Places Study on Babylonia

Places Study on Babylonia

Ezra 4: Then wrote Rehum the chancellor, and Shimshai the scribe, and the rest of their companions; the Dinaites, the Apharsathchites, the Tarpelites, the Apharsites, the Archevites, the Babylonians, the Susanchites, the Dehavites, and the Elamites,
Ezekiel 23: Girded with girdles upon their loins, exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads, all of them princes to look to, after the manner of the Babylonians of Chaldea, the land of their nativity:
Ezekiel 23: And the Babylonians came to her into the bed of love, and they defiled her with their whoredom, and she was polluted with them, and her mind was alienated from them.
Ezekiel 23: The Babylonians, and all the Chaldeans, Pekod, and Shoa, and Koa, and all the Assyrians with them: all of them desirable young men, captains and rulers, great lords and renowned, all of them riding upon horses.

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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Babylonia
Ancient empire in Asia in the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Semitic in language and civilization, and founded c.2800B.C. by Sargon I, its greatest ruler was Hammurabi (c.2100 B.C.) who united Babylonia and became famous for the exhaustive code of civiland criminal law compiled during his reign. In 710 B.C. Babylonia was subjugated by Sargon II of Assyria, but regained independence c.626B.C. under Nabopolas-Bar whose son Nabuchodonosor conquered Syria, destroyed Jerusalem (586 B.C.), and subjugated Tyre. After him the empire declined, becoming a province of Persia upon the victory of Cyrus the Great in 538 B.C. Babylon, ancient capital of Babylonia, is regarded as the site of the Tower of Babel

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Babylonia
The province of which Babylon was the capital; now the Babylonian or Arabian Irak, which constitutes the pashalic of Bagdad. This celebrated province included the track of country lying on the river Euphrates, bounded north by Mesopotamia and Assyria and south by the Persian Gulf. This gulf was indeed its only definite and natural boundary; for towards the north, towards the east or Persia, and towards the west or desert Arabia, its limits were quite indefinite. Bot in ancient and modern times, Important tracts on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and on the western ban of the Euphrates, and still more on both banks of their united streams, were reckoned to Babylonia, or Irak el-Arab.

The most ancient name of the country is Shimar, Genesis 10:10 Daniel 1:2 . Afterwards Babel, Babylon, and Babylonia became its common appellation with which at a later period, Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans, was used as synonymous, after this people had got the whole into their possession.

Babylonia is an extensive plain, interrupted by no hill or mountain, consisting of a fatty, brownish soil, and subject to the annual inundations of the Tigris and Euphrates, more especially of the latter, whose banks are lower than those of the Tigris. The Euphrates commonly rises about twelve feet above its ordinary level, and continues at this height from the end of April tell June. These inundations of course compelled the earliest tillers of the soil to provide means for drawing off the superabundant water, and so distributing it over the whole surface, that those tracts which were in themselves less watered might receive the requisite irrigation. From this cause, the whole of Babylonia came to be divided up by a multitude of larger and smaller canals; in part passing entirely through from one river to the other; in part also losing themselves in the interior, and serving only the purposes of irrigation. These canals seem to be the "rivers of Babylon" spoken of in Psalm 137:1 . Besides this multitude of canals, which have long since vanished without trace, Babylonia contained several large lakes, partly the work of art and partly formed by the inundations of the two rivers. Babylonia, therefore, was a land abounding in water; and Jeremiah might therefore well say of it, that it "dwelt upon many waters," Jeremiah 51:13 .

The Babylonians belonged to the Shemitic branch of the descendants of Noah, and their language had an affinity with the Arabic and Hebrew, nearly resembling what is now called Chaldee. The Babylonian empire was founded by Nimrod twenty centuries before Christ, and then embraced the cities Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, Genesis 10:10 . After the building of Nineveh by Ninus, 1237 B.C., that city became the seat of power and continued so until about 606 B.C., when the Assyrian empire gave way to the Chaldean, and Babylon reached its highest point in fame and power. Upon the return of the Jews from captivity, many still remained in Babylonia, and to their posterity the gospel was early conveyed. Peter is supposed by many to have written his first epistle there, 1 Peter 5:13 . The Jews had thriving synagogues in Babylonia, and one of their Talmuds was there composed. See CHALDEANS .

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Sentence search

Amraphel - Shinar, his kingdom, or Babylonia, was subordinate to the great Elanrite king, (See CHEDORLAOMER. ) The Assyrian monuments attest that an Elamite king invaded and plundered Babylonia in 2386 B. ; and Babylonian remains bear traces of Elamitic influence
Babylonian - ) An inhabitant of Babylonia (which included Chaldea); a Chaldean. ) Of or pertaining to the real or to the mystical Babylon, or to the ancient kingdom of Babylonia; Chaldean
Sumer, Sumerians - See the ASSYRIA AND Babylonia entry
Hammurabi - See Assyria and Babylonia, ii
Babylonia - ) who united Babylonia and became famous for the exhaustive code of civiland criminal law compiled during his reign. Babylonia was subjugated by Sargon II of Assyria, but regained independence c. Babylon, ancient capital of Babylonia, is regarded as the site of the Tower of Babel ...
Accadian - ) Pertaining to a race supposed to have lived in Babylonia before the Assyrian conquest
Akkad (Accad), Akkadians - It was probably in consequence of this that it gave its name to Northern Babylonia, the Semitic language of which came to be known as Akkadu or ‘Akkadian. ’ In the early days of cuneiform decipherment ‘Akkadian’ was the name usually applied to the non-Semitic language of primitive Babylonia, but some cuneiform texts published by Bezold in 1889 ( ZA p. 434) showed that this was called by the Babylonians themselves ‘the language of Sumer’ or Southern Babylonia, while a text recently published by Messerschmidt ( Orient . ’ When Babylonia became a united monarchy, its rulers took the title of ‘kings of Sumer and Akkad’ in Semitic, ‘Kengi and Uri’ in Sumerian, where Uri seems to have signified ‘the upper region
Shinar - A term employed in the OT for the greater part, if not the whole, of Babylonia ( Genesis 10:19 ; Genesis 11:2 ; Genesis 14:1 ; Genesis 14:9 , Joshua 7:21 , Isaiah 11:11 , Zechariah 5:11 , Daniel 1:2 ). Its former identification with Sumer , or Southern Babylonia, never regarded as very satisfactory, is now given up. There is little doubt that Shinar is to be identified with the land of Babylonia, but the origin of the name has not been determined
Bavli - "Babylonian"); the Babylonian Talmud, developed in Babylonia, and edited at the end of the fifth century
Ahava - AHAVA was a settlement in Babylonia lying along a stream of the same name, probably a large canal near the Euphrates. Some district north or north-west of Babylon, near the northern boundary of Babylonia, is most probable
Rivers of Babylon - , of the whole country of Babylonia, e
Cher'ub - apparently a place in Babylonia from which some persons of doubtful extraction returned to Judea with Zerubbabel
Pul - See Assyria and Babylonia, p
Elamites - Elam lay due east of Babylonia and the lower Tigris, and corresponds to the modern Khuzistan. Its ruling cities were Shushan (or Susa) and Ansan (or Anzan), and the earliest native rulers called themselves patesis, or ‘viceroys,’ in acknowledgment of dependence upon Babylonia. Elamite chieftains ruled in Babylonia, but their power was broken by Hammurabi, whose son Samsu-iluna finally restored Babylonian supremacy. Winckler, History of Babylonia and Assyria, Eng
Casiphia - see) In North Babylonia ( Ezra 8:17 ), whose site has not been identified
Massa - A lifting up, gift, one of the sons of Ishmael, the founder of an Arabian tribe (Genesis 25:14 ); a nomad tribe inhabiting the Arabian desert toward Babylonia
She'Shach - (from the goddess Shach , reduplicated) is a term which occurs only in ( Jeremiah 25:26 ; 51:41 ) where it is evidently used as a synonym for either Babylon or Babylonia
Ahava - A town or district and a river probably in Babylonia, near where Ezra collected the returning exiles
Mas'sa - ( Genesis 26:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) His descendants were not improbably the Masani , placed by Ptolemy in the east of Arabia, near the borders of Babylonia
Tel-Abib - The place of Ezekiel's residence among the Jewish captives in Babylonia, on the Chebar, a branch of the Euphrates (Ezekiel 3:15); the nahr Μalcha , Nebuchadnezzar's royal canal
ar'Chi - It designates a clan perhaps originally from Erech in Babylonia, of which Hushai was one
Tel-Abib - A place in Babylonia where some of the Jewish captives were stationed
ko'a - (he-camel ) is a word which occurs only in ( Ezekiel 23:23 ) It may perhaps have been a city or district of Babylonia; or it may be a common noun, signifying "prince" or "nobleman
Babylonish - ) Of or pertaining to, or made in, Babylon or Babylonia
Telassar - Or Thelasar, (Isaiah 37:12 ; 2 Kings 19:12 ), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia
Pekod - Probably a place in Babylonia (Jeremiah 50:21 ; Ezekiel 23:23 )
Gopher Wood - Perhaps cypress, kupar resembling gopher; suitable for shipbuilding; abounding in Babylonia and Adiabene, the region which may have been that of Noah's building
Babylonia - The province of which Babylon was the capital; now the Babylonian or Arabian Irak, which constitutes the pashalic of Bagdad. Bot in ancient and modern times, Important tracts on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and on the western ban of the Euphrates, and still more on both banks of their united streams, were reckoned to Babylonia, or Irak el-Arab. Afterwards Babel, Babylon, and Babylonia became its common appellation with which at a later period, Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans, was used as synonymous, after this people had got the whole into their possession. ... Babylonia is an extensive plain, interrupted by no hill or mountain, consisting of a fatty, brownish soil, and subject to the annual inundations of the Tigris and Euphrates, more especially of the latter, whose banks are lower than those of the Tigris. From this cause, the whole of Babylonia came to be divided up by a multitude of larger and smaller canals; in part passing entirely through from one river to the other; in part also losing themselves in the interior, and serving only the purposes of irrigation. Besides this multitude of canals, which have long since vanished without trace, Babylonia contained several large lakes, partly the work of art and partly formed by the inundations of the two rivers. Babylonia, therefore, was a land abounding in water; and Jeremiah might therefore well say of it, that it "dwelt upon many waters," Jeremiah 51:13 . ... The Babylonians belonged to the Shemitic branch of the descendants of Noah, and their language had an affinity with the Arabic and Hebrew, nearly resembling what is now called Chaldee. The Babylonian empire was founded by Nimrod twenty centuries before Christ, and then embraced the cities Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, Genesis 10:10 . Upon the return of the Jews from captivity, many still remained in Babylonia, and to their posterity the gospel was early conveyed. The Jews had thriving synagogues in Babylonia, and one of their Talmuds was there composed
am'Raphel - (keeper of the gods ) perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain
Chalde'Ans, - It appears that the Chaldeans (Kaldai or Kaldi ) were in the earliest times merely one out of many Cushite tribes inhabiting the great alluvial plain known afterwards as Chaldea or Babylonia. In process of time, as the Kaldi grew in power, their name gradually prevailed over those of the other tribes inhabiting the country; and by the era of the Jewish captivity it had begun to be used generally for all the inhabitants of Babylonia. It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and religious literature
Pekod - [Note: Babylonian. ] Pukûdu , a people settled in Lower Babylonia, possibly of Aramæan race ( Ezekiel 23:23 , Jeremiah 50:21 )
Dura - ” Plain in Babylonia where King Nebuchadnezzar set up a mammoth golden image of a god or of himself (Daniel 3:1 )
Shinar - a province of Babylonia, where men undertook to build the tower of Babel, Genesis 11:2 ; Genesis 10:10
Rosin - Pliny mentions naphtha as a product of Babylonia, similar in appearance to liquid bitumen, and having a remarkable affinity to fire
Amraphel - Perhaps a Hamite king of Shinar or Babylonia, who joined the victorious incursion of the Elamite Chedorlaomer against the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities of the plain
Chaldea - It was originally of small extent; but the empire being afterwards very much enlarged, the name is generally taken in a more extensive sense, and includes Babylonia, which see
Babylon, Kingdom of - Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer (probably the Shinar of the Old Testament) in the south. ... The most famous of the early kings of Babylonia were Sargon of Accad (B. A great Babylonian library was founded in the reign of Sargon. Babylonia was subsequently again broken up into more than one state, and at one time fell under the domination of Elam. From this time forward Babylonia was a united monarchy. ... In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites. 729, Babylonia was conquered by the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III. ... Under Sennacherib, Babylonia revolted from Assyria several times, with the help of the Elamites, and after one of these revolts Babylon was destroyed by Sennacherib, B. After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty. 606, Nabopolassar, the viceroy of Babylonia, who seems to have been of Chaldean descent, made himself independent. 604, and founded the Babylonian empire. The last monarch of the Babylonian empire was Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid), B
