Places Study on Cappadocia

Places Study on Cappadocia

Acts 2: Parthians, and Medes, and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judaea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia,
1 Peter 1: Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,

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Cappadocia

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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Cappadocia
In ancient geography, inland district of Asia Minor, consisting of an elevated plateau traversed by the Anti-Taurus range. At one time it was the seat of Hittite power. In A.D. 17 it was reduced by Rome to a province and later, A.D. 70, was joined to Armenia Minor. As ecclesiastical province it was subject to Antioch, and the Byzantine Rite was first used here. Christianity was preached by Saint Andrew, and, in the 4th century, by three Fathers of the Church, Saint Basil the Great, Saint Gregory of Nazianzus, and Saint Gregory of Nyssa.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Cappadocia
The most eastern province of Asia Minor. Jews resident in it were among Peter's hearers at his memorable Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:9). To them accordingly, among others, he addressed his First Epistle (1 Peter 1:1). Judaism there paved the way for Christianity. Seleucus first introduced Jewish colonists into Asia Minor (Josephus, Ant. 12:3, section 4). Rome, by the civilization and improved roads which it carried with it every where, facilitated the spread first of Judaism, then of Christianity.

The approach to Cappadocia from Palestine and Syria was by the pass called "the Cilician gates," leading up through the Taurus range from the low region of Cilicia. Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N. along the sea, and Cappadocia on the S. Tiberius it was who reduced the Cappadocian Archclaus' kingdom to a province (A.D. 17), of which Caesarea was the capital, afterward the birthplace and see of Basil. Its cities, Nyssa, Nazianzus, Samosata, and Tyana, were noted in church history.

Holman Bible Dictionary - Cappadocia
(cap puh doh' cih uh) A Roman province in Asia Minor mentioned twice in the New Testament: Acts 2:9 ; 1 Peter 1:1 .

Although the extent of Cappadocia varied through the centuries depending on the currently dominant empire, it lay south of Pontus and stretched about 300 miles from Galatia eastward toward Armenia, with Cilicia and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Although mountainous country, its mostly rural population raised good crops, cattle, and horses. While in New Testament times its mines were still producing some minerals, a large number of tablets written in cuneiform script discovered in 1907 at Tanish, now known as Kultepe, revealed that Assyrians were mining and exporting silver ore from Cappadocia about 1900 B.C.

From Acts 2:9 we know that Jews from Cappadocia were in Jerusalem when Peter preached at Pentecost. Those converted to Christianity that day must have given a good witness when they returned home because in 1 Peter 1:1 believers there are mentioned along with others in Pontus. The Christian message was probably carried to Pontus by way of the highway that went northward across Cappadocia from Tarsus through the narrow mountain pass known as the Cilician Gates. In the second century A.D. the famous historian Eusebius reported that the church at Rome sent financial aid to churches in the Near East, including Cappadocia. Two centuries later two sons of a prominent and wealthy Cappadocian family, Basil and Gregory, along with a close friend also named Gregory, took their Christian commitment quite seriously and became influential defenders and interpreters of the faith.

Today the region of Cappadocia is in central Turkey, which is ninety-eight percent Muslim.



Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Cappadocia
CAPPADOCIA . A large district in the mid-eastern part of Asia Minor, formed into a Roman province in a.d. 17. It was administered by a procurator sent out by the reigning emperor, being regarded as an unimportant district. In a.d. 70 Vespasian united it with Armenia Minor, and made the two together a large and important frontier province, to be governed by an ex-consul, under the title of legatus Augusti pro prœtore , on the emperor’s behalf. The territory to the N. and W. of Cilicia, the kingdom of the client-king Antiochus, was incorporated in it at the time, and it afterwards received various accessions of territory. Jews from Cappadocia are mentioned in Acts 2:9 , and their presence there ( c [Note: circa, about.] . b.c. 139) is implied in 1Ma 15:22 where a letter in their favour is addressed by the Roman Senate to king Arathes. Cappadocia was not visited by St. Paul, probably as insufficiently Romanized, but it was one of the provinces to which 1Peter (? about a.d. 70 80) was sent.

A. Souter.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Cappadocia
District in the east of Asia Minor. Visitors from thence were at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost, and Peter includes this district when he addresses his first Epistle to the dispersed Jews. Acts 2:9 ; 1 Peter 1:1 . The district extended as far eastward as the Euphrates.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Cappadocia
(Καππαδοκία)

Cappadocia was an elevated table-land, with ill-defined and varying boundaries, in the east centre of Asia Minor. It was drained chiefly by the Halys and its tributaries, and intersected by great mountains, the highest of which, Argaeus, is 13,000 feet above the sea. ‘Persons who ascend it (but they are not many) say that both the Euxine and the Sea of Issus may be seen from it in clear weather’ (Strabo, xii. ii. 7). Cappadocia was traversed by the great road of commerce from Ephesus to the Euphrates, by the pilgrims’ route from Constantinople to Jerusalem, and by roads from the Cilician Gates to the cities of the Euxine. It was an excellent country for corn and pasturage, and it had some important centres of commerce. Jews had found their way into the country before the Maccabaean period, and in 139 b.c. the Roman a Senate sent a letter to Ariarathes, King of Cappadocia, directing him ‘not to seek their hurt’ (1 Maccabees 15:19; 1 Maccabees 15:22). Philo (Leg. ad Gaium, 36) also refers to Jews in Cappadocia. On the death of King Archelaus in a.d. 17, the country was formed into a Roman province (Tacitus, Ann. ii. 42). It was administered by a procurator until the time of Vespasian, who joined it to Armenia and placed it under a legatus.

Jews of Cappadocia were sojourning in Jerusalem at the time of the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:9). The elect of the Dispersion in the province of Cappadocia are addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Pagan Cappadocia was devoted chiefly to the cult of Ma, and the strength of its anti-Christian forces is indicated in Strabo’s description of two leading cities, Comana and Morimene.

The priest of Comana ‘presides over the temple, and has authority over the hierodouli belonging to it, who, at, the time I was there, exceeded in number 6000 persons, including men and women. A large tract of land adjoins the temple, the revenue of which the priest enjoys. He is second in rank in Cappadocia after the king, and in general the priests are descended from the same family as the kings’ (xii. ii. 3). ‘In Morimene, among the Venasii, is a temple of Jupiter, with buildings capable of receiving nearly 3000 hierodouli. It has a tract of sacred land attached to it.… The priest is appointed for life like the priest of Comana, and is next to him in rank’ (xii. ii. 7).

Yet Christianity made rapid progress in Cappadocia, and its triumph in Caesarea, the capital, so offended Julian the Apostate that he deprived the city of its freedom. Some of the other cities of Cappadocia-Nyssa, Nazianzus, Tyana, Samosata-are celebrated in Church history.

Literature.-W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire, London, 1893, p. 445ff; Th. Mommsen, Provinces of the Rom. Empire2, Eng. translation , do. 1909, i. 323f., 332f., ii. 19, 41, 63; E. Chantre, Mission en Cappadocie, Paris, 1898; G. Long, in DGRG [Note: GRG Dict. of Greek and Roman Geography.] , i. 506ff.; article ‘Cappadocia’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica .

James Strahan.

