Places Study on Athens

Places Study on Athens

Acts 17: And they that conducted Paul brought him unto Athens: and receiving a commandment unto Silas and Timotheus for to come to him with all speed, they departed.
Acts 17: Now while Paul waited for them at Athens, his spirit was stirred in him, when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry.
Acts 17: Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars' hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious.
Acts 18: After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth;
1 Thessalonians 3: Wherefore when we could no longer forbear, we thought it good to be left at Athens alone;

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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Athens
ATHENS . In the earliest times, Athens, on the Gulf of Ægina, consisted of two settlements, the town on the plain and the citadel on the hill above, the Acropolis, where the population fled from invasion. Its name and the name of its patron-goddess Athene (Athenaia) are inextricably connected. She was the maiden goddess, the warlike defender of her people, the patroness of the arts. The city lies about 3 miles from the seacoast on a large plain. When Greece was free, during the period before b.c., 146 Athens was the capital of the district Attica, and developed a unique history in Greece. It first gained distinction by the repulse of the Persian invasions in b.c. 490 and 480, and afterwards had a brilliant career of political, commercial, literary, and artistic supremacy. It was in the 5th cent. b.c. the greatest of Greek democracies, and produced the greatest sculptures and literary works the world has ever seen. In the same century Socrates lived and taught there, as did later Plato and Aristotle. The conflict with Sparta, the effects of the Macedonian invasion, and ultimately the Roman conquest of Greece, which became a Roman province under the name ‘Achaia’ (wh. see), lessened the political importance of Athens, but as a State it received from Rome a position of freedom and consideration worthy of its undying merits. Athens remained supreme in philosophy and the arts, and was in St. Paul’s time ( Acts 17:15 to Acts 18:1 , 1 Thessalonians 3:1 ) the seat of a famous university.

A. Souter.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius of Athens, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Athens
The city of Minerva, the chief city of Attica in Greece, situated on the Saronic Gulf, forty-six miles east of Corinth, and about five miles from the coast. The city was in a plain extending to the sea on the southwest, where it had three ports, the passage to which was defended by long and broad walls. Several rocky hills rose in the plain, the largest of which was the citadel, or Acropolis. Around this the city was built, most of the buildings spreading towards the sea. The summit of the hill was nearly level, about eight hundred feet long and four hundred wide. The only way to the Acropolis was through the Propylea, a magnificent gateway on the western side, adorned with two temples decorated with the finest pieces of sculpture and painting. These splendid portals crowned an ascent by marble steps to the summit of the hill, on which were erected the temples of the guardian divinities of Athens. On the left was the temple of Pallas Athene, (Minerva,) regarded as the protectress of the city. Under the same roof was the temple of Neptune. In the area, on a high pedestal, stood a bronze statue of Minerva seventy feet high. On the right arose the Parthenon, the glory of Athens, the noblest triumph of Grecian architecture. From whatever quarter the traveller arrived, the first thing he saw was the Parthenon rearing its lofty head above the city and the citadel. Its ruins, still sublime in decay, are the first object that attracts the eye of a stranger. It was of the Doric order of architecture, built of beautiful white marble, and was about one hundred feet wide, two hundred and twenty-six feet deep, and seventy feet high. There was a double portico of columns at the two fronts, and a single row along each side. There was an architrave, or frieze, along the exterior of the nave, beautifully sculptured, with the representation of a procession in honor of Minerva. Within the temple was a statue of Minerva, by Phidias, celebrated for its exquisite beauty. It was make of gold and ivory, and was nearly forty feet high. The goddess was represented erect, covered with her aegis, holding in one had a lance, and in the other a figure of victory. At the foot of the Acropolis, on one side was the Odeum, or music hall, and the theatre of Bacchus: on the other side was the Prytaneum, where the chief magistrates and most meritorious citizens were entertained at a table furnished at the public expense. A small valley lay between the Acropolis and the hill on which the Areopagus held its session; it also separated the Areopagus from the Pnyx, a small rocky hill on which the general assemblies of the people were held. Here the spot is yet pointed out from which the eminent orators addressed the people. It is cut in the natural rock. In this vicinity also was the agora, or marketplace, Acts 17:17 , an open square surrounded by beautiful structures; while on every side altars, shrines, and temples were seen, some of them exceedingly magnificent. This beautiful city was also celebrated for the military talents and the learning, eloquence, and politeness of its inhabitants. It was the very flower of ancient civilization; its schools of philosophy were the most illustrious in the world, and its painters, sculptors, and architects have never been surpassed. Yet no city was so "wholly given to idolatry." The apostle Paul visited it about the year A. D. 52, and though alone among its proud philosophers, preached Jesus and the resurrection to them with fidelity and success, Acts 17:15 - 34 . See AREOPAGUS . At present Athens is comparatively in ruins, and has a population of about 28,000 addicted to the superstitions of the Greek Church.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Athens
Capital of Attica, the center of Grecian refinement and philosophy. Paul visited it in journeying from Macedonia, and stayed sometime (Acts 17:14, etc.; FOUR-DRACHM OF ATHENS. 1 Thessalonians 3:1). Four hills are within it, the Acropolis, N.E., a square rock 150 feet high; W. of it is the Areopagus. (See AREOPAGUS.) S.W. is the Pnyx, or Assembly Hill. S. of this is the Museum Hill. The Agora where Paul disputed was in the valley between the four. The newsmongering taste of the people (Acts 17:21) is noticed by their great orator Demosthenes, "Ye go about the marketplace asking, Is there any news?"

Their pure atmosphere, open air life, and liberal institutions, stimulated liveliness of thought. Pausanias (1:24, sec. 3) confirms Paul's remark on their religiousness even to superstition: "the zeal devoted by the Athenians to the rites of the gods exceeds that of all others." (See ALTAR; AREOPAGUS.) Dionysius the Areopagite convert of Paul was, according to tradition, the first bishop of an Athenian church. Theseus' temple is the most perfect of the remaining monuments. The Parthenon or temple of Minerva, built of Penrelic marble, 228 feet long, 102 broad, 66 high, with 8 Doric columns on each front and 17 on each side, was the masterpiece of Athenian architecture. The colossal statue of Minerva Promachus, Phidias' workmanship, was 70 feet high, so as to be seen towering above the Parthenon by the mariner in doubling Cape Suniurn. Lord Elgin deposited in the British Museum several of the finest sculptures.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Athens
The capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21 ), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts 17:15 ; Compare 1 Thessalonians 3:1 ), and delivered in the Areopagus his famous speech (17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."

Holman Bible Dictionary - Athens
(ath' ihnss) Capital of Attica, an ancient district of east central Greece, where Paul preached to the Greek philosophers (Acts 17:15-34 ). Paul saw the Athenians were very religious and even had an altar to an unknown God. He based his sermon on this. Though some converts were won to faith in Christ, no biblical record exists of a viable church being established. The city, which probably was named for the wisdom goddess Athene, was already an ancient place by the time Paul visited it. Indeed, human occupation of the area seems to date before 3000 B.C. In the sixth century B.C. Athens became the scene of the world's first great experiment with democratic government. It was destroyed by the Persians early in the fifth century B.C., but during the administration of Pericles the city was rebuilt into an architectural wonder.



Morrish Bible Dictionary - Athens
The chief city of Attica, and the seat of Grecian learning and art. The city was wholly given to idolatry, and the people spent their time in strolling about and asking 'what news?' Paul laboured alone in Athens, while he waited for Silas and Timothy, and sought to reason with the Jews in their synagogue and in the market daily; then certain philosophers took him to Mars' Hill, where he delivered his memorable address to polished but heathen hearers. There was some fruit of his labours. Acts 17:15-22 ; Acts 18:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:1 . Athens was an ancient city, and experienced many changes and different forms of government. It surrendered to Sulla the Roman general in B.C. 86 and became a part of the Roman empire, but in A.D. 267 it was besieged by the Goths, and in 396 was taken by Alaric, king of the Visigoths. Taken by Mahomet II. in 1456, and became the capital of the kingdom of modern Greece in 1833. It gradually lost all its renown, and the houses became roofless and in ruins. In 1834 the Greek king Otho encouraged the rebuilding of the city, and from that date it has again gradually become a populous city.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Athens, Dionysius of, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Athens
(Ἀθῆναι)

Athens, which St. Paul visited in the autumn of a.d. 48 (Harnack), or 50 (Turner), or 51 (Ramsay), was now in some respects very different from the city of Pericles and Plato. Her political and commercial supremacy was gone. Greece had for two centuries been the Roman province of Achaia, of which Athens was not the capital. The governor had his residence at Corinth, and the merchant-princes had forsaken the Piraeus for Lecheum and Cenchreae. Rut Athens was still the most beautiful and brilliant of cities, the home of philosophy, the shrine of art, the fountain-head of ideals. As the metropolis of Hellenism she had, indeed, a wider and more pervasive influence than over, which the Roman conquerors, like the Macedonians before them, did their best to extend. ‘From the Philhellenic standpoint, doubtless, Athens was the masterpiece of the world’ (T. Mommsen, Provinces of the Roman Empire2, London, 1909, i. 258). To be among her citizens was to breathe the atmosphere of culture. Her Lyceum by the Ilissus, her Academy by the groves of Cephissus, her Porch in the Agora, and her Garden near at hand, were still frequented by Platonists, Peripatetics, Stoics, and Epicureans. Her University drew to itself a host of foreign students, especially from Rome, and became the model of the younger foundations of Alexandria, Antioch, and Tarsus.

Neither the Republic nor the Empire ever fully applied the subject-relation to Greece, and the Athenians were always treated with special kindness. ‘The Romans, after their conquest, finding them governed by a democracy, maintained their independence and liberty’ (Strabo, ix. i. 20). Even in the Mithridatic war, when an ordinary town behaving as Athens did would have been razed to the ground, ‘the citizens were pardoned, and, to this time, the city enjoys liberty, and is respected by the Romans’ (ib.).

The outward aspect of Athens was little altered in St. Paul’s time. Plutarch, who wrote half a century later, says in regard to Pericles’ public edifices: ‘In beauty each of them at once appeared venerable as soon as it was built; but even at the present day the work looks as fresh as ever, for they bloom with an eternal freshness which defies time, and seems to make the work instinct with an unfading spirit of youth’ (Pericles, xiii.). Cicero conveys the impression which the city made upon every cultivated mind in his time: ‘Valde me Athenae delectarunt, urbe dumtaxat et urbis ornamento, … sed multum ea philosophia’ (Ep. ad Att. v. 10). The Philhellenism of the Empire surpassed that of the Republic, and of all the Roman benefactors of Athens the greatest was Hadrian, who not only completed the temple of Zeus Olympius, which had remained unfinished for 700 years, but embellished the city with many other public buildings, and gave the name of Hadrianopolis to a new quarter.

But, though Athens was outwardly as splendid as ever, she was inwardly decadent, being, in philosophy, letters, and art, a city living upon traditions. Her first-rate statesmen and orators, poets and thinkers, did not outlive the nation’s freedom.

‘The self-esteem of the Hellenes, well-warranted in itself and fostered by the attitude of the Roman government … called into life among them a cultus of the past, which was compounded of a faithful clinging to the memories of greater and happier times and a quaint reverting of matured civilisation to its in part very primitive beginnings.… The bane of Hellenic existence lay in the limitation of its sphere; high ambition lacked a corresponding aim, and therefore the low and degrading ambition flourished luxuriantly’ (Mommsen, op. cit. i. 280, 283).