Chaldea - This was strictly the southern part of Babylonia, but the many references in scripture to the Chaldeans show that the inhabitants of the whole of Babylonia are alluded to by that name. The prophecies declared that it would be so, but as stated above, they refer to the whole of Babylonia
Immer - A place in Babylonia from which went, with the first caravan, men who could not prove their Israelite birth (Ezra 2:59; Nehemiah 7:61)
Ellasar - It is supposed that Larsa or Larissu in Lower Babylonia, between Ur and Erech, was its capital, which is identified with ruins at Senkereh, about 31 30' N, 45 50' E
Babylonish - Pertaining to Babylon, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Babylonia, or to the kingdom
Chaldaea, Chaldaeans - Kasdim is generaliy rendered ‘Chaldees’ ( Genesis 11:28 ), and in Jeremiah 50:10 ; Jeremiah 51:24 ; Jeremiah 24:5 ; Jeremiah 25:12 , and often, is used for ‘Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. of Babylonia proper, on the sea-coast as it then was. In the time of Babylonian weakness they pushed into the country, and Merodach-baladan was a Chaldæan usurper. Nabopolassar was also a Chaldæan, and, from his time, Chaldæa meant Babylonia. The Chaldæans were Semites and not the same as the Kashdu, Kashshu, or Kassites, who conquered Babylonia, and ruled it from the 13th cent. The use of the term ‘Chaldæan’ (Daniel 1:4 and often) to denote a class of astrologers is not found in native sources, but arose from a transfer of a national name to the Babylonians in general, and occurs in Strabo, Diodorus, etc
Osnappar - He is distinguished chiefly as the great conserver of the ancient Babylonian literature, whose rich and varied collections have come to us from his own library in Nineveh. The war against Elam was the conclusion of a great conflict with Babylonia, with which country Elam on the east and most of the western subject States, including Judah, were in alliance. And it was before Ashurbanipal, as victorious king of Babylonia, that the rebel Judahite Manassch was brought in fetters to Babylonia, as related in 2 Chronicles 33:11 an event whose historicity has been unnecessarily called in question
Mesopotamia - (Greek: mesas, middle; potamos, river; country between rivers) ... A great plain between the Euphrates and the Tigris; the upper part covered ancient Assyria; the lower comprised ancient Chaldea and Babylonia
Cuth, Cuthah - Josephus places it in the interior of Persia; others in Babylonia
Chaldea - or Babylonia, the country lying on both sides of the Euphrates, of which Babylon was the capital; and extending southward to the Persian Gulf, and northward into Mesopotamia, at least as far as Ur, which is called Ur of the Chaldees
i'Vah - Isai 37:13 In connection with Hena and Sepharvaim, and once, (2 Kings 17:24 ) in connection with Babylon and Cuthah, must be sought in Babylonia, and is probably identical with the modern Hit, on the Euphrates
im'Mer - ) ... Apparently the name of a place in Babylonia
Bel - [Note: Babylonian. See also Baal, Assyria and Babylonia
Koa - of Babylonia, in the mountains between the upper Adhem and the Dijâlâ
Elam - ) lying to the east of Babylonia, and extending to the shore of the Mediterranean, a distance in a direct line of about 1,000 miles. The race to which they belonged was brachycephalic, or short-headed, like the pre-Semitic Sumerians of Babylonia. Babylonia was frequently invaded by the Elamite kings, who at times asserted their supremacy over it (as in the case of Chedorlaomer, the Kudur-Lagamar, or 'servant of the goddess Lagamar,' of the cuneiform texts)
Babylonish Garment - Babylonia was famous in classical times for such costly garments, and the sculptures exhibit the most elaborately embroidered dresses. The Babylonian inscriptions enumerate an almost endless variety of such garments, worked in many colours
el'Lasar - Larsa was a town of lower Babylonia or Chaldea, situated nearly halfway between Ur ( Mugheir ) and Erech ( Warka ), on the left bank of the Euphrates
Merodach - The name of the city-god of Babylon, worshipped, after the establishment of Babylon as capital of the Babylonian Empire, as chief god of Babylonia. The Babylonian name was Marduk , older form Maruduk . Hence he was in later times the Bçl of Babylonia. The name occurs in many Babylonian proper names, and appears in the Bible in Merodach-baladan and Evil-merodach , and probably in Mordecai
Chalde'a, - Chaldea proper was the southern part of Babylonia, and is used in Scripture to signify that vast alluvial plain which has been formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris. --Babylonia has long been celebrated for the number and antiquity of its cities. " The Hebrew prophets applied the term "land of the Chaldeans" to all Babylonia and "Chaldeans" to all the subjects of the Babylonian empire
Charaathalan - But ‘Charaathalan leading them and Allar’ is due to some perversion of the original, which has ‘Cherub, Addan, Immer,’ three names of places in Babylonia, from which the return was made ( Ezra 2:59 ; cf
Amraphel - ) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital
Nimrod - He established an empire in Shinar, the classical Babylonia, the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh: and extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen
Samuel bar abba - 257) Talmudic sage, resident of Nahrdea, Babylonia, a contemporary of Rav
Agade - A city of Northern Babylonia and the capital of Sargon, the founder of the first Semitic empire ( c [Note: circa, about
Isaiah - Political parties were advocating relations with Egypt, Babylonia, Ethiopia. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel. The remaining 19 chapters foretell that Cyrus will liberate Israel from Babylonia, the sufferings of the Messias, and His Kingdom
Isaias - Political parties were advocating relations with Egypt, Babylonia, Ethiopia. He prophesied the downfall of Israel, Syria, Assyria; the birth of Emmanuel and the coming arid days of the Messias; misfortunes of Babylonia, Moab, Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopa, the Messianic Kingdom in Jerusalem, the redemption of Israel. The remaining 19 chapters foretell that Cyrus will liberate Israel from Babylonia, the sufferings of the Messias, and His Kingdom
Amorites - An ancient people whose presence can be traced in Palestine and Syria and also in Babylonia. 2250) show that Amorites were in Babylonia at that time (cf. ... Because of the identity of their proper names, it is believed that the Amorites were identical in race with that Semitic wave of immigration into Babylonia which produced the first dynasty of Babylon, the dynasty of Hammurabi (cf. Paton holds that an Amoritic wave of migration overran Babylonia and the Mediterranean coast about b. 341) holds it probable, also on the basis of proper names, that the Amorites were in both Babylonia and the West before the time of Sargon, b
ur of the Chaldees, - UR OF THE CHALDEES , whence Abraham set out upon his journey to Canaan ( Genesis 11:28-31 ; Genesis 15:7 , Nehemiah 9:7 ), is usually identified with the well-known city of Uru in southern Babylonia, the site of which is marked by the mounds of Muqayyar. This city was in existence in the earliest period of Babylonian history, and was the seat of a dynasty of early kings before the foundation of the Bab. [Note: Babylonian. ] monarchy; it was always the centre of the worship of the moon-god in Southern Babylonia
Rib-Lah -
Riblah in the land of Hamath, a place on the great road between Palestine and Babylonia, at which the kings of Babylonia were accustomed to remain while directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia. (Jeremiah 39:5,6 ; 62:9,10,26,27 ; 2 Kings 25:6,20,21 ) In like manner Pharaoh-necho after his victory over the Babylonians at Carchemish, returned to Riblah and summoned Jehoahaz from Jerusalem before him
Chebar - A canal in Babylonia ( Ezekiel 1:1 ff
Shoa - Opulent, the mountain district lying to the north-east of Babylonia, anciently the land of the Guti, or Kuti, the modern Kurdistan
Chaldea - ... Relation to Babylonia At first the Chaldeans lived in tribal settlements, rejecting the urban society of the Babylonians to the northwest—so-called after the leading city-state of the region, Babylon, to which the Old Testament refers over 300 times. ... As time passed, the Chaldeans gradually acquired domination in Babylonia. In the process they also took on the title “Babylonians,” or more exactly, “Neo-Babylonians. ” As a result, the terms Chaldea(ns) and (Neo-) Babylonia(ns) may be used interchangeably ( Ezekiel 1:3 , RSV, NIV; Ezekiel 12:13 , NIV)
Sud - This name has not yet been found in the literature of Babylonia, and it seems probable that there is a mistake in the text, the true reading being Sur . A Babylonian text mentions a river or canal in the neighbourhood of Babylon called Nâr Suru , and this may be the stream intended
Merodach-Baladan - Merodach has given a son, (Isaiah 39:1 ), "the hereditary chief of the Chaldeans, a small tribe at that time settled in the marshes at the mouth of the Euphrates, but in consequence of his conquest of Babylon afterwards, they became the dominant caste in Babylonia itself
Ahava - In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia
Cossaeans - [Note: Babylonian. , during which time Babylonia was ruled by a Cossæan dynasty
Ellasar - ’ Larsa, modern Senkereh in Lower Babylonia on the east bank of the Euphrates, was celebrated for its temple and worship of the sun-god Shamash
Aramaic - (from Aram, a country in southwestern Asia) A Semitic language, used in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, etc. , and spoken by thc Jews during and after the Babylonian exile (606-536 B
Talmud - Talmud, The: the basic compendium of Jewish law and thought; its tractates mainly comprise the discussions collectively known as the Gemara, which elucidate the germinal statements of law (mishnayot) collectively known as the Mishnah; when unspecified refers to the Talmud Bavli, the edition developed in Babylonia, and edited at the end of the fifth century C
Ashur - It is believed that Ashur originally dwelt in the land of Shiner and about Babylonia, but that he was compelled by the usurper Nimrod to depart from thence, and settle higher toward the springs of the Tigris, in the province of Assyria, so called from him, where some think he built the famous city of Nineveh, and those of Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen, Genesis 10:11-12
Riblah - Syrian town located near Kadesh on the Orontes near the border with Babylonia
Rava - Rava founded a school in his hometown of Mahuza, which later became the center of Jewish scholarship in Babylonia
Amraphel - He has been identified (by Schrader and usually) with Hammurabi, king of Babylonia, but apart from the difficulties due to differences of spelling, there is no evidence that Hammurabi was ever allied with a king of Elam and a king of Larsa to invade the West
Arioch - It has been suggested by Schrader that Arioch is the transcription of Eri-a-ku, the Sumerian writing of the name Rim-Sin of the king of Larsa, son of Kudur-Mabug, an Elamite, who ruled Southern Babylonia till conquered by Hammurabi
Nim'Rod - , from which we learn (1) that he was a Cushite; (2) that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia) the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh; and (3) that he extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah and Resen
Slime, - It is first spoken of as used for cement by the builders in the plain of Shinar or Babylonia. 179, tells us of the bitumen found at Is, the modern Heet , a town of Babylonia, eight days journey from Babylon
Thicket - ... Jeremiah 4:7 (b) The word is used to illustrate the evil surroundings and the wicked society of the countries of Assyria, Babylonia and other foreign nations which were to invade Israel and lay it waste
Satyr - Some render the Hebrew word "baboon," a species of which is found in Babylonia
Chaldea - The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. " ... Recent discoveries, more especially in Babylonia, have thrown much light on the history of the Hebrew patriarchs, and have illustrated or confirmed the Biblical narrative in many points. " "Chaldees" is a mistranslation of the Hebrew Kasdim , Kasdim being the Old Testament name of the Babylonians, while the Chaldees were a tribe who lived on the shores of the Persian Gulf, and did not become a part of the Babylonian population till the time of Hezekiah. Ur was one of the oldest and most famous of the Babylonian cities. Its site is now called Mugheir, or Mugayyar, on the western bank of the Euphrates, in Southern Babylonia. But soon afterwards Babylonia fell under Elamite dominion
Accad - Raw claims that the site of Accad was at a place now called Niffer, amid the marshes of Southern Babylonia
Nergal - The god of the city of Cubta in Babylonia, hence worshipped by the captive Cuthæans who were transplanted to Samaria by Sargon ( 2 Kings 17:30 ). [Note: Babylonian
Shalmaneser - He ruled Babylonia as Ululai
Hena - Associated with Sepharvaim or Sippara (now Mosaib), probably therefore in Babylonia or on the Euphrates
Shinar - In later times it was known as Chaldea, or Babylonia (as in the LXX of Isaiah 11:11 ), and thither some of the captives from Judah were carried
Shinar - It would seem originally to have denoted the northern part of Babylonia, as "Chaldæa" denoted the southern part; but subsequently, like Chaldæa, it was sometimes used for the whole
East - , Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite signification
Diaspora - They may be divided into two classes: those who lived east of the Euphrates, in Babylonia, Persia, etc
Calneh - Babylonia