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia
Basilius , bp. of Caesarea in Cappadocia, commonly called Basil the Great , the strenuous champion of orthodoxy in the East, the restorer of union to the divided Oriental church, and the promoter of unity between the East and the West, was born at Caesarea (originally called Mazaca), the capital of Cappadocia, towards the end of 329. His parents were members of noble and wealthy families, and Christians by descent. His grandparents on both sides had suffered during the Maximinian persecution, his maternal grandfather losing both property and life. Macrina, his paternal grandmother, and her husband, were compelled to leave their home in Pontus, of which country they were natives, and to take refuge among the woods and mountains of that province, where they are reported to have passed seven years (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. p. 319). [See Macrina.] His father, whose name was also Basil, was an advocate and teacher of rhetoric whose learning and eloquence had brought him a very large practice. Gregory Nazianzen speaks of this elder Basil in terms of the highest commendation as one who was regarded by the whole of Pontus as "the common instructor of virtue" ( Or. xx. p. 324). The elder Basil and Emmelia had ten children, five of each sex, of whom a daughter, Macrina, was the eldest. Basil the Great was the eldest son; two others, Gregory Nyssen and Peter, attained the episcopate. Naucratius the second son died a layman. Four of the daughters were well and honourably married. Macrina, the eldest, embraced a life of devotion, and exercised a very powerful influence over Basil and the other members of the family. [See Macrina, (2).] Basil was indebted for the care of his earliest years to his grandmother Macrina, who brought him up at her country house, not far from Neocaesarea in the province of Pontus (Bas. Ep. 210, § 1). The date of Basil's baptism is uncertain, but, according to the prevalent custom, it was almost certainly deferred until he reached man's estate. For the completion of his education, Basil was sent by his father first to his native city of Caesarea (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. p. 325). >From Caesarea he passed to Constantinople (Bas. Epp. 335-359; Liban. Vita , p. 15), and thence to Athens, where he studied during the years 351-355, chiefly under the Sophists Himerius and Prohaeresius. His acquaintance with his fellow-student and inseparable companion Gregory Nazianzen, previously begun at Caesarea, speedily ripened at Athens into an ardent friendship, which subsisted with hardly any interruption through the greater part of their lives. Athens also afforded Basil the opportunity of familiar intercourse with a fellow-student whose name was destined to become unhappily famous, the nephew of the emperor Constantius, Julian. The future emperor conceived a warm attachment for the young Cappadocian, with whom—as the latter reminds him when the relations between them had so sadly changed—he not only studied the best models of literature, but also carefully read the sacred Scriptures (Epp. 40, 41; Greg. Naz. Orat. iv. adv. Julian , pp. 121 seq.). Basil remained at Athens till the middle or end of 355, when with extreme reluctance he left for his native city. By this time his father was dead. His mother, Emmelia, was residing at the village of Annesi, near Neocaesarea. Basil's Athenian reputation had preceded him, and he was received with much honour by the people of Caesarea, where he consented to settle as a teacher of rhetoric (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. p. 334). He practised the profession of a rhetorician with great celebrity for a considerable period (Rufin. ii. 9), but the warnings and counsels of Macrina guarded him from the seductions of the world, and eventually induced him to abandon it altogether and devote himself to a religious life (Greg. Nys. u.s. ). Basil, in a letter to Eustathius of Sebaste, describes himself at this period as one awaked out of a deep sleep, and in the marvellous light of Gospel truth discerning the folly of that wisdom of this world in the study of which nearly all his youth had vanished. His first care was to reform his life. Finding, by reading the Gospels, that nothing tended so much toward perfection as to sell all that he had and free himself from worldly cares, and feeling himself too weak to stand alone in such an enterprise, he desired earnestly to find some brother who might give him his aid (Ep. 223). No sooner did his determination become known that he was beset by the remonstrances of his friends entreating him, some to continue the profession of rhetoric, some to become an advocate. But his choice was made, and his resolution was inflexible. Basil's baptism may be placed at this epoch. He was probably baptized by Dianius, bp. of Caesarea, by whom not long afterwards he was admitted to the order of reader ( de Spir. Sancto , c. xxix. 71). Basil's determination in favour of a life of devotion would be strengthened by the death of his next brother, Naucratius, who had embraced the life of a solitary, and about this period was drowned while engaged in works of mercy (Greg. Nys. de Vit. S. Macr. p. 182). About a.d.357, when still under thirty, Basil left Caesarea to seek the most celebrated ascetics upon whose life he might model his own; visiting Alexandria and Upper Egypt, Palestine, Coelesyria, and Mesopotamia. He records his admiration of the abstinence and endurance of the ascetics whom he met, their mastery over hunger and sleep, their indifference to cold and nakedness, as well as his desire to imitate them ( Ep. 223, § 2). The year 358 saw Basil again at Caesarea resolved on the immediate carrying out of his purpose of retiring from the world, finally selecting for his retreat a spot near Neocaesarea, close to the village of Annesi, where his father's estates lay, and where he had passed his childhood under the care of his grandmother Macrina. To Annesi his mother Emmelia and his sister Macrina had retired after the death of the elder Basil, and were living a semi-monastic life. Basil's future home was only divided from Annesi by the river Iris, by which and the gorges of the mountain torrents a tract of level ground was completely insulated. A wooded mountain rose behind. There was only one approach to it, and of that he was master. The natural beauties of the spot, with its ravines, precipices, dashing torrents, and waterfalls, the purity of the air and the coolness of the breezes, the abundance of flowers and multitude of singing birds ravished him, and he declared it to be more beautiful than Calypso's island ( Ep. 14). His glowing description attracted Gregory for a lengthy visit to study the Scriptures with him ( Ep. 9), together with the commentaries of Origen and other early expositors. At this time they also compiled their collection of the "Beauties of Origen," or "Philocalia" (Socr. iv. 26; Soz. vi. 17; Greg. Naz. Ep. 87). In this secluded spot Basil passed five years, an epoch of no small importance in the history of the church, inasmuch as it saw the origin under Basil's influence of the monastic system in the coenobitic form. Eustathius of Sebaste had already introduced monachism into Asia Minor, but monastic communities were a novelty in the Christian world, and of these Basil is justly considered the founder. His rule, like that of St. Benedict in later times, united active industry with regular devotional exercises, and by the labour of his monks over wide desert tracts, hopeless sterility gave place to golden harvests and abundant vintages. Not the day only but the night also was divided into definite portions, the intervals being filled with prayers, hymns, and alternate psalmody. The day began and closed with a psalm of confession. The food of his monks was limited to one meal a day of bread, water, and herbs, and he allowed sleep only till midnight, when all rose for prayer ( Ep. 2, 207). On his retirement to Pontus, Basil devoted all his worldly possessions to the service of the poor, retaining them, however, in his own hands, and by degrees divesting himself of them as occasion required. His life was one of the most rigid asceticism. He had but one outer and one inner garment; he slept in a hair shirt, his bed was the ground; he took little sleep, no bath; the sun was his fire, his food bread and water, his drink the running stream (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. p. 358; Greg. Nys. de Basil. p. 490). The severe bodily austerities he practised emaciated his frame and ruined his already feeble health, sowing the seeds of the maladies to which in later years he was a martyr. His friend describes him as "without a wife, without property, without flesh, and almost without blood" (Greg. Naz. Or. xix. p. 311). Basil's reputation for sanctity collected large numbers about him. He repeatedly made missionary journeys through Pontus; his preaching resulting in the founding of many coenobitic industrial communities and monasteries for both sexes, and in the restoration of the purity of the orthodox faith (Rufin. ix. 9; Soz. vi. 17; Greg. Nys. de Basil. p. 488). Throughout Pontus and Cappadocia Basil was the means of the erection of numerous hospitals for the poor, houses of refuge for virgins, orphanages, and other homes of beneficence. His monasteries had as their inmates children he had taken charge of, married persons who had mutually agreed to live asunder, slaves with the consent of their masters, and solitaries convinced of the danger of living alone (Basil, Regulae , 10, 12, 15). After two years thus spent Basil was summoned from his solitude in 359 to accompany Basil of Ancyra and Eustathius of Sebaste, who had been delegated by the council of Seleucia to communicate the conclusions of that assembly to Constantius at Constantinople. Basil seems from his youth and natural timidity to have avoided taking any part in the discussions of the council that followed, 360, in which the Anomoeans were condemned, the more orthodox semi-Arians deposed, and the Acacians triumphed. But when Constantius endeavoured to force those present to sign the creed of Ariminum, Basil left the city and returned to Cappadocia (Greg. Nys. in Eunom. pp. 310, 312; Philost. iv. 12). Not long after his return George of Laodicea arrived at Caesarea as an emissary of Constantius, bringing with him that creed for signature. To Basil's intense grief, bp. Dianius, a gentle, undecided man, who valued peace above orthodoxy, was persuaded to sign. Basil felt it impossible any longer to hold communion with his bishop, and fled to Nazianzus to find consolation in the society of his dear friend Gregory ( Ep. 8, 51). He denied with indignation the report that he had anathematized his bishop, and when two years afterwards (362) Dianius was stricken for death and entreated Basil to return and comfort his last hours, he at once went to him, and the aged bishop died in his arms. The choice of Dianius's successor gave rise to violent dissensions at Caesarea. At last the populace, wearied with the indecision, chose Eusebius, a man of high position and eminent piety, but as yet unbaptized. They forcibly conveyed him to the church where the provincial bishops were assembled, and compelled the unwilling prelates first to baptize and then to