live up to such high standards perfectly. Thus he had to offer sacrifices for his own sins (Leviticus 16:11 ). Then in his cleansed, holy office, he offered sacrifices for others. In his imperfection, Aaron still served as a symbol or type of the perfect priest as seen in Psalm 110:4 , where the future king was described as eternal priest. Zechariah 6:11-15 also speaks of a priest—Joshua—in typical terms. Thus the imperfect Aaron established an office full of symbolic meaning for Israel. ... Aaron's life. With all his faults, Aaron was a man chosen by God. We do not know what Aaron did during Moses' forty-year exile from Egypt, but he maintained the faith, kept contact with Israel's leaders, and did not forget his brother (Exodus 4:27-31 ). Ready of speech, he served nobly as Moses' spokesman before Pharaoh. More than once he stretched out Moses' staff to bring God's plagues on the land (Exodus 7:9 ,Exodus 7:9,7:19 ). In the wilderness Aaron and Hur helped Moses hold up the staff, the symbol of God's power, so that Israel would prevail over Amalek (Exodus 17:12 ). ... At Sinai, Aaron and his two older sons, Nadab and Abihu, were called to go up the mountain with Moses and seventy elders (Exodus 24:9 ). There they worshiped and ate and drank in heavenly fellowship. As Moses and Joshua went farther up, Moses left Aaron and Hur in charge (Exodus 24:14 ). But as Moses delayed on the mountain, the people asked Aaron for action. They cried, “Make us gods” (Exodus 32:1 ). Their sin was polytheism (worship of many gods) as well as idolatry. Aaron all too easily obliged and made a calf and apparently led in its worship. How far into sin Aaron went we do not know. Was it giving in or active error? The text does not say, but Aaron was not specifically judged. The Levites, the tribe of Moses and Aaron, rallied to Moses and were blessed accordingly (Exodus 32:26-29 ). ... On another occasion Aaron appeared in a bad light. In Numbers 12:1 he and Miriam spoke against Moses' marriage to the Cushite (Ethiopian) woman. (Cush was an old name for upper Egypt—approximately modern Sudan. ) We are not told if this was a wife in addition to Zipporah, or if Zipporah had died, or even if Zipporah—a Midianite—had Cushite connections. Anyway, Aaron and Miriam were jealous of their younger brother. Really, their murmuring was against God's selection. Second place did not satisfy them. ... Miriam was severely judged. Again, Aaron was not as harshly judged. Perhaps again he was not the instigator but the accomplice. He confessed his sin and pleaded for mercy for Miriam. When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram opposed Moses and Aaron, Aaron's intercession stopped the plague (Numbers 16:1 ). Aaron's leadership was vindicated by God in the miraculous blossoming of his staff (Numbers 17:1 ). When the people cried for water at Kadesh in the desert of Zin, Aaron joined in Moses' sin as they seized the power of the Lord for themselves (Numbers 20:7-13 ). In consequence, Aaron, like Moses, was not to enter the Promised Land. Nearby on the border of Edom after forty years of his priesthood, Moses took Aaron up mount Hor, transferred his garments to his son, Eleazar, and Aaron died there at the age of 123 years (Numbers 20:23-28 ). Israel mourned for their first high priest thirty days (Numbers 20:29 ), as they soon would mourn for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8 ). ... R. Laird Harris... ...
Remnant - A. Nouns. ... She'êrı̂yth (שְׁאֵרִית, Strong's #7611), “rest; remnant; residue. ” The idea of the “remnant” plays a prominent part in the divine economy of salvation throughout the Old Testament. The “remnant” concept is applied especially to the Israelites who survived such calamities as war, pestilence, and famine—people whom the Lord in His mercy spared to be His chosen people: “For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and they that escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this” (2 Kings 19:31; cf. Ezra 9:14). ... The Israelites repeatedly suffered major catastrophes that brought them to the brink of extinction. So they often prayed as in Jer. 42:2: “Let, we beseech thee, our supplication be accepted before thee, and pray for us unto the Lord thy God, even for all this remnant; (for we are left but a few of many, as thine eyes do behold us:). ”... Isaiah used the word she'êrı̂yth 5 times to denote those who would be left after the Assyrian invasions: “For out of Jerusalem shall go forth a remnant, and they that escape out of mount Zion: the zeal of the Lord of hosts shall do this” (Isa. 37:32). ... Micah also announced the regathering of the Jewish people after the Exile. Thus Micah prophesied: “I will surely assemble them together, O Jacob, all of thee; I will surely gather the remnant of Israel …” (2:12). In Mic. 4:7 he predicted: “And I will make her that halted a remnant and her that was cast far off a strong nation: and the Lord shall reign over them in mount Zion from henceforth, even for ever. ” In 5:7-8 and 7:18, Micah announces a similar idea. ... Jeremiah discussed the plight of the Jews who fled to Egypt after Jerusalem’s capture by Nebuchadnezzar: “Likewise when all the Jews that were in Moab, and among the Ammonites, and in Edom, and that were in all the countries, heard that the King of Babylon had left a remnant of Judah. … Then Johanan the son of Kareah spake to Gedaliah in Mizpah secretly saying, Let me go, I pray thee, and I will slay Ishmael … wherefore should he slay thee, that all the Jews which are gathered unto thee should be scattered, and the remnant in Judah perish?” (Jer. 40:11, 15). ... Zephaniah, a seventh-century prophet, identified the “remnant” with the poor and humble (2:3, 7; 3:12-13). Zechariah announced that a “remnant” would be present at the time of the coming of the Messiah’s kingdom (12:10-13:1; 13:8-9). ... She'âr (שְׁאָר, Strong's #7605), “rest; remnant; residue. ” Isaiah describes the “remnant” of Israel: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the remnant of Israel, and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again stay upon him that smote them; but shall stay upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth” (Isa. 10:20). Notice that a twofold theme emerges from most prophetic passages concerning the “remnant”: (1) A “remnant” will survive when the people are subjected to punishment, and (2) the fact that a “remnant” does survive and does remain contains a note of hope for the future. Isa. 10:21 announces: “The remnant shall return, even the remnant of Jacob, unto the mighty God. ” In Isa. 11:11, the prophet proclaims: “And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his peoplewhich shall be left from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. ” See also REMAINDER. ... B. Verb. ... Shâ'ar (שָׁאַר, Strong's #7604), “to remain, be left over. ” This verb and its noun derivatives occur about 220 times in the Old Testament. ... Noah and his family were a “remnant” delivered by the Flood: “… And Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark” (Gen. 7:23). In the days of Elijah, when God’s chosen people in the northern kingdom had fallen into apostasy, the Lord announced: “Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal …” (1 Kings 19:18). ... In the pre-exilic period, this remnant idea is stressed by Isaiah. Isaiah tells of the judgment on the earth from which a remnant will “remain”: “Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left” (Isa. 24:6). Isa. 4:3 refers to a “remnant” which shares holiness: “And it shall come to pass, that he that is left [shâ'ar], and he that remaineth in Jerusalem, shall be called holy. …”... In the writing prophets, the idea of the “remnant” acquired a growing significance. Yet the idea may be found as early as the Pentateuch. The idea of “those being left” or “having escaped,” especially a portion of the Israelite people, may be traced back to Deut. 4:27: “And the Lord shall scatter you among the nations, and ye shall be left few in number among the heathen, whither the Lord shall lead you” (cf. Deut. 28:62). In these passages, Moses warns that if Israel failed to live up to the stipulations of the Mosaic covenant, the Lord would scatter them among the nations, and then He would regather a “remnant. ”... In Neh. 1:2-3, the condition of the “remnant” of Israel is described: “… And I asked them concerning the Jews that had escaped, which were left of the captivity, and concerning Jerusalem. And they said unto me, the remnant that are left of the captivity there in the province are in great affliction and reproach. …”...
Eden - Garden of, the residence of our first parents in their state of purity and blessedness. The word Eden in the Hebrew denotes "pleasure" or "delight:" whence the name has been given to several places which, from their situation, were pleasant or delightful. Thus the Prophet Amos 1:5 , speaks of an Eden in Syria, which is generally considered to have been in the valley of Damascus, where a town called Eden is mentioned by Pliny and Ptolemy, and where the tomb of Abel is pretended to be shown. This has in consequence been selected by some as the site of the garden of Eden. By others, the garden has been placed on the eastern side of mount Libanus; and by others again, in Arabia Felix, where traces of the word Eden are found. But the opinion which has been most generally received on this subject is that which places the garden on the Lower Euphrates; between the junction of that river with the Tigris and the gulf of Persia. This is Dr. Well's opinion; in which he is supported by Huetius, Grotius, Marinus, and Bochart. To this it is replied, that, according to this scheme, the garden was intersected by a great branch of the Euphrates, in the lower and broadest part of its course; which will give it an extent absolutely irreconcilable with the idea of Adam's "dressing" it by his own manual labour, or even of overlooking it: beside that all communication would be cut off between its different parts by a stream half a mile in width. Its local features, too, if in this situation, must have been of the most uninteresting kind; the whole of that region, as far as the sight can reach, being a dead, monotonous, sandy, or marshy flat, without a single undulation to relieve the eye, or give any of the beauties which the imagination involuntarily paints to itself as attendant on a spot finished by the hand of God as the residence of his creatures in a state of innocence; whose minds may be supposed to be tuned to the full enjoyment of the grand and beautiful in nature. How different will be the aspect and arrangement of this favoured spot, if it be placed where only, according to the words of Moses, it can be placed; namely, at the heads or fountains of the rivers described, instead of their mouths. ... The country of Eden, therefore, according to others, was some where in Media, Armenia, or the north of Mesopotamia; all mountainous tracts, and affording, instead of the sickening plains of Babylonia, some of the grandest, as well as the richest scenery in the world. A river or stream rising in some part of this country, entered the garden; where it was parted into four others, in all probability, by first falling into a basin or lake, from which the other streams issued at different points, taking different directions, and growing into mighty rivers; although at their sources in the garden, they would be like all other rivers, mere brooks, and forming no barrier to a free communication between the parts of the garden. Dr. Wells, in order to support his hypothesis of the situation of Eden on the lower parts of the Euphrates and Tigris, after giving these rivers a distribution which has now no existence, makes the Pison and Gihon to be parts of the Tigris and Euphrates themselves: an arrangement at perfect disagreement with the particular description of Moses; beside, that the Gihon thus called, instead of compassing the whole land of Cush, can only be said to skirt an extreme corner of it. It appears, indeed, that in the time of Alexander, the Euphrates pursued a separate course to the sea; or, at least, that a navigable branch of it was carried in that direction: in the mouth of which, at Diridotis, Nearchus anchored with his fleet. But what reliance can be placed on the ever shifting channels of a river flowing through an alluvial soil, and over a perfect level divertible at the pleasure of the people inhabiting its banks? Or, what theory can be founded on their distribution, which will not be as unstable as the streams them selves? This very channel, so essential to the hypothesis which places Eden in this situation, was annihilated by the Orcheni, a neighbouring people; who directed the stream to water their own land, and thus gave it a shorter course into the Tigris, which it has ever since preserved. But it is only the lower parts of the Euphrates and Tigris, as they creep through the plains of Babylonia, which are thus inconstant: higher up in their courses, they flow over more solid strata, and in deeper valleys, unchanged by time. It is here that their conformity with the Mosaic account is to be sought; and it is here that they may be found, in the exact condition in which they were left by the deluge, and, indeed, according to Moses, in which they existed before that event. It is true, that the heads of the four rivers, above described, cannot now be found sufficiently near, to recognize thence the exact situation of paradise; but they all arise from the same mountainous region; and the springs of the Euphrates and Tigris, as already mentioned, are even now nearly interwoven. Mr. Faber supposes the lake Arsissa to cover the site of Eden; and that the change which carried the heads of the rivers to a greater distance from it, was occasioned by the deluge. But it is far more probable that this change, if we may infer from the account given by Moses that the courses of all the streams remained unaltered by the flood, may have taken place at man's expulsion from the garden: when God might choose to obliterate this fair portion of his works, unfitted for any thing but the residence of innocence; and to blot at once from the face of the earth, like the guilty cities of the plain, both the site and the memorial of man's transgression,—an awful event, which would add tenfold horrors to the punishment. ...
Division of the Earth - The prophecy of Noah, says Dr. Hales, was uttered long after the deluge. It evidently alludes to a divine decree for the orderly division of the earth among the three primitive families of his sons, because it notices the "tents of Shem" and the "enlargement of Japheth," Genesis 9:20-27 . This decree was probably promulgated about the same time by the venerable patriarch. The prevailing tradition of such a decree for this threefold division of the earth, is intimated both in the Old and New Testament. Moses refers to it, as handed down to the Israelites, "from the days of old, and the years of many generations; as they might learn from their fathers and their elders," and farther, as conveying a special grant of the land of Palestine, to be the lot of the twelve tribes of Israel:—... "When the Most High divided to the nations their settlements, When he separated the sons of Adam, ... He assigned the boundaries of the peoples [of Israel] According to the number of the sons of Israel: For the portion of the Lord is his people, ... Jacob is the lot of his inheritance," ... Deuteronomy 32:7-9 . ... And this furnishes an additional proof of the justice of the expulsion of the Canaanites, as usurpers, by the Israelites, the rightful possessors of the land of Palestine, under Moses, Joshua, and their successors, when the original grant was renewed to Abraham, Genesis 15:13-21 . And the knowledge of this divine decree may satisfactorily account for the panic terror with which the devoted nations of Canaan were struck at the miraculous passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites, and approach to their confines, so finely described by Moses:—... "The nations shall hear [this] and tremble, Sorrow shall seize the inhabitants of Palestine. Then shall the dukes of Edom be amazed, Dismay shall possess the princes of Moab, ... The inhabitants of Canaan shall melt away: Fear and terror shall fall upon them, ... By the greatness of thine arm they shall be petrified, Till thy people pass over [Jordan] O Lord, ... Till the people pass over, whom thou hast redeemed. " ... Exodus 15:14-16 . ... St. Paul, also, addressing the Athenians, refers to the same decree, as a well-known tradition in the Heathen world: "God made of one blood every nation of men to dwell upon the whole face of the earth; having appointed the predetermined seasons and boundaries of their dwellings," Acts 17:26 . Here he represents mankind as all of "one blood," race, or stock, "the sons of Adam" and of Noah in succession; and the seasons and the boundaries of their respective settlements, as previously regulated by the divine appointment. And this was conformable to their own geographical allegory; that Chronus, the god of time, or Saturn, divided the universe among his three sons, allotting the heaven to Jupiter, the sea to Neptune, and hell to Pluto. But Chronus represented Noah, who divided the world among his three sons, allotting the upper regions of the north to Japheth, the maritime or middle regions to Shem, and the lower regions of the south to Ham. According to the Armenian tradition recorded by Abulfaragi, Noah distributed the habitable earth from north to south between his sons, and gave to Ham the region of the blacks, to Shem the region of the tawny, fuscorum, and to Japheth the region of the ruddy, rubrorum: and he dates the actual division of the earth in the hundred and fortieth year of Peleg, B. C. 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [or Shinar,] Babel, [or Babylonia,] Persia, and Hegiaz; [Arabia;] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [or Idumea, Jeremiah 49:7 ,] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [or India west and east of the river Indus;] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [the north,] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. " In this curious and valuable geographical chart, Armenia, the cradle of the human race, was allotted to Japheth, by right of primogeniture; and Samaria and Babel to the sons of Shem; the usurpation of these regions, therefore, by Nimrod, and of Palestine by Canaan, was in violation of the divine decree. Though the migration of the primitive families began at this time, B. C. 2614, or about five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, it was a length of time before they all reached their respective destinations. The "seasons," as well as the "boundaries" of their respective settlements were equally the appointment of God; the nearer countries to the original settlement being planted first, and the remoter in succession. These primitive settlements seem to have been scattered and detached from each other according to local convenience. Even so late as the tenth generation after the flood in Abraham's days, there were considerable tracts of land in Palestine unappropriated, on which he and his nephew, Lot, freely pastured their cattle without hinderance or molestation. That country was not fully peopled till the fourth generation after, at the exode of the Israelites from Egypt. And Herodotus represents Scythia as an uninhabited desert, until Targitorus planted the first colony there, about a thousand years, at most, before Darius Hystaspes invaded Scythia, or about B. C. 1508. The orderly settlements of the three primitive families are recorded in that most venerable and valuable geographical chart, the tenth chapter of Genesis, in which it is curious to observe how long the names of the first settlers have been preserved among their descendants, even down to the present day:—... 1. Japheth, the eldest son of Noah, Genesis 10:21 , and his family, are first noticed, Genesis 10:2-5 . The name of the patriarch himself was preserved among his Grecian descendants, in the proverb, του ‘Ιαπετου πρεσβυτερος , older than Japetus, denoting the remotest antiquity. The radical part of the word ‘Ιαπετ , evidently expresses Japheth. ... (1. ) Gomer, his eldest son, was the father of the Gomerians. These, spreading from the regions north of Armenia and Bactriana, Ezekiel 38:6 , extended themselves westward over nearly the whole continent of Europe; still retaining their paternal denomination, with some slight variation, as Cimmerians, in Asia; Cimbri and Umbri, in Gaul and Italy; and Cymri, Cambri, and Cumbri, in Wales and Cumberland at the present day. They are also identified by ancient authors with the Galatae of Asia Minor, the Gaels, Gauls, and Celtae, of Europe, who likewise spread from the Euxine Sea, to the Western Ocean; and from the Baltic to Italy southward, and first planted the British Isles. Josephus remarks, that the Galatae were called Γομαρεις , Gomariani, from their ancestor Gomar. See the numerous authorities adduced in support of the identity of the Gomerians and Celts, by that learned and ingenious antiquary, Faber, in his "Origin of Pagan Idolatry. " Of Gomer's sons, Ashkenaz appears to have settled on the coasts of the Euxine Sea, which from him seems to have received its primary denomination of Αξενος , Axenus, nearly resembling Ashkenaz; but forgetting its etymology in process of time, the Greeks considered it as a compound term in their own language, Α - ξενος , signifying inhospitable; and thence metamorphosed it into Ευ - ξενος , Eu-xenus, "very hospitable. " His precise settlement is represented in Scripture as contiguous to Armenia, westward; for the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashkenaz, are noticed together; Jeremiah 51:27 . Riphat, the second son of Gomer, seems to have given name to the Riphean mountains of the north of Asia; and Togarmah, the third son, may be traced in the Trocmi of Strabo, the Trogmi of Cicero, and Trogmades of the council of Chalcedon, inhabiting the confines of Pontus and Cappadocia. ... (2. ) Magog, Tubal, and Mesech, sons of Japhet, are noticed together by Ezekiel, as settled in the north, Ezekiel 38:2 ; Ezekiel 38:14-15 . And as the ancestors of the numerous Sclavonic and Tartar tribes, the first may be traced in the Mongogians, Monguls, and Moguls; the second, in the Tobolski, of Siberia; and the third, Mesech, or Mosoc, in the Moschici, Moscow, and Muscovites. ... (3. ) Madai was the father of the Medes, who are repeatedly so denominated in Scripture, 2 Kings 17:6 ; Isaiah 13:17 ; Jeremiah 51:11 ; Daniel 5:28 , &c. ... (4. ) From Javan was descended the Javanians, or ‘Ιαονες of the Greeks, and the Yavanas of the Hindus. Greece itself is called Javan by Daniel 11:2 ; and the people ‘Ιαονες by Homer in his "Iliad. " These aboriginal ‘Ιαονες of Greece are not to be confounded, as is usually the case, with the later Ιωνες who invaded and subdued the Javanian territories, and were of a different stock. The accurate Pausanias states, that the name of Ιωνες , was comparatively modern, while that of ‘Ιαονες is acknowledged to have been the primitive title of the barbarians who were subdued by the Ιωνες . Strabo remarks that Attica was formerly called both Ionia and Ias, or Ian; while Herodotus asserts, that the Athenians were not willing to be called Ιωνες ; and he derives the name from Ιων , the son of Zuth, descended from Deucalion or Noah. And this Ion is said by Eusebius to have been the ringleader in the building of the tower of Babel, and the first introducer of idol worship, and Sabianism, or adoration of the sun, moon, and stars. This would identify Ion with Nimrod. And the Ionians appear to have been composed of the later colonists, the Palli, Pelasgi, or roving tribes from Asia, Phenicia, and Egypt, who, according to Herodotus, first corrupted the simplicity of the primitive religion of Greece, and who, by the Hindus, were called Yonigas, or worshippers of the yoni or dove. This critical distinction between the Iaones and the Iones, the Yavanas, and the Yonigas, we owe to the sagacity of Faber. Of Javan's sons, Elishah and Dodon, may be recognized in Elis and Dodona, the oldest settlements of Greece; Kittim, in the Citium of Macedonia, and Chittim, or maritime coasts of Greece and Italy, ... Numbers 24:24 ; and Tarshish, in the Tarsus of Cilicia, and Tartessus of Spain. ... 2. Ham and his family are next noticed, Genesis 10:6-20 . The name of the patriarch is recorded in the title frequently given to Egypt, "The land of Ham," Psalms 105:23 , &c. ... (1. ) Of his sons, the first and most celebrated appears to have been Cush, who gave name to the land of Cush, both in Asia and Africa; the former still called Chusistan by the Arabian geographers, and Susiana by the Greeks, and Cusha Dwipa Within, by the Hindus; the other, called Cusha Dwipa Without. And the enterprising Cushim or Cuthim, of Scripture, in Asia and Europe, assumed the title of Getae, Guiths, and Goths; and of Scuths, Scuits, and Scots; and of Sacas, Sacasenas, and Saxons. The original family settlement of Abraham was "Ur of the Chasdim," or Chaldees, Genesis 11:28 , who are repeatedly mentioned in Scripture, Isaiah 13:9 ; Daniel 9:1 , &c. According to Faber's ingenious remark, it may more properly be pronounced Chusdim, signifying Godlike Cushites. It is highly improbable that they were so named from Chesed, Abraham's nephew, Genesis 22:22 , who was a mere boy, if born at all, when Abraham left Ur, and was an obscure individual, never noticed afterward. Of Cush's sons, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Sabtacha, and Raamah; and the sons of Raamah, Sheba, and Dedan, seem to have settled in Idumea and Arabia, from the similar names of places there; and of his descendants, Nimrod, the mighty hunter, first founded the kingdom of Babylon, and afterward of Assyria, invading the settlements of the Shemites, contrary to the divine decree. His posterity were probably distinguished by the title of Chusdim, Isaiah 23:13 . ... (2. ) The second son of Ham was Misr, or Mizraim. He settled in Egypt, whence the Egyptians were universally styled in Scripture, Mizraim, or Mizraites, in the plural form. But the country is denominated in the east, to this day, "the land of Misr;" which, therefore, seems to have been the name of the patriarch himself. The children of Misr, like their father, are denominated in Scripture by the plural number. Of these, the Ludim and Lehabim were probably the Copto-Libyans, Ezekiel 30:5 ; the Naphtuhim occupied the sea coast, which by the Egyptians was called Nephthus; whence, probably, originated the name of the maritime god Neptune. The Pathrusim occupied a part of Lower Egypt, called from them Pathros, Isaiah 11:11 . The Caphtorim and the Casluhim, whose descendants were the Philistim of Palestine, occupied the district which lies between the delta of the Nile and the southern extremity of Palestine, Deuteronomy 2:23 ; Amos 9:7 . ... (3. ) Phut is merely noticed, without any mention of his family. But the tribes of Phut and Lud are mentioned together, with Cush, or Ethiopia, Jeremiah 46:9 ; Ezekiel 30:5 ; and Jerom notices a district in Libya, called Regio Phutensis, or the land of Phut. ... (4. ) Canaan has been noticed already; and the original extent of the land of Canaan is carefully marked by Moses. Its western border, along the Mediterranean Sea, extended from Sidon, Southward, to Gaza; its southern border from thence, eastward, to Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim, the cities of the plain, afterward covered by the Dead Sea, or Asphaltite Lake; its eastern border extending from thence northward, to Laish, Dan, or the springs of the Jordan; and its northern border, from thence to Sidon, westward. Of Canaan's sons, Sidon, the eldest, occupied the north-west corner, and built the town of that name, so early celebrated for her luxury and commerce in Scripture, Judges 18:7 ; 1 Kings 5:6 ; and by Homer, who calls the Sidonians, πολυδαιδαλοι , skilled in many arts. And Tyre, so flourishing afterward, though boasting of her own antiquity, Isaiah 23:7 , is styled, "a daughter of Sidon," or a colony from thence, Isaiah 5:12 . Heth, his second son, and the Hittites, his descendants, appear to have settled in the south, near Hebron, Genesis 23:3-7 ; and next to them, at Jerusalem, the Jebusites, or descendants of Jebus, both remaining in their original settlements till David's days; 2 Samuel 11:3 ; 2 Samuel 5:6-9 . Beyond the Jebusites, were settled the Emorites, or Amorites, Numbers 13:29 , who extended themselves beyond Jordan, and were the most powerful of the Canaanite tribes, Genesis 15:16 ; Numbers 21:21 , until they were destroyed by Moses and Joshua, with the rest of the devoted nations of Canaan's family. ... 3. Shem and his family are noticed last, Genesis 10:21-30 . His posterity were confined to middle Asia. ... (1. ) His son Elam appears to have been settled in Elymais, or southern Persia, contiguous to the maritime tract of Chusistan, Daniel 8:2 . ... (2. ) His son Ashur planted the land thence called Assyria, which soon became a province of the Cushite, or Cuthic empire, founded by Nimrod. ... (3. ) Arphaxad, through his grandson, Eber, branched out into the two houses of Peleg and Joktan. Peleg probably remained in Chaldea, or southern Babylonia, at the time of the dispersion; for there we find his grandson, Terah, and his family, settled at "Ur of the Chaldees,"... Genesis 11:31 . Of the numerous children of Joktan, it is said by Moses, that "their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar, a mount of the east. " Faber is inclined to believe that they were the ancestors of the great body of the Hindus, who still retain a lively tradition of the patriarch Shem, Shama, or Sharma; and that the land of Ophir, abounding in gold, so called from one of the sons of Joktan, lay beyond the Indus, eastward. ... (4. ) Lud was probably the father of the Ludim or Lydians, of Asia Minor; for this people had a tradition that they were descended from Lud or Lydus, according to Josephus. ... (5. ) The children of Aram planted the fertile country north of Babylonia, called Aram Naharaim, "Aram between the two rivers," the Euphrates and the Tigris, thence called by the Greeks, Mesopotamia, Genesis 24:10 , and Padan Aram, the level country of Aram, Genesis 25:20 . This country of Aram is frequently rendered Syria in Scripture, Judges 10:6 ; Hosea 12:12 , &c; which is not to be confounded with Palestine Syria, into which they afterward spread themselves, still retaining their original name of Αριμοι , or Arameans, noticed by Homer in his "Iliad. "... 4. Upon this distribution of Noah's posterity we shall only observe, that the Deity presided ever all their counsels and deliberations, and that he guided and settled all mankind according to the dictates of his all-comprehending wisdom and benevolence. To this purpose, the ancients themselves, according to Pindar, retained some idea that the dispersion of men was not the effect of chance, but that they had been settled in different countries by the appointment of Providence, Genesis 11:8-9 ; Deuteronomy 22:8 . This dispersion, and that confusion of languages with which it originated, was intended, by the counsel of an all-wise Providence, to counteract and defeat the scheme which had been projected by the descendants of Noah, for maintaining their union, implied in their proposing to make themselves a name, שם , which Schultens, in Job 1:1 , derives from the Arabic verb שמה , or שמא to be high elevated, or eminent. By this scheme, which seems to have been a project of state policy, for keeping all men together under the present chiefs and their successors, a great part of the earth must, for a long time, have been uninhabited, and overrun with wild beasts. The bad effects which this project would have had upon the minds, the morals, and religion of mankind, was, probably, the chief reason why God interposed to frustrate it as soon as it was formed. It had manifestly a direct tendency to tyranny, oppression, and slavery. Whereas in forming several independent governments by a small body of men, the ends of government, and the security of liberty and property, would be much better attended to, and more firmly established; which, in fact, was really the case; if we may judge of the rest by the constitution of one of the most eminent, the kingdom of Egypt, Genesis 47:15-27 . The Egyptians were masters of their persons and property, till they sold them to Pharaoh for bread; and then their servitude amounted to no more than the fifth part of the produce of the country, as an annual tax payable to the king. By this event, considered as a wise dispensation of Providence, bounds were set to the contagion of wickedness; evil example was confined, and could not extend its influence beyond the limits of one country; nor could wicked projects be carried on, with universal concurrence, by many small colonies, separated by the natural boundaries of mountains, rivers, barren deserts, and seas, and hindered from associating together by a variety of languages, unintelligible to each other. Moreover, in this dispersed state, they could, whenever God pleased, be made reciprocal checks upon each other, by invasions and wars, which would weaken the power, and humble the pride, of corrupt and vicious communities. This dispensation was, therefore, properly calculated to prevent a second universal degeneracy; God dealing in it with men as rational agents, and adapting his scheme to their state and circumstances. ...