Shi'Nar - (country of two rivers ), the ancient name of the great alluvial tract through which the Tigris and Euphrates pass before reaching the sea --the tract known in later times as Chaldaea or Babylonia
Ham - One of the most important facts recorded in Genesis 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6,8,10). The primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia
Calneh - A part of kingdom of Nimrod in Babylonia (Genesis 10:10 )
Nimrod - as the first of the ‘heroes,’ ‘a mighty hunter before the Lord,’ the ruler of four ancient Babylonian cities, and the founder of the Assyrian Empire. In the statement that he was begotten by Cush, we have probably a reference to the Kash or Kasshu who conquered Babylonia about the 17th cent. , and set up a dynasty which lasted 600 years: the rise of Assyria is said to date from the decline of Babylonia under the later Kassite kings. The nearest Babylonian parallel to the figure of Nimrod as yet discovered is Gilgamesh , the tyrant of Erech, whose adventures are recorded in the famous series of tablets to which the Deluge-story belongs, and who is supposed to be the hero so often represented on seals and palace-reliefs in victorious combat with a lion. bar; and though this expectation has been dispelled by the discovery of the true pronunciation Gitgamesh , there is enough general resemblance to warrant the belief that the original of the Biblical Nimrod belongs to Babylonian lore
Sepharvaim - Probably it answers to the Shabara’in named in the Babylonian Chronicle as taken just before the fall of Samaria. The context favours the supposition that the famous city Sippar in North Babylonia is intended
Shinar, the Land of - and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf
Bdellium - " A gum exuding from a tree (the Borassus flabelliformis) in Arabia, India, and Babylonia, white and transparent, according to some; but this is hardly precious enough to be ranked with the gold and precious stones of Havilah
Merodach-Baladan - ” A ruler of the Bit-Yakin tribe in southern Babylonia and king of Babylon 721-711 B
Cuth, Cuthah - This view is borne out by the Assyrian inscriptions, from which we learn that Kuti (or Kutu ) was a city of Middle-Babylonia
Pitch - In the latter state it is very tenacious, and was used as a cement in lieu of mortar in Babylonia ((Genesis 11:3 ) as well as for coating the outside of vessels, (Genesis 6:14 ) and particularly for making the papyrus boats of the Egyptians water-tight
Eden - It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the Tigris and the Euphrates of Western Asia, in "the land of Shinar" or Babylonia
Accad - (See SEPHARVAIM ) It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Babylonia. In the Babylonian inscriptions they are called "the black heads" and "the black faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent. The Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia
Assyria - (Hebrew: Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the two rivers) A country which occupied the northern and middle part of Mesopotamia, extended as far south as the Persian Gulf, and included Babylonia and Chaldea. Their religion and civilization were in many respects identical with that of Babylonia, their language belonged to the Semitic family, closely related to the Hebrew, and they had a cuneiform (Latin: cuneus, wedge) system of writing. ), greatest of all Assyrian kings, to whom we owe part of our knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most important historical texts and inscriptions to be copied and placed in a fine library which he built in his palace. Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians, and Assyria became a province of these countries
Arpachshad - Genesis 10:22 is an enumeration of peoples (or countries) descended from Shem, from which Babylonia or Chaidæa is absent in the present text
Ham - Cush seems to have been the father of the peoples dwelling in Babylonia, southern Arabia, and Ethiopia; Nimrod was his son
East - By the east, they frequently describe, not only Arabia Deserta, and the lands of Moab and Ammon, which lay to the east of Palestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Chaldea, though they are situated rather to the north than to the east of Judea
Bittern - An aquatic solitary bird, frequenting marshy pools, such as the plain of Babylonia abounded in: the Al-houbara of the Arabic version, the size of a large fowl
Tigris - ) It ran through Armenia and Assyria, and then separated Babylonia from Susiana
Elam - An important country of Western Asia, called Elamtu by the Babylonians and Elymais by the Greeks (also Susiana , from Shushan or Susa the capital). , where it is mentioned as the suzerain of Babylonia and therewith of the whole western country including Palestine. For many centuries previous, Elam had upon the whole been subordinate to the ruling power of Babylonia, no matter which of the great cities west of the Tigris happened to be supreme. The splendidly defensible position of the capital contributed greatly to its independence and recuperative power, and thus Susa became a repository of much valuable spoil secured from the Babylonian cities. A change in relations gradually took place after Assyria began to control Babylonia and thus encroach upon Elam, which was thenceforth, as a rule, in league with the patriotic Babylonians, especially with the Chaldæans from the south-land. Particular interest attached to the part taken by the Elamites in the overthrow of Babylonia
Captivity, Babylonian - ) of the inhabitants of Judea in Babylonia
Elath - Elath would then be the mainland base to which goods were transferred for loading onto pack animals for the long caravan travels northward to Judah, Israel, Syria, or Phoenicia or for travels eastward to Assyria or Babylonia or westward to Egypt
Babylon - From 2250 it was the capital of Babylonia and the holy city of western Asia
Semites - In historic times all western Asia, with the exception of Asia Minor, was Semitic, and philologically the race is divided into four chief groups: Babylonian-Assyrian, Chanaanite, Aramaic, and Arabian. , to Babylonia are traced the beginnings of astronomy and perhaps mathematics, and the division of time by weeks, and to Phenicia the distribution of the alphabet
East - Besides the ordinary meanings of the word east, Joshua 4:19 ; Psalm 103:12 , the Jews often used it to designate a large region lying northeast and southeast of Palestine, including Syria and Arabia near at hand, and Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, etc
Babylonian Captivity - ) of the inhabitants of Judea in Babylonia
Sar'Gon - 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest
Nimrod - Babylonia was also called the land of Nimrod, which shows that the descendants of Ham settled in the East as well as in Egypt in the South
Elam - bank of the Tigris, opposite Babylonia, between it on the W. Chedorlaomer who invaded Palestine in Abraham's time (Genesis 14) was king of Elam, and then lord paramount over Amraphel, king of Shinar (Babylonia) on its confines. It was a province of Babylonia from Nebuchadnezzar's time (Daniel 8:2)
Mesopotamia - To the south its limits were about where Babylonia begins, at the so-called Median Wall, which runs from a little below Is (Hit), on the Euphrates, to a point just above Opis (Kadisiya), on the Tigris. In the earliest times, its history was closely bound up with that of Babylonia on the south. The Babylonians held predominance for long periods, influencing the civilization to a very considerable extent. Winckler, History of Babylonia and Assyria, Eng
Havilah - It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom
Mash - Knobel reconciles this with Josephus by supposing a migration from northern to southern Babylonia, which however is the reverse of the direction which the population usually took, namely from S
Sardius - ’ Pliny says that the sardius of Babylonia was more highly prized than that of Sardis (Historia Naturalis (Pliny) xxxvii
Accad - Akkad was the name of the "great primitive Hamite race who inhabited Babylonia from the earliest time, and who originated the arts and sciences. The Babylonian Talmud mentions the site under the name Aggada
Ahava - The name of a river of Babylonia, or rather of Assyria, where Ezra assembled those captives whom he afterward brought into Judea, Ezra 8:15
Brick - The Egyptian bricks resembled our own in shape, while those of Babylonia were generally as broad as they were long. According to Flinders Petrie, the earliest Palestine bricks followed the Babylonian pattern. ... Reference may also be made to the use of clay as a writing material, which was introduced into Palestine from Babylonia, and, as we now know, continued in use in certain quarters till the time of Hezekiah at least
Ahasuerus - He ruled over the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylonia, "from India to Ethiopia
Esarhaddon - He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon
Dispersion - ... The real Dispersion began with the Babylonian Exile. Nebuchadnezzar transplanted to Babylonia the choicest of the Judæan population (2 Kings 24:12-16 ; 2 Kings 25:11 , Jeremiah 52:15 ). Probably 50,000 were transported, and Jewish communities were formed in Babylonia at many points, as at Tel-abib ( Ezekiel 3:15 ) and Casiphia ( Ezra 8:17 ). Only a few of these Babylonian Jews returned to Palestine. They maintained the Jewish communities in Babylonia till about a. Here, after the beginning of the Christian era, the Babylonian Talmud was compiled
Irrigation - Owing to the lack of a sufficient rainfall, Babylonia and Egypt have to be supplied with water from their respective rivers
Har-Magedon - Another explanation finds in the word a survival of the name of the place in which the gods of Babylonia were believed to have defeated the dragon Tiâmat and the other evil spirits
Sennacherib - Sennacherib expelled him and placed Bçlibni of the Babylonian seed royal on the throne as a vassal king. Troubles in Babylonia led him to recall Bçl-ibni and set his own son Ashur-nâdin-shum on the throne. He then had once more to expel Merodach-baladan from Lower Babylonia. The Assyrians soon re-asserted their supremacy, but a fresh rebellion placed a Babylonian on the throne of Babylon. 691Samennacherib brought both Elamites and Babylonians to bay at Khalule
Willows - Before the date of the Babylonian captivity the willow was associated with joy, after it with sorrow, probably owing to Psalm 137. Babylonia was a network of canals, and would therefore abound in willows
North Country, Land of the North - Thus, though Babylonia was in the same latitude as Palestine, it was included among the countries of the ‘north
Accad - An inscription has been found showing the Accadian transition from the hieroglyphic to the wedge-shape letters; and others with the latter interlined with the Babylonian or Assyrian dialect. The Accadian was the principal dialect spoken by the primitive inhabitants of Babylonia, and in which some of their ancient legends are inscribed
Babylon (2) - 625, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b. In architecture, sculpture, science, philosophy, astronomical and mathematical knowledge, and in learning, the Babylonians made original investigations and discoveries not surpassed by any other ancient people. "To Babylonia," says G. In religion the Babylonians differed little from the early Chaldæans
Willows - " There are several species of the salix in Palestine, but it is not indigenous to Babylonia, nor was it cultivated there
Tadmor - " Solomon fixed on the site, an oasis in the desert which lies between Palestine and Babylonia, as the commercial entrepot between Jerusalem and Babylon
Shem - ... ASSHUR — strictly Assyria, but in an extended sense may have included Babylonia and the land of the Chaldees
Hanging, Hangings - In the religious literature of Babylonia there is frequent reference to gifts of sheepskins, wool, etc
Drowning - —Drowning never was or could be a recognized form of capital punishment in so poorly watered a country as Palestine, as it was in Assyria and Babylonia. Johns’ Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and Letters, p
Palace - ... The Assyrian and Babylonian palaces were large and magnificent. In Babylonia, the palaces, like the temples, were built on the top of artificial mounds of crude bricks; and were groups of buildings forming a great fortress
Babylon - ... From the very earliest times the kings and rulers of Babylonia worked at the building of its temples, palaces, walls, bridges, quays, etc. Hammurabi first raised it to be the capital of all Babylonia. See, further, Assyria and Babylonia
Rimmon (1) - [Note: Babylonian. ’ He is mentioned, however (in 2 Kings 5:18 ), not as a Palestinian or Babylonian, but as a Syrian, deity, who was honoured as the chief god of Damascus. Rammân (meaning the thunderer) was, in fact, indigenous in Babylonia, where he played a great mythological and religious rôle, in his twofold aspect of a beneficent deity, as the giver of rain, and of a maleficent, as the maker of storms and the wielder of the thunderbolt. [Note: Babylonian. The currency of the latter among the Hebrews (as Rimmon ) is to be attributed to the long Babylonian occupation of Palestine before Aramæan times
Mesopotamia - In its fullest sense, Mesopotamia extended from the Persian Gulf to mount Taurus; but the name usually denotes only the tract above Babylonia, now called Dearbekr and celebrated for its exuberant fertility; while the part below, now Irak-Arabi, is sterile and without water. Mesopotamia was including the territories of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman empires successively, and belongs now to that of the Turks
Assyria - Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isaiah 7:20 ; 8:7 . After the overthrow of the Assyrian state, the name continued to be applied to those countries which had been formerly under its dominion, namely, (a) To Babylonia, 2 Kings 23:29 ; Jeremiah 2:18 . But the kingdom fell at length into the hands of the Medes, the monarchy was divided between them and the Babylonians, and the very name of Assyria was thenceforth forgotten
Dispersion - ...
Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia
Ezekiel - He was a member of a community of Jewish exiles who settled on the banks of the Chebar, a "river" of Babylonia
Elam - He settled in a highland district east of Babylonia, which became the seat of a powerful monarchy
Chaldea - Ancient Babylonia was occupied largely by people belonging to two racial groups, the Sumerians and the Amorites. ... In the time before Abraham, the Babylonian rulers were mainly of Sumerian descent and their capital was the Chaldean city of Ur, from which Abraham originally came (Genesis 11:28; Acts 7:4). About 2000 BC Babylonians of Amorite descent overthrew the dynasty in Ur and established a new capital at the city of Babylon. )... Many centuries later, during the period covered by the biblical books of Kings, a Babylonian of Chaldean descent seized the throne in Babylon (about 720 BC). As a result of this Chaldean domination, the practice arose of using ‘Chaldea’ as a name for the land of Babylon as a whole, and ‘Chaldeans’ as a name for Babylonians in general (Isaiah 13:19; Isaiah 47:1; Isaiah 48:14; Isaiah 48:20; Jeremiah 25:12; Daniel 5:30; Daniel 9:1)
Haran - Its position on one of the main trade-routes between Babylonia and the Mediterranean coast rendered it commercially of great importance (cf
Diaspora - the Babylonians captured the Southern Kingdom (Judah) and followed the same policy of resettlement. See Assyria; Babylonia; Exile ; Synagogue
Wheat, - (Genesis 41:22 ) Babylonia was also noted for the excellence of its wheat and other cereals
Chedorlaomer - In the 13th they revolted, whereupon he, with his subordinate allies, the kings of Shinar (Babylonia), and Ellasar, and Tidal, "king of nations" (Median Scyths, belonging to the old population) smote the Rephaims in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzims in Ham, the Emims in Shaveh Kiriathaim, the Horites in mount Seir, the Amalekites, and the Amorites in Hazezon Tamar; and finally encountered and defeated the five allied kings in the vale of Siddim. Babylonian documents of the age 2200-2100 B. There is mentioned among the Babylonian kings one who held his court at Ur in Lower Chaldaea, an Elamite prince, Kudur-Mabuk (or Chedorlaomer; Lagomer being an Elamite goddess of which Mabuk is the Hamitic name). " He did not establish a lasting empire over Syria, as his Assyrian and Babylonian successors, but was simply its "ravager," exactly as the Bible represents him
Euphrates - The alluvial plain between the Euphrates and the Tigris constituted Babylonia, the water of the annual inundation (which took place in May, and was caused by the melting of the snows in Armenia) being regulated by means of canals and barrages
Chaldeans - Of the date of their location in Babylonia nothing is now known. The Chaldeo-Babylonian dynasty continued probably not more than one hundred years
Seal, Signet - The existence of seals is attested for the early dynasties of Egypt, and for an equally remote period in the history of Babylonia. ] ), precisely as was the custom of every Babylonian gentleman in the days of Herodotus (i. The seals hitherto found in Palestine show little initiative on the part of the Hebrews in this branch of the fine arts, the great majority plainly showing the predominant influence of Egypt, or to a less extent of Babylonia. Thus the scarab and the scaraboid forms were distinctive of Egypt, as the cylinder was of Babylonia. It is of jasper, and oval in shape; the greater part of the field is occupied by a lion, of the most delicate workmanship in the Babylonian style, while above and below is the legend: ‘[The property] of Shema, the servant [ i
Medes - Under Cyrus the two kingdoms of Babylonia and Media were united, b
Chald a - In later times the "land of the Chaldæans" was applied to all Babylonia, and to the whole of the empire over which the Chaldæans ruled. 625; the Babylonian empire third in order, continuing from about b. 625, and established a new kingdom, known as the Babylonian empire
Tiglath Pileser - ) we find him exacting tribute from a Merodach Baladan who ruled in southern Babylonia on the shores of the Persian gulf, a district of marsh lands for many centuries a refuge for Assyrian rebels. Tiglath Pileser took Sippara (Sepharvaim) in Babylonia
Ezra - He doubtless stood at the head or, at any rate, was a leading figure of a new order which had grown up in the Exile among the Jews of the ‘Golah’ or captivity in Babylonia. The centre of Jewish culture, wealth, and leisure was at this time and for some time continued to be Babylonia, where external circumstances had become (since the Persian supremacy) comparatively favourable for the Jews. ’ Moved by religious zeal, and also, it would seem, with the statesman-like view of making Jerusalem once more the real spiritual metropolis of Judaism, Ezra conceived the idea of Infusing new life and new ideals into the Judæan community, by leading a fresh hand of zealously religious exiles from Babylonia back to Judæa on a mission of reform
Assur - , and beyond it Babylonia, the mountains of Kurdistan, the ancient Lagres chain and Media on the E. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests in that quarter; but even then a temple was founded to the goddess at Koyunjik. The cuneiform writing is rapidly punched on moist clay, and so naturally took its rise in Babylonia, where they used "brick for stone" (Genesis 11:3), and passed thence to Assyria, where chiseling characters on rock is not so easy. In Assyria too the writing is of a more advanced kind; in early Babylonia of a ruder stage. Babylonia, is Cushite or Ethiopian, of which the modern Galla of Abyssinia gives the best idea. At the same time traces exist in the Babylonian language of the other three great divisions of human speech, Shemitic, Aryan, and Turanian, showing in that primitive stage traces of the original unity of tongues. The monuments confirm Genesis 10:9-12, that the Shemitic Assyrians proceeding out of Babylonia founded Nineveh long after the Cushite foundation of Babylon. The Babylonian shrines were those at which the Assyrians thought the gods most accessible, regarding Babylon as the true home of their gods (Arrian, Exp. ... According to Herodotus and the Babylonian historian Berosus, we can infer the empire began about 1228 B. Their alabaster quarries furnished a material better than the Babylonian bricks for portraying scenes. Later on he was defeated by the Babylonian king, who carried captive several Assyrian idols. (Asshu-izir-pal) warred in Lower Babylonia and Chaldsea, as well as in Syria and upon the Mediterranean coast. He himself overran Cappadocia, Armenia, Azerbijan, Media Magna, the Kurd mountains, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia. , and who married Semiramis of Babylon (whose son Nabonassar Pul is supposed to have sat on the Babylonian throne). But as it is impossible to identify Tiglath Pileser's predecessor Asshut-lush with Pul, and as Assyria was then in a depressed state through internal troubles, Pul was probably monarch at Babylon (Berosus, the Babylonian historian, calls him "king of the Chaldoeans") while Asshur-lush reigned at Nineveh. , the Babylonians reckon as the era of their independence. they began attacking Assyria, at first unsuccessfully; but Cyaxares the Mede having gained the Babylonians under Nabopolassar, the Assyrian viceroy of Babylon, as allies, about 625 B
East - of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia
Wages - Still, a skilled shepherd, like Jacob, might receive a portion of the flock and thus begin his own herd (Genesis 30:32-33 ; Genesis 31:8 ; and legal texts from both Assyria and Babylonia)
Hadad - In Assyria and Babylonia, however, his cult, combined with that of Rammân, was apparently not native, but introduced from the Aram¿ans of the west
Cherub - A place in Babylonia
Wages - ... Information is now available as to the wages of different classes of ‘hirelings,’ from doctors to tailors, in Babylonia c [Note: circa, about. ), but it is perilous to compare too closely the highly developed social conditions of Babylonia, even at this early period, with the simpler forms of Hebrew life, say under the monarchy. [Note: Babylonian. ... Brickmakers and tailors are to receive 5 she a day (§ 274), and herdsmen the name nâqîd is the Babylonian form of that denoting the occupation of Amos, the prophet 8 gur of corn a year, the gur being worth probably about a shekel
Medes, me'Dia - The Medes were a nation of very high antiquity; we find a notice of them in the primitive Babylonian history of Berosus, who says that the Medes conquered Babylon at a very remote period (cir. The deepest obscurity hangs, however, over the whole history of the Medes from the time of their bearing sway in Babylonia, B. It was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or more probably by a line running about halfway between that river and the Euphrates
Assyria - The great kingdom of Assyria was situated near the river Tigris,having Armenia on the North, Mount Zagros and Media on the east, Babylonia on the south, Syria and the Syrian desert on the west; but its boundaries were doubtless not always the same. Apparently a monarchy was established there by some from Babylonia, and there were several kings before SHALMANESERI. He also made himself master of Babylonia; but this afterwards gained its independence under Merodach-baladan. Sargon defeated Merodach-baladan in Babylonia, but was assassinated in B
Ham - ) Solid grandeur characterizes the Hamitic architecture, as in the earliest of Egypt, Babylonia, and S. Arabia were at a very early date overcome by the Joktanites, and the Babylonians yielded to the Medes
Merodach Baladan - Inscriptions say that Merodach Baladan, having been conquered in battle by Sargon, and Babylonia having been ravaged, fled to "the islands at the mouth of the Euphrates
Sennach'Erib, - His efforts were directed to crushing the revolt of Babylonia, which he invaded with a large army
Mitre - ... On the now common assumption that the Priests’ Code originated in Babylonia, it is probable that the mitre was intended to have the conical form characteristic of the tiara of the Babylonian kings
Chaldeans, Chaldees - Then, however, they cannot be distinguished from the Babylonians. ' It is evident therefore that the Babylonians are called Chaldees; and at one time the Assyrians were associated with the Babylonians. At first they were a number of tribes in South Babylonia, but were afterwards united and increased. , so as not to be distinguishable from the Babylonians
Assyria - The name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian masters. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians, under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince Merodach-baladan ( 2 Kings 20:12 ), who, after twelve years, was subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames of rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes successfully asserted their independence (B
Aramaic - Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Syria were its proper home
Cush (2) - The Babylonian inscriptions of the mounds of Chaldaea proper, the primitive seat of the Babylonian empire close to the Persian gulf, prove there was a Cush on the E. ... (2) A later one of Cushites through Arabia, Babylonia, Susiana, eastward to W. The 22nd Egyptian dynasty, to which Zerah the Cusbite who invaded Asa belonged, contains names of Babylonian origin, Shishak = Sheshak, Namuret = Nimrod, Tekhit = Tiglath
Sumer - (ssyoo' mehr) One of the two political divisions originally comprising what came to be Babylonia. The Babylonians and other surrounding peoples adapted the cuneiform script to their own languages so that for centuries, cuneiform was the dominant mode of writing in ancient Mesopotamia
Astrology - Babylonia was the earliest home of this study, which continued to be prosecuted in that part of the world with special diligence, so that in later times the word ‘Chaldaean’ was equivalent to ‘Eastern astrologer
Nimrod - The later Babylonians spoke Semitic, but the oldest inscriptions are Turanian or Cushite. "Cush" appears in the Babylonian names Cissia, Cuthah, Chuzistan (Susiana). The Mahras is akin to the Abyssinian Galla language, representing the Cushite or Ethiopic of old; and the primitive Babylonian Sir H. The Egyptian and Ethiopic hyk (in hyk-sos , the "shepherd kings"), a "king," in Babylonian and Susianian is khak . The fourfold group of cities which Nimrod founded in Babylonia answer to the fourfold group in Assyria. ... The early seat of empire was in the southern part of Babylonia, where Niffer represents either Babel or Calneh, Warka Erech, Mugheir Ur, Senkereh Ellasar
Cush - At an early period there was a stream of migration of Cushites "from Ethiopia, properly so called, through Arabia, Babylonia, and Persia, to Western India
Hebrew Language - For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew language underwent little or no modification. ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Millennium - 97 a ), and it is not impossible that this conception can be traced back to Babylonia or Persia
Amorites - They took control of the administration of Babylonia for approximately 400 years (2000-1595), their most influential king being Hammurabi (1792-1750)
Amorites - Non-biblical records suggest that the word meant ‘westerner’ and referred to the early Semitic peoples who migrated to ancient Babylonia from Western Mesopotamia and Syria
Tiglath-Pileser - In the Babylonian chronological list he is called Pulu , the Pul of 2 Kings 15:19 , and the Poros of the Canon of Ptolemy. Five months after his accession he marched into Babylonia to overthrow the power of the Aramæan tribes. 731 Tiglath-pileser was attracted by events in Babylonia. Ukin-zçr, a Chald¿an prince, having seized the Babylonian throne, the Assyrian king besieged him in his capital Sapia, which he captured in b
Ashtoreth - In Abyssinia, she was called Astar; in Assyria and Babylonia, Ishtar (used also in the pl. ... The character of this goddess, concerning which the OT makes no direct statement, is most clearly depicted in the Assyro-Babylonian literature. Hence, in accordance with one theological school of the Babylonians, which considered Sin (moon) the ruler of the luminaries of the night, Ishtar was also known as the ‘daughter of Sin. ... The cults of this goddess were extant at various localities of Babylonia and Assyria
Dead Sea Scrolls - The origins of the Essenes are uncertain: one major view is that they descended from the “Pious,” who had fought for religious independence with the Maccabees; on another view they originated in Exile in Babylonia, returning to Palestine sometime in the third or second century B
Embroidery And Needlework - ’... The art of embroidery was an invention of the Babylonians, from whom it passed, through the medium of the Phrygians, to the Greeks and the other nations of the West. No actual specimens of Babylonian embroidery have survived, but the sculptures of Assyrian palaces, notably a sculptured figure of Ashurnazirpal. ... If, as is generally believed, the Priests’ Code was compiled in Babylonia, we may trace the influence of the latter in the embroideries introduced into the Tabernacle screens and elsewhere (reff
Ham - the three grades in Babylonia, who hold distinct legal positions in the Code of Hammurabi amelu (‘gentleman’), mushkenu (‘commoner,’ or ‘poor man’), and ardu (‘slave’)]
Shem - Ethnologists, from the facts of language, divide the Semitic into five main branches, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, the Phoenician, the Assyrian or Assyro Babylonian, and the Arabian. Africa, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, southern and south eastern Arabia and Babylonia; the Semitic are located in one region, namely, the central one intermediate between the Japhetic on the N. The intermediate position of the Shemites brought them in contact with the Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and on the other hand with the Hamitic in Palestine, in the Yemen (Arabia Felix), in Babylonia and Elymais
Baal - BEL, or BELUS, denoting lord, a divinity among several ancient nations; as the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Sidonians, Carthaginians, Babylonians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians. It is probable that Baal, Belus, or Bel, the great god of the Carthaginians, and also of the Sidonians, Babylonians, and Assyrians, who, from the testimony of Scripture, appears to have been delighted with human sacrifices, was the Moloch of the Ammonites; the Chronus of the Greeks, who was the chief object of adoration in Italy, Crete, Cyprus, and Rhodes, and all other countries where divine honours were paid him; and the Saturn of the Latins. ... It is remarkable that we do not find the name Baal so much in popular use east of Babylonia; but it was general west of Babylonia, and to the very extremity of western Europe, including the British isles
