Places Study on Arab

Places Study on Arab

Numbers 23: And he took up his parable, and said, Balak the king of Moab hath brought me from Aram, out of the mountains of the east, saying, Come, curse me Jacob, and come, defy Israel.
Numbers 23: And he took up his parable, and said, Rise up, Balak, and hear; hearken unto me, thou son of Zippor:
Numbers 24: And he took up his parable, and said, Balaam the son of Beor hath said, and the man whose eyes are open hath said:
Numbers 24: And he took up his parable, and said, Balaam the son of Beor hath said, and the man whose eyes are open hath said:
Numbers 24: And when he looked on Amalek, he took up his parable, and said, Amalek was the first of the nations; but his latter end shall be that he perish for ever.
Numbers 24: And he looked on the Kenites, and took up his parable, and said, Strong is thy dwellingplace, and thou puttest thy nest in a rock.
Numbers 24: And he took up his parable, and said, Alas, who shall live when God doeth this!
Joshua 15: And the border went up to Bethhogla, and passed along by the north of Betharabah; and the border went up to the stone of Bohan the son of Reuben:
Joshua 15: Arab, and Dumah, and Eshean,
Joshua 15: In the wilderness, Betharabah, Middin, and Secacah,
Joshua 18: And passed along toward the side over against Arabah northward, and went down unto Arabah:
Joshua 18: And Betharabah, and Zemaraim, and Bethel,
1 Kings 10: Beside that he had of the merchantmen, and of the traffick of the spice merchants, and of all the kings of Arabia, and of the governors of the country.
2 Chronicles 9: Beside that which chapmen and merchants brought. And all the kings of Arabia and governors of the country brought gold and silver to Solomon.
2 Chronicles 17: Also some of the Philistines brought Jehoshaphat presents, and tribute silver; and the Arabians brought him flocks, seven thousand and seven hundred rams, and seven thousand and seven hundred he goats.
2 Chronicles 21: Moreover the LORD stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near the Ethiopians:
2 Chronicles 22: And the inhabitants of Jerusalem made Ahaziah his youngest son king in his stead: for the band of men that came with the Arabians to the camp had slain all the eldest. So Ahaziah the son of Jehoram king of Judah reigned.
2 Chronicles 26: And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians that dwelt in Gurbaal, and the Mehunims.
Nehemiah 2: But when Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, and Geshem the Arabian, heard it, they laughed us to scorn, and despised us, and said, What is this thing that ye do? will ye rebel against the king?
Nehemiah 4: But it came to pass, that when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and the Arabians, and the Ammonites, and the Ashdodites, heard that the walls of Jerusalem were made up, and that the breaches began to be stopped, then they were very wroth,
Nehemiah 6: Now it came to pass, when Sanballat, and Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian, and the rest of our enemies, heard that I had builded the wall, and that there was no breach left therein; (though at that time I had not set up the doors upon the gates;)
Job 27: Moreover Job continued his parable, and said,
Job 29: Moreover Job continued his parable, and said,
Psalms 49: I will incline mine ear to a parable: I will open my dark saying upon the harp.
Psalms 78: I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old:
Proverbs 26: The legs of the lame are not equal: so is a parable in the mouth of fools.
Proverbs 26: As a thorn goeth up into the hand of a drunkard, so is a parable in the mouth of fools.
Isaiah 13: It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there; neither shall the shepherds make their fold there.
Isaiah 21: The burden upon Arabia. In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanim.
Jeremiah 3: Lift up thine eyes unto the high places, and see where thou hast not been lien with. In the ways hast thou sat for them, as the Arabian in the wilderness; and thou hast polluted the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness.
Jeremiah 25: And all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the mingled people that dwell in the desert,
Lamentations 4: The precious sons of Zion, comparable to fine gold, how are they esteemed as earthen pitchers, the work of the hands of the potter!
Ezekiel 17: Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable unto the house of Israel;
Ezekiel 20: Then said I, Ah Lord GOD! they say of me, Doth he not speak parables?
Ezekiel 24: And utter a parable unto the rebellious house, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Set on a pot, set it on, and also pour water into it:
Ezekiel 27: Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, they occupied with thee in lambs, and rams, and goats: in these were they thy merchants.
Micah 2: In that day shall one take up a parable against you, and lament with a doleful lamentation, and say, We be utterly spoiled: he hath changed the portion of my people: how hath he removed it from me! turning away he hath divided our fields.
Habakkuk 2: Shall not all these take up a parable against him, and a taunting proverb against him, and say, Woe to him that increaseth that which is not his! how long? and to him that ladeth himself with thick clay!
Matthew 13: And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;
Matthew 13: And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?
Matthew 13: Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.
Matthew 13: Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.
Matthew 13: Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:
Matthew 13: Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:
Matthew 13: Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
Matthew 13: All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them:
Matthew 13: That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.
Matthew 13: Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.
Matthew 13: And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.
Matthew 15: Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable.
Matthew 21: Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:
Matthew 21: And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of them.
Matthew 22: And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said,
Matthew 24: Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is nigh:
Matthew 27: And they had then a notable prisoner, called Barabbas.
Matthew 27: Therefore when they were gathered together, Pilate said unto them, Whom will ye that I release unto you? Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?
Matthew 27: But the chief priests and elders persuaded the multitude that they should ask Barabbas, and destroy Jesus.
Matthew 27: The governor answered and said unto them, Whether of the twain will ye that I release unto you? They said, Barabbas.
Matthew 27: Then released he Barabbas unto them: and when he had scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.
Mark 3: And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?
Mark 4: And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
Mark 4: And when he was alone, they that were about him with the twelve asked of him the parable.
Mark 4: And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
Mark 4: And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?
Mark 4: And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.
Mark 4: But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.
Mark 7: And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable.
Mark 12: And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
Mark 12: And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people: for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
Mark 13: Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When her branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near:
Mark 15: And there was one named Barabbas, which lay bound with them that had made insurrection with him, who had committed murder in the insurrection.
Mark 15: But the chief priests moved the people, that he should rather release Barabbas unto them.
Mark 15: And so Pilate, willing to content the people, released Barabbas unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he had scourged him, to be crucified.
Luke 5: And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old; if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new agreeth not with the old.
Luke 6: And he spake a parable unto them, Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?
Luke 8: And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable:
Luke 8: And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
Luke 8: And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
Luke 8: Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
Luke 12: And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully:
Luke 12: Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?
Luke 13: He spake also this parable; A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.
Luke 14: And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms; saying unto them,
Luke 15: And he spake this parable unto them, saying,
Luke 18: And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint;
Luke 18: And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others:
Luke 19: And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.
Luke 20: Then began he to speak to the people this parable; A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far country for a long time.
Luke 20: And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
Luke 21: And he spake to them a parable; Behold the fig tree, and all the trees;
Luke 23: And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us Barabbas:
John 10: This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.
John 18: Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.
Acts 2: Cretes and Arabians, we do hear them speak in our tongues the wonderful works of God.
Galatians 1: Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.
Galatians 4: For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children.

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Topics

A Message about Arabia
A Parable about a Vine
A Parable of Two Eagles and a Vine
A Pronouncement against Arabia
A Prophecy Against Arabia
An Oracle against Arabia
Explanation of the parable of the farmer
Jesus Explains the Parable about the Weeds
Jesus Explains the Parable of the Weeds
Jotham's Parable
Oracle against Arabia
Oracles about Edom and Arabia
Parable of the Dinner
Parable of the Eagles
Parable of the Farmer Scattering Seed
Parable Of The Fig Tree
Parable of the Fishing Net
Parable of the Guests
Parable of the Lamp
Parable of the merchant
Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus
Parable of the soils
Parable of the Ten Bridesmaids
Parable of the Ten Servants
Parable of the Two Sons
Parable of the Unforgiving Debtor
Parable of the Vineyard Owner
Parable of the Yeast
Parable of Two Eagles and a Vine
Parable of Two Sons
Parables About The Last Judgment
Parables Fulfill Prophecy
Parables of the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl
Parables Of The Kingdom
Parables Of The Kingdom Of Heaven
Parables on the Kingdom of Heaven
Prayer and the Parable of the Persistent Widow
Purpose of parables to the crowds
Release of Barabbas
The Crowd Chooses Barabbas
The Lord Will Judge Arabia
The Parable about a Farmer
The Parable about a Hidden Treasure
The Parable about a Valuable Pearl
The Parable about the Faithful Shepherd
The Parable about the Pharisee and the Tax Collector
The Parable about the Ten Bridesmaids
The Parable about Two Sons
The Parable of the Bags of Gold
The Parable of the Clever Steward
The Parable of the Dragnet
The Parable of the Eagles and the Vine
The Parable of the Great Banquet
The Parable of the Great Supper
The Parable of the Guests at the Wedding Feast
The Parable of the Hidden Treasure
The Parable of the Lamp
The Parable of the Lost Sheep
The Parable of the Lost Son
The Parable of the Pearl
The Parable of the Pearl of Great Price
The Parable of the Prodigal Son
The Parable of the Revealed Light
The Parable of the Seed that Grows by Itself
The Parable of the Shrewd Manager
The Parable of the Sower Explained
The Parable of the Sower Interpreted
The Parable of the Talents
The Parable of the Ten Virgins
The Parable of the Tenants
The Parable of the Tenants in the Vineyard
The Parable of the Three Servants
The Parable of the Treasure Hidden in a Field
The Parable of the Two Sons
The Parable of the Unforgiving Slave
The Parable of the Unjust Steward
The Parable of the Valuable Pearl
The Parable of the Vineyard Workers
The Parable of the Wandering Sheep
The Parable of the Wedding Banquet
The Parable of the Wedding Feast
The Parable of the Wicked Tenants
The Parable of the Wicked Vinedressers
The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins
The Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard
The Parable of the Yeast
The Parables of the Hidden Treasure and of the Priceless Pearl
Using Parables
Using Parables Fulfills Prophecy
Why Jesus speaks in parables
The Parable of the Fig Tree
The Parable of the Mustard Seed
The Parable of the Sower
Pilate Releases Barabbas
Parable of the Mustard Seed
Parable of the Vine-growers
The Parable of the Leaven
The Parable of the Tenant Farmers in the Vineyard
Parable of the tenant farmers
Taking the Place of Barabbas
The Parables of the Mustard Seed and of the Leaven
Jesus and Barabbas
Jesus or Barabbas
The Parable about a Dishonest Manager
The Parable about an Unfruitful Fig Tree
The Parable about the Tenant Farmers
The Parables about a Mustard Seed and Yeast
Jesus Explains the Parable about the Farmer
Parable of the Landowner
Parable of the Lost Sheep
Parables on Prayer
The Parable of the Dishonest Manager
The Parable of the Trees
Parable of the Great Feast
Parable of the Shrewd Manager
Parables about lamps and measures
The Parable about the Weeds among the Wheat
The Parable of the Rich Landowner Who Was a Fool
The Parable of the Vineyard Owner
The Parables of the Mustard Seed and of the Yeast
The Parables of the Mustard Seed and the Yeast
The Purpose of Parables
Parable of the Barren Fig Tree
Parable of the Boiling Pot
Parable of the Evil Farmers
Parable of the Talents
Parable of the treasure
Parable of the Wealthy Fool
Parables of Mustard Seed and Leaven
The Parable about a Banquet
The Parable about a Growing Seed
The Parable about a Mustard Seed
The Parable about a Net
The Parable about the Coins
The Parable of the 10 Virgins
The Parable of the Barren Fig Tree
The Parable of the Good Samaritan
The Parable of the Large Banquet
The Parable of the Wheat and the Weeds
The Parables of the Hidden Treasure and the Pearl
Why Jesus Used Parables
Explanation of the parable of the weeds
Israel's Incomparable God
Jesus Explains the Parable of the Sower
Parable of God's Adulterous Wife
Parable of Persistence
Parable of Ten Virgins
Parable of the Good Shepherd
Parable of the Lost Coin
Parable of the Lost Son
Parable of the Marriage Feast
Parable of the net
Parable of the Potter
Parable of the Rich Fool
Parable of the Vineyard
Proclamation Against Arabia
Setting for the parables
The Parable about the Judge and the Widow
The Parable about the Talents
The Parable of the 10 Minas
The Parable of the Compassionate Father
The Parable of the Lost Coin
The Parable of the Net
The Parable of the Rich Fool
The Parable of the Ten Minas
The Parable of the Weeds Among the Wheat
The Parable of the Wheat and the Tares
The Reason for the Parables
Jesus explains his parable
Jesus Teaches in Parables
More parables about God's kingdom
Parable of the Faithful Steward
Parable of the Good Samaritan
Parable of the Sower
Parable of the Sword of the Lord
Parable of the ten young bridesmaids
Parable of the Three Servants
Parable of the Useless Vine
Parable of the valuable coins
Parable of the Vineyard Workers
Parable of the weeds
Parable of the Wheat and Weeds
Parable of Two Debtors
Prophecy and the Parables
The Meaning of the Parable
The Parable of the Gold Coins
The Parable of the Great Feast
The Parable of the Pearl of Great Value
The Parable of the Rich Landowner
The Parable of the Unfruitful Fig Tree
The Parable of the Unjust Judge
The Parable of the Wedding Celebration
The Purpose of the Parables
The Use of Parables
Jesus Interprets the Parable of the Wheat and the Weeds
Jesus' Use of Parables
Nathan's Parable and David's Repentance
Parable of Money Usage
Parable of the Growing Seed
Parable of the Pharisee and Tax Collector
Parable of the Sower and Soils
Parable of the unforgiving servant
Parable of the wedding party
Parable of the Wheat and Weeds Explained
Prophecy and Parables
The incomparable God
The Lord is Incomparable
The Parable about an Unforgiving Servant
The Parable Is Explained
The Parable of the Growing Seed
The Parable of the Lost Sheep and Coin
The Parable of the Minas
The Parable of the Pharisee and Tax Collector
The Parable of the Pharisee and the Tax Collector
The Parable of the Seed Growing
The Parable of the Shepherd
The Parable of the Tares Explained
The Parable of the Ten Young Women
The Parable of the Unmerciful Servant
The Parable of the Weeds
The Parable of the Weeds Explained
The Parable of the Widow and the Judge
A Parable of Yahweh's Work
Healing Parables
Jesus's Use of Parables
Nathan's Parable and David's Confession
Parable of the Persistent Widow
Parable of the Seed
The Arabs
The Incomparable Christ
The Parable of the Eagle
The Parable of the Persistent Widow
The Parable of the Unforgiving Servant
The Parable of the Weeds Interpreted
Actual parables
Arab
Arab ancestors
Arab converts
Arab enemies
arabah
Arabia
arabia petraea
Arabian merchants
Arabian tribe
Arabians
Arabians and Arameans
Arabic
araboth
arabs
Arabs at Pentecost
Arabs opposing God
barabas
Barabbas
barabbas and jesus
Barabbas or Christ
barabus
Caravan of Arabians
choosing barabbas
Cites in parable
Convicting parable
Exposition Of Parables
Fig Tree Parable
Free Barabbas
Generous Arabs
Give Us Barabbas
God Is Incomparable
Incomparable
Irreparableness
Incomparable God
Inseparable Christ
Irreparable ruin
jesus barabbas
Jesus Parables
kingdom parables
Notorious Barabbas
Illustration with parables
Jesus using parables
old testament parables
Others using parables
parabasis
Parable
Parable concerning
Parable concerning sons
parable faithful servant
Parable of
parable of faith
Parable of guilt
parable of seeds
Parable of shepherds
parable of soils
Parable of sower
parable of talents
Parable of ten
Parable of trees
Parable of virgins
Parable rebuking David
parable sower
parable two sons
Parable with music
Parables
Parables as reinforcement
parables in john
parables in mark
Parables of agriculture
Parables of sowing
Parables to fool
parably
parabole
paraboles
Place in Arabia
Preliminary parable
Product of Arabia
Purpose of parables
rocky soil parable
Satirical parable
seed parable
sharab
sower parable
strong man parable
Teaching parables to
teaching the parables
Teaching with parables
the sower parable
three parables
Two inseparable women
types of parables
Unbearable things
unbearably
Unique parable
Use of parables
Used in parable
Uses parables
Vineyard parable
who is barabbas
who was barabbas
why parables

Dictionary

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Arab
A city of Judah in the hilly district (Joshua 15:52).

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Arab
Ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Joshua 15:52 ), now Er-Rabiyeh.
Webster's Dictionary - Arab
(n.) One of a swarthy race occupying Arabia, and numerous in Syria, Northern Africa, etc.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Arab
ARAB ( Joshua 15:52 ). A city of Judah in the mountains near Dumah. Perhaps the ruin er-Rabiyah near Domeh.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Arab
Multiplying; sowing sedition; a window; a locust
Holman Bible Dictionary - Arab
(a' rab) Place name meaning “ambush.” A city in the hill country of Judah near Hebron (Joshua 15:52 ). Usually identified with modern er-Rabiyeh. See Arbite .