Damascus - The most ancient city of Syria, at the foot of the S. E. range of Antilibanus, which rises 1,500 ft. above the plain of Damascus, which is itself 2,200 above the sea. Hence, Damascus enjoys a temperate climate cooled by breezes. The plain is a circle of 30 miles diameter, watered by the Barada (the ABANA of 2 Kings 5), which bursts through a narrow cleft in the mountain into the country beneath, pouring fertility on every side. This strikes the eye the more, as bareness and barrenness characterize all the hills and the plain outside. Fruit of various kinds, especially olive trees, grain and grass abound within the Damascus plain. The Barada flows through Damascus, and thence eastward 15 miles, when it divides and one stream falls into lake el Kiblijeh: another into lake esh-Shurkijeh, on the border of the desert. The wady Helbon on the N. and Awaj on the S. also water the plain. ... The Awaj is probably the scriptural PHARPAR. First mentioned in Genesis 14:15; Genesis 15:2. Abraham entering Canaan by way of Damascus there obtained Eliezer as his retainer. Josephus makes Damascus to have been founded by Uz, son of Aram, grandson of Shem. The next Scriptural notice of Damascus is 2 Samuel 8:5, when "the Syrians of Damascus succored Hadadezer king of Zobah" against David. David slew 22,000 Syrians, and "put garrisons in Syria of Damascus, and the Syrians became servants to David and brought gifts" (1 Chronicles 18:3-6). Nicholaus of Damascus says Hadad (so he named him) reigned over "all Syria except Phoenicia," and began the war by attacking David, and was defeated in a last engagement at the Euphrates River. His subject Rezon, who escaped when David conquered Zobah, with the help of a band made himself king at Damascus over Syria (1 Kings 11:23-25), and was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon. ... Hadad's family recovered the throne; or else (See BENHADAD I, who helped Baasha against Asa and afterward Asa against Baasha, was grandson of Rezon. He "made himself streets" in Samaria (1 Kings 20:34), so completely was he Israel's master. His son, Benhadad II, who besieged Ahab (1 Kings 20:1), is the Ben-idri of the Assyrian inscriptions. These state that in spite of his having the help of the Phoenicians, Hittites and Hamathites, he was unable to oppose Assyria, which slew 20,000 of his men in just one battle. Hazael, taking advantage of his subjects' disaffection owing to their defeats, murdered Benhadad (2 Kings 8:10-15; 1 Kings 19:15). Hazael was defeated by Assyria in his turn, with great loss, at Antilibanus; but repulsed Ahaziah's and Jehoram's attack on Israel (2 Kings 8:28), ravaged Gilead, the land of Gad, Reuben, and Manasseh (2 Kings 10:32-33); took also Gath, and was only diverted from Jerusalem by Jehoash giving the royal and the temple treasures (2 Kings 12:17-18). (See HAZAEL. )... Benhadad his son continued to exercise a lordship over Israel (2 Kings 13:3-7; 2 Kings 13:22) at first; but Joash, Jehoahaz' son, beat him thrice, according to Elisha's dying prophecy (2 Kings 13:14-19), for "the Lord had compassion on His people . . . because of His covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, neither east He them from His presence us yet" (2 Kings 13:23). Jeroboam II, Joash's son, further "recovered Damascus and Hamath, which belonged to Judah, for Israel . . . according to the word of the Lord . . . by Jonah the prophet" (2 Kings 14:23-28), 836 B. C. Rezin of Damascus, a century later, in a respite from the Assyrian invasions, allied himself to Pekah of Israel against Judah, with a view to depose Ahaz and set up one designated "the son of Tabeal. " (See AHAZ. ) The successive invasions of Pul and Tiglath Pileser suggested the thought of combining Syria, Israel, and Judah as a joint power against Assyria. Ahaz' leaning to Assyria made him obnoxious to Syria and Israel. ... But, as their counsel was contrary to God's counsel that David's royal line should continue until Immanuel, it came to nought (2 Kings 15:19; 2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 15:57; 2 Kings 16:5; Isaiah 7:1-6). Elath on the shore of the Red Sea, in Edom, built by Azariah of Judah on territory alleged to be Syrian, was "recovered" by Rezin. Whereupon Ahaz begged Assyria's alliance; and the very policy of Damascus and Israel against Assyria, namely, to absorb Judah, was the very means of causing their own complete absorption by Assyria (2 Kings 16:6-9; 2 Kings 16:17; Isaiah 7:14-25; Isaiah 8:6-10; Isaiah 10:9). The people of Damascus were carried captive to Kir, as Amos (Amos 1:5) foretold, the region from which they originally came, associated with Elam (Isaiah 22:6), probably in Lower Mesopotamia = Kish or Cush, i. e. eastern Ethiopia, the Cissia of Herodotus (G. Rawlinson). ... Isaiah (Isaiah 17:1) and Amos (Amos 1:4) had prophesied that Damascus should be "taken away from being a city, and should be a ruinous heap," that Jehovah should "send a fire into the house of Hazael, which should devour the palaces of Benhadad"; and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 49:24-25) that "Damascus is waxed feeble . . . . How is the city of praise not left, the city of my joy!" By the time of the Mede-Persian supremacy Damascus had not only been rebuilt, but was the most famous city in Syria (Strabo, 16:2,19). In Paul's time (2 Corinthians 11:32) it was part of (See ARETAS' (see) kingdom. It is still a city of 150,000 inhabitants, of whom about 130,000 are Mahometans, 15,000 Christians, and about 5,000 Jews. Damascus was the center through which the trade of Tyre passed on its way to Assyria, Palmyra, Babylon, and the East. ... It supplied "white wool and the wine of Helbon" (in Antilebanon, 10 miles N. W. of Damascus) in return for "the wares of Tyre's making" (Ezekiel 27:18). Its once famous damask and steel were not manufactured until Mahometan times, and are no longer renowned. The street called "Straight" is still there, leading from one gate to the pasha's palace, i. e. from E. to W. a mile long; it was originally divided by Corinthian colonnades into three avenues, of which the remains are still traced (Acts 9:11); called by the natives "the street of bazaars. " The traditional localities of Acts 9:3; Acts 9:25; 2 Corinthians 11:33 (Paul's conversion on his way to Damascus, and his subsequent escape in a basket let down from the wall) are more than doubtful. Now es-Sham, "The East. " Magnus was its bishop at the council of Nice, A. D. 325. The khalif Omar A. D. 635 took it. It fell into the hands of the Turks, its present masters, under Selim I, A. D. 1516. ...
Chaldaea - (See BABEL. ) Properly the S. part of Babylonia, chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but used to designate the whole country. Ur or Umqueir, more toward the mouth of the Euphrates, was the original chief city of Chaldaea; here inscriptions of the 22nd century B. C. , deciphered lately, prove that the early seat of the Babylonian empire was there rather than higher up the Euphrates. In Isaiah 23:13 the prophet reminds Tyre of the fact so humbling to her pride, that the upstart Chaldees should destroy her: "Behold the land of the Chaldaeans; this people was not, until the Assyrian founded it for them that dwell in the wilderness:" i. e. , their latter empire started into importance only after Assyria, in whose armies they had previously been mercenaries. The mountains of Armenia are thought by some to be their original seat (the Carduchian mountains, according to Xenophon, Cyrop. 3:2-3), from whence they proceeded S. in wandering "bands" (Job 1:17) before they became a settled empire, but their Cushite language disproves this. ... Rawlinson distinguishes three periods. ... 1. When their empire was in the S. , toward the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates; this is the Chaldaean period (from 2340 to 1500 B. C. ) in which (See CHEDORLAOMER of Elam conquered Syria (Genesis 14), as the inscriptions show. ... 2. From 1500 to 625 B. C. , the Assyrian period. ... 3. From 625 to 538 B. C. , the Babylonian period. The Hebrew name is Chasdim , relative to Chesed , Abraham's nephew apparently (Genesis 22:22). But their existence was centuries earlier (Genesis 11:28). Chesed's name implies simply that Abraham's family had a connection with them. The Kurds still in Kurdistan between Nineveh and Media may be akin to the ancient Casdim. But G. Rawlinson considers the Chaldi to he more probably one of the Cushite (Ethiopian) tribes that crossed over the Persian gulf and settled in Babylonia. ... Their name ultimately prevailed over that of the other tribes in the country. The remains found of their language correspond to that of the modern Galla of Abyssinia, the ancient language of Ethiopia. Scripture is thus confirmed, that Babel came from Cush and Ham, not from Shem (Genesis 10:6-10). Some interpret Ur = the moon goddess; the Chaldees being moon worshippers or Sabeans, from tsaba' "the heavenly hosts," worshipped Bel, the planet Jupiter, Nebo, Mercury, etc. (Job 31:26-27. ) Chaldaea lies between the Tigris and Euphrates, and comprises also an average of 30 miles along the W. of the Euphrates; a vast alluvial plain, running N. E. and S. W. 400 miles, with the Persian gulf on the S. , and a line from Hit on the Euphrates to Tekrit on the Tigris forming its N. boundary, Elam, or Susiana, lies on the E. An arid waste, with great mounds of rubbish and brick here and there, all that is left of that "glory of kingdoms," now extends where once, by a perfect network of canals for irrigation, a teeming population was supplied abundantly from the rich soil with grain and wine. ... Scripture is to the letter fulfilled: "a drought is upon her waters" (Jeremiah 50:38). It was once said to be the only country where wheat grew wild. Berosus states also that barley, sesame, palms, apples, and many shelled fruit, grew wild. Herodotus (1:193) stated that grain yielded the sower from two to three hundred fold. Strabo says it yielded bread, wine, honey, ropes, and fuel equal to charcoal. Now, while dry in some parts, it is a stagnant marsh in others, owing to neglect of the canals; as Scripture also foretells: "the sea is come up upon Babylon," etc. (Jeremiah 51:42); "she is a possession for the bittern, and pools of water" (Isaiah 14:23). The Chaldaean cities are celebrated in Scripture: "Babel, Erech (now Warka), Accad, Calneh (Niffer)" (Genesis 10:10). Borsippa is Birs-Nimrud now; Sepharvaim or Sippara, Mosaib; Cutha, Ibrahim; Chilmad, Calwadha; Larancha, Senkereh; Is, Hit, where the canal leaving the Euphrates at the point where the alluvial plain begins passed along the whole edge of the plain, and fell into the Persian gulf. ... There is one large inland fresh water sea, Nedjef, 40 miles long by 35 wide, surrounded by red sandstone cliffs; about 20 miles from the right bank of the Euphrates. Above and below this sea are the Chaldaean marshes in which Alexander was almost lost. In another sense the "CHALDAEANS" are a priest caste, with a peculiar tongue and learning, skilled in divination. In the ethnic sense we saw it was applied first to a particular Cushite tribe, then to the whole nation from the time of Nabopolassar. The Semitic language prevailed over the Cushite in Assyrian and later Babylonian times, and was used for all civil purposes; but for sacred and mystic lore the Cushite language was retained as a learned language. This is "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldaeans" (Daniel 1:4), in which the four Jewish youths were instructed, and which is quite distinct from the Aramaean, or Chaldee so-called (allied to Hebrew), of those parts of the book of Daniel which are not Hebrew, as not being so connected with the Jews as with the Babylonians. ... The Cushite Chaldee had become a dead language to the mass of the people who had become Semitized by the Assyrians. All who studied it were called "Chaldaeans," whatever might be their nation; so Daniel is called "master of the Chaldaeans" (Daniel 5:11). Their seats of learning were Borsippa, Ur, Babylon, and Sepharvaim. The serene sky and clear atmosphere favored their astronomical studies; Cahisthenes sent Aristotle from Babylon their observations for 1903 years. Afterward their name became synonymous with diviners and fortunetellers. They wore a peculiar dress, like that seen on the gods and deified men in Assyrian sculptures. At the time of the Arab invasion the Chaldaeans chiefly still preserved the learning of the East. ... We owe to them the preservation of many fragments of Greek learning, as the Greeks had previously owed much of their eastern learning to the Chaldees. The Aramaean and the Hebrew are sister languages. The former is less developed and cultivated than either Hebrew or Arabic. Of its two dialects, Chaldee and Syriac, the former prevailed in the E. , the latter in the W. of Aram. To express the article it employs an affix instead of a prefix as the Hebrew The dual number and the purely passive conjugations are wanting. The Chaldee of parts of the Bible (Daniel 2:4-7:28; Ezra 4:8-6:18; Ezra 7:12-26; Jeremiah 10:11) more closely approaches the Hebrew idiom than the Chaldee of the Targum of Onkelos. Some think the seeming Hebraisms in it are remnants of an older form of the language than that found in the targums. ...
Arabia - (Arabia arid tract). The Arabah, originally restricted to one wady, came to be applied to all Arabia. (See ARABAH. ) Bounded on the N. by Palestine and Syria, E. by the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf, S. by the Arabian Sea and strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, W. by the Red Sea and Egypt. 1700 miles long by 1400 broad. Designated Genesis 25:6 "the east country," the people "children of the East" (Genesis 29:1; Judges 6:3), chiefly meaning the tribes E. of Jordan and N. of the Arabian peninsula. "All the mingled people" is in Hebrew ha ereb (Exodus 12:38; Jeremiah 25:20; Ezekiel 30:5), possibly the Arabs. The three divisions are Arabia Deserta, Felix, and Petraea. The term Κedem , "the East," with the Hebrew probably referred to ARABIA DESERTA, or N. Arabia, bounded E. by the Euphrates, W. by the mountains of Gilead. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 2:6) describes its features, "a land of deserts and pits, a land of drought and of the shadow of death, that no man passed through, and where no man dwelt. "... Tadmor or Palmyra "in the wilderness" was on its N. E. border (1 Kings 9:18). Moving sands, a few thorny shrubs, and an occasional palm and a spring of brackish water, constitute its general character. The sand wind, the simoom, visits it. Hither Paul resorted after conversion for that rest and reflection which are needed before great spiritual enterprises (Galatians 1:17). Moses' stay of 40 years in the same quarter served the same end of preparatory discipline. Its early inhabitants were the Rephaim, Emim, Zuzim, Zamzummim (Genesis 14:5); Ammon, Moab, Edom, the Hagarenes, the Nabathaeans, the people of Kedar, and many wandering tent-dwelling tribes, like the modern Bedouins, succeeded. The portion of it called the Hauran, or Syrian desert, abounds in ruins and inscriptions in Greek, Palmyrene, and an unknown tongue. ... ARABIA FELIX or happy, S. Arabia, bounded on the E. by the Persian Gulf, S. by the Arabian Sea, W. by the Red Sea. Yemen, famed for its fertility ("the right hand", so the south, compare Matthew 12:42); and Hadramaut (Hazarmaveth, Genesis 10:26) were parts of it. Sheba answers to Yemen (Psalms 72:10), whose queen visited Solomon (1 Kings 10:1). The dominant family was that of Himyer, son of Sava; one of this family founded the modern kingdom of the Himyerites, now called el Hedjaz, the land of pilgrimage, on account of the pilgrimages to Mecca the birthplace, and Medina the burial place, of Mahomet. The central province of the Nejd is famed for the Arab horses and camels, "the ships of the desert. "... Joktan, son of Eber (Genesis 10:25), was the original founder, Ishmael the subsequent head, of its population. The Hagarenes, originally the same as the Ishmaelites, subsequently are mentioned as distinct (1 Chronicles 5:10; 1 Chronicles 5:19; 1 Chronicles 5:22; Psalms 83:6). The people of Yemen have always lived in cities, and practiced commerce and agriculture. It was famed for gems and gold, spices, perfumes, and gums (1 Kings 10:10; Ezekiel 27:22). Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia. ... ARABIA PETRAEA, called from its city Petra, the rock, or Selah (2 Kings 14:7), now Hadjar, i. e. rock. Between the gulfs of Suez and Akabah; Palestine and Egypt are its northern boundary. The desert of mount Sinai (Burr et tur Sinai), where Israel wandered, Kadesh Barnea, Pharan, Rephidim, Ezion Geber, Rithmah, Oboth, Arad, Heshbon, were in it. The wady Leja (perhaps the valley of Rephidim), near jebel Mousa, and the wady Feiran (Paran, Numbers 13:3), are most luxuriant. Hawarah (Marab, Exodus 15:23) is 33 miles S. E. of Ayoun Mousa (the fountain of Moses); 7 miles S. of this is wady Gurundel, perhaps the Elim of Exodus 15:27. Precipitous bore rocks, void of herbage, form the southern coast. Cush, son of Ham, originally peopled Arabia (the ruins of Marib, or Seba, and the inscriptions are Cushite; in Babylonia too there are Cushite traces); then Joktan, of Shem's race (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:30). ... The posterity of Nahor, of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25), of Lot also, formed a part of the population, namely, in Arabia Deserta. Then Ishmael's, then Esau's descendants, for Esau identified himself with Ishmael by his marrying Ishmael's daughter (Genesis 28:9). The head of each tribe is the sheikh; the office is hereditary in his family, but elective as to the individual. The people are hospitable, eloquent, poetical, proud of ancestry, but predatory, superstitious, and revengeful. The wandering and wild Bedouins are purest in blood and preserve most the Arab characteristics foretold in Genesis 16:12; "He will be a wild" (Hebrew a wild donkey of a) "man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him" (marking their incessant feuds with one another or with their neighbors), "and he shall dwell tent in the presence of all his brethren. "... The image of a wild donkey untamable, roaming at its will in the desert (compare Job 39:5-8), portrays the Bedouin's boundless love of freedom as he rides in the desert spear in hand, despising town life. His dwelling in the presence of his brethren implies that Ishmael would maintain an independent nationality before all Abraham's descendants. They have never been completely subjugated by any neighboring power. Compare Job 1:15; Jeremiah 49:8; Jeremiah 3:2; 2 Chronicles 21:16. From their dwelling in tents they are called Scenitoe. Their tents are of goats' hair cloth, black or brown (Song of Solomon 1:5), arranged in a ring, enclosing their cattle, each about 25 feet long and 7 high. The town populations by intermarriages and intercourse with foreigners have lost much of Arab traits. Mecca, in their belief, is where Ishmael was saved and Hagar died and was buried. ... The Kaaba or Square was built by Seth, destroyed by the flood, and rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael. Sabeanism, or the worship of the hosts, the sun, moon, and stars, was the first lapse from original revelation (Job 31:26-27); but just before Mahomet they were divided between it, Judaism, Magianism, and corrupted Christianity. Mahometanism became the universal faith in A. D. 628. The Wahabees are one of the most powerful sects, named from Abd el Wahab, who in the beginning of last century undertook to reform abuses in Mahometanism. To the Arabs we owe our arithmetical figures. They took the lead of Europeans in astronomy, chemistry, algebra, and medicine. They spread their colonies from the Senegal to the indus, and from Madagascar to the Euphrates. The Joktanites of southern Arabia were seafaring; the Ishmaelites, more northward, the caravan merchants (Genesis 37:28). ... The Arabic language is the most developed of the Semitic languages. in the 14th or 13th century B. C. the Semitic languages differed much less than in later times. Compare Genesis 31:47; Judges 7:9-15; Phurah, Gideon's servant, evidently understood the Midianites. But in the 8th century B. C. only educated Jews understood Aramaic (2 Kings 18:26). In its classical form Arabic is more modern than Heb. , in its ancient form probably sister to Hebrew and Aramaic. The Himyeritic is a mixture with an African language, as appears from the inscriptions; the Ekhili is its modern phase. Monuments with Himyeritic inscriptions are found in Hadramaut and the Yemen. There was a Cushite or Ethiopian Sheba, as well as a Shemitic Sheba (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:28). ... The Himyerites had a Cushite descent. The Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages. The Hebrew literature dates from the 15th century B. C, the Arabic only from the 5th century B. C. For this reason, and the greater simplicity of Hebrew modes of expression, it seems probable the Hebrew is the elder sister. A few Arabic forms are plainly older than the corresponding Hebrew The Book of Job in many of its difficult Hebrew roots receives much illustration from Arabic. The Arabic is more flexible and abounding in vowel sounds, as suits a people light hearted and impulsive; the Hebrew is weightier, and has more consonants, as suits a people graver and more earnest. The Arabic version of the Scriptures now extant was made after Mahomet's time. That in the London Polyglott was in part by R. Saadias Gaon (the Excellent). ...
Nile - Not so named in the Bible; related to Sanskrit Νilah , "blue. " The Nile has two names: the sacred name Ηapi , or Ηapi-mu , "the abyss of waters," Ηp-ro-mu , "the waters whose source is hidden"; and the common name Υeor Αor , Aur (Atur): both Egyptian names. Shihor , "the black river," is its other Bible name, Greek Μelas or Κmelas , Latin Μelo , darkened by the fertilizing soil which it deposits at its overflow (Jeremiah 2:18). The hieroglyphic name of Egypt is Κam , "black. " Egyptians distinguished between Ηapi-res , the "southern Nile" of Upper Egypt, and Ηapi-meheet , the "northern Nile" of Lower Egypt. Ηapi-ur , "the high Nile," fertilizes the land; the Nile low brought famine. The Nile god is painted red to represent the inundation, but blue at other times. An impersonation of Noah (Osburn). Famine and plenty are truly represented as coming up out of the river in Pharaoh's dream (Genesis 41). Therefore they worshipped it, and the plague on its waters, was a judgment on that idolatry (Exodus 7:21; Psalms 105:29). (See EGYPT; EXODUS. )... The rise begins at the summer solstice; the flood is two months later, after the autumnal equinox, at its height pouring through cuttings in the banks which are higher than the rest of the soil and covering the valley, and lasting three months. (Amos 8:8; Amos 9:5; Isaiah 23:3). The appointed S. W. bound of Palestine (Joshua 13:3; 1 Chronicles 13:5; 2 Chronicles 9:26; Genesis 15:18). 1 Kings 8:65 "stream" (nachal , not "river". ) Its confluent is still called the Blue river; so Nilah means "darkblue," or "black. " The plural "rivers" is used for the different mouths, branches, and canals of the Nile. The tributaries are further up than Egypt (Psalms 78:44; Exodus 7:18-20; Isaiah 7:18; Isaiah 19:6; Ezekiel 29:3; Ezekiel 30:12). "The stream (nachal ) of Egypt" seems distinct (Isaiah 27:12), now "wady el Arish" (where was the frontier city Rhino-corura) on the confines of Palestine and Egypt (Joshua 15:4; Joshua 15:47, where for "river" should stand "stream," nachal) ). ... Smith's Bible Dictionary suggests that nachal) is related to the Nile and is that river; but the distinctness with which nachal) is mentioned, and not as elsewhere Sihor, or "river," Υe'or , forbids the identification. "The rivers of Ethiopia" (Isaiah 18:1-2), Cush, are the Atbara, the Astapus or Blue river, between which two rivers Meroe (the Ethiopia meant in Isaiah 18) lies, and the Astaboras or White Nile; these rivers conjoin in the one Nile, and wash down the soil along their banks from Upper Egypt, and deposit it on Lower Egypt; compare "whose land (Upper Egypt) the rivers have spoiled" or "cut up" or "divided. " The Nile is called "the sea" (Isaiah 19:5), for it looks a sea at the overflow; the Egyptians still call it El Bahr "the sea" (Nahum 3:8). Its length measured by its course is probably 3,700 miles, the longest in the world. Its bed is cut through layers of nummulitic limestone (of which the pyramids of Ghizeh are built, full of nummulites, which the Arabs call "Pharaoh's beans"), sandstone under that, breccia verde under that, azoic rocks still lower, with red granite and syenite rising through all the upper strata at the first cataract. ... Sir Samuel Baker has traced its (the White Nile's) source up to the Tanganyika, Victoria, and Albert Nyanza lakes, filled with the melting snows from the mountains and the periodical equatorial heavy rains. The Hindus call its source Αmana , the name of a region N. E. of the Nyanza. The shorter confluent, the Blue river, is what brings down from the Abyssinian mountains the alluvial soil that fertilizes Egypt. The two join at Khartoom, the capital of Soodan, the black country under Egypt's rule. The Atbara falls into the main stream further N. The river thenceforth for 2,300 miles receives no tributary. Through the breaking down of a barrier at Silsilis or at the first cataract, the river is so much below the level of the valley in lower Nubia that it does not overflow on the land. On the confines of Upper Egypt it forms two cataracts, the lower near Syene. Thence it runs 500 miles onward. A short way below Cairo and the pyramids it parts into two branches, bounding the Delta E. and W. and falling into the Mediterranean. Always diffusing its waters, and never receiving any accession of water from sky or tributary, its volume at Cairo is but half what it is at the cataract of Syene. ... The water is sweet, especially when turbid. Stagnant waters left by the overflow in Nubia's sandy flats are carried into the Nile by the new overflow, thus the water is at first a green shiny color and unwholesome for two or three days. Twelve days later it becomes red like blood, and is then most wholesome and refreshing; and all living beings, men, beasts, birds, fish, and insects are gladdened by its advent. Egypt having only a little rain (Zechariah 14:17-18) depends on the Nile for its harvests; see in Deuteronomy 11:10-12 the contrast to the promised land, where the husbandman has to look up to heaven for rain instead of looking down, irrigating the land. with watercourses turned by the foot as in Egypt (a type of the spiritual state of the two respectively), and where Jehovah's eyes are upon it from the beginning to the end of the year. The waters reach their lowest in nine months groin their highest point in the autumn equinox; they remain stationary for a few days and then begin to rise again. ... If they reach no higher than 22 ft. at the island Rhoda, between Cairo and Ghizeh, where a nilometer is kept, the rise is insufficient; if 27, good; if more, the flood injures the crops, and plague and murrain ensue. The further S. one goes, the earlier the inundation begins; at Khartoom as early as April. The seven years' famine under Joseph is confirmed by the seven years' famine in the reign of Fatimee Khaleefeh El-Mustansir bi-'llah, owing to the failure of water. The universal irrigation maintained, even during the low season of the Nile, made the results of failure of its waters more disastrous then than now. The mean rise above the lowest level registered at Semne, near the second cataract, in Moeris' reign, 2000 B. C. , was 62 ft. 6 inches, i. e. 23 ft. 10 inches above the present rise which is 38 ft. 8 inches (Lepsius in the Imperial Dictionary) The average rate of deposit in Egypt now is four and a half inches in the century. ... But other causes were at work formerly; the danger of inferences as to man's antiquity from such data is amusingly illustrated by Homer's (Philippians Transac. 148) inference from pottery found at a great depth that man must have lived there in civilization 13,000 years ago, which Bunsen accepted! Unfortunately for the theory the Greek honeysuckle was found on some of it. The burnt brick still lower, on which he laid stress, was itself enough to have confuted him, for burnt brick was first introduced into Egypt under Rome (see Quarterly Revue, April, 1859). Champollion holds no Egyptian monument to be older than 2,200 B. C. In Upper Egypt bore yellow mountains, a few hundred feet high, and pierced with numerous tombs, bound the N. on both sides; this gives point to Israel's sneer, "because there were no graves in Egypt hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness?" (Exodus 14:11). ... In Lower Egypt the land spreads out on either side of the Nile in a plain bounded E. and W. by the desert. At the inundation the Nile rushes along in a mighty torrent, made to appear more violent by the waves which the N. wind, blowing continually then, raises up (Jeremiah 46:7-8). Two alone of the seven noted branches of the mouth (of which the Pelusiac was the most eastern) remain, the Damietta (Phanitic) and Rosetta (Bolbitine) mouths, originally artificial (Herodotus ii. 10), fulfilling Isaiah 19:5 and probably Isaiah 11:11-15; Ezekiel 30:12. The Nile in the numerous canals besides the river itself formerly "abounded with incredible numbers of all sorts of fish" (Diodorus Siculus i. ; Numbers 11:5). These too, as foretold (Isaiah 19:8-10), have failed except about lake Menzaleh. So also the papyrus reeds, from whence paper receives its designation, flags, reeds, and the lotus with its fragrant and various colored flowers, have almost disappeared as foretold (Isaiah 19:6-7), the papyrus boats no more skim its surface (Isaiah 18:2). ...