Eden - ... The country of Eden, therefore, according to others, was some where in Media, Armenia, or the north of Mesopotamia; all mountainous tracts, and affording, instead of the sickening plains of Babylonia, some of the grandest, as well as the richest scenery in the world. But it is only the lower parts of the Euphrates and Tigris, as they creep through the plains of Babylonia, which are thus inconstant: higher up in their courses, they flow over more solid strata, and in deeper valleys, unchanged by time
Babylon, History And Religion of - From his time forward, Babylon was considered the political seat of southern Mesopotamia, the region called Babylonia. ... The political and socio-economic history of Babylonia in Hammurabi's time is well known thanks to extensive collections of cuneiform tablets discovered at various cities in Mesopotamia, especially at Mari. in Babylonia. , when Babylonian kings corresponded with Egypt and struggled with the growing power of Assyria to the north. ... When the Elamites withdrew to their Iranian homeland, princes native to the Babylonian city of Isin founded the Fourth Dynasty of Babylon. , was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for this unthinkable act. when the Babylonian king rebelled against his brother. , Babylon fell into the hands of a Chaldean chief, Nabopolassar, first king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh. The remnants of the Assyrian army rallied at Haran in north Syria, which was abandoned at the approach of the Babylonians in 610 B. , Babylonian forces under the crown prince Nebuchadnezzar routed the Egyptians at the decisive Battle of Carchemish (Jeremiah 46:2-12 ). The Babylonian advance, however, was delayed by Nabopolassar's death which obliged Nebuchadnezzar to return to Babylon and assume power. A Babylonian defeat at the border of Egypt in 601 probably encouraged Jehoiakim to rebel. For two years Judah was harassed by Babylonian vassals (2 Kings 24:1-2 ). Jehoiakim died that same month, and his son Jehoiachin surrendered the city to the Babylonians on March 16,597 B. In the resultant Babylonian campaign, Judah was ravaged and Jerusalem besieged. Many more Judeans were taken to their Exile in Babylonia (2 Kings 25:1-21 ; Jeremiah 52:1-30 ). ... Nebuchadnezzar was the greatest king of the Neo-Babylonian Period and the last truly great ruler of Babylon. Babylonian religion is the best known variant of a complex and highly polytheistic system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia. The son of Ea and patron god of Babylon, Marduk began to attain the position of prominence in Babylonian religion in the time of Hammurabi. Marduk's son Nabu (the Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), god of the nearby city of Borsippa, was considered the god of writing and scribes and became especially exalted in the Neo-Babylonian Period. ... A number of myths concerning Babylonian gods are known, the most important of which is the Enuma elish , or Creation Epic
Host of Heaven - Unfortunately, Israel and Judah yielded to the temptation to worship the heavenly bodies from time to time, especially during the period of Assyrian and Babylonian influence (2 Kings 17:16-23 ; 2Kings 21:3,2 Kings 21:5 ). ” The people of Israel drew comparisons between their God and the gods of Canaan and Babylonia
Usury, Interest, Increase - A large part of the Babylonian loan-system, which was fully developed before b. [Note: Babylonian. In similar circumstances loans without interest were made from the Babylonian temple funds and by private individuals, as is still done by the Arabs to-day (Doughty, Arabia Deserta , i. In Babylonia one shekel per mina per month, which Isaiah 20 per cent, per annum, was a usual rate; for advances of grain, for 400 or 300 ka the return was 100 ka, i
Interest - So in ancient Babylonia (Johns, Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts, and Letters, 211), and in the Greek world, at the temple of the Ephesian Artemis, for instance (Anabasis, v
Israel, Kingdom of - And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine
Aram - This was the territory to which the father of Abraham came when he migrated with his family from Babylonia
Chaldaea - part of Babylonia, chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but used to designate the whole country. , deciphered lately, prove that the early seat of the Babylonian empire was there rather than higher up the Euphrates. , the Babylonian period. Rawlinson considers the Chaldi to he more probably one of the Cushite (Ethiopian) tribes that crossed over the Persian gulf and settled in Babylonia. The Semitic language prevailed over the Cushite in Assyrian and later Babylonian times, and was used for all civil purposes; but for sacred and mystic lore the Cushite language was retained as a learned language. This is "the learning and the tongue of the Chaldaeans" (Daniel 1:4), in which the four Jewish youths were instructed, and which is quite distinct from the Aramaean, or Chaldee so-called (allied to Hebrew), of those parts of the book of Daniel which are not Hebrew, as not being so connected with the Jews as with the Babylonians
Canaanites - Paton connects their migration with that movement of races which gave Babylonia the Kassite dynasty about b
Tongues, Confusion of - The belief that the world, after the Flood, was re-populated by the progeny of a single family, speaking one language, is reconciled in the Bible with the existing diversity of tongues by a story which relates how the descendants of Noah, in the course of their wanderings, settled in the plain of Shinar, or Babylonia, and there built of brick a city, and a tower high enough to reach heaven, as a monument to preserve their fame, and as a centre of social cohesion and union
Sargon - " Sargon mounted the throne the same year that Merodach Baladan ascended the Babylonian throne, according to Ptolemy's canon 721 B. , describe his expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the S
Ur - Ur was the port of Babylonia, whence trade was carried on with the dwellers on the gulf, and with the distant countries of India, Ethiopia, and Egypt. " ... "Ur was consecrated to the worship of Sin, the Babylonian moon-god. The name is Babylonian, and bears witness to its having been founded by a Babylonian king. The same witness is still more decisively borne by the worship paid in it to the Babylonian moon-god and by its ancient temple of Sin. Indeed, the temple of the moon-god at Harran was perhaps even more famous in the Assyrian and Babylonian world than the temple of the moon-god at Ur. The narrative must be historical; no writer of late date, even if he were a Babylonian, could have invented a story so exactly in accordance with what we now know to have been the truth
Pride - A gâ'ôn was the head of the rabbinic academies of Susa and Pumpedita in Babylonia
Ezekiel - prophet during the Babylonian Exile, son of Buzi (Ezekiel 1:3 ), and priest as well as prophet. , the “thirtieth year” (Ezekiel 1:1 ), probably Ezekiel's age (though it has been interpreted as 30 years since the discovery of the law book in 622,30 years since Jehoiachin's imprisonment, or a system of Babylonian chronology). The book bearing his name points unmistakably to a Babylonian locale (Ezekiel 1:1-3 ; Ezekiel 3:15 ; Ezekiel 8:1-3 ; Ezekiel 33:21 ). ... All objections to the Babylonian locale can be answered satisfactorily, however. Babylonia under Nabopolassar took advantage of Assyria's weakness and asserted her independence in 626. In 612, Nineveh surrendered to the Babylonians, marking the demise of the once great Assyrian power, although pockets of resistance held out for several years. ... In 605, a showdown between Egypt and Babylonia at Carchemish established Babylonia as the dominant world power. Judah was able to maintain her independence by transferring her allegiance to Babylonia. ), who rebelled against his Babylonian overlords
Nebuchadnezzar - ... During the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, the city of Babylon and the kingdom of Babylonia attained their highest pitch of splendor. This could only be done in a country so level as Babylonia, by constructing an artificial mountain; and accordingly the king caused on e to be made, four hundred feet square and over three hundred feet high
Tadmor - It was thus between Syria, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia proper
Serpent - 272; Sayce, Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, pp
Alexander the Great - He granted the Jews in Palestine, Media and Babylonia the free enjoyment of their laws and exemption from tribute during the Sabbatical year
Eden, Garden of - At the same time it can hardly be doubted that the Biblical writer utilized traditional matter which came originally from Babylonia. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian
Serpent - 272; Sayce, Religions of Ancient Egypt and Babylonia, pp
Babel - The substructure is 600 Babylonian ft. "... But the earliest Babylonian monuments show that the primitive Babylonians whose structures by Nebuchadnezzar's time were in ruins, had a vocabulary undoubtedly Cushite or Ethiopian, analogous to the Galla tongue in Abyssinia. Several words of the Babylonians and their kinsmen the Susianians are identical with ancient Egyptian or Ethiopic roots: thus, hyk or hak, found in the Egyptian name hyksos or shepherd kings, appears in Babylonian and Susianian names as khak. ... As Ra was the Egyptian sun god, so was Ra the Cushite name of the supreme god of the Babylonians. Traces appear in the Babylonian inscriptions of all the four great dialects, Hamitic, Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian, which show that here the original one language existed before the confusion of tongues. The Babylonian and Assyrian traditions point to an early connection between Ethiopia, S. Rawlinson) ruled in Babylonia centuries before the earliest Semitic empire arose. Chedorlaomer (or Lagomer, an idol), king of Elam, is represented in Genesis 14 as leader of the other kings including the king of Shinar (Babylonia). Now Assyrian cuneiform inscriptions show that Elam (Elymais or Susiana, between Babylonia and Persia) maintained its independence through the whole Assyrian period, and that at a date earlier than that commonly assigned to Abraham (2286 B. ) an Elamite king plundered Babylonia. ... About this date a Babylonian king is designated in the inscriptions "ravager of Syria. Babylonia. high, flat at the top, 200 yards long, 140 yards broad (the temple towers of lower Babylonia had all this oblong shape). With only "brick for stone," and at first only "slime for mortar," the Babylonians by the forced labor of multitudes erected monuments of genius so vast as to be still among the wonders of the world. ... This early Babylonian empire, which subsequently to Chedorlaomer's reign in Elam lasted 458 years, fell by the revision of barbarian hordes, probably Arabs. Nimrod is not mentioned in the Babylonian remains; he probably answers to their god Bel. ... The Assyrians adopted the Babylonian number on their emigration to the N. of 6 Babylonian kings 87 - 538 Urukh is mentioned earliest on the monuments after Nimrod; his bricks are the lowest down and the rudest in make. " Kudur Nakhunta of Elam, whose court was at Susa, in 2286 invaded Chaldaea and carried off the Babylonian images. Urukh was the Chaldaean builder to whom belongs the credit of designing the Babylonian temple, with its rectangular base facing the four cardinal points, its receding stages, buttresses, drains, and sloped walls, external staircases, and ornamental shrine crowning the whole. Thenceforward, Semitic superseded Cushite influences and the Babylonian kings have Assyrian instead of Turanian or Cushite names. ... The "canon of Ptolemy" gives the succession of Babylonian kings and their lengths of reign, from 747 B. Nabonassar destroyed all his predecessors' annals, that the Babylonians might date from himself. There was a Semiramis at this time, a Babylonian queen (Herodotus says) five generations before Nitocris, mother of the last king. So the Babylonian empire was extended over the whole Euphrates valley to the Taurus range, over Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, Idumaea; and the Jews passed as tributaries under Babylon, as they had been under Assyria. ... Shut up in Borsippa (Birs-i-Nimrud, the sacred city of the Babylonians, containing their most revered objects of religion and science) he surrendered and was spared, and Cyrus gave him an estate in Carmania. Belshazzar (from Bel the idol, and shat, a prince), by a self confident careless watch and unseasonable and profane revelry (Daniel 5), allowed Cyrus' forces on a great Babylonian festival to enter by the bed of the river which the invader had drained into another channel, and was slain. If he gave a history different from that current in Babylonia, the Jews of that region would not have received it as true
Star of the Magi - There certainly was a Jewish population in Babylonia in our Lord’s day, and if this prophecy was recognized as coming from a Hebrew document, and reference was made to the Jews, it would be most natural for the wise men, if they were Babylonians, to set their faces towards Jerusalem
Samaritans - When the inhabitants of Samaria and of the adjacent country were carried away by Shalmanezer king of Assyria, he sent in their place colonies from Babylonia, Cuthah, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim, with which the Israelites who remained in the land became intermingled, and were ultimately amalgamated into one people, 2 Kings 17:24-41
Arabia, Arabs - The name always follows Babylonia, Assyria (which as a province included Mesopotamia proper and also probably N. He too gives this name to the desert to the east of the Euphrates, the desert which separates Babylonia from Mesopotamia proper ( Anab
Talmud - 220,500 the rabbinic schools in Palestine and Babylonia amplified and applied the teachings of the Mishnah for their Jewish communities. Two documents came to embody a large part of this teaching: The Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. ... The Babylonian Talmud became the most authoritative of the two written Talmuds due both to the political fortunes of the Jewish communities in Palestine and Babylon in the first four centuries A. Later generations of Jewish scholars also recognized that the Babylonian Talmud was completed later and so supposed that it absorbed or superseded the Jerusalem one. The Babylonian Talmud reflects a highly developed system for settling disputed questions of halakah (oral law). ... The Babylonian Talmud also contains theoretical legal discussion as well as information on the daily life of Jewish people in the first six centuries, history, medicine, astronomy, commerce, agriculture, demonology, magic, botany, zoology, and other sciences. It is succinct and concise in its presentation of legal arguments, and does not contain the considerable body of Haggadah included in the Babylonian Talmud. approximately a century before the Babylonian Talmud
Shepherd - In ancient Babylonia the chief stars bore the name of ‘Shepherds of Heaven
Aichmalotarch - His subjects in Babylonia were many of them wealthy
Captivity - Of Judah are generally reckoned three deportations, occurring during the Babylonian or great captivity: 1. While in Babylonia, the Jews were treated more like colonists than slaves
Sabbath - That it has affinities with certain Babylonian observances is obvious; but the differences are very marked, and a direct dependence of the one on the other is difficult to understand. It is known that in two months (possibly in all) the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days (those in which the moon enters a new phase), and also the 19th (the [7×7th =] 49th from the beginning of the previous month), were regarded in Babylonia as unlucky days, on which certain actions had to be avoided by important personages (king, priest, physician). When we turn to the early references to the Sabbath in the OT, we find a state of things which seems at first sight to present a parallel to the Babylonian usage. In the prophetic and historical books ‘Sabbath’ and ‘ new moon ’ are associated in such a way as to suggest that both were lunar festivals ( Amos 8:5 , Hosea 2:11 , Isaiah 1:13 , 2 Kings 4:23 ); and the attempt has been made to trace the transition from the Babylonian institution to the Hebrew Sabbath by the hypothesis that originally the Sabbath in Israel was the feast of the full moon, just as in Babylonia. The most reasonable conclusion is that the weekly Sabbath is everywhere presupposed in the OT, and that, if it be connected historically with Babylonian institutions, the development lies behind the range of Israelite tradition, and in all probability was a feature of Canaanitish civilization when the Hebrews settled in the country. It must be remembered, however, that the hypothesis of a Babylonian origin does not exhaust the possibilities of the case