The decay of Athens was due less to the exhaustion of her creative energy, with the substitution of imitative for original work, than to the simple fact that the thought and art of her citizens were no longer wedded to noble action and brave endurance. Full of aesthetes and dilettantes, loving the reputation more than the reality of culture, letting a restless inquisitiveness and shallow scepticism take the place of high aspiration and moral enthusiasm, she became blind to the visions, and deaf to the voices, which redeem individual and collective life from vanity.

The devouring appetite of the Athenians for news had long been one of their best-known traits.

Demosthenes (Phil. i. p. 43) pictures them bustling about the Agora inquiring if any newer thing is being told (πυνθανόμενοι κατὰ τὴν ἀγοράν εἴ τι λέγεται νεώτερον), the tragedy being that, while they were talking, philip was acting. Thucydides (iii. 38) makes Cleon say to them: ‘So you are the best men to be imposed on with novelty of argument, and to be unwilling to follow up what has been approved by you, being slaves of every new paradox, and despisers of what is ordinary. Each of you wishes above all to be able to speak himself.… In a word, you are overpowered by the pleasures of the ear, and are like men sitting to be amused by rhetoricians rather than deliberating upon State affairs.’

Among the philosophers of St. Paul’s time the penchant for news took the form of an eagerness to hear the latest novelty in speculation or religion which any σπερμολόγος (picker-up of scraps of information) might have to publish (Acts 17:21), in order that they might exercise their nimble wits upon it, and most probably hold it up to ridicule.

Though St. Paul spoke the language of Hellas, and acknowledged himself a debtor to the Hellenes (Romans 1:14), yet Athens does not seem to have exercised any fascination over him. She did not beckon him like Rome; he did not see her in his dreams, or pray that he might be prospered to come to her; he never exclaimed, with a sense of destiny, ‘I must see Athens.’ That he ever visited her at all was apparently the result of an accident. He was hurried away from Berœa before he had time to mature his plans of future action, and he merely waited at Athens for the arrival of his friends, Silas and Timothy (Acts 17:15 f.). To picture him wandering among temples and porticos, lost in admiration of works of genius, and ‘perhaps witnessing the performance of a play of Euripides,’ is to misunderstand him. He did not spend his leisure in Athens, any more than Luther in Rome, in appraising the masterpieces of plastic and dramatic article They were both ‘provoked’* [Note: παροξύνομαι often used in the LXX to express a burning Divine (and prophetic) indignation against idolatry (" translation="">Hosea 8:5, " translation="">Zechariah 10:3).] by what they saw as they passed by. They were consumed with the prophetic zeal which seeks to replace a false or imperfect religion with a true and perfect one. St. Paul, indeed, knew the Hellenic world too well to imagine that, while the city was ‘full of idols’ (κατείδωλον), its men of culture were given to idolatry. In their case the worship of the gods survived only in that cultus of physical beauty to which innumerable sculptured forms bore silent witness, while such spiritual faith as they still retained found expression rather in altars Ἀγνώστῳ Θεῷ; to the existence of which Pausanias (i. i. 4) and Philostratus (Vit. Apollon. vi. 2) testify (see Unknown God).

St. Paul’s address before the court or council of Areopagus (q.v. [Note: quod vide, which see.] ) is a noble attempt to find common ground with the Athenian philosophers, an appreciation of what was highest in their religion, an expression of sympathy with their sincere agnosticism, an appeal to that groping, innate sense of spiritual realities, that universal instinct of monotheism, which lead to the true God who is near to all men, and who, though unseen, is no longer unknown. Renan suggests that St. Paul was ‘embarrassed’ by all the wonders that met his eyes in Athens, as if Athene herself had perhaps cast her spell upon him and made him somewhat doubtful of the Galilaean; but there is no sort of foundation for such a fancy. It is certain, however, that the Apostle had a new experience of a different kind in Athens. Faced by an audience half-courteous and half-derisive, he was first ridiculed and then ignored, when he would have preferred to be contradicted and persecuted. Not driven from the city by hostile feeling, but quitting it of his own accord, too unimportant to be noticed, too harmless to be molested, he departed with a crushing sense of failure, and, apparently as a consequence, began his mission in Corinth ‘in weakness and fear and much trembling’ (1 Corinthians 2:3). It is possible that he felt he had made a mistake. All that he said to the philosophers of Athens was true, but ineffective. It did little or nothing to storm the enemy’s citadel. In a modern phrase, it was magnificent, but it was not war. Another power was needed to humiliate the wise, as well as to end the long reign of the gods of Greece. It is significant that in Corinth the Apostle determined-not, indeed, for the first time, but certainly with a new emphasis-not to know anything save Jesus Christ and Him crucified (1 Corinthians 2:2), who was for both Jews and Hellenes the power of God and the wisdom of God (1:24).

The Athenian synagogue (Acts 17:17), in which St. Paul met some ‘devout persons’-σεβόμενοι, Gentiles more or less influenced by Judaism-was probably small, for the university city did not attract his compatriots like Corinth, the seat of commerce. His reasoning ‘in the Agora every day with those who met him’ naturally recalls those Socratic disputations in the same place, of which Grote gives a lively account in his History of Greece (London, 1869, viii. 211f.). That the address before the Council of the Areopagus was not entirely fruitless is proved by the conversion of a man holding so important an official position as Dionysius the Areopagite (q.v. [Note: quod vide, which see.] ).

Literature.-W. J. Conybeare and J. S. Howson, Life and Epistles of St. Paul, new ed., London, 1877, i. 405f.; W. M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen, London, 1895, p. 237f.; A. C. McGiffert, Apostolic Age, Edinburgh, 1897, p. 257f.; E. Curtius, Gesammelte Abhandlungen, Berlin, 1894, ii. 528f.; A. Mommsen, Athenœ Christianœ, Leipzig, 1868; J. P. Mahaffy, Greek Life and Thought, London, 1887, and The Silver Age of the Greek World, do. 1906; A. Holm, History of Greece, Eng. translation , London, 1894-98.

James Strahan.

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Athens
a celebrated city of Greece, too well known to be here described. St. Paul's celebrated sermon, Acts xvii, was preached on the Areopagus, or Hill of Mars, where a celebrated court was held which took cognizance of matters of religion, blasphemies against the gods, the building of temples, &c. ( See AREOPAGUS. ) The inscription on the altar, "to the unknown God," which St. Paul so appropriately made the text of his discourse, was adopted on the occasion of the city having been relieved from a pestilence; and they erected altars to "the God unknown," either as not knowing to which of their divinities they were indebted for the favour, or, which is more probable, because there was something in the circumstances of this deliverance, which led them to refer it to a higher power than their own gods, even to the supreme God, who was not unfrequently styled, the "unknown," by the wiser Heathens. The existence of such altars is expressly mentioned by Lucian. On the place where the great Apostle bore his noble testimony against idols, and declared to them the God whom they ignorantly worshipped, Dr. E. D. Clarke, the traveller, remarks, "It is not possible to conceive a situation of greater peril, or one more calculated to prove the sincerity of a preacher, than that in which the Apostle was here placed; and the truth of this, perhaps, will never be better felt than by a spectator, who from this eminence actually beholds the monuments of Pagan pomp and superstition by which he, whom the Athenians considered as the setter forth of strange gods, was then surrounded: representing to the imagination the disciples of Socrates and of Plato, the dogmatist of the porch, and the skeptic of the academy, addressed by a poor and lowly man, who, ‘rude in speech,' without the ‘enticing words of man's wisdom,' enjoined precepts contrary to their taste, and very hostile to their prejudices. One of the peculiar privileges of the Areopagitae seems to have been set at defiance by the zeal of St. Paul on this occasion; namely, that of inflicting extreme and exemplary punishment upon any person who should slight the celebration of the holy mysteries, or blaspheme the gods of Greece. We ascended to the summit by means of steps cut in the natural stone. The sublime scene here exhibited is so striking, that a brief description of it may prove how truly it offers to us a commentary upon the Apostle's words, as they were delivered upon the spot. He stood upon the top of the rock, and beneath the canopy of heaven. Before him there was spread a glorious prospect of mountains, islands, seas, and skies; behind him towered the lofty Acropolis, crowned with all its marble temples. Thus every object, whether in the face of nature, or among the works of art, conspired to elevate the mind, and to fill it with reverence toward that Being who made and governs the world, Acts 17:24 ; Acts 17:28 ; who sitteth in that light which no mortal eye can approach, and yet is nigh unto the meanest of his creatures; in whom we live, and move and have our being."

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Athens
Athens (ăth'enz). The chief town of Attica (now Greece); was visited by Paul on his second missionary journey, after he had been Bent away, for safety, from Berea. Acts 17:13-15. Athens, in the time of the apostle, was included in the Roman province of Achaia, but was a free city, retaining some of the forms which had belonged to it in its palmy days. The Athenians, curious and inquisitive, as they had ever been, mockingly desired Paul to give them some account of the new doctrine he was Betting forth. For both in the Jews' synagogue, and also in the agora or marketplace, he had disputed with those who came to him, and had preached the gospel of Jesus, raised by God's mighty power from the dead. Within the city were four notable hills, three northward, forming almost a semicircle. The Acropolis, or citadel, was the most easterly of these: it was a rock about 150 feet high. Next, westward, was a lower eminence, the Areopagus or Mars' Hill, and then the Pnyx, where the assemblies of the people were held. To the south of these three hills was a fourth, the Museum. The agora lay in the valley between the four. It has been supposed that there were two market-places, but it is now satisfactorily proved that there was but one. The localities, therefore, which Paul frequented, are readily understood. He was taken from the agora, and brought up to the Areopagus, where he delivered his wonderful address. Acts 17:18-31. His preaching made no great impression: the philosophers despised it Some, however, clave to him; and a Christian community was formed of whom were Dionysius the Areopagite, Acts 17:32-34, Damaris and others. Modern Athens, situated about five miles from the sea, its port being the Piraeus, has been made the capital of the present kingdom of Greece.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Athens
In the time of the New Testament, Athens was the world’s great centre of learning. It was famous also for its magnificent architecture, seen in its many temples and public buildings. There is only one recorded occasion on which Paul visited the city, and on that occasion his evangelism was only moderately successful (Acts 17:15-34). Concerning Paul’s debate with the philosophers of the city see AREOPAGUS; EPICUREANS; STOICS.