consecrate him. Eusebius was bp. at Caesarea for 8 years (Greg. Naz. Or. xix. 308, 309). Shortly before the death of Dianius, Julian had ascended the throne (Dec. 11, 361), and desired to surround himself with the associates of his early days (Greg. Naz. Or. iv. 120). Among the first whom he invited was his fellow-student at Athens, Basil. Basil at first held out hopes of accepting his old friend's invitation; but he delayed his journey, and Julian's declared apostasy soon gave him sufficient cause to relinquish it altogether. The next year Julian displayed his irritation. Receiving intelligence that the people of Caesarea, so far from apostatizing with him and building new pagan temples, had pulled down the only one still standing (Greg. Naz. Or. iii. 91, xix. 309; Socr. v. 4), he expunged Caesarea from the catalogue of cities, made it take its old name of Mazaca, imposed heavy payments, compelled the clergy to serve in the police force, and put to death two young men of high rank who had taken part in the demolition of the temple. Approaching Caesarea, he dispatched a minatory letter to Basil demanding a thousand pounds of gold for the expenses of his Persian expedition, or threatening to rase the city to the ground. Basil, in his dauntless reply, upbraids the emperor for apostasy against God and the church, the nurse and mother of all, and for his folly in demanding so vast a sum from him, the poorest of the poor. The death of Julian (June 26, 363) delivered Basil from this imminent peril. One of the first acts of bp. Eusebius was to compel the reluctant Basil to be ordained priest, that the bishop might avail himself of Basil's theological knowledge and intellectual powers to compensate for his own deficiencies. At first he employed him very largely. But when he found himself completely eclipsed he became jealous of Basil's popularity and treated him with a marked coldness, amounting almost to insolence, which awoke the hostility of the Christians of Caesarea, whose idol Basil was. A schism was imminent, but Basil, refusing to strengthen the heretical party by creating divisions among the orthodox, retired with his friend Gregory to Pontus, where he devoted himself to the care of the monasteries he had founded (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. pp. 336, 337; Soz. vi. 15). Basil had passed about three years in his Pontic seclusion when, in 365, the blind zeal of the emperor Valens for the spread of Arianism brought him back to Caesarea. As soon as it was known that Valens was approaching that city, the popular voice demanded the recall of Basil as the only bulwark against the attack on the true faith and its adherents meditated by the emperor. Gregory acted the part of a wise mediator, and Basil's return to the bishop was effected (Greg. Naz. Ep. 19, 20, 169; Or. xx. p. 339). Treating Eusebius with the honour due to his position and his age, Basil now proved himself, in the words of Gregory, the staff of his age, the support of his faith; at home the most faithful of his friends; abroad the most efficient of his ministers ( ib. 340). The first designs of Valens against Caesarea were interrupted by the news of the revolt of Procopius (Amm. Marc. 26, 27). He left Asia to quell the insurrection which threatened his throne. Basil availed himself of the breathing-time thus granted in organizing the resistance of the orthodox against the Eunomians or Anomoeans, who were actively propagating their pernicious doctrines through Asia Minor; and in uniting the Cappadocians in loyal devotion to the truth. The year 368 afforded Basil occasion of displaying his large and universal charity. The whole of Cappadocia was desolated by drought and famine, the visitation pressing specially on Caesarea. Basil devoted his whole energies to helping the poor sufferers. He sold the property he had inherited at the recent death of his mother, and raised a large subscription in the city. He gave his own personal ministrations to the wretched, and while he fed their bodies he was careful to nourish their souls with the bread of life (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 340-342; Greg. Nys. in Eunom. i. 306). Eusebius died towards the middle of 370 in Basil's arms (Greg. Naz. Or. xix. 310, xx. 342). Basil persuaded himself, not altogether unwarrantably, that the cause of orthodoxy in Asia Minor was involved in his succeeding Eusebius. Disappointed of the assistance anticipated from the younger Gregory, Basil betook himself to his father, the aged bp. of Nazianzus of the same name. The momentous importance of the juncture was more evident to the elder man. Orthodoxy was at stake in Basil's election. "The Holy Spirit must triumph" (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 342). Using his son as his scribe, he dictated a letter to the clergy, monks, magistrates, and people of Caesarea, calling on them to choose Basil; another to the electing prelates, exhorting them not to allow Basil's weakness of health to counterbalance his marked pre-eminence in spiritual gifts and in learning (Greg. Naz. Ep. 22, 23). No orthodox prelate had at that time a deservedly greater influence than Eusebius of Samosata. Gregory wrote to him and persuaded him to visit Caesarea and undertake the direction of this difficult business (Bas. Ep. 47). On his arrival, Eusebius found the city divided into two opposite factions. All the best of the people, together with the clergy and the monks, warmly advocated Basil's election, which was vigorously opposed by other classes. The influence and tact of Eusebius overcame all obstacles. The people warmly espoused Basil's cause; the bishops were compelled to give way, and the triumph of the orthodox cause was consummated by the arrival of the venerable Gregory, who, on learning that one vote was wanting for the canonical election of Basil, while his son was still hesitating full of scruples and refused to quit Nazianzus, left his bed for a litter, had himself carried to Caesarea at the risk of expiring on the way, and with his own hands consecrated the newly elected prelate, and placed him on his episcopal throne (Greg. Naz. Ep. 29, p. 793, Or. xix. 311, xx. 343) Basil's election filled the orthodox everywhere with joy. Athanasius, the veteran champion of the faith, congratulated Cappadocia on possessing a bishop whom every province might envy (Ath. ad. Pallad. p. 953, ad Joann. et Ant. p. 951). At Constantinople it was received with far different feelings. Valens regarded it as a serious check to his designs for the triumph of Arianism. Basil was not an opponent to be despised. He must be bent to the emperor's will or got rid of. As bp. of Caesarea his power extended far beyond the limits of the city itself. He was metropolitan of Cappadocia, and exarch of Pontus. In the latter capacity his authority, more or less defied, extended over more than half Asia Minor, and embraced as many as eleven provinces. Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Tyana, with other metropolitan sees, acknowledged him as their ecclesiastical superior. Basil's first disappointment in his episcopate arose from his inability to induce his dear friend Gregory to join him as his coadjutor in the government of his province and exarchate. He consented at last for a while, but soon withdrew. Difficulties soon thickened round the new exarch. The bishops who had opposed his election and refused to take part in his consecration, now exchanged their open hostility for secret opposition. While professing outward union, they withheld their support in everything. They treated Basil with marked slight and shewed a complete want of sympathy in all his plans (Ep. 98). He complains of this to Eusebius of Samosata ( Epp. 48, 141, 282). This disloyal behaviour caused him despondency and repeated attacks of illness. He overcame all his opponents in a few years by firmness and kindness, but their action had greatly increased the difficulties of the commencement of his episcopate. Basil had been bishop little more than twelve months when he was brought into open collision with the emperor Valens, who was traversing Asia Minor with the fixed resolve of exterminating the orthodox faith and establishing Arianism. No part of Basil's history is better known, and in none do we more clearly discern the strength and weakness of his character. "The memorable interview with St. Basil," writes Dean Milman, "as it is related by the Catholic party, displays, if the weakness, certainly the patience and toleration of the sovereign—if the uncompromising firmness of the prelate, some of that leaven of pride with which he is taunted by St. Jerome " (Hist. of Christianity , iii. 45). Valens had never relinquished the designs which had been interrupted by the revolt of Procopius, and he was now approaching Caesarea determined to reduce to submission the chief champion of orthodoxy in the East. His progress hitherto had been one of uniform victory. The Catholics had everywhere fallen before him. Bithynia had resisted and had become the scene of horrible tragedies. The fickle Galatia had yielded without a struggle. The fate of Cappadocia depended on Basil. His house, as the emperor drew near, was besieged by ladies of rank, high personages of state, even by bishops, who entreated him to bow before the storm and appease the emperor by a temporary submission. Their expostulations were rejected with indignant disdain. A band of Arian bishops headed by Euippius, an aged bishop of Galatia and an old friend of Basil's, preceded Valens's arrival with the hope of overawing their opponents by their numbers and unanimity. Basil took the initiative, and with prompt decision separated himself from their communion (Bas. Epp. 68, 128, 244, 251). Members of the emperor's household indulged in the most violent menaces against the archbishop. One of the most insolent of these was the eunuch Demosthenes, the superintendent of the kitchen. Basil met his threats with quiet irony, and was next confronted by Modestus, the prefect of the Praetorium, commissioned by the emperor to offer Basil the choice between deposition or communion with the Arians. This violent and unscrupulous imperial favourite accosted Basil with the grossest insolence. He refused him the title of bishop; he threatened confiscation, exile, tortures, death. But such menaces, Basil replied, were powerless on one whose sole wealth was a ragged cloak and a few books, to whom the whole earth was a home, or rather a place of pilgrimage, whose feeble body could endure no tortures beyond the first stroke, and to whom death would be a mercy, as it would the sooner transport him to the God to Whom he lived. Modestus expressed his astonishment at hearing such unusual language (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 351; Soz. vi. 16). "That is," replied Basil, "because you have never before fallen in with a true bishop." Modestus, finding his menaces useless, changed his tone. He counselled prudence. Basil should avoid irritating the emperor, and submit to his requirements, as all the other prelates of Asia had done. If he would only yield he promised him the friendship of Valens, and whatever favours he might desire for his friends. Why should he sacrifice all his power for the sake of a few doctrines? (Theod. iv. 19). But flattery had as little power as threats over Basil's iron will. The prefect