Egypt - The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original home is still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class population, perhaps belonging to the Nigritian stock, before the Egyptians of history entered it. The ancient Egyptian language, of which the latest form is Coptic, is distantly connected with the Semitic family of speech. ... Egypt consists geographically of two halves, the northern being the Delta, and the southern Upper Egypt, between Cairo and the First Cataract. In the Old Testament, Northern or Lower Egypt is called Mazor, "the fortified land" (Isaiah 19:6 ; 37 :: 25 , where the A. V. mistranslates "defence" and "besieged places"); while Southern or Upper Egypt is Pathros, the Egyptian Pa-to-Res, or "the land of the south" (Isaiah 11:11 ). But the whole country is generally mentioned under the dual name of Mizraim, "the two Mazors. " ... The civilization of Egypt goes back to a very remote antiquity. The two kingdoms of the north and south were united by Menes, the founder of the first historical dynasty of kings. The first six dynasties constitute what is known as the Old Empire, which had its capital at Memphis, south of Cairo, called in the Old Testament Moph (Hosea 9:6 ) and Noph. The native name was Mennofer, "the good place. " ... The Pyramids were tombs of the monarchs of the Old Empire, those of Gizeh being erected in the time of the Fourth Dynasty. After the fall of the Old Empire came a period of decline and obscurity. This was followed by the Middle Empire, the most powerful dynasty of which was the Twelfth. The Fayyum was rescued for agriculture by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty; and two obelisks were erected in front of the temple of the sun-god at On or Heliopolis (near Cairo), one of which is still standing. The capital of the Middle Empire was Thebes, in Upper Egypt. ... The Middle Empire was overthrown by the invasion of the Hyksos, or shepherd princes from Asia, who ruled over Egypt, more especially in the north, for several centuries, and of whom there were three dynasties of kings. They had their capital at Zoan or Tanis (now San), in the north-eastern part of the Delta. It was in the time of the Hyksos that Abraham, Jacob, and Joseph entered Egypt. The Hyksos were finally expelled about B. C. 1600, by the hereditary princes of Thebes, who founded the Eighteenth Dynasty, and carried the war into Asia. Canaan and Syria were subdued, as well as Cyprus, and the boundaries of the Egyptian Empire were fixed at the Euphrates. The Soudan, which had been conquered by the kings of the Twelfth Dynasty, was again annexed to Egypt, and the eldest son of the Pharaoh took the title of "Prince of Cush. " ... One of the later kings of the dynasty, Amenophis IV. , or Khu-n-Aten, endeavoured to supplant the ancient state religion of Egypt by a new faith derived from Asia, which was a sort of pantheistic monotheism, the one supreme god being adored under the image of the solar disk. The attempt led to religious and civil war, and the Pharaoh retreated from Thebes to Central Egypt, where he built a new capital, on the site of the present Tell-el-Amarna. The cuneiform tablets that have been found there represent his foreign correspondence (about B. C. 1400). He surrounded himself with officials and courtiers of Asiatic, and more especially Canaanitish, extraction; but the native party succeeded eventually in overthrowing the government, the capital of Khu-n-Aten was destroyed, and the foreigners were driven out of the country, those that remained being reduced to serfdom. ... The national triumph was marked by the rise of the Nineteenth Dynasty, in the founder of which, Rameses I. , we must see the "new king, who knew not Joseph. " His grandson, Rameses II. , reigned sixty-seven years (B. C. 1348-1281), and was an indefatigable builder. As Pithom, excavated by Dr. Naville in 1883, was one of the cities he built, he must have been the Pharaoh of the Oppression. The Pharaoh of the Exodus may have been one of his immediate successors, whose reigns were short. Under them Egypt lost its empire in Asia, and was itself attacked by barbarians from Libya and the north. ... The Nineteenth Dynasty soon afterwards came to an end; Egypt was distracted by civil war; and for a short time a Canaanite, Arisu, ruled over it. ... Then came the Twentieth Dynasty, the second Pharaoh of which, Rameses III. , restored the power of his country. In one of his campaigns he overran the southern part of Palestine, where the Israelites had not yet settled. They must at the time have been still in the wilderness. But it was during the reign of Rameses III. that Egypt finally lost Gaza and the adjoining cities, which were seized by the Pulista, or Philistines. ... After Rameses III. , Egypt fell into decay. Solomon married the daughter of one of the last kings of the Twenty-first Dynasty, which was overthrown by Shishak I. , the general of the Libyan mercenaries, who founded the Twenty-second Dynasty (1 Kings 11:40 ; 14:25,26 ). A list of the places he captured in Palestine is engraved on the outside of the south wall of the temple of Karnak. ... In the time of Hezekiah, Egypt was conquered by Ethiopians from the Soudan, who constituted the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The third of them was Tirhakah (2 Kings 19:9 ). In B. C. 674 it was conquered by the Assyrians, who divided it into twenty satrapies, and Tirhakah was driven back to his ancestral dominions. Fourteen years later it successfully revolted under Psammetichus I. of Sais, the founder of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. Among his successors were Necho (2 Kings 23:29 ) and Hophra, or Apries (Jeremiah 37:5,7,11 ). The dynasty came to an end in B. C. 525, when the country was subjugated by Cambyses. Soon afterwards it was organized into a Persian satrapy. ... The title of Pharaoh, given to the Egyptian kings, is the Egyptian Per-aa, or "Great House," which may be compared to that of "Sublime Porte. " It is found in very early Egyptian texts. ... The Egyptian religion was a strange mixture of pantheism and animal worship, the gods being adored in the form of animals. While the educated classes resolved their manifold deities into manifestations of one omnipresent and omnipotent divine power, the lower classes regarded the animals as incarnations of the gods. ... Under the Old Empire, Ptah, the Creator, the god of Memphis, was at the head of the Pantheon; afterwards Amon, the god of Thebes, took his place. Amon, like most of the other gods, was identified with Ra, the sun-god of Heliopolis. ... The Egyptians believed in a resurrection and future life, as well as in a state of rewards and punishments dependent on our conduct in this world. The judge of the dead was Osiris, who had been slain by Set, the representative of evil, and afterwards restored to life. His death was avenged by his son Horus, whom the Egyptians invoked as their "Redeemer. " Osiris and Horus, along with Isis, formed a trinity, who were regarded as representing the sun-god under different forms. ... Even in the time of Abraham, Egypt was a flourishing and settled monarchy. Its oldest capital, within the historic period, was Memphis, the ruins of which may still be seen near the Pyramids and the Sphinx. When the Old Empire of Menes came to an end, the seat of empire was shifted to Thebes, some 300 miles farther up the Nile. A short time after that, the Delta was conquered by the Hyksos, or shepherd kings, who fixed their capital at Zoan, the Greek Tanis, now San, on the Tanic arm of the Nile. All this occurred before the time of the new king "which knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8 ). In later times Egypt was conquered by the Persians (B. C. 525), and by the Greeks under Alexander the Great (B. C. 332), after whom the Ptolemies ruled the country for three centuries. Subsequently it was for a time a province of the Roman Empire; and at last, in A. D. 1517, it fell into the hands of the Turks, of whose empire it still forms nominally a part. Abraham and Sarah went to Egypt in the time of the shepherd kings. The exile of Joseph and the migration of Jacob to "the land of Goshen" occurred about 200 years later. On the death of Solomon, Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine (1 Kings 14:25 ). He left a list of the cities he conquered. ... A number of remarkable clay tablets, discovered at Tell-el-Amarna in Upper Egypt, are the most important historical records ever found in connection with the Bible. They most fully confirm the historical statements of the Book of Joshua, and prove the antiquity of civilization in Syria and Palestine. As the clay in different parts of Palestine differs, it has been found possible by the clay alone to decide where the tablets come from when the name of the writer is lost. The inscriptions are cuneiform, and in the Aramaic language, resembling Assyrian. The writers are Phoenicians, Amorites, and Philistines, but in no instance Hittites, though Hittites are mentioned. The tablets consist of official dispatches and letters, dating from B. C. 1480, addressed to the two Pharaohs, Amenophis III. and IV. , the last of this dynasty, from the kings and governors of Phoenicia and Palestine. There occur the names of three kings killed by Joshua, Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem, Japhia, king of Lachish (Joshua 10:3 ), and Jabin, king of Hazor (11:1); also the Hebrews (Abiri) are said to have come from the desert. ... The principal prophecies of Scripture regarding Egypt are these, Isaiah 19 ; Jeremiah 43 :: 813-13 ; 44:30 ; 46 ; Ezekiel 29-32 ; and it might be easily shown that they have all been remarkably fulfilled. For example, the singular disappearance of Noph (i. e. , Memphis) is a fulfilment of Jeremiah 46:19 , Ezekiel 30:13 . ... ...
Nimrod - THEREFORE IS THE NAME OF IT CALLED BABEL... NIMROD was Noah's great-grandson through Ham; and he was a mighty, hunter. He was the father, as William Law has it, of all those English gentlemen who take their delight in running foxes and hares out of breath. With one drop of his ink, and with one stroke of his pen, Moses tells us a great deal about Nimrod; and, the masterly writer that he is, Moses leaves still more to our imagination. 'And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord; wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord. ' Nimrod's name, you will see, was a proverb in Israel down even to the day that Moses composed this book. Dante, also, Moses' equal in condensation and in force, lets us see that vast, vague, looming, swelling, gibbering giant in his thirty-first Inferno. His shoulders, his breast, his arms, his ribs,-Dante is amazed at the cloudy glimpse he gets of Ham's grandson down among the gloomy pits. O senseless spirit! shouts Virgil at the giant. And then to his charge:... Nimrod is this,Through whose ill-counsel in the world no moreOne tongue prevails. But pass we on, nor wasteOur words; for so each language is to him,And his to others, understood by none. Matthew Henry, still the prince of commentators for the common people, says that Nimrod, no doubt, did great good by his hunting instinct at the beginning of his career. He would put his people under deep obligation by ridding them of the wild beasts that infested those early lands. But then, as time went on, and as Nimrod's ambition grew, he would seem to have taken to hunting men instead of beasts. Great conquerors, after all, are but great hunters before the Lord. Alexander himself, the Great, as we call him, is to Daniel but a great pushing he-goat. And from that Nimrod was led on to build cities with walls, and towers, and barracks, and fortresses. Note of Niinrod's ambition, says our sagacious commentator, that it was boundless, expensive, restless, over-bold, and blasphemous. ... Archbishop Whately thinks that the whole story of the building of the Tower of Babel, the confounding of the speech of the builders, and their consequent disruption and dispersion, north, south, east, and west, is a veiled history of a great outbreak of religious controversy in that early and eastern day. The archbishop does not pretend to have discovered just what the great controversy was all about; probably the whole thing would be unintelligible to us. But, on the whole, he thinks it must have been some dispute connected with the worship of God. In 1849 there was much less freedom allowed in the Church of England for such speculations than there is in our day; and thus it was that Dr. Whately had to come out about the Tower of Babel in one of the foreign tongues of Babel, and behind the veil of anonymity. A living writer in the same church looks on the Tower of Babel as a 'sublime emblem'; and Landor makes Isaac Barrow and Isaac Newton talk together in his noble English about that Tower as if it had been, at the top at least, the first astronomical observatory of those Babylonian fathers of that queen of the sciences. But we come back from all these, not uninstructive speculations in their way, to the powerfully written passage before us, in which so much is told us in such small space. 'Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. ... Philo Judæus, the father of allegorical interpretation, has a beautiful tract entitled The Confusion of Languages. But Jacob Behmen, Philo's Teutonic son, far outstrips his Hebrew father in the depth, pungency, directness, and boldness of his interpretations and his applications. Babel, to Philo, is the soul of man; the confounded, confused, and scattered-abroad soul of man; and in his confused and scattered treatise we stumble on not a few things that are both wise and deep and beautiful. To Behmen, Babel is all that it is to Philo, with this characteristic addition, that Behmen's books are full of contemporaneous examples and illustrations of the Babel-like confusion that had come already to the Reformed Church of his day. Babel, to Behmen, is full of the controversies, verbal orthodoxies and heterodoxies, misunderstandings, misconstructions, and heart hatreds of the mighty hunters of his day. Babel, 'philosophically taken,' was to Philo the sum total of the passions of the soul let loose on the individual; evangelically taken, to Behmen, Babel was all those passions let loose also on the body of Christ. It is not easy and plain for any one of us to put our finger on our own Babel, says Behmen. For we are all working at the building of that Tower: we are all too much given over to words and to names, to sects and to parties, to men and to churches. Words rule us, and things lose all power over us. Names master us and tyrannise over us. Let every man enter into himself, and he will be sure to find a whole Tower of Babel, with all its consequences, standing in his own mind and in his own heart continually. The only possible escape from that Tower and its confoundings and confusions is to get clean away from the letter which killeth, and to go down into the spirit which giveth liberty and life. Leave off all disputations and all divisive words and names, and begin thy life again with God and with love alone. As Paul was not to be absolutely ignorant of everything but Christ and Him crucified all the time that he was to know nothing else, so Behmen is not to deny, or forswear, or for ever forget the Lutheran catechisms and confessions of his day; only, he is to go beneath them all to the ground out of which they all spring, and above them all to the light and the air in which they all live and grow. And then he hopes to return to them with a love and a light and a life and a freedom that verbal Babel knows nothing of. Arguments, controversies, debates, disputes, even when they are true and needful, have always something of Babel in them; and they who must engage in them will have need of another and a better life outside of them, beneath them, and above them, as Jacob Behmen had. ... And thus to come home, and to take current controversy among ourselves: political, religious, and, indeed, all kinds of controversy; if you will look well to it you will soon see why the name of it all is to be called Babel. All true moralists, all true logicians, all true teachers of rhetoric, unite to tell us and to testify to us that we all deceive and damage both ourselves and our neighbours and the truth every day by our words; by our misuse and our abuse of words. Words, indeed, are both the instrument and the vehicle of all thought and all intercourse. We cannot think, any more than we can speak or write, without words. But, unless we are early and well-taught, and unless we continually watch and teach ourselves, we shall become the complete slaves of our own instruments, and our carriages shall run away with us continually. 'Words are wise men's counters; wise men do but reckon by them; but they are the money of fools. ' To prove that and to illustrate that, I had collected and arranged a table of wise men's counters and fools' moneys, and had intended to take in that table here. But I have departed from that intention. I have departed from that intention lest some of you should go off upon a word, and leave the proper and full lesson unlearned. It will be far better that each man who is intent on his own deliverance and improvement, should make up such a table of political, theological, scientific, and social controversialisms for himself, and out of his own conversation, and should, as Socrates would have taught him, ask himself, crossquestion himself even, as to what he means by them when he uses them. Let us get into the truly intellectual, truly moral, and truly religious habit of asking ourselves, and insisting on an answer from ourselves, What is that name, nickname, by-word, that I am casting abroad about my brother so loudly and so loosely? What is the original root of it in language, and in me? What does it connote, as the schools say, first in my own mind, and then in its true content, and then in my hearer's or reader's capacity? Is it fair to use such a name and nickname? Is it just? Is it true? Would I like such and such names and nicknames to be attached to me by those who are opposed to me? It is very annoying, and, indeed, exasperating, to be pulled up in that way when our eloquence and our indignation and our denunciation are in full flood. But truth, love, goodness, godliness, are to be achieved by no man on any easier terms. As Behmen would say, Babel is to be escaped in no other way. And, since Behmen is so full and so good, as I think, on Babel, and since he himself has been so much the victim of Babel-more almost than any man I know-let me show you once more the kind of thing that has made me love him: and, almost to say of him, as Dr. Newman says of Thomas Scott, that he owes him his own soul. I do not owe my soul to Behmen, or to any of his school; but I owe some lessons in my soul's deliverance and purification that I would be a cold-hearted creature if I did not on all hands acknowledge and share with you. A true Christian, says Teutonicus in his Regeneration, a Christian who is born anew into the Spirit of Christ, has less and less mind to contend and strive about matters of religion. He has enough to do within himself. A true Christian is really of no church. He can dwell surrounded by all the churches. He can even enter them all, and take part in all their services, without being bound up with any one of them. He has but one creed, which is, Christ in him. If men would but as fervently seek after love and righteousness as they do after disputatious matters, we should soon all be the children of one Father; and there would be no matters left to dispute about. If we did not know half so many contrary doctrines, and were more like little children; if we only had more good-will to those who hold the contrary doctrine, the contrariness would soon give way, and we would all be of one mind. Ungodly ministers go about sowing abroad contentions, reproaches, misconstructions; and, then, ungodly people catch all these up and make an ungodly religion out of them, and bring forth fruit accordingly. They despise, revile, slander, and misrepresent one another, till Babel, and all its sins and miseries, is again falling on us and burying us. What, asks Freher at himself and at the Spirit of his Master-what is an honest, simple Christian to do amidst such a variety of sects and contentions? He is to keep out of them; and he is to thank God that he has neither the call, nor the talent, nor the temptation to enter into them. He is to keep his heart clean and sweet to all men, and hot and bitter only at himself. No man's persuasion justifies me in hating him. And if I hate his persuasion too much, if I give up too much of my passion to bating any man's persuasion, I will soon end in hating himself. I must hate that only which hinders me myself from being a new creature in Christ Jesus. Therefore is the name of all controversy called Babel by the great mystics, the great masters of the life of love in the soul. ...
Babel - Βabel (Hebrew) means Babylon; so that "the tower" should be designated "the tower of Babel. " Capital of the country Shinar (Genesis), Chaldea (later Scriptures). The name as given by Nimrod (Genesis 10:10), the founder, means (Bab-il), "the gate of the god Il," or simply "of God. " Afterward the name was attached to it in another sense (Providence having ordered it so that a name should be given originally, susceptible of another sense, signifying the subsequent divine judgment), Genesis 11:9; Βabel from baalal , "to confound; . . . . because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth," in order to counteract their attempt by a central city and tower to defeat God's purpose of the several tribes of mankind being "scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth," and to constrain them, as no longer "understand one another's speech," to dispel The Talmud says, the site of tower of Babel is Borsippa, the Bits Nimrud, 7 1/2 miles from Hillah, and 11 from the northern ruins of Babylon. ... The French expedition found at Borsippa a clay cake, dated the 30th day of the 6th month of the 16th year of Nabonid. Borsippa (the Tongue Tower) was a suburb of Babylon, when the old Babel was restricted to the northern ruins. Nebuchadnezzar included it in the great circumvallation of 480 stadia. When the outer wall was destroyed by Darius Borsippa became independent of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar's temple or tower of Nebo stood on the basement of the old tower of Babel. He says in the inscription, "the house of the earth's base (the basement substructure), the most ancient monument of Babylon I built and finished; I exalted its head with bricks covered with copper . . . the house of the seven lights (the seven planets); a former king 42 ages ago built, but did not complete its head. Since a remote time people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words; the earthquake and thunder had split and dispersed its sun-dried clay. "... The substructure had a temple sacred to Sin, god of the mouth (Oppert). The substructure is 600 Babylonian ft. broad, 75 high; on it Nebuchadnezzar built seven other stages. God had infatuated His will that "the earth should be divided," the several tribes taking different routes, in the days of Peleg ("division"), born 100 years after the flood (Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:32; Deuteronomy 32:8). Another object the Babel builders sought was to "make themselves a name"; self-relying pride setting up its own will against the will of God, and dreaming of ability to defeat God's purpose, was their snare. Also their "tower, whose top (pointed toward, or else reached) unto heaven," was designed as a self-deifying, God-defying boast. Compare Isaiah 14:13; God alone has the right to "make Himself a name" (Isaiah 63:12; Isaiah 63:14; Jeremiah 32:20). ... They desired to establish a grand central point of unity. They tacitly acknowledge they have lost the inward spiritual bond of unity, love to God uniting them in love to one another. They will make up for it by an outward forced unity; the true unity by loving obedience to God they might have had, though dispersed. Their tower toward heaven may have marked its religious dedication to the heavens (sabeanism, worship of the tsaba , the hosts of heaven), the first era in idolatry; as also the first effort after that universal united empire on earth which is to be realized not by man's ambition, but by the manifestation of Messiah, whose right the kingdom is (Ezekiel 21:27). "The Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of men builded," i. e. (in condescension to human language), Jehovah took judicial cognizance of their act: their "go to, let us," etc. (Genesis 11:3-4), Jehovah with stern irony meets with His "Go to, let us," etc. ... The cause of the division of languages lies in an operation performed upon the human mind, by which the original unity of feeling, thought, and will was broken up. The one primitive language is now lost, dispersed amidst the various tongues which have severally appropriated its fragments, about to rise again with reunited parts in a new and heavenly form when Jehovah will "turn to the people a pure language, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:9). "And the Lord shall be king over all the earth; in that day shall there be one Lord, and His name one" (Zechariah 14:9). The fact that the Bible names in Genesis 1-10 are Hebrew does not prove it the primitive tongue, for with the change of language the traditional names were adapted to the existing dialect, without any sacrifice of truth. ... The earnest of the coming restoration was given in the gift of tongues at Pentecost, when the apostles spoke with other tongues, so that "devout men out of every nation under heaven" heard them speak in their own tongues "the wonderful works of God. " The confusion of tongues was not at random, but a systematic distribution of languages for the purpose of a systematic distribution of man in emigration. The dispersion was orderly, the differences of tongue corresponding to the differences of race: as Genesis 10:5; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:31, "By these were . . . Gentiles divided in their lands, every one after his tongue, after their families in their nations. "... ORIGIN. Genesis (Genesis 10:8-10) represents Nimrod as the son of Cush (Ethiopia), and that "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel (Babylon)" Bunsen held that there were no Cushites out of Africa, and that an "Asiatic Cush existed only in the imagination of Biblical interpreters," and was "the child of their despair. "... But the earliest Babylonian monuments show that the primitive Babylonians whose structures by Nebuchadnezzar's time were in ruins, had a vocabulary undoubtedly Cushite or Ethiopian, analogous to the Galla tongue in Abyssinia. Sir H. Rawlinson was able to decipher the inscriptions chiefly by the help of the Galla (Abyssinian) and Mahra (S. Arabian) dialects. The system of writing resembled the Egyptian, being pictorial and symbolic, often both using the same symbols. Several words of the Babylonians and their kinsmen the Susianians are identical with ancient Egyptian or Ethiopic roots: thus, hyk or hak, found in the Egyptian name hyksos or shepherd kings, appears in Babylonian and Susianian names as khak. Tirkhak is common to the royal lists of Susiana and Ethiopia, as Nimrod appears in those of both Babylon and Egypt. ... As Ra was the Egyptian sun god, so was Ra the Cushite name of the supreme god of the Babylonians. Traces appear in the Babylonian inscriptions of all the four great dialects, Hamitic, Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian, which show that here the original one language existed before the confusion of tongues. The Babylonian and Assyrian traditions point to an early connection between Ethiopia, S. Arabia, and the cities on the lower Euphrates near its mouth. A first Cushite empire (Lenormant quoted by G. Rawlinson) ruled in Babylonia centuries before the earliest Semitic empire arose. Chedorlaomer (or Lagomer, an idol), king of Elam, is represented in Genesis 14 as leader of the other kings including the king of Shinar (Babylonia). Now Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions show that Elam (Elymais or Susiana, between Babylonia and Persia) maintained its independence through the whole Assyrian period, and that at a date earlier than that commonly assigned to Abraham (2286 B. C. ) an Elamite king plundered Babylonia. ... About this date a Babylonian king is designated in the inscriptions "ravager of Syria. " Originally "the gate of the god's" temple, whereat justice used to be ministered, Babel or Babylon was secondary in importance at first to the other cities, Erech, Ur, and Ellasar. The earliest seat of the Chaldaeans' power was close on the Persian gulf; as Berosus, their historian, intimates by attributing their civilization to Oannes the fish god, "who brought it out of the sea. " Naturally the rich alluvial soil near the mouth of great rivers would be the first occupied. Thence they went higher up the river, and finally fixed at Babylon, 300 miles above the Persian gulf, and 200 above the junction of the Tigris with the Euphrates. ... SIZE AND GENERAL FEATURES. So extensive was it that those in the center knew not when the extremities were captured (Jeremiah 51:31). Herodotus gives the circumference as 60 miles, the whole forming a quadrangle, of which each side was 15 miles. M. Oppert confirms this by examinations on the spot, which show an area within the wall of 200 square miles. The arable and pasture land within was enough to supply all its inhabitants' requirements. The population has been conjectured at 1,200,000. The wall was pierced with 100 gates of brass, 25 gates on each side (Isaiah 45:2). The breadth and height of the walls (the latter almost as great as that of the dome of Paul's Cathedral; 350 ft. high, 87 broad) are alluded to in Jeremiah 51:58; Jeremiah 51:53. A deep wide moat of water surrounded the wall, the 30 lower courses of bricks were wattled with reeds, and the whole cemented with hot asphalt from Is (Hit). The streets crossed at right a angles, the cross streets to the Euphrates being closed at the river end by brazen gates. ... The temple of Belus was a kind of pyramid, of eight square towers, one above the other, the basement tower being 200 yards each way, and a winding ascent round the tower leading to the summit, on which was a chapel sacred to the god but containing no statue. (Does not this favor the view that the words "whose top . . . unto heaven" mean that it was dedicated to the visible heavens, to which it pointed, and of which therefore it needed no symbol or image?) The "hanging gardens" were a square of 400 ft. each way, which rose in terraces, the topmost being planted with large trees. So the monuments of Nineveh speak of the mounds of the palaces being planted with rows of fir trees. Compare Nahum 2:3, "the fir trees shall be terribly shaken. " Oppert thinks that the lesser measurement of the interior of Babylon given by Strabo, Ctesias, etc. , is due to their giving the measurement of Herodotus' inner wall, which alone remained in their day; Herodotus speaks of the outer wall which could be traced in his time. Movable platforms of wood, stretching from stone pier to stone pier, formed a bridge uniting the two parts of the city. Ctesias says there were 250 towers on the walls to guard the weakest parts. In the midst of each half of the city were fortifications, in one the palace, in the other the temple, of Belus. ... On the W. of the city was an artificial lake, into which the river was turned during the erection of the bridge; when the river was brought back the lake as a marsh defended the city. Herodotus says the Greeks learned from Babylon the pole, the sundial, and the division of the day into twelve parts. The first eclipse on record, a lunar one, was accurately observed at Babylon, March 19th, 721 B. C. Ptolemy has preserved an account of lunar eclipses as far back as this date. Numerous canals intersected the country for drainage and irrigation. Psalms 137:1, "By the waters of Babylon . . . we hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof. " The largest, the royal canal, navigable to merchant vessels, connected the Euphrates and Tigris. ... SITES AND PRESENT STATE. Five miles above Hillah, on the left bank of the Euphrates, enormous mounds mark the site of the capital of S. Babylonia. The principal are three of unbaked brickwork; Babil, the Kasr or palace, and a high mound now surmounted by the tomb of Amram ibn Alb; two parallel lines of rampart, on the E. and parallel to the river, and enclosing between them and it the chief ruins; lower lines immediately on the river (which runs from N. to S. ) and W. of the ruins, also a line on the N. ; a separate heap in a long valley (perhaps the river's ancient bed); two lines of rampart meeting at a right angle, and forming with the river a triangle enclosing all the ruins except Babil. On the W. or right bank of the river the remains are few. Opposite the Amram mound there is a kind of enclosed building. Scattered mounds of the same date with the general mass upon the river exist throughout the region. ... The Birs Nimrud (by G. Smith regarded as the tower of Babel) six miles S. W. of Hillah, and six from the Euphrates, is the most remarkable, 153 1/2 ft. high and 2,000 ft. around the base; surmounted by a tower. It is torn in two nearly the whole way down, and bears traces of fire. G. Smith reads an Assyrian fragment of writing in columns to the effect that "wickedness of men caused the gods to overthrow Babel; what they built in the day the god overthrew in the night; in his anger he scattered them abroad; their counsel was confused. "... Sir H. Rawlinson found by excavation the tower consisted of seven stages of brickwork on an earthen platform three feet high, each stage of different color. The temple was devoted to the seven planets: the first stage, an exact square, was 272 ft. each way, and 26 ft. high, the bricks black with bitumen, probably devoted to Saturn; the second stage 230 ft. square, 26 ft. high, orange bricks, devoted probably to Jupiter; the third, 188 ft. square by 26 ft. high, red bricks, probably devoted to Mars; the fourth, 146 ft. square by 15 ft. high, probably plated with gold and devoted to the sun; the fifth, guessed to be 104 ft. square; the sixth 62 ft. ; the seventh 20 ft. ; but these three, probably dedicated to Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, are too ruinous for measurement. The whole was probably 156 ft. high. The slope with the grand entrance faced N. E. ; the steeper was S. W. It was called "the temple of the seven spheres. " It is thought from the inscriptions to mark the site of Borsippa, beyond the bounds of Babylon. ... The palace of Nebuchadnezzar, E. of the river Sippara, the ancient course of the Euphrates, and that of Neriglissar on the W. of the river, are still distinguishable. The Shebil canal anciently interposed between the Kasr and Babil. Babil is probably the ancient temple of Belus; 140 ft. high, flat at the top, 200 yards long, 140 yards broad (the temple towers of lower Babylonia had all this oblong shape). It was originally coated with fine burnt brick; all the inscribed bricks bear the name of Nebuchadnezzar, who rebuilt it. The shrine, altars, and priests' houses were at the foot within a sacred enclosure. Kasr is Nebuchadnezzar's great palace, a square of 700 yards each way. The pale yellow burnt bricks are stamped with Nebuchadnezzar's name and titles; "Nebuchadnezzar, son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon. " The enameled bricks found bear traces of figures, confirming Ctesias' statement that the walls represented hunting scenes in bright colors. ... The Amram mound is the ancient palace, as old as Babylon itself; its bricks containing the names of kings before Nebuchadnezzar; that king mentions it in his inscriptions. The separate heaps close upon and W. of the river's ancient bed answer to the lesser palace, connected with the greater by a bridge across and a tunnel beneath the river (Ctesias). A mound in the middle of the ancient channel marks the site of the piers of the bridge. The inscription of the bricks with Neriglissar's name marks him as the founder of the lesser palace. The two lines of rampart parallel to the river are probably embankments of the great reservoir mentioned by Nebuchadnezzar in the monuments, and lying E. of his palace. With only "brick for stone," and at first only "slime for mortar," the Babylonians by the forced labor of multitudes erected monuments of genius so vast as to be still among the wonders of the world. ... HISTORY. For the last 3,000 years the world has owed its progress manly to the Semitic and the Indo-European races. But originally the Hamitic races (Egypt and Babylon), now so depressed, took the lead the arts, sciences, and power. The first steps in alphabetical writing, sculpture, painting, astronomy, history, navigation, agriculture, weaving, were taken by them. Berosus, their historian's account of their traditions of the flood, and of the confusion of tongues at Babel, accords with Scripture in most points. Nimrod the son of Cash carne over in ships to lower Mesopotamia, and built Ur on the right of the Euphrates near the mouth. Its inhabitants were Chaldi, i. e. moon worshippers. Hur means "the moon goddess. " Its vocabulary is Cashite or Ethiopian. A dynasty of 11 monarchs followed. One Orchamar Urkhur, in the inscriptions, was the builder of gigantic works. Chedorlaomer of Elam established a short-lived empire, extending to the mountains of Elam and to Palestine and Syria. ... This early Babylonian empire, which subsequently to Chedorlaomer's reign in Elam lasted 458 years, fell by the revision of barbarian hordes, probably Arabs. For seven and a half centuries it was depressed, during which time it became gradually assimilated to the Semitic stock. Nimrod is not mentioned in the Babylonian remains; he probably answers to their god Bel. He united tribes previously independent. The cuneiform inscriptions often designate the people of the lower Euphrates region Kiriath Arbol, "the four nations;" such a confederacy appears in Genesis 14, of which the king of Shinar was one. The southern tetrarchy (arba lisun , "the four tongues," or kiprat 'arbat , "the four nations") consisted of Ur, Huruk, Nipur, and Larsa or Laruncha, answering to the scriptural Ur of the Chaldees, Erech, Calneh, and Ellasar. The northern tetrarchy consisted of Babylon, Borsippa, and Sippara (Sepharvaim): Genesis 10:10-12. ... The Assyrians adopted the Babylonian number on their emigration to the N. The "four tongues" and the fourfold league of Chedorlaomer answer to the fourfold ethnic division, Cushite, Turanian, Semitic, and Aryan. Erech (Warka) and Ur (Mugheir) were then the capitals; the land was Shinar, and the people (according to the monuments) Akkadim (Accad, Genesis 10:10). The remains from these two cities date about 2000 B. C. Writing had begun, for the bricks are stamped with their kings' names. The bricks, rudely molded and of various sizes, are some kiln-burned, others sun-dried; buttresses support their buildings: mortar is unknown, clay and bitumen being substituted. Reed matting compacts the mass, that it may not crumble away. ... The first dynasty of 11 kings probably lasted from 2234 B. C. to 1976 B. C. ; the dynasty succeeding Chedorlaomer's short lived Elamitic empire from 1976 B. C. to 1518 B. C. , 458 years. Then it fell under Semitic influence, Arabia for two and a half centuries, and then (about 1270 B. C. ) under Assyria for five. At the close of the earlier and the beginning of the later Assyrian dynasties it again rose to the importance which it had when it colonized and gave letters and the arts to Assyria, and had the supremacy during the second or great Chaldean dynasty. Rawlinson completes Berosus' chronological scheme. ... DYNASTY - YEARS OF CONTINUANCE - B. C. ... I. of Chaldean kings 2286... II. of 8 Median kings 234 - 2052... III. of 11 Median kings 48 - 2004... IV. of 49 Chaldean kings 458 - 1546... V. of 9 Arabian kings 245 - 1301... VI. of 45 Arabian kings 526 - 775 Pul, a Chaldean 28 - 747... VII. of 13 kings 122 - 625... VIII. of 6 Babylonian kings 87 - 538 Urukh is mentioned earliest on the monuments after Nimrod; his bricks are the lowest down and the rudest in make. Next comes Elgi, "king of Ur. " Kudur Nakhunta of Elam, whose court was at Susa, in 2286 invaded Chaldaea and carried off the Babylonian images. He is identified with Zoroaster (Ziru-Ishtar). Kudur Lagomer (Chedorlaomer, the Cushite) is next in the dynasty, having as vassals Amraphel (Semitic), Arioch (Aryan), Tidal (Turanian or Scythic, or Turgal, "the great chief") reigning over nomadic races (goim , "nations. ") Kudur Mabuk enlarged the dominions of Ur, and was, according to the monuments, Apda Martu, "conqueror of the west. "... The early monarchs reign at Ur, and leave traces no further N. than Niffer. Sin-shada holds court at Erech 25 miles to the N. of Ur; Naram-sin, further N. , at Babylon. Kara-Indas was contemporary with Asshur-bel-nisisu, 1440 B. C. Purna-puriyas with Buzur-Asshur, 1420-1400. Urukh was the Chaldaean builder to whom belongs the credit of designing the Babylonian temple, with its rectangular base facing the four cardinal points, its receding stages, buttresses, drains, and sloped walls, external staircases, and ornamental shrine crowning the whole. No trace of the original Babylon exists in our day. The oldest structures are Urukh's. Kudur Lagomer was the great conqueror, subduing distant Palestine and Syria, a feat not again achieved until Nebuchadnezzar, 1,600 years later. Tiglathi-Nin (1300 B. C. ) conquered Chaldea. Thenceforward, Semitic superseded Cushite influences and the Babylonian kings have Assyrian instead of Turanian or Cushite names. ... The "canon of Ptolemy" gives the succession of Babylonian kings and their lengths of reign, from 747 B. C. (when Nabonassar began to reign) to 331 B. C. (when the last Darius was dethroned by Alexander). Twelve monarchs and two interreigns interpose between Nabonassar and Nabopolassar; then come consecutively Nebuchadnezzar, Illoarudamus, Nerigassolassarus, Nabonadius, Cyrus. Nabonassar destroyed all his predecessors' annals, that the Babylonians might date from himself. There was a Semiramis at this time, a Babylonian queen (Herodotus says) five generations before Nitocris, mother of the last king. Assyrian monuments also place her at this date, but do not expressly connect her with Babylon. Hence, some guess that Nabonassar was her son or husband, Mardocempalus, the fourth king after him, is the Merodach or Berodach Baladan of Scripture; he reigned twice first for 12 years, contemporaneously with the Assyrian Sargon, and the second time for six months only. ... During the first year of Sennacherib his sons and grandsons were at war with Esarhaddon and his successor. He shows his independence of Assyria in his embassy to Hezekiah; and his inquiry as to the astronomical wonder done in the land of Judah, the sun's shadow having gone back on Ahaz' dial, is characteristic of a prince of the Chaldees whose devotion to astronomy is well known. Sargon, according to the inscriptions deprived him of his throne after his first reign of 12 years. Arceanus was made viceroy, and held the post five years. Two years of anarchy followed. Then one Acises reigned a month, and Merodach Baladan held the throne six months, and was then supplanted by Belibus whom Sennacherib made his viceroy for three years and then placed his oldest son Aparanadius on the throne. Two followed, then a second interreign of eight years, and Asaridanus or Esarhaddon followed, son and successor. of Sennacherib. ... He held his court alternately in Nineveh and Babylon, which explains the difficulty and shows the accurate propriety of the Scripture statement that Manasseh, king of Judah, was carried by the captains of the king of Assyria to Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11). A new era begins with Nabopolassar, appointed ruler of Babylon by the last Assyrian king just when the Medes were making their final assault on Nineveh. Nabopolassar deserted to the enemy, arranged a marriage between his son Nebuchadnezzar and the Median leader's daughter, and joined hi besieging the Assyrian capital. (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR. ) On the capture of the city (625 B. C. ) the S. W. of Assyria was assigned to Nabopolassar in the division of the spoil. So the Babylonian empire was extended over the whole Euphrates valley to the Taurus range, over Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Idumaea; and the Jews passed as tributaries under Babylon, as they had been under Assyria. Pharaoh Necho, son of Psamatik I (608 B. C. ) in the later years of Nabopolassar conquered the whole region between Egypt and the Euphrates. ... Josiah, as ally of Babylon, met him in spite of warning and was slain at Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:20-25; 2 Kings 23:29). Nabopolassar sent Nebuchadnezzar; and the latter at the battle of Carchemish, on the Euphrates, regained all the lost territory for Babylon (2 Kings 24:7; Jeremiah 46:2-12. ) Nebuchadnezzar was already at Egypt when news of his father's death recalled him, and he ascended the throne 604 B. C. He reigned 43 years, during which he recovered Syria and Palestine, destroyed Jerusalem, and carried away the Jews to Babylon, reduced Phoenicia and Tyre, and ravaged Egypt; above all he was the great builder of the most beautiful monuments of his country and city. His palace with threefold enclosure, plated pillars, enameled brick, and hanging gardens, was celebrated throughout the civilized world. ... The ruins of ancient temples repaired by him, and cities restored and adorned, still attest his genius, with their bricks inscribed with his name. How appropriate the language assigned to him in Daniel 4:29-30, as he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon, possibly on the highest terrace of the hanging gardens: "Is not, this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power and for the honor of my majesty?" Evil Merodach, his son, succeeded in 561 B. C. , who in the beginning of his reign "did lift up the head of Jehoiachin, king of Judah, out of prison" (2 Kings 25:27; Jeremiah 52:31). After a two years' reign, in consequence of bad government he was murdered by Neriglissar, his brother-in-law, the Nergal Sharezer, Rabmag (chief of the magi, or priests, a title assigned to Neriglissar in the inscriptions) of Jeremiah 39:3; Jeremiah 39:13-14. He calls himself in the inscriptions "son," i. e. son in law of the "king of Babylon. " He built the palace on the right bank of the ancient bed of the Euphrates. ... Nabonidus the last king was an usurper who seized Laborosoarched, Neriglissar's son, after a nine months' reign, and tortured him to death. He only claims for his father the rank of Rabmag. Herodotus makes him son of a queen Nitocris and Labynetus; but the inscriptions do not directly support his having any connection with Nebuchadnezzar. Probably Balshazzar was grandson of Nebuchadnezzar, as indeed is asserted by Scripture (Jeremiah 27:7; Daniel 5:2; Daniel 5:11; Daniel 5:13), and was suffered by the usurper Nabonahit (as Nabonidus is called in the inscriptions), who adopted him as son, to be subordinate king and his acknowledged successor, in order to conciliate the legitimate party; perhaps Nabonahit married Nebuchadnezzar's daughter or granddaughter (Nitocris) to strengthen his throne, and by her was father to Belshazzar. Nabonahit (as Berosus records) having allied himself to Creeses, king of Lydia, Cyrus' enemy, brought on himself Cyrus' assault of Babylon in 539 B. C. He headed the forces in the field, while Belshazzar commanded in the city. ... Shut up in Borsippa (Birs-i-Nimrud, the sacred city of the Babylonians, containing their most revered objects of religion and science) he surrendered and was spared, and Cyrus gave him an estate in Carmania. Belshazzar (from Bel the idol, and shat, a prince), by a self confident careless watch and unseasonable and profane revelry (Daniel 5), allowed Cyrus' forces on a great Babylonian festival to enter by the bed of the river which the invader had drained into another channel, and was slain. Babylon's capture by surprise during a festival was foretold in Jeremiah 51:31; Jeremiah 51:39, and that the capture should be by the Medes and Persians, 170 years earlier in Isaiah 21:1-9. Thus, Berosus' account of the king not being slain, and Daniel's account of his being slain, supposed once to be an insurmountable difficulty, is fully cleared up by the monuments. ... Rawlinson found clay cylinders in Umqeer (Ur of the Chaldees), two of which mention Belshazzar as oldest son of Nabonahit. Berosus gives the Chaldaean account, which suppresses all about Belshazzar, as being to the national dishonor. Had the book of Daniel been the work of a late forger, he would have followed Berosus' account which was the later one. If he gave a history different from that current in Babylonia, the Jews of that region would not have received it as true. Darius the Mede took the kingdom at the age of 62, upon Belshazzar's death. Rawlinson thinks that he was set up by Cyrus, the captor of Babylon, as viceroy there, and that he is identical with the Median king Astyages, son of Ahasuerus (Cyaxares), whom Cyrus, the Persian king, deposed but treated kindly. The phrase (Daniel 9:1), "Darius, son of Ahasuerus (Cyaxares), of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldaeans," implies that Darius owed the kingdom to another, i. e. Cyrus. ... Herodotus makes Astyages the last king of the Medes, and that he was conquered by Cyrus and left no issue. Josephus, on the contrary (Ant. 10:11, section 4), makes Darius = Cyaxares II, son of Astyages (Ahasuerus). Able critics (Hengstenberg, etc. ) think his reign was ignored by Herodotus, etc. , because through indolence he yielded the real power to his nephew Cyrus, who married his daughter and received the crown at his death. Xenophon, in his romantic story (Cyropaedia), mentions Cyaxares II. Thus, Cyrus, in assaulting Babylon, acted in his name, which accounts for the prominence given t
Arabia - A vast country of Asia, extending one thousand five hundred miles from north to south, and one thousand two hundred from east to west; containing a surface equal to four times that of France. The near approach of the Euphrates to the Mediterranean constitutes it a peninsula, the largest in the world. It is called Jezirat-el-Arab by the Arabs; and by the Persians and Turks, Arebistan. This is one of the most interesting countries on the face of the earth. It has, in agreement with prophecy, never been subdued; and its inhabitants, at once pastoral, commercial, and warlike, are the same wild, wandering people as the immediate descendants of their great ancestor Ishmael are represented to have been. ... Arabia, or at least the eastern and northern parts of it, were first peopled by some of the numerous families of Cush, who appear to have extended themselves, or to have given their name as the land of Cush, or Asiatic Ethiopia, to all the country from the Indus on the east, to the borders of Egypt on the west, and from Armenia on the north to Arabia Deserta on the south. By these Cushites, whose first plantations were on both sides of the Euphrates and Gulf of Persia, and who were the first that traversed the desert of Arabia, the earliest commercial communications were established between the east and the west. But of their Arabian territory, and of the occupation dependent on it, they were deprived by the sons of Abraham, Ishmael, and Midian; by whom they were obliterated in this country as a distinct race, either by superiority of numbers after mingling with them, or by obliging them to recede altogether to their more eastern possessions, or over the Gulf of Arabia into Africa. From this time, that is, about five hundred and fifty years after the flood, we read only of Ishmaelites and Midianites as the shepherds and carriers of the deserts; who also appear to have been intermingled, and to have shared both the territory and the traffic, as the traders who bought Joseph are called by both names, and the same are probably referred to by Jeremiah , 25, as "the mingled people that dwell in the desert. " But Ishmael maintained the superiority, and succeeded in giving his name to the whole people. ... Arabia, it is well known, is divided by geographers into three separate regions, called Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. ... The first, or Arabia Petraea, is the northwestern division, and is bounded on the north by Palestine and the Dead Sea, on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by the Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. The greater part of this division was more exclusively the possession of the Midianites, or land of Midian; where Moses, having fled from Egypt, married the daughter of Jethro, and spent forty years keeping the flocks of his father-in-law: no humiliating occupation in those days, and particularly in Midian, which was a land of shepherds; the whole people having no other way of life than that of rearing and tending their flocks, or in carrying the goods they received from the east and south into Phenicia and Egypt. The word flock, used here, must not convey the idea naturally entertained in our own country of sheep only, but, together with these or goats, horned cattle and camels, the most indispensable of animals to the Midianite. It was a mixed flock of this kind which was the sole care of Moses, during a third part of his long life; in which he must have had abundance of leisure, by night and by day, to reflect on the unhappy condition of his own people, still enduring all the rigours of slavery in Egypt. It was a similar flock also which the daughters of Jethro were watering when first encountered by Moses; a trifling event in itself, but important in the history of the future leader of the Jews; and showing, at the same time, the simple life of the people among whom he was newly come, as well as the scanty supply of water in their country, and the strifes frequently occasioned in obtaining a share of it. Through a considerable part of this region, the Israelites wandered after they had escaped from Egypt; and in it were situated the mountains Horeb and Sinai. Beside the tribes of Midian, which gradually became blended with those of Ishmael, this was the country of the Edomites, the Amalekites, and the Nabathaei, the only tribe of pure Ishmaelites within its precincts. But all those families have long since been confounded under the general name of Arabs. The greater part of this district consists of naked rocks and sandy and flinty plains; but it contained also some fertile spots, particularly in the peninsula of Mount Sinai, and through the long range of Mount Seir. ... The second region, or Arabia Deserta, is bounded on the north and north- east by the Euphrates, on the east by a ridge of mountains which separates it from Chaldea, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea. This was more particularly the country first of the Cushites, and afterward of the Ishmaelites; as it is still of their descendants, the modern Bedouins, who maintain the same predatory and wandering habits. It consists almost entirely of one vast and lonesome wilderness, a boundless level of sand, whose dry and burning surface denies existence to all but the Arab and his camel. Yet, widely scattered over this dreary waste, some spots of comparative fertility are to be found, where, spread around a feeble spring of brackish water, a stunted verdure, or a few palm trees, fix the principal settlement of a tribe, and afford stages of refreshment in these otherwise impassable deserts. Here, with a few dates, the milk of his faithful camel, and perhaps a little corn, brought by painful journeys from distant regions, or plundered from a passing caravan, the Arab supports a hard existence, until the failure of his resources impels him to seek another ... oasis, or the scanty herbage furnished on a patch of soil by transient rains; or else, which is frequently the case, to resort, by more distant migration, to the banks of the Euphrates; or, by hostile inroads on the neighbouring countries, to supply those wants which the recesses of the desert have denied. The numbers leading this wandering and precarious mode of life are incredible. From these deserts Zerah drew his army of a million of men; and the same deserts, fifteen hundred years after, poured forth the countless swarms, which, under Mohammed and his successors, devastated half of the then known world. ... The third region, or Arabia Felix, so denominated from the happier condition of its soil and climate, occupies the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the north by the two other divisions of the country; on the south and south-east by the Indian Ocean; on the east by part of the same ocean and the Persian Gulf; and on the west by the Red Sea. This division is subdivided into the kingdoms or provinces of Yemen, at the southern extremity of the peninsula; Hejaz, on the north of the former, and toward the Red Sea; Nejed, in the central region; and Hadramant and Oman, on the shores of the Indian Ocean. The four latter subdivisions partake of much of the character of the other greater divisions of the country, though of a more varied surface, and with a larger portion capable of cultivation. But Yemen seems to belong to another country and climate. It is very mountainous, is well watered with rains and springs, and is blessed with an abundant produce in corn and fruits, and especially in coffee, of which vast quantities are exported. In this division were the ancient citrus of Nysa, Musa or Moosa, and Aden. This is also supposed to have been the country of the queen of Sheba. In Hejaz are the celebrated cities of Mecca and Medina. ... Arabia Felix is inhabited by a people who claim Joktan for their father, and so trace their descent direct from Shem, instead of Abraham and Ham. They are indeed a totally different people from those inhabiting the other quarters, and pride themselves on being the only pure and unmixed Arabs. Instead of being shepherds and robbers, they are fixed in towns and cities; and live by agriculture and commerce, chiefly maritime. Here were the people who were found by the Greeks of Egypt enjoying an entire monopoly of the trade with the east, and possessing, a high degree, of wealth, and consequent refinement. It was here, in the ports of Sabaea, that the spices, muslins, and precious stones of India, were for many ages obtained by the Greek traders of Egypt, before they had acquired skill or courage sufficient to pass the straits of the Red Sea; which were long considered by the nations of Europe to be the produce of Arabia itself. These articles, before the invention of shipping, or the establishment of a maritime intercourse, were conveyed across the deserts by the Cushite, Ishmaelite, and Midianite carriers. It was the produce partly of India, and partly of Arabia, which the travelling merchants, to whom Joseph was sold, were carrying into Egypt. The balm and myrrh were probably Arabian, as they are still the produce of the same country; but the spicery was undoubtedly brought farther from the east. These circumstances are adverted to, to show how extensive was the communication, in which the Arabians formed the principal link: and that in the earliest ages of which we have any account, in those of Joseph, of Moses, of Isaiah, and of Ezekiel, "the mingled people" inhabiting the vast Arabian deserts, the Cushites, Ishmaelites, and Midianites, were the chief agents in that commercial intercourse which has, from the most remote period of antiquity, subsisted between the extreme east and west. And although the current of trade is now turned, caravans of merchants, the descendants of these people, may still be found traversing the same deserts, conveying the same articles, and in the same manner as described by Moses!... The singular and important fact that Arabia has never been conquered, has already been cursorily adverted to. But Mr. Gibbon, unwilling to pass by an opportunity of cavilling at revelation, says, "The perpetual independence of the Arabs has been the theme of praise among strangers and natives; and the arts of controversy transform this singular event into a prophecy and a miracle in favour of the posterity of Ishmael. Some exceptions, that can neither be dissembled nor eluded, render this mode of reasoning as indiscreet as it is superfluous. The kingdom of Yemen has been successively subdued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sultans of Egypt, and the Turks; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed under a Scythian tyrant; and the Roman province of Arabia embraced the peculiar wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons must have pitched their tents in the face of their brethren. " But this learned writer has, with a peculiar infelicity, annulled his own argument; and we have only to follow on the above passage, to obtain a complete refutation of the unworthy position with which it begins: "Yet these exceptions," says Mr. Gibbon, "are temporary or local; the body of the nation has escaped the yoke of the most powerful monarchies: the arms of Sesostris and Cyrus, of Pompey, and Trajan, could never achieve the conquest of Arabia; the present sovereign of the Turks may exercise a shadow of jurisdiction, but his pride is reduced to solicit the friendship of a people whom it is dangerous to provoke, and fruitless to attack. The obvious causes of their freedom are inscribed on the character and country of the Arabs. Many ages before Mohammed, their intrepid valour had been severely felt by their neighbours; in offensive and defensive war. The patient and active virtues of a soldier are insensibly nursed in the habits and discipline of a pastoral life. The care of the sheep and camels is abandoned to the women of the tribe; but the martial youth, under the banner of the emir, is ever on horseback and in the field, to practise the exercise of the bow, the javelin, and the scimitar. The long memory of their independence is the firmest pledge of its perpetuity; and succeeding generations are animated to prove their descent, and to maintain their inheritance. Their domestic feuds are suspended on the approach of a common enemy; and in their last hostilities against the Turks, the caravan of Mecca was attacked and pillaged by four score thousand of the confederates. When they advance to battle, the hope of victory is in the front, in the rear the assurance of a retreat. Their horses and camels, who in eight or ten days can perform a march of four or five hundred miles, disappear before the conqueror; the secret waters of the desert elude his search; and his victorious troops are consumed with thirst, hunger, and fatigue, in the pursuit of an invisible foe, who scorns his efforts, and safely reposes in the heart of the burning solitude. The arms and deserts of the Bedouins are not only the safeguards of their own freedom, but the barriers also of the happy Arabia, whose inhabitants, remote from war, are enervated by the luxury of the soil and climate. The legions of Augustus melted away in disease and lassitude; and it is only by a naval power that the reduction of Yemen has been successfully attempted. When Mohammed erected his holy standard, that kingdom was a province of the Persian empire; yet seven princes of the Homerites still reigned in the mountains; and the vicegerent of Chosroes was tempted to forget his distant country and his unfortunate master. "... Yemen was the only Arabian province which had the appearance of submitting to a foreign yoke; but even here, as Mr. Gibbon himself acknowledges, seven of the native princes remained unsubdued: and even admitting its subjugation to have been complete, the perpetual independence of the Ishmaelites remains unimpeached. For this is not their country. Petra, the capital of the Stony Arabia, and the principal settlement of the Nabathaei, it is true, was long in the hands of the Persians and Romans; but this never made them masters of the country. Hovering troops of Arabs confined the intruders within their walls, and cut off their supplies; and the possession of this fortress gave as little reason to the Romans to exult as the conquerors of Arabia Petraea, as that of Gibraltar does to us to boast of the conquest of Spain. ... The Arabian tribes were confounded by the Greeks and Romans under the indiscriminate appellation of Saracens; a name whose etymology has been variously, but never satisfactorily, explained. This was their general name when Mohammed appeared in the beginning of the seventh century. Their religion at this time was Sabianism, or the worship of the sun, moon, &c; variously transformed by the different tribes, and intermingled with some Jewish and Christian maxims and traditions. The tribes themselves were generally at variance, from some hereditary and implacable animosities; and their only warfare consisted in desultory skirmishes arising out of these feuds, and in their predatory excursions, where superiority of numbers rendered courage of less value than activity and vigilance. Yet of such materials Mohammed constructed a mighty empire; converted the relapsed Ishmaelites into good Musselmen; united the jarring tribes under one banner; supplied what was wanting in personal courage by the ardour of religious zeal; and out of a banditti, little known and little feared beyond their own deserts, raised an armed multitude, which proved the scourge of the world. ... Mohammed was born in the year 569, of the noble tribe of the Koreish, and descended, according to eastern historians, in a direct line from Ishmael. ... His person is represented as beautiful, his manners engaging, and his eloquence powerful; but he was illiterate, like the rest of his countrymen, and indebted to a Jewish or Christian scribe for penning his Koran. Whatever the views of Mohammed might have been in the earlier part of his life, it was not till the fortieth year of his age that he avowed his mission as the Apostle of God: when so little credit did he gain for his pretensions, that in the first three years he could only number fourteen converts; and even at the end of ten years his labours and his friends were alike confined within the walls of Mecca, when the designs of his enemies compelled him to fly to Medina, where he was favourably received by a party of the most considerable inhabitants, who had recently imbibed his doctrines at Mecca. This flight, or Hegira, was made the Mohammedan aera, from which time is computed, and corresponds with the 16th of July, 622, of the Christian aera. Mohammed now found himself sufficiently powerful to throw aside all reserve; declared that he was commanded to compel unbelievers by the sword to receive the faith of one God, and his prophet Mohammed; and confirming his credulous followers by the threats of eternal pain on the one hand, and the allurements of a sensual paradise on the other, he had, before his death, which happened in the year 632, gained over the whole of Arabia to his imposture. His death threw a temporary gloom over his cause, and the disunion of his followers threatened its extinction. Any other empire placed in the same circumstances would have crumbled to pieces; but the Arabs felt their power; they revered their founder as the chosen prophet of God; and their ardent temperament, animated by a religious enthusiasm, gave an earnest of future success, and encouraged the zeal or the ambition of their leaders. The succession, after some bloodshed, was settled, and unnumbered hordes of barbarians were ready to carry into execution the sanguinary dictates of their prophet; and, with "the Koran, tribute, or death," as their motto to invade the countries of the infidels. During the whole of the succeeding century, their rapid career was unchecked; the disciplined armies of the Greeks and Romans were unable to stand against them; the Christian churches of Asia and Africa were annihilated; and from India to the Atlantic, through Persia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Egypt, with the whole of northern Africa, Spain, and part of France, the impostor was acknowledged. Constantinople was besieged; Rome itself was plundered; and nothing less than the subjection of the whole Christian world was meditated on the one hand, and tremblingly expected on the other. ... All this was wonderful; but the avenging justice of an incensed Deity, and the sure word of prophecy, relieve our astonishment. It was to punish an apostate race, that the Saracen locusts were let loose upon the earth; and the countries which they were permitted to ravage were those in which the pure light of revelation had been most abused. The eastern church was sunk in gross idolatry; vice, and wickedness prevailed in their worst forms; and those who still called themselves Christians trusted more to images, relics, altars, austerities, and pilgrimages, than to a crucified Saviour. ... About a hundred and eighty years from the foundation of Bagdad, during which period the power of the Saracens had gradually declined, a dreadful reaction took place in the conquered countries. The Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and, assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy in the year 936. A succession of nominal caliphs continued to the year 1258: but the provinces were lost; their power was confined to the walls of their capital; and they were in real subjection to the Turks and the Persians until the above year, when Mostacem, the last of the Abbassides, was dethroned and murdered by Holagou, or Hulaku, the Tartar, the grandson of Zingis. This event, although it terminated the foreign dominion of the Arabians, left their native independence untouched. They were no longer, indeed, the masters of the finest parts of the three great divisions of the ancient world: their work was finished; and returning to the state in which Mohammed found them three centuries before, with the exception of the change in their religion, they remained, and still remain, the unconquered rovers of the desert. ... It is not the least singular circumstance in the history of this extraordinary people, that those who, in the enthusiasm of their first successes, were the sworn foes of literature, should become for several ages its exclusive patrons. Almansor, the founder of Bagdad, has the merit of first exciting this spirit, which was encouraged in a still greater degree by his grandson Almamon. This caliph employed his agents in Armenia, Syria, Egypt, and at Constantinople, in collecting the most celebrated works on Grecian science, and had them translated into the Arabic language. Philosophy, astronomy, geometry, and medicine, were thus introduced and taught; public schools were established; and learning, which had altogether fled from Europe, found an asylum on the banks of the Tigris. Nor was this spirit confined to the capital: native works began to appear; and by the hands of copyists were multiplied out of number, for the information of the studious, or the pride of the wealthy. The rage for literature extended to Egypt and to Spain. In the former country, the Fatimites collected a library of a hundred thousand manuscripts, beautifully transcribed, and very elegantly bound; and in the latter, the Ommiades formed another of six hundred thousand volumes; forty-four of which were employed in the catalogue. Their capital, Cordova, with the towns of Malaga, Almeria, and Murcia, produced three hundred writers; and seventy public libraries were established in the cities of Andalusia. What a change since the days of Omar, when the splendid library of the Ptolemies was wantonly destroyed by the same people! A retribution, though a slight one, was thus made for their former devastations; and many Grecian works, lost in the original, have been recovered in their Arabic dress. Neither was this learning confined to mere parade, though much of it must undoubtedly have been so. Their proficiency in astronomy and geometry is attested by their astronomical tables, and by the accuracy with which, in the plain of Chaldea, a degree of the great circle of the earth was measured. But it was in medicine that, in this dark age, the Arabians shone most: the works of Hippocrates and Galen had been translated and commented on; their physicians were sought after by the princes of Asia and Europe; and the names of Rhazis, Albucasis, and Avicenna are still revered by the members of the healing art. So little, indeed, did the physicians of Europe in that age know of the history of their own science, that they were astonished, on the revival of learning, to find in the ancient Greek authors those systems for which they thought themselves indebted to the Arabians!... The last remnant of Arabian science was found in Spain; from whence it was expelled in the beginning of the seventeenth century, by the intemperate bigots of that country, who have never had any thing of their own with which to supply its place. The Arabians are the only people who have preserved their descent, their independence, their language, and their manners and customs, from the earliest ages to the present times; and it is among them that we are to look for examples of patriarchal life and manners. A very lively sketch of this mode of life is given by Sir R. K. Porter, in the person and tribe of an Arab sheik, whom he encountered in the neighbourhood of the Euphrates. "I had met this warrior," says Sir R. K. P. , "at the house of the British resident at Bagdad; and came, according to his repeated wish, to see him in a place more consonant with his habits, the tented field; and, as he expressed it, ‘at the head of his children. ' As soon as we arrived in sight of his camp, we were met by crowds of its inhabitants, who, with a wild and hurrying delight, led us toward the tent of their chief. The venerable old man came forth to the door, attended by his subjects of all sizes and descriptions, and greeted us with a countenance beaming kindness, while his words, which our interpreter explained, were demonstrative of patriarchal welcome. One of my Hindoo troopers spoke Arabic, hence the substance of our succeeding discourse was not lost on each other. Having entered, I sat down by my host; and the whole of the persons present, to far beyond the boundaries of the tent, (the sides of which were open,) seated themselves also, without any regard to those more civilized ceremonies of subjection, the crouching of slaves, or the standing of vassalage. These persons, in rows beyond rows, appeared just as he had described, the offspring of his house, the descendants of his fathers, from age to age; and like brethren, whether holding the highest or the lowest rank, they seemed to gather round their common parent. But perhaps their sense of perfect equality in the mind of their chief could not be more forcibly shown, than in the share they took in the objects which appeared to interest his feelings; and as I looked from the elders or leaders of the people, seated immediately around him, to the circles beyond circles of brilliant faces, bending eagerly toward him and his guest, (all, from the most respectably clad to those with hardly a garment covering their active limbs, earnest to evince some attention to the stranger he bade welcome,) I thought I had never before seen so complete an assemblage of fine and animated countenances, both old and young: nor could I suppose a better specimen of the still existing state of the true Arab; nor a more lively picture of the scene which must have presented itself, ages ago, in the fields of Haran, when Terah sat in his tent door, surrounded by his sons, and his sons' sons, and the people born in his house. The venerable Arabian sheik was also seated on the ground with a piece of carpet spread under him; and, like his ancient Chaldean ancestor, turned to the one side and the other, graciously answering or questioning the groups around him, with an interest in them all which clearly showed the abiding simplicity of his government, and their obedience. On the smallest computation, such must have been the manners of these people for more than three thousand years; thus, in all things, verifying the prediction given of Ishmael at his birth, that he, in his posterity, should ‘be a wild man,' and always continue to be so, though ‘he shall dwell for ever in the presence of his brethren. ' And that an acute and active people, surrounded for ages by polished and luxurious nations, should from their earliest to their latest times, be still found a wild people, dwelling in the presence of all their brethren, (as we may call these nations,) unsubdued and unchangeable, is, indeed, a standing miracle: one of those mysterious facts which establish the truth of prophecy. " But although the manners of the Arabians have remained unaltered through so many ages, and will probably so continue, their religion, as we have seen, has sustained an important change; and must again, in the fulness of time, give place to a faith more worthy of the people. ... St. Paul first preached the Gospel in Arabia, Galatians 1:17 . Christian churches were subsequently founded, and many of their tribes embraced Christianity prior to the fifth century; most of which appear to have been tinctured with the Nestorian heresy. At this time, however, it does not appear that the Arabians had any version of the Scriptures in their own language, to which some writers attribute the ease with which they were drawn into the Mohammedan delusion; while the "Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, Abyssinians, Copts, and others," who enjoyed that privilege, were able to resist it. ...