Sentence search

Athenian - ) A native or citizen of Athens. ) Of or pertaining to Athens, the metropolis of Greece
Areopagite - (ehr ih uhp' uh gith) A member of the highly respected Greek council which met on the Areopagus in Athens. See Areopagus ; Athens ; Dionysius
Dionysius - Chrysostom declares Dionysius to have been a citizen of Athens, which is credible, because the judges of the Areopagus generally were so. After his conversion, Dionysius was made the first bishop of Athens; having laboured, and suffered much in the Gospel, he is said to have been burnt at Athens, A
Athe'Nians, - natives of Athens (Acts 17:21 )
Athenians - The dwellers in Athens
Mars Hill - A prominent rise overlooking the city of Athens where the philosophers of the city gathered to discuss their ideas, some of which revolutionized modern thought. Paul discussed religion with the leading minds of Athens on Mars Hill
Phratry - ) A subdivision of a phyle, or tribe, in Athens
Dionysius - The Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34 )
Draconian - ) Pertaining to Draco, a famous lawgiver of Athens, 621 b
Thesmothete - ) A lawgiver; a legislator; one of the six junior archons at Athens
Phyle - ) A local division of the people in ancient Athens; a clan; a tribe
Damaris - A woman at Athens who believed the gospel preached by Paul
Dionysius - A member of the court of the Areopagus at Athens, converted under the preaching of Paul, Acts 17:34 . Tradition says that he was eminent for learning, that he was ordained by Paul at Athens, and after many labors and trials, suffered martyrdom by fire
Elgin Marbles - They were obtained at Athens, about 1811, by Lord Elgin
Acropolis - ) The upper part, or the citadel, of a Grecian city; especially, the citadel of Athens
Dionysius - Member of the supreme court at Athens, converted under the preaching of Paul
Epicureans - Followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B. They appear to have been greatly esteemed at Athens
Pnyx - ) The place at Athens where the meetings of the people were held for making decrees, etc
Poecile - ) The frescoed porch or gallery in Athens where Zeno taught
Archon - ) One of the chief magistrates in ancient Athens, especially, by preeminence, the first of the nine chief magistrates
Dionysiac - ) Of or pertaining to Dionysus or to the Dionysia; Bacchic; as, a Dionysiac festival; the Dionysiac theater at Athens
Areopagus - ) The highest judicial court at Athens
Areopagus - (ehr ih ahp' uh guhss) The site of Paul's speech to the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers of Athens (Acts 17:19 ). It was a rocky hill about 370 feet high, not far from the Acropolis and the Agora (marketplace) in Athens, Greece
Areopagus - Ares) Paul delivered his memorable address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31 )
Panathenaea - ) The most ancient and important festival of Athens, celebrated in honor of Athena, the tutelary goddess of the city
Athens - Athens . In the earliest times, Athens, on the Gulf of Ægina, consisted of two settlements, the town on the plain and the citadel on the hill above, the Acropolis, where the population fled from invasion. , 146 Athens was the capital of the district Attica, and developed a unique history in Greece. see), lessened the political importance of Athens, but as a State it received from Rome a position of freedom and consideration worthy of its undying merits. Athens remained supreme in philosophy and the arts, and was in St
Areopagite - One connected with the court of Areopagus at Athens, where Dionysius heard Paul and "clave to him and believed
Hecatompedon - ) A name given to the old Parthenon at Athens, because measuring 100 Greek feet, probably in the width across the stylobate
Mars - This was a rocky height in Athens, opposite the western end of the Acropolis. From this spot Paul delivered his address to the men of Athens
Stoics - A set of fatalistic heathen philosophers so named from the Greek word signifying porch, or portico, because Zeno its founder, more than three centuries before Christ, held his school in a porch of the city of Athens. They were in great repute at Athens when Paul visited that city, Acts 17:18
Damaris - An Athenian lady, honorably distinguished as one of the few who embraced Christianity at Athens under the preaching of Paul, Acts 17:34
Theorica - ) Public moneys expended at Athens on festivals, sacrifices, and public entertainments (especially theatrical performances), and in gifts to the people; - also called theoric fund
Choragus - one who provided at his own expense and under his own supervision one of the choruses for the musical contents at Athens
Parthenon - ) A celebrated marble temple of Athene, on the Acropolis at Athens
Damaris - ” An Athenian woman who became a Christian following Paul's sermon at Mars' Hill, the highest court in Athens (Acts 17:34 )
Games - , now held once in four years, the first having been at Athens in 1896
Trierarch - ) At Athens, one who (singly, or jointly with other citizens) had to fit out a trireme for the public service
Pentelican - ) Of or pertaining to Mount Pentelicus, near Athens, famous for its fine white marble quarries; obtained from Mount Pentelicus; as, the Pentelic marble of which the Parthenon is built
Obolus - ) A small silver coin of Athens, the sixth part of a drachma, about three cents in value
Stoics - A sect of the philosophers of Greece, founded by Zeno, and named after the Stoa, the porch at Athens where the philosopher assembled his pupils. Some of such were among the audience Paul addressed at Athens
Areopagus - the high court at Athens, famed for the justice of its decisions; and so called, because it sat on a hill of the same name, or in the suburbs of the city, dedicated to Mars, the god of war, as the city was to Minerva, his sister. Paul, Acts 17:19 , &c, having preached at Athens, was carried before the Areopagites, as "a setter forth of strange gods
Ostracism - ) Banishment by popular vote, - a means adopted at Athens to rid the city of a person whose talent and influence gave umbrage
Prytaneum - ) A public building in certain Greek cities; especially, a public hall in Athens regarded as the home of the community, in which official hospitality was extended to distinguished citizens and strangers
Polemarch - ) In Athens, originally, the military commanderin-chief; but, afterward, a civil magistrate who had jurisdiction in respect of strangers and sojourners
Diogenes - ) who lived much in Athens and was distinguished for contempt of the common aims and conditions of life, and for sharp, caustic sayings
Areopagus - (Greek: Ares, Mars; pagos, hill: Hill of Mars) ... Low hill situated near the Acropolis at Athens; court held on this hill before which Saint Paul was brought to explain his dactrine (Acts 17 ) ...
Geron - ] ‘an old man of Athens’; RVm [Note: Revised Version margin
Areopagus - The Areopagus was an ancient and highly respected council of philosophers in Athens. The name came from the hill in Athens where the council originally met (commonly known as Mars Hill), though in New Testament times the council met in the commercial area of the town itself. ... Athens was a famous centre of learning where people publicly discussed philosophy, religion and politics (Acts 17:21). The Areopagus was responsible for the orderly conduct of all public lecturing in Athens
Dionysius - Tradition reports him to have been bishop of Athens, and to have suffered martyrdom there
Idols - 1: κατείδωλος (Strong's #2712 — Adjective — kateidolos — kat-i'-do-los ) an adjective denoting "full of idols" (kata, "throughout," and eidolon), is said of Athens in Acts 17:16 , RV, and AV, marg
Mars Hill - The Areopagus or rocky hill in Athens, north-west of the Acropolis, where the Athenian supreme tribunal and court of morals was held
Altar to the Unknown God - Whatever the origin of this inscription on the altar at Athens, it afforded the apostle Paul an admirable thesis for his discourse to the idolatrous Athenians
Petalism - It was similar to the ostracism in Athens; but olive leaves were used instead of shells for ballots
Dionysia - They correspond to the Roman Bacchanalia; the greater Dionysia were held at Athens in March or April, and were celebrated with elaborate performances of both tragedies and comedies
Ath'Ens - Description --Athens is situated about three miles from the seacoast, in the central plain of Attica. This mountain, which was not included within the ancient walls, lies to the northeast of Athens, and forms the most striking feature in the environs of the city. It is to Athens what Vesuvius is to Naples, or Arthur's Seat to Edinburgh Southwest of Lycabettua there are four hills of moderate height, all of which formed part of the city. Of these the nearest to Lycabettus and at the distance of a mile from the latter, was the Aeropolis , or citadel of Athens, a square craggy rock rising abruptly about 150 feet, with a flat summit of about 1000 feet long from east to west, by 500 feet broad from north to south. South of the city was seen the Saronic Gulf, with the harbors of Athens. --Athens is said to have derived its name from the prominence given to the worship of the goddess Athena (Minerva) by its king, Erechtheus. Themistocles transferred the naval station of the Athenians to the peninsula of Piraeus, which is distant about 4 1/2 miles from Athens, and contains three natural harbors. It was not till the administration of Pericles that the walls were built which connected Athens with her ports. --Under the administration of Pericles, Athens was adorned with numerous public buildings, which existed in all their glory when St. The Acropolis was the centre of the architectural splendor of Athens. With its pedestal it must have been about 70 feet high, and consequently towered above the roof of the Parthenon, so that the point of its spear and the crest of its helmet were visible off the promontory of Sunium to ships approaching Athens. Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical tradition, Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. -- (The population of Athens in 1871 was 48,000
Greece - The country was evangelized by Saint Paul during his second and third missions, when he visited Neapolis, Philippi, where the first Christian Church on European soil was established, Thessalonica, Berooa, Corinth, and Athens, where he converted Dionysius the Areopagite, first Bishop of Athens. The Churches of Athens and Corinth were the most important, the latter being the first center of Christianity in Greece. The Apostolic delegation of Athens was erected in 1834 by Gregory XVI, and the majority of the Catholics, including many foreigners, such as Maltese, Italians, and Levantines, belong to the Latin Rite
Ostracize - ) To exile by ostracism; to banish by a popular vote, as at Athens
Dionysius the Areopagite - A member of the University Court of the Areopagus at Athens ( Acts 17:34 ), converted by St
Peripatetic - ) Of or pertaining to the philosophy taught by Aristotle (who gave his instructions while walking in the Lyceum at Athens), or to his followers
Achaia - The administrative centre of Achaia was Corinth, and the educational centre, Athens (Acts 17:21; Acts 18:1; Acts 18:12; 2 Corinthians 1:1). There were also Christians in Athens (Acts 17:34; see Athens)
Lyceum - ) A place of exercise with covered walks, in the suburbs of Athens, where Aristotle taught philosophy
Damaris - A convert at Athens ( Acts 17:34 )
Athenaeum - ) A temple of Athene, at Athens, in which scholars and poets were accustomed to read their works and instruct students
Dionys'Ius - ) He is said to have been first bishop of Athens
Quadratus, Saint - Apologist, Bishop of Athens, "Disciple of the Apostles"
Encounter - (in war)," for AV, "to make war against;" of meeting in order to discuss, in Acts 17:18 , "encountered," of the philosophers in Athens and the Apostle
Achaia - Major cities in Achaia included Sparta, Athens, and Corinth, which was the administrative center
Syracuse - It was strong enough to defeat an attack from Athens in 413 B
Berea - A city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10,13 ), and from which also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast and thence sailed to Athens (14,15)
Athens - It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man. It is supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned
Epicureans - The Epicureans were named after their founder, Epicurus, a philosopher who taught in Athens about 300 BC. ... The Epicureans, with the Stoics, were members of the Areopagus, a council of philosophers that Paul addressed in Athens (Acts 17:18-19; Acts 17:22; see AREOPAGUS)
Athens - In the time of the New Testament, Athens was the world’s great centre of learning
Superstitious - Paul described the men of Athens (Acts 17:22 ), and Festus characterized Paul as he stood before King Agrippa (Acts 25:19 ) with the term
Epicureans, the - A school of philosophers that derived their name from the Athenian Epicurus, who had his 'garden' at Athens