was at his wit's end. Valens was expected on the morrow. Modestus was unwilling to meet the emperor with a report of failure. The aspect of a court of justice with its official state and band of ministers prepared to execute its sentence might inspire awe. But judicial terrors were equally futile (Greg. Nys. in Eunom. p. 315). Modestus, utterly foiled, had to announce to his master that all his attempts to obtain submission had been fruitless. "Violence would be the only course to adopt with one over whom threats and blandishments were equally powerless" (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. p. 350). Such Christian intrepidity was not without effect on the feeble, impressionable mind of Valens. He refused to sanction any harsh measures against the archbishop, and moderated his demands to the admission of Arians to Basil's communion. But here too Basil was equally inflexible. To bring matters to a decided issue, the emperor presented himself in the chief church of Caesarea on the Epiphany, a.d.372, after the service had commenced. He found the church flooded with "a sea" of worshippers whose chanted psalms pealed forth like thunder, uninterrupted by the entrance of the emperor and his train. Basil was at the altar celebrating the Eucharistic sacrifice, standing, according to the primitive custom, behind the altar with his face to the assembled people, supported on either hand by the semicircle of his attendant clergy. "The unearthly majesty of the scene," the rapt devotion of the archbishop, erect like a column before the holy table, the reverent order of the immense throng, "more like that of angels than of men," overpowered the weak and excitable Valens, and he almost fainted away. When the time came for making his offering, and the ministers were hesitating whether they should receive an oblation from the hand of a heretic, his limbs failed him, and but for the aid of one of the clergy he would have fallen. Basil, it would seem, pitying his enemy's weakness, accepted the gift from his trembling hand ( ib. p. 351) The next day Valens again visited the church, and listened with reverence to Basil's preaching, and made his offerings, which were not now rejected. The sermon over, Basil admitted the emperor within the sacred veil, and discoursed on the orthodox faith. He was rudely interrupted by the cook Demosthenes, who was guilty of a gross solecism. Basil smiled and said, "We have, it seems, a Demosthenes who cannot speak Greek; he had better attend to his sauces than meddle with theology." The retort amused the emperor, who retired so well pleased with his theological opponent that he made him a grant of lands for the poor-house Basil was erecting (Theod. iv. 19; Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 351; Bas. Ep. 94). The vacillating mind of Valens was always influenced by the latest and most imperious advisers, and when Basil remained firm in his refusal to admit them to his communion, the Arians about the emperor had little difficulty in persuading him that he was compromising the faith by permitting Basil to remain, and that his banishment was necessary for the peace of the East. The emperor, yielding to their importunity, ordered Basil to leave the city. Basil at once made his simple preparations for departure, ordering one of his attendants to take his tablets and follow him. He was to start at night to avoid the risk of popular disturbance. The chariot was at his door, and his friends, Gregory among them, were bewailing so great a calamity, when his journey was arrested by the sudden and alarming illness of Galates, the only son of Valen and Dominica. The empress attributed her child's danger to the Divine displeasure at the treatment of Basil. The emperor, in abject alarm, sent the chief military officials of the court, Terentius and Arinthaeus, who were known to be his friends, to entreat Basil to come and pray over the sick child. Galates was as yet unbaptized. On receiving a promise that the child should receive that sacrament at the hands of a Catholic bishop and be instructed in the orthodox faith, Basil consented. He prayed over the boy, and the malady was alleviated. On his retiring, the Arians again got round the feeble prince, reminded him of a promise he had made to Eudoxius, by whom he himself had been baptized, and the child received baptism from the hands of an Arian prelate. He grew immediately worse, and died the same night (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 352, 364; Theod. iv. 19; Socr. iv. 26; Soz. iv. 16; Eph. Syr. apud Coteler. Monum. Eccl. Graec. iii. 63; Rufin. xi. 9). Once more Valens yielded to pressure from the unwearied enemies of Basil. Again Basil's exile was determined on, but the pens with which Valens was preparing to sign the decree refused to write, and split in his agitated hand, and the supposed miracle arrested the execution of the sentence. Valens left Caesarea, and Basil remained master of the situation (Theod. iv. 19; Ephr. Syr. u.s. p. 65). Before long his old enemy Modestus, attacked by a severe malady, presented himself as a suppliant to Basil, and attributing his cure to the intercessions of the saint, became his fast friend. So great was Basil's influence with the prefect that persons came from a distance to secure his intercession with him. We have as many as six letters from Basil to Modestus in favour of different individuals (Bas. Epp. 104, 110, 111, 279, 280, 281; Greg. Naz. Or. xx. pp. 352, 353). The issue of these unsuccessful assaults was to place Basil in a position of inviolability, and to leave him leisure for administering his diocese and exarchate, which much needed his firm and unflinching hand. His visitation disclosed many irregularities which he sternly repressed. The chorepiscopi had admitted men to the lower orders who had no intention of proceeding to the priesthood, or even to the diaconate, but merely to gain immunity from military service (Ep. 54). Many of his suffragans were guilty of simony in receiving a fee for ordination ( Ep. 55). Men were raised to the episcopate from motives of personal interest and to gratify private friends ( Ep. 290). The perilous custom of unmarried priests having females ( συνείσακται, subintroductae ) residing with them as "spiritual sisters" called for reproof (Ep. 55). A fanatic deacon, Glycerius, who had collected a band of professed virgins, whom he forcibly carried off by night and who wandered about the country dancing and singing to the scandal of the faithful, caused him much trouble ( Epp. 169, 170, 171). To heal the fountain-head, Basil made himself as far as possible master of episcopal elections, and steadily refused to admit any he deemed unworthy of the office. So high became the reputation of his clergy that other bishops sent to him for presbyters to become their coadjutors and successors ( Ep. 81). Marriage with a deceased wife's sister he denounced as prohibited by the laws both of Scripture and nature ( Ep. 160). Feeble as was his health, his activity was unceasing. He visited every part of his exarchate, and maintained a constant intercourse by letter with confidential friends, who kept him informed of all that passed and were ready to carry out his instructions. He pushed his episcopal activity to the very frontiers of Armenia. In 372 he made an expedition by the express command of Valens, obtained by the urgency of his fast friend count Terentius, to strengthen the episcopate in that country by appointing fresh bishops and infusing fresh life into existing ones ( Ep. 99). He was very diligent in preaching, not only at Caesarea and other cities, but in country villages. The details of public worship occupied his attention. Even while a presbyter he arranged forms of prayer ( εὺχῶν διατάξεις ), probably a liturgy, for the church of Caesarea (Greg. Naz. Or. xx. 340). He established nocturnal services, in which the psalms were chanted by alternate choirs, which, as a novelty, gave great offence to the clergy of Neocaesarea ( Ep. 207). These incessant labours were carried out by one who, naturally of a weak constitution, had so enfeebled himself by austerities that "when called well, he was weaker than persons who are given over" ( Ep. 136). His chief malady, a disease of the liver, caused him repeated and protracted sufferings, often hindering him travelling, the least motion bringing on a relapse ( Ep. 202). The severity of winter often kept him a prisoner to his house and often even to his room ( Ep. 27). A letter from Eusebius of Samosata arrived when he had been 50 days ill of a fever. "He was eager to fly straight to Syria, but he was unequal to turning in his bed. He hoped for relief from the hot springs" ( Ep. 138). He suffered "sickness upon sickness, so that his shell must certainly fail unless God's mercy extricate him from evils beyond man's cure" ( Ep. 136). At 45 he calls himself an old man. The next year he had lost all his teeth. Three years before his death all remaining hope of life had left him ( Ep. 198). He died, prematurely aged, at 50. Seldom did a spirit of so indomitable activity reside in so feeble a frame, and, triumphing over weakness, make it the instrument of such vigorous work for Christ and His church. In 372 a harassing dispute with Anthimus, bp. of Tyana, touching ecclesiastical jurisdiction, led to the chief personal sorrow of Basil's life, the estrangement of the friend of his youth, Gregory of Nazianzus. The circumstances were these. Towards the close of 371 Valens determined to divide Cappadocia into two pro
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia
Glycerius (5) , a deacon in Cappadocia, who caused Basil much annoyance by his extravagant and disorderly proceedings c. 374. Being a vigorous young man, well fitted for the humbler offices of the church, and having adopted the ascetic life, he was ordained deacon by Basil, though to what church is doubtful. It is variously given as Venesa, Veësa, Venata, and Synnasa. His elevation turned the young man's head. He at once began to neglect the duties of his office, and gathered about him a number of young women, partly by persuasion, partly by force, of whom he took the direction, styling himself their patriarch, and adopting a dress in keeping with his pretensions. He was supported by the offerings of his female followers, and Basil charges him with adopting this spiritual directorship in order to get his living without work. The wild and disorderly proceedings of Glycerius and his deluded adherents created great scandal and caused him to be gravely admonished by his own presbyter, his chorepiscopus, and finally by Basil himself. Glycerius turned a deaf ear, and having swelled his fanatical band by a number of young men, he one night hastily left the city with his whole troop against the will of many of the girls. The scandal of such a band wandering about under pretence of religion, singing hymns, and leaping and dancing in a disorderly fashion, was increased by the fact that a fair was going on, and the young women were exposed to the rude jests of the rabble. Fathers who came to rescue their daughters from such disgrace were driven away by Glycerius with contumely, and he carried off his whole band to a neighbouring town, of which an unidentified Gregory was bishop. Several of Basil's letters turned on this matter, the further issue of which is not known.