Morrish Bible Dictionary - Arab
City in the hill country of Judah. Joshua 15:52 . Identified with er-Rabiyeh, 31 26' N, 35 2' E .

Sentence search

Arabian - Pertaining to Arabia. Arab denotes a wanderer, or a dweller in a desert. A native of Arabia an Arab
Sheik - ) The head of an Arab family, or of a clan or a tribe; also, the chief magistrate of an Arab village
Joktan - There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia
Almodad - His name is preserved in El-Mudad, famous in Arab history, reputed father of Ishmael's Arab wife, Mir-at-ez-Zeman, and chief of Jarhum, a Joktanite tribe that passed from Yemen to the vicinity of Mekkeh. The Αl is the Arabic article
Douar - ) A village composed of Arab tents arranged in streets
Amin - ) A neglected and untrained city boy; a young street Arab
Baggala - ) A two-masted Arab or Indian trading vessel, used in Indian Ocean
Lettushim - An Arab tribe (as the plural ending implies), sprung from Abraham by Keturah
ar'Bite, - a native of Arab
Shunammite - and Arab
Arabian - ) Of or pertaining to Arabia or its inhabitants. ) A native of Arabia; an Arab
Arab - Arab ( Joshua 15:52 )
Eshan - A town of Judah in the Hebron mountains, noticed with Arab and Dumah
Arbite - (ahr' bite) Native of Arab, a village in Judah near Hebron (Joshua 15:52 ), identified as modern er-Rabiyeh
Mishma -
One of the sons of Ishmael (Genesis 25:14 ), and founder of an Arab tribe
Naphish - He was the father of an Arab tribe
Adbeel - (Arabic "miracle of God". ) One of Ishmael's 12 sons, and founder of an Arab tribe (Genesis 25:13; 1 Chronicles 1:29)
Mibsam -
One of Ishmael's twelve sons, and head of an Arab tribe (Genesis 25:13 )
Arbite - Paarai, one of David's guard: a native of Arab, called Naarai, the son of Ezbai (1 Chronicles 11:37)
Yom kippur war - the 1973Arab-Israeli War, fought from October 6 to October 26,1973 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria
ad'be-el - (offspring of God ), a son of Ishmael, ( Genesis 25:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:29 ) and probably the progenitor of an Arab tribe
Saracen - ) Anciently, an Arab; later, a Mussulman; in the Middle Ages, the common term among Christians in Europe for a Mohammedan hostile to the crusaders
Mishma - There is an Arab tribe now, Renee Misma
Nodab - An Arab tribe warred with by Reuben, Gad, and half Manasseh (1 Chronicles 5:19-22)
Jerah - ) Joktan's fourth son, forefather of a southern Arab tribe
Mozarab - (Arabic: spurious, i. ,naturalized, Arab) ... A Christian in Spain who submitted to the Moorish government but retained the practise of his religion. For their liturgy, see MozArabic Rite
Sherif - ) A member of an Arab princely family descended from Mohammed through his son-in-law Ali and daughter Fatima
Mibsam - Arab tribe descended from a son of Ishmael (Genesis 25:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:29 )
Obal - ” Son of Joktan and ancestor of an Arab tribe (Genesis 10:28 )
o'Bal - (stripped bare ), son of Joktan, and, like the rest of family, apparently the founder of an Arab tribe
Onions - The onion ( Allium cepa , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Abida - Or Abi'dah, father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons of Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah (1 Chronicles 1:33 ), and apparently the chief of an Arab tribe
Spider - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Paarai - "of Arab", in the mountains of Judah; Joshua 15:52): 2 Samuel 23:35
Larrikin - ) A rowdy street loafer; a rowdyish or noisy ill-bred fellow; - variously applied, as to a street blackguard, a street Arab, a youth given to horse-play, etc
Uzal - A wanderer, a descendant of Joktan (Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 ), the founder apparently of one of the Arab tribes; the name also probably of the province they occupied and of their chief city
Adbeel - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Sukkiims - "Dwellers in tents" (Gesenius); possibly an Arab tribe S
Wastrel - ) A neglected child; a street Arab
Nebaioth - ” Son of Ishmael and ancestor of an Arab tribe of the same name (Genesis 25:13 ; Genesis 28:9 ; Genesis 36:3 )
Tahash - ” Third son of Nahor and Reumah (Genesis 22:24 ) and ancestor of an Arab tribe, perhaps associated with Tahshi north of Damascus
Zabade'Ans, - an Arab tribe who were attacked and spoiled by Jonathan, on his way back to Damascus from his fruitless pursuit of the army of Demetrius
Willow - Arab. [Note: Arabic. ] ghArab ‘willow’ or ‘poplar’]; tsaph-tsâphâh , Ezekiel 17:5 [cf. Arab [Note: Arabic
Geshem - An Arabian who is named, along with Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the Ammonite, as an opponent of Nehemiah during the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem ( Nehemiah 2:16 ; Nehemiah 6:1 ff. He may have belonged to an Arab community which, as we learn from the monuments, was settled by Sargon in Samaria c [Note: circa, about. 715 this would explain his close connexion with the Samaritans; or he may have been the chief of an Arab tribe dwelling in the S
Arabia - ... Old Testament The Arabian peninsula, together with the adjoining lands which were home to the biblical Arabs, includes all of present-day Saudi Arabia, the two Yemens (San'a' and Aden), Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait, as well as parts of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and the Sinai Peninsula. The vast Arabian peninsula was divided into two distinct economic and social regions. Most biblical references to Arab peoples or territory are to the northern and western parts of this whole, but sometimes includes both the northern and southern portions. ... In the northern portion of Arabia the mountains of the Anti-Lebanon, the Transjordanian Highlands, and the mountains of Edom flank the desert on the west. The mountains continue all the way down the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula bordering the Red Sea and are actually much higher and more rugged in the south. ... The name Arab comes from a Semitic root which in Hebrew is Arab , probably meaning “nomad” or bedouin. This refers to the people of the northwestern parts of the Arabian territory, whom the Old Testament writers knew as nomadic herders of sheep and goats, and later, of camels. Sometimes Arab simply refers to the economic status of nomads without geographical or ethical reference. Proper understanding of Scripture includes determining the specific meaning of Arab in each context. ... The Arabs are also called in the Bible “the sons (or children) of the east. ” Furthermore, many of the names of the Old Testament refer to people or tribes who were ethnically and linguistically Arab. The Israelites recognized their blood relationship with the Arabs. ... The inhabitants of southern Arabia, in the mountains fringing the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean, were town-dwellers with a sophisticated system of irrigation. ... New Testament The New Testament references to Arabia are fewer and less complex. The territory of the Nabatean Arabs is probably intended in each instance. Arabs heard the gospel at Pentecost (Acts 2:11 ). Paul went to Arabia after his conversion (Galatians 1:17 )
Weasel - root châlad means ‘to dig,’ and the Arab [Note: Arabic
Imalcue - An Arab prince to whom Alexander Balas entrusted his youthful son Antiochus
Jehon'Adab - (whom Jehovah impels ) and Jon'adab, the son of Rechab, founder of the Rechabites, an Arab chief
Joktan - Head of the Joktanite Arabs. Arabia, "from Mesha unto Sephar a mount of the East" (Zafari, a seaport E. The Arab Kahtan whose sons peopled Yemen or Arabia Felix. Arab tradition makes Joktan or Kahtan progenitor of the purest tribes of central and southern Arabia
Mishma - Arab tribe descended from a son of Ishmael (Genesis 25:14 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ). Inclusion of the names Mibsam and Mishma in the geneologies of both Ishmael and Simeon suggest the incorporation of Arabs into that tribe as Simeon expanded southward (compare 1 Chronicles 4:38-43 )
Raama(h) - (ray' uh maw) Son of Cush (Genesis 10:7 ) and ancestor of Sheba and Dedan Arab tribes occupying southwest and west-central Arabia (1 Chronicles 1:9 )
Medan - ” Third son of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) and ancestor of a little-known Arab tribe
Geshem - An Arab who, with Sanballat of Horonaim, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, opposed Nehemiah in repairing Jerusalem
Cucumbers - The Cucumis sativus (Arab. [Note: Arabic. ] khyâr ), a smooth-skinned, whitish cucumber of delicate flavour, is a prime favourite with the Arabs. chate , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hazarmaveth - of Arabia, abounding in myrrh and frankincense, but deadly in climate, whence it derives its name. The most powerful of the Arab tribes
Lem'Uel - Others regard him as king or chief of an Arab tribe dwelling on the borders of Palestine, and elder brother of Agur, whose name stands at the head of (Proverbs 30:1 )
no'Dab - (nobility ), the name of an Arab tribe mentioned only in ( 1 Chronicles 6:19 ) in the account of the war of the Reubenites against the Hagarites
Arabia, Arabs - ArabIA, ArabS . In the present article we have to do not with the part played by the Arabs in history, or with the geography of the Arabian peninsula, but only with the emergence of the Arab name and people in Bible times. Whether ‘arâbî in Isaiah 13:20 and Jeremiah 3:2 means simply an inhabitant of the desert, or should be taken as a proper name, is uncertain; but at bottom this distinction has no Importance, for the two notions of ‘Bedouin’ ( Badawî , which also = ‘inhabitant of the desert’) and ‘Arab’ were pretty much identical in the mind of civilized peoples. It may be noted that here the Massoretes appear to assume the appellative sense, since they point ‘arâbî , whereas for ‘Arab’ they use the form more akin to Aramaic than Hebrew, ‘arbî ( Nehemiah 2:19 ; Nehemiah 6:16 ). It is possible, indeed, that the rise of the name ‘Arab’ among the Hebrews ( c [Note: circa, about. ... The Assyrian sources name the Arabs as early as the 9th cent. , in his inscriptions, enumerates Arabâya among the countries subject to him. About this same time at the latest the name of the Arabs became known also to the Greeks. Æschylus ( Persœ , 316) names an Arab as fighting in the battle of Salamis, and his contemporary, from whom Herodotus borrowed his description of the host of Xerxes, enumerated Arab archers as forming part of the latter (Herod. 422) has quite fabulous notions about the dwelling-places of the Arabs, Herodotus is well acquainted with them. His account of the situation of the Arabian peninsula is approximately correct, but he has specially in view those Arabs who inhabit the region lying between Syria and Egypt, i. Xenophon appears to use the term ‘Arabia’ in essentially the same sense as King Darius. 25), the same region which was still called ‘Arab by the later Syrians. This tract of country, so far as we can learn, has always been peopled by Arab tribes. we find, in the above-cited passages from the Memoirs of Nehemiah, repeated mention of an Arabian Geshem or Gashmu, whose real name may have been Gushamô who gave Nehemiah no little trouble. About this time, perhaps, the Arab tribe of Nabatæans had already pressed their way from the south and driven the Edomites from their ancient seats. The First Book of Maccabees clearly distinguishes the Nabatæans from other Arabs, whereas the Second Book simply calls them ‘Arabs’ ( 2Ma 5:8 ), as do also other Greek and Latin writers. The Nabatæan kingdom counted, indeed, for so much with Westerns that they could regard it as ‘the Arabs’ par excellence . The Apostle Paul ( Galatians 4:25 ), like profane writers, reckons the Sinaitic peninsula, which was part of the Nahatæan kingdom, as belonging to Arabia. Again, the part of Arabia to which he withdrew after his conversion ( Galatians 1:17 ) must have been a desert region not far from Damascus, which then also was under the sway of the king of the Nabatæans. By the ‘Arabians’ mentioned in Acts 2:11 , in connexion with the miracle of Pentecost, the author probably meant Jews from the same kingdom, which, it is true, had in his time (?) become the Roman province of Arabia (a. ... We do not know whether the name ‘Arab originated with the Arabs themselves or was first applied to them by outsiders. But the wide wanderings of the Arab nomads, due to the nature of their country, brought them readily into contact with peoples of other language and other customs, and this could awaken in them the consciousness of their own nationality. Perhaps the recognition of Arab unity was favoured also by the trading journeys of the civilized Arabs of the south and of other parts of Arabia. But be that as it may, the ancient Arab epitaph of Namâra to the S. 328, concerns Maralqais, ‘king of all Arabs. ’ And from the oldest documents of classical Arabic that have come down to us it is a sure inference that at that time ( i. ) ‘Arab had been for an inconceivably long period known as their national designation. ‘Urbân ) stands especially for the Bedouins as opposed to Arabs who live in towns, and that afterwards in common speech, as had been the case even in the Sabæan inscriptions, ‘Arab is often used simply for ‘Bedouin,’ ‘inhabitant of the desert
Diklah - Arab tradition confirms Genesis 10:26-29 in making Joktan (Kahtan) the great progenitor of all the pure tribes of central and southern Arabia. Thus Almodad equates to the Arabic Elmudad; Sheleph equates to Es-Sulaf in the Yemen; Hazarmaveth equates to Hadramaut on the S. coast of Arabia; Diklah equates to Dakalah, an important city in the Yemen; it means a fruit-abounding palm tree
Box-Tree - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Zouave - ) One of an active and hardy body of soldiers in the French service, originally Arabs, but now composed of Frenchmen who wear the Arab dress
Nebaioth - An Arab pastoral tribe, associated with Kedar (Isaiah 60:7). Forefather of the Nabateans of Arabia Petraea mentioned at the close of the fourth century B. 105, their Nabathaean kingdom being incorporated with Rome as the province" Arabia. 1:12, section 4) regards "Nabateans" as synonymous with "Arabs," and says that "Ishmael's twelve sons inhabit all the regions from the Euphrates to the Red Sea" (compare Genesis 25:18). of Palestine, is unknown to the Arab writers, yet it is on native coins, it must therefore have been lost long before any Arab wrote on geography or history. But the Arab writers use Nabat for Babylonians not Arabians. Quatremere from them shows that these Nabateans inhabited Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris; they were Syro Chaldaeans, and were celebrated among the Arabs for agriculture, magic, medicine, and astronomy. Literature in Arabic Translations) thinks that "the book of Nabat agriculture," commenced by Daghreeth, continued by Yanbushadth and finished by Kuthamee, according to the Arab translator, Ibn Wahsheeyeh, the Chaldaean of Kisseen, was so commenced 2500 B. The Greeks and Romans identified the Nabateans as Arabs, and though the Nabateans of Petra were pastoral and commercial whereas the Nabathaeans of Mesopotamia were, according to the books referred to above, agricultural and scientific, it is probable they were both in origin the same people
Myrrh - môr (Arab [Note: Arabic. ] , murr ), the dried gum of a species of balsam ( Balsamodendron myrrha ) growing in Arabia and India. In Arab [Note: Arabic
Lotus Trees - The tree is probably = the Arab [Note: Arabic
Sparrow - word is probably equivalent of Arab. [Note: Arabic
Antipatris - An Arab village, called Kefr Saba, now occupies its site
Joktheel - The name (which some have sought to explain from the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Tares - zizania , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Tamarisk - , "grove," "tree"); Arab
Gad (3) - the deity of fortune, a Babylonian idol worshipped by the Jews, answering to either the moon or Jupiter, related to Syriac gado , and Arab jad "good fortune
Arbite - Joshua 16:2 and ‘Hushai the Archite,’ 2 Samuel 15:32 ; but a place ‘Arab. [Note: Arabic
Balm - It was celebrated for its medicinal qualities, and was circulated as an article of merchandise by Arab and Phoenician merchants. There is an Arab tradition that the tree yielding this balm was brought by the queen of Sheba as a present to Solomon, and that he planted it in his gardens at Jericho. Basam also denotes the true balsam-plant, a native of South Arabia (Cant
Sheba - In south-western Arabia was the land known in Bible times as Sheba. Like people of other Arab tribal groups, those of Sheba were merchants and traders. They even engaged in slave trade (Joel 3:8) and, like other Arab nomads, they raided farms and villages (Job 1:15)
Swine - It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab
Bildad - sprung from Shuah, Abraham's son by Keturah, who was sent eastward by Abraham and founded an Arab tribe (Genesis 25:2) Syccea, in Arabia Deserta, E
Boar - The wild boar (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Adah - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Saffron - karkôm is identical with the Arab [Note: Arabic
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - Arab. [Note: Arabic. In modern Arab. [Note: Arabic. Arab. [Note: Arabic. Arab. [Note: Arabic. Arab. [Note: Arabic. They form the common food of goats and camels; they are burned (Ecclesiastes 7:6 ), specially the thorny burnet (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Fly - The Jewish commentators regarded the Hebrew word here as connected with the word 'Arab , Which means "mingled;" and they accordingly supposed the plague to consist of a mixed multitude of animals, beasts, reptiles, and insects. But there is no doubt that "the 'Arab " denotes a single definite species
Coney - Arab, thofun ; the Syrian Arab, weber
Eagle - nesher is the equivalent of the Arab. [Note: Arabic. Râchâm corresponds to the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Saffron - karkom, Arab
Crimson - see), exactly as the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hadoram - ... ... The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe (Genesis 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 1:21 )
Hena - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Village - Arab villages, as found in Arabia, are often mere collections of stone huts, "long, low rude hovels, roofed only with the stalks of palm leaves," or covered for a time with tent-cloths, which are removed when the tribe change their quarters