Tribes of Israel - connected with the 12 signs of the Zodiac and the 12 months in the year in which case it would be traceable to Babylonia, as Gunkei suggests in his Genesis (p
Daniel - Daniel was put in training with three others of the royal seed, still "children" (Daniel 1:4), according to eastern etiquette, to become courtiers; and to mark his new position he received a Babylonian name, Belteshazzar (compare 2 Kings 23:34; 2 Kings 24:17; Ezra 5:14; Esther 2:7). ... Daniel was made by Nebuchadnezzar, governor of Babylonia and president of the Babylonian "wise men," not to be confounded with the later Persian magi. ... It is an accordance with Medo-Persian ideas which flows from the truth of Scripture, that the mode of capital punishment under the Babylonian rule is represented as burning (Daniel 3), but under the Medes and Persians' exposure to wild beasts, for they would have regarded fire as polluted by contact with a corpse, while they approved the devouring of bodies by animals. Berosus calls the last Babylonian king Nabonidus, and says that he surrendered to Cyrus in Borsippa, and was assigned an honorable abode in Carmania. Rawlinson has shown that the Babylonian inscriptions at Ur (Umqueir) explain the seeming discrepancy. ... If Daniel's book had been a late one, he would have copied Berosus; if it had been at variance with that prevalent in Babylonia, the Jews there would have rejected it. Some allege that Daniel erroneously attributes to the Babylonians the satrapial form of government. " Daniel writing for Jews under Persia at the time uses naturally the familiar Persian term "satrap" instead of the corresponding Babylonian term
Education - On their settlement in Canaan, however, they were brought into contact with a civilization which for two thousand years or more had been under the influence of Babylonia and in a less degree of Egypt. The language of Babylonia, with its complicated system of wedge-writing, had for long been the medium of communication not only between the rulers of the petty states of Canaan and the great powers outside its borders, but even, as we now know from Sellin’s discoveries at Taanach, between these rulers themselves. This implies the existence of some provision for instruction in reading and writing the difficult Babylonian script
Cherubim - The prophet Ezekiel and the results of Babylonian excavations assist us in solving the enigma. We are not to suppose that these forms corresponded exactly to anything that the prophet had seen, but he worked out these figures in his gorgeous imagination, combining elements Hebrew and Babylonian. The native element is to some extent an unsolved riddle, but of the contribution made by Babylonian art there can be no reasonable doubt. The huge composite figures with human head, eagle’s wings, and bull’s body, which were placed as guardians at the doors of temples and palaces in Babylonia, supplied the prophet with the material for his vision. It is not correct to suppose that they were directly borrowed either from the Babylonians or the Hittites, but the Hebrew imagination combined foreign and native elements as they were suited to its purpose. [Note: Babylonian
Sun - There was a great chariot of the sun at Sippar in Babylonia
Obadiah, Theology of - Obadiah, the shortest Old Testament book with only twenty-one verses, was probably written shortly after the fall of Judah and Jerusalem to the Babylonians in 587 b. While not confirmed by any other historical sources, Edom, which became a vassal first of Assyria and later of Babylonia, is credited with burning the temple in Jerusalem when Jerusalem fell to Babylon in 587 b
Harp - The earliest representation of a stringed instrument is that excavated at Telloh in South Babylonia, which in size resembles a harp but is shaped like a lyre, i
Cock-Crowing - It may be that Solomon had imported these birds from the East; but, on the other hand, the fact that in the Talmudical literature the cock is always called by the name tarnĕgôl (חַּרְנִנּוֹל), suggests rather that it was introduced into Palestine from Babylonia
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - -- The civilization of the Assyrians was derived originally from the Babylonians. They were a Shemitic race originally resident in Babylonia (which at that time was Cushite) and thus acquainted with the Babylonian inventions and discoveries, who ascended the valley of the Tigris and established in the tract immediately below the Armenian mountains a separate and distinct nationality
Nebuchadnezzar - The remaining provinces of the Assyrian empire were divided between Babylonia and Media. ... Three years after this, Jehoiakim, who had reigned in Jerusalem as a Babylonian vassal, rebelled against the oppressor, trusting to help from Egypt (2 Kings 24:1 )
Divination And Magic - The practice was widely known in the ancient Middle East, especially among the Babylonians who developed it into a highly respected discipline. ”... The ancient Babylonians and Assyrians employed several methods. The Babylonians commonly used hepatoscopy, divination by the liver. Clay models of animal livers apparently used as instructional tools in teaching the science of hepatoscopy appear in archaeological sites in Babylonia and in Palestine. In Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation Story, the god of wisdom, Ea, killed his father Apsu, god of the fresh river waters, after reciting a spell
Egypt - The Egyptian role as oppressor of the people of God soon shifts to Assyria and Babylonia. ... In an ironic twist, Egypt becomes a place of refuge after the Babylonian capture of Jerusalem
Slave/Servant - Canaan, Aram, Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia had fewer slaves because it proved less expensive to hire free persons
Nimrod - Though the main body of the Cushites was miraculously dispersed and sent by Providence to their destinations along the sea coasts of Asia and Africa, yet Nimrod remained behind, and founded an empire in Babylonia, according to Berosus, by usurping the property of the Arphaxadites in the land of Shinar; where "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel," or Babylon, and other towns: and, not satisfied with this, he next invaded Assur, or Assyria, east of the Tigris, where he built Nineveh, and several other towns. " ... The Grecian name of this "mighty hunter" may furnish a satisfactory clue to the name given him by the impious adulation of the Babylonians and Assyrians
Astrology - In Babylonia, where astrology had its origins, considerable importance was attached to such phenomena as eclipses and meteors, to say nothing of planetary movements. , Babylonian astrologers drew up horoscopes indicating what might be expected to happen in each month. The superstitious Babylonians also devised the zodiac, a division of the celestial sphere into twelve equal parts known as signs or houses, which were named after the sun, moon, and principal planets
Ezra, Book of - 458, when Ezra, the teacher of the Law , at the head of a fresh band of exiles, leaves Babylonia bearing a commission from Artaxerxes I
Mesopotamia - The name of this king bespeaks him a descendant of Nimrod; and it was probably of the Lower Mesopotamia only, or Babylonia, of which he was sovereign; the northern parts being in the possession of the Arameans. The whole country was afterward seized by the Assyrians; to whom it pertained till the dissolution of their empire, when it was divided between the Medes and the Babylonians
ba'Bel - The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known to us from B. The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of Babylonian monarchs from B. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia, they thought they recognized it in the famous temple of Beaus, the modern Birs Nimrod
Division of the Earth - 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [or Shinar,] Babel, [or Babylonia,] Persia, and Hegiaz; [Arabia;] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [or Idumea, Jeremiah 49:7 ,] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [or India west and east of the river Indus;] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [the north,] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. Peleg probably remained in Chaldea, or southern Babylonia, at the time of the dispersion; for there we find his grandson, Terah, and his family, settled at "Ur of the Chaldees,"... Genesis 11:31 . ) The children of Aram planted the fertile country north of Babylonia, called Aram Naharaim, "Aram between the two rivers," the Euphrates and the Tigris, thence called by the Greeks, Mesopotamia, Genesis 24:10 , and Padan Aram, the level country of Aram, Genesis 25:20
Daniel, Theology of - The stories of the first half relate the events of Daniel and his ministry in the foreign courts of Babylonia and Persia. The reader of the book might assume the Babylonian king has come in his own awesome strength and at his own instigation. Conservative authorities have traditionally taken these kingdoms to refer to Babylonia, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, respectively
Sidon (2) - All the Phœnician cities seem to have known little but rivalry down to the appearance of such world-powers as Assyria, Babylonia, Persia, Greece, and Rome, which made them all, sooner or later, subject and abject
Colossae - ) transplanted 2000 Jewish families from Babylonia and Mesopotamia to Lydia and Phrygia (Jos. The freedom and prosperity which they enjoyed probably induced many others to follow them, and there is a bitter saying in the Babylonian Talmud that the wine and baths of Phrygia separated the ten tribes from their brethren (Shab
Antichrist - ... ( b ) The dualism of Babylonia and Persia, especially as it was expressed by the dragon , between whom and the agents of righteousness there was to be a fight to the death. The first reference to Beliar seems to have been in Jubilees 1:20, but the myth is not unlike that of the Babylonian Tiamat , queen of the abyss, who was conquered by Marduk
Philistines - He appears in the el-Amarna letters and also in Babylonia (cf
Babel - Shinar was the ancient name for the land of Babylon, or Babylonia
Tongues, Confusion of - Ethnologists divide the Shemites into five main branches, Aramaean, Hebrew, Phoenician, Assyrian or Babylonian, and Arabian; Moses recognizes four of these, Asshur or Assyria, Aram or Syria, Eber or the Hebrew, Joktan the pure Arabs. Arabia, and Babylonia. Thus by their intermediate position the Shemites were in contact with Japhetic races in Cappadocia, and with Hamites in Palestine, the Yemen, Babylonia, and Elymais. The Hamites and Shemites again meet in Babylon, which Scripture assigns to a Cushite founder, Nimrod, in accordance with recent discoveries of Hamitic inscriptions in the oldest Babylonian remains at Ur
Medes - 3) thinks that the Medes of Berosus' statement were really Scyths; but Berosus' statements are generally confirmed by recent deciphering of the Babylonian monuments. Nabopolassar with the Babylonians helped him in its overthrow (Abydenus), and was therefore made independent king of Babylon. ) The Median empire then was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or by a line half way between the Tigris and Euphrates; Syria, Phoenicia, and Judaea falling to Babylon
Slave, Slavery - The specific literary evidence, however, is contained in a number of law codes that have survived from Babylonia and Assyria
Alexander - obtained Syria, Babylonia, Mede-Persia; Cassander in the W
Language - The Aramaean, spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, is subdivided into the Syriac and Chaldee dialects sometimes called also the West and East Aramaean
Jews, Judaism - Ezekiel also refers to the exiled community in Babylonia as "the house of Israel" (3:1) and as the "people of Israel" (4:13). In Babylonia, those exiled from the kingdom of Judah adapted the Israelite religion, which had been bound to territory and temple, transforming Yahwehism into a universalistic early Judaism. The first Jews to return from the Babylonian exile to Jerusalem rebuilt the temple; however, the religious practices of the next generation did not conform to the vision of Judaism that the Babylonian Jewish community held
Jews - (Hebrew: Yehudi) ... A name which at first was restricted to the subjects of the Kingdom of Juda, but which after the Babylonian exile became the common name for the race descended from Jacob and for the followers of the Mosaic religion. From Galilee they migrated to Babylonia, which remained for nearly five centuries the chief center of Jewish life
Arabia - Cush, son of Ham, originally peopled Arabia (the ruins of Marib, or Seba, and the inscriptions are Cushite; in Babylonia too there are Cushite traces); then Joktan, of Shem's race (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:30)
Thyatira - Some of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus the Great deported from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Jos
Mishnah - and in Babylonia about 500 A
Habakkuk, Theology of - The prophet Habakkuk faced the violence and injustice of King Jehoiakim (609-597 see Jeremiah 22:13-18 ) as well as the cruel onslaught of Babylonia
Joel - No mention was made of the world empires of Assyria or Babylonia
Learning - Modern discovery is proving that not only famous countries such as Egypt or Babylonia, but also peoples whose very names were formerly unknown, had a developed civilization and system of thought
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - It is not a little remarkable that a people living between two such civilizations as those of Babylonia and Egypt, in which the cult of the dead played so large a part, should have remained uninfluenced by such ornate and imposing ceremonial
Fall - It is true that no complete Babylonian parallel has yet been discovered; the utmost that can be claimed is that particular elements or motives of the Biblical story seem to be reflected in some of the Babylonian legends, and still more in the religious symbolism displayed on the monuments (tree of life, serpent, cherubim, etc. These coincidences are sufficiently striking to suggest the inference that a mythical account of man’s original condition and his fall existed in Babylonia, and had obtained wide currency in the East
Persia - Darius in the inscription on his tomb at Nakhsh-irustam enumerates thirty countries besides Persia subject to him, Media, Susiana, Parthia, Aria, Bactria, Sogdiana, Chorasmia, Zarangia, Arachosia, Sattagydia, Gaudaria, India, Scythia, Babylonia, Assyria, Arabia, Egypt, Armenia, Cappadocia, Saparda, Ionia, the Aegean isles, the country of the Scodrae (European), Ionia, the Tacabri, Budians, Cushites, Mardians, and Colchians. of Media has one inscription in three languages, Persian, Babylonian, and Stythic, read by Grotefend)
Abraham - and Babylonian. Babylonia. In passing we may note the remarkable fact that both traditions alike connect the patriarch with famous centres of Babylonian moon-worship
Israel, History of - Chronological Outline... The Preexilic Period... The Patriarchal Period... 2000-1720*... The Egyptian Period... 1720-1290... The Exodus and the Wilderness Sojourn... 1290-1250... The Settlement... 1250-1020... The United Monarchy... 1020-922... The Divided Monarchy... 922-587... The Kingdom of Israel... 922-721... The Kingdom of Judah... 922-587... The Babylonian Exile... 597/587-539/538... The Postexilic Period... The Persian Period... 539-331... The Hellenistic Period... 331-168... The Maccabean Period... 168-63... The Roman Period... 63-400 A. Having united the north and the south, he established Jerusalem as the capital of the kingdom, contained the Philistines, expanded Israel's borders and her trade, and established a monarchical line that ruled in uninterrupted fashion, save one exception (Athaliah, 842-837), until the fall of Judah to Babylonia in 587. Israel fell to Assyria in 721, while Judah was conquered by Babylonia initially in 597. Jehoiakim (609-598) waged a revolt against the nation's Babylonian overlordship. Thus the kingdom of Judah was ended, and the Babylonian Exile (597/587-539/538) initiated. ... The Babylonian Exile (Ezekiel, Isaiah 40–55 ) The Babylonian Exile was initiated in 597 by the initial deportation of Jerusalemites to Babylon, with additional deportations in 587,582 (Jeremiah 52:15 ). ... The Babylonian Exile, in spite of its relative brevity, was the benchmark in the religious development of the people. ... The prophecies of Isaiah 40-55 spoke to conditions near the end of the Babylonian Exile (about 540), preparing the people for a second Exodus ( Isaiah 40:1 ) and impressing upon them their role as the servant people of Yahweh (Isaiah 42:1-4 ; Isaiah 49:1-6 ; Isaiah 50:4-9 ; Isaiah 52:13-53:12 )