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - Expression, often in the context of future events, which refers to the time when God will intervene decisively for judgment and/or salvation. Variously formulated as the "day of the Lord" (Amos 5:18 ), the "day of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1Col 1:8; cf. 2Col 1:14), the "day of God" (2 Peter 3:12 ; Revelation 16:14 ), or "the last day(s), " the expression highlights the unmistakable appearance of God. God will make visible his rule of righteousness by calling for an accounting by the nations as well as individuals, dispensing punishment for some and ushering in salvation for others. ... In the Old Testament the expression "day of the Lord" occurs eighteen times in prophetic literature, most often in the books of Joel and Zephaniah. It is not found in Daniel. A similar expression that stands close to it is "on that day, " which occurs 208 times in the Old Testament; half the occurrences are in the prophets. In the New Testament, equivalent expressions, such as "day of Jesus Christ, " are found in 1 Corinthians 1:8 ; 2 Corinthians 1:14 ; Philippians 1:6,10 ; and 2 Peter 3:10,12 . "Day of the Lord" appears in 2 Thessalonians 2:2 . ... Origin of the Expression . The origin of the expression is in dispute. Some suggest that it is anchored in creation vocabulary (e. g. , the seventh day as especially God's day). Others point to Israel's history, theologically interpreted. Scholars have suggested a cultic ritual, such as the day of a king's enthronement, as providing the setting for the expression. More likely, however, is the proposal that the wars of the Lord in Israel's history serve as the background, since battle images abound (Joel 3:9-10 ; Revelation 16:14 ) and issues of jurisdiction and authority are central to the day of the Lord. ... The Quality of the Day . A cluster of various meanings belong to the expression, "day of the Lord. " Its first occurrence (Amos 5:18 ), for example, does not refer to the end of the world; in the New Testament, however, such a meaning emerges. ... In biblical thought the character or quality of a day (time period) was of greater importance than its date (the numerical quantity in a sequence). From the first mention of the expression by Amos (although some date Obadiah 15 and Joel earlier), the notion of divine intervention, of a "God who comes" is evident. Israel anticipated that for them God's coming would hold favorable prospects, that it would be a day of light. Amos announces that, given Israel's great evil, God's coming will signal for them disappointment and calamity, a day of darkness. Predominant in the divine intervention is the awesome presence of the Almighty. It is as though God not only comes on the scene, but fills the screen of all that is. His presence totally dominates. Human existence pales before this giant reality. On that day, "all hands will go limp, every man's heart will melt" (Isaiah 13:7 ). At a later time the descriptions move beyond human experience. The cosmos will go into convulsions. In stereotyped language it is said that the sun will refuse to give its light, the moon and the stars will cease to shine (Isaiah 13:10 ). Joel, preoccupied with the subject, cites wonders in heaven and on earth, including the moon turning to blood (Joel 2:30-31 ). ... In the New Testament the appearance of God is more distinctly the coming of Christ, specifically the return of Christ, his second coming. Paul's mention of the "day of our Lord Jesus Christ" (1 Corinthians 1:8 ) is likely the day of "the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered together to him" (2 Thessalonians 2:1 ). Whether the day is the parousia, or the climax of history and all things as in the "day of God" when the dissolution of the heavens occurs (2 Peter 3:12 ), the "day" will be characterized by the unquestioned and unmistakable presence of Almighty God. ... As depicted by Joel, the day of the Lord means decision: "Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision" (3:14). A verdict will be rendered. God will adjudicate peoples. His decision for some nations, such as Tyre, Sidon, Moab, Philistia, and Assyria, will be punishment (Joel 3:4-13 ; cf. Zephaniah 2:6-15 ). Divine judgment will be executed. On that day a decision will be rendered against everything proud (Isaiah 2:12-18 ). God Acts with dispatch as he judges nations in the Valley of Jehoshaphat (Joel 3:2,12-13 ). The decision for others will have a saving dimension, for God's promise of blessing will be activated and realized (Joel 3:18-21 ). ... The Calendaring of the Day . The "day of the Lord" is not a one-time occurrence. Days of the Lord, while often represented in the Bible as in the future, are not limited to the future. There have been days of the Lord in the past. The catastrophe of the fall of Jerusalem in 587 b. c. was described as a "day of the Lord" (Lamentations 2:21 ). Isaiah says that the day of the Lord will involve the fall of Babylon. God's agency will be recognized, for he will "make the heavens tremble; and the earth will shake from its place" (Isaiah 13:13 ). God's immediate agent will be the Medes whom he will stir up against Babylon; their action will be decisive. "Babylon, the jewel of kingdoms, the glory of the Babylonians' pride, will be overthrown by God like Sodom and Gomorrah" (13:19). Historically, that event is to be dated to 539 b. c. Joel, in turn, describes a grasshopper plague that for him represents the day of the Lord as imminent, even immediate. The day of Pentecost, now history, is described as the day of the Lord (Acts 2:16-21 ). ... Still, for the prophets and for many of the New Testament writers, the day of the Lord points to the future. That future may be centuries distant, as in Isaiah's prophecy about Babylon (chap. 13) or Joel's prophecy about the Spirit (2:28-32), or it may be in the far distant future. Isaiah's language about the universal humiliation of the lofty and arrogant indicates a grand finale, possibly at the end of history (2:12-18). The New Testament, while speaking of the Christ event as a day of the Lord (Acts 2:16-21 ), also speaks of the anticipated day of Christ as his return (2 Thessalonians 2:1-2 ), which is yet, after almost two thousand years, still future. The surprise factor (it will come "like a thief in the night") is a marked feature of the day in the New Testament (1 Thessalonians 5:2,4 ; 2 Peter 3:10 ). Eventually the day of the Lord (God) came to mean the termination of the world. ... The Day of the Lord as a Day of Calamity . The day of the Lord means destruction of the godless. With metaphor the prophets excel in describing the calamitous aspect of day of the Lord. Amos speaks of it as a day of darkness (5:18). Joel depicts it as a day of clouds and thick darkness (2:2). Zephaniah's description (1:15-16a) is vivid as he mixes direct description and metaphor: ... That day will be a day of wrath, A day of distress and anguish A day of trouble and ruin, A day of darkness and gloom, A day of clouds and blackness A day of trumpet and battle cry. Isaiah describes a massive leveling; whatever is lofty will be brought low (2:12-17). A frequent metaphor is war. Isaiah invokes the war model to characterize the day of the Lord—"The Lord Almighty is mustering an army for war" (13:4). With war comes fear and cruelty. The opponents are afraid; "pain and anguish will grip them They will look aghast at each other" (13:8). Joel describes the Lord's army: "They charge like warriors; they scale walls like soldiers. They all march in line" (2:7). Their effectiveness is telling: "Before them fire devours, behind them a flame blazes. Before them the land is like the garden of Eden, behind them, a desert waste" (2:3). The effect is awesome: "Before them the earth shakes, the sky trembles" (2:10). Zephaniah, emphasizing the destructive nature of that day, compares it to a sacrifice (1:8). In keeping with the motif of fire, the Septuagint renders Malachi 3:19 : "For the day of the Lord is coming burning like an oven. " The New Testament only confirms the destructive character of the "day" (1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 ). The author of 2Peter reiterates the theme of fire and explains that by fire the earth and the elements themselves will be destroyed. The heavens will disappear, also by fire (2 Peter 3:10-11 ). ... The elaborate description of the day of the Lord in Joel is about calamity for Israel. Drought has paralyzed the economy (1:4-12), brought the giving of gifts in worship to a halt (1:13), and jeopardized even the survival of animals (1:18). To forestall total disaster the prophet calls for a fast (1:14; 2:12). Amos depicts a day of darkness for Israel. The reason for such calamity lies in Israel's failure to do justice (5:7,10-12) and her devotion to gods other than Yahweh (5:25-27). Zephaniah announces that great distress will come on the people, to the point that "their blood shall be poured out like dust. " He explains that nothingneither silver nor goldwill be able to save them (1:17-18). It is because the people have been violent and deceitful that such calamity will come (1:9,17). The "day of the Lord" is focused, then, on Israel. Even though they expected their righteousness to be vindicated against their enemies, they were to discover that God's righteousness entailed his move against them. ... Early descriptions of the day are found in the oracles against the nations. Joel graphically depicts a roll call of Tyre, Sidon, and Philistia. They will be judged on the basis of their treatment of Israel, the people of God. These nations are indicted for appropriating parts of the land of Israel (3:2), for inhumane treatment of young boys and young girls (3:3,6), for traffic in slavery (3:6), and for expropriating temple articles (3:5). Obadiah announces that the deeds of the nations will return on their own heads (v. 15). Zephaniah's roll call is more extensive (Gaza, Moab, Ethiopia, Assyria) and the accusations include reproaching God's people (2:8,10) and arrogance (2:15). Zechariah's announcement about the day of the Lord includes a battle with nations (14:3; cf. Revelation 16:14 ). More universally Isaiah lumps together all those who are proud, lofty, and arrogant: "The loftiness of man shall be bowed down and the haughtiness of men shall be brought low" (2:17). In the same vein, Paul associates the second coming of Christ with destructive power (1 Thessalonians 5:2-3 ). ... The outcome, according to Isaiah, is the massive abolition of idols (2:18,20). Threatened by God's fury, men and women will seek refuge in rocks (Isaiah 2:21 ). One striking consequence of the day of the Lord for nations will be a recognition of Yahweh (Joel 3:17 ), but not without desolation (Zephaniah 2:13-14 ) and death (Zephaniah 2:12 ). ... The day of the Lord also affects the natural order. The plague of locusts in Joelwhether a pointer to the day of the Lord or itself a "day of the Lord"brings unproductive conditions for trees and vines and jeopardizes the survival of animals (1:12,18). An upheaval of cosmic proportions means changes in the sun, moon, and stars (2:30). Some hold that these luminaries are symbolic, as often in the ancient Near East, of potentates and governmental powers. While there is no direct evidence that civil powers are intended, it must be understood that the authors were describing the indescribable, and that rigorous literalism need not always be required. Still, an overriding impression is that the day of the Lord will powerfully affect nature. ... The Day as Salvation . While the judgment dimension is dominant in descriptions of the day of the Lord, the salvation dimension, although less emphasized, is nevertheless present. Some metaphors for the day are negative. Other metaphors are positive. It is a time of return to paradise (Isaiah 35:1-10 ). The mountains will drip with new wine and the hills will flow with milk (Joel 3:18 ). The setting is as a day of abundant harvest (Joel 2:24 ). ... The day of the Lord brings salvation for Israel. Drought and disaster drive Israel to their knees. They cry for God's mercy (Joel 2:17 ), and he answers. Salvation follows judgment. God forcibly and effectively removes the enemy (2:20). Salvation consists in abundance of grain, new wine, and oil, "enough to satisfy you fully" (2:19; cf. 2:24,26). In the words of Zephaniah, God will "restore their [Judah's] fortunes" (2:7), an expression that implies the restoration of a desirable situation, a recovery of what has been lost. To God's saving activity will belong his pouring forth of his Spirit on all people (Joel 2:29 ). In the words of Zephaniah, "The Lord your God is with you, he is mighty to save. He will take great delight in you, he will quiet you with his love" (3:17). It will mean that "everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved" (Joel 2:32 ). ... In the New Testament the day of the Lord is more precisely the day of Jesus Christ and especially the manifestation of his glory. While this revelation of the person of Jesus spells calamity for unbelievers, for believers it means to be caught up to be with Christ their redeemer forever (1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:3 ). Such a prospect leads to joyous expectation and fervor. With this prospect and other promises in mind, Paul urges Christians to persevere (1 Corinthians 1:8 ). ... The day of the Lord portends salvation for the nations. Announcements about favorable prospects for Gentiles, while considerable, are not often found in conjunction with language about the day of the Lord. Still, pictures of Gentile response given elsewhere (such as Psalm 96 ) are reinforced by Zephaniah's classic description of the day of the Lord: "From beyond the rivers of Cush my worshipers, my scattered people, will bring me offerings" (3:10; cf. 3:9). The same prophet also portrays nations, each in their own place, bowing down to the Lord (2:11). Such a day is on the far side of the day of judgment, a situation true for peoples generally but also for the individual. Paul urges the church at Corinth to discipline the immoral person so that at the day of the Lord his spirit may be saved (1 Corinthians 5:5 ). ... The day of the Lord will transform nature. For God's people, Israel, the day of the Lord will mean physical abundance and spiritual blessing. Nature will be affected. Joel addresses an oracle to the earth, calling on it not to fear, and promises that it will be fertile and productive (2:22) so that threshing floors will be filled with grain and vats will overflow with new wine (2:24). Although the new heaven and earth are not in the Old Testament specifically connected to the day of the Lord (Isaiah 65:17-25 ), that connection is made in 2 Peter 3:13 . The old world has passed away to be replaced by a new heaven and a new earth. The table below sketches the nature of the day of the Lord as described by the preexilic prophets. ... Theological Significance . The theological significance of the day of the Lord may be summarized along three lines of thought. First, without question, the day of the Lord is a day of God's vindication. In the battle between evil and God, it is God who is victorious and vindicated. He is the ultimate power to whom is given the final word and against whom no force can stand (Isaiah 2:17 ). God's summons of the nations for an accounting in Joel 3 and Zephaniah and the description of the cosmos being annihilated through fire ( 2 Peter 3:10-13 ) are two impressive ways of insisting on the truth that God is fully in charge. The preview of the day of the Lord, as in the destruction of Babylon or at the time of the Christ-event, including the day of Pentecost, already shows evidence of God's extraordinary work and power, so that the day of the Lord at the end of history is quite beyond human description. ... Second, the day of Yahweh addresses the question of theodicynot only the existence of evil, but especially undoing the havoc that it brings and making all things right. Ambiguities will be resolved. The message of the day of the Lord is that evil be trounced and evildoers will in the end receive their due. There is justice after all. God will settle his accounts with all that is godless and anti-God, arrogant and pridefully hostile against the Almighty. On the other hand, the scenes about God's blessing and the recovery of an Edenic paradise have and will continue to offer hope for those whose trust is in God (2 Peter 3:13 ). ... Third, the certain coming of that day with its dark side of judgment and its bright side of a giant transformation encompassing human beings, human society, the world's physical environment, and the cosmos as such, calls on believers especially to live in its light. The purpose of discussions about the day of the Lord, past or future, is to illumine the present. Peter's question is rhetorical but pointed. In view of the coming day of the Lord, "What kind of people ought you to be?" (2 Peter 3:11 ). ... Elmer A. Martens... See also Day ; Judgment, Day of ... Bibliography . G. Brauman and C. Brown, NIDNTT, 2:887-88,890-91; E. Delling, TDNT, 2:943-53; A. J. Everson, JBL 93 (1979): 329-37; E. Jenni, IDB, 1:784-85; W. C. Kaiser, Jr. , Toward an Old Testament Theology ; E. A. Martens, God's Design ; R. L. Mayhue, Grace Theological Journal 6 (1985): 231-46; W. Van Gemeren, Interpreting the Prophetic Word ; G. von Rad, Old Testament Theology, 2:119-25; B. Witherington, Jesus, Paul and the End of the World: A Comparative Study in New Testament Eschatology . ... ...
Canaan - From Ham came four main races; Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (Egypt), Phut (Nubia), and Canaan (originally before Abraham extending from Hamath in the N. to Gaza in the S. ), comprising six chief tribes, the Hittites, Hivites, Amorites, Jebusites, Perizzites, and Girgashites; to which the Canaanites (in the narrow sense) being added make up the mystic number seven. Ten are specified in Genesis 15:19-21, including some on E. of Jordan and S. of Palestine. The four Hamitic races occupied a continuous tract comprising the Nile valley, Palestine, S. Arabia, Babylonia, and Kissia. The Phoenicians were Semitic (from Shem), but the Canaanites preceded them in Palestine and Lower Syria. Sidon, Area, Arvad, and Zemara or Simra (Genesis 15:19-21) originally were Canaanite; afterward they fell under the Phoenicians, who were immigrants into Syria from the shores of the Persian gulf, peaceable traffickers, skillful in navigation and the arts, and unwar-like except by sea. ... With these the Israelites were on friendly terms; but with the Canaanites fierce and war-like, having chariots of iron, Israel was commanded never to be at peace, but utterly to root them out; not however the Arvadite. Arkite, Sinite, Zemarite, and Hamathite. The Semitic names Melchizedek, Hamer, Sisera, Salem, Ephrath are doubtless not the original Canaanite names, but their Hebraized forms. Ham, disliking his father's piety, exposed Noah's nakedness (when overtaken in the fault of intoxication) to his brethren. Contrast Shem and Japhet's conduct (compare 1 Corinthians 13:6 and 1 Peter 4:8). Noah's prophetic curse was therefore to reach him in the person of Canaan his son (the sorest point to a parent), on whom the curse is thrice pronounced. His sin was to be his punishment; Canaan should be as undutiful to him as he had been to his father Noah. ... In Ham's sin lies the stain of the whole Hamitic race, sexual profligacy, of which Sodom and Gomorrah furnish an awful example. Canaan probably shared in and prompted his father's guilt toward Noah; for Noah's "younger son" probably means his "grandson" (Genesis 9:24), and the curse being pronounced upon Canaan, not Ham, implies Canaan's leading guilt, being the first to expose to Ham Noah's shame. Canaan's name also suggested his doom, from kaanah , "to stoop. " Ham named his son from the abject obedience which he required, though he did not render it himself (Hengstenberg). So Canaan was to be "servant of servants," i. e. the most abject slave; such his race became to Israel (1 Kings 9:20-21). Canaan more than any other of Ham's race came in contact with and obstructed Shem and Japhet in respect to the blessings foretold to them. ... The Hamitic descent of Canaan was formerly questioned, but is now proved by the monuments. The ancients represent the Canaanites as having moved from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. Mythology connects the Phoenicians' ancestors Agenor and Phoenix with Belus and Babylon, also with Egyptus, Danaus (the Ethiop), and Libya. The Canaanites acquired the Semitic tongue through Semitic and Hamitic races intermingling. Their civilization and worship was Hamite. The Shemites were pastoral nomads, like Seth's race; the Hamites, like Cain's race were city builders, mercantile, and progressive in a civilization of a corrupt kind. Contrast Israel and the Ishmaelite Arabs with the Hamitic Egypt, Babylon, Sidon, etc. The Canaanites were Scythic or Hamite. Inscriptions represent the Khatta or Hittites as the dominant Scythic race, which gave way slowly before the Aramaean Jews and the Phoenician immigrants. ... Some think Canaan means "lowland", from Hebrew kana , "to depress. " In Ezekiel 17:4; Isaiah 23:8; Hosea 12:7, Canaan is taken in the secondary sense," merchant," because the Hebrew bears that sense; but that was not the original sense. The iniquity of the Amorites was great in Abraham's time, but was "not yet full" (Genesis 15:16). In spite of the awful warning given by the doom of Sodom and Gomorrah, Canaanite profligacy at last became a reproach to humanity; and the righteous Ruler of the world required that the land originally set apart for Shem, and where Jehovah was to be blessed as the God of Shem (Genesis 9:26), should be wrested from "the families of the Canaanites spread abroad," and encroaching beyond their divinely assigned limits (Genesis 10:18). The Hamite races, originally the most brilliant and enlightened (Egypt, Babylon, Canaan), had the greatest tendency to degenerate, because the most disinclined to true religion, the great preserver of men. ... The races of Japhet tend to expand and improve, those of Shem to remain stationary. Procopius, Belisarius' secretary, confirms the Scripture account, of the expulsion of the Canaanites, for he mentions a monument in Tigitina (Tangiers) with the inscription, "We are exiles from before the face of Joshua the robber. " Rabbi Samuel ben Nachman says: "Joshua. sent three letters to the Canaanites, before the Israelites invaded it, proposing three things: Let those who choose to fly, fly; let those who choose peace, enter into treaty; let those who choose war, take up arms. In consequence, the Girgashites, fearing the power of God, fled away into Africa; the Gibeonites entered into league, and continued inhabitants of Israel; the 31 kings made war and fell. " So the Talmud states, says Selden, the Africans claimed part of Israel's land from Alexander the Great, as part of their paternal possession. ... It is an undesigned coincidence that the Girgashites are never named (except in Joshua 24:11, the recapitulation) as having fought against Israel in the detailed account of the wars. They are enumerated in Joshua 24:11 in the general list, probably as having been originally arrayed against Israel (and some may have in the beginning joined those who actually "fought"), but they withdrew early from the conflict; hence elsewhere always the expression is "the Lord cast out the Girgashite," "He will drive out the Girgashite" (Deuteronomy 7:1; Joshua 3:10; compare Genesis 15:21; Nehemiah 9:8). The warnings given to Israel against defiling themselves with the abominations of the previous occupiers of Canaan show that the Israelites were not ruthless invaders, but the divinely appointed instruments to purge the land of transgressors hopelessly depraved. ... Leviticus 18:24; "Defile not yourselves in any of these things, for in all these the nations are defiled that I cast out before you, and the land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants. " The Canaanites had the respite of centuries, the awful example of the cities of the plain, and the godly example of Abraham, Melchizedek, and others; but all failed to lead them to repentance. The Israelites, in approaching the cities of the seven doomed nations, were to offer peace on condition of their emigrating forever from their own country, or else renouncing idolatry, embracing the Noachian patriarchal religion, resigning their land and nationality, and becoming slaves. But "there was not a city that made peace with the children of Israel save the Hivites, the inhabitants of Gibeon; all other they took in battle. For it was of the Lord to harden their hearts that they might come against Israel in battle, that He might destroy them utterly and that they might have no favor, but that He might destroy them" (Joshua 11:18-20). ... All admit that the execution of the law's sentence on a condemned criminal is a duty, not a crime. That God may permit the innocent to suffer with the guilty is credible, because He does constantly in fact and daily experience permit it. The guilty parent often entails on the innocent offspring shame, disease, and suffering. A future life and the completion of the whole moral scheme at the righteous judgment will clear up all such seeming anomalies. The Israelites with reluctance executed the divine justice. So far was the extermination from being the effect of bloodthirstiness, that as soon as the terror of immediate punishment was withdrawn they neglected God's command by sparing the remnant of the Canaanites. The extermination of idolatry and its attendant pollution was God's object. Thus even a Hebrew city that apostatized to idolatry was to be exterminated (Deuteronomy 13). ... The Israelites by being made the instruments of exterminating the idolatrous Canaanites were made to feel Jehovah's power to make man the instrument of punishing idolatry, and so were impressed with a salutary terror, preparing them for being governed without further miraculous interposition. Their constitution, encouraging agriculture, prohibiting horses, and requiring their attendance at the one house of God thrice a year, checked the spirit of conquest which otherwise the subjugation of Canaan might have engendered. Humanity and mercy breathe through the Mosaic law (Exodus 23:4-5; Exodus 23:9; Exodus 23:11; Exodus 22:22-24). (See Graves, Pentateuch. ) The Canaanites' first settlement in Palestine was on the Mediterranean, in the region of Tyre and Sidon; thence they spread throughout the land. ... A great branch of the Hittites in the valley of the Orontes is mentioned in inscriptions concerning the wars of Egypt with Assyria. (See EGYPT. ) In Genesis 12:6 "the Canaanite was then in the land" is no gloss (as if it meant the Canaanite was STILL in the land), nor proof of the Pentateuch's composition after Israel had driven them out, but implies that the aboriginal peoples (compare Genesis 14:5-7) were by this time dispossessed, and the Canaanite settlers ALREADY in the land (compare Genesis 13:7). Canaan is in Scripture made the type of the heavenly land of rest and inheritance (Hebrews 4:1-11). We must win it only under the heavenly Joshua, Jesus the Captain of our salvation, and by faith, the victory that overcomes the world and extirpates sin, self, and Satan (1 John 4:4-5; 1 John 5:4-5). ... The new heaven and earth, purged of all them that offend, shall be the portion of those who, like Caleb and Joshua, have previously in faith trodden the earth occupied by the ungodly, of whom the Canaanites are the type. The lowland especially was the country of the Canaanites; the plains between the Mediterranean on one side, and the hills of Benjamin, Judah, and Ephraim on the other; the shephelah , or low hills of Philistia, on the S. ; the plain of Sharon and seashore between Jaffa and Carmel; that of Esdraelon, or Jezreel, behind the bay of Acta; that of Phoenicia containing Tyre and Sidon (Numbers 13:29). The Jordan valley, Arabah, now the Ghor, reaches from the sea of Chinneroth, or Galilee, to the S. of the Dead Sea, 120 miles, with a breadth from eight to 14; this, the most sunken region in Palestine, also was occupied by the Canaanite; Amalek occupied the S. region between Egypt and Palestine. ... So too, Genesis 10:18-20, the border of the Canaanites was the seashore from Sidon on the N. to Gaza on the S. , and on the E. the Jordan valley to Sodom, Gomorrah, and Lasha (Callirhoe) by the Dead Sea. The Amorites occupied the mountainous country between (Joshua 11:3; Joshua 13:2-4). The chariots of iron could be used in the Canaanites' plains, but not in the mountains. So we find them in the upper Jordan valley at Bethshean, Esdraelon (Jezreel), Taanach, Ibleam, Megiddo, the Sharon plain, Dor, the Phoenician Accho and Sidon (Joshua 17:16; Judges 1:19; Judges 4:3. Canaan in the larger sense is used for the whole country. The Arabah, reaching from the foot of mount Hermon to the gulf of Akabah, is the most remarkable depression on the earth. ... The Jordan, rising in the slopes of Hermon, spreads out in the waters of Merom 126 feet above the level of the ocean; after ten miles' swift descent it enters the sea of Chinneroth, 650 feet below the ocean. From this the gorge holds the average breadth of ten miles, the river at last losing itself in the Dead Sea, the surface of which is 1,312 feet below the sea level, and the depth 1,300 feet below the surface. The ascent of Akrabbim (scorpions, Joshua 15:3) or else mount Halak, a range of low cliffs, crosses the valley eight miles S. of the Dead Sea; thence the valley at a greater height gradually leads to Akabah. The plain or circle of Jordan on which Sodom and Gomorrah stood was probably, according to Grove, at the N. cud of the Dead Sea, but (See GOMORRAH. ) Grove states there are no clear traces of volcanic action there, nor in the Holy Land or near it, except in the Leja, or Argob. ... God's promise to Abraham was, "Unto thy seed have I given this land from the river of Egypt unto the great river the river Euphrates, the Kenites, the Kenezites, the Kadmonites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Rephaims, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites" (Genesis 15:18-21). "The river (nahar ) of Egypt" is the Nile, or Sihor, here representing (according to Grove) Egypt in general, as "Euphrates" represents Assyria (compare Isaiah 8:7-8). The Israelite kingdom even in Solomon's time did not literally reach to the Nile. The truth seems to be, his kingdom is but the type of the Israelite kingdom to come (Acts 1:6), when Messiah her Prince shall be manifested (1 Kings 4:21; 2 Chronicles 9:26; compare Ezekiel 48; Psalms 72:8; Numbers 34:5). "The border shall fetch a compass from Azmon unto the river (nachal ) of Egypt. "... The nachal , or brook, here is distinct from nahar above. The brook is generally thought to be the wady el Arish, the S. W. bound of the Holy Land. So also Joshua 15:4. But Joshua 13:3 expressly mentions Sihor, "the black turbid river," Nile, as the ultimately appointed border; this extended dominion twice foretold (for the simple language in histories as Genesis and Joshua hardly sanctions Grove's view that the river represents merely Egypt, in general), and so accurately defining the limits, awaits Israel in the last days (Isaiah 2:11; Zechariah 9:9-10). In Exodus 23:31, "I will set thy bounds from the Red Sea even unto the sea of the Philistines (the Mediterranean), and from the desert (Paran and Shur) to the river" (Euphrates), the immediate territory of Israel in the Old Testament is assigned. So Deuteronomy 11:24; Joshua 1:4. ... Solomon accordingly possessed Tiphsah, the old ford of Euphrates on the N. , and on the S. Ezion Geber and Elath, the Edomite ports of the Red Sea. In Numbers 34:1-12 the bounds of Canaan W. of Jordan are given from "the entrance of Hamath" between Lebanon and Antilebanon on the N. , to Edom on the S. In Deuteronomy 1:7 the natural divisions are given, THE PLAIN, THE HILLS, THE VALE, THE SOUTH, THE SEASIDE; THE WILDERNESS also is mentioned (Joshua 12:8), and the SPRINGS OF PISGAH (Deuteronomy 3:17). Thus there are in all seven physical divisions. THE SOUTH, or THE NEGEB, containing 29 cities (Joshua 15:21-32), extended from mount Halak to a line from N. E. to S. W. , a dry and thirsty land (Psalms 126:4), liable to whirlwinds (Isaiah 21:1; Isaiah 30:6). ... The WILDERNESS (midbar ) of Judah, N. W. of the Dead Sea, had but six cities (Joshua 15:61-62). The Hills (har ), from the WILDERNESS to the S. of Lebanon, were once the home of the Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites (Numbers 13:29); the cities are enumerated in Joshua 15:48-60. The hill country abounds in traces of terraces which once kept up the soil on the side of the gray limestone, for tillage and vines. Also marks of forests, which must have caused there to be then much more of fertilizing rain than now. The fertility improves continually as one goes northward, and the valleys and uplands of Galilee are beautiful, and the slopes of Carmel park-like. ... THE VALLEY, or LOW HILLS (shephelah ), is the fertile region between the HIGHER HILLS and the coast, from Carmel to Gaza; including Philistia on the S. and the beautiful plain of Sharon from Joppa to Carmel on the N. Part of the shephelah was called Goshen, from its resembling in fertility the old Goshen at the mouth of the Nile (Joshua 10:41; Joshua 11:16); it perhaps contained Beersheba. THE SEA COAST is that N. of Carmel between Lebanon and the sea. The portion N. of Accho Israel never gained, but S. of Accho David gained by the conquest of the Philistines (Judges 1:31). THE PLAIN or CHAMPAIGN (the Arabah, Joshua 18:18, i. e. "the sterile place ") originally (Deuteronomy 2:8, where "the plain" is the ARABAH; compare Deuteronomy 1:1) comprehended the whole valley from Lebanon to the gulf of Akabah. The Arabs call its N. part the Jordan valley, the Ghor, and the part S. of the Holy Land wady el Arabah. ... The SPRINGS OF (ASHDOTH) PISGAH may represent the peculiarly fertile circle round the head of the Dead Sea, on both sides of the Jordan (compare Joshua 10:40; Joshua 12:3; Joshua 12:8; Deuteronomy 3:17; Deuteronomy 4:9). The land, as receiving its blessings so evidently by the gift of God, not as Egypt by the labor of man, and as being so continually by its narrowness within view of the desert, was well calculated to raise Israel's heart in gratitude to her divine Benefactor. It lay midway between the oldest world kingdoms, on one side Egypt and Ethiopia, on the other Babylon, Assyria, and India; then it had close by the Phoenicians, the great traffickers by sea, and the Ishmaelites the chief inland traders. So that though separated as a people dwelling alone, (Numbers 23:9) on the N. by mountains, by the desert on one hand, and by an almost harborless sea on the other, from too close contact with idolatrous neighbors, it yet could act, with a powerful influence, through many openings, on the whole world, if only it was faithful to its high calling. ... "Instead of casting the seed of godliness on the swamps, God took in a little ground to be His seed plot. When His gracious purpose was answered, He broke down the wall of separation, and the field is now the world (Matthew 13:38). " The long valley between the ranges of Lebanon, the valley of El Bukaa, leading to "the entering in of (i. e. to Palestine by) Hamath," opened out Palestine on the N. Roman roads, and the harbor made at Caesarea, at the exact time when it was required, made avenues for the gospel to go forth from Judaea into all lands. Tristram remarks, What has been observed of the physical geography of Palestine holds equally true of its fauna and flora. No spot on earth could have been selected which could have better supplied the writers of the book, intended to instruct the men of every climate, with illustrations familiar cue or other of them to dwellers in every region. ... Ganneau derives the modern fellaheen from the Canaanites, arguing from their language, manners, customs, and superstitious, and the analogy which there is between Joshua's invasion and that of Caliph Omar. This view explains those prophecies which speak of those ancient nations existing in the last days and being then destroyed by God (Isaiah 11:14; Jeremiah 48; 49; Daniel 11:41). The Israelite invaders as shepherds could not at once have become agriculturists, but would compel the subject Canaanites to until for them the land. The "places" (maqowm ) which God commanded Israel to destroy, where the Canaanites "served their gods upon the high mountains, and hills, and under every green tree" (Deuteronomy 12:2), exactly answer to the fellaheen 's Arabic makam (the same word as in Deuteronomy) in Palestine, or Mussulman kubbehs with little white topped cupolas dotted over the hills. Their fetishism also for certain isolated trees marks the site of the Canaanite worship which God forbade; an oath on their local sanctuary is far more binding to them than on the name of God. ...