[E.V.]

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Cappadocia
The same as Caphtor
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Cappadocia
The easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor. Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Peter 1:1 ). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at Jerusalem (Acts 2:9 ).

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Cappadocia
Cappadocia (kăp'pa-dô'shĭ-ah. The largest and most easterly province of Asia Minor. It was high table-land, intersected by ranges of mountains, sparsely wooded, but good for grain or grazing. Cappadocia was conquered by Cyrus, ruled by Alexander the Great, tributary to the Seleucidæ, and became a Roman province, a.d. 17. Some of its people were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:9, and afterward Christians of the province were addressed by Peter. 1 Peter 1:1.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Cappadocia
is called in Hebrew Caphtor. Cappadocia joined Galatia on the east, and is mentioned in Acts 2:9 . and by St. Peter, who addresses his First Epistle to the dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Asia. The people of this country were formerly infamous for their vices; but after the promulgation of Christianity, it produced many great and worthy men: among these may be reckoned Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory Nyssen, and St. Basil, commonly styled the Great.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Cappadocia
The largest ancient province of Asia Minor; having Pontus on the north, mount Taurus, separating it from Cilicia and Syria, on the south, Galatia on the west, and the Euphrates and Armenia on the east. It was watered by the river Halys, and was noted for its fine pastures and its excellent breed of horses, asses, and sheep. There were many Jews residing in it, Acts 2:9 . Christianity was early introduced there, 1 Peter 1:1 , among a people proverbial for dullness, faithlessness, and vice. See CRETE . Several celebrated Christian fathers flourished in this province, as Basil and the three Gregories; and their churches may be traced as late as the tenth century.