Melons - MELONS ( ‘ǎbattîhîm , the same word as the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Meni - The name has been correlated with the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Euphrates - A famous river of Asia, which has its source in the mountains of America, runs along the frontiers of Cappadocia, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Chaldea, and Mesopotamia, and falls into the Persian Gulf. According to the recent researches of Chesney, it receives the Tigris at a place called Shat-el-Arab. Five miles below the junction of these two mighty rivers, the Shat-el-Arab receives from the northeast the Kerkhah, which has a course of upwards of five hundred miles. At present it enters the Shat-el-Arab forty miles above its mouth; but formerly it flowed channel, east of the main stream. We might well suppose that the Kuran, in very ancient times, as now, entered the Shat-el-Arab; and perhaps still farther from its mouth
Zamzummim - The name Zamzummim has been connected with Arab. [Note: Arabic
Ashurites - Arab
Uzal - The capital of the Yemen (Arabia Felix) was originally Awzal (now San'a), anciently the most flourishing of Arab communities, its rivals being Sheba and Sephar
Massa - Arab tribe perhaps descended from 1
Juniper - JUNIPER ( rôthem ) is undoubtedly the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Ulai - The two channels emptied their waters through the river now called the Karun into the Shat-el-Arab, the united stream of the Euphrates and Tigris, twenty miles below their junction at Korna
Chestnut Tree - The chestnut tree is only an exotic in Palestine, but the plane (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Raven - RAVEN ( ‘ôrçb , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Senir - The Arab [Note: Arabic
Spikenard - ’ The Arab [Note: Arabic
Erech - Its original Accadian name was UNU, UNUG, or UNUGA;the Babylonians and Assyrians called it URUKor ARKU; hence the Hebrew name Erech, and the Arab Warka
Calneh - The place where the tower of Babel was built, according to the Septuagint and Arab tradition, taken by Assyria in the eighth century B
Gnat - An Arab proverb well illustrates the ideas of Matthew 23:24 : ‘He eats an elephant and is suffocated by a gnat
Poplar - is very similar to Arab [Note: Arabic
Badger Skins - The Arab duchash or tufchash denotes a dolphin, including seals and cetaceans
Mauritania - The ecclesiastical province lasted from the 4th century to the Arab invasion of the 7th. Though October 2001 legislative and municipal elections were generally free and open, Mauritania is effectively a one-party state with strong ethnic tensions between its black population and the Maur (Arab-Berber) populace
Mauretania - The ecclesiastical province lasted from the 4th century to the Arab invasion of the 7th. Though October 2001 legislative and municipal elections were generally free and open, Mauritania is effectively a one-party state with strong ethnic tensions between its black population and the Maur (Arab-Berber) populace
Reed (2) - It forms the frames of the rush mats with which the Arabs of el-Hûleh make their slender houses. κάλαμος (3 John 1:13) again corresponding to the Arab. [Note: Arabic. The ancients made the shafts of their arrows from the κάλαμος, and the divining arrow of the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Paran - Through this very wide wilderness, from pasture to pasture, as do modern Arab tribes, the Israelites wandered in irregular lines of march
Snare - The idea in both words is simply that of taking unawares, as the bird in the fowler’s trap—the fakhkh, in the use of which Arab boys are so expert—or the hare in the noose cunningly spread in its path
Lourdel, Simeon - Received by King Matesa, in spite of the opposition of Arabs and Protestants, he opened the mission in 1879. During the ascendancy of the Arab party at court, the missionaries were obliged to withdraw to Bokumbi, but were invited back to Uganda in 1885
Barley - As in ancient times, so to-day barley (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Lentils - These are without doubt the Arab [Note: Arabic
Simeon Lourdel - Received by King Matesa, in spite of the opposition of Arabs and Protestants, he opened the mission in 1879. During the ascendancy of the Arab party at court, the missionaries were obliged to withdraw to Bokumbi, but were invited back to Uganda in 1885
Dor - " Just at the point indicated is the small village of Tantura , probably an Arab corruption of Dora , consisting of about thirty houses, wholly constructed of ancient materials
Kedar - Ezekiel ( Ezekiel 27:21 ) couples them with ‘Arab. [Note: Arabic. 668 626), in his account of his Arabian campaign (cf. 223), mentions the Kedarites in connexion with the Aribi (the ‘Arab’ of Ezekiel) and the Nebaioth, and speaks of the booty, in asses, camels, and sheep, which he took
Mehunim - (mih hyoo' nihm) KJV form of Meunim or Meunites, an Arab tribe whose name likely derives from the city of Ma'an about twelve miles southeast of Petra
Shittah Tree - shittâh was originally shintâh , and is equivalent to Arab. [Note: Arabic. The seyât of the Arabs, which includes the gum-Arabic tree ( A
Beans - BEANS ( pôl , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Accho - The name is akin to the Arab Akeh, a sandy shore heated by the sun
Amomum - (ἄμωμον, perhaps from Arab
Pipe - The Scotch Deputation of Inquiry speak of overtaking among the hills of Judea "an Arab playing with all his might upon a shepherd's pipe made of two reeds
Eber - The line of descent through Joktan produced many of the Arab tribes (Genesis 10:26-30), and the line through Peleg produced those tribes of Mesopotamia to which Abraham belonged (Genesis 11:16-26)
Joktan, - Though the names of the majority of his sons have not been satisfactorily identified, it is clear that he is represented as the ancestor of the older Arabian tribes. The list of his sons is probably not to be taken as a scientific or geographical classification of the tribes or districts of Arabia, but rather as an attempt on the part of the writer to incorporate in the tables such names of Arabian races as were familiar to him and to his readers. Its identification by the native Arab genealogists with Kahtân , the name of an Arabian tribe or district, is without foundation; there appears to have been no real connexion between the names, their slight similarity in sound having probably suggested their identification. The supposition that Joktan was a purely artificial name devised for the younger son of Eber, in order to serve as a link between the Hebrew and Arab stocks, amounts to little more than a confession that the origin of the name is unknown
Roe - tsebi), properly the gazelle (Arab
Gerasa - Thomson identifies Gerasa with the Arab Gersa, close to the shore, with a mountain rising at the back, down which the swine might rush and be unable to stop themselves from rushing into the water
Yarn, Linen - , and Arab
Poison - Also Arab pirates on the Red Sea used poisoned arrows (texicon , or toxicum from toxon a "bow", became the term for poison, so common was the usage)
Serpent - Arab. [Note: Arabic. Arab [Note: Arabic. Arab. [Note: Arabic. Arab. [Note: Arabic. It is called by the Arabs shiffûn , which corresponds to the Heb. ’eph‘eh (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Zarephath - The Arab. [Note: Arabic
Catholic Women's League - In Palestine it has opened a weaving-school for Catholic Arab girls
Lemuel - Not, as Hitzig guessed, elder brother to Agur, king of an Arab tribe in Massa, on the borders of Palestine, and both sprung from the Simeonites who drove out the Amalekites from Mount Seir under Hezekiah, as if Lemuel were an older form of Nemuel, or Jemuel, Simeon's oldest son
Gama, Vasco da - His second voyage in 1502, during which he destroyed 29 Arab ships-of-war at Calicut, was a brilliant commercial success
Gazelle - The gazelle (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Perizzite - The Hebrew perezot , "unwalled country villages" or "towns," were inhabited by peasants engaged in agriculture like the Arab fellahs (Deuteronomy 3:5; 1 Samuel 6:18; Ezekiel 38:11; Zechariah 2:4)
Sela - Petra appears as the residence of the Arab princes named Aretas
Demon - ] and Arab. [Note: Arabic
Vasco da Gama - His second voyage in 1502, during which he destroyed 29 Arab ships-of-war at Calicut, was a brilliant commercial success
Tamarisk - ’çshel with the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Mouse - In Leviticus 11:29 , Isaiah 66:17 this word is used generically, and includes the jerboa (Mus jaculus), rat, hamster (Cricetus), which, though declared to be unclean animals, were eaten by the Arabs, and are still eaten by the Bedouins. It is said that no fewer than twenty-three species of this group ('akhbar=Arab
Lapwing - The Arabs superstitiously reverence it, and call it "the doctor" as if possessing therapeutic qualities. Its imposing crest and beak, and its curious way of bending until the beak touches the ground, while it raises and depresses the crest, led to the Arab supposition of its power to point out hidden wells beneath; from whence arose its Greek name epops) , "the inspector
Horse-Leech - Arab. [Note: Arabic. It is probable, however, that the reference here is not to the leech of common life, but to the mythological vampire, the ghul of the Arabs
Lily - ’ In Arab [Note: Arabic
Beth-Horon - About twelve miles from Jerusalem, lies the Arab village of Bethoor, where Dr
Unicorn - ’ The Arab. [Note: Arabic. ] ri’m , the graceful Antilope leucoryx of Arabia, is a very different animal
Machaerus - The Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a frontier rampart against Arab marauders
Salutation - The profusely polite Arab asks so many questions after your health, your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other things, that a person ignorant of the habits of the country would imagine there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow oppressing you, which you wished to conceal, so as to spare the feelings of a dear, sympathizing friend, but which he, in the depth of his anxiety, would desire to hear of
Knock - It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to knock at your door
Harosheth - Its location is debated, some favoring tell el-Ama at the foot of Mount Carmel about nine miles south of Haifa near the Arab village of Haritiyeh
Herb - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hyaena - The hyæna (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Bear - The Syrian bear ( Ursus syriacus , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Leopard - This animal ( Felis pardus , Arab. [Note: Arabic. The name Nimr is a favourite one with the Arabs, who admire these qualities
Sin (1) - " So the Arab Τeeneh from teen , "mud
Salutation - The same expression is the common one among the Arabs to the present day: they say, Salam lekha, to which the person saluted replies, "With thee be peace," Genesis 29:6 Judges 18:15 , margin. Hence we hear of the Arab and Turkish Salams, that is, salutations. The letter of an Arab will be nearly filled with salutations; and should he come in to tell you your house was on fire, he would first give and receive the compliments of the day, and then say perhaps, "If God will, all is well; but your house is on fire
m.Afr. - The first archbishop of Algeria, later Cardinal Lavigerie, founded it in 1868 for the immediate care and instruction of Arab children orphaned by the famine of 1867 and the general purpose of converting all Africa; constitutions approved, 1908, and again, 1921
Fathers, White - The first archbishop of Algeria, later Cardinal Lavigerie, founded it in 1868 for the immediate care and instruction of Arab children orphaned by the famine of 1867 and the general purpose of converting all Africa; constitutions approved, 1908, and again, 1921
Missionaries of Africa - The first archbishop of Algeria, later Cardinal Lavigerie, founded it in 1868 for the immediate care and instruction of Arab children orphaned by the famine of 1867 and the general purpose of converting all Africa; constitutions approved, 1908, and again, 1921
Missionaries of Our Lady of Africa of Algeria - The first archbishop of Algeria, later Cardinal Lavigerie, founded it in 1868 for the immediate care and instruction of Arab children orphaned by the famine of 1867 and the general purpose of converting all Africa; constitutions approved, 1908, and again, 1921
Rush, Rushes - This was probably the once famous plant the papyrus ( Cyperus papyrus , Arab [Note: Arabic
Wolf - Arab [Note: Arabic
Summer - Scripture has no special words for ‘spring’ and ‘autumn’; and while the Arab speaks of er-rabîʿa, ‘the time of fresh pasture,’ and el-kharîf, ‘the time of gathering’ of grapes and other fruits, they are hardly regarded as distinct seasons
Mustard - The plant intended is the Sinapis nigra (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Tema - Founder of an Arab tribe in the northern Arabia Deserta, on the border of the Syrian desert (Job 6:19); "the troops of Tema" are the caravans on the direct road anxiously "looking for" the return of their companions gone to look for water; the failure of it in the wady and the disappointment depict Job's disappointment at not finding comfort from his friends whose professions promised so much (Isaiah 21:14; Jeremiah 25:23). of Arabia
Jethro - An Arab sheik and priest of the Sinaitic Peninsula, the father-in-law of Moses; referred to by this name in Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 4:18 ; Exodus 18:1-2 ff. As to the two or three names, it may be noted that Arabic inscriptions (Minæan) repeatedly give a priest two names
Sop - To me the privilege of a knife, spoon, and plate was granted; but the rest helped themselves immediately from the dish, in which five Arab fingers might be seen at once
White Fathers - The first archbishop of Algeria, later Cardinal Lavigerie, founded it in 1868 for the immediate care and instruction of Arab children orphaned by the famine of 1867 and the general purpose of converting all Africa; constitutions approved, 1908, and again, 1921
Cucumbers - sativus ), of which the Arabs distinguish a number of varieties, is common in Egypt. On visiting the Arab school in Jerusalem (1858) I observed that the dinner which the children brought with them to school consisted, without exception, of a piece of barley cake and a raw cucumber, which they ate rind and all
Ass - The ass (Arab. [Note: Arabic. A she-ass (Arab. [Note: Arabic. ), the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Scorpion - SCORPION ( ‘aqrâb [Arab. [Note: Arabic
Snares - ) probably corresponded to the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Stork - The stork (Arab [Note: Arabic
Elath - Now in Arabic Eyleh, at the point of the eastern horn of the Red Sea. Amalek, according to Arab historians, passed from the Persian gulf through the Arabian peninsula to Arabia Petraea
Bittern - word is kippôd , and is generally accepted to be the equivalent of the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hauran - It produces, however, crops of corn, and has many patches of luxuriant herbage, which are frequented in the summer by the Arab tribes for pasturage
Sheep - taleh (Arab. [Note: Arabic. and Arab. [Note: Arabic
Abiathar - It is not impossible that father and son may each have borne both names, according to Arab usage, Abiathar corresponding to the Arab. [Note: Arabic
se'la, - Petra appears as the residence of the Arab princes named Aretas
Chemosh - ... A black stone was the Arab symbol of him
Grass - (1) chatsîr equivalent of Arab. [Note: Arabic
Pool, Pond - ) is = Arab [Note: Arabic
Nergal - Cutha or Tiggaba (Nimrod's city in Arab tradition) is in the inscriptions especially dedicated to him
Semite - The Elamites, Assyrians, Lydians, Arameans, and numerous Arab tribes are said to have been descendants of Shem. One unproven theory is that they migrated from northern Arabia in waves of nomadic movements into the Fertile Crescent. South Semitic includes Arabic, Sabean, Minean, and Ethiopic
Grass - The modern Arab includes, under the common designation hashîsh (grass), field-flowers such as anemones, poppies, and tulips
mo'Lech - Fire-gods appear to have been common to all the Canaanite, Syrian and Arab tribes, who worshipped the destructive element under an outward symbol, with the most inhuman rites
pa'Ran, el-pa'Ran - (peace of caverns ), a desert or wilderness, bounded on the north by Palestine, on the east by the valley of Arabah, on the south by the desert of Sinai, and on the west by the wilderness of Etham, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt. Through this very wide wilderness, from pasture to pasture as do modern Arab tribes, the Israelites wandered in irregular lines of march
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8). )... This was afterward the celebrated Himyeritic Arab kingdom, called from the ruling family of Himyer. The Joktanites (Semitics) were the early colonists of southern Arabia. ); the Arabs however place Himyer high in their list. ... "The queen of Sheba" (1 Kings 10:1-2; 1 Kings 10:10) ruled in Arabia, not Ethiopia, as the Abyssinian church allege; Sheba being in the extreme Sheba of Arabia, "she came (a distance of nearly a thousand miles) from the uttermost parts of the earth," as then known, to hear the wisdom of Solomon (Matthew 12:42; Luke 11:31). Four principal Arab peoples are named: the Sabeans, Atramitae or Hadramaut, Katabeni or Kahtan or Joktan, and the Mimaei
Thistles And Thorns - A petty village on the plain of Jericho is now protected against Arab horsemen by a hedge of thorny Nubk branches
Mid'Ian - (strife ), a son of Abraham and Keturah, ( Genesis 25:2 ; 1 Chronicles 1:32 ) progenitor of the Midianites, or Arabians dwelling principally in the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. [GIDEON ] The Midianites are described as true Arabs, and possessed cattle and flocks and camels as the sand of the seashore for multitude. (Numbers 31:22 ; Judges 8:21,24-26 ) We have here a wealthy Arab nation, living by plunder, delighting in finery; and, where forays were impossible, carrying ont he traffic southward into Arabia, the land of gold --if not naturally, by trade-- and across to Chaldea, or into the rich plains of Egypt
Javan, - In Ezekiel 27:19 Javan appears a second time among the nations that traded with Tyre; clearly the Ionians are not intended, and, unless the text is corrupt (as is very probable), the reference may be to an Arab tribe, or perhaps to a Greek colony in Arabia
Amulets And Charms - The custom of wearing amulets ( amuletum from Arab. [Note: Arabic. Children and domestic animals are supposed to be specially subject to such influence, and to-day ‘in the Arabic border lands there is hardly a child, or almost an animal, which is not defended from the evil eye by a charm’ (Doughty). The influence of Egypt, where amulets were worn by men and gods, by the living and the dead, is shown by the great number of scArabs and ‘Horus eyes’ unearthed at Gezer and Taanach. ... For the amulets worn by the heathen Arabs see Wellhausen, Reste Arab. [Note: Arabic
Euphrates And Tigris Rivers - They originate in the Armenian mountains and unite about ninety miles from the Persian Gulf to form what is now called the Shatt-al-Arab which flows into the gulf