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - From the earliest efforts at permanent settlement in the Ancient Near East, people were attracted to the rivers and streams that ultimately would dictate population distribution between the mountains, deserts, and the seas. The flood plains of many of these rivers originally were inhospitable with thick, tangled jungles, wild beasts, and unpredictable flooding and disease. However, within the areas of plain and lowland that provided a more constant food supply and ease of movement, the need for a permanent water source attracted settlers to the river banks. Thus the early river civilizations of the Nile, the Tigris, and Euphrates starting about 3000 B. C. , and the Indus civilization slightly later, resulted in response to the challenges and benefits these important waterways presented. Flood control, social and economic organization, and invention of writing as a means of communication developed. Trade was facilitated by means of navigable waterways. Since roads followed the lines of least resistance, the pattern of early trade routes conformed closely, especially in more rugged terrain, to channels and courses of the rivers and streams, and along the shoreline where the earliest fishing villages developed. ... Rivers and Streams Each of the biblical rivers was developed to meet distinct human needs. A study of rivers helps understand the culture near the river. ... 1. Nile River The name Nile is not explicitly mentioned in KJV, but modern translations most often translated the Hebrew yeor as the Nile. The Nile plays a prominent role in the early events in the life of Moses in Exodus (Moses, Exodus 2:3 ; the ten plagues, Exodus 7:15 ,Exodus 7:15,7:20 ). The Nile is alluded to in many other passages as “the river” (Genesis 41:1 ), the “river of Egypt” (Genesis 15:18 ), the “flood of Egypt” (Amos 8:8 ), Shihor (Joshua 13:3 ), river of Cush among other names. The “brook of Egypt” mostly is a reference to Wadi el-Arish, the drainage system of the central Sinai. The prophets Amos (Amos 8:8 ; Amos 9:5 ) and Jeremiah (Jeremiah 46:8 ) used the Nile as the symbol of Egypt, a concept that is readily understood in terms of the river's historical importance to the survival and well-being of the country. ... For the Egyptians the predictable annual flooding of the Nile with the depositing of the fertile black alluvial soil meant the enrichment of the flood plain and the difference between food and famine. From the central highlands of East Africa, the Nile with a watershed of over one million square miles is formed by the union of the White and Blue Niles and flows a distance of nearly 3,500 miles. From its low ebb at the end of May, the flow of the river gradually rises to its maximum flood stage at the beginning of September. Historically, approximately 95 percent of Egypt's population depended upon the productivity of the 5 percent of the country's land area within the flood plain of the Nile. In the Delta at least three major branches facilitated irrigation in the extensive fan north of Memphis, the ancient capital of lower Egypt. See Egypt ; Nile. ... 2. Euphrates First mentioned in Genesis 2:14 as one of the four branches of the river that watered the Garden of Eden, the Euphrates flows 1,700 miles to become the longest river in Western Asia. From the mountainous region of northeastern Turkey (Armenia), it flows southward into northern Syria and turns southeasterly to join the Tigris and flows into the Persian Gulf. On the Middle Euphrates, Carchemish, originally the center of a small city-state, became the important provincial capital of the Mitanni kingdom, later of the Hittite and Assyrian Empires. At Carchemish in 605 B. C. Nebuchadnezzar II defeated Pharaoh Necho as he began his successful drive to claim the former Assyrian Empire for Babylon ( 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:1 ). Two important tributaries, the Belikh and Khabur, flow into the Euphrates from the north before it continues on to the ancient trade center at Mari. The Lower Euphrates generally formed the western limits of the city-states that made up the early Sumerian civilization. From the river plain to the delta, both the Tigris and Euphrates rivers regularly have formed new branches and changed their courses. About 90 percent of their flow mysteriously is lost to irrigation, evaporation, pools and lakes, and the swamps and never reaches the Persian Gulf. Lost as well in this region are the vast amounts of sediment that the Tigris and Euphrates bring from the mountainous regions. Sediment deposits along the lower courses of these rivers average 16 to 23 feet with 36-foot deposits in some regions. It has been calculated that the Tigris alone removes as much as 3 million tons of eroded highland materials in a single day. In the extreme south the two rivers join in a combined stream that today is known as the Shatt el-Arab. ... The flooding of the Mesopotamian rivers in March and April differs from the Nile schedule which during that season is at its low ebb. The melting snows and rains at their sources create sudden, disastrous torrents that, along the Tigris especially, must be controlled by dams during such periods before they can supply a beneficial irrigation system. See Euphrates and Tigris Rivers . ... The course of the Upper Euphrates was described as the northern border of the Promised Land (Genesis 15:18 ; Deuteronomy 1:7 ; Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Joshua 1:4 ). David, in fact, extended his military influence to its banks during the height of his power (2 Samuel 8:3 ; 2 Samuel 10:16-18 ; 1 Kings 4:24 ). The terms “the river,” “the flood,” “the great river,” and “beyond the river” (Joshua 24:2-3 ; Ezra 4:10-13 ; Nehemiah 2:7-9 ) refer to the Euphrates, historically a significant political and geographical boundary. ... 3. Tigris From its source in a small lake (Hazar Golu), about 100 miles west of Lake Van, in Armenia, the Tigris flows in a southeasterly direction for about 1,150 miles before joining the Euphrates and emptying into the Persian Gulf. It achieves flood stage during March and April from the melting mountain snows and subsides after mid-May. While its upper flow is swift within narrow gorges, from Mosul and Nineveh southward its course was navigable and was extensively used in antiquity for transport. A series of tributaries from the slopes of the Zagros emptied into the Tigris from the east, including the Greater and Lesser Zab and the Diyala. The Diyala flows into the Tigris near Bahgdad. In antiquity its banks were inhabited by a dense population maintained and made prosperous by an excellent irrigation system. The Euphrates, flowing at a level nine meters higher than the Tigris, permitted the construction of a sequence of irrigation canals between the two rivers that resulted in unusual productivity. South of Baghdad where their courses again separated, a more complicated system of canals and diversions were necessary. ... The banks of the Tigris were dotted by some of the most important cities of antiquity: Nineveh, the capital of Assyria during the Assyrian Empire; Asshur, the original capital of Assyria; Opis (in the vicinity of Baghdad), the important commercial center of Neo-Babylonian and later times; Ctesihyphon, the capital of the Parthians and Sassanians; and Seleucia, capital of the Seleucid rulers of Mesopotamia. ... Rivers of Anatolia Several rivers water this part of modern Turkey. See Asia Minor. ... 1. Halys River From its sources in the Armenian mountains, the Halys begins its 714-mile flow to the southwest only to be diverted by a secondary ridge into a broad loop until its direction is completely reversed into a northeasterly direction through the mountainous regions bordering the southern shore of the Black Sea. As the longest river in Anatolia, the Halys, like the other principal rivers in Turkey, is the result of heavy rainfall in the Pontic zone. Because of their winding courses within the coastal mountain chains, none of these rivers is navigable. Within this loop of the Halys in the northern Anatolian plateau the Hittites established their capital Boghazkoy. The course of the Halys generally formed the borders of the district of Pontus. ... 2. Rivers of the Aegean Coast The broken Aegean coastline boasted a series of sheltered havens and inlets that prompted Greek colonization and the establishment the great harbor cities of the later Greek and Roman periods. The mouths of the Aegean rivers deemed ideal for maritime centers during colonization ultimately proved disastrous. The lower courses of these rivers, relatively short and following a meandering course over their respective plains, are very shallow and sluggish during the summer months. Their upper courses however, of recent formation, carry enormous quantities of alluvium from the highlands that tended to fill the estuaries and gulfs. Constant dredging was required to maintain the harbor's access to the sea and to avoid the formation of malaria-infested swamps. Thus the Hermus (155 miles) was diverted to prevent the destruction of the harbor of Smyrna (Izmir). To the south at Ephesus, the original town site on the disease-ridden marshlands was abandoned about A. D. 400 for the construction of a new harbor on the Cayster River. During the days of Ephesus' prosperity, the constant dredging was adequately maintained. However, with the decline of the Roman Empire after A. D. 200, the silting of the harbor brought the rapid decline of the city. Miletus, on the alluvial plain of the Maeander River (236 miles), was originally established on a deep gulf well sheltered from the prevailing winds. The great Ionian city had possessed four harbors, but the silting of the harbors by the alluvial deposits of the Maeander ultimately brought about the decline and abandonment of the city. Though these Aegean rivers were not navigable, the alluvial plains that bordered them provided convenient and vital access and communications to the interior. ... Rivers of Syro-Palestine In Syria and Palestine rivers often separated peoples rather than providing economic power. ... 1. Orontes and Litani High within the Beqa valley that forms the rift between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges, a watershed (about 3,770 feet above sea level) forms the headwaters of the Orontes and Litani Rivers. The rains and snow on the mountain summits at heights of over 11,000 feet course down into the 6–10 mile-wide Beqa which is a part of the great Rift (“Valley of Lebanon,” Joshua 11:17 ). From the watershed, the Orontes flows northward and bends westward to empty into the Mediterranean near Antioch. The Litani flows southward and ultimately escapes to the sea north of Tyre. Unfortunately, its lower course has formed such a deep, narrow gorge that it is useless for communication. See Palestine . ... 2. Jordan River A series of springs and tributaries, resulting from the rains and snows on the heights of Mount Hermon (up to 9,100 feet above sea level) at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountains east of the Rift Valley, converge in Lake Huleh to form the headwaters of the Jordan River. Along the eastern edge of the Huleh Valley, it flows southward into Lake Kinnereth (the Sea of Galilee). Only about eight miles wide and fourteen miles long, the fresh waters of the Galilee and its fishing industry sustained a dense population during most historical periods. At the Galilee's southern end, the Jordan exits and flows 65 miles on to the Dead Sea (about 1,300 feet below sea level). The Jordan flows 127 miles with a drainage area of about 6,380 square miles. The Yarmuk River joins the Jordan five miles south of the Sea of Galilee. The Jabbok River reaches the Jordan from the east twenty-five miles north of the Dead Sea. ... At the Jordan's end, the Dead Sea extends another 45 miles between high, rugged cliffs of Nubian sandstone and limestone between the arid wilderness bordering the Judean watershed on the west and the Transjordanian plateau on the east. The sea and the inhospitable terrain along its shoreline discouraged regular travel and transport within the area. ... The Jordan appears never to have served as a waterway for travel or transport, but rather as a natural barrier and a political boundary, that because of its steep banks and the densely wooded fringe that lined its devious route (“thickets of the Jordan,” Jeremiah 49:19 , NIV; compare 2 Kings 6:4 ) could be crossed without difficulty only at its fords (Joshua 3:1 ). Control of the fords during military confrontations in biblical times constituted a critical advantage (Judges 3:28 ; Judges 12:5-6 ). The Jordan's role as a political boundary appears to have been established already shortly after 2000 B. C. when the eastern frontier of the Egyptian province of Canaan followed the Jordan. Even though Israelite tribes were given special permission to settle in the Transjordan, it was always clear that, beyond the Jordan, they actually were residing outside the Promised Land (Joshua 22:1 ). Even in postbiblical times, the eastern boundary of the Persian and Hellenistic province of Judea followed the Jordan. Apart from the fertile oases that dotted the Jordan Valley, agricultural prosperity was assured during the Hellenistic and Roman times when irrigation was developed along the gradual slopes on either side of the Jordan within the Rift Valley. See Jordan. ... 3. Kishon River The Kishon River forms the drainage system of the Jezreel Plain and the southern portion of the Accho Plain. While a number of its small tributaries have their sources in springs at the base of Mount Tabor, in the southern Galilee, and in the extension of the Carmel in the vicinity of Taanach and Megiddo, the Kishon is rarely more than a brook within relatively shallow and narrow banks except during the heavy rains of the winter months. During those times its course becomes a marshy bog and impassable. From the Jezreel, it passes along the base of Mount Carmel through the narrow pass formed by a spur of the Galilean hills and into the Accho Plain, where some additional tributaries join before it empties into the Mediterranean. Its total length from the springs to the sea is only twenty-three miles. In biblical history it is best known for its role in the Barak-Deborah victory over the Canaanite forces of Sisera (Judges 4-5 ) and Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:40 ). ... 4. Yarkon River The Yarkon is formed by the seasonal runoff from the western slopes of the Samaritan and Judean hills that flows into the Brook Kanah, its major tributary, and the rich springs at the base of Aphek about eight miles inland from the Mediterranean shoreline. Though anchorages and small harbors, such as tel Qasile, a Philistine town, were established along its course and the cedar timbers from Lebanon were floated inland to Aphek for transport to Jerusalem for the construction of Solomon's palace and Temple, the Yarkon historically formed a major barrier to north-south traffic because of the extensive swamps that formed along its course. The profuse vegetation that bordered its banks probably suggested its name that was derived from the Hebrew yarok, meaning “green. ” The Yarkon, in biblical times, formed the border between the tribes of Dan and Ephraim to the north. Farther inland, the Brook Kanah formed the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh (Joshua 16:8 ; Joshua 17:9 ). ... Major Bodies of Water Two major seas heavily influenced Israel's political, economic, and cultural history. ... 1. Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea had a width of 100–600 miles and stretched over 2,000 miles from the Straits of Gibraltar to the Palestinian coast. ... Formed by the movement of the European and North African continental plates, the greater Mediterranean consists of a series of basins and extended shoreline that historically contributed to the vitality of maritime commerce and trade. The unusually straight coast along the south portion of its eastern shoreline and the lack of natural coves and harbor facilities limited Israelite opportunities for direct involvement in Mediterranean maritime commerce. While limited port facilities existed at coastal towns such as Joppa, Dor, and Accho, they were hardly adequate to facilitate more than a local fishing fleet and an occasional refuge during a storm for the larger merchant ships that frequented the great harbors established farther to the north along the Phoenician coast. As a result, the treaties established between the Israelite kings and the Phoenicians provided for an exchange of agricultural and horticultural produce in exchange for lumber and imports (2 Chronicles 2:16 ), and a mutually beneficial cooperation in maintaining a monopoly on both land and sea routes of commerce and trade (1 Kings 9:26-27 ). The Mediterranean became the “Roman” sea when the peaceful conditions of Roman control of land masses along most of the Mediterranean shoreline fostered a dramatic movement of products, merchandise and people to satisfy the diverse needs of the provinces and Roman policy in them. See Mediterranean. ... 2. Red Sea The Red Sea (Heb. yam suf , lit. “Sea of Reeds”) is a long narrow body of water separating the Arabian Peninsula from the northeastern coast of Africa (Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia). At its southern end its narrow straits (twenty-one miles wide) open to the Indian Ocean. With a length of about 1,240 miles and a width that varies from 124 to 223 miles, the total surface area is just over 176,000 square miles. While its average depth is about 1,640 feet, as a part of the great rift or fault that runs northward from Lake Victoria to the base of the Caucasus Mountains in southern Russia, the Red Sea plunges to 7,741 feet near Port Sudan. It is the warmest and most saline of all the open seas. Though the shores of the Red Sea historically have been sparsely settled and its ports have been few, its waterway provided access to the distant ports of the Indian Ocean and the eastern shoreline of Africa where the Phoenician merchant fleets under lease to Solomon bartered for the luxury goods that graced the royal courts of the Levant (1 Kings 9:26 ). ... In the north the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Elath (Aqaba) form the western and eastern arms making up the shorelines of the Sinai Peninsula. The Egyptian pharaohs used the Gulf of Suez as the shortest route to the Mediterranean. It was linked with the Bitter Lakes and the Nile by a canal that existed before 600 B. C. and was maintained by the Persians, the Ptolemies, and the Romans. ... With the expansion of David's empire, the Gulf of Elath (Aqaba) provided the vital maritime trade outlet that the kings of Israel and Judah and the Phoenician allies exploited to fill the coffers of Jerusalem. After the demise of the Judean kingdom, the Nabataeans established a similar monopoly over the same marine commerce and the overland caravan routes through Petra to Damascus and Gaza for transshipment on the Mediterranean. Again in Hellenistic times, the Indian trade routes were reestablished and maintained throughout Roman times. See Red Sea. ... Apart from the significant roles played by the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the rivers of the biblical world were small and mostly unnavigable. As a result, apart from the alluvial plains that bordered their banks, these rivers played a more meaningful role as barriers and boundaries than as waterways for travel and transport. In terms of early biblical history, the Mediterranean and the Red Seas played the more dominant roles in intercultural and commercial exchange. As the Greek and Roman Empires developed, the western seas—the Aegean, Ionian, Adriatic, and Tyrrhenian—grew in importance. In the north and east, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, and the Persian Gulf with the mountain ranges that linked them basically formed the limits of the biblical world. ... George L. Kelm... ...