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Cappadocia - (Καππαδοκία)... Cappadocia was an elevated table-land, with ill-defined and varying boundaries, in the east centre of Asia Minor. Cappadocia was traversed by the great road of commerce from Ephesus to the Euphrates, by the pilgrims’ route from Constantinople to Jerusalem, and by roads from the Cilician Gates to the cities of the Euxine. the Roman a Senate sent a letter to Ariarathes, King of Cappadocia, directing him ‘not to seek their hurt’ (1 Maccabees 15:19; 1 Maccabees 15:22). ad Gaium, 36) also refers to Jews in Cappadocia. ... Jews of Cappadocia were sojourning in Jerusalem at the time of the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:9). The elect of the Dispersion in the province of Cappadocia are addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Pagan Cappadocia was devoted chiefly to the cult of Ma, and the strength of its anti-Christian forces is indicated in Strabo’s description of two leading cities, Comana and Morimene. He is second in rank in Cappadocia after the king, and in general the priests are descended from the same family as the kings’ (xii. ... Yet Christianity made rapid progress in Cappadocia, and its triumph in Caesarea, the capital, so offended Julian the Apostate that he deprived the city of its freedom. Some of the other cities of Cappadocia-Nyssa, Nazianzus, Tyana, Samosata-are celebrated in Church history. ; article ‘Cappadocia’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica
Cappadocia - ... Although the extent of Cappadocia varied through the centuries depending on the currently dominant empire, it lay south of Pontus and stretched about 300 miles from Galatia eastward toward Armenia, with Cilicia and the Taurus Mountains to the south. While in New Testament times its mines were still producing some minerals, a large number of tablets written in cuneiform script discovered in 1907 at Tanish, now known as Kultepe, revealed that Assyrians were mining and exporting silver ore from Cappadocia about 1900 B. ... From Acts 2:9 we know that Jews from Cappadocia were in Jerusalem when Peter preached at Pentecost. The Christian message was probably carried to Pontus by way of the highway that went northward across Cappadocia from Tarsus through the narrow mountain pass known as the Cilician Gates. the famous historian Eusebius reported that the church at Rome sent financial aid to churches in the Near East, including Cappadocia. Two centuries later two sons of a prominent and wealthy Cappadocian family, Basil and Gregory, along with a close friend also named Gregory, took their Christian commitment quite seriously and became influential defenders and interpreters of the faith. ... Today the region of Cappadocia is in central Turkey, which is ninety-eight percent Muslim
Cappadocia - ... The approach to Cappadocia from Palestine and Syria was by the pass called "the Cilician gates," leading up through the Taurus range from the low region of Cilicia. Once Cappadocia reached to the Euxine Sea; but Rome made two provinces of the ancient Cappadocia, Pontus on the N. along the sea, and Cappadocia on the S. Tiberius it was who reduced the Cappadocian Archclaus' kingdom to a province (A
Cappadocia - Cappadocia joined Galatia on the east, and is mentioned in Acts 2:9 . Peter, who addresses his First Epistle to the dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Asia
Cappadocia - Cappadocia (kăp'pa-dô'shĭ-ah. Cappadocia was conquered by Cyrus, ruled by Alexander the Great, tributary to the Seleucidæ, and became a Roman province, a
Togarmah - Bochart is for Cappadocia: he builds upon what is said in Ezekiel 27:14 , "They of the house of Togarmah traded in thy fairs," that is, at Tyre, "with horses and horsemen and mules. " He proves that Cappadocia was famous for its excellent horses and its asses. He observes also, that certain Gauls, under the conduct of Trocmus, made a settlement at Cappadocia, and were called Trocmi, or Throgmi
Longinus, Saint - Martyr, died Cappadocia, 1century. After his conversion, he returned to Cappadocia, where he was put to death by order of Pontius Pilate
Cappadocia - Cappadocia . Jews from Cappadocia are mentioned in Acts 2:9 , and their presence there ( c [Note: circa, about. Cappadocia was not visited by St
Arathes - ARATHES , formerly called Mithridates, was king of Cappadocia b
Alexander of Jerusalem, Saint - (251) Martyr, bishop in Cappadocia
Pisidia - a province of Asia Minor, having Lycaonia to the north, Pamphylia to the south, Cilicia and Cappadocia to the east, and the province of Asia to the west
Tubal - (tyoo' buhl) Son of Jepheth (Genesis 10:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:5 ) and ancestor of a people, known for their metalworking ability, likely of Cappadocia or Cilicia in Asia Minor (Isaiah 66:19 ; Ezekiel 27:13 ; Ezekiel 32:26 ; Ezekiel 38:2-3 ; Ezekiel 39:1 )
Gregorius (13) i, Bishop of Nazianzus - of Nazianzus in Cappadocia, father of Gregorius Nazianzenus. ] Originally a member of the Hypsistarii, a sect numerous in Cappadocia, he was converted to the Catholic faith, married a lady named Nonna, and was soon afterwards consecrated bp
Gomer - They attacked the northern frontier of the Assyrian empire, besieged Sardis, invaded Lydia and Phrygia, and conquered Cappadocia
Cappado'Cia, Cappado'Cians - Cappadocia is an elevated table-land intersected by mountain chains. The native Cappadocians seem to have originally belonged to the Syrian stock
Dorothea, Virgin Martyr - Dorothea, virgin, martyred with Theophilus the Advocate, and two other women, Christa and Callista, at Caesarea, in Cappadocia. ... She was a young girl of Caesarea in Cappadocia, famed so widely for Christian piety that when the governor Fabricius, Sapricius, or Apricius arrived he had her brought before him and tortured. The legend states that these were miraculously conveyed to him, although Cappadocia was then covered with snow
Mash - Cappadocia was the original home of the Moschi (Meshech); its population was a mixed one, and a portion connected with Aram (Syria). Thus the name occurring in Japheth's line and also in Shem's line points to the mixture of Aramaic Moschi with Japhetic Moschi in Cappadocia (G
Lycao'Nia - "Cappadocia is on the east, Galatia on the north, Phrygia on the west and Cilicia on the south "Among its chief cities are Derbe, Lystra and Iconium. ) After the provincial system of Rome had embraced the whole of Asia Minor, the boundaries of the provinces were variable; and Lycaonia was, politically, sometimes in Cappadocia, sometimes in Galatia
Lycaonia - An inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia
Pontus - ... ‘The Macedonians obtained possession of Cappadocia after it had been divided by the Persians into two satrapies, and permitted, partly with and partly without the consent of the people, the satrapies to be altered to two kingdoms, one of which they called Cappadocia proper, … the other they called Pontus, but according to other writers Cappadocia on Pontus’ (ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία) (Strabo, XII. Polybius names the kingdom ‘Cappadocia towards the Euxine’ (Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον) (v. Still another fragment of the old kingdom of Pontus was added to the province of Cappadocia, and called Pontus Cappadocicus. 78-106 the provinces of Galatia and Cappadocia were united for administrative purposes. When they were separated again by Trajan, Pontus Galaticus and Pontus Polemonaicus were permanently joined to Cappadocia. Peter (1:1), and here the language is strictly Roman, for the three provinces Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, together with the dual province Pontus-Bithynia, are meant to sum up the whole of Asia Minor north of the Taurus. Landing at one of the seaports of Pontus (Sinope or Amisus) he will make a circuit of Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia, and work his way through Bithynia to another port of the Euxine (cf
Lycaonia - It was separated from Phrygia, and bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Cilicia, and west by Pisidia and Phrygia
Lycaonia - a province of Asia Minor, accounted a part of Cappadocia, having Pisidia on the west, and Cilicia on the south
Tubal - Josephus accounts them to be Iberia and Cappadocia
Lycaonia - A small province of Asia Minor, bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Isauria and Cilicia, and west by Phrygia
Cilic'ia - ( the land of Celix ), a maritime province int he southeast of Asia Minor, bordering on Pamphylia in the west, Lycaonia and Cappadocia in the north, and Syria in the east
Lycaonia - It is for the most part a level plain, which is merged on the north and east in the plains of Galatia and Cappadocia, and is bounded on the west and south by hills. Later the whole or part of it belonged successively to the Pergamenian kings, the Galatians, Cappadocia, and Pontus. 64 by Pompey, the north part was added to Galatia, the south-east to Cappadocia, and the west was added to the Roman Empire, to be administered by the governor of the Roman province Cilicia. 37 Eastern Lycaonia, which up to that time had continued under the weak Cappadocian rule, was placed under Antiochus of Commagene, along with most of Cilicia Tracheia, and got the name Lycaonia Antiochiana. ... Both parts of Lycaonia were comprised in the united province of Galatia-Cappadocia under Vespasian and his sons (a
Gomer - they had completely conquered Cappadocia and settled there
Cilicia - Cilicia (sĭ-lĭsh'ĭ-ah), the southeasterly province of Asia Minor, having Cappadocia on the north, Syria on the east, the Mediterranean Sea on the south, and Pamphylia and Pisidia (?) on the west
Caphtorim - But whether they came from Cyprus, Crete, or Cappadocia, is not agreed
Armenia - A large country of Asia, having Media on the east, Cappadocia on the west, Colchis and Iberia on the north, Mesopotamia on the south, and the Euphrates and Syria on the southwest
Illuminator, Gregory the - Of noble family, Gregory was educated as a Christian at Caesarea in Cappadocia
Gregory the Illuminator, Saint - Of noble family, Gregory was educated as a Christian at Caesarea in Cappadocia
Lycaonia - When the Romans incorporated Asia Minor into their Empire, they drew new boundaries and Lycaonia was split between the provinces of Galatia, Cappadocia and Cilicia
Holofernes - ... Holofernes has been variously identified with Ashurbanipal, Cambyses, Orophernes of Cappadocia (a friend of Demetrius Soter, the enemy of the Jews), Nicanor (the Syrian general conquered by Judas Maccahæus), Scaurus (Pompey’s lieutenant in Syria), and Severus (Hadrian’s general)
Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, by whom Basil the Great was ordained to the presbyterate. 9, 14, 17), but Usuard probably confounds Eusebius of Cappadocia with Eusebius the historian
Phrygia - ; Galatia, Cappadocia, and Lycaonia on the E
Cilicia - , separating it from Lycaonia and Cappadocia, and on the E. ; from Syria into Cilicia by the gates of Amanus, a pass at the head of the valley of Pinarus; from Cilicia by the gates of Cilicia, near the sources of Cydnus, through the Antitaurus into Lycaonia and Cappadocia, the pass whereby Paul crossed into Lycaonia (Acts 15:41)
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Sabas, Saint - Born in 439 at Mutalaska, Cappadocia; died in 532 at Laura Mar Saba, near Jerusalem
Sabbas, Saint - Born in 439 at Mutalaska, Cappadocia; died in 532 at Laura Mar Saba, near Jerusalem
Sergius, Saint - Bacchus died at Arabissus in Cappadocia under the blows inflicted at their examination
Bacchus, Saint - Bacchus died at Arabissus in Cappadocia under the blows inflicted at their examination
Pontus - The sea, the northeastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Euxine Sea, west by Galatia and Paphlagonia, south by Cappadocia and part of Armenia, and east by Colchis
Basil the Great, Saint - Bishop of Caesarea, born Caesarea, Cappadocia; died there
Sabas, a Gothic Martyr - The Acts are in the form of an epistle from the Gothic church to that of Cappadocia, whither Soranus, who was "dux Scythiae," had sent his relics (Ruinart
Mesech - of Taurus range and in Cappadocia
Sar'Gon - 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest
Silas, Silvanus - Later in his ministry Silas teamed with Peter on missions in Pontus and Cappadocia
Galatia - A large district in the centre of Asia Minor, having Bithynia on its north, Pontus on its east, Lycaonia and Cappadocia on its south, and Phrygia on its west
Galatia - A central province of Asia Minor, subject to the Roman rule, bounded by Bithynia and Paphlagonia on the north, Pontus on the east, Cappadocia and Lycaonia on the south, and Phrygia on the west
Gala'Tia - The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia
Asia - The Asia spoken of in the Bible is Asia Minor, a peninsula which lies between the Euxine or Black sea and the eastern part of the Mediterranean, and which formerly included the provinces of Phrygia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Caria, Lycia, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Galatia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia
Asia - In Acts 2:9,10 'Asia' does not include Cappadocia, Pontus, Phrygia, and Pamphylia, which are all included in Asia Minor
Cilicia - The south-eastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Taurus range, separating it from Cappadocia, Lycaonia, and Isauria, south by the Mediterranean, east by Syria, and west by Pamphylia
Lycaonia - by Galatia and Cappadocia, on the W. ), it was given to the Attalids of Pergamos; but as they never effectively occupied it, the northern part of it was claimed by the Galatians, while the eastern was added to Cappadocia. ), he left northern Lycaonia (somewhat curtailed) to the Galatians, and eastern Lycaonia (also diminished) to Cappadocia, while he attached southwestern Lycaonia (considerably increased) to the province of Cilicia
Lycaonia - , Cappadocia E