Canon of the Old Testament - As to writing, the Semites in Babylonia had used the cuneiform syllabic script, and Egypt had Invented the hieroglyphs before the Hebrews had arisen as a separate race. 1400 sent their reports to Egypt in Babylonian cuneiform; whereas Mesha, king of Moab, and Panammu, king of Ya’di in North Syria, in extant Inscriptions from about b. 2200) was recorded on stone, and publicly set forth as the rule of civil life in Babylonia. Johns: ‘The coexisting likenesses and differences argue for an independent recension of ancient custom deeply influenced by Babylonian law
Assyria - Assyria proper, the northern (Babylonia the southern portion), had about the same territory as Kurdistan. We are therefore entitled to hold that the Hebrews were, from the beginning of their history, under the influence not only of the common stock of Shemitic endowments, customs, and beliefs, but also of those that were specifically Babylonian. " After Abraham, for nearly 1200 years, we have no record of the contact of Hebrews with Assyrian or Babylonian peoples. The work of destruction seems to have been effected by the Medes and Babylonians
Babylon - Here the principal devotions were performed; and over this, on the highest platform of all, was the observatory, by the help of which the Babylonians arrived to such perfection in astronomy, that Calisthenes the philosopher, who accompanied, Alexander to Babylon, found astronomical observations for 1903 years backwards from that time; which reach as high as the 115th year after the flood. These gardens were raised on terraces, supported by arches, or rather by piers, laid over with broad flat stones; the arch appearing to be unknown to the Babylonians: which courses of piers rose above one another, till they reached the level of the top of the city walls. ... The immense fertility of Chaldea, which retained also the name of Babylonia till after the Christian aera, corresponded with the greatness of Babylon. Babylonia was one vast plain, adorned and enriched by the Euphrates and the Tigris, from which, and from the numerous canals that intersected the country from the one river to the other, water was distributed over the fields by manual labour and by hydraulic machines, giving rise, in that warm climate and rich exhaustless soil, to an exuberance of produce without a known parallel, over so extensive a region, either in ancient or modern times. And they were denounced against the Babylonians, and the inhabitants of Chaldea, expressly because of their idolatry, tyranny, oppression, pride, covetousness, drunkenness, falsehood, and other wickedness. "The king of Babylon heard the report of them; anguish took hold of him;" he and all who were about him perished; God had "numbered" his kingdom and finished it; it was "divided," and given to the Medes and Persians; the lives of the Babylonian princes, and lords, and rulers, and captains, closed with that night's festival; the drunken slept "a perpetual sleep, and did not wake. Cyrus, after the capture of the city, made a great display of his cavalry in the presence of the Babylonians, and in the midst of Babylon. " After the Babylonians rebelled against Darius, the walls were reduced in height, and all the gates destroyed. And at a later period, or about 130 years before the birth of Christ, Humerus, a Parthian governor, who was noted as excelling all tyrants in cruelty, exercised great severities on the Babylonians; and having burned the forum and some of the temples, and destroyed the fairest parts of the city, reduced many of the inhabitants to slavery on the slightest pretexts, and caused them, together with all their households, to be sent into Media. Notwithstanding that Cyrus resided chiefly at Babylon, and sought to reform the government, and remodel the manners of the Babylonians, the succeeding kings of Persia preferred, as the seat of empire, Susa, Persepolis, or Ecbatana, situated in their own country: and in like manner the successors of Alexander did not attempt to complete his purpose of restoring Babylon to its preeminence and glory; but, after the subdivision of his mighty empire, the very kings of Assyria. And though the names of some of these nations were unknown to the Babylonians, and unheard of in the world at the time of the prophecy, most of these "many nations and great kings" need now but to be named, to show that, in local relation to Chaldea, "they came from the utmost border, from the coasts of the earth. " The course of the Tigris through Babylonia, instead of being adorned with cities, is marked with the sites of "ancient ruins
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - [Note: Babylonian. ] pharmakoi ], but this is not certain), and ‘ Chaldæans ’ ( kasdîm , a name which, from being a national designation, had come to mean those who were skilled in the occult lore of Babylonia and could interpret dreams). Recent discoveries have revealed that the Babylonians believed in a vast number of demons who could be compelled by proper spells; also they practised astrology ( Isaiah 47:12-13 ), augury from the inspection of victims ( Ezekiel 21:21 ), the tying of magic knots, and the designation of fortunate and unfavourable days. Books of incantations , reputed to have been the work of Solomon, were extant, and the Babylonian Talmud is full of superstition (Schürer, HJP [Note: JP History of the Jewish People. This practice is found among the Arabs, and was also used in Babylonia. ... Without any indication of the method of divination, operations denoted by the word qesem appear among the Moabites (Balaam, Numbers 23:23 , payment being made for the service, Numbers 22:7 ), among the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 6:2 ), and among the Babylonians ( Isaiah 44:25 ). Professional astrologers were prominent among the Assyrians and Babylonians, among whom a standard astrological work was constructed as early as the 16th cent. Babylonian astrology, with its announcement of coming events and notification of favourable and unpropitious days (such as are now extant on Babylonian clay tablets), is mentioned in Isaiah 47:13 ; but astrology does not seem to have been practised by Israel in early times; Jeremiah speaks of it as ‘the way of the nations,’ and warns the people against it
Government - ... The return from exile in Babylonia furnished an opportunity for the restoration of a true theocracy. ... Theocratic principles were reinforced by the institution of the synagogue, which had its roots in exilic worship in Babylonia
Slave, Slavery - Deuteronomy 15:13 makes against it, but not necessarily, and the fact that in Arabia and Babylonia (CH § 176) the slave could own property awakens a presumption in favour of the same custom in Israel
Immanuel - by Jeremias and Gressmann) showing that outside Israel (particularly in Egypt and Babylonia) there existed traditions and expectations of a semi-divine saviour-king, to be born of a divine, perhaps a virgin, mother, and to be wonderfully reared
King - , and in later times Assyria, Babylonia and Persia
Babylon - 2458 to 625 various dynasties of Medes, Chaldaeans, Arabs, and Assyrians; and lastly Babylonians from B. 745 Tiglath-pileser may be said to have founded the later kingdom of Assyria, and among his victories he became master of Babylonia, as the kingdom of Babylon was called. The glory of the later Babylonian Empire virtually began and ended with him
Deluge - And we are fortunate in the possession of an earlier form of the legend, which belongs to Babylonia, and makes it probable that its origin is to be ascribed to the inundation of the large Babylonian plain by the bursting forth of one of the rivers by which it is intersected, and perhaps also, as some think, to the incursion of a tidal wave due to an earthquake somewhere in the South. The Babylonian story
Nin'Eveh - Asshur, or according to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is there described, ( Genesis 10:11 ) as extending his kingdom from the land of Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh
Nebuchadnezzar - 74) who led the Babylonian force under Cyaxares in his Lydian war and whose interposition at the eclipse (610 B. The deportation from Jerusalem was shortly before, namely, in the end of Jehoiakim's third year; with it begins the Babylonian captivity, 605 B. His system of irrigation made Babylonia a garden, enriching at once the people and himself
Phoenicia, phNicians - [Note: Babylonian. ... In civilization the Phœnicians were for the most part borrowers from Babylonia and Egypt. That they invented the alphabet and diffused it in their voyages, so that it was adopted by the Greeks and Romans, is generally conceded, but whether they obtained it by adapting Egyptian hieroglyphs, or Babylonian cuneiform characters, or from some other ancient form of writing, is still in dispute
Money - That the precious metals, gold and silver, and to a less extent copper, were the ordinary media of exchange in Palestine from a time long prior to the appearance there of the Hebrews, is now amply attested by evidence from Egypt and Babylonia, and even from the soil of Palestine itself. Now, all the weight-systems of Western Asia, and even of Europe, had their origin in Babylonia (for details see Weights and Measures). It will thus be seen that the light Babylonian trade shekel weighed, neglecting fractions, 126 grains troy, and the heavy shekel 252. ... As this weight-system spread westwards with the march of Babylonian civilization and commerce, it came into conflict with the decimal system of calculation, and a compromise was effected, which resulted in the mina being reduced to 50 shekels, while the talent remained at 60 minas, although reduced in weight to 3000 shekels. , Further, the heavy Babylonian shekel of 252 grains remained in use among the Hebrews for the weighing of gold until NT times. On the basis of 5053 grains to the libra or pound, this gives a shekel of 252 2 /3 grains, the exact weight of the heavy Babylonian shekel of the common or trade standard. On this, the so-called ‘astral mythology’ theory of the origin of Babylonian culture, gold, the yellow metal, was specially associated with the sun, while the paler silver was the special ‘moon-metal. On the one band, along the Babylonian trade-routes into Asia Minor the light Babylonian shekel of 126 grains was raised to 168 grains, so that 10 such shekels of silver now represented a single gold shekel, since 126 × 13 1 /3 = 168 × 10. On the other hand, the great commercial cities of Phœnicia introduced a silver shekel of 224 grains, 15 of which were equivalent to one heavy Babylonian gold shekel of 252 grains, since 252 × 13 1 /3 = 224 × 15. , termed the ‘Syrian 320-grain unit,’ a shekel which is the of a heavy Babylonian mina of 16,000 grains
Noah - The original, according to the tablets, belonged to the city of Erech, and was in Semitic Babylonian. The Assyrians used commonly to copy Babylonian classics. Assurbanipal was closely connected with Erech, it alone remaining loyal when the rest of Babylonia revolted; to it therefore he restored the idol Nana, which the Elamites carried away 1635 years before (2295 B. The oldest Babylonian traditions center around the Persian gulf, accordingly the tradition assumes a form suiting a maritime people. Surippak in the Babylonian king Hammurabi's inscriptions 1600 B. The Bible narrative unites details scattered up and down in various traditions but nowhere else combined:... (1) The divine warning in the Babylonian, Hindu, and Cherokee accounts. ... (2) The care for animals in the Babylonian, Indian, and Polynesian versions. ... (4) The birds sent forth before leaving the ark, in the Babylonian. ... (7) The building of the altar afterward, in the Babylonian and the Greek account. If Babylonia were the region of Noah few hills were in view and those low, possibly the Zagros range
God - God's saving Israel from Egypt becomes the paradigm of saving in the Old Testament, so that when Israel faces the national crisis of exile to Babylonia, the imagery of God's saving Israel from Egypt is the standard with which the return to Judea is compared. God's actions to restore Judah after the exile to Babylonia would be as mighty and compassionate as his deliverance of their ancestors from Egypt; that is, he would perform a second exodus (Isaiah 35 ; 45 )
Magi - ‘ashshâphim Authorized Version ‘astrologers,’ of Babylonia (Daniel 1:20; Daniel 2:2; Daniel 2:10; Daniel 2:27; Daniel 4:7; Daniel 5:7; Daniel 5:11; Daniel 5:15. 29–31) to represent a class, or the class, of Babylonian priests or learned men (Driver, Daniel, pp. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte; Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria). There is certainly no attempt in the narrative to contrast Christianity with Zoroastrian or Babylonian worship
Spinning And Weaving - ... In OT times the finer textile fabrics were imported from Babylonia (Joshua 7:21 ), Phœnicia ( Ezekiel 27:16 f
Zechariah, Book of - Wickedness, represented by a woman, is carried away from the land to Babylonia
Weights And Measures - ... It is generally agreed by expert metrologists that the basis and fountainhead of all systems of measurement is to be traced to Babylonia. But in passing into Western countries, the Babylonian system was naturally subjected to as many modifications as it entered regions, and gave rise to quite as many secondary or derivative systems. is concerned, it will be best to bear in mind that in Palestine during the OT period three main systems of metrology came into use more or less extensively, the Babylonian, the Egyptian, and the Phœnician, and that to these, just before the times of Jesus, the Roman conquest added a fourth as a disturbing element. 3), the value of the seah is computed at 22 sextarii; and as this agrees with the equation of the Babylonian ephah-bath with 66 sextarii (Hultsch, Griech
Joel, Book of - Assyria, Babylonia, and Aram are neither named nor alluded to
God - Although such false “gods” were being worshiped by pagan nations (and perhaps worshiped by some of the Hebrews who were in exile in Babylonia), these deities would ultimately perish because they were not eternal in nature
Dwelling - carefully squared, panelled, and fitted, Amos 5:11, cemented in Babylonia with bitumen
Music - There was another instrument of this kind used in Babylonia: it was triangular in form
House - On the sites of many ancient cities of Syria and Babylonia only the ruins of public edifices disappeared ages ago
Jonah - writer had in mind a dragon myth of Babylonia
Synagogue - Most probably it took its rise in the circumstances of the Hebrew exiles in Babylonia
Music And Musical Instruments - It was originally an Asiatic instrument, and the earliest known representation is pre-historic, in the form of a rude model found at Telloh in southern Babylonia
Ezekiel - ), an era he naturally uses writing in Babylonia (Farrar). He was contemporary also with Daniel, whose ministry was then in the Babylonian court whereas Ezekiel was among the Jews. "His word fell like a hammer upon all the pleasant dreams in which the captives indulged, and ground them to powder, a gigantic nature fitted to struggle against the Babylonian spirit of the age, which reveled in things gigantic and grotesque" (Hengstenberg)
Nineveh - Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests around. , finally succeeded in concert with the Babylonian Nabopolassar, 606 B. Then Shamas-Iva, Iralush IV and his wife Semiramis, a Babylonian princess, Shalmaneser III, Asshur-danin-il II, Asshur-lush. in Assyria, Babylonia, and eastern Persia. The Chaldaean Nestorians in the Kurdistan mountains and the villages near Mosul are the sole representatives of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Chronology - "... The Hebrew text was preserved with much more scrupulous care than the Septuagint on the other hand, the civilization and history of Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria reach further back than accords with the Hebrew, and so favor the Septuagint. The Median, Hebrew, Babylonian, and Assyrian chronicles, according to J
Adam (1) - Rawlinson identified with Babylonia; the Babylonian documents giving an exact geographical account of the garden of Eden, and the rivers bearing the same names: the Hiddekel is certainly the Tigris, and the Phrath the Euphrates; the other two seem tributary branches, though some make Gihon the Nile and Pison the Indus (?)