Egypt - In Hebrew Mizraim (though really it is Mitsraim ). It is a dual form, signifying 'the two Matsors,' as some think, which represent Lower and Upper Egypt. Egypt is also called THE LAND OF HAM in Psalm 105:23,27 ; Psalm 106:22 ; and RAHAB, signifying 'the proud one'in Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 . (This name in Hebrew is not the same as Rahab, the harlot, which is really Rachab. ) Upper Egypt is called PATHROS, that is, 'land of the south,' Isaiah 11:11 . Lower Egypt is MATSOR in Isaiah 19:6 ; Isaiah 37:25 , but translated 'defence' and 'besieged places' in the A. V. Egypt is one of the most ancient and renowned countries, but it is not possible to fix any date to its foundation. ... The history of ancient Egypt is usually divided into three parts. ... 1. The Old Kingdom, from its commencement to the invasion of Egypt by those called Hyksos or Shepherd-kings. This would embrace the first eleven dynasties. In some of these the kings reigned at Memphis, and in others at Thebes, so that it cannot now be ascertained whether some of the dynasties were contemporaneous or not. To the first four dynasties are attributed the building of the great Pyramid and the second and third Pyramids, and also the great Sphinx. ... 2. The Middle Kingdom commenced with the twelfth dynasty. Some Hyksos had settled in Lower Egypt as early as the sixth dynasty; they extended their power in the fourteenth dynasty, and reigned supreme in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth dynasties. These were Semites from Asia. They established themselves in the north of Egypt at Zoan, or Tanis, and Avaris, while Egyptian kings reigned in the south. They are supposed to have held the north for about 500 years, but some judge their sway to have been much shorter. ... 3. The New Kingdom was inaugurated by the expulsion of the Hyksos in the eighteenth dynasty, when Egypt regained its former power, as we find it spoken of in the O. T. ... The first mention of Egypt in scripture is when Abraham went to sojourn there because of the famine. It was turning to the world for help, and it entangled the patriarch in conduct for which he was rebuked by Pharaoh, the prince of the world. Genesis 12:10-20 . This would have been about the time of the twelfth dynasty. About B. C. 1728 Joseph was carried into Egypt and sold to Potiphar: his exaltation followed; the famine commenced, and eventually Jacob and all his family went into Egypt. See JOSEPH. At length a king arose who knew not Joseph, doubtless at the commencement of a new dynasty, and the children of Israel were reduced to slavery. Moses was sent of God to deliver Israel, and the plagues followed. See PLAGUES OF EGYPT. On the death of the firstborn of the Egyptians, Israel left Egypt. See ISRAEL IN EGYPT and the EXODUS. ... Very interesting questions arise — which of the kings of Egypt was it who promoted Joseph? which king was it that did not know Joseph? and which king reigned at the time of the Plagues and the Exodus? The result more generally arrived at is that the Pharaoh who promoted Joseph was one of the Hyksos (who being of Semitic origin, were more favourable to strangers than were the native Egyptians), and was probably APEPA or APEPI II, the last of those kings. It was to the Egyptians that shepherds were an abomination, as scripture says, which may not have applied to the Hyksos (which signifies 'shepherds' and agrees with their being called shepherd-kings), and this may account, under the control of God, for 'the best of the land' being given to the Israelites. ... The Pharaoh of the oppression has been thought to be RAMESES II of the nineteenth dynasty, and the Pharaoh of the Exodus to be MENEPHTHAH his son. The latter had one son, SETI II, who must have been slain in the last plague on Egypt, if his father was the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The monuments record the death of the son, and the mummy of the father has not been found, but he is spoken of as living and reigning after the death of his son. This would not agree with his perishing in the Red Sea. Scripture does not state positively that he fell under that judgement, but it does say that God "overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red Sea. " Psalm 136:15 . God also instructed Moses to say to Pharaoh, "Thou shalt be cut off from the earth. And in very deed for this cause have I raised thee up, for to show in thee my power. " Exodus 9:15 . Menephthah has been described as "weak, irresolute, and wanting in physical courage," and it is thought he would never have ventured into the Red Sea. The monuments depict him as "one whose mind was turned almost exclusively towards sorcery and magic. " It is no wonder therefore that he was so slow to learn the power of Jehovah. As scripture does not give the names of the Pharaohs in the Pentateuch, there is really no definite link between those mentioned therein and any particular kings as found on the monuments. Some Egyptologers consider other kings more probable than the above, placing the time of Joseph before the period of the Hyksos, while others place it after their exit. ... After the Exodus scripture is silent as to Egypt for about 500 years, until the days of Solomon. The Tell Amarna Tablets (to be spoken of presently) reveal that Canaan was subject to Egypt before the Israelites entered the land. Pinetem 2, of the twenty-first dynasty, is supposed to be the Pharaoh who was allied to Solomon. ... The first Pharaoh mentioned by name is SHISHAK: he has been identifiedwith Shashank I. first king of the twenty-second dynasty, who heldhis court at Bubastis. He gave shelter to Jeroboam when he fled from Solomon, and after Solomon's death he invaded Judaea with 1200 chariots, 60,000 horsemen, and people without number. He took the walled cities, and pillaged Jerusalem and the temple: "he took all: he carried away also the shields of gold which Solomon had made. " 1 Kings 11:40 ; 1 Kings 14:25,26 ; 2 Chronicles 12:2-9 . It is painfully interesting to find, among the recorded victories of Shishak on the temple at Karnak, a figure with his arms tied behind, representing Judah as a captive The inscription reads JUDAH MELCHI, kingdom of Judah. ... The next person mentioned is ZERAH the Ethiopian, who brought an army of 1,000,000 and 300 chariots against Asa the king of Judah. Asa piously called to the Lord for help, and declared his rest was on Him. God answered his faith, and the Egyptian hosts were overcome, and Judah took 'very much spoil. ' 2 Chronicles 14:9-13 . It will be noticed that scripture does not say that Zerah was a Pharaoh. He is supposed to have been the general of Osorkon 2. the fourth king of the twenty-second dynasty. ... The twenty-fifth dynasty was a foreign one, of Ethiopians who reigned in Nubia. Its first king, named Shabaka, or Sabaco, was the So of scripture. Hoshea, king of Israel, attempted an alliance with this king that he might be delivered from his allegiance to Assyria. He made presents to Egypt; but the scheme was not carried out. It led to the capture of Samaria and the captivity of the ten tribes. 2 Kings 17:4 . ... Another king of this dynasty was Tirhakah or Taharka (the Tehrak of the monuments) who came into collision with Assyria in the 14th year of Hezekiah. Sennacherib was attacking Libnah when he heard that the king of Ethiopia had come out to fight against him. Sennacherib sent a second threatening letter to Hezekiah; but God miraculously destroyed his army in the night. Tirhakah was afterwards defeated by Sennacherib and again at the conquest of Egypt by Esar-haddon. 2 Kings 19:9 ; Isaiah 37:9 . ... Egypt recovered this shock under Psammetichus I of Sais (twenty-sixth dynasty), and in the days of Josiah, PHARAOH-NECHO, anxious to rival the glories of the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties, set out to attack the king of Assyria and to recover the long-lost sway of Egypt over Syria. Josiah opposed Necho, but was slain at Megiddo. Necho carrying all before him proceeded as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and on returning to Jerusalem he deposed Jehoahaz and carried him to Egypt (where he died), and set up his brother Eliakim in his stead, calling him Jehoiakim. The tribute was to be one hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold. 2 Kings 23:29-34 ; 2 Chronicles 35:20-24 ; Jeremiah 26:20-23 . By Necho being able to attack the king of Assyria, in so distant a place as Carchemish shows the strength of Egypt at that time, but the power of Babylon was increasing, and after three years Nebuchadnezzar defeated the army of Necho at Carchemish, and recovered every place from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates; and "the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land. " 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2-12 . The Necho of scripture is Nekau on the monuments, a king of the twenty-sixth dynasty. ... The Greek writers and the Egyptian monuments mention Psamatik 2 as the next king to Necho, and then Apries (Uahabra on the monuments, the letter U being equivalent to the aspirate), the HOPHRA of scripture. Zedekiah had been made governor of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, but he revolted and formed an alliance with Hophra. Ezekiel 17:15-17 . When the Chaldeans besieged Jerusalem Hophra, true to his word, entered Palestine. Nebuchadnezzar raised the siege, attacked and defeated him, and then returned and re-established the siege of Jerusalem. He took the city and burned it with fire. Jeremiah 37:5-11 . ... Hophra was filled with pride, and it is recorded that he said not even a god could overthrow him. Such arrogance could not go unpunished. Ezekiel was at Babylon: and in his prophecy (Ezekiel 29:1-16 ) he foretells the humbling of Egypt and their king, "the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers. " Egypt should be made desolate from Migdol to Syene (margin ), even to the border of Ethiopia (from the north to the south) 'forty years. ' Abdallatif, an Arab writer, says that Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt and ruined all the country for giving an asylum to the Jews who fled from him, and that it remained in desolation forty years. Other prophecies followed against Egypt. Ezekiel 30 , Ezekiel 31 , Ezekiel 32 and in Jeremiah 44:30 Hophra is mentioned. God delivered him into the hands of those 'that sought his life,' which were some of his own people. ... When Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed Jerusalem, he left some Jews in the land under Gedaliah the Governor; but Gedaliah being slain, they fled into Egypt, taking Jeremiah with them, to Tahpanhes. Jeremiah 43:5-7 . He there uttered prophesies against Egypt, Isaiah 43 and Isaiah 44 . The series of prophecies give an approximate date for the devastation of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar. In taking Tyre he had no wages (they carried away their treasures in ships) and he should have Egypt as his reward. Tyre was taken in B. C. 572, and Nebuchadnezzar died B. C. 562, leaving a margin of ten years. Ezekiel 29:17-20 . ... After Nebuchadnezzar, Egypt became tributary to Cyrus: Cambyses was its first Persian king of the twenty-seventh dynasty. On the passing away of the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great had possession of Egypt and founded Alexandria. On the death of Alexander the Ptolemies reigned over Egypt for about 300 years. Some of the doings of the Ptolemies were prophesied of in Daniel 11 . See ANTIOCHUS. In B. C. 30 Octavius Caesar entered Egypt, and it became a Roman province. In A. D. 639 Egypt was wrested from the Eastern empire by the Saracens, and was held under the suzerainty of the Turks until the nineteenth century. It is a great kingdom in desolation. Joel 3:19 . ... We have seen that at one time Egypt was able to bring a million soldiers into Palestine; and at another to attack Assyria. History also records their having sway over Phoenicia, and carrying on severe wars with the Hittites, with whom they at length made a treaty, which is given in full on the monuments. ... Some prophecies have been referred to, and though they apply to events now long since past, they may have a yet future application. For instance, "The Lord shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation, yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord and perform it . . . . . in that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance. " Isaiah 19:21-25 : cf. Zephaniah 3:9,10 . Surely these statements apply to a time when God will bring Egypt into blessing. This might not have been expected, seeing that Egypt is a type of the world — the place where nature gratifies its lusts, and out of which the Christian is brought — but in the millennium the earth will be brought into blessing, and then no nation will be blessed except as they own Jehovah and His King who will reign over all the earth. Then "Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. " Psalm 68:31 . ... Egypt too, it must be remembered, was the place of sojourn of God's favoured people Israel. It was a king of Egypt who caused to be translated the Old Testament into Greek, the LXX, quoted by the Lord Himself when on earth; and it was to Egypt that Joseph fled with the young child and His mother from the wrath of Herod. Egypt was a broken reed on which the Israelites rested: it oppressed them and even attacked and pillaged Jerusalem. But it has been punished and remains desolate to this day; and further, as the kingdom of the South it will yet be dealt with: cf. Daniel 11:42,43 . Afterwards God will also heal and bring it into blessing: in grace He says "Blessed be Egypt my People. "... THE TELL AMARNA TABLETS. Comparatively lately a number of clay tablets have been discovered in Upper Egypt. Many of them are despatches from persons in authority in Palestine to the kings of Egypt, showing that Egypt had held more or less sway over portions of the land. The inscriptions are in cuneiform characters, but in the Aramaic language, which resembles Assyrian. The writers were Phoenicians, Philistines, and Amorites, but not Hittites, though these are mentioned on the tablets. The date for some of these despatches has been fixed as from about B. C. 1480, and they were addressed to the two Pharaohsknown as Amenophis 3 and 4. They show that Egypt had withdrawn its troops from Palestine, and was evidently losing all power in the country, the northern part of which was being invaded by the Hittites. The governors mention this in their despatches, and urge Egypt to send troops to stop the invasion. Some of the tablets are from Southern Palestine, and witness of troubles in that region also. The name Abiri occurs, describing a people invading from the desert: these are supposed to be the Hebrews. It is recorded that they had taken the fortress of Jericho, and were plundering 'all the king's lands. ' The translator (Major Conder) believes he has identified the names of three of the kings smitten by Joshua: Adoni-zedec, king of Jerusalem; Japhia, king of Lachish; and Jabin, king of Hazor. Joshua 10:3 ; Joshua 11:1 . He also believes that the dates coinciding, with the above-named kings agree with the common chronology of scripture for the book of Joshua. If he is correct in this the Exodus can no longer be placed under the nineteenth dynasty. It may be remarked, however, that not one of the tablets from the South bears any king's name, being merely addressed 'To the King, my Lord,' etc. ... A few of the principal Events with their approximatedates are added:... DYNASTIES. ... i. — iii. Twenty-six names of kings are given, commencing with Menes, but some are probably mythical. ... iv. At Memphis. Khufu or Suphis was the builder of the first great pyramid at Gizeh. Khafra or Shafra built the second, and Menkaura the third. ... v. At Elephantine. ... vi. At Memphis. Some 'shepherd-kings' invaded Lower Egypt. ... vii. - x. Dynasties were contemporaneous: a period of confusion. ... xi. At Thebes. Title claimed over all Egypt by Antef or Nentef. ... xii. At Thebes. Amenemhat I, or Ameres, conquered Nubia (Cush). Amenemhat 3 constructed the lake Moeris, and the Labyrinth, supposed to be a national meeting place. Abraham's sojourn in Egypt was possibly in this dynasty. ... xiii. At Thebes. Troublous times. ... xiv. At Xois. The power of the Hyksos extends. ... xv. {Hyksos kings. Apepa II supposed to be the king who exalted Joseph. The ... xvi. {Israelites enter Egypt about B. C. 1706. ... xvii. Vassal kings under Hyksos rule, reigned at Thebes. ... xviii. At Thebes. The Hyksos driven out of Egypt. Thothmes I carried his arms into Asia. Thothmes III, the greatest warrior king; built the grand temple of Ammon at Thebes. Amenhotep, or Amenophis III erected the twin Colossi of himself at Thebes. ... xix. At Thebes. Seti I or Sethos, erected the great Hall at Karnak. Rameses II attacked the Hittites on the north, but concluded an alliance. Judged to be the king who oppressed Israel, and Menephthah to be the Pharaoh of the Exodus. (B. C 1491. ) His son (Seti-Menephthah) died when young (perhaps at the Passover). A period of anarchy ensued... xx. At Thebes. Eleven kings named Rameses: they became idle and effeminate, until the priests seized the throne. ... xxi. At Tanis. Priest-kings. Pinetem II is supposed to be the Pharaoh allied to Solomon. (About B. C. 1014. )... xxii. At Bubastis. Shashank or Shishak, the ally of Jeroboam of Israel, was conqueror of Rehoboam of Judah. (B. C. 971. ) Osorkon I and Thekeleth I succeeded. Osorkon II sent Zerah his general against Asa king of Judah. (B. C. 941. )... xxiii. At Tanis. Two kings reigned, contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-two. ... xxiv. At Sais. Contemporaneous with dynasty twenty-five. ... xxv. In Nubia. Ethiopian kings. Shabaka, or Sabaco, the So who was allied with Hoshea of Samaria, was defeated by Sargon of Assyria. (B. C. 720. ) Shabataka, defeated by Sennacherib. Taharka, or Tehrak, conquered by Esarhaddon. Thebes destroyed by the Assyrians. (B. C. 666. ) Egypt became a province of Assyria. ... xxvi. At Sais. Period of Greek influence in Egypt. Psamatik I. Or Psammetichus I: threw off the yoke of Assyria and ruled all Egypt. Nekau, or Necho, killed Josiah at Megiddo (B. C. 610) on his way to attack the Assyrians at Carchemish. Afterwards he was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar at the same place. (B. C. 606. ) Hophra, or Apries, ally of Zedekiah, was conquered by Nebuchadnezzar (B. C. 581), who afterwards ravaged Egypt as far as Elephantine. Apries was put to death, and Amasis reigned as tributary to Babylon. (B. C. 571. ) In after years Amasis became ally of Croesus of Lydia against Cyrus the Persian. Psamatik III was conquered by Cambyses, and Egypt became a province of the Persian empire. (B. C. 526. )... xxvii. The kings of Persia were the kings of Egypt. (B. C. 526 - 487. )... xxviii. {Native kings reigned without being subdued by Persia, to Artaxerxes III. (Ochus),... xxx. {when Egypt was again defeated. (B. C. 350. ) On the Persian Empire being conquered by Alexander the Great, Egypt also became a part of the Grecian empire. (B. C. 332. ) On the death of Alexander, Egypt was ruled by the Ptolemies. (B. C. 323. ) See... ANTIOCHUS. ... Egypt became a Roman province. (B. C. 30. )... Egypt was wrested from the Eastern Empire by the Saracens. (A. D. 639. )...
David - ("beloved". ) His outer life is narrated in the histories of Samuel, Kings, and Chronicles; his inner life is unfolded by himself in the Psalms. The verbal coincidences in Psalms and the allusions incidentally to facts which the histories detail are evidently undesigned, and therefore confirm the genuineness of both. The youngest of the eight sons of Jesse of Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:11); great grandson of Ruth and Boaz, "a mighty man of wealth" (Ruth 2:1; Ruth 4:21;Ruth 4:22). Born, according to the common chronology, 1085 B. C. Began to reign when 30 years of age. but over Judah alone, 1055 B. C. (2 Samuel 5:4; 1 Kings 2:11; 1 Chronicles 29:27); over all Israel, seven years and six months later, 1048 B. C. He died in 1015 B. C. , 70 years old. In early life he tended Jesse's flocks, thereby being trained for his subsequent career, for he had ample scope for quiet and prayerful meditations such as Moses had in his 40 years retirement in Midian before his call to public life, and as Paul had in the Arabian sojourn (Galatians 1:17) before his worldwide ministry. ... Those who are to be great public men often need first to be men of privacy. His intimate acquaintance with the beauties of nature, alike water, field, hill, and forest below, and the sun, moon, and glorious heavens above, gives coloring to many of his psalms (Psalm 29; Psalm 8; Psalm 19, etc. ). His shepherd life, exposed to wild beasts, yet preserved by God amidst green pastures and still waters, furnishes imagery to Psalms 22:20-21; Psalm 23; Psalms 7:2. His active energies were at the same time exercised in adventures amidst the hills and dales of Judah, in one of which his courage was tested by a close encounter with a lion, and in another with a bear, both of which he slew, grasping the beast by the beard and rescuing a lamb out of his mouth. These encounters nerved him for his first great victory, the turning point of his life, the slaying of Goliath of Gath (1 Samuel 17:35). Moreover, his accurate acquaintance with all the hiding places in the cavern-pierced hills, e. g. the cave of Adullam, proved of great service to him afterwards in his pursuit by Saul. ... The Bible authorities for his biography are the Davidic psalms and poetic fragments in the histories (2 Samuel 1:19-27; 2 Samuel 3:33-34; 2 Samuel 3:22; 2 Samuel 23:1-7); next the chronicles or state annals of David (1 Chronicles 27:24); the book (history) of Samuel the seer, that of Nathan the prophet, and that of Gad the seer (1 Chronicles 29:29). Jesse had a brother, Jonathan, whom David made one of his counselors (1 Chronicles 27:32). Jesse's wife, David's mother, is not named; but Nahash her former husband is the one by whom she had two daughters, David's half-sisters: Zeruiah, mother of Abishai, Joab and Asahel; and Abigail, mother of Amasa by Jether or Ithra (1 Chronicles 2:13-17; 2 Samuel 17:25). Jesse was an old man when David was a mere youth (1 Chronicles 17:12). His sisters were much older than David, so that their children, David's nephews, were his contemporaries and companions more than his own brothers. David shared some of their war-like determined characteristics, but shrank from their stern recklessness of bloodshed in whatever object they sought (2 Samuel 3:39; 2 Samuel 19:7). ... His oldest brother, Eliab, behaved unkindly and imperiously toward him when he went like a second Joseph, sent by his father to seek his brethren's welfare (1 Samuel 17:17-18; 1 Samuel 17:28-29). Eliab's "command," as head of Jesse's sons, was regarded by the rest as authoritative (1 Samuel 20:29), and the youngest, David, was thought scarcely worth bringing before the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 16:11). Hence, he had assigned to him the charge of the flock, ordinarily assigned to the least esteemed of the family, women, and servants, as was the case with Moses, Zipporah, Jacob, Rachel. When David became king, instead of returning evil for evil he made Eliab head of the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 27:18), Elihu = Eliab. His brother Shimeah had two sons connected with his subsequent history, Jonadab, the subtle, bad, selfish adviser of incestuous Amnon (2 Samuel 13:3; 2 Samuel 13:32-33), and Jonathan who killed a giant of Gath (2 Samuel 21:21). Nahash was probably one of the royal family of Ammon, which will account for David's friendship with the king of the same name, as also with Shobi, son of Nahash, from both of whom he received "kindness" in distress (2 Samuel 10:2; 2 Samuel 17:27). ... Ammon and David had a common enemy, Saul (1 Samuel 11); besides David's Moabite great grandmother, Ruth, connected him with Moab, Ammon's kinsmen. Hence, it was most natural to him to repair to Moab and Ammon when pursued by Saul. At first sight, we wonder at his leaving his father and mother for safe-keeping with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22); but the Book of Ruth shows how coincident with probability this is, and yet how little like the harmony contrived by a forger! His Gentile connection gave him somewhat enlarged views of the coming kingdom of Messiah, whose type and ancestor he was privileged to be (Psalms 2:8; Matthew 1:5). His birthplace was Bethlehem (as it was of his Antitype, Messiah: Luke 2:4, etc. ); and of his patrimony there he gave to Chimham a property which long retained Chimham's name, in reward for the father Barzillai's loyalty and help in Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 19:37-38; Jeremiah 41:17). His early associations with Bethlehem made him when in a hold desire a drink of water from its well while the Philistines held it. ... Three of his 30 captains broke through and brought it; but David, with the tender conscientiousness which characterized him (compare 1 Samuel 24:5; 2 Samuel 24:10), and which appreciated the deep spirituality of the sixth commandment, would not drink it but poured it out to the Lord, saying, "My God forbid it me: shall I drink the blood of these men that have put their lives in jeopardy?" (1 Chronicles 10:15-19). Saul, the people's choice, having been rejected from being king for disobedience, God manifested His sovereignty by choosing one, the very last thought of by his own family or even by the prophet; not the oldest, but the youngest; not like Saul, taller than the people by head and shoulders, but of moderate stature. (See SAUL. ) A yearly sacrificial feast used to be held at Bethlehem, whereat Jesse, as chief landowner, presided with the elders (1 Samuel 16; 1 Samuel 20:6; compare at Saul's selection, 1 Samuel 9:12). But now suddenly at God's command, Samuel, though fearful of Saul's deadly enmity, appears there driving a heifer before him, to offer an extraordinary sacrifice. ... The elders trembling, lest his visit should be for judicial punishment of some sin, inquired, "Comest thou peaceably?" He answered, "Peaceably. " Then inviting them and Jesse's sons he caused the latter to pass successively before him. Seven sons passed by but were rejected, notwithstanding Samuel's pre-possession in favor of Eliab's countenance and stature, since Jehovah, unlike man, "looks not on the outward appearance but on the heart. " David, seemingly the least likely and the youngest, was fetched from the sheep; and his unction with oil by the prophet previous to the feast was accompanied with the unction of the Spirit of the Lord from that day forward. Simultaneously, the Spirit of Jehovah left Saul and an evil spirit from Jehovah troubled him. David was "a man after the Lord's own heart" (1 Samuel 13:14; Acts 13:22). Moreover, he did not lack those outward graces which were looked for in a king; "ruddy," i. e. with auburn hair, esteemed to be a beauty in the South and East, where black hair is usual; with "bright eyes" (margin, 1 Samuel 16:12; 1 Samuel 16:18); goodly in countenance, and comely in person (1 Samuel 17:42); besides being "mighty, valiant, a man of war," and altogether "prudent. "... Like his nephew, Asahel, his feet were by his God made "like hinds' feet. " David adds (Psalms 18:33-34): "He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms. " Nothing could be more homely than his outward attire, with a staff or wand in hand used for dogs, and a pouch around his neck for carrying a shepherd's necessaries (1 Samuel 17:40-43). But God gave him "integrity of heart and skillfulness of hands," qualifying him for "feeding and guiding Israel," after that he was "taken from the sheepfolds" (Psalms 78:70-72), and "from the sheepcote" (2 Samuel 7:8). Nor was he ashamed of his early life, but he delighted gratefully to acknowledge before God that he was "the man raised up on high" (2 Samuel 23:1; compare Psalm 89). The first glimpse we have of David's taste in music and sacred poetry, which afterward appears so preeminent in his psalms, is in his having been chosen as the best minstrel to charm away the evil spirit when it came upon Saul (1 Samuel 16:15-23). ... Thus, the evil spirit departed, but the good Spirit did not come to Saul; and the result was, when David was driven away, the evil returned worse than ever. (Compare 1 Samuel 28 with Matthew 12:43-45). David doubtless received further training in the schools of the prophets, who connected their prophesying with the soothing and elevating music of psaltery, tabret, pipe, and harp (1 Samuel 10:5); for he and Samuel (who also feared Saul's wrath for his having anointed David: 1 Samuel 16:2) dwelt together in Naioth near Ramah, i. e. in the "habitations" of the prophets there, connected together by a wall or hedge round; a school over which Samuel presided, as Elisha did over those at Gilgal and Jericho; schools not for monastic separation from life's duties, but for mental and spiritual training with a view to greater usefulness in the world. (See NAIOTH. ) Thus, he became "the sweet singer of Israel" (2 Samuel 23:1), "the inventor of instruments of music" (Amos 6:5). Compare 1 Chronicles 23:5; 1 Chronicles 15:16; 1 Chronicles 15:19-21; 1 Chronicles 15:24; 1 Chronicles 25:1; 2 Chronicles 29:25-26. ... The use of cymbals, psalteries, and harps, in a form suitable for the temple worship, was by his command; the kinnor (the lyre) and the nebel (the psaltery, a stringed instrument played by the hand) being improved by him and added to the cymbals, as distinguished from the "trumpets. " The portion 1 Samuel 17 - 18:2 has been thought a parenthesis explaining how David became first introduced to Saul. But 1 Samuel 17:12; 1 Samuel 17:15 show that Saul already had David in attendance upon him, for Jesse his father is called "that Ephrathite" (namely, that one spoken of above), and it is said before David's going forth to meet Goliath that "David went and returned from Saul to feed his father's sheep at Bethlehem. " How then shall we account for Saul's question just before the encounter, "Abner, whose son is this youth?" and after it," Whose son art thou, young man?" (1 Samuel 17:55-58. ) Also, is this question consistent with his being already "Saul's armor-bearer and loved greatly" by him (1 Samuel 16:20-21. )... The title "armor-bearer" was honorary, like our aide-de-camp, e. g. Joab had ten (2 Samuel 18:15). David merely attended Saul for a time, and returned to tend his father's sheep, where he was when the war broke out in which Goliath was the Philistine champion. Saul's question (1 Samuel 17:55-58), "Whose son art thou?" must therefore imply more than asking the name of David's father. Evidently, he entered into a full inquiry about him, having lost sight of him since the time David had been in attendance. The words (1 Samuel 18:1) "when David made an end of speaking unto Saul, the soul of Jonathan was knit unto the soul of David," imply a lengthened detail of all concerning his father and himself. The sacred writer of 1 Samuel probably embodied in his narrative some fragments of the authoritative documents mentioned above, stamping them with divine sanction; hence arises a variation between the different documents which would be cleared up if we knew more fully the circumstances. Both are true, though the explanation of how they harmonize can only be conjectured with more or less probability. ... The battle was at Ephes-Dammim in the boundary hills of Judah; Saul's army on one side of the valley, the Philistines on the other, the brook Elah (i. e. the Terebinth) running between. Goliath's complete armor contrasted with the ill-armed state of Israel, whose king alone was well armed (1 Samuel 17:38). (See EPHES-DAMMIM. ) For, as Porsena imposed on the Romans the stipulation that they should use no iron except in farm work (Pliny, 34:14), so the Philistines forced the Israelites to have "no smith throughout all their land, lest the Hebrew make them swords or spears" (1 Samuel 13:19-20). David at this moment, when all the Israelites were dismayed, came to bring supplies for his brethren and to get from them a "pledge" that they were alive and well. Arriving at the wagon rampart (not "the trench" as KJV) round Israel's camp, he heard their well-known war shout (Numbers 23:21, compare Numbers 10:35). Leaving his Carriage (the vessels of supplies which he carried) in the hand of the baggage-master, he ran to greet his brethren in the midst of the lines, and there heard Goliath's challenge repeated on the 40th day for the 40th time. (See CARRIAGE. )... The meekness with which David conquered his own spirit, when Eliab charged him with pride, the very sin which prompted Eliab's own angry and uncharitable imputation, was a fit prelude to his conquest of Goliath; self must be overcome before we can overcome others (Proverbs 16:32; Proverbs 13:10). The same principle," judge not according to the appearance" (John 7:24), as. at his anointing (1 Samuel 16:7), is set forth in the victory of this "youth" over "a man of war from his youth. " Physical strength and size, severed from God; is mere beast strength, and must fall before the seemingly feeblest whose God is the Lord. This is the force of his words: "thy servant slew both the lion and the bear, and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the armies of the living God. " Man becomes beastlike when severed from God, and is only manly when he is godly. (See BEAST; DANIEL. ) Confidence in God, not self, grounded on past deliverance, and on God's honor being at stake before the assembled people of God and the enemies of God (1 Samuel 17:45-48), filled him with such alacrity that he "ran" toward the enemy, and with his simple sling and stone smote him to the ground. ... His armor David took first to his tent, and afterward to the tabernacle at Nob; his head David brought to Jerusalem (the city, not the citadel, which was then a Jebusite possession). At this point begins the second era of David's life, his persecution by Saul. A word is enough to rouse the jealous spirit, especially in a king towards a subject. That word was spoken by the women, unconscious of the effect of their words while they sang in responsive strains before the king and his champion, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands. " "They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me but thousands, and what can he have more but the kingdom?" Conscience told him he had forfeited his throne; and remembering Samuel's word after his disobedience as to the Amalekites (1 Samuel 15:28), "the Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbor of thine that is better than thou," he "eyed David" as possibly the "neighbor" meant. Envy moved Saul under the evil spirit to cast his javelin at him, but twice he eluded it. ... His already noted (1 Samuel 16:18) prudence, whereby "he behaved himself wisely in all his ways," was now brought into play; a quality which in dependence upon Jehovah, its Giver (Psalms 5:8), he in Psalms 101:1, by an undesigned coincidence, professes in the same words his determination to exercise, and which as it was the characteristic of Jacob, Israel's forefather, so it has been prominent in his descendants in all ages, modern as well as ancient, especially in times of persecution; analogous to the instinctive sagacity of hunted animals. So wisely did he behave, and so manifestly was the Lord with him, that Saul the king was afraid of David his subject; "therefore Saul removed him from him and made him captain over a thousand" (1 Samuel 18:13). Subsequently, he was captain of the king's bodyguard, next to Abner the captain of the host and Jonathan the heir apparent, and sat with the king at table daily (1 Samuel 20:25; 1 Samuel 22:14). Next, after Saul broke his promise of giving Merab his older daughter to be David's wife, by giving her to Adriel instead, Michal, Saul's