Capernaum - Khan Minyeh does not show such important remains, and, as these seem all to be Arab , the balance of probability is on the side of Tell Hum , whose name should probably be written Telhum , and regarded as a corruption of Caphar Tanhum , the Talmudic form of the city’s name (see the latest discussion on the subject in PEFST [Note: Quarterly Statement of the same
Ai - of Bethel (Beitin); its Arab name, et Tel, means "the heap," and it doubtless is the site of Ai, or Hai (on the east of Abraham's encampment and altar, Genesis 12:8)
Ant - ANT ( nemâlâh , Arab. [Note: Arabic
Sheep - The Syrian cooks use the mass of fat instead of the rancid Arab butter
Hebron - A pool is still shown over which tradition says that David hung the murderers of Ishbosheth, and the tomb of Abner and Ishbosheth is also pointed out within an Arab house, and the mosque is known to conceal the noted cave of Machpelah, the burial-place of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and their wives except Rachel
Soco, Socoh - of Arab. [Note: Arabic
Virgin - The Arab. [Note: Arabic
Worm - Arab [Note: Arabic
Tent - An Arab tent is called beit , "house;" its covering consists of stuff, about three quarters of a yard broad, made of black goat's-hair, ( Song of Solomon 1:5 ) laid parallel with the tent's length. (Genesis 26:17,22,25 ; Isaiah 38:12 ) In choosing places for encampment, Arabs prefer the neighborhood of trees, for the sake of the shade and coolness which they afford
Hobab - ] and Arab. [Note: Arabic
Elder - Hence, the office of elder was the basis of government; as in our "alderman," the Arab sheikh = "old man" (Joshua 24:31; 1 Kings 12:6)
Brook - ’ It is the exact equivalent of the Arab wâdy , which means a valley containing a stream of water
Lion - Arab [Note: Arabic
Jael - Wife of Heber the Kenite, a descendant of Jethro, father-in-law of Moses, who was head of an Arab clan which was established in the north of Palestine
Sela - the Arab prince Aretas resided here. This proves the abundance of the water supply, if husbanded, and agrees with the accounts of the former fertility of the district, in contrast to the barren Arabah on the W
Shaving - D'Arvieux gives a remarkable instance of an Arab who, having received a wound in his jaw, chose to hazard his life rather than to suffer his surgeon to take off his beard
Ishmael - Overcome with heat and thirst, and then miraculously relieved, he remained in the wilderness of Paran, took a wife from Egypt, and was the father of twelve sons, heads of Arab tribes. ... The Ishmaelites, his posterity, were said, in the days of Moses, to dwell "from Havilah unto Shur that is before Egypt," that is, in the northwestern part of Arabia. Subsequently they, with the descendants of Joktan, the fourth from Shem, Genesis 10:26-29 , and Jokshan, the son of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:3 , and perhaps also of some of the brethren of Joktan and Jokshan, occupied the whole peninsula of Arabia
Camel - The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the heathen nations of Palestine was the Arabian or one-humped camel, Camelus Arabicus . The Arabs call it the heirie . The speed, of the dromedary has been greatly exaggerated, the Arabs asserting that it is swifter than the horse. The Arabian camel carries about 500 pounds. "The hump on the camel's back is chiefly a store of fat, from which the animal draws as the wants of his system require; and the Arab is careful to see that the hump is in good condition before a long journey
Jehoram - During his reign Edom and Philistia broke free from Judah’s rule (2 Chronicles 21:8), and Arab raiders plundered Judah with much success (2 Chronicles 21:16-17)
Damascus - With the Roman conquest of 64 BC, Damascus came under the administration of Rome, though for one brief period it was in the hands of an Arab king called Aretas (2 Corinthians 11:32-33). After a period in Arabia, he returned to Damascus (Galatians 1:17)
Hermon, Mount - ... The Talmud and ancient Arab scholars called it Jebel el-Sheikh (“gray-haired mountain”) or Jebel el-Thalj (“mountain of snow”). Its highest peak is known as Qas Antar (“Fortress of Antar”), the black hero of Arab legend
Rechab - RECHABITES, the dwellers in cities, are distinguished from the nomadic wanderers (Genesis 4:20-22); and the distinction still exists in Persia and Arabia, where the two classes are found side by side. They must rigidly adhere to the simplicity of their Arab tent life. Jehonadab's name, containing "Jehovah," and his abhorrence of Baal worship, imply that the Rechabites though not of Israel were included in the Abrahamic covenant; the Arab Wahabees , ascetics as to opium and tobacco, present a parallel
Gehenna (2) - ... Opinions differ as to the identification of the valley; but most authorities, including Robinson, Stanley, Buhl, and many others, as well as modern Arab tradition, identify it with the valley on the W. side of the Holy City, the upper portion of which is called in Arabic Wâdy er-Rabâbi; the lower, Wâdy Gehennam, or ‘Valley of Hell. On the other hand, the Arab writer Edrisi of the 12th cent. of Jerusalem, including also its continuation below the junction of the Eastern and Western valleys at Bir Eyyub; the whole of the valley in its descent toward the Dead Sea being known to the Arabs as Wâdy en-Nâr, ‘Valley of Fire
Tent - But the people most remarkable for this unsettled and wandering mode of life are the Arabs, who from the time of Ishmael to the present have continued the custom of dwelling in tents. This kind of dwelling is not, however, confined to the Arabs, but is used throughout the continent of Asia. Those of the Arabs are of black goats' hair. The Egyptian and Moorish inhabitants of Askalon are said to use white tents; and D'Arvieux mentions that the tent of an Arab emir he visited was distinguished from the rest by its being of white cloth. An Arab sheikh will have a number of tents, of himself, his family, servants, and visitors; as in patriarchal times Jacob had separate tents for himself, for Leah, Rachel, and their maids, Genesis 31:33 Judges 4:17
Iran - The whole Church in Persia became Nestorian, and it continued to flourish as such for a few centuries after the Arab conquest and the adoption of Islam by the majority of Persians
Bird - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Lizard - Arab [Note: Arabic. The ‘ land crocodile ,’ known to the Arabs as the warrel , is a large lizard, sometimes five feet long; two species have been found in the Jordan valley the Psammosaurus scineus and the Monitor niloticus
Memphis - After the foundation of Alexandria the old capital fell to the second place, but it held a vast population till after the Arab conquest, when it rapidly declined
Hill - הַר closely resembles that of Arab, jebel, which denotes a single height, but also a whole range, as Jebel Libnân; or a definite part of a range, as Jebel Nâblus—this indicating that portion of ‘the mountain’ which is under the government of Nâblus. הָהָד was ‘the mountain’—the central range as distinguished from the plain and the Shephelah on the west, and the ‘Arabah on the east
Needle - The eye of a needle is, in Hebrew and Greek, called simply ‘the hole,’ but in later Arabic it is also called ‘the eye. ’ Thus one modern Arab poet (Mcj
Euphrates - At Kebban Maden, 400 miles from the source of the former, and 270 from that of the latter, they meet and form the majestic stream, which is at length joined by the Tigris at Koornah, after which it is called Shat-el-Arab, which runs in a deep and broad stream for above 140 miles to the sea
Jael - She covered him with the mantle (Judges 4:18, Hebrew), and allayed his thirst with curdled milk or buttermilk (Judges 5:25), a favorite Arab drink
Vine, Vineyard - Arab, karm stands for both vineyard and fig-orchard. With the coming of the Arabs, vineyards almost entirely disappeared
re'Chab - Jonadab inaugurated a reformation and compelled a more rigid adherence than ever to the old Arab life
Ishmael - Even today many of the Arab peoples claim descent from him
Locust - Niebuhr remarks, "Locusts are brought to market on mount Sumara I saw an Arab who had collected a whole sackful of the. An Arab in Egypt, of whom we requested that he would immediately eat locusts in our presence, threw them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed they were roasted enough, he took them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed they were roasted enough, he took them by the legs and head, and devoured the remainder at one mouthful. When the Arabs have them in quantities, they roast or dry them in an oven, or boil the locusts, and then dry them on the roofs of their houses. Niebuhr heard an Arab of the desert, and another in Bagdad, make the same comparison
Sychar - Further, there is nothing to indicate a pre-Arab settlement at ‘Askar
Arabia Felix - The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1 , was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. ... There are, according to native historians, two races of Arabs: those who derive their descent from the primitive inhabitants of the land, Joktan, etc. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Genesis 10:25,26 . Ishmael, Genesis 25:13-15 , and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Genesis 25:2 , together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The changes of forty centuries render it impossible to distinguish either of these parent sources in the numerous Arab tribes descended from them. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts. ... In ancient times the Arabs were idolaters and star-worshippers
Etam - Now Beit 'Arab, a steep, stony, bore knoll, standing amidst the winding, narrow valleys, without a blade of grain on its sides, but olive groves at its feet and three abundant springs
African Church - In 642 the Arab conquerors of Egypt made their way into Proconsular Africa and in 698 Carthage was finally taken
Fenced Cities - ) Villages in the Hauran sometimes consist of houses joined together and the entrance closed by a gate for security against Arab marauders
Captain - katsin) so translated denotes sometimes a military ( Joshua 10:24 ; Judges 11:6,11 ; Isaiah 22:3 "rulers;" Daniel 11:18 ) and sometimes a civil command, a judge, magistrate, Arab
Garden - ], and the Arab [Note: Arabic
Sheep - The cooks use this mass of fat instead of Arab butter
Shepherd - The cooks use this mass of fat instead of Arab butter
Jericho - ... The site of Jericho has usually been fixed at Rihah, a mean and foul Arab hamlet of some two hundred inhabitants
Ishmael - He had twelve sons, who became the founders of so many Arab tribes or colonies, the Ishmaelites, who spread over the wide desert spaces of Northern Arabia from the Red Sea to the Euphrates (Genesis 37:25,27,28 ; 39:1 ), "their hand against every man, and every man's hand against them
Ara'Bia - (desert, barren ), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--
The East Country , ( Genesis 25:6 ) or perhaps the East, ((Genesis 10:30 ; Numbers 23:7 ; Isaiah 2:6 ) and Land of the Sons of the East , ( Genesis 29:1 ) Gentile name, Sons of the East , ( Judges 6:3 ; 7:12 ; 1 Kings 4:30 ; Job 1:3 ; Isaiah 11:14 ; Jeremiah 49:28 ; Ezekiel 25:4 ) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation. ... 'Arab and 'Arab , whence Arabia. ( 2 Chronicles 9:14 ; Isaiah 21:13 ; Jeremiah 26:24 ; Ezekiel 27:21 ) (Arabia is a triangular peninsula, included between the Mediterranean and Red seas, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf. --Arabia may be divided into Arabia Proper , containing the whole peninsula as far as the limits of the northern deserts; Northern Arabia (Arabia Deserta), constituting the great desert of Arabia; and Western Arabia , the desert of Petra and the peninsula of Sinai, or the country that has been called Arabia Petraea , I. Arabia Proper , or the Arabian penninsula consists of high tableland, declining towards the north. Northern Arabia , or the Arabian Desert, is a high, undulating, parched plain, of which the Euphrates forms the natural boundary from the Persian Gulf to the frontier of Syria, whence it is bounded by the latter country and the desert of Petra on the northwest and west, the peninsula of Arabia forming its southern limit. They conducted a considerable trade of merchandise of Arabia and India from the shore of the Persian Gulf. Western Arabia includes the peninsula of Sinai [ SINAI ] and the desert of Petra; corresponding generally with the limits of Arabia Petraea. -- (Arabia, which once ruled from India to the Atlantic, now has eight or nine millions of inhabitants, about one-fifth of whom are Bedouin or wandering tribes, and the other four-fifths settled Arabs. The principal Joktanite kingdom, and the chief state of ancient Arabia, was that of the Yemen. That they have spread over the whole of it (with the exception of one or two districts on the south coast), and that the modern nation is predominantly Ishmaelite, is asserted by the Arabs. ... Of the descendants of KETURAH the Arabs say little. They appear to have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf. ... In northern and western Arabia are other peoples, which, from their geographical position and mode of life are sometimes classed with the Arabs, of these are AMALEK , the descendants of ESAU , etc. In pasture lands Arabia is peculiarly fortunate. -- The most ancient idolatry of the Arabs we must conclude to have been fetishism. Magianism, an importation from Chaldaea and Persia, must be reckoned among the religions of the pagan Arabs; but it never had very numerous followers. Christianity was introduced into southern Arabia toward the close of the second century, and about a century later it had made great progress. Judaism was propagated in Arabia, principally by Karaites, at the captivity. -- Arabic the language of Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic languages, and the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore, of great importance to the study of Hebrew. -- Arabia is now under the government of the Ottoman empire
Honey - Many scholars, however, would identify the ‘honey’ of the two passages last cited with the grape syrup (the Arab. [Note: Arabic
ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle - Arab- thaur ) is used in Ezra 6:8 ; Ezra 6:17 ; Ezra 7:17 and Daniel 4:25 ; Daniel 4:32-33 ; shôr is used collectively and also for a single member of the bovine species of any age and either sex
Timnah - ... Etam answers to Belt Arab, which has a cavern called "the place of refuge," 250 ft
River - The Arab proverb for a treacherous friend is "I trust not in thy torrent
Leopard - ... The leopard (Felis pardus, Arab
Siloam - slope of the valley, over against the pool, dates from post-Arab times
Fox - The Arab shikal , "jackal", is related to the Hebrew shu'al
Aloes - 21) describes an aromatic wood which was imported from India and Arabia, and was not only used for medicinal purposes, but also burned instead of frankincense. ) discusses references of Arab writers to many varieties of aghâlûji found in India and Ceylon which gave off, when burned, a sweet fragrance, and which were used as a perfume for the very same purposes as those which ‘aloes’ served among the Jews (Psalms 45:8, Proverbs 7:17, Song of Solomon 4:14). ... (3) There was an active trade in spices carried on in ancient times, not only through Phœnicia but also through the Syrian and Arabian deserts, so that there is no great difficulty in supposing that ‘aloes’ were brought from India
Linen, Linen Cloth, Fine Linen - ... 4: βύσσος (Strong's #1040 — Noun Feminine — bussos — boos'-sos ) "fine linen," made from a special species of flax, a word of Aramean origin, used especially for the Syrian byssus (Arab
Honey - Milk and honey were the chief dainties of the earlier ages, and continue to be so of the Bedoween Arabs now. The Arab, having stirred the mixture up well with his fingers, showed his dexterity at consuming, as well as mixing, and recompensed himself for his trouble by eating half of it
Elder - As the father is head of the household, so the chiefs of the principal families ruled the clan and the tribe, their authority being ill-defined, and, like that of an Arab sheik, depending on the consent of the governed
Arabia - (Arabia arid tract). The Arabah, originally restricted to one wady, came to be applied to all Arabia. (See ArabAH. by the Arabian Sea and strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, W. of the Arabian peninsula. "All the mingled people" is in Hebrew ha ereb (Exodus 12:38; Jeremiah 25:20; Ezekiel 30:5), possibly the Arabs. The three divisions are Arabia Deserta, Felix, and Petraea. The term Κedem , "the East," with the Hebrew probably referred to ArabIA DESERTA, or N. Arabia, bounded E. ... ArabIA FELIX or happy, S. Arabia, bounded on the E. by the Arabian Sea, W. The central province of the Nejd is famed for the Arab horses and camels, "the ships of the desert. Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia. ... ArabIA PETRAEA, called from its city Petra, the rock, or Selah (2 Kings 14:7), now Hadjar, i. Hawarah (MArab, Exodus 15:23) is 33 miles S. Cush, son of Ham, originally peopled Arabia (the ruins of Marib, or Seba, and the inscriptions are Cushite; in Babylonia too there are Cushite traces); then Joktan, of Shem's race (Genesis 10:7; Genesis 10:20; Genesis 10:25; Genesis 10:30). ... The posterity of Nahor, of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25), of Lot also, formed a part of the population, namely, in Arabia Deserta. The wandering and wild Bedouins are purest in blood and preserve most the Arab characteristics foretold in Genesis 16:12; "He will be a wild" (Hebrew a wild donkey of a) "man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him" (marking their incessant feuds with one another or with their neighbors), "and he shall dwell tent in the presence of all his brethren. The town populations by intermarriages and intercourse with foreigners have lost much of Arab traits. To the Arabs we owe our arithmetical figures. The Joktanites of southern Arabia were seafaring; the Ishmaelites, more northward, the caravan merchants (Genesis 37:28). ... The Arabic language is the most developed of the Semitic languages. In its classical form Arabic is more modern than Heb. The Arabic is one of the most widely spoken languages. C, the Arabic only from the 5th century B. A few Arabic forms are plainly older than the corresponding Hebrew The Book of Job in many of its difficult Hebrew roots receives much illustration from Arabic. The Arabic is more flexible and abounding in vowel sounds, as suits a people light hearted and impulsive; the Hebrew is weightier, and has more consonants, as suits a people graver and more earnest. The Arabic version of the Scriptures now extant was made after Mahomet's time