Athens - (Ἀθῆναι)... Athens, which St. Greece had for two centuries been the Roman province of Achaia, of which Athens was not the capital. Rut Athens was still the most beautiful and brilliant of cities, the home of philosophy, the shrine of art, the fountain-head of ideals. ‘From the Philhellenic standpoint, doubtless, Athens was the masterpiece of the world’ (T. Even in the Mithridatic war, when an ordinary town behaving as Athens did would have been razed to the ground, ‘the citizens were pardoned, and, to this time, the city enjoys liberty, and is respected by the Romans’ (ib. ... The outward aspect of Athens was little altered in St. The Philhellenism of the Empire surpassed that of the Republic, and of all the Roman benefactors of Athens the greatest was Hadrian, who not only completed the temple of Zeus Olympius, which had remained unfinished for 700 years, but embellished the city with many other public buildings, and gave the name of Hadrianopolis to a new quarter. ... But, though Athens was outwardly as splendid as ever, she was inwardly decadent, being, in philosophy, letters, and art, a city living upon traditions. ... The decay of Athens was due less to the exhaustion of her creative energy, with the substitution of imitative for original work, than to the simple fact that the thought and art of her citizens were no longer wedded to noble action and brave endurance. Paul spoke the language of Hellas, and acknowledged himself a debtor to the Hellenes (Romans 1:14), yet Athens does not seem to have exercised any fascination over him. She did not beckon him like Rome; he did not see her in his dreams, or pray that he might be prospered to come to her; he never exclaimed, with a sense of destiny, ‘I must see Athens. He was hurried away from Berœa before he had time to mature his plans of future action, and he merely waited at Athens for the arrival of his friends, Silas and Timothy (Acts 17:15 f. He did not spend his leisure in Athens, any more than Luther in Rome, in appraising the masterpieces of plastic and dramatic article They were both ‘provoked’* [Note: παροξύνομαι often used in the LXX to express a burning Divine (and prophetic) indignation against idolatry (" translation="">Hosea 8:5, " translation="">Zechariah 10:3). Paul was ‘embarrassed’ by all the wonders that met his eyes in Athens, as if Athene herself had perhaps cast her spell upon him and made him somewhat doubtful of the Galilaean; but there is no sort of foundation for such a fancy. It is certain, however, that the Apostle had a new experience of a different kind in Athens. All that he said to the philosophers of Athens was true, but ineffective
Areopagus - The hill referred to is a bare, shapeless mass of rock in Athens, about 380 feet high. In Roman times the Council had power to appoint lecturers at Athens, and St
Epicureans - He lived much in Athens, where he had a garden in which he delivered his lessons to his disciples; he died 270 b. Consequently the Epicureans at Athens, though differing from the Stoics in the rejection of absolute destiny, and on other points, yet equally with them ridiculed the doctrines of Paul
Attic - ) Of or pertaining to Attica, in Greece, or to Athens, its principal city; marked by such qualities as were characteristic of the Athenians; classical; refined
Tarsus - Strabo compares it in this respect to Athens and Alexandria
Greece - The dominant city-states of the period were Athens and Sparta. Athens beat off a threat from the Persians. There followed what is known as the Golden Age of Athens. Peloponnesian city-states feared the power of Athens, however, and united under the leadership of Sparta to war against Athens. The defeat of Athens in 404 B. ... Bible students have long debated about Paul's success or lack of it at Athens (Acts 17:16-33 ). While the worship of the Greek gods had declined, Paul's experience in the marketplace at Athens shows that it was not entirely dead. Paul, however, did not win a large number of converts at Athens, but he did win some
Stoics - Paul met representatives of the Stoic philosophy at Athens ( Acts 17:18 ), that school had been in existence for about three centuries and a half. 340 265), the founder of the school, taught at Athens. Paul’s mind at Athens the high hope of bringing to the side of Christ such a noble rival of the gospel
Athens - Athens (ăth'enz). Athens, in the time of the apostle, was included in the Roman province of Achaia, but was a free city, retaining some of the forms which had belonged to it in its palmy days. Modern Athens, situated about five miles from the sea, its port being the Piraeus, has been made the capital of the present kingdom of Greece
Berea - A city of Macedon, whither Paul withdrew, with Silas and Timothy, at his first visit to Europe, from Jewish persecution at Thessalonica, whence also, when the persecutors followed him from Thessalonica, he retired seawards to proceed to Athens (Acts 17:10-15). A road led from Berea to Dium, whence probably Paul sailed to Athens, leaving Silas and Timothy behind
Athens - The city was wholly given to idolatry, and the people spent their time in strolling about and asking 'what news?' Paul laboured alone in Athens, while he waited for Silas and Timothy, and sought to reason with the Jews in their synagogue and in the market daily; then certain philosophers took him to Mars' Hill, where he delivered his memorable address to polished but heathen hearers. Athens was an ancient city, and experienced many changes and different forms of government
Poet - In witnessing to a sophisticated Greek audience at Athens, Paul appealed to poets familiar to his bearers
Greece - Its cities noticed in Scripture are Athens, Corinth, and Cenchrea
Tarsus - It was distinguished for its wealth and for its schools of learning, in which it rivalled, nay, excelled even Athens and Alexandria, and hence was spoken of as "no mean city
Chestnut Tree - The groves of the Academy at Athens, where Plato and Aristotle taught, were of eastern plane
Aristotle - He was a pupil of Plato at Athens from his eighteenth to his thirty-seventh year. About 335 he returned to Athens and opened his school of philosophy known as the Peripatetic School (Greek: peripateo, walk about) because he walked about with his disciples while teaching. Forced to leave Athens, his school continued until it was closed by Justinian in 529
Unknown God - Paul, wandering along the streets of Athens, saw an altar bearing the dedication, ‘To an Unknown God’ ( Acts 17:23 )
Tarsus - It was famous for its educational institutions, and was considered the centre of learning in Asia Minor (as Athens was in Greece and as Alexandria was in Egypt)
Succorer - Prostates was the title of a citizen in Athens, who had the responsibility of seeing to the welfare of resident aliens who were without civic rights
Consistency - Milton excuses Oliver Cromwell's want of bookish application in his youth thus:–'It did not become that hand to wax soft in literary ease which was to be inured to the use of arms and hardened with asperity; that right arm to be softly wrapped up among the birds of Athens, by which thunderbolts were soon afterwards to be hurled among the eagles which emulate the sun
aq'Uila - Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens
Stoics - Athens was famous for the freedom it gave people to lecture publicly on such matters as religion, philosophy, politics and morals. ... Stoics took their name from the place in Athens where their founder, Zeno, taught his philosophy (about 300 BC)
Areopagus - ... A sovereign tribunal at Athens, famous for the justice and impartiality of its decisions
Demetrius - Apparently a convert from the worship of Demeter, the god worshiped in the mystery religion at Eleusis near Athens
Tarsus - ' It was a seat of learning under the early Roman emperors and was ranked by Strabo as even above Athens and Alexandria: it was Paul's native place, and he visited it after his conversion
Stoics - A sect of Grecian philosophers who derived their name from stoa, "a porch," because Zeno, their founder, in the fourth century before Christ, and succeeding leaders, used to teach in the painted porch or colonnade at Athens
Mars' Hill, - The Areopagus was a rocky height in Athens, opposite the western end of the Acropolis. Paul delivered his memorable address to the men of Athens
Epicureans - Paul’s visit to Athens ( Acts 17:15-34 ) led to an encounter with ‘certain of the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers,’ representatives of the two leading schools of philosophy of that time. 307 he settled in Athens, where he died in b. A man of blameless life and of a most amiable character, Epicurus gathered around him, in the garden which he had purchased at Athens, a brotherhood of attached followers, who came to be known as Epicureans, or ‘the philosophers of the Garden
Tar'Sus, - Strabo compares it in this respect to Athens unto Alexandria
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Aquila - A Jew of Pontus whom Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Epicureanism - (ehp i cyoo ree' an ihssm) A school of philosophy which emerged in Athens about 300 B. Epicurus founded his school (The Garden) in Athens. Paul met Epicureans as he preached about Jesus and the resurrection in Athens (Acts 17:18 )
Athens - Athens became the scene of the world's first great experiment with democratic government
Academy - ) A garden or grove near Athens (so named from the hero Academus), where Plato and his followers held their philosophical conferences; hence, the school of philosophy of which Plato was head
Officer - , "one who does," or "accomplishes" (akin to prasso, "to do"), was used in Athens of one who exacts payment, a collector (the word is frequently used in the papyri of a public accountant); hence, in general, a court "officer," an attendant in a court of justice (so Deissmann); the word is used in Luke 12:58 (twice)
Mauzzim - But Antiochus also sent ‘an old man from Athens’ to ‘pollute the temple in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius’ ( 2Ma 6:2 )
Babbler - A derogatory term the Epicureans and Stoics used against Paul in Athens (Acts 17:18 )
Areopagus, or Mars Hill - Here was held the highest and most ancient and venerable court of justice in Athens for moral and political matters
Damaris - Paul at Athens (Acts 17:34)
Basil the Great, Saint - He studied at Caesarea, Constantinople, and Athens, where he became acquainted with Julian the Apostate, 335, and Saint Gregory of Nazianzus
Tribe - ) A division, class, or distinct portion of a people, from whatever cause that distinction may have originated; as, the city of Athens was divided into ten tribes
Epicureans - When Paul was at Athens, he had conferences with the Epicurean philosophers, Acts 17:18
Noise - Socrates lived in Athens during the great plague which has made so much noise in all ages, and never caught the least infection
Marble - Arundel marbles, ... Arundelian marbles, marble pieces with a chronicle of the city of Athens inscribed on them presented to the university of Oxford, by Thomas, earl of Arundel
Achaia - ’ There were Jewish settlements in this province, at Corinth, Athens, etc
Berea - The town was in the province of Macedonia in northern Greece, on the main road from Thessalonica in the north to Athens in the south
Golden Number - This discovery was considered to be so important,it became the custom to inscribe the rule for finding the moon'sage on a tablet in golden letters and placed in the market-placeat Athens; hence arose the term Golden Number
Epicure'Ans, the, - ), a philosopher of Attic descent, whose "Garden" at Athens rivalled in popularity the "Porch" and the "Academy. Paul addressed "Epicureans and Soics," (Acts 17:18 ) at Athens, the philosophy of life was practically reduced to the teaching of these two antagonistic schools
Temple - ) A place or edifice dedicated to the worship of some deity; as, the temple of Jupiter at Athens, or of Juggernaut in India
Thessalonians - The First Epistle was probably the first of all the Pauline letters, and written, not at Athens, but at Corinth, about a
Epicureans - The philosopher Epicurus, their founder, was a learned and moral man, who lived in exemplary harmony with his principles, and died at Athens, B
Delos - 478 it was chosen as the meeting-place of the confederacy of Greek States united against their common enemy the Persians, and became a rival of Athens
Greece, Religion And Society of - ... Throughout the history of Greece there were important cities: Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Argos, Pylos, Delphi, Eretria, Thebes, Pella, Olynthus, and others. Athens is often considered the representative city of the Greek way of life. From earliest times there was human occupation at Athens, beginning on the most prominent hill (Acropolis) and its slopes. While this enhanced the power and prestige of Athens, it eventually weakened the king's power as he shared it with the rulers of the surrounding communities. The king and the nobles shared authority in Athens. ... When Solon began his reforms, the government of Athens was organized around: (1) nine Archons who shared administrative power and was similar to a cabinet of officers. ... Foreigners were permitted to live in Athens but were required to pay twelve drachmas per year for the protection of the state. While slaves in Athens were treated better than most cities, there were always limitations. Athens practiced ostracism. Once each year the Senate asked: “Does the safety of the State demand a vote of ostracism?” If a person to be ostracized were named, the assembly would vote; and, if the vote required, the person would be banished from Athens for ten years. The Acropolis of Athens became the sacred precinct for the gods and goddesses, especially Athena. This was the location of the original settlement at Athens. ... A major festival celebrating Athena's sacred position was celebrated every four years in Athens, and a minor festival every year. Almost every major city had its Asclepian including Corinth, Athens, Pergammom, cities in Cyprus, Crete, and throughout the Greek world