Andrew, Saint - He is supposed to have preached in Cappadocia, Galatia, Bithynia, Scythia (Russia), Byzantium, Thrace, Macedonia, Thessaly, and Achaia, where he was crucified on an X-shaped or Saint Andrew's cross by the Roman governor, AEgeas
Eusebius, Saint Martyr - A document condemning Saint Athanasius was drawn up, and Eusebius, because he protested this and refused to sign it, was exiled, first to Scythopolis in Syria, later to Cappadocia, and finally to the Thebaid
Matthias, Feast of Saint - Matthias ministered for some yearsamong the Jews; he then went to Cappadocia where he preached theGospel and where he eventually suffered martyrdom, being stoned and afterwards beheaded about A
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, one of the greatest prelates of his time. When Origen soon after left Egypt, Firmilian induced him to visit Cappadocia; subsequently he paid Origen long visits in Judaea to advance his own knowledge of theology (Eus. He speaks of several meetings of the Cappadocian bishops, one immediately before his writing
Dianius, Bishop of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, a saintly man much venerated in the early church, notwithstanding his somewhat doubtful orthodoxy. 340, by which the deposition of Athanasius was confirmed, and George of Cappadocia placed on the throne of Alexandria ( Epistola Julii , apud Athanas
Galatia - A province of Asia Minor, lying south and southeast of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, west of Pontus, north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northeast of Lycaonia and Phrygia
Pontus - It is not possible to define the exact extent of the territory ruled by this king and his descendants, but it is certain that it included part of the country previously called Cappadocia, some of the mountain tribes near the Black Sea coasts, and part of Pophiagonia; and also certain that its extent varied from time to time. 63 the kingdom of Pontus had been brought to a sufficiently high pitch of civilization to be admitted into the Roman Empire; the western part was made a region of the province Galatia, and the eastern was added to Cappadocia. Polemoniacus were included in the combined provinces Galatia and Cappadocia, and after a. 106 they constituted permanent parts of the province Cappadocia
Theodorus Askidas, Archbaptist of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, the chief supporter of Origen's views in the first half of cent
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - In 373Saint Basil, then Bishop of Caesarea and Metropolitan of Cappadocia, consecrated Gregory Bishop of Sasima, but Gregory, finding himself incompatible with that see, abandoned it, thereby becoming estranged from Basil
Governor - The procurator, originally a financial official, was appointed directly by the Emperor to govern provinces, such as Thrace, Cappadocia, and Judæa, which were in a transitional state, being no longer ruled by subject kings, but not yet fully Romanized, and requiring special treatment. Cappadocia to Galatia, Judæa to Syria; but except in emergencies he had full authority, military, judicial, and financial
Gomer - He is apparently seen as representing the Cimmerians, an Indo-European people from southern Russia who settled in Cappadocia in Asia Minor
Dorotheus (7), Bishop of Martianopolis - 750), whereupon Dorotheus was banished by the emperor to Caesarea in Cappadocia
Galatia - , Cappadocia on the E
Sabas, Saint - Sabas; born in 439, near Caesarea in Cappadocia
Tubal - They brought slaves (beautiful ones abounded in the Euxine coasts, and were traded in by the Cappadocians: Polyb. of the Taurus range, and occupying the region afterward called Cappadocia, Rawlinson (Herodotus i
Tarsus - Capital of Cilicia, in a plain on the river Cydnus at the foot of the passes northward over Mount Taurus into Cappadocia and Lycaonia
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - Glycerius (5) , a deacon in Cappadocia, who caused Basil much annoyance by his extravagant and disorderly proceedings c
Basilians - Popular name for the priests of the Community of Saint Basil, founded in Cappadocia in the 4th century by Saint Basil, under his Rule
Anthimus, Bishop of Tyana - (1) When the civil province of Cappadocia was divided and Tyana became the capital of the second division, Anthimus, insisting that the ecclesiastical arrangements should follow the civil, claimed metropolitan rights over several of Basil's suffragans
Derbe - Strabo says it was ‘on the flanks of the Isaurian region, adhering (ἐπιπεφυκός) to Cappadocia’ (xii. , the Romans added, as an ‘eleventh Strategia,’ to the territory of the kings of Cappadocia (xii
Province - Judea and Cappadocia, were governed by procurators
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - He was bishop of a city in Cappadocia ( ib
Medes, Media - By agreement with the Chaldæans, who restricted themselves to the lowlands, they speedily occupied the northern highlands as far as Cappadocia
Armenia - a considerable country of Asia, having Colchis and Iberia on the north, Media on the east, Mesopotamia on the south, Pontus and Cappadocia on the west, and the Euphrates and Syria on the south-west
Bithynia - Peter, became Christians; for Peter (1 Peter 1:1) addresses them along with those of "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia
Origen - During the Maximinian persecution he visited Cappadocia, and on his return completed his scriptural commentaries
Bithynia - ... ‘For Bithynia, like Cappadocia, we have no primitive Christian record: but it could hardly remain long unaffected by the neighbourhood at Christian communities to the South-West, the South, and probably the East; even if no friend or disciple took up before long the purpose which St
Euphrates - A famous river of Asia, which has its source in the mountains of America, runs along the frontiers of Cappadocia, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Chaldea, and Mesopotamia, and falls into the Persian Gulf
Valens, Emperor - At Caesarea in Cappadocia he came into conflict with St
Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople - In 439, at the request of a deputation from Caesarea in Cappadocia, he selected as their new bishop Thalassius, who was about to be appointed pretorian prefect of the East
Sargon - , Armenia and Cappadocia N
Agnoetae - Their leader, Theophronius, of Cappadocia, who flourished about 370, maintained that God knew things past by memory and things future only by uncertain prescience
Coelicolae - The Coelicolae of Africa, like their congeners the Θεοσεβεῖς of Phoenicia and Palestine, and the Hypsistarii of Cappadocia, were soon stamped or died out
Symmachus, Author o.t. in Greek - 420), adds that this Juliana was a virgin who lived in Caesarea of Cappadocia, and gave refuge to Origen for two years during a persecution, adducing as his authority an entry which he found in Origen's own hand "This book I found in the house of Juliana the virgin in Caesarea, when I was hiding there; who said that she had received it from Symmachus himself, the interpreter of the Jews" ( Hist
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, commonly called Basil the Great , the strenuous champion of orthodoxy in the East, the restorer of union to the divided Oriental church, and the promoter of unity between the East and the West, was born at Caesarea (originally called Mazaca), the capital of Cappadocia, towards the end of 329. The future emperor conceived a warm attachment for the young Cappadocian, with whom—as the latter reminds him when the relations between them had so sadly changed—he not only studied the best models of literature, but also carefully read the sacred Scriptures (Epp. Throughout Pontus and Cappadocia Basil was the means of the erection of numerous hospitals for the poor, houses of refuge for virgins, orphanages, and other homes of beneficence. But when Constantius endeavoured to force those present to sign the creed of Ariminum, Basil left the city and returned to Cappadocia (Greg. Basil availed himself of the breathing-time thus granted in organizing the resistance of the orthodox against the Eunomians or Anomoeans, who were actively propagating their pernicious doctrines through Asia Minor; and in uniting the Cappadocians in loyal devotion to the truth. The whole of Cappadocia was desolated by drought and famine, the visitation pressing specially on Caesarea. Athanasius, the veteran champion of the faith, congratulated Cappadocia on possessing a bishop whom every province might envy (Ath. He was metropolitan of Cappadocia, and exarch of Pontus. The fate of Cappadocia depended on Basil. Towards the close of 371 Valens determined to divide Cappadocia into two pro
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - He was a native of Cappadocia and of good birth. George of Cappadocia ), giving (pp. George of Cappadocia : the Coptic texts ed
Cilicia - of Asia Minor, bounded on the west by Pamphylia, on the north by Lycaonia and Cappadocia, and on the east by the Amanus range
Peter, First Epistle of - This was addressed to believing Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Macedonius ii, Patriarch of Constantinople - 517, at Gangra, where he had retired for fear of the Huns, who ravaged all Cappadocia, Galatia, and Pontus
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - Cappadocia, near which, in a district known as the Tiberine (Ep. ... At Caesarea in Cappadocia probably was commenced Gregory's friendship with Basil, which, tried by many a shock, survived them all, and was the chief influence which moulded not only the life of both friends, but also the theology of the Christian church. ] The Armenians, jealous of the newcomer, whose fame had preceded him, and with some of the old feeling of antagonism against Cappadocia, tried to entrap him in sophistical debates. ... In 370 Valens made a civil division of Cappadocia into two provinces, and in 372 Anthimus, bp. the rights of metropolitan of Cappadocia Secunda, of which Tyana was the capital. Thence they proceeded together to the foot of Mount Taurus in Cappadocia Secunda, where was a chapel dedicated to St. The "illustrious Sasima" must be described in the words of the poem, de Vitâ suâ : "on a much frequented road of Cappadocia, at a point where it is divided into three, is a halting-place, where is neither water nor grass, nor any mark of civilization. This did not deliver him from the quarrel between Basil and Anthimus, for Nazianzus was in the new province of Cappadocia Secunda, and the bp
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - Eunomius (3) of Cappadocia, bp. ... The name of his birthplace is given as Dacora by Sozomen and Philostorgius, and as Oltiseris by Gregory Nyssen, who correctly places it on the confines of Cappadocia and Galatia (Soz. Before very long he returned to Cappadocia. Halmyris being captured by the Goths, who had crossed the frozen river, Eunomius was transported to Caesarea in Cappadocia
Chariot - , but from two districts of Asia Minor, in the region of Cappadocia and Cilicia, named Musri and Kuë (see Skinner, Cent
Philistines - They seem originally to have migrated form Egypt to Caphtor, by which some understand Crete, and others with the ancients Cappadocia, Genesis 10:14 , and thence to have passed over to Palestine under the name of Caphtorim, where they drove out the Avim, who dwelt from Hazerim to Azzah, that is, Gaza, and swelt in their stead, Deuteronomy 2:23
Dispersion - Thus the Jews reached Media, Persia, Cappadocia, Armenia, and the Black Sea
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - Epiphanius erroneously asserts that he was admitted to the diaconate by George of Cappadocia, the intruding bp. The see of Athanasius was then occupied by George of Cappadocia, under whom Aetius served as a deacon, and when nominated to the episcopate by two Arian bishops, Serras and Secundus, he refused to be consecrated by them on the ground that they had held communion with the Homoousian party (Philost
Nicopolis - ), of which one in Cappadocia, a second in Egypt, and a third in Thrace had some importance
Peter, the Epistles of - Men of Cappadocia, as well as of "Pontus" and "Asia" (including Mysia, Lydia, Curia, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia), were among Peter's hearers on Pentecost; these brought home to their native lands the first tidings of the gospel. Firmilian of Cappadocia (Ep. Now Cappadocia (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1) is among the countries addressed; so it is from Cappadocia we get the earliest testimony
Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - The dying king commanded the whole family of Anak to be slain, but an infant was saved, carried to the Cappadocian Caesarea, there brought up in the Christian faith, and baptized Gregorius. of Caesarea in Cappadocia
Eusebius, Bishop of Vercellae - After a while he was removed to Cappadocia, and thence to Egypt
Acacius, Bishop of Caesarea - 21) "the tongue of the Arians," George of Cappadocia being "the hand
Eudoxius, Bishop of Constantinople - of Germanicia, on the confines of Syria, Cilicia, and Cappadocia
Jude, the Epistle of - ... As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - Georgius (4), commonly called of Cappadocia (Athan. 11, 3), and, if so, must have been Cappadocian only by descent
Shem - The intermediate position of the Shemites brought them in contact with the Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and on the other hand with the Hamitic in Palestine, in the Yemen (Arabia Felix), in Babylonia and Elymais