Elias i, Bishop of Jerusalem - 494-513; an Arab by birth who was educated with Martyrius, in one of the Nitrian monasteries
Lebanon - An Arab poet says of the highest peak of Lebanon, "The Sannin bears winter on his head, spring upon his shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet
ir-ha-Heres - (1) Duhm and Marti render boldly ‘shall be called Lion-city ( or Leontopolis),’ explaining heres from the Arab [Note: Arabic. application of an Arab. [Note: Arabic. even in its usual Arabic sense, should be found in Heb
Hair - This probably never applied to the Arabs, who still wear the hair in long plaits. Arab women cut off their hair in mourning. An Arab who is under vow must neither cut, comb, nor cleanse his hair, until the vow is fulfilled and his offering made. Before freeing a prisoner, the Arabs cut a portion of his hair, and retained it, as evidence that he had been in their power (Wellh
Mercy-Seat - But the analogy of the Arabic kaffârat seems to justify Lagarde (and many others) in holding (1) that the Septuagint has rendered the original quite accurately, and (2) that ἱλαστήριον means ‘the propitiating thing,’ or ‘the propitiatory gift. , Arab
Abbreviations - ... Arab. Arabic
Jezreel - Jezreel was called Esdraela in the time of the Maccabees, and is now replaced by a small and ruinous Arab village, called Zerin, at the northwest point of mount Gilboa
Reu'Ben - Under its modern name of the Belka it is still esteemed beyond all others by the Arab sheep-masters
Ishmael - " Many conquerors have marched into the Arabian wilderness, but they have never been able to catch this wild donkey and to tame him" (Baumgarten). " In Job 1:3 the Arabs are called "the sons of the East. " Ishmael was circumcised at 13 (Genesis 17:25), at which age Arabs and Muslims therefore still circumcise. ")... After God's saving them they "dwelt in the wilderness of Paran," the El Tih, the desert of Israel's wanderings; stretching from the wady Arabah on the E. According to eastern usage she, as a parent, chose a wife for her son, an Egyptian, possibly the mother of his 12 sons; rabbinical and Arab tradition give him a second wife; the daughter being termed "sister of Nebaioth" implies probably that the other brothers had a different mother. Assyria, in fact traversing the whole Arabian desert from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. The people of Arabia are called "children of the East," Bene Kedem (Judges 6:3; Job 1:3), in modern times Saracens, i. )... The Bible does not, as scepticism asserts, state that all the Arabs sprang from Ishmael. form a large element in Arab blood. Arabia, where Joktanite and other blood exists, these characteristics are less seen. The Ishmaelite element is the chief one of the Arab nation, as the native traditions before Muhammed and the language concur with the Bible in proving. The pagan law of blood revenge necessitates every Arab's knowing the names of his ancestors for four generations, so that the race is well defined. ... The term" Ishmaelites" was applied in course of time to the Midianites, sprung from Abraham and Keturah, and not from Ishmael, because the Ishmaelites being the more powerful tribe gave their name as a general one to neighbouring associated tribes (Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:28; Genesis 37:36; Psalms 83:6), the nomad tribes of Arabia (Judges 8:24). of Arabia was fetish and cosmic worship, but in the N. The Arab conquerors have won a hundred thrones and established their Mohamedanism from the Senegal to the Indus, from the Euphrates to the Indian Ocean
Lot - " There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot, i. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a child upon her shoulder
Sycamine - Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hinnom, Valley of - In favour of the Kidron is the fact that the theological Gehinnom or Arab. [Note: Arabic
Kenites - a ‘spear’ ( 2 Samuel 21:16 ), and in Arab. [Note: Arabic
Dispersion - The following table shows how the different families were dispersed: ... | - Japheth | - Gomer | Cimmerians, Armenians | - Magog | Caucasians, Scythians | - Madal | Medes and Persian tribes | - Javan | - Elishah | Greeks | - Tarshish | Etruscans, Romans | - Chittim | Cyprians, Macedonians | - Dodanim | Rhodians | - Tubal | Tibareni, Tartars | - Mechech | Moschi, Muscovites | - Tiras | Thracians | | - Shem | - Elam | Persian tribes | - Asshur | Assyrian | - Arphaxad | - Abraham | - Isaac | - Jacob | Hebrews | - Esau | Edomites | - Ishmael | Mingled with Arab tribes | - Lud | Lydians | - Aram | Syrians | | - Ham | - Cush | Ethiopans | - Mizrain | Egyptians | - Phut | Lybians, Mauritanians | - Canaan | Canaanites, Phoenicians ...
Sabbath - Arab
Bed - In such a room the master of the house and his family lay, according to the pArable (Luke 11:7), "My children are with me in bed. " Arab watchers sleep in them to be secure froth wild beasts; translate "the earth shall wave to and fro like a hammock," swung about by the wind
Nets - sagçnç ( Matthew 13:47 ), the Arab [Note: Arabic
Hobab - As Jethro helped Moses in counsel as a judicious administrator, so Hobab helped him as the experienced Arab sheikh familiar with the tracks, passes, and suitable places of the wilderness for an encampment, quick eyed in descrying the far off shrubs which betoken the presence of water, and knowing well where there was danger of hostile attacks
Eden - Arabia; and Cush (or Ethiopia), near the E. The united rivers are called the Shat-el-Arab. ) Armenia's highlands are the traditional cradle of the race; thence probably, from Eden as their source, flowed the two eastern rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, and the two western ones through the regions answering to Arabia and Egypt
Beth-Shemesh - The ancient name was preserved in the Arab village of Ain Shems, and the “tell” is identified with tell er-Rumeilah
Brook - winter torrent,’ χείμαρρος) is the usual LXX Septuagint equivalent of נַחַל, and seems to correspond in meaning with the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Hand - So it comes that yâmîn , ‘right hand,’ and semô’l , ‘left hand,’ like the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - the inroads of Huns and Arabs, famine, plague, and earthquake. Bickell, in the preface to his edition of the works of Isaac, gives a list of 178 entire poems, and of 13 others imperfect at the beginning or end (179–191); three prose writings dealing with the ascetic life (192–194); five sermons in Arabic, on the Incarnation, etc. Arab
Shushan - 32North, of the river Karun, a branch of the Shat-el-Arab, has been generally believed to be the ancient Shushan, the Susa of the Greeks; but Mr. Large blocks of marble, covered with hieroglyphics, are not unfrequently here discovered by the Arabs, when digging in search of hidden treasure; and at the foot of the most elevated of the pyramids (ruins) stands the tomb of Daniel, a small and apparently a modern building, erected on the spot where the relics of that prophet are believed to rest
Babylonia - The province of which Babylon was the capital; now the Babylonian or Arabian Irak, which constitutes the pashalic of Bagdad. This gulf was indeed its only definite and natural boundary; for towards the north, towards the east or Persia, and towards the west or desert Arabia, its limits were quite indefinite. Bot in ancient and modern times, Important tracts on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and on the western ban of the Euphrates, and still more on both banks of their united streams, were reckoned to Babylonia, or Irak el-Arab. ... The Babylonians belonged to the Shemitic branch of the descendants of Noah, and their language had an affinity with the Arabic and Hebrew, nearly resembling what is now called Chaldee
Palm Tree - This one tree supplies almost all the wants of the Arab or Egyptian
Ptolemais - (Πτολεμαΐς)... Ptolemais is the ancient Canaanite town of Acco (mentioned in Judges 1:31 and in the corrected text of Joshua 19:30), still known in Arab
Nard - νάρδος, Arab. [Note: Arabic
Eagle - The griffon vulture; the Arab nisr is plainly the Hebrew nesher
Capernaum - Archaeological evidence indicates a life of the town from Roman times until abandonment in the late Arab period. ... The site currently being excavated is known to the Arabs as Tell Hum, and archaeologists are generally agreed that it is the location of ancient Capernaum
Linen - The modern Arab. [Note: Arabic
Serpent - Proverbs 12:16; Proverbs 12:23), although the parallel root in Arabic suggests only a bad sense. 257–292; Nöldeke, ‘Die Schlange nach Arab. [Note: Arabic. Günther, Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien; Doughty, Arabia Deserta
Jannes And Jambres - In 1 Maccabees 9:36 the ‘children of Jambri’ are mentioned, an Arab tribe, and perhaps not Amorites, but there is no good ground for tracing Jambres to this
Caesarea - (Καισάρεια or Καισάρεια Σεβαστή, named in honour of Augustus; known also as Caesarea Palaestinae, and in modern Arabic as el-Kaiṣârîyeh; to be distinguished clearly from Caesarea Philippi)... Caesarea was situated on the Mediterranean coast, 32 miles N. Under the Arabs it unfortunately lost its former prestige and rapidly degenerated. The Arab and the shepherd avoid the spot’ (Giant Cities, 235)
Wayfaring Men - Buckingham in his "Travels among the Arab Tribes," says, "A foot passenger could make his way at little or no expense, as travellers and wayfarers of every description halt at the sheikh's dwelling, where, whatever may be the rank or condition of the stranger, before any questions are asked him as to where he comes from, or whither he is going, coffee is served to him from a large pot always on the fire; and a meal of bread, milk, oil, honey, or butter, is set before him, for which no payment is ever demanded or even expected by the host, who, in this manner, feeds at least twenty persons on an average every day in the year from his own purse; at least, I could not learn that he was remunerated in any manner for this expenditure, though it is considered as a necessary consequence of his situation, as chief of the community, that he should maintain this ancient practice of hospitality to strangers. "As it would be next to an impossibility to find the way over these stony flats, where the heavy foot of a camel leaves no impression, the different bands of robbers," wild Arabs, he means, who frequent that desert, "have heaped up stones at unequal distances for their direction through this desert
Mourning - Arab men are silent in grief, but the women scream, tear their hair, hands and face, and throw earth or sand on their heads. In the "Arabian Nights" are frequent allusions to similar practices
Serpent - Proverbs 12:16; Proverbs 12:23), although the parallel root in Arabic suggests only a bad sense. 257–292; Nöldeke, ‘Die Schlange nach Arab. [Note: Arabic. Günther, Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien; Doughty, Arabia Deserta
Lion - ariy , 'arieh ("the bearer," Umbreit); guwr , "the whelp" (Genesis 49:9); kephir , "the young lion" in adolescent vigour, his "great teeth" grown (Psalms 58:6), having his own covert (Jeremiah 25:38); labiy , in adult maturity (Genesis 49:9); libyah , "lioness"; la'ish , "an old (rather strong, from an Arabic root) lion": Job 4:11, where the five different terms occur; shachal is "the roaring lion"; labiy appears in the German lowe . Sha'ag is the lion's roar in seeking prey (Psalms 104:21); naham his cry when seizing it (Isaiah 5:29, compare Proverbs 19:12); hagah his growl defying any effort to snatch from him his prey (Isaiah 31:4); na'ar the cry of the young lion (Jeremiah 51:38); rabats is his crouching in his lair (Genesis 49:10); shacah and yashab (Job 38:40) his lying in wait; 'Arab his secretly doing so (Psalms 10:9); ramas his stealthily creeping after prey (Psalms 104:20); zinneq his leap, flinging himself on it (Deuteronomy 33:22) (Smith's Bible Dictionary)
Thebes - Its four great landmarks were, Karnak and Luxor upon the eastern or Arabian side, and Qoornah and Medeenet Haboo upon the western or Libyan side. Ezekiel proclaims the destruction of Thebes by the arm of Babylon, ( Ezekiel 30:14-16 ) and Jeremiah predicted the same overthrow, (Jeremiah 46:25,26 ) The city lies to-day a nest of Arab hovels amid crumbling columns and drifting sands
Thorn - "... (5) Shamir , the Arabic samur , a kind of sidra. high, the Arab nebk , abound in Palestine; the nebk fringes the Jordan
Malachi - The Nabateans were an Arab tribe who came out of the desert and drove the Edomites out of their homeland in the fifth or sixth centuries B
Milk - The skin is shaken for a little, when the process of fermentation speedily commences, and the milk is served ‘with that now gathered sourness which they think the more refreshing’ (Doughty, Arabia Deserta , i. The former passage suggests the procedure of the Arab housewife whom Doughty describes ( op
Hagar - ... If the words ‘Now this Hagar is mount Sinai in Arabia’ are retained, they allude to the historical connexion of the Hagarenes (Psalms 83:6) or Hagarites (1 Chronicles 5:10), the Ἀγραῖοι of Eratosthenes (ap. 2)-of whom Hagar was no doubt a personification-with Arabia. (In Baruch 3:23 the Arabians are called the ‘sons of Hagar. The theory that ‘Hagar’ (Arab. Paul, becoming acquainted with this usage during his sojourn in Arabia, recalls it here (A. He had lived long under the shadow of Sinai in Arabia, the land of bondmen, before he became a free citizen of the ideal commonwealth-Hierusalem quœ sursum est-the mother of all Christians
Horse - In the NT, as in the OT, the horse is always the war-horse, never the gentle, domesticated creature beloved by the modern Arab
Salt - An Arab who just before would have robbed and murdered you, once you taste his salt, would die to save you; "faithless to salt" is the Persian term for a traitor
Shishak - of Judah, Jerahmeelites, Rekem (Petra), and the Hagarites, are all specified;... (1) the Levitical and Canaanite cities are grouped together;... (2) the cities of Judah;... (3) Arab tribes S. He was not strong enough to attack Assyria; so he contented himself with subjugating Palestine and the parts of Arabia bordering on Egypt, so as to make them an effectual barrier against Assyria's advance
King, Kings - These kings, in many cases, were no doubt like the sheiks of Arab tribes at the present day
Potter, Pottery - ... Where pottery of the Seleucid age, with Greek names stamped on the handles, or Roman pottery, ‘ribbed amphoræ, and tiles stamped with the stamp of the tenth legion,’ or Arab glazed ware, is found, sites may be dated with approximate accuracy
Hospitality - The pleasing picture of the magnanimous sheik, bidding strangers welcome to his tent and to the best he owns ( Genesis 18:1-33 ), is often repeated to this hour in the Arabian wilderness. ... The open hand, as the token of a liberal heart, wins the respect and esteem of the Arabs. ... The Arabs are sometimes charged with want of gratitude; justly, as it seems from our point of view. ‘Whoever,’ says the Prophet, ‘believes in God and the day of resurrection must respect his guest; and the time of being kind to him is one day and one night; and the period of entertaining him is three days; and if after that he does it longer, he benefits him more: but it is not right for the guest to stay in the house of his host so long as to incommode him’ (Lane, Arabian Society in the Middle Ages , 143). ‘It is a principle alike in old and new Arabia that the guest is inviolable’ (W. ... To understand this we must remember (1) that in Arabia all recognition of mutual rights and duties rests upon kinship. The stranger eating with a clansman becomes ‘kinsman’ to all the members of the clan, as regards ‘the fundamental rights and duties that turn on the sanctity of kindred blood’ (Wellhausen, Reste Arab. [Note: Arabic. Fearing this might not be agreeable to a European, the chief’s son, who presided in his father’s absence, with innate Arab courtesy, asked him to cup with him in the sheik’s tent. The name pandocheion = Arab. [Note: Arabic
Purification (2) - By a similar ceremony, an Arab widow who is about to remarry makes a bird fly away with the uncleanness of her widowhood (W. Among some Arab tribes it was customary to build a hut outside the camp, where the woman had to stay for a time (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iv
Vine, Vineyard - Viticulture, which languished for centuries under the Arabs, has recently been revived by the German and Jewish colonies, and millions of imported vines of choice strain have been planted. Of the vast quantities of grapes produced in ancient times a large proportion was, without doubt, converted into dibs (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Red Sea - Hebrew: Sea of Suph ("seaweed"; like wool, as the Arabic means: Gesenius). The Egyptians called it the Sea of Punt (Arabia). Called "red" probably from the color of the weed, and the red coral and sandstone, not from Εdom ("red") which touched it only at Elath; nor from Himyerites (hamar , "red" in Arabic; the Phoenicians too are thought to mean red men, and to have come from the Red Sea), as their connection with it was hardly so dose and so early as to have given the name. Arabia; on the N. The Arabah or Ghor connects it with the Dead Sea and Jordan valley. Sesostris (Rameses II) was the "first who, passing the Arabian gulf in a fleet of long war vessels, reduced the inhabitants bordering the Red Sea" (Herodotus). Pharaoh Necho built ships in the Arabian gulf, manned by Phoenicians (Herodotus ii. ... The Arab jelebehs , carrying pilgrims along the coast, have the planks sewed together with coconut fibber, and caulked with the date palm fibber and oil of the palma Christi , and sails of mats made of the dom palm. The Himyerite Arabs formed mostly the crews of the seagoing ships. On the Arabian coast Mu'eyleh, Yembo (the port of El Medeeneh), Juddah (the port of Mecca), and Mocha
Horse - In later times, the greater contact of Egypt with Canaanite and Arab nomads' accounts for the introduction of horses
Undressed Cloth - nether, Arab, natrún, Authorized and Revised Versions (incorrectly) ‘nitre,’ Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘lye’ (Jeremiah 2:22). This was obtained chiefly from the soap plant called in Arabic ishnûn, growing on the desert plains of Syria. When burnt, it yields a crude substance named kali in Arabic, corresponding to the Heb. Christ’s pArabolic use of undressed cloth. Bruce, PArabolic Teaching of Christ, p
Camel, Camel's Hair - ... The camel forms the staple wealth of the Arab of the desert, who utilizes every part of the animal, even to the dung, which is used as fuel. In Arabic the elephant rather than the camel is chosen to designate hugeness, as in the song of Kaab ibn Zuheir—... ‘If there stood in the place which I stand in an elephant,... Hearing and seeing what I see and hear. ... Camel’s hair or wool, as it is called, is woven by the Arabs into tent-covers, and also into rough outer garments for the peasantry