Athens - These splendid portals crowned an ascent by marble steps to the summit of the hill, on which were erected the temples of the guardian divinities of Athens. On the right arose the Parthenon, the glory of Athens, the noblest triumph of Grecian architecture. At present Athens is comparatively in ruins, and has a population of about 28,000 addicted to the superstitions of the Greek Church
Epicureans - two opposite schools of philosophy prevalent in Athens at Paul's visit (Acts 17:18)
Market-Place - Paul should preach in the Agora at Athens was only natural, since here he would find the greatest number of people gathered together
Market - Hence the proud Pharisees desired "greeting in the market places," Matthew 12:38 ; and Paul resorted to the agora at Athens to meet and convince the philosophers, Acts 17:17 ; and the masters of the damsel at Philippi exorcised by Paul and Silas, "drew them into the market place unto the rulers," Acts 16:19
Areopagus - ) A rocky eminence in Athens, separated from the W. dwelleth not in temples made with hands"; and again in the midst of the exquisitely chiseled statues in front, crowning the Acropolis, Minerva in bronze as the armed champion of Athens, and on every side a succession of lesser images, to reason, "Forasmuch as we are the offspring of God" (which he confirms by quoting his fellow countryman Aratus' poem, 'We are His offspring'), we ought not to think that the Godhead is like gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art or man's device
Minister - ... Liturgy at Athens meant public service rendered gratuitously to the state; hence the sense of public Divine service (not restricted to sacrifice, Luke 1:23): Acts 13:2
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - Gregory was educated at Caesarea, where he formed a lasting friendship with Saint Basil, and at Alexandria and Athens
Cope - The Generals have not been able to cope with the troops of Athens
Babbler - Paul in Athens,’ in Expositor, 5th ser
Thessalonica - ... When Paul left Macedonia for Athens and Corinth, he left behind him Timothy and Silas, at Thessalonica, that they might confirm those in the faith who had been converted under his ministry
Silas - When Paul went to Athens, Silas and Timothy were left behind, perhaps to bring the latest news from Thessalonica (in case it was possible for the Apostle to return thither), with injunctions to follow at once; and this they probably did. But they seem to have been sent back on a mission to Macedonia ( 1 Thessalonians 3:1 : Paul was ‘left behind at Athens alone ’), Timothy to Thessalonica, Silas perhaps to Philippi; they rejoined Paul at Corinth, and are associated with him in the letters, probably written thence, to the Thessalonians
Silas - He stayed behind with Timothy at Berea when Paul went on to Athens, but was charged to join him there with all speed (Acts 17:15). Whether in the meantime he had joined Paul at Athens, and been sent thence to Thessalonica with Timothy (1 Thessalonians 3:2), and joined him again at Corinth, is not recorded
Achaia - Only three Achaean cities are mentioned in the NT-Athens, Corinth, and Cenchreae-but the address of 2 Cor. While 1 Corinthians 16:15 refers to the house of Stephanas as ‘the firstfruits of Achaia,’ Acts 17:34 rather indicates that the Apostle’s brief visit to Athens had already borne some fruit, ‘Dionysius, Damaris, and others with them’ being Achaean believers. Athens (q
si'Las - Paul proceeded to Athens, (Acts 17:14 ) and we hear nothing more of his movements until he rejoined the apostle at Corinth
Cleave, Clave - In Luke 10:11 it is used of the "cleaving" of dust to the feet; in Acts 5:13 ; 8:29 ; 9:26 ; 10:28 ; 17:34 , in the sense of becoming associated with a person so as to company with him, or be on his side, said, in the last passage, of those in Athens who believed: in Romans 12:9 , ethically, of "cleaving" to that which is good
Areopagus - A narrow naked ridge of limestone rock at Athens, sloping upwards from the north and terminating in an abrupt precipice on the south, 50 or 60 feet above a valley which divides it from the west end of the Acropolis
Banking - , including Rome, Athens, Carthage in north Africa, and Memphis on the Nile. State or public banks developed in Rome and Athens
Banking - , including Rome, Athens, Carthage in north Africa, and Memphis on the Nile. State or public banks developed in Rome and Athens
Unknown God - We are told that the hero, in a time of plagueat Athens, took white and black sheep to the hill Areopagus and let them loose. 3) says that at Athens are found ‘altars of unknown deities. ’ The only passage where direct support is found for the words of Acts is in the dialogue of Philopatris-attributed to Lucian-where one of the characters swears ‘by the unknown god of Athens
Areopagus - The hill of Mars, the seat of the ancient and venerable supreme court of Athens, called the Areopagites, Acts 17:19-34
Athens - ; FOUR-DRACHM OF Athens
Paradise - Earthly cities, Nineveh, Babylon, and Thebes, rested on mere force; Athens and Corinth on intellect, art, and refinement, divorced from morality; Tyre on gain; even Jerusalem on religious privileges more than on love, truth, righteousness, and holiness of heart before God
Serapion, Surnamed Sindonites - He visited Athens and Sparta
Altar - ALTAR AT Athens, inscribed "to the unknown God," Acts 17:23 . Both from Paul's assertion and the testimony of Greek writers, that altars to an unknown or gods existed at Athens
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - ... The subscription erroneously states that this epistle was written from Athens
Theatre - In Athens the meetings of the public assembly (ἐκκλησία) took place in the theatre
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - was obliged to flee by the Thessalonian Jews who followed him there Timothy (who apparently came to Berea separately from Paul and Silas; compare Acts 17:10 with Acts 17:14) and Silas remained there still, when Paul proceeded by sea to Athens. While at Athens Paul longed to visit the Thessalonians again, and see their spiritual state, and "perfect that which was lacking in their faith" (1 Thessalonians 3:10); but "Satan (through the instrumentality of the Thessalonian Jews probably, John 13:27) hindered" him (1 Thessalonians 2:18; Acts 17:13). ... He therefore sent Timothy, who followed him apparently to Athens from Berea (Acts 17:15), and immediately on his arrival at Athens to Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 3:1). Silas does not appear to have come to Paul at Athens at all, though Paul had desired him and Timothy to "come to him with all speed" (Acts 17:15), but with Timothy (who from Thessalonica called for him at Berea) joined Paul at Corinth first (Acts 18:1; Acts 18:5; "when Silas and Timothy were come from Macedonia". ) The epistle mentions Timothy at Athens (1 Thessalonians 3:12), but not Silas. (Timothy had been sent probably from Athens to inquire: 1 Thessalonians 3:1-2)
Greece - Wasting their strength and resources in fratricidal wars which gave now Athens, now Sparta, now Thebes, a temporary hegemony, they proved in the day of reckoning too feeble to resist the military power either of the Macedonian monarchy or of the Roman republic. ... ‘As Hadrian created a new Athens, so he created also a new Hellas. Under him the representatives of all the autonomous and non-autonomous towns of the province of Achaia were allowed to constitute themselves in Athens as united Greece, as the Panhellenes. There arose in Athens the temple of the new Zeus Panhellenios, and brilliant popular festivals and games were connected with this foundation, the carrying out of which pertained to the collegium of the Panhellenes, and primarily to the priest of Hadrian as the living god who founded them’ (Mommsen, op. ... Even in the period of greatest depression Hellas still maintained her old pre-eminence in education, though for a time the universities of Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus rivalled that of Athens. 385) expressed his disgust and horror when these barbarities began on occasion to be seen even in Athens. (see Athens and Corinth), but made slow progress throughout the country, where paganism, in one form or another, maintained itself till about a
Corinth - It is about 48 miles west of Athens
Sto'Ics - 280) and derived its name from the painted "portico" (stoa) at Athens in which he taught
Tarsus - Ranked by Strabo above Athens and Alexandria for its school of literature and philosophy; Athenodorus, Augustus' tutor, the grammarians Artemidorus and Diodorus, and the tragedian Dionysides belonged to Tarsus
Academics - They were so called from the Academia, a grove near Athens, where they frequently indulged their contemplations
Raphael Santi - His decoration of the Stanze, or rooms, of the Vatican include the frescoes of the Disputa, the School of Athens, and Parnassus, in one room, and the Expulsion of Heliodorus; The Mass of Bolsena, and The Deliverance of Saint Peter, in another
Tarsus - Tarsus was distinguished for the culture of Greek literature and philosophy, so that at one time, in its schools and in the number of its learned men, it was the rival of Athens and Alexandria
Temple - The most celebrated of the ancient pagan temples were that of Belus in Babylon, that of Vulcan at Memphis, that of Jupiter at Thebes, that of Diana at Ephesus, that of Apollo in Miletus,that of Jupiter Olympius in Athens, and that of Apollo at Delphi
On - It has been considered the Rome and the Athens of ancient Egypt, the centre of its religion and learning
Timothy - Thence he followed Paul to Athens, and was sent by him with Silas on a mission to Thessalonica (17:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:2 )
Stoics - Heathen philosophers, who took their names from the Greek word stoa, signifying a porch, or portico, because Zeno, the head of the Stoics, kept his school in a porch of the city of Athens
Court - Paul was brought into the highest court in Athens
Owl - " Αthene meridionalis on coins of Athens: emblem of Minerva, common in Syria; grave, but not heavy
Of - ) Denoting relation to place or time; belonging to, or connected with; as, men of Athens; the people of the Middle Ages; in the days of Herod
Porch - The most famous of these ‘porches’ a sense in which the word is now obsolete were the ‘painted porch’ the Porch par excellence at Athens, and Solomon’s porch at Jerusalem (see below)
Tribe - The city of Athens was divided into ten tribes
Epicureans - Paul met with them in Athens. Athens was the home and centre of the four great philosophies founded by Plato, Aristotle, Zeno, and Epicurus. At the age of 18 Epicurus left for Athens, returning home a year later to Colophon, where his father now lived. He returned to Athens in 307 b. From all the political upheavals through which Athens passed the Epicureans held strictly aloof, exemplifying their principles by indifference to environment and the endeavour to extract the maximum of tranquil gratification from life by the prudent and unimpassioned use of it. ’ And during the severe famine which afflicted Athens, Plutarch informs us that the Epicureans lived on beans which they shared out from day to day (Demetrius, 34)
Tim'Othy - He appears, however, at Berea, and remains there when Paul and Silas are obliged to leave, (Acts 17:14 ) going afterward to join his master at Athens. (1 Thessalonians 3:2 ) From Athens he is sent back to Thessalonica, ibid. He returns from Thessalonica, not to Athens, but to Corinth, and his name appears united with St
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - Paul is sent away by the brethren to Berœa, and thence again to Athens, leaving Silas and Timothy in Berœa. From Athens he sent for them, waiting till they should arrive ( Acts 17:15-16 ), but apparently they did not rejoin him till he had passed on to Corinth ( Acts 18:5 ). Paul from Athens ( 1 Thessalonians 3:1-2 ). Paul in Athens, and was sent back to Thessalonica under impulse of the Apostle’s deep concern for his converts, whom he could not re-visit personally, for ‘Satan hindered us’ ( 1 Thessalonians 3:1-2 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:17-18 )
Berenice, Bernice - A fragment of an inscription in her honour at Athens gives no indication of time or occasion
Fear - There is an idolatrous and superstitious fear, which is called a fear of daemons, which the city of Athens was greatly addicted to
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - of Athens, who came to Rome and was sent by Clement, bp
Alexan'Dria, - " After Rome became the chief city of the world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and second to Athens only in literature and science