second daughter, became attached to David. ... Saul used her as a "snare" that David might fall by the Philistines. The dowry Saul required was 100 foreskins of the Philistines. David brought him 200, which, so far from abating his malice, seeing that the Lord was so manifestly, with David, made him only the more bitter "enemy. " But God can raise up friends to His people in their enemy's house; and as Pharaoh's daughter saved Moses, so Saul's son Jonathan and daughter Michal saved David. After having promised in the living Jehovah's name David's safety to Jonathan, and after David had "slain the Philistines with a great slaughter" from which they did not recover until the battle in which Saul fell, Saul hurled his javelin at David with such force that it entered into the wall and then would have killed David in his own house, but that by Michal's help he escaped through a window. Jonathan, his bosom friend, he saw once again and never after. Michal was given to Phaltiel, and was not restored to him until he made her restoration a condition of peace with Abner (1 Samuel 19; 2 Samuel 3:13-16). ... How striking a retribution by the righteous God it was, that Saul himself fell by the very enemy by whom he hoped to kill David! How evidently this and kindred cases must have been in David's mind when he wrote of the sinner, "he made a pit and digged it, and is fallen into the ditch which he made" (Psalms 7:15-16); the title of this psalm probably refers to Saul, the black-hearted son of Kish the Benjamite, enigmatically glanced at as "Cush (Ethiopia; compare Jeremiah 13:23; Amos 9:7) the Benjamite. " This first act in his long wanderings forms the subject of Psalm 59. The title states the occasion: "when Saul sent and they watched the house to kill him. " The "bloody men" are Saul and his minions (Psalms 59:2). "The mighty are gathered against me, not for my transgression; . . . they run and prepare themselves without my fault" (Psalms 59:3-4); herein he appeals to the all-knowing Jehovah, since the earthly king will not believe his protestations of innocence of the treason laid to his charge. ... This psalm harmonizes with the independent history, 1 Samuel 18:8-30; 1 Samuel 20:30-31; 1 Samuel 22:8; 1 Samuel 24:9. This is the "lying" alluded to (Psalms 59:12). Saul's "pride" would not brook that David's exploits should be extolled above his; hence flowed the "lying" and malice. His minions, "like a dog returning at evening," thirsting for prey which they had in vain sought throughout the day, came tumultuously besieging David's house "that night" after Saul's vain attempt to destroy him in the day. His doom answered to his sin. Greatly trembling at the Philistine hosts, war-like though he was, but cowed by a guilty conscience, he who had made David to "wander up and down" now in his turn wanders hither and there for that spiritual guidance which Jehovah withheld and at last by night in disguise was a suppliant before the witch of Endor, which sealed his destruction (1 Samuel 28; 1 Chronicles 10:13). As David was "watched" by Saul's messengers (1 Samuel 19:11) so David's remedy was, "because of his (Saul's) strength will I wait upon (watch unto, Hebrew) Thee. "... David, seeing no hope of safety while within Saul's reach, fled to Samuel and dwelt with him at the prophet's school in Naioth. Saul sent messengers to apprehend him; but they and even Saul himself, when he followed, were filled with the spirit of prophecy; and they who came to seize the servant of God joined David in Spirit-taught praises of God; so, God can turn the hearts of His people's foes (Proverbs 16:7; Proverbs 21:1); compare Acts 18:17 with 1 Corinthians 1:1, especially Saul's namesake (Acts 7:58 with Acts 9). After taking affectionate leave of Jonathan, David fled to Nob, where the tabernacle was, in order to inquire God's will concerning his future course, as was David's custom. Herein Psalms 16:7 undesignedly coincides with 1 Samuel 22:10; 1 Samuel 22:15. Ahimelech, alarmed at David's sudden appearance alone, lest he should be charged with some unwelcome commission, asked, "Why art thou alone?" (1 Samuel 21. ) (See AHIMELECH. ) David, whom neither beast nor giant had shaken from his trust in the Lord, now through temporary unbelief told a lie, which involved the unsuspecting high priest and all his subordinates in one indiscriminate massacre, through Doeg's information to Saul. ... Too late David acknowledged to the only survivor, Abiathar, that he had thereby occasioned their death (1 Samuel 22); so liable are even believers to vacillation and to consequent punishment. (See ABIATHAR. ) By the lie he gained his immediate object, the 12 shewbread loaves just removed from the table to make place for the new bread on the sabbath, and also Goliath's sword wrapped up in cloth behind the high priest's own ephod (shoulder dress), so precious a dedicatory offering was it deemed. One gain David derived and Saul lost by his slaughter of the priests; Abiathar, the sole survivor of the line of Ithamar, henceforth attended David, and through him David could always inquire of God, in God's appointed way (Psalms 16:7, in undesigned coincidence with 1 Samuel 23:2; 1 Samuel 23:4; 1 Samuel 23:6; 1 Samuel 23:9; 1 Samuel 30:7-8). Saul on the contrary had bereft himself of those through whom he might have consulted the Lord. So at last, "when the Lord answered him, neither by dreams, by Urim, nor by prophets," he filled up the measure of his guilt by repairing to the witch of Endor. ... Surely men's "sin will find them out" (1 Samuel 28:6-7; Numbers 32:23). The title of Psalm 52 informs us that it was composed in reference to Saul's cruel act on Doeg's officious tale-telling information. The "boaster in mischief, the mighty man" (the very term used of Saul, 2 Samuel 1:19), is not the herdsman Doeg, the ready tool of evil, but the master of hero might in animal courage, Saul. True hero might belongs to the godly alone, as Psalms 18:25 saith, "with an upright hero (Hebrew for 'man') Thou wilt show Thyself upright. " Saul's "lying and all devouring words" (Psalms 5:3) are, with undesigned coincidence, illustrated by the independent history (1 Samuel 24:9), "wherefore hearest thou men's words, . . . Behold, David seeketh thy hurt?" Saul's courtiers knew the road to his favor was to malign David. Saul was thus the prime mover of the lying charge. Doeg, for mischief and to curry favor, told the fact; it was Saul who put on it the false construction of treason against David and the innocent priests; compare David's similar language, Psalms 17:3-4. ... Saul was "the man that made not God his strength, but trusted in the abundance of his riches and strengthened himself in his wickedness" (Psalms 52:7). For in undesigned coincidence with this the history (1 Samuel 22:7-9) represents him saying, "Will the son of Jesse give every one of you fields and vineyards?" etc. , implying that he had all these (as Samuel foretold would be "the manner of the king," 1 Samuel 8:14) to give, which David had not. Singularly prophetic of Saul's own doom are the Words (Psalms 52:5) hinting at his having rooted out Ahimelech's family, "God shall likewise . . . pluck thee out of try dwelling-place, and root thee out of the land of the living. " Not only Saul, but all his bloody house save Mephibosheth, died by a violent death, by a righteous retribution in kind (1 Samuel 31:6; 2 Samuel 21:1-14; Psalms 18:25-26). Unbelieving calculation of probabilities, instead of doing the right thing in prayerful faith, led David to flee to Israel's enemies, the Philistines and Achish of Gath. ... (See ACHISH. ) As Psalm 56 represents him praying for deliverance at this crisis, so Psalm 34 (in alphabetical acrostic arr
Israel - ISRAEL... I. History... 1. Sources. The sources of Jewish political and religious history are the OT, the so-called Apocryphal writings, the works of Josephus, the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions, allusions in Greek and Roman historians, and the Mishna and Talmud. ... Modern criticism has demonstrated that many of these sources were composed by weaving together previously existing documents. Before using any of these sources except the inscriptions, therefore, it is necessary to state the results of critical investigation and to estimate its effect upon the historical trustworthiness of the narratives. Genesis. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, and Joshua (the Hexateuch) are the product of one long literary process. Four different documents, each the work of a school of writers, have been laid under tribute to compose it. These documents are quoted so literally that they can still be separated with practical certainty one from another. The documents are the Jahwistic (J [Note: Jahwist. ] ), composed in Judah by J [Note: Jahwist. ] 1 before b. c. 800, perhaps in the reign of Jehoshaphat, though fragments of older poems are quoted, and supplemented a little later by J [Note: Jahwist. ] 2 ; the Elohistic (E [Note: Elohist. ] ). composed in the Northern Kingdom by E [Note: Elohist. ] 1 about b. c. 750 and expanded somewhat later by E [Note: Elohist. ] 2 ; the Deuteronomic code (D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] ), composed by D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] 1 about b. c. 650, to which D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] 2 prefixed a second preface about ninety years later; the Code of Holiness, compiled by P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] 1 about b. c. 500 or a little earlier, the priestly ‘Book of Origins’ written by P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] 2 about b. c 450, and various supplementary priestly notes added by various writers at later times. It should be noted that D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] 2 added various notes throughout the Hexateuch. ... The dates here assigned to these documents are those given by the Graf-Wellhausen school, to which the majority of scholars in all countries now belong. The Ewald-Dillmann school, represented by Strack and Kittel, still hold that P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] is older than D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] . For details see Hexateuch. ... Judges 1:1-36 and 2 Samuel 1:1-27 and 2Kings were also compiled by one literary process. The compiler was a follower of D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] , who wrote probably about 600. The work received a supplement by a kindred writer about 560. The sources from which the editor drew were, for Judges, Samuel, and the first two chapters of Kings, the J [Note: Jahwist. ] and E [Note: Elohist. ] documents in Judges 5:1-31 a poem composed about b. c. 1100 is utilized. The editor interpolated his own comments and at times his own editorial framework, but the sources may still be distinguished from these and from each other. A few additions have been made by a still later hand, but these are readily separated. In 1 Kings 3:1-28 ; 1 Kings 4:1-34 ; 1 Kings 5:1-18 ; 1 Kings 6:1-38 ; 1 Kings 7:1-51 ; 1 Kings 8:1-66 ; 1 Kings 9:1-28 ; 1 Kings 10:1-29 ; 1 Kings 11:1-43 a chronicle of the reign of Solomon and an old Temple record have been drawn upon, but they are interwoven with glosses and later legendary material. In the synchronous history ( 1 Kings 12:1-33 - 2 Kings 17:1-41 ) the principal sources are the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Israel’ and the ‘Book of the Chronicle of the Kings of Judah,’ though various other writings have been drawn upon for the narratives of Elijah and Elisha. The concluding portion ( 2 Kings 18:1-37 ; 2 Kings 19:1-37 ; 2 Kings 20:1-21 ; 2 Kings 21:1-26 ; 2 Kings 22:1-20 ; 2Ki 23:1-37 ; 2 Kings 24:1-20 ; 2 Kings 25:1-30 ) is dependent also upon the Judæan Chronicle. In all parts of Kings the Deuteronomic editor allows himself large liberties. For details see artt. on the Books of Judges, Samuel, and Kings. ... Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah are all the result of a late literary movement, and came into existence about b. c. 300. They were composed under the influence of the Levitical law. The history was re-told in Chronicles, in order to furnish the faithful with an expurgated edition of the history of Israel. The chief sources of the Chronicler were the earlier canonical books which are now found in our Bibles. Where he differs from these he is of doubtful authority. See Chronicles. A memoir of Ezra and one of Nehemiah were laid under contribution in the books which respectively bear these names. Apart from these quotations, the Chronicler composed freely as his point of view guided his imagination. See Ezra and Nehemiah [Books of]. ... Of the remaining historical books 1 Maccabees is a first-rate historical authority, having been composed by an author contemporary with the events described. The other apocryphal works contain much legendary material. ... Josephus is for the earlier history dependent almost exclusively upon the OT. Here his narrative has no independent value. For the events in which he was an actor he is a writer of the first importance. In the non-Israelitish sources Israel is mentioned only incidentally, but the information thus given is of primary importance. The Mishna and Talmud are compilations of traditions containing in some cases an historical kernel, but valuable for the light they throw upon Jewish life in the early Christian centuries. ... 2. Historical value of the earlier books . If the oldest source in the Pentateuch dates from the 9th cent. , the question as to the value of the narratives concerning the patriarchal period is forced upon us. Can the accounts of that time be relied upon as history? The answer of most scholars of the present day is that in part they can, though in a different way from that which was formerly in vogue. Winckler, it is true, would dissolve these narratives into solar and astral myths, but the majority of scholars, while making allowance for legendary and mythical elements, are confident that important outlines of tribal history are revealed in the early books of the Bible. ... The tenth chapter of Genesis contains a genealogical table in which nations are personified as men. Thus the sons of Ham were Cush (Nubia), Mizraim (Egypt), Put (East Africa?), and Canaan. The sons of Shem were Elam, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Lud (a land of unknown situation, not Lydia), and Aram (the Aramæans). If countries and peoples are here personified as men, the same may be the case elsewhere: and in Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, and the twelve sons of Jacob, we may be dealing not with individuals but with tribes. The marriages of individuals may represent the alliances or union of tribes. Viewed in this way, these narratives disclose to us the formation of the Israelitish nation. ... The traditions may, however, be classified in two ways: (1) as to origin, and (2) as to content. (For the classification as to origin see Paton, AJTh [Note: JTh American Journal of Theology. ] viii. [1904], 658 ff. )... 1. ( a ) Some traditions, such as those concerning kinship with non-Palestinian tribes, the deliverance from Egypt, and concerning Moses, were brought into Palestine from the desert. ( b ) Others, such as the traditions of Abraham’s connexion with various shrines, and the stories of Jacob and his sons, were developed in the land of Canaan, ( c ) Still others were learned from the Canaanites. Thus we learn from an inscription of Thothmes iii. about b. c. 1500 that Jacob-el was a place-name in Palestine. (See W. M. Müller, Asien und Europa , 162. ) Israel, as will appear later, was a name of a part of the tribes before they entered Canaan. In Genesis, Jacob and Israel are identified, probably because Israel had settled in the Jacob country. The latter name must have been learned from the Canaanites. Similarly, in the inscription of Thothmes Joseph-el is a place-name. Genesis ( Genesis 48:9 ff. ) tells how Joseph was divided into two tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh. Probably the latter are Israelitish, and are so called because they settled in the Joseph country. Lot or Luten (Egyp. Ruten ) is an old name of Palestine or of a part of it. In Genesis, Moab and Ammon are said to be the children of Lot, probably because they settled in the country of Luten. In most cases where a tradition has blended two elements, one of these was learned from the Canaanites. ( d ) Finally, a fourth set of traditions were derived from Babylonia. This is clearly the case with the Creation and Deluge narratives, parallels to which have been found in Babylonian and Assyrian literature. (See KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. ] vi. )... 2. Classified according to their content, we have: ( a ) narratives which embody the history and movements of tribes. ( b ) Narratives which reflect the traditions of the various shrines of Israel. The stories of Abraham at Bethel, Shechem, Hebron, and Beersheba come under this head. ( c ) Legendary and mythical survivals. Many of these have an ætiological purpose; they explain the origin of some custom or the cause of some physical phenomenon. Thus Genesis 18:1-33 ; Genesis 19:1-38 the destruction of Sodom and the other cities of the plain is a story which grew up to account for the Dead Sea, which, we now know, was produced by very different causes. Similarly Genesis 22:1-24 is a story designed to account for the fact that the Israelites sacrificed a lamb instead of the firstborn. ( d ) Other narratives are devoted to cosmogony and primeval history. This classification is worked out in detail in Peters’ Early Hebrew Story . It is clear that in writing a history of the origin of Israel we must regard the patriarchal narratives as relating largely to tribes rather than individuals, and must use them with discrimination. ... 3. Historical meaning of the patriarchal narratives . Parts of the account of Abraham are local traditions of shrines, but the story of Abraham’s migration is the narrative of the westward movement of a tribe or group of tribes from which the Hebrews were descended. Isaac is a shadowy figure confined mostly to the south, and possibly represents a south Palestinian clan, which was afterwards absorbed by the Israelites. Jacob-Israel (Jacob, as shown above, is of Canaanitish origin; Israel was the name of the confederated clans) represents the nation Israel itself. Israel is called an Aramæan ( Deuteronomy 26:5 ), and the account of the marriage of Jacob ( Genesis 29:1-35 ; Genesis 30:1-43 ; Genesis 31:1-55 ) shows that Israel was kindred to the Aramæans. We can now trace in the cuneiform literature the appearance and westward migration of the Aramæans, and we know that they begin to be mentioned in the Euphrates valley about b. c. 1300, and were moving westward for a little more than a century (see Paton, Syria and Palestine , 103 ff. ). The Israelites were a part of this Aramæan migration. ... The sons of Jacob are divided into four groups. Six Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun are said to be the sons of Leah. Leah probably means ‘wild cow’ (Delitzsch, Prolegomena , 80; W. R. Smith, Kinship 2 , 254). This apparently means that these tribes were of near kin, and possessed as a common totem the ‘wild cow’ or ‘bovine antelope. ’ The tribes of Manasseh, Ephraim, and Benjamin traced their descent from Rachel. Rachel means ‘ewe,’ and these tribes, though kindred to the other six, possessed a different totem. Judah was, in the period before the conquest, a far smaller tribe than afterwards, for, as will appear later, many Palestinian clans were absorbed into Judah. Benjamin is said to have been the youngest son of Jacob, born in Palestine a long time after the others. The name Benjamin means ‘sons of the south,’ or ‘southerners’: the Benjamites are probably the ‘southerners’ of the tribe of Ephraim, and were gradually separated from that tribe after the conquest of Canaan. Four sons of Jacob Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher are said to be the sons of concubines. This less honourable birth probably means that they joined the confederacy later than the other tribes. Since the tribe of Asher can be traced in the el-Amarna tablets in the region of their subsequent habitat (cf. Barton, Semitic Origins , 248 ff. ), this tribe probably joined the confederacy after the conquest of Palestine. Perhaps the same is true of the other three. ... 4. The beginnings of Israel . The original Israel, then, probably consisted of the eight tribes Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Manasseh, and Ephraim, though perhaps the Rachel tribes did not join the confederacy until they had escaped from Egypt (see § 6). These tribes, along with the other Abrahamidæ the Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites moved westward from the Euphrates along the eastern border of Palestine. The Ammonites, Moabites, and Edomites gained a foothold in the territories afterwards occupied by them. The Israelites appear to have been compelled to move on to the less fertile steppe to the south, between Beersheba and Egypt, roaming at times as far as Sinai. Budde ( Rel. of Isr. to the Exile , 6) regards the Khabiri, who in the el-Amarna tablets lay siege to Jerusalem, as Hebrews who made an incursion into Palestine, c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 1400. Though many scholars deny that they were Hebrews, perhaps they were. ... 5. The Egyptian bondage . From the time of the first Egyptian dynasty ( c [Note: circa, about. ] . b. c. 3000), the Egyptians had been penetrating into the Sinaitic Peninsula on account of the mines in the Wadi Maghara (cf. Breasted, Hist. of Egypt , 48). In course of time Egypt dominated the whole region, and on this account it was called Musru , Egypt being Musru or Misraim (cf. Winckler, Hibbert Jour . ii. 571 ff. , and KAT [Note: Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament. ] 3 144ff. ). Because of this, Winckler holds ( KAT [Note: Die Keilinschriften und das Alte Testament. ] 3 212 ff. ) that there is no historical foundation for the narrative of the Egyptian oppression of the Hebrews and their exodus from that country; all this, he contends, arose from a later misunderstanding of the name Musru . But, as Budde ( Rel. of Isr. to the Exile , ch. i. ) has pointed out, the firm and constant tradition of the Egyptian bondage, running as it does through all four of the Pentateuchal documents and forming the background of all Israel’s religious and prophetic consciousness, must have some historical content. We know from the Egyptian monuments that at different times Bedu from Asia entered the country on account of its fertility. The famous Hyksos kings and their people found access to the land of the Nile in this way. Probability, accordingly, strengthens the tradition that Hebrews so entered Egypt. Exodus 1:11 states that they were compelled to aid in building the cities of Pithom and Raamses. Excavations have shown that these cities were founded by Rameses ii. (b. c. 1292 1225; cf. Hogarth, Authority and Archæology , 55). It has been customary, therefore, to regard Rameses as the Pharaoh of the oppression, and Menephtah (Meren-ptah, 1225 1215) as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. This view has in recent years met with an unexpected difficulty. In 1896 a stele was discovered in Egypt on which an inscription of Menephtah, dated in his fifth year, mentions the Israelites as already in Palestine or the desert to the south of it, and as defeated there, (cf. Breasted, Anc. Records of Egypt , iii. 256 ff. ). This inscription celebrates a campaign which Menephtah made into Palestine in his third year (cf. Breasted, op. cit . 272). On the surface, this inscription, which contains by far the oldest mention of Israel yet discovered in any literature, and the only mention in Egyptian, seems to favour Winckler’s view. The subject cannot, however, be dismissed in so light a manner. The persistent historical tradition which colours all Hebrew religious thought must have, one would think, some historical foundation. The main thread of it must be true, but in details, such as the reference to Pithom and Raamses, the tradition may be mistaken. Traditions attach themselves to different men, why not to different cities? Perhaps, as several scholars have suggested, another solution is more probable, that not all of the Hebrews went to Egypt. Wildeboer ( Jahvedienst en Volksreligie Israel , 15) and Budde ( op. cit . 10) hold that it was the so-called Joseph tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh, that settled for a time in Egypt, and that Moses led forth. This receives some support from the fact that the E [Note: Elohist. ] document, which originated among the Ephraimites, is the first one that remembers that the name Jahweh was, until the Exodus, unknown to them (cf. Exodus 3:14 ). ... Probably we shall not go far astray, if we suppose that the Leah tribes were roaming the steppe to the south of Palestine where Menephtah defeated them, while the Rachel tribes, enticed into Egypt by the opportunity to obtain an easier livelihood, became entangled in trouble there, from which Moses emancipated them, perhaps in the reign of Menephtah himself. ... 6. The Exodus . The J [Note: Jahwist. ] , E [Note: Elohist. ] , and P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] documents agree in their main picture of the Exodus, although J [Note: Jahwist. ] differs from the other two in holding that the worship of Jahweh was known at an earlier time. Moses, they tell us, fled from Egypt and took refuge in Midian with Jethro, a Kenite priest (cf. Judges 1:16 ). Here, according to E [Note: Elohist. ] and P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] , at Horeb or Sinai, Jahweh’s holy mount, Moses first learned to worship Jahweh, who, he believed, sent him to deliver from Egypt his oppressed brethren. After various plagues (J [Note: Jahwist. ] gives them as seven; E [Note: Elohist. ] , five; and P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] ; six) Moses led them out, and by Divine aid they escaped across the Red Sea. J [Note: Jahwist. ] makes this escape the result of Jahweh’s control of natural means ( Exodus 14:21 ). Moses then led them to Sinai, where, according to both J [Note: Jahwist. ] and E [Note: Elohist. ] , they entered into a solemn covenant with Jahweh to serve Him as their God. According to E [Note: Elohist. ] ( Exodus 18:12 ff. ), it was Jethro, the Kenite or Midianite priest, who initiated them into the rite and mediated the covenant. After this the Rachel tribes probably allied themselves more closely to the Leah tribes, and, through the aid of Moses, gradually led them to adopt the worship of Jahweh. Religion was at this period purely an affair of ritual and material success, and since clans had escaped from Egypt through the name of Jahweh, others would more readily adopt His worship also. Perhaps it was during this period that the Rachel tribes first became a real part of the Israelite confederation. ... 7. The Wilderness wandering . For some time the habitat of Israel, as thus constituted, was the region between Sinai on the south and Kadesh, a spring some fifty miles south of Beersheba, on the north. At Kadesh the fountain was sacred, and at Sinai there was a sacred mountain. Moses became during this period the sheik of the united tribes. Because of his preeminence in the knowledge of Jahweh he acquired this paramount influence in all their counsels. In the traditions this period is called the Wandering in the Wilderness, and it is said to have continued forty years. The expression ‘forty years’ is, however, used by D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] and his followers in a vague way for an indefinite period of time. In this case it is probably rather over than under the actual amount. ... The region in which Israel now roamed was anything but fertile, and the people naturally turned their eyes to more promising pasture lands. This they did with the more confidence, because Jahweh, their new God, had just delivered a portion of them from Egypt in an extraordinary manner. Naturally they desired the most fertile land in the region, Palestine. Finding themselves for some reason unable to move directly upon it from the south (Numbers 13:1-33 ; Numbers 14:1-45 ), perhaps because the hostile Amalekites interposed, they made a circuit to the eastward. According to the traditions, their detour extended around the territories of Edom and Moab, so that they came upon the territory north of the Arnon, where an Amorlte kingdom had previously been established, over which, in the city of Heshbon, Sihon ruled. See Amorites. ... 8. The trans-Jordanic conquest . The account of the conquest of the kingdom of Sihon is given by E [Note: Elohist. ] with a few additions from J [Note: Jahwist. ] in Numbers 21:1-35 . No details are given, but it appears that in the battles Israel was victorious. We learn from the P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] document in Numbers 32:1-42 that the conquered cities of this region were divided between the tribes of Reuben and Gad. Perhaps it was at this time that the tribe of Gad came into the confederacy. At least they appear in real history here for the first time. The genealogies represent Gad as the son of a slave-girl. This, as already noted, probably means that the tribe joined the nation at a comparatively late period. Probably the Gadites came in from the desert at this period, and in union with the Reubenites won this territory, which extended from the Arnon to a point a little north of Heshbon. It is usually supposed that the territory of Reuben lay to the south of that of Gad, extending from the Arnon to Elealeh, north of Heshbon; but in reality each took certain cities in such a way that their territory interpenetrated ( Numbers 32:34 ). Thus the Gadites had Dibon, Ataroth, and Aroer to the south, Jazer north of Heshbon, and Bethnimrah and Beth-baran in the Jordan valley; while the Reubenites had Baal-meon, Nebo, Heshbon, and Elealeh, which lay between these. Probably the country to the north was not conquered until later. It is true that D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] claims that Og, the king of Bashan, was conquered at this time, but it is probable that the conquest of Bashan by a part of the tribe of Manasseh was a backward movement from the west after the conquest of Palestine was accomplished. During this period Moses died, and Joshua became the leader of the nation. ... 9. Crossing the Jordan . The conquests of the tribe of Gad brought the Hebrews into the Jordan valley, but the swiftly flowing river with its banks of clay formed an insuperable obstacle to these primitive folk. The traditions tell of a miraculous stoppage of the waters. The Arabic historian Nuwairi tells of a land-slide of one of the clay hills that border the Jordan, which afforded an opportunity to the Arabs to complete a military bridge. The account of this was published with translation in the PEFSt [Note: Quarterly Statement of the same. ] , 1895, p. 253 ff. The J [Note: Jahwist. ] writer would see in such an event, as he did in the action of the winds upon the waters of the Red Sea, the hand of Jahweh. The accounts of it in which the priests and the ark figure are of later origin. These stories explained the origin of a circle of sacred stones called Gilgal , which lay on the west of the Jordan, by the supposition that the priests had taken these stones from the bed of the river at the time of the crossing. ... 10. The conquest of Canaan . The first point of attack after crossing the Jordan was Jericho. In Joshua 6:1-27 J [Note: Jahwist. ] ’s account and E [Note: Elohist. ] ’s account of the taking of Jericho are woven together (cf. the Oxford Hexateuch , or SBOT [Note: BOT Sacred Books of Old Testament. ] , ad. loc . ). According to the J [Note: Jahwist. ] account, the Israelites marched around the city once a day for six days. As they made no attack, the besieged were thrown off their guard, so that, when on the seventh day the Israelites made an attack at the end of their marching, they easily captured the town. As to the subsequent course of the conquest, the sources differ widely. The D [Note: Deuteronomist. ] and P [Note: Priestly Narrative. ] strata of the book of Joshua, which form the main portion of it, represent Joshua as gaining possession of the country in two great battles, and as dividing it up among the tribes by lot. The J [Note: Jahwist. ] account of the conquest, however, which has been preserved in Judges 1:1-36 and Joshua 8:1-35 ; Joshua 9:1-27 ; Joshua 10:1-43 ; Joshua 13:1 ; Joshua 13:7 a, Joshua 13:13 ; Joshua 15:14-19 ; Joshua 15:63 ; Joshua 16:1-3 ; Joshua 16:10 ; Joshua 17:11-18 ; Joshua 19:47 , while it represents Joshua as the leader of the Rachel tribes and as winning a decisive victory near Gibeon, declares that the tribes went up to win their territory singly, and that in the end their conquest was only partial. This representation is much older than the other, and is much more in accord with the subsequent course of events and with historical probability. ... According to J [Note: Jahwist. ] , there seem to have been at least three lines of attack: (1) that which Joshua led up the valley from Jericho to Ai and Bethel, from which the territories afterwards occupied by Ephraim and Benjamin were secured. (2) A movement on the part of the tribe of Judah followed by the Simeonites, south-westward from Jericho into the hill-country about Bethlehem and Hebron. (3) Lastly, there was the movement of the northern tribes into the hill-country which borders the great plain of Jezreel. J [Note: Jahwist. ] in Joshua 11:1 ; Joshua 11:4-9 tells us that in a great battle by the Waters of Merom (wh. see) Joshua won for the Israelites a victory over four petty kings of the north, which gave the Israelites their foothold there. In the course of these struggles a disaster befell the tribes of Simeon and Levi in an attempt to take Shechem, which practically annihilated Levi, and greatly weakened Simeon (cf. Genesis 34:1-31 ). This disaster was thought to be a Divine punishment for reprehensible conduct ( Genesis 49:5-7 ). J [Note: Jahwist. ] distinctly states ( Judges 1:1-36 ) that the conquest was not complete, but that two lines of fortresses, remaining in the possession of the Canaanites, cut the Israelitish territory into three sections. One of these consisted of Dor, Megiddo. Taanach, Ibleam, and Beth-shean, and gave the Canaanites control of the great plain of Jezreel. while, holding as they did Jerusalem, Aijalon, Har-heres (Beth-shemesh), and Gezer, they cut the tribe of Judah off from their northern kinsfolk. J [Note: Jahwist. ] further tells us distinctly that not all the Canaanites were driven out, but that the Canaanites and the Hebrews lived together. Later, he says, Israel made slaves of the Canaanites. This latter statement is perhaps true for those Canaanites who held out in these fortresses, but reasons will be given later for believing that by intermarriage a gradual fusion between Canaanites and Israelites took place. ... Reasons have been adduced (§ 3) for believing that the tribe of Asher had been in the country from about b. c. 1400. (The conquest probably occurred about 1200. ) Probably they allied themselves with the other tribes when the latter entered Canaan. At what time the tribes of Naphtali and Dan joined the Hebrew federation we have no means of knowing. J [Note: Jahwist. ] tells us (Judges 1:34-35 ) that the Danites struggled for a foothold in the Shephçlah, where they obtained out an insecure footing. As they afterwards migrated from here ( Judges 17:1-13 ; Judges 18:1-31 ), and as a place in this region was called the ‘Camp of Dan’ ( Judges 13:25 ; Judges 18:12 ), probably their hold was very insecure. We learn from Judges 15:1-20 that they possessed the town of Zorah, where Samson was afterwards born. ... 11. Period of the Judges . During this period, which ex