Chaff - ] ) suggests the use of the Arab. [Note: Arabic
Salt - Numerous instances occur of travellers in Arabia, after being plundered and stripped by the wandering tribes of the desert, claiming the protection of some civilized Arab, who, after receiving them into his tent, and giving them salt, instantly relieves their distress, and never forsakes them till he has placed them in safety
Goat - The Arab writers attribute to the jaal very long horns, bending backward; consequently it cannot be the chamois
Elder - And an analogous class yet subsists among Arab tribes, viz
Edom - It was a mountainous region, divided down the centre by a semi-desert valley known as the Arabah. (For details of the Arabah see PALESTINE. From Ezion-geber it went north over the mountainous plateau on the east of the Arabah to Moab, Ammon and Syria. In their search for refuge and security, many Edomites moved west across the Arabah and settled in Judean territory around Hebron. Various Arab groups mingled with them, and the region later became known as Idumea (Mark 3:8)
Capernaum - ... Tell Hum is the site, according to Arab and Jewish tradition
Olive - Arab [Note: Arabic
Nag Hammadi - In 1945 an Arab peasant digging in an ancient cemetery for soft dirt to be used as fertilizer, found instead a large earthenware jar
Mari - An ancient city accidentally discovered by Arab clansmen, and later excavated by French archaeologists under the supervision of Andre Parrot. By about 1800, no fewer than four trading routes converged on the city; the city's geographical and commercial horizons stretched from Iran in the east to the Mediterranean and Aegean in the west, including Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and the Arabian desert
Amalekites - Arab writers represent them as sprung from Ham, and originally at the Persian gulf, and then pressed westward by Assyria, and spreading over Arabia before its occupation by Joktan's descendants
Ostrich - Some Arabs eat the flesh. The only stupidity in the ostrich which warrants the Arab designation "the stupid bird" at all is its swallowing at times of substances which prove fatal to it, for instance, hot bullets, according to Dr
Poetry, Hebrew - It is unquestionably true, as Ewald observes, that the Arab reciters of romances will many times in their own persons act out a complete drama in recitation, changing their voice and gestures with the change of person and subject. But the mere fact of the existence of these rude exhibitions' among the Arabs and Egyptians of the present day is of no weight when the question to be decided is whether the Song of Songs was designed to be so represented, as a simple pastoral drama, or whether the book of Job is a dramatic poem or not
Ass - ... The bearing of the Arab donkey is erect, the limbs well formed and muscular, and the gait graceful. The arod , the khur of Persia; light red, gray beneath, without stripe or cross; or the wild mule of Mongolia, superior to the wild donkey in beauty, strength and swiftness, called so either from the sound of the word resembling neighing, or from the Arabic arad, "flee
Caesarea - The city slowly decreased in importance and moved from Byzantine to Arab control in 640
Joppa - (Ἰόππη; Josephus, Ἰόπη; Arab
Greetings - The Moslems claim this as ‘the salutation of Islâm, and not for the mouths of the heathen, with whom is no peace nor fellowship, neither in this world nor in the next’ (Doughty, Arabia Deserta, i. Doughty was gravely imperilled because he ‘had greeted with Salaam Aleyk, which they [the Arabs] will have to be a salutation of God’s people only—the Moslemîn’ (ib. The insecure life of Hebrew and Arab, ever exposed to alarm of war or robber raid, no doubt gave special meaning to the greeting ‘Peace. Of the Arabs, Doughty observes, ‘The long nomad greetings … are for the most, to say over a dozen times with bashful solemnity the same cheyf ent, cheyf ent, “How dost thou? and how heartily again?” ’ (ib
Damascus, Damascenes - Damascus has no means of self-defence, has never done anything memorable in warfare, has been captured and plundered many times, and more than once almost annihilated, but it has always quickly recovered itself, and to-day the white smokeless city, embowered in its gardens and orchards and surrounded by its hundred villages, is to every Arab what it was to young Muhammad gazing down upon it from the brow of Salahiyeh-the symbol of Paradise. This point is discussed under Arabia, Aretas, Ethnarch
Bar-Jesus - It is the Greek form of an Arab word alîm meaning ‘wise,’ and ὁ μάγος (‘the sorcerer,’ Authorized Version and Revised Version ) is its translation
Garments - —Oriental dress has preserved a remarkable uniformity in all ages: the modern Arab dresses much as the ancient Hebrew did
Arabia - It is called Jezirat-el-Arab by the Arabs; and by the Persians and Turks, Arebistan. ... Arabia, or at least the eastern and northern parts of it, were first peopled by some of the numerous families of Cush, who appear to have extended themselves, or to have given their name as the land of Cush, or Asiatic Ethiopia, to all the country from the Indus on the east, to the borders of Egypt on the west, and from Armenia on the north to Arabia Deserta on the south. By these Cushites, whose first plantations were on both sides of the Euphrates and Gulf of Persia, and who were the first that traversed the desert of Arabia, the earliest commercial communications were established between the east and the west. But of their Arabian territory, and of the occupation dependent on it, they were deprived by the sons of Abraham, Ishmael, and Midian; by whom they were obliterated in this country as a distinct race, either by superiority of numbers after mingling with them, or by obliging them to recede altogether to their more eastern possessions, or over the Gulf of Arabia into Africa. ... Arabia, it is well known, is divided by geographers into three separate regions, called Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. ... The first, or Arabia Petraea, is the northwestern division, and is bounded on the north by Palestine and the Dead Sea, on the east by Arabia Deserta, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by the Heroopolitan branch of the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. But all those families have long since been confounded under the general name of Arabs. ... The second region, or Arabia Deserta, is bounded on the north and north- east by the Euphrates, on the east by a ridge of mountains which separates it from Chaldea, on the south by Arabia Felix, and on the west by Syria, Judea, and Arabia Petraea. It consists almost entirely of one vast and lonesome wilderness, a boundless level of sand, whose dry and burning surface denies existence to all but the Arab and his camel. Here, with a few dates, the milk of his faithful camel, and perhaps a little corn, brought by painful journeys from distant regions, or plundered from a passing caravan, the Arab supports a hard existence, until the failure of his resources impels him to seek another ... oasis, or the scanty herbage furnished on a patch of soil by transient rains; or else, which is frequently the case, to resort, by more distant migration, to the banks of the Euphrates; or, by hostile inroads on the neighbouring countries, to supply those wants which the recesses of the desert have denied. ... The third region, or Arabia Felix, so denominated from the happier condition of its soil and climate, occupies the southern part of the Arabian peninsula. ... Arabia Felix is inhabited by a people who claim Joktan for their father, and so trace their descent direct from Shem, instead of Abraham and Ham. They are indeed a totally different people from those inhabiting the other quarters, and pride themselves on being the only pure and unmixed Arabs. It was here, in the ports of Sabaea, that the spices, muslins, and precious stones of India, were for many ages obtained by the Greek traders of Egypt, before they had acquired skill or courage sufficient to pass the straits of the Red Sea; which were long considered by the nations of Europe to be the produce of Arabia itself. It was the produce partly of India, and partly of Arabia, which the travelling merchants, to whom Joseph was sold, were carrying into Egypt. The balm and myrrh were probably Arabian, as they are still the produce of the same country; but the spicery was undoubtedly brought farther from the east. These circumstances are adverted to, to show how extensive was the communication, in which the Arabians formed the principal link: and that in the earliest ages of which we have any account, in those of Joseph, of Moses, of Isaiah, and of Ezekiel, "the mingled people" inhabiting the vast Arabian deserts, the Cushites, Ishmaelites, and Midianites, were the chief agents in that commercial intercourse which has, from the most remote period of antiquity, subsisted between the extreme east and west. And although the current of trade is now turned, caravans of merchants, the descendants of these people, may still be found traversing the same deserts, conveying the same articles, and in the same manner as described by Moses!... The singular and important fact that Arabia has never been conquered, has already been cursorily adverted to. Gibbon, unwilling to pass by an opportunity of cavilling at revelation, says, "The perpetual independence of the Arabs has been the theme of praise among strangers and natives; and the arts of controversy transform this singular event into a prophecy and a miracle in favour of the posterity of Ishmael. The kingdom of Yemen has been successively subdued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sultans of Egypt, and the Turks; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed under a Scythian tyrant; and the Roman province of Arabia embraced the peculiar wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons must have pitched their tents in the face of their brethren. Gibbon, "are temporary or local; the body of the nation has escaped the yoke of the most powerful monarchies: the arms of Sesostris and Cyrus, of Pompey, and Trajan, could never achieve the conquest of Arabia; the present sovereign of the Turks may exercise a shadow of jurisdiction, but his pride is reduced to solicit the friendship of a people whom it is dangerous to provoke, and fruitless to attack. The obvious causes of their freedom are inscribed on the character and country of the Arabs. The arms and deserts of the Bedouins are not only the safeguards of their own freedom, but the barriers also of the happy Arabia, whose inhabitants, remote from war, are enervated by the luxury of the soil and climate. "... Yemen was the only Arabian province which had the appearance of submitting to a foreign yoke; but even here, as Mr. Petra, the capital of the Stony Arabia, and the principal settlement of the Nabathaei, it is true, was long in the hands of the Persians and Romans; but this never made them masters of the country. Hovering troops of Arabs confined the intruders within their walls, and cut off their supplies; and the possession of this fortress gave as little reason to the Romans to exult as the conquerors of Arabia Petraea, as that of Gibraltar does to us to boast of the conquest of Spain. ... The Arabian tribes were confounded by the Greeks and Romans under the indiscriminate appellation of Saracens; a name whose etymology has been variously, but never satisfactorily, explained. Mohammed now found himself sufficiently powerful to throw aside all reserve; declared that he was commanded to compel unbelievers by the sword to receive the faith of one God, and his prophet Mohammed; and confirming his credulous followers by the threats of eternal pain on the one hand, and the allurements of a sensual paradise on the other, he had, before his death, which happened in the year 632, gained over the whole of Arabia to his imposture. Any other empire placed in the same circumstances would have crumbled to pieces; but the Arabs felt their power; they revered their founder as the chosen prophet of God; and their ardent temperament, animated by a religious enthusiasm, gave an earnest of future success, and encouraged the zeal or the ambition of their leaders. During the whole of the succeeding century, their rapid career was unchecked; the disciplined armies of the Greeks and Romans were unable to stand against them; the Christian churches of Asia and Africa were annihilated; and from India to the Atlantic, through Persia, Arabia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Egypt, with the whole of northern Africa, Spain, and part of France, the impostor was acknowledged. The Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and, assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy in the year 936. This event, although it terminated the foreign dominion of the Arabians, left their native independence untouched. This caliph employed his agents in Armenia, Syria, Egypt, and at Constantinople, in collecting the most celebrated works on Grecian science, and had them translated into the Arabic language. What a change since the days of Omar, when the splendid library of the Ptolemies was wantonly destroyed by the same people! A retribution, though a slight one, was thus made for their former devastations; and many Grecian works, lost in the original, have been recovered in their Arabic dress. But it was in medicine that, in this dark age, the Arabians shone most: the works of Hippocrates and Galen had been translated and commented on; their physicians were sought after by the princes of Asia and Europe; and the names of Rhazis, Albucasis, and Avicenna are still revered by the members of the healing art. So little, indeed, did the physicians of Europe in that age know of the history of their own science, that they were astonished, on the revival of learning, to find in the ancient Greek authors those systems for which they thought themselves indebted to the Arabians!... The last remnant of Arabian science was found in Spain; from whence it was expelled in the beginning of the seventeenth century, by the intemperate bigots of that country, who have never had any thing of their own with which to supply its place. The Arabians are the only people who have preserved their descent, their independence, their language, and their manners and customs, from the earliest ages to the present times; and it is among them that we are to look for examples of patriarchal life and manners. Porter, in the person and tribe of an Arab sheik, whom he encountered in the neighbourhood of the Euphrates. One of my Hindoo troopers spoke Arabic, hence the substance of our succeeding discourse was not lost on each other. But perhaps their sense of perfect equality in the mind of their chief could not be more forcibly shown, than in the share they took in the objects which appeared to interest his feelings; and as I looked from the elders or leaders of the people, seated immediately around him, to the circles beyond circles of brilliant faces, bending eagerly toward him and his guest, (all, from the most respectably clad to those with hardly a garment covering their active limbs, earnest to evince some attention to the stranger he bade welcome,) I thought I had never before seen so complete an assemblage of fine and animated countenances, both old and young: nor could I suppose a better specimen of the still existing state of the true Arab; nor a more lively picture of the scene which must have presented itself, ages ago, in the fields of Haran, when Terah sat in his tent door, surrounded by his sons, and his sons' sons, and the people born in his house. The venerable Arabian sheik was also seated on the ground with a piece of carpet spread under him; and, like his ancient Chaldean ancestor, turned to the one side and the other, graciously answering or questioning the groups around him, with an interest in them all which clearly showed the abiding simplicity of his government, and their obedience. " But although the manners of the Arabians have remained unaltered through so many ages, and will probably so continue, their religion, as we have seen, has sustained an important change; and must again, in the fulness of time, give place to a faith more worthy of the people. Paul first preached the Gospel in Arabia, Galatians 1:17 . At this time, however, it does not appear that the Arabians had any version of the Scriptures in their own language, to which some writers attribute the ease with which they were drawn into the Mohammedan delusion; while the "Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, Abyssinians, Copts, and others," who enjoyed that privilege, were able to resist it
Salt - ... This seems preferable to the usual explanation which connects the expression in question with the well-known code of Arab [Note: Arabic. ] hospitality, by which a traveller in the desert, and even an enemy, if he has once partaken of an Arab’s hospitality, has a right to his host’s protection; since this ‘ordinance of salt’ as it is termed, is valid only for a limited period (see Jaussen. Coutumes des Arabes [1908], 87 f
Aretas - (Ἀρέτας, Arab, Ḥâritha)... The Gr. form of a name borne by several rulers of the Nabataean Arabs, whose capital was Petra in Arabia. The first known to history, ‘Aretas, prince of the Arabians,’ is said to have had the fugitive high-priest Jason shut up at his court (2 Maccabees 5:8; the Gr. , when the Greek kings of Syria and Egypt had lost so much of their power, ‘ut adsiduis proeliis consumpti in contemptum finitimorum vencrint praedaeque Arabum geuti, imbelli antea, fuerint’ (Trog. article Arabia. ... Literature-In addition to the authorities cited in the body of the article , see Literature appended to article Arabia, and P
Hazor - Apparently, small nomadic settlements of Arab tribes are meant
Carmel - The site of Elijah's sacrifice is still marked by the Arab name El-Maharrakah," the burning
Ephraim - ‘The wilderness’ is in Arab. [Note: Arabic. ) was probably not a forest in our sense of the term, but a stretch of rough country such as the Arabs still call wa‘r , abounding in rocks and thickets of brushwood
Gad (1) - In Genesis 49:19 translated "Gad, troops shall troop upon him (Gad , gedud ye -guddenu ), but he shall troop upon (yagud ) their rear" in retreat; alluding to the Arab tumultuous tribes near, who would invade Gad, then retire, Gad pressing on them in retreat. The farthest landmark eastward is Aroer facing Rabbah, now Arabian (Joshua 13:25)
ba'Bel - They consist chiefly of three great masses of building,--the high pile of unbaked brickwork which is known to the Arabs as Babel, 600 feet square and 140 feet high; the building denominated the Kasr or palace, nearly 2000 feet square and 70 feet high, and a lofty mound upon which stands the modern tomb of Amram-ibn-'Alb . ( Genesis 10:6-10 ) The early annals of Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties: one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion for 526 years