Judgment Seat - , "foot-room," was used to denote a raised place or platform, reached by steps, originally that at Athens in the Pnyx Hill, where was the place of assembly; from the platform orations were made
Altar - Paul found among the many altars erected in Athens one bearing the inscription, "To the unknown God" ( Acts 17:23 ), or rather "to an [i. It afforded the apostle the occasion of proclaiming the gospel to the "men of Athens
Thessalonians - Paul went to Berea, and thence to Athens, at both which places he remained but a short time. From Athens he sent Timothy to Thessalonica, to confirm the new converts in their faith, and to inquire into their conduct
Silas or Silyanus - From Athens a message is sent by Paul, instructing them to come to him with all speed (Acts 17:15), but he has left that city and arrived at Corinth before they rejoin him (Acts 18:5). 1 Thessalonians 3:1-5 conveys the impression that Timothy had been with Paul in Athens, and had been sent thence to Thessalonica to comfort the Church there and bring news of its condition. It is possible that Timothy paid a visit to Athens which has not been recorded in Acts, but it is unnecessary to infer that Silas accompanied him, and that consequently there is a lacuna in Acts, so far as he is concerned
Owl - It is the Athene persica, the bird of Minerva, the symbol of ancient Athens
Image - Paul was greatly affected, when he saw that the city of Athens was "wholly given to idolatry," Acts 17:16 ; and declared to the Athenians, that they ought not "to think that the Godhead is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man's device,"... Acts 17:29 . ... That the first Christians had no images, is evident from this circumstance,—that they were reproached by the HeAthens, because they did not use them; and we find almost every ecclesiastical writer of the first four centuries arguing against the Gentile practice of image worship, from the plain declarations of Scripture, and from the pure and spiritual nature of God
Thessalonians Epistles to the - 14 the reading of the MSS HLP ὡς ἐπὶ τὴν θάλασσαν, suggests that Paul travelled overland to Athens (Introd. ] probably to Dium, where he embarked for Athens. The existence of the Thessalonian δῆμος (Acts 17:5), the title πολιτάρχης (Acts 17:6-8), the greater freedom of women in Macedonian life as compared with that of Athens (Acts 17:4), are all facts substantiated by contemporary evidence (cf. makes it clear that before this they had been with him in Athens (1 Thessalonians 3:1). -In Athens Paul was joined by Silas and Timothy, who caused him grave anxiety by their tidings of fresh persecutions suffered by the Thessalonian Church (1 Thessalonians 3:1-5). Left alone in Athens, after a sojourn in that city of not more than four or five weeks Paul went on to Corinth, where Silas and Timothy found him on their return from Macedonia* [Note: Soon after Timothy’s departure from Athens, Silas seems to have been sent on a similar errand to another Macedonian Church (" translation="">Acts 18:5), perhaps to Philippi (" translation="">Philippians 4:15). Unable to bear suspense, he and Silas sent Timothy from Athens to learn how they fared
Corinthians, Second Epistle to the - , in Athens, Cenchrea, and other cities in Greece
Timotheus, Timothy - They joined Paul at Athens, and Timothy was sent back to Thessalonica, and brought his report to Paul at Corinth
Dianius, Bishop of Caesarea - He was almost certainly the bishop who baptized Basil the Great on his return from Athens, and ordained him lector (Basil, de Sp
Heliopolis - "They are like those of Athens for lightness, but far surpass them in vastness; they are vast and massive, like those of Thebes, but far excel them in airiness and grace
Philosophy - In Athens, the Epicurean, and Stoic philosophers made a jest of Paul's discourse; and in many places of his epistles, he opposes the false wisdom of he age, that is, the pagan philosophy, to the wisdom of Jesus Christ, and the true religion, which to the philosophers and sophists seemed to be mere folly, because it was built neither on the eloquence nor the subtlety of those who preached it, but on the power of God, and on the operations of the Holy Ghost in the hearts and minds of believers; and because it did not amuse and flatter man, but probed him a guilty rebel against God, in perishing need of a Savior
Library - , Peisistratus of Athens and Polycrates of Samos, were the first Greeks to gather libraries. ... The first corporate Hellenistic library was conceived by Ptolemy I at Alexandria in Egypt, and then established by Demetrius of Phalerum (Athens) under Ptolemy II (285-247 B. An inscription from Athens reads: “No book shall be taken out, since we have sworn thus
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - seven which he calls "Catholic Epistles," addressed to Lacedemon, Athens, Nicomedia, Gortyna and other churches in Crete, Amastris and other churches in Pontus, Cnossus and Rome; and one to "his most faithful sister Chrysophora. of Corinth might consider Lacedaemon and Athens as under his metropolitan superintendence, but that he should send letters of admonition to Crete, Bithynia, and Paphlagonia not only proves the reputation of the writer, but indicates the unity of the Christian community. of Athens; but the importance of the bishop seems to be still subordinate to that of his church
Moses of Khoren - ] Born at Khoren or Khorni, a town of the province of Darou, he was one of a band of scholars sent by Mesrob to study at Edessa, Constantinople, Alexandria, Athens, and Rome
Bishop - ” It was used of the finance officers of Greek guilds and of the officers Athens sent to its subject-states
Ephesus - It was colonized principally from Athens
Fornication - Here again prostitution played a central role in worship in places like Corinth and Athens
Syracuse - Syracuse defied Athens, when the latter was at the height of her power, and came off victorious
Philosopher, Philosophy - It was so at Athens, when Paul preached to the philosophers
Areopagite, Areopagus - In Acts 17:34 the title ‘the Areopagite’ is given to one Dionysius, a convert to the Christian faith at Athens, implying that he was a member of the council of the Areopagus. of the Acropolis at Athens, which was famous in the history of the city
Alexandria - Alexandria numbered, in the days of its ancient prosperity, 800,000 inhabitants, half of them slaves, and ranked next to Athens in literature
Philosophy - It is clear that the first time Christianity was taught in Athens, an intellectual hub of the ancient world, the message of monotheism was equated with obtuseness. " The fact that Paul quotes some of their poets (17:28) corroborates the notion that he was not anti-intellectual; instead, he gives a reasonable, philosophical deposition when challenging the intellectuals of Athens
Citizenship - The regular πόλις in the Greek world was on the model of the constitution of Athens. 2 = The Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens, London, 1895); K
Alaric - Athens capitulated, and afterwards Corinth, Argos, and Sparta. "The heAthens fled to the churches, the only places of refuge. 7) asserts that on his approach to Athens its walls were seen to be guarded by Minerva and Achilles
Altar - There were several altars in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague
Josephus, Catholicos of Armenia - Joseph was one of the band of Armenian scholars trained under Mesrob and Isaac the Great and afterwards in the schools of Athens and Constantinople
Philosophy - Paul’s only recorded contact with philosophers occurred in Athens, where he met some Epicureans and Stoics (Acts 17:18)
Berôa - Paul and his escort set sail for Athens (Acts 17:15), Sopater, who is mentioned in Acts 20:4 as one of St
Altar - There were several altars in Athens with this inscription, erected during the time of a plague, since they knew not what god was offended and required to be propitiated
Timothy - ... Timothy accompanied Paul in his Macedonian tour; but he and Silas stayed behind in Berea, when the apostle went forward to Athens. Afterward, he went on to Athens and was immediately sent back (Acts 17:15; 1 Thessalonians 3:1) by Paul to visit the Thessalonian church; he brought his report to Paul at Corinth (1 Thessalonians 3:2; 1 Thessalonians 3:6; Acts 18:1; Acts 18:5)
Alexandria - Alexander, when he built the city of Alexandria, with a determination to make it the seat of his empire, and peopled it with emigrants from various countries, opened a new mart of philosophy, which emulated the fame of Athens itself. Ptolemy Lagus, who had obtained the crown of Egypt by usurpation, was particularly careful to secure the interest of the Greeks in his favour, and with this view invited people from every part of Greece to settle in Egypt, and removed the schools of Athens to Alexandria
Nicopolis - He made it a free city like Athens or Sparta, and instituted so-called Actian Games, which he put on the same level as the four ancient Hellenic festivals
Mesrobes - Mesrobes attracted great numbers to his schools and sent the ablest pupils to study at Edessa, Athens, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and even Rome, whence they brought back the most authentic copies of the Scriptures, the Fathers, Acts of the councils, and the profane writers
Stoics - Paul met with them and the Epicureans at Athens. The founders of Stoicism were not pure Greeks, although the chief centre of instruction was Athens, nor was the system a product of the true Greek spirit. ) came to Athens from Citium in Cyprus
Macedonia - The famous Greek tragedian Euripides spent some time at the court of the Macedonian kings; and Aristotle, before he founded his philosophical school in Athens, served as the teacher of the Macedonian prince Alexander. , the First Letter to the Thessalonians which Paul wrote from Corinth after he had preached in Beroea and in Athens (Acts 17:13-15 )
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - In 122 he came to Athens which became his favourite residence and the same eclectic tendency led him to seek initiation in the Eleusinian mysteries (a. At Athens he was initiated in the Eleusinian mysteries, and rose to the dignity of an Epoptes in the order, as one in the circle of its most esoteric teaching
Paul - ... 45-49... Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty: agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his difference with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter... Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beræa, Athens, and Corinth)
Timothy - He was left behind at Berœa when the Apostle moved on to Athens, but was summoned to rejoin him (Acts 17:14-15 )
Accusation, Accuse - " At Athens a man whose business it was to give information against anyone who might be detected exporting figs out of the province, is said to have been called a sukophantes (see Note (2) below)
Judge - At Athens the dikastes acted as a juryman, the krites being the presiding "judge
Philadelphia - ’... Philadelphia had so many festivals and temples that it was often called ‘Little Athens
Nation - 146:... ‘And there will not be one law at Rome and another at Athens, one law to-day and another law to-morrow; but the same law everlasting and unchangeable will bind all nations at all times; and there will be one common Master and Ruler of all, even God, the framer, the arbitrator, and the proposer of this law
Roads And Travel - From Athens (Acts 17:15 to Acts 18:1) he went, by sea no doubt, to Corinth, and from there by the short land journey to the southern port of Corinth, Cenchreae (Acts 18:18). Whether he took the sea-journey to Athens on this occasion also from the unknown port near BerCEa is uncertain; but to Athens and Corinth he went. We next hear of him at Athens (arrived 25th June, left 6th July), On 6th July he sailed from the Piraeus, the harbour of Athens, to Zoster, from there on 8th July to Ceos, on 9th July to Gyaros, on the 10th to Syros, on the 11th to Delos, He then went by Samos to Ephesus (arrived 22nd July, departed 26th July)
Corinth - CORINTH was the capital of the Roman province Achaia, and, in every respect except educationally (see Athens), the most important city in Greece in Roman times
Cyprus - Athens made repeated attempts to secure the island, but the mixed population prevented any strong Hellenic movement, and it only passed definitely into Greek hands by submission to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus in b
Nonnus of Panopolis - ), and Athens (xlvii