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - of Nyssa in Cappadocia (372–395), younger brother of Basil the Great, and a leading theologian of the Eastern church. ... In 372 (the year Gregory Nazianzen was consecrated to the see of Sasima) Gregory was forced by his brother Basil to accept reluctantly the see of Nyssa, an obscure town of Cappadocia Prima, about ten miles from the capital, Caesarea. Basil collected a synod of orthodox Cappadocian bishops, in whose name he addressed a dignified but courteous letter to Demosthenes, apologizing for his brother's non-appearance at Ancyra, and stating that the charge of embezzlement could be shewn to be false by the books of the treasurers of the church; while, if any canonical defect in his ordination could be proved, the ordainers were those who should be called to account, an account which they were ready to render (ib. Gregory's efforts were equally ineffectual, and he returned to Cappadocia depressed and saddened. He asserts the religious superiority of Cappadocia, which had more churches than any part of the world, and inquires in plain terms whether a man will believe the virgin birth of Christ the more by seeing Bethlehem, or His resurrection by visiting His tomb, or His ascension by standing on the Mount of Olives" (Milman, Hist
Nero - The new governor of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, proved incompetent, and his army had to capitulate. Paetus was recalled, and Corbulo undertook the government of Cappadocia
Macrina, the Younger - Devout women, some of high rank, soon gathered round them, while the birth and high connexions of Macrina and her mother attracted the daughters of the most aristocratic families in Pontus and Cappadocia to the community ( ib
Ulfilas - of the Danube invaded the Roman territory, laid waste the province of Moesia as far as the Black Sea, crossed into Asia and ravaged Cappadocia and Galatia, whence they took a vast number of captives, including many Christian ecclesiastics. Of the number of these captives were the ancestors of Urphilas himself, who were of Cappadocian descent, deriving their origin from a village called Sadagolthina, near the city of Parnassus" (Philost
Euchites - of Caesarea in Cappadocia some time between the two Ephesine synods of 431 and 449), and of two letters by Heracleidas of Nyssa ( c. of Caesarea (Cappadocia) in 458
Assyria - Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks
Galatia - The bearer of the letter evidently landed at some port on the Black Sea, perhaps Sinope, and visited the provinces in the order in which they appear in the address of the letter: Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, taking ship again at the Black Sea for Rome
Alexander - Thrace, Cappadocia, and the northern regions of Asia Minor
Procurator - The following provinces among others were governed at one time or another by them-the two Mauretaniae, Raetia, Noricum, Alpes Maritimae, Alpes Cottiae, Judaea , Cappadocia, Epirus, the Hellespont, Corsica, Sardinia, Bithynia, Pamphylia
Assur - ("Be worship given to Nin" or "Hercules") claims to have conquered in the first five years of his reign "42 countries from the Lower Zab to the Upper Sea of the setting sun," the region from Assyria proper to the Euphrates, from Babylon's borders to mount Taurus, and to have fought the Hittites in northern Syria, and invaded Armenia and Cappadocia. He himself overran Cappadocia, Armenia, Azerbijan, Media Magna, the Kurd mountains, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - At the death of Timothy, John of Cappadocia, whom he had designated his successor, was presbyter and chancellor of the church of Constantinople
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - Tillemont thinks his earliest place of sojourn was with the abbat Elpidius of Cappadocia in the cavernous recesses of the mountains near Jericho (Hist
Gaudentius, Bishop of Brescia - His way lay through Cappadocia
Persia - Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians
Revelation of John, the - ... Papias, John's hearer and Polycarp's associate and bishop of Hierapolis near Laodicea (one of the seven churches), attests its canonicity and inspiration (according to a scholium of Andreas of Cappadocia). Andreas of Caesarea in Cappadocia recognized its genuineness and canonicity, and wrote the first connected commentary on it
Province - The important Imperial provinces, which required the presence of an army, were twenty-one in number: Suria (Syria), Hispania Tarraconensis, Germania Superior, Germania Inferior, Britannia, Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior, Mcesia Superior, Mcesia Inferior, Dalmatia, Lusitania, Gallia Aquitanica, Gallia Lugudunensis, Gallia Belgica, Galatia, Pamphylia, Lycia, Cilicia et Syria et PhCEnice, Numidia, Cappadocia,_ each governed by a legatus Augusti pro praetore, and Egypt, governed by an equestrian praefectus aegypti, acting for his master the Emperor, who reigned as king of Egypt
Justinianus i, Emperor - The same charges of venality and extortion are brought against Tribonian, John of Cappadocia, and others of Justinian's ministers. 532, arising out of a tumult in the hippodrome, and apparently due, partly to resentment at the maladministration of John of Cappadocia, partly to the presence in the city of a large number of starving immigrants. of Caesarea in Cappadocia, and Domitian, bp
Roman Law in the nt - )... Some imperatorial provinces were governed by procurators, such as Judaea (when it was not a dependen kingdom) and Cappadocia, though Judaea was not perhaps strictly a ‘province’; the governor of Egypt was called a prefect. He was in most respects vested with full power, but was in some degree in a subordinate relation to a neighbouring governor; thus, Judaea was more or less under Syria, Cappadocia under Galatia
Vespasian - The army crossed Asia Minor by Cappadocia and Phrygia. In this year also a consular legate was sent to govern the province Cappadocia, instead of a procurator as hitherto
Money (2) - Few coins of this denomination were issued from the Phœnician cities or from Antioch, and the city of Caesarea in Cappadocia had only recently begun to coin drachms on the Phœnician standard (of 55 grains) for use in the provinces of Syria and Cappadocia (Mommsen, op
Christian - Peter writes to ‘the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia’ ( 1 Peter 1:1 ); and, without suggesting that ‘Christian’ was a name which the Church had yet adopted as its own, he assumes that it was perfectly familiar to the ‘elect’ themselves over a vast region of the Dispersion; and further implies that by this time, the time probably of Nero’s persecution (a
Tarsus - ’ Cilicia is divided from Cappadocia and Lycaonia by the Taurus range of mountains, which is pierced from N
Babylon - On the occasion of the gathering at Jerusalem in Acts 2:9-11 mention is made of the Parthians, Medes and Elamites; and when Peter commences his epistle, supposing he was in the district of Babylon, he naturally puts Pontus first and then passes on to Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Asia Minor, Cities of - Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia comprised the eastern provinces, while Bitnia and Pontus bordered the Black Sea to the north
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - Luckily he had a guard of two soldiers with him, sent by his friend the governor of Cappadocia (a proof of Lucian's importance at this time), or he would have fared badly at the hands of the attendants of Alexander
Roman Empire - 72, when Cappadocia became a consular province with an army, whereas in a. 14-37) saw the annexation of Cappadocia, as has been said
Arius, Followers of - The Homoeans, under the leadership of Acacius of Caesarea in Cappadocia, condemned the expressions ὁμοούσιον and ὁμοιούσιον , but anathematized the expression ἀνόμοιον . of Caesarea in Cappadocia, his brother Gregory, bp
Peter Epistles of - -The apostle Peter greets Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. They are dwelling in different parts of Asia Minor-Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia
Tiberius - 17 Cappadocia and Commagene were annexed
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - George of Cappadocia was intruded into the see, and Athanasius was forced to hide in the desert
Peter - Peter is supposed to have preached to the Jews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; and at length, coming to Rome, was crucified with his head downward
Montanus - This we learn from the letter to Cyprian by Firmilian of Caesarea in Cappadocia, when the later controversy arose about heretical baptism. Epiphanius states that in his time the sect had many adherents in Phrygia, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Cilicia, and a considerable number in Constantinople
Transportation And Travel - ) transporting copper ingots from Cappadocia in Turkey
Tongues, Confusion of - Thus by their intermediate position the Shemites were in contact with Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and with Hamites in Palestine, the Yemen, Babylonia, and Elymais
Assyria, History And Religion of - these cities were vigorously trading as far away as Cappadocia in eastern Asia Minor
John, the Epistles of - the Christians beyond the Euphrates, outside the Roman empire, "the church at Babylon elected together with" (1 Peter 5:13) the churches in the Ephesian region, where Peter sent his epistles (1 Peter 1:1; Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, Bithynia)
Henoticon, the - The new patriarch, John of Cappadocia, "a man of servile mind though unmeasured ambition," was prepared to adopt any course which would secure his power
Apostle - Peter, as it seems, preached to the dispersed Jews in Pontus and Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; at length, coming to Rome, he was crucified with his head downward, as he had desired
Peter, Second Epistle of - The first certain quotation is found in Firmilian of Cæsarea in Cappadocia ( c [Note: circa, about
Division of the Earth - Riphat, the second son of Gomer, seems to have given name to the Riphean mountains of the north of Asia; and Togarmah, the third son, may be traced in the Trocmi of Strabo, the Trogmi of Cicero, and Trogmades of the council of Chalcedon, inhabiting the confines of Pontus and Cappadocia
Manicheans - Armenia and Cappadocia, where they found material ready to their hand in the HYPSISTARII of that region (Matter, Gnosticism , ii
Trade And Commerce - Syrian Antioch and Caesarea in Cappadocia (now Kaisarieh) issued large numbers of silver coins, and the cistophorus of republican times (cf
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - of Caesarea in Cappadocia, inspired Ephrem with a strong desire to visit one who had been shewn him in a dream as a column of fire reaching from earth to heaven
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - He made them known far and wide, in Cappadocia, Galatia, and through the East generally, accompanying them with earnest appeals to the bishops and the orthodox everywhere to openly repudiate the grave errors they contained ( ib
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - In Alexandria Athanasius was superseded by George of Cappadocia, the orthodox there cruelly persecuted, and Athanasius compelled eventually to take refuge among the hermits and coenobites of Egypt
Novatianus And Novatianism - Fabius however so inclined to his side that Dionysius addressed him a letter on the subject; and two bishops Firmilianus of Cappadocia and Theoctistus of Palestine wrote to Dionysius requesting his presence at the council of Antioch to restrain tendencies in that direction (ib
Pentecost - ’ It seems a little odd that ‘Judaea ’ should be named between ‘Mesopotamia’ and ‘Cappadocia,’ and gives rise to a question as to whether there has not been some misplacement or error in the name itself. ) says that (for Judaea ) ‘Armeniam legit Augustinus: eaque inter Mesopotamiam Cappadociamque jacet,’ and rather inconclusively adds: ‘sed vetustam sane Armeniorum linguam sub alia quadam gente hic nominata innui existimare licet
Trade And Commerce - Syrian Antioch and Caesarea in Cappadocia (now Kaisarieh) issued large numbers of silver coins, and the cistophorus of republican times (cf
Pentecost - ’ It seems a little odd that ‘Judaea ’ should be named between ‘Mesopotamia’ and ‘Cappadocia,’ and gives rise to a question as to whether there has not been some misplacement or error in the name itself. ) says that (for Judaea ) ‘Armeniam legit Augustinus: eaque inter Mesopotamiam Cappadociamque jacet,’ and rather inconclusively adds: ‘sed vetustam sane Armeniorum linguam sub alia quadam gente hic nominata innui existimare licet
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - Canaan, Amalek, Cappadocia, the Hittites, and Ham shall perish
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - 30), but taking his library, he travelled through Thrace, Pontus, Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Cilicia, to Antioch
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - Here the three emperors had a meeting, and all concurred in the restoration of Athanasius, who, after passing through Constantinople, saw Constantius a second time, at a farther point on his homeward journey, at Caesarea in Cappadocia ( Apol. It was notified in a formal edict of the prefect that not Pistus, but a Cappadocian named Gregory, was coming from the court to be installed as bishop (Encycl
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - The few who stood firm were banished, bound with chains, to distant provinces: Dionysius, exarch of Milan, to Cappadocia, or Armenia; Lucifer to Syria; Eusebius of Vercelli into Palestine (cf
Clement of Alexandria - of Cappadocia, who was in prison for the faith
Synods - Nevertheless, the ruling spirit of the church decided for this institution; and, down to the middle of the third century, the annual provincial synods appear to have been generally in the church, as we may conclude, because we find them prevalent, at the same time, in parts of the church as far distant from each other as North Africa and Cappadocia
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - The death of his relative Eusebius (in 342) deprived Julian of a powerful protector, when he was about 11 years old; and soon after (probably in 343 or 344) the emperor recalled Gallus from exile, and sent the two brothers to the distant palace of Macellum in Cappadocia