Education (2) - For instance, it is told in Arab. [Note: Arabic. ] This admirable institution, compArable to John Knox’s parish school, was attached to the synagogue; and since there was a synagogue in every village in the land, there was also an elementary school in every village. The Arab. [Note: Arabic. To the simple people of the north He spoke the language of the heart, and couched His teaching in pArable and poetry; but in Jerusalem He had to do with men whose minds were steeped in theology, and He met them on their own ground, talked to them in their own language, and encountered them with their own weapons
Transjordan - The most prominent topographical feature of Palestine is the Jordan River Valley, referred to in the Old Testament as the “Arabah” and called today, in Arabic, the Ghor. ... The vast Arabian Desert stretches southeastward from the geological fault line described above. (4) Wady Hesa—probably the ancient Zered but not absolutely certain—would have separated Moab from Edom and enters the Arabah at the southern end of the Dead Sea. ... An important trade route passed through the Transjordan during biblical times, connecting Damascus and Bostra of Syria with the Gulf of Aqabah and western Arabia. The southern Transhyjordan (earlier Moab and Edom) was dominated, on the other hand, by the Nabateans, a people of Arab origin who established a commercial empire along the desert fringe with its capital at Petra. 90, forming the administrative province of Arabia. 106 and renamed the province Arabia Petraea
Edom - (ee' duhm) The area southeast and southwest of the Dead Sea, on opposite sides of the Arabah, was known as Edom in biblical times and was the home of the Edomites. Yet not all of Edom was wilderness; the vicinity of present-day Tafileh and Buseireh, east of the Arabah, is fairly well watered, cultivable land, and would have boasted numerous villages during Old Testament times. ”... Most of the biblical passages pertaining to Edom refer to this Edomite center east of the Arabah. Yet there are other passages which presuppose that the territory west of the Arabah, south of the Judean hill country and separating Judah from the Gulf of Aqaba, was also part of Edom. David achieved a decisive victory in the valley of salt, probably just southwest of Beersheba where the ancient name still is preserved in modern Arabic wadi el-Milk. Apparently this secured Davidic control of the Edomite area west of the Arabah as well as access to the Gulf of Aqaba. ” If so, then it seems reasonable to locate the incident with the craggy terrain just northwest of the Edomite capital Bosrah, where still today an Arab village bears a corresponding name (as-Sil`). ... By New Testament times a people of Arabic origin known as the Nabateans had established a commercial empire with its center in the formerly Edomite territory east of the Arabah. Only the formerly Edomite territory west of the Arabah was still known as Idumea (Edom)
Chaldaea - At the time of the Arab invasion the Chaldaeans chiefly still preserved the learning of the East. The former is less developed and cultivated than either Hebrew or Arabic
Guest - gçr, Arab, jar) with God; the stranger is a fellow-guest, and loyalty to God demands that he should be hospitably entertained. (in the pArable of the Wedding Feast), where ‘guests’ = ἁνακείμενοι; and in Luke 19:7, where ‘to be guest’ ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘to lodge’) = καταλῦσαι. ... Some of the pArables of Jesus reflect this aspect of Oriental life. In the pArable of the Wedding Feast (Matthew 22:1 ff. ] 2 [Note: designates the particular edition of the work referred] ; Van Lennep, Manners and Customs in Bible Lands; Burckhardt, Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys; Doughty, Travels in Arabia Deserta (passim); Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of Ancient Egyptians
Colours - Scarlet (κόκκινος) was obtained from the female of the kermes insect (Arab
Ephesus - Arundell, "in January, 1824; the desolation was then complete: a Turk, whose shed we occupied, his Arab servant, and a single Greek, composed the entire population; some Turcomans excepted, whose black tents were pitched among the ruins
Dress - -- The general characteristics of Oriental dress have preserved a remarkable uniformity in all ages: the modern Arab dresses much as the ancient Hebrew did
Mahometanism - ... This was done, and about forty of them came; but Abu Leheb, one of his uncles, making the company break up before Mahomet had an opportunity of speaking, obliged him to give them a second invitation the next day; and when they were come, he made them the following speech: "I know no man in all Arabia who can offer his kindred a more excellent thing than I now do to you; I offer you happiness both in this life, and in that which is to come: God Almighty hath commanded me to call you unto him. These refugees were kindly received by the Najashi, or king of Ethiopia, who refused to deliver them up to those whom the Koreish sent to demand them, and, as the Arab writers unanimously attest, even professed the Mahometan religion. As persecution generally advances rather than obstructs the spreading of a religion, Islamism made so great a progress among the Arab tribes, that the Koreish, to suppress it effectually if possible, in the seventh year of Mahomet's mission, made a solemn league or covenant against the Hashemites, and the family of Abd'slmotalleb, engaging themselves to contract no marriages with any of them, and to have no communication with them; and to give it the greater sanction, reduced it into writing, and laid it up in the Caaba. That they should renounce all idolatry; and that they should not steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill their children (as the pagan Arabs used to do when they apprehended they should not be able to maintain them, ) nor forge calumnies; and that they should obey the prophet in all things that were reasonable. ... In the seventh year of the Hegira, Mahomet began to think of propagating his religion, beyond the bounds of Arabia, and sent messengers to the neighbouring princes, with letters to invite them to Mahometanism. The emperor Heraclius, as the Arabian historians assure us, received Mahomet's letter with great respect, laying it on his pillow, and dismissed the bearer honourably. ... Mahhomet wrote to the same effect to the king of Ethiopia, though he had been converted before, according to the Arab writers; and to Molawkas, governor of Egypt, who gave the messenger a very favourable reception, and sent several valuable presents to Mahomet, and among the rest two girls, one of which, named Mary, became a great favourite with him. He also sent letters of the like purport to several Arab princes; particularly one to Al Hareth Ebn Abi Shamer, king of Ghassan, who returning for answer that he would go to Mahomet himself, the prophet said, May his kingdom perish; another to Hawdha Ebn Ali, king of Yamama, who was a Christian, and, having sometime before professed Islamism, had lately returned to his former faith: this prince sent back a very rough answer, upon which Mahomet cursing him, he died soon after; and a third to Al Mondar Ebn Sawa, king of Bahrein, who embraced Mahometanism, and all the Arabs of that country followed his example. And soon after the prophet sent 3000 men against the Grecian forces, to revenge the death of one of his ambassadors who, being sent to the governor of Bosra on the same errand as those who went to the above-mentioned princes, was slain by an Arab of the tribe of Ghassan, at Muta, a town in the territory of Balka, in Syria, about three days journey eastward from Jerusalem, near which town they encountered. ... The Grecians being vastly superior in number (for, including the auxillary Arabs, they had an army of 100, 000 men, ) the Mahometans were repulsed in the first attack, and lost successively three of their generals, viz. The remainder of this year Mahomet employed in destroying the idols in and round Mecca, sending several of the generals on expeditions for that purpose, and to invite the Arabs to Islamism; wherein it is no wonder if they now met with success. The next year being the ninth of the Hegira, the Mahometans call the year of embassies; for the Arabs had been hitherto expecting the issue of the war between Mahomet and the Koreish: but, so soon as that tribe, the principal of the whole nation, and the genuine descendants of Ishmael, whose prerogatives none offered to dispute, had submitted, they were satisfied that it was not in their power to oppose Mahomet; and therefore began to come in to him in great numbers, and to send embassies to make their submission to him, both to Mecca, while he staid there, and also to Medina, whither he returned this year. ... Thus was Mahometanism established, and idolatry rooted out, even in Mahomet's life-time, (for he died the next year, ) throughout all Arabia, except only Yamama, where Moseilama, who set up also as a prophet as Mahomet's competitor, had a great party, and was not reduced till the kalifat of Abu Beer: and the Arabs being then united in one faith, and under one prince, found themselves in a condition of making those conquests which extended the Mahometan faith over so great a part of the world
Jerusalem - At the upper part of the hill, on this theory, we cannot doubt that the high place of the subjects of ‘Abd-khiba would be situated; and the tradition of the sanctity of this section of the city has lasted unchanged through all the varying occupations of the city Hebrew, Jewish, Byzantine, Arab, Crusader, and modern Mohammedan. The royal house was again pillaged by a coalition of Philistines and Arabs ( 2 Chronicles 21:16 ) in the time of Jehoram. From the destruction of Jerusalem to the Arab conquest . From the Arab conquest to the present day . This, however, could not last under the fanatical Fatimites, or the Seljuks who succeeded them; and the sufferings of the Christians led to that extraordinary series of piratical invasions, commonly called the Crusades, by which Palestine was harried for about a hundred years, and the undying tradition of which will retard indefinitely the final triumph of Christianity over the Arab race
No - It now consists of Arab huts amidst stately ruins and drifting sands
Damascus - see), the governor, by being lowered in a basket over the wall ( Acts 9:25 , 2 Corinthians 11:32-33 ), and hither he returned after his Arabian retirement ( Galatians 1:17 ). His brother, who succeeded him, was driven out by the Arabian Haritha (Aretas). For a while it remained in Arab hands, then, after a temporary occupation by Tigranes, king of Armenia, it was conquered by Metellus, the Roman general
Gift, Giving - An Arab will give anything to an intending buyer, and appeal to witnesses that he does so, but it is understood to be only a form, to help him to raise the price (see Driver, Genesis, ad
Arabia - Arabia (Ἀραβία, from עֲרָב), which now denotes the great peninsula lying between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, was in ancient times a singularly elusive term. ‘Arabia’ shifted like the nomads, drifted like the desert sand. So uncertain was the application of the term, that there was no part of the semi-desert fringe extending from the lower Tigris to the lower Nile which was not at one time or another called Arabia. Every one used it to denote that particular hinterland whose tribes and peoples were more or less known to him; that was his Arabia. the Arab tribe of the Nabataeans had become a powerful nation, with Petra as their capital, and from that time onward Arabia began to be identified, especially in the Western mind, with the Natataean kingdom. still distinguishes the Nabataeans from other Arabs (1 Maccabees 5:25; 1 Maccabees 9:35), 2 Mac. speaks of Aretas, the hereditary king of the Nabataeans, as ‘king of the Arabs’ (2 Maccabees 5:8). From the days of Augustus the kings of the Arabians were as much subject to the Empire as Herod, king of the Jews, and they had the whole region between Herod’s dominions and the desert assigned to them. The Arabians who were present at the first Christian Pentecost (Acts 2:11) were most likely Nabataeans, possibly from Petra. Damascus he ‘went away into Arabia,’ evidently for solitary communion with God; but he does not further define the place of his retreat, and Acts makes no allusion to this episode. 106 the governor of Syria, Aulus Cornelius Palma, broke up the dominion of the Nabataean kings, and constituted the Roman province of Arabia, while Damascus was added to Syria. Euting, Nabatäische Inschriften aus Arabien, Berlin, 1885; H. Vincent, Les Arabes en Syrie, Paris, 1907; G. Cooke, North-Semitic Inscriptions, London, 1903; and the article ‘Arabs (Ancient),’ by Th
Maronites - Travellers may journey there, either by night or by day, with a security unknown in any other part of the empire, and the stranger is received with hospitality, as among the Arabs: it must be owned, however, that the Maronites are less generous, and rather inclined to the vice of parsimony. Contrary to the precepts of that same religion, however, they have admitted, or retained, the Arab custom of retaliation, and the nearest relation of a murdered person is bound to avenge him. The Gospel, alone, is read aloud in Arabic, that it may be understood by the people
Water - " In Arabia, equal attention is paid, by the wealthy and benevolent, to the refreshment of the traveller. On one of the mountains of Arabia, Niebuhr found three little reservoirs, which are always kept full of fine water for the use of passengers. Sometimes he found, near these places of Arab refreshment, a piece of a ground shell, or a little scoop of wood, for lifting the water
Palestine - The land of Palestine is the territory which lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Desert as E. The dry summer is rendered further unpleasant by hot east winds, blowing from over the Arabian Desert, which have a depressing and enervating effect. But scArabs and other objects referable to the Usertesens (about b. These, though Aramæan by race, now habitually speak Arabic, except in Ma‘lula and one or two other places in N. Palestine thus became a Moslem country, and its population received the Arab element which is still dominant within it. It may be mentioned in passing that coins of Chosroës are occasionally found in Palestine; and that of the early Arab domination many noteworthy buildings survive, chief of which is the glorious dome that occupies the site of the Hebrew Temple at Jerusalem. Worn out by immorality, by leprosy and other diseases, and by mutual dissensions, the unworthy champions of the Cross disappeared before the heroic Saladin, leaving as their legacy to the country a score or so of place names; a quantity of worthless ecclesiastical traditions; a number of castles and churches, few of which possess any special architectural interest, and many of which, by a strange irony, have been converted into mosques; and, among the Arab natives, an unquenchable hatred of Christianity
House (2) - The roof was made, no doubt, as that of the common Arab house is made to-day, by laying rough beams about three feet apart, then laying reeds or brushwood close and thick across, covering it with something like the thickly matted thorn-bush called bellan, and then spreading over the whole, first a coat of thick mortar, and then one of marl or earth, and rolling it
Altar - Wellhausen, Reste Arab
Altar - Wellhausen, Reste Arab
Manes, Called Also Mani - of Caschar; the Eastern from Persian and Arabian historians. ]... Upon the story told by the Syrian, Persian, and Arab historians and chroniclers known to Beausobre he places much more reliance than upon the Western tradition (pt. ... Since Beausobre's time the sources of Oriental knowledge have been much enlarged, and modern research inclines more and more to trust the concordant testimony of Persian, Arabic, and Armenian historians, as opposed to the Byzantines, about the affairs of W
Ornaments - ... The custom still observed by the Bedouin women of wearing a ring through the right nostril (Doughty, Arab. [Note: Arabic. Beneath the débris of a Canaanite house were found a mother and her five children, and beside the former the following ornaments: a gold band for the forehead, 8 gold rings, of which 7 were simple bands of gold wire, while the eighth was of several strands of wire, 2 silver rings, 2 larger bronze rings, perhaps bracelets, 2 small cylinders of crystal, 5 pearls, a scArab of amethyst and another of crystal, and finally a silver fastener (all illustrated op
Home (2) - There was considerable leisure, and the Palestinian Jew had much time for contemplation, like the Arab of today
Dress - An Arab sheikh to this day wears an aba or garment composed of stripes of many colors, as emblem of his office
Bread - The Arabs about Mount Carmel use a great strong pitcher, in which they kindle a fire; and when it is heated, they mix meal and water, which they apply with the hollow of their hands to the outside of the pitcher; and this extremely soft paste, spreading itself, is baked in an instant. If these accounts of the Arab stone pitcher, the pan, and the iron hearth or copper plate, be attended to, it will not be difficult to understand the laws of Moses in the second chapter of Leviticus: they will be found to answer perfectly well to the description which he gives us of the different ways of preparing the meat-offerings. ... The Arabians and other eastern people, among whom wood is scarce, often bake their bread between two fires made of cow dung, which burns slowly, and bakes the bread very leisurely
Bread - The thin home-made bread is named both in Hebrew and Arabic from its thinness, and is translated ‘wafer’ in Exodus 29:23, Leviticus 8:26, Numbers 6:19, 1 Chronicles 23:29 ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885). Such bread is called רָקיק (râkîk; Arab. [Note: Arabic
Possession - According to Arab belief, something abnormal in the appearance, such as a strange look in the eyes or an unusual catching in the throat, was an invariable symptom, and both are indications of nervous excitement or alarm
Marriage - Smith ( Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia ) gives to this form the name sadika , from the sadac or ‘gift’ given to the wife, ( a ) The union may be confined to an occasional visit to the wife in her home ( mota marriage). Women could inherit in Arabia under this system ( op. Many of the instances quoted can be explained as due to special circumstances, but the admitted existence of such marriages in Arabia makes it probable that we should find traces of them among the Semites in general. endogamy), though, judging by Arab analogies, it may have originally existed; on the contrary, the Hebrews were strongly endogamous, marrying within the nation. (2) The betrothal was of a more formal and binding nature than our ‘engagement’; among the Arabs it is the only legal ceremony connected with a marriage. We have to construct our picture from passing notices, combined with what we know of Arabic and later Jewish customs. In Arab. [Note: Arabic