Acts of the Apostles - He was a physician ( Colossians 4:14 ), and had quite probably studied at the University of Athens, where he seems quite at home though not present at the Athenian scenes he describes ( Acts 17:16 ff. Acts 13:8 (no reason given for Elymas’ opposition, it is not explicitly said that Paul preached to the proconsul), Acts 13:13 (the reason for Mark’s departure not stated, nor yet for Paul and Barnabas going to Pisidian Antioch), Acts 16:35 (no reason given for the Philippi prætors’ change of attitude), Acts 17:15 (not said that the injunction was obeyed, but from 1 Thessalonians 3:1 we see that Timothy had rejoined Paul at Athens and was sent away again to Macedonia, whence he came in Acts 18:5 to Corinth), Acts 20:16 (not stated that they arrived in time for Pentecost, but it must be understood), Acts 27:43 (it must be inferred that the injunction was obeyed). Contrast the account of the conduct of the Greek magistrates at Iconium and Thessalonica who were active against him, or of the Court of the Areopagus at Athens who were contemptuous, with the silence about the action of the Roman magistrates of Pisidian Antioch and Lystra, or the explicit statements about Sergius Paulus, Gallio, Felix, Festus, Claudius Lysias and Julius the centurion, who were more or less fair or friendly. ( f ) The old Court of the Areopagus at Athens ( Acts 17:19 ), which really ruled the city, though it was a ‘free city,’ as the demos or popular assembly had lost its authority
Altar - ... The "altar to an unknown God" mentioned by Paul (Acts 17:22) was erected in time of a plague at Athens, when they knew not what god to worship for removing it. Diogenes Laertius, Pausanias, and Philostratus, pagan writers, confirm the accuracy of Scripture by mentioning several altars at Athens to the unknown or unnamed deity
Diognetus, Epistle to - ... In free allied states like Antioch and Athens avowal of Christianity may have been tolerated when not suffered in Roman or subject regions. The chief school of Christian thought would seem still to be at Athens, though on the eve of its transference to Alexandria by Athenagoras
Greek Language - In addition, the literary brilliance of the period was limited primarily to the Attic Greek dialect and to Athens
Ephesus - by Ionian Greek settlers led by Androclus of Athens
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - 15), and thence to Athens, where he studied during the years 351-355, chiefly under the Sophists Himerius and Prohaeresius. His acquaintance with his fellow-student and inseparable companion Gregory Nazianzen, previously begun at Caesarea, speedily ripened at Athens into an ardent friendship, which subsisted with hardly any interruption through the greater part of their lives. Athens also afforded Basil the opportunity of familiar intercourse with a fellow-student whose name was destined to become unhappily famous, the nephew of the emperor Constantius, Julian. Basil remained at Athens till the middle or end of 355, when with extreme reluctance he left for his native city. Among the first whom he invited was his fellow-student at Athens, Basil
Corinth - Excavation was begun by the American School of Classical Studies in Athens in 1896
Timothy - ... Missionary travels... After travelling with Paul through Troas, Philippi, Thessalonica and Berea to Athens, Timothy was entrusted with his first individual mission
Jews in the New Testament - ... Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 )
Macedonia - Another route went south from Thessalonica through Berea to Athens (Acts 17:10-15)
Idolatry - Paul visited Athens, ‘his spirit was provoked within him, as he beheld the city full of idols,’ even though the statement is not strictly accurate
Friends Friendship - So far as we know, he never laboured alone, except in Athens
Prison - The word δεσμωτήριον, frequently applied by Attic orators to the prison at Athens, and used in the Acts interchangeably with φυλακή, is translated ‘prison-house’ in the RV_ (Acts 5:21; Acts 5:23, Acts 16:26)
Macrina, the Younger - Basil returned from Athens c
Education - The school-rooms of ancient Athens seem to have been simple enough, containing little or no furniture-they were often nothing but porches open to wind and sun, where the children sat on the ground, or on low benches, and the teacher on a high chair. At this epoch Athens and Rome had famous schools, but even they had to yield to Rhodes, Alexandria, and Tarsus; and Marseilles, which had been from the very early days of Greek history a centre of Greek influence, was in the time of Strabo more frequented than Athens. A century later Marcus Aurelius endowed the four great philosophical schools of Athens-the Academic, the Peripatetic, the Epicurean, and the Stoic
Time (2) - This continued until some time after the Christian era, when a more perfect system, a cycle of nineteen years with seven months intercalated—the invention of an astronomer of Athens named Meton—was adopted
Roman Empire - The free cities were governed by their own magistrates, and were exempt from Roman garrisoning; as Tarsus, Antioch in Syria, Athens, Ephesus, Thessalonica
Ephesus - Paul turned from the Jews to the population in general, he appeared, as earlier in Athens, as a lecturer in philosophy, and occupied the school of Tyrannus out of school hours
Lamentations, Book of - It forms a curious contrast to the consolation offered to Athens in her decline and fall through the comedies of Aristophanes
Mansion - Bacon, however, still uses the word in its abstract sense in the Advancement of Learning (1605), and both Shakspeare and Milton use it of ‘an abiding-place’ without the suggestion of a building (Timon of Athens, v
Art And Aesthetics - Certainly, Paul was not a bit intimidated by the Aeropagus in Athens, but rather used its theological significance to preach the gospel (Acts 17:22-29 )
Athenagoras - The inscription runs thus: "The embassy ( πρεσβεία ) of Athenagoras of Athens, a Christian philosopher, concerning Christians, to the emperors Marcus Aurelius, Antoninus, and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, Armeniaci, Sarmatici, and, greatest of all, philosophers. His connexion with Athens (probably his birth there) and profession of philosophy are thus substantiated; and the manner in which he became converted to Christianity may very well have been as described by Philippus, whose account that he was head of the Academics is probably but an exaggeration of the fact that he had belonged to that sect. In the Commentatio of Clarisse, § 8, is the acute conjecture that the treatise de Resurrectione was written at Alexandria rather than Athens, from c
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - Gregory pressed on to Athens. At Athens Gregory and Basil were together again (Orat. When they were being defeated, Gregory, feeling the honour of Athens at stake, came to the rescue, but soon saw their real object, and left them to join his friend ( Orat. ... Gregory must have spent at Athens probably not less than ten years
Oracle - Mercury had oracles at Patras, upon Harmon, and in other places; Mars, in Thrace, Egypt and elsewhere; Hercules, at Cadiz, Athens, in Egypt, at Tivoli, in Mesopotamia, where he issued his oracles by dreams, whence he was called Somnialis. The Pythian declared, that Minerva, the protectress of Athens, had endeavoured in vain to appease the wrath of Jupiter; yet that Jupiter, in complaisance to his daughter, was willing the Athenians should save themselves within wooden walls; and that Salamis should behold the loss of a great many children, dear to their mothers, either when Ceres was spread abroad, or gathered together. Middleton, in his "Examination," &c, replies, that he is guilty of this impiety, and that he thinks himself warranted to pronounce from the authority of the best and wisest of the HeAthens themselves, and the evidence of plain facts, which are recorded of those oracles, as well as from the nature of the thing itself, that they were all mere imposture, wholly invented and supported by human craft, without any supernatural aid or interpositon whatsoever. He alleges, that Cicero, speaking of the Delphic oracle, the most revered of any in the Heathen world, declares, that nothing was become more contemptible, not only in his days, but long before him; that Demosthenes, who lived about three hundred years earlier, affirmed of the same oracle, in a public speech to the people of Athens, that it was gained to the interests of King Philip, an enemy to that city; that the Greek historians, tell us, how, on several other occasions, it had been corrupted by money, to serve the views of particular persons and parties, and the prophetess sometimes had been deposed for bribery and lewdness; that there were some great sects of philosophers, who, on principle, disavowed the authority of all oracles; agreeably to all which Strabo tells us, that divination in general and oracles had been in high credit among the ancients, but in his days were treated with much contempt; lastly, that Eusebius also, the great historian of the primitive church, declares, that there were six hundred writers among the HeAthens themselves who had publicly written against the reality of them. This likewise appears from Plutarch's treatise, why the oracles cease to give answers, already cited; whence it is also manifest, that the most learned HeAthens were very much at a loss how to give a tolerable account of it
Physician - Our sources of knowledge of Greek medicine and physicians are (1) works of ancient physicians; (2) notices of early writers concerning Greek medicine and physicians, as Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Pausanias, and Galen; (3) various medical instruments in the great museums of Athens, Berlin, Paris, and London, such as knives, probes, needles, balsam cups; (4) inscriptions and papyri; (5) altars, temples, and caves; (6) images of gods and votive offerings. Of these there were more than 300 at Athens, Cnidos, Cos (the ruins of which have been uncovered within the last few years), Delphi, Pergamos, Rhodes, and Trcezen. Later, at Athens, he received £406; later still, at Samos under Polykrates, £480
Paul as the Chief of Sinners - ... A Greek fortune-teller was once reading Socrates's hands and face to discern his true character and to advertise the people of Athens of his real deserts. And when the enraged crowd were about to fall upon the soothsayer and tear him to pieces for saying such things about their greatest saint, Socrates himself came forward and restrained their anger and confessed openly and said, "Ye men of Athens, let this truth-speaking man alone, and do him no harm
World, the - The whole created order Paul before the Areopagus in Athens spoke of “the God who made the world and everything in it” (Acts 17:24 NIV)
Malachi - Socrates at Athens was at about the same time awakening that corrupt city to self examination
Tarsus - Inspired with an enthusiasm for learning and the arts, it established a university, which was not indeed so splendidly equipped as the older foundations of Athens and Alexandria, but, according to Strabo (XIV
Bishop - Greek episkopos , applied to the inspectors sent by Athens to her subject states, to inquire into their state, to rule and defend them
Minister - 2), in classical Greek, signified at Athens "to supply public offices at one's own cost, to render public service to the State;" hence, generally, "to do service," said, e
Heathen - ] τὰ ἔθνη) in the Sermon on the Mount were designed to illustrate His teaching respecting the righteousness of the Kingdom of God, as a righteousness which demanded, in loving one’s neighbour, much more than that reciprocity of courtesy which even heAthens practised (Matthew 5:47); in prayer, a childlike trustfulness of asking, unlike the wordy clamour of heathen worship (Matthew 6:7); and in work, a loving dependence on God, which would exalt work, and make it quite a different thing from heathen drudgery (Matthew 6:32). 354), ‘whose charm to this day rests on the appeal to the common feeling of humanity,’ and on the principle that ‘that which was valid … among heAthens was also truly Christian’ (cf. Paul in Athens’ by Ernst Curtius, in Expositor, 7th ser
Paul - Tarsus was also the seat of a famous university, higher in reputation even than the universities of Athens and Alexandria, the only others that then existed. " He reached Athens, but quitted it after, probably, a brief sojourn (17:17-31)
Family - Other prominent women in the apostolic writings are Damaris (Acts 17:34), whom Ramsay thinks not to have been of noble birth, as the regulations at Athens with regard to the seclusion of women were more strict than in some other places, and a well-born lady would hardly have been likely there to come to hear St. In Athens the slaves were reckoned as numbering four times the free citizens, and elsewhere the proportion was even greater
Benedictus of Nursia, Abbott of Monte Cassino - Here for 12 years or more he presided over his followers; here he is believed to have composed the Benedictine Rule, in the same year, it is said, in which the schools of Athens were suppressed, and his famous Code was promulgated by Justinian; and from this sequestered spot he sent forth his emissaries not only to Anxur (Terracina, Dial
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - He studied philosophy or secular learning at Athens, where he probably was an associate of Basil and Julian, the future emperor (Facund
Philosophy - Paul's visit to Athens, ( Acts 17:18 ) and there is nothing in the apostolic writings to show that it exercised any important influence upon the early Church
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - He thus could gratify a long-cherished wish of visiting Athens. The young prince was naturally well received by professors and sophists, such as Prohaeresius and Himerius, then teaching at Athens. —About May 355 Julian was permitted to go to Athens, but a few months later was summoned again to the court (Jul