Abraham - of Persia, Susiana), the chief sovereign, with Amrephar of Shinar (Babylon), Arioch of Ellasar (the Chaldean Larissa, or Larsa, half way between Ur, or Mugheir, and Erech, or Warka, in Lower Babylonia), and Tidal, king of nations, attacked Bera of Sodom, Birsha of Gomorrah, Shinab of Admah, and Shemeber of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela or Zoar, because after twelve bears of subordination they "rebelled" (Genesis 14)
Assyria, History And Religion of - ... History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. , was interpreted by Babylonians as divine judgment for destroying their city. The combined armies of the Babylonians and the Medes laid siege to Nineveh. the Babylonians approached, and Haran was abandoned. Essentially the same as Babylonian religion, official Assyrian religion recognized thousands of gods; but only about twenty were important in actual practice. ... Although a number of myths concerning the various Babylonian/Assyrian gods are known, the religious function of but one can be determined. In the Assyrian version Asshur, not the Babylonian Marduk, is shown to be superior to the other gods
Angel - The main factors which contributed to this development were, firstly, Babylon; during the Captivity, Babylonian influence upon the Jews asserted itself in this as well as in other respects; according to Jewish tradition the names of the angels came from Babylon. an angel takes the prophet Habakkuk by the hair and carries him from Judah to Babylonia, in order that he may share his dinner with Daniel in the lion’s den; and, once more, in Three 26, 27 an angel smites the flame of the furnace into which the three heroes had been cast, and makes a cool wind to blow in its place (cf
Divination - Sayce, Religion of the Ancient Babylonians, 1887; G. Thompson, The Report of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon, 1900, also The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-04
Exorcism - All exorcists were not equally clever at their work; but, though a patient might, like an old Babylonian, complain that ‘the exorcist has not handled my illness successfully’ (F. Thompson, The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-04, vol
Christ in Jewish Literature - —The period included under this head extends from the time of Christ Himself to the closing of the Babylonian Talmud, i. the commentaries on the Mishna made in the schools of Palestine and Babylonia respectively, and forming, together with the Mishna, the Jerusalem Talmud and the Babylonian Talmud. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. ... In the Amoraite period the tradition is twofold, Palestinian and Babylonian. ... The Babylonian tradition starts with Rab, who was a disciple of R. Moreover, the story, as referring to Jesus, appears only in the Babylonian Gemara; the Palestinian version does not give the name of the disciple who was excommunicated. Having, however, no proof, Johanan deserted Miriam and went to Babylonia
Apocrypha - It recites the overthrow of Jerusalem, the Babylonian exile, the return under Zerubbabel, and Ezra’s part in the reorganization of the Jewish State. Its purpose seems to have been (1) to quiet the souls of the Jews in exile by telling them that they would soon return to their native land; and (2) to admonish them to flee the idolatry that was everywhere prevalent in Babylonia
Temple - --The vision of a temple which the prophet Ezekiel saw while residing on the banks of the Chebar in Babylonia, in the twenty-fifth year of the captivity, does not add much to our knowledge of the subject
Isaiah - With Asshurbanipal (668-627) the empire began to crumble and ultimately fell to the Babylonians in 612-609 under the command of Nabopolassar (625-585). Isaiah soundly castigated Hezekiah for entertaining the seditious Babylonian princelet whose real purpose was to secure military aid for a rebellion in south Babylonia in an effort to overthrow Sennacherib (Isaiah 39:1 ). Some Bible students think that the writings that reflect the Babylonian period may be the work of the disciples of Isaiah, who projected his thought into the new and changed situation of the Babylonian world. The setting of these chapters is incontestably that of the later years of the Babylonian Exile when Cyrus (Isaiah 44:28 ; Isaiah 45:1 ) was beginning his conquests which would ultimately overthrow the Babylonian power (550 B. The city of Jerusalem and its Temple had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B. Was it their unforgivable guilt; had God forgotten them? The stunning victory of Cyrus over the mighty Babylonian power (538 B. The prophetic voice of Isaiah 40-55 affirmed the purpose of God in the dark days of the Babylonian Exile. What a sorry contrast was the Babylonian idolatry with its vaunted pretensions (Isaiah 46-47 ). The Persians were about to take over the Babylonian power; they would be trustworthy and friendly to the exiles. The difficulties of the journey would be provided for by the God who programmed the Exodus and would once more duplicate that performance in the release of the exiles from Babylonian tyranny
Apocalyptic Literature - It was in the same period that the tendencies towards the aesthetic conceptions which had been inherited from the Babylonian exile were beginning to be realized under the influence of Hellenistic culture. In the apocalypse we thus can see a union of the symbolism and myths of Babylonia with the religious faith of the Jews, under the influence of Hellenistic culture
Dress - It probably came to the Hebrews from Babylonia through the medium of the Canaanites, and survives to-day in the ‘little tallith’ or arba kanphoth of the Jews (see Fringes). The ‘ hats ’ of Daniel 3:21 were probably a variety of the conical Babylonian headdress, although RV [Note: Revised Version
Talmud - ... There are two Talmuds, the ‘Jerusalem’ or ‘Talmud of Palestine’ and the ‘Babylonian,’ known respectively by their abbreviated forms ‘ Yerushalmi ’ and ‘ Babli . The characteristics which differentiated the academies of Palestine from those of Babylonia have left their marks upon the two Talmuds: in Palestine the tendency was to preserve and stereotype tradition, without permitting it to develop itself along natural channels; the result was that the Yerushalmi became choked with traditionalism, circumscribed in its horizon, and in consequence was regarded with less veneration than the Babli , and has always occupied a position of subordinate importance in comparison with this latter. In the Babylonian academies, on the other band, there was a wider outlook, a freer mental atmosphere, and, while tradition was venerated, it was not permitted to impede development in all directions; the Babli therefore absorbed the thought and learning of all Israel’s teachers, and is richer in material, and of more importance generally, than the Yerushalmi . ... Haggadoth flourish, as regards quality, more in the Yerushalmi than in the Babli ; for in the Babylonian schools intellectual acumen reigned supreme: there was but little room for the play of the emotions or for the development of poetical imagination: these were rather the property of Palestinian soil
Canaan - Arabia, Babylonia, and Kissia
Achan - The looms of Babylonia were already famous over all the eastern world, and their rich and beautiful textures went far and near, and were warmly welcomed wherever the commercial caravans of that day carried them. Balak's gold had long before now brought Balaam the soothsayer across the plains of Mesopotamia, and the gold and silver of Jericho had also drawn toward that city the travelling dealers in the woven work of the Babylonian looms. It is better to go to heaven like a blind man led by a dog, says our Lord; ten times better than to dance all your days down to hell with Babylonian bangles on and all ornaments
Egypt - The sway of Egypt was checked and finally overcome by the superior power of Babylonia, and its entire territory in Asia was taken away
Idol - The Phoenician Adon or Adonis, the Ammonite Moloch or Milcom, the Moabite Chemosh, the Assyrian and Babylonian Bel, and the Syrian Hadad, the Egyptian Ra, are essentially the same sun god. This horrid consecrated pollution prevailed in Phoenicia, Syria, Phrygia, Assyria, and Babylonia, and still in Hindu idolatry. The Babylonian captivity almost thoroughly purged the Jews from their proneness to idols (Jeremiah 44:17-18, contrast Hosea 3:4)
Ezekiel, Theology of - He was taken captive to Babylonia in 597 along with other prominent Jerusalemites. She committed adultery with the Assyrians, the Egyptians, and the Babylonians out of a lust for their glory and strength. The zoomorphic nature of these gods would indicate that they were Egyptian; the secrecy of the cult reflected a desire to hide it not only from Yahweh but from the Babylonians, who would have regarded this as an act of rebellion against their empire
Antiochus - Knowing that very great riches were lodged in the temple of Elymais, he determined to carry it off; but the inhabitants of the country made so vigorous a resistance, that he was forced to retreat toward Babylonia
Heaven - He seems rather to have brought all the symbols of the previous apocalyptic, from Babylonia and Egypt in the remote past down to the almost contemporary visions or Ezra and Baruch, under the sway of the spiritual conception of the kingdom of God
Synagogue - It is noteworthy that the synagogue at Shâf Yâthîb near Nahardea in Babylonia was in the 2nd cent
Biblical Theology - Babylonia appears to shatter forever the regnancy of the line of David
Bible - The striking resemblance between some of the laws of Israel and some of these Babylonian laws points to a certain measure of dependence. documents in Ezra 4:7 to Ezra 6:18 and Ezra 7:12-26 , Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 and a few scattered words and phrases elsewhere) are in Aramaic, the language of Syria, which was widely known, being found in Babylonia, Egypt, and Arabia
Slave, Slavery - The well-known Code of Hammurabi, fragmentary as it is, affords us considerable insight into the social conditions of Babylonia as existing more than twenty centuries before the Christian era
Immanuel - Many think that the former was created by the latter,* [Note: Harnack: ‘Even the belief that Jesus was born of a virgin sprang from " translation="">Isaiah 7:14 … The conjecture of Usener, that the idea of the birth from a virgin is a heathen myth which was received by the Christians, contradicts the entire earliest development of Christian tradition, which is free from heathen myths, so far as these had not already been received by wide circles of Jews (above all, certain Babylonian and Persian myths), which in the case of that idea is not demonstrable. ‘is a Jewish-Christian transformation of a primitive story, derived ultimately, in all probability, from Babylonia, and analogous to the Jewish transformation of the Babylonian cosmogony in the opening section of Genesis’* [Note: also the important remarks on pp
Heaven - He seems rather to have brought all the symbols of the previous apocalyptic, from Babylonia and Egypt in the remote past down to the almost contemporary visions or Ezra and Baruch, under the sway of the spiritual conception of the kingdom of God
Job - [Note: Babylonian. [Note: Babylonian. There is yearning for something better ( Numbers 14:13-16 ), and perhaps a momentary conviction ( Job 19:25-27 ), but the general conception of the life after death is that common to Hebrews, Assyrians, and Babylonians. There is no reason for thinking that he wrote either in Babylonia or in Egypt. Job 9:13 , Job 25:2 , Job 26:12 , where there may be allusions to the Babylonian myth about the struggle between the dragon of Chaos and Marduk, the god of light; Job 3:8 , Job 26:13 , where reference may be made to popular notions about eclipses and to the claims of magicians; and perhaps Job 29:18 b. ] ) has endeavoured to connect the story of Job with the Babylonian legend of Eabani, but the similarity is too slight to need discussion. A far closer parallel is furnished by a partially preserved poem from the library of Ashurbanipal, which probably reproduces an ancient Babylonian text
Apocalyptic Literature - Its ultimate source has been traced variously to Egypt, Greece, Babylonia, and Persia. Nevertheless, the Persians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the Greeks had their apocalyptics. (3) The neo-Hebraie apocalypses, beginning with the predominance of the Talmud (especially the Babylonian) and including a series of revelations to the great Rabbis (The Revelation of R. The chosen people were delivered into the hands of lions, tigers, wolves, and jackals (the Assyrians and Babylonians); then they were put under the care of seventy shepherds (angels)
Egypt - The struggle with Assyria and Babylonia for the intermediate countries lasted until Pharaoh Necho's defeat at Carchemish ended Egypt's supremacy. Except Zerah and Shishak (of Assyrian or Babylonian extraction), the Egyptian kings were friendly to Israel in Palestine
Israel - ( d ) Finally, a fourth set of traditions were derived from Babylonia. This is clearly the case with the Creation and Deluge narratives, parallels to which have been found in Babylonian and Assyrian literature
Messiah - The influence of the Babylonian myth cycles is certainly apparent, but the apocalypses, as they stand, have no precise analogy in other literature of the period. A most important element of the future as set forth by Daniel is to be seen in the triumph of the kingdom of the saints, whose symbol is a ‘son of man,’ over the oppressing kingdoms of Babylonia, Media, Persia, and Syria, symbolized by the four beasts
Tatianus - To Babylonia they owed astronomy, to Persia magic, to Egypt geometry, to Phoenicia instruction by letters. Berosus, the Babylonian historian, "a most competent authority," spoke of the wars of Nebuchadnezzar against the Phoenicians and Jews which happened 70 years before the Persian rule, and long after the age of Moses
Egypt - had carried on an active correspondence with the distant kings of Babylonia, Assyria, and Mitanni in Mesopotamia; but after a few years Akhenaton must have lost all influence with them. His son Neko, profiting by the long weakness of Assyria, swept through Syria as far as Carchemish on the Euphrates, and put the land to tribute, until the Babylonian army commanded by Nebuchadrezzar hurled him back (b
Nestorius And Nestorianism - The rigorous measures above mentioned were fiercely resisted in Syria and Babylonia, and when Rabbulas sought to prohibit the reading of the works of Diodorus and Theodore, the Nestorian teachers crossed the border into Persia