Language of Christ - Beyond the Jordan, and in the border lands of the south, there was some mingling with the neighbouring Moabite, Idumæan, and Arab tribes, and probably many dialects were spoken, the records of which have perished for ever
Jordan - In Arabic the name is esh-Sheri‘ah , or ‘the watering-place,’ though Arabic writers before the Crusades called it el-Urdun . The largest is the Yarmuk of the Rabbis, the Hieromax of the Greeks, and the Sheri‘at el-Manadireh of the Arabs, which drains Gilead and Bashan in part. The only other tributary of considerable importance is the Jabbok of the OT, called by the natives Nahr ez-Zerka or Wady el-‘Arab . A temporary wooden bridge, erected by the Arabs, stands opposite Jericho. The broad and ever-descending valley through which the Jordan flows is called by the Arabs the Ghôr or ‘bottom’; to the Hebrews it was known as the ‘ Arabah
Amen - amena, ‘trust’ [Arab
Bethlehem - The ancient tombs and excavations are occasionally used by the Arabs as places of shelter; but the Gospel narrative affords no countenance to the notion that the Virgin took refuge in any cave of this description. These concerts charm the Christian Arab, who, leaving his camels to feed, repairs, like the shepherds of old, to Bethlehem, to adore the King of kings in the manger
Name, Names - ... Generally the name was fixed immediately alter birth, as it still is with the Arabs. ... After the birth of a son an Arab father will adopt an honorific name ( kunya )
Jordan - From yarad "to descend," Arab. Yet it is remarkable as the river of the great plain (ha Arabah, now el Ghor) of the Holy Land, flowing through the whole from N. " The upper terrace immediately under the hills is covered with vegetation; under that is the Arabah or desert plain, barren in its southern part except where springs fertilize it, but fertile in its northern part and cultivated by irrigation. ... Grove remarks of the Jordan: "so rapid that its course is one continued cataract, so crooked that in its whole lower and main course it has hardly a half mile straight, so broken with rapids that no boat can swim any distance continuously, so deep below the adjacent country that it is invisible and can only be with difficulty approached; refusing all communication with the ocean, and ending in a lake where navigation is impossible useless for irrigation, it is in fact what its Arabic name signifies, nothing but a 'great watering place,' Sheriat el Khebir
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - The speed of the zealous missionary was promoted by the fleetest dromedaries of a devout chief of the Arabs; the doctrine and discipline of the Jacobites were secretly established in the dominions of Justinian, and each Jacobite was compelled to violate the laws and to hate the Roman legislator" (Gibbon, vol. But, in his beggar's garb, aided by the friendly Arab tribes and the people of Syria and Asia, he eluded all attempts to seize him, and lived into the reign of Tiberius. Paul, stung with remorse for his cowardice, escaped into Arabia, taking refuge with Mondir, son and successor of Harith. 524), though adjudged to be his by Cave, Abraham Ecchellensis, and others, together with the Encomium in Jacobitas , and an Arabic Homily on the Annunciation, are discredited by Assemani on philological and chronological grounds
Gideon - 182) observes that the nomadic hordes of Midian, like the modern Beni Suggar and Ghazawiyeh Arabs, come up the broad and fertile valley of Jezreel; their encampment lay, as the black Arab tents do now in spring, at the foot of the hill March (Nebi Dahy) opposite to the limestone knoll on which Jezreel (Zer'ain) stands
Emmaus - onwards it was called Nicopolis, without the remembrance of the ancient Semitic name being lost; and, as is the case with most of those places with two names, under the Arab domination it resumed its earlier name and was called ‘Amwâs, the appellation it still bears
Ammonites - The country is divided between the Turks and the Arabs, but chiefly possessed by the latter. " "The far greater part of the country is uninhabited, being abandoned to the wandering Arabs, and the towns and villages are in a state of total ruin. ) "The whole way we traversed," says Seetzen, "we saw villages in ruins, and met numbers of Arabs with their camels," &c. The recesses in the northern and southern wall were originally open passages, and had arched door ways facing each other; but the first of these was found wholly closed up, and the last was partially filled up, leaving only a narrow passage, just sufficient for the entrance of one man and of the goats, which the Arab keepers drive in here occasionally for shelter during the night. Its ancient name is still preserved by the Arabs, and its site is now "covered with the ruins of private buildings—nothing of them remaining except the foundations and some of the door posts. The public edifices, which once strengthened or adorned the city, after a long resistance to decay, are now also desolate; and the remains of the most entire among them, subjected as they are to the abuse and spoliation of the wild Arabs, can be adapted to no better object than "a stable for camels
Tares - authors influenced by the NT; Arab. [Note: Arabic. ... The pArable of the Tares and its explanation are found only in Matthew 13:24-30; Matthew 13:36-43. This ties the pArable to the historical situation in which it was spoken, forbidding an exclusive reference to the future; while the fact that it is the Son of Man (= Messiah) who has sown the good seed (cf. The time of the pArable is the time of the question of the servants (Matthew 13:27), when the tares had been already recognized as such (ἐφάνη, Matthew 13:26). Matthew 13:27 and the following verse show that the idea of wheat degenerating into darnel is foreign to the pArable; the servants think of mixed seed, the master of an independent sowing of darnel. Still less is there any idea in the pArable that darnel may become wheat (B. ... The correct interpretation of this pArable flows directly from its historical setting. The Sower had been a pArable of disillusionment, disclosing that the success of the Messianic Kingdom would not be so universal or immediate as they had fondly imagined, that its method was to be preaching and not cataclysm, that it depended for its spread on its reception in human hearts. The Tares is equally a pArable of disillusionment. ‘On that day’ (Matthew 13:1) of the pArables, or at least a short time before it, the Pharisees had shown their true colours by charging that Jesus cast out demons by Beelzebub, the prince of the demons (Matthew 12:22-32). ), ‘Lord, wilt thou that we bid fire to come down from heaven and consume them?’ In this pArable Jesus teaches them that the judgment which they momentarily expected, the separation of the sons of the Kingdom and the sons of the Evil One, shall surely come, not now, but at the end of the age, and that meantime the wicked shall continually spring up among the righteous. The pArable therefore discloses the fact that, instead of being victorious at one stroke, the progress of the Kingdom is to be continually hindered and hampered (cf. ... This interpretation leaves unanswered those questions about Church discipline which have made the pArable an ecclesiastical battle-ground for centuries, because the pArable has nothing to do with such controversies. (4) If the pArable refers to Church discipline, it forbids it in toto, while the pArable of the Net on a similar interpretation makes it impossible. (6) The Apostles did not so understand the pArable, for they insisted on Church discipline (1 Corinthians 5:2; 1 Corinthians 5:13, 2 Corinthians 2:5-11, 2 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Thessalonians 3:13, Revelation 2:14-16; Revelation 2:20-23; cf. The history of the interpretation of the pArable shows that such a use of it was first made by Cyprian during his bishopric (248–258), in support of his theories of the Church. Bruce, PArabolic Teaching, p. ... Two objections to the interpretation of the pArable proposed in this article deserve attention. It is admitted that the word ‘Kingdom’ is used in this pArable in a very loose sense. In the process of taking shape, the pArable tells us, opposition has risen in the world of men which these truths and principles claim as their rightful sphere, and which men expect them to occupy. (2) The related pArable of the Net (Matthew 13:47-50) is supposed to refer to the discipline of the Church. (d) The pArable, if it relates to Church discipline, makes that absolutely impossible. have worked over the same original pArable, Mt. Jülicher acknowledges an unrecognizable pArable-kernel here, which lies at the bottom of both Mt. The pArable, as it stands in Mt. ’s pArable and the original pArable, the companion of the Net, while the explanation is from the same editor’s hand. ’s pArable as a weakened form of the Tares, or a substitute for it. Weiss thinks that the idea of gradual development is not in this or its sister pArables. Weiss, Zahn, Goebel, Trench, and Bruce (PArabolic Teaching), cf. ; Arnot (PArables) may be compared as a pioneer of the correct interpretation
Assyria, History And Religion of - Action against Arab tribes followed, and the war with Elam continued until a final Assyrian victory in 639 B
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - 360), near whose ruins in Annesley Bay the Arabian traders still unlade their ships (cf. 519 he crossed the straits, utterly defeated the Arabian forces, and driving the Jew to refuge in the hills, left a viceroy to bear Christian rule over the Homeritae and returned to Ethiopia (ib. Choosing a season when the Arabian Gulf would be an impassable barrier to the intervention of Elesbaan, he gathered a force which presently numbered 120,000 men and, having put to death all Christians whom he could find and turned their church into a synagogue, pressed on to Negran, the head-quarters of the Ethiopian vice-royalty, then held by Arethas the phylarch. , king of the Arabians of Hira, a friend valuable alike for reasons of commerce and in regard to the war with Persia. As the ambassadors drew near the king (the story is told by Simeon in a letter to the abbat of Gabula), they were met by a crowd of Arabs crying that Christ was driven out of Rome and Persia and Homeritis; and they learnt that messengers were present from Dhu Nowas with letters to king Mundhir, in which they heard the long recital of the treachery by which Negran had been taken, of the insult to the bishop's tomb, of the slaughter of the Christians and the triumph of Judaism, the confession of the martyr Arethas, and the speech of Ruma urging the women of Negran to follow her to the abiding city of the divine Bridegroom, praying that the blood of the martyrs might be the wall of Negran while it continued in the faith, and that she might be forgiven for that Arethas had died first. Their own end must have seemed very near; but the courage of a soldier who stood forth as spokesman of the many Christians in Mundhir's army decided the hesitation of the king, and the ambassadors went away unhurt (but apparently unanswered) to Naaman, a port in the Arabian Gulf. Wright, Early Christianity in Arabia , p. coast of Arabia. down the Gulf of Arabia towards the straits; which Dhu Nowas had barred by a huge chain, stretched across the space of two furlongs from side to side. Discouraged by this disaster, the main body of the Arabians offered a feeble resistance; and Dhu Nowas saw that his downfall was very near. According to the Arabian historians, he threw himself from the cliff and died in the waves; according to the Acta S. The Arabic writers are unsupported in their story of the useless resistance of a successor Dhu Giadan; it was probably at the death of Dhu Nowas that the kingdom of the Homeritae ended, and Yemen became a province of Ethiopia. 322), leaving a Christian Arab named Esimiphaeus or Ariathus, to be his viceroy over the conquered people. A part of Elesbaan's army, however, refused to leave the luxury of Arabia Felix, and not long after set up as rival to Esimiphaeus one Abrahah or Abraham, the Christian slave of a Roman merchant, who was strong enough to shut up the viceroy in a fort and seize the throne of Yemen. The Arabic historians record that Elesbaan swore to yet lay hold of the land of the Homeritae, both mountain and plain, pluck the forelock from the rebel's head, and take his blood as the price of Aryates's death; and they tell of the mixed cunning and cowardice by which Abrahah satisfied the Ethiopian's oath, and evaded his anger, winning at last a recognition of his dignity
Babylon - It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation: neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there: neither shall the shepherds make their fold there. At present the only inhabitants of the tract are the Sobeide Arabs. "Deep cavities are also formed by the Arabs, when digging for hidden treasure. " "It is impossible," adds Major Keppel, "to behold this scene and not to be reminded how exactly the predictions of Isaiah and Jeremiah have been fulfilled, even in the appearance Babylon was doomed to present, that ‘she should never be inhabited;' that ‘the Arabian should not pitch his tent there;' that she should ‘become heaps;' that her cities should be ‘a desolation, a dry land, and a wilderness. Neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there, neither shall the shepherds make their folds there. ... But Babylon was to be visited with a far greater desolation, and to become unfit or unsuited even for such a purpose; and that neither a tent would be pitched there, even by an Arab, nor a fold made by a shepherd, implies the last degree of solitude and desolation. Instead of taking the bricks from thence, the shepherd might very readily erect a defence from wild beasts, and make a fold for his flock amidst the heaps of Babylon; and the Arab who fearlessly traverses it by day, might pitch his tent by night. Captain Mignan was accompanied by six Arabs, completely armed; but he "could not induce them to remain toward night, from the apprehension of evil spirits
Wilderness of the Wanderings - ... The hardships alluded to (Deuteronomy 1:19; Deuteronomy 2:3; Deuteronomy 8:15) refer to the 4Oth year marches through the Arabah, which seemed the worse by contrast with the fertile plains of Moab which they next reached. " Down the Arabah between the limestone cliffs of the Tih on the W. From the acacia (Mimosa Nilotica) came the shittim wood of the tabernacle and gum Arabic. Arab tradition makes these remains "the relics of a large hajj caravan, who on their way to Ain Hudherah lost their way in the desert Tih and never were heard of again
Meals - In short, it may be affirmed that the Hebrew housewives were in no way behind their modern kinsfolk of the desert, of whom Doughty testifies that ‘the Arab housewives make savoury messes of any grain, seething it and putting thereto only a little salt and samn [clarified butter]
Insight - Browning in the Epistle of Karshish, the Arab Physician, has made a daring attempt to get into a consciousness similar to that of Jesus, by trying to imagine how a man whose soul had assimilated the pure spiritual environment of heaven, would feel and act were he permitted to come back to earth and to envisage life from the standpoint of the new experience
Winter - The modern Arab, name, esh-shitta’, means literally ‘the rain. InsepArable from narrative. A concluding pArable (Matthew 12:43-45 = Luke 11:24-26) likens ‘this evil generation,’ with its Pharisaic mania purifica, to ‘a house swept and garnished’ which becomes the abode of demons, because inhospitable to the Spirit of God
Locust - We must remember that Oriental languages, such as Hebrew and Arabic, possess a considerable choice of synonyms to denote one and the same animal. An ancient tradition of the Christian Church held that the locusts eaten by the Baptist were not insects, but the pods or husks of a tree, the carob or locust tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Arab. [Note: Arabic. 346), ‘Locusts are here an article of food, nay, a dainty, and a good swarm of them is begged of Heaven in Arabia no less fervently than it would be deprecated in India or in Syria. 329–331; Berggrèn, Guide français-Arabe, 1844, p. , 79; Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia, 1883, pp
Agriculture - Such a classification is quite distinct from that of the pArable of the Sower, where the wayside, the rocky places, etc. If it was, it may have resembled the modern ghirbal, which is of smaller mesh than the kĕbhârâh (Arab. [Note: Arabic
Bride - The practice still continues in the country of Shechem; for when a young Arab wishes to marry, he must purchase his wife; and for this reason, fathers, among the Arabs, are never more happy than when they have many daughters. An Arabian suitor will offer fifty sheep, six camels, or a dozen of cows: if he be not rich enough to make such offers, he proposes to give a mare or a colt, considering in the offer the merit of the young woman, the rank of her family, and his own circumstances. When they are agreed on both sides, the contract is drawn up by him that acts as cadi or judge among these Arabs. In the pArable of the ten virgins, the same circumstances are introduced: "They that were foolish took their lamps, and took no oil with them: but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. ... The following extract from Ward's "View of the Hindoos" very strikingly illustrates this pArable: "At a marriage, the procession of which I saw some years ago, the bridegroom came from a distance, and the bride lived at Serampore, to which place the bridegroom was to come by water
Locust - We must remember that Oriental languages, such as Hebrew and Arabic, possess a considerable choice of synonyms to denote one and the same animal. An ancient tradition of the Christian Church held that the locusts eaten by the Baptist were not insects, but the pods or husks of a tree, the carob or locust tree (Ceratonia siliqua, Arab. [Note: Arabic. 346), ‘Locusts are here an article of food, nay, a dainty, and a good swarm of them is begged of Heaven in Arabia no less fervently than it would be deprecated in India or in Syria. 329–331; Berggrèn, Guide français-Arabe, 1844, p. , 79; Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia, 1883, pp
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - In the extreme south the two rivers join in a combined stream that today is known as the Shatt el-Arab. “Sea of Reeds”) is a long narrow body of water separating the Arabian Peninsula from the northeastern coast of Africa (Egypt, Sudan, and Ethiopia)