Money (2) - Thus, while it is not impossible that the coins in question may have been drachms of the Phœnician standard, they are with greater probability to be identified with the ‘Attic drachms’* [Note: It may not be out of place to remind the reader that the word ‘Attic’ in this connexion implies only a remote association with the coinage of Athens. In Athens it was at first applied to the didrachm, which was looked upon as the standard coin of the monetary system, but afterwards to the tetradrachm or piece of four drachms
City - Babylon, Nineveh, Jerusalem, Athens, Rome, Alexandria, Venice, Florence, and the mediaeval cities all mark stages in the development of the higher culture of the race
Money - Others ascribe this honour to Erichthonius, who had been educated by the daughters of Cecrops, king of Athens: others, again, to Phidon, king of Argos
Proselyte - ’ (6) Lydia (Acts 16:14), Titus Justus (Acts 18:7), and the σεβόμενοι of Thessalonica and Athens (Acts 17:4; Acts 17:17) illustrate the important aid that members of this class gave to St
Sea - Paul, on arriving at the coast, changed his plan, and, instead of taking ship for Athens at Methone or Pydna, went on foot, it is impossible to say
Idol, Idolatry - As the gospel message spread it encountered various forms of idolatry in the pagan world as attested in Acts, especially Paul's encounters at Athens (17:16-31) and Ephesus (19:23-34)
Alexandria - ] for their own use, came into the hands of their Hellenic neighbours, who gave them in exchange the classics of Athens
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - About the same time he returned eastwards through Athens, and was at Olympia in a
Stranger, Alien, Foreigner - ’ Read also in Acts 17:21 (Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ πάντες καὶ οἱ ἐπιδημοῦντες ξένοι), ‘Now all the Athenians and the strangers sojourning there’: ‘the large number of foreign residents … was always a distinguishing feature of Athens’ (J
Ephesus - The fanatical hatred of Ephesus was better than the polite scorn of Athens
Minister Ministry - The classical use of these words for the rendering of public services, or contributions to the State, at Athens, prepared the way for the religious use; and it is probable that the employment of these expressions by the writers of the NT in describing Christian worship is not entirely due to the influence of the Septuagint
the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans - For it was a proverb in Athens that they were always well in health, and full of all sweet affability all next day, who had supped last night with Plato
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - In 1867 there was found at Athens what there is good reason to believe was this copy, which, by theft or otherwise, had found its way to Greece
Paul - He went thence to Athens, where he delivered that discourse recorded in Acts 17. From Athens, Paul went to Corinth, Acts 18, A. Paul's zeal in spreading Christianity among the Gentiles, seeing him one day in the temple, endeavoured to excite a tumult, by crying out that he was the man who was aiming to destroy all distinction between Jew and Gentile; who taught things contrary to the law of Moses; and who had polluted the holy temple, by bringing into it uncircumcised HeAthens. In this manner Paul prepared the overthrow of two religions, that of his ancestors, and that of the HeAthens
Paul - Paul as far as Athens, where they left him carrying back a request to Silas and Timothy that they would speedily join him. Here the apostle delivered that wonderful discourse reported in (Acts 17:22-31 ) He gained but few converts at Athens, and soon took his departure and went to Corinth
Chronology of the New Testament - Second Missionary Journey, from Antioch through Syria-Cilicia to Derbe and Lystra, Acts 15:41 ; Acts 16:1 ; through the ‘Phrygo-Galatic’ region of the province Galatia to Troas, Acts 16:6-8 ; to Macedonia, Acts 16:11 ; Athens, Acts 17:15 ; and Corinth, Acts 18:1 , where 18 months are spent; thence by sea to Ephesus, Acts 18:19 ; Jerusalem (fourth visit), Acts 18:22 ; and Antioch, where ‘some time’ is spent, Acts 18:23
Language of the nt - Few of these dialects gave birth to any literature; and the intellectual primacy of Athens by the end of the classical period (4th cent
Corinth - Paul had come from Athens, shortly afterward Silas and Timothy from Macedonia joined him
Children (Sons) of God - In his speech at Athens ( Acts 17:28 ) he for a moment adopts the Greek point of view, and regards all men as the ‘offspring’ of God
Cross, Cross-Bearing - Paul, as opposed to Jewish spectacular apocalyptics and Greek philosophizing; and he preached nothing else, not simply at Corinth, for he had done so at Athens (Acts 17:31), and this was the settled purpose of his ministry (1 Corinthians 2:2)
Clement of Alexandria - Alexandria was the principal scene of his labours; but there was no apparent reason for connecting him with Athens by mere conjecture. Athens was still the centre of the literary and spiritual life of Greece. Such a conversion would not be irreconcilable with the belief that Clement, like Augustine, was of Christian parentage at least on one side; but whether Clement's parents were Christians or heAthens it is evident that heathenism attracted him for a time; and though he soon overcame its attractions, his inquisitive spirit did not at once find rest in Christianity
Clementine Literature - Thereupon the father sent his wife and children with suitable provision of money and attendance to Athens, in order to educate them there. On her voyage to Athens she had been shipwrecked, and cast on shore by the waves, without being able to tell what had become of her children
Heir Heritage Inheritance - In Asia Minor and Athens a daughter could inherit, and an adopted son probably married the heiress (ib
Simon Magus - Themistocles could not sleep because of the huzzas that filled the streets of Athens when Miltiades walked abroad; and the crowds that followed Peter and John were gall and wormwood to Simon Magus
the Angel of the Church in Sardis - THEMISTOCLES, Plutarch tells us, could not get to sleep at night so loud was all Athens in the praises of Miltiades
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - Paul at Athens the first apostle of France? The answer would not seem doubtful from the statement of Sulpicius Severus, that the earliest martyrs in Gaul were under the reign of Aurelius (Sacr
Matthias the Successor to Judas Iscariot - He was like the defeated candidate in Plutarch who, departing home from the election to his house, said to them at home that it did him good to see that there were three hundred men in Athens who were better men than he was
Trinity - ’ This doctrine appealed ‘first to unsophisticated men, far removed from Alexandria or Athens; yet the very words in which it does so, turn out, upon analysis, to involve a view of personality which the world had not attained, but which, once stated, is seen to be profoundly, philosophically true’ (Illingworth, Personality , p
Rome, Romans - In some provinces certain States were free, such as Athens in the province of Achaia
Woman - ‘The courtesan was the one free woman of Athens’ (Lecky, op
Minister, Ministration - At Athens the λειτουργίαι (from obsol
Time - This cycle was introduced into Athens by Meton the astronomer in 432, but found its way only gradually into general practice
Paul as a Student - Athens was a great city, Corinth was a great city, and Ephesus was a great city
Paul - His preaching in Athens met with meager results
Preaching - In Athens he did not hesitate to quote a pagan pcet (Acts 17:28), and expounded the philosophy of the Christian religion
Christianity - Paul seized on this truth when he saw in the altar at Athens inscribed ‘To an Unknown God,’ an unconscious appeal to the Christian missionary to declare the God and Father of Jesus Christ ( Acts 17:22 ff
Gods, Pagan - Athena, namesake and patron of the city of Athens, was a virgin goddess connected with arts and crafts, fertility, and war
Galatians, Epistle to the - ‘Achaia’ (which in Greek popular usage had a much narrower meaning than the Roman province, and did not include Athens, while St
Synagogue - Throughout Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece and its islands, in cities such as Ephesus, Philippi, Thessalonica, Athens, and Corinth, the synagogues, being the gathering-places for Jews and ‘God-fearing’ half-proselytes (Acts 13:16; Acts 13:26; Acts 13:43; Acts 17:17), offered a sphere of activity to St
Trade And Commerce - The Mysteries of Eleusis near Athens and of Samothrace, the Feasts of Dionysus at Argos and of Pythian Apollo at Delphi, the Isthmian Games at Corinth, and the Olympian Games in Elis (Peloponnese), all attracted countless visitors and stimulated trade, being the ancient counterparts of the Stourbridge, Leipzig, and Nijni Novgorod fairs of more modern times
Roman Law in the nt - At Athens, also a ‘free’ city, we find a Greek institution, the court of the Areopagus (Acts 17:19; Acts 17:22), the members of which were called ‘Areopagites’ (Acts 17:34)
Wisdom - ... The Apostle’s experience in Athens (Acts 17:16-34) had not encouraged him to meet philosophers on their own ground, and, when he came to Corinth, it was with the deliberate purpose of not commending his message by the devices of rhetorical display, or the arguments of philosophy-‘I came not with any striking rhetorical or philosophical display, for I determined not to know anything among you save Jesus Christ, and him crucified’ (1 Corinthians 2:1-2)
Luke - Paul at, Athens or similar incidents are free literary compositions, and void of all historical foundation, but does show that a considerable use was made of library clichés in setting out, illustrating, and adorning a narrative
Immortality (2) - Teaching appropriate and welcome to the keen-witted and philosophic circles of Athens will fall on dull and inappreciative ears by the waterside or in the fields of Galilee
Paul - ) The leading facts of his life which appear in that history, subsidiary to its design of sketching the great epochs in the commencement and development of Christ's kingdom, are: his conversion (Acts 9), his labours at Antioch (Acts 11), his first missionary journey (Acts 13; 14), the visit to Jerusalem at the council on circumcision (Acts 15), introduction of the gospel to Europe at Philippi (Acts 16),: visit to Athens (Acts 17), to Corinth (Acts 18), stay at Ephesus (Acts 19), parting address to the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20), apprehension at Jerusalem, imprisonment at Casesarea, and voyage to Rome (Acts 21-27)
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Paul’s address at Athens (Acts 17:31): ‘He hath appointed a day in the which he will judge the world in righteousness,’ and immediately thereafter, ‘by a man whom he hath (thereto) ordained, having given him his credentials before all men by having raised him from the dead
Esther - He was that incubus of carnage who seated himself on a throne of gold on a hill-top of Greece to see his vast fleet of ships sweep off the sea the sea-forces of Athens. She is more scandalised than she can tell you at the way that some of her school-fellows have married heAthens, and at the life they lead without God's worship in their newly-married houses
Parousia - In the speech at Athens the final appeal is emphasized by the announcement of an appointed day in which God will judge the world by Christ, and the resurrection of Christ is assigned as the pledge of the truth of this announcement
Proverbs - At Athens criminals were flung, with stones about their necks, into the Barathrum, a dark, well-like chasm (Aristoph
Resurrection - The philosophers of Athens met his categorical assertion of the resurrection of Jesus not merely with a refusal to credit his statement, but with a plain derision of the very idea ( Acts 17:32 ; cf
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - But the difficulties were not those with which he had met in Athens, where the philosophic inhabitants derided him
Miracle - ... The philosophers of Athens and Rome inculcated, indeed, many excellent moral precepts, and they sometimes ventured to expose the absurdities of the reigning superstitions; but their lectures had no influence upon the multitude; and they had themselves imbibed such erroneous notions respecting the attributes of the Supreme Being, and the nature of the human soul, and converted those notions into first principles, of which they would not permit an examination, that even among them a thorough reformation was not to be expected from the powers of reasoning
Palestine - ) The "beveling," thought to be Jewish, is really common throughout Asia Minor; it is found at Persepolis, Cnidus, and Athens
Trade And Commerce - The Mysteries of Eleusis near Athens and of Samothrace, the Feasts of Dionysus at Argos and of Pythian Apollo at Delphi, the Isthmian Games at Corinth, and the Olympian Games in Elis (Peloponnese), all attracted countless visitors and stimulated trade, being the ancient counterparts of the Stourbridge, Leipzig, and Nijni Novgorod fairs of more modern times
Christ in the Middle Ages - Paul on the occasion of his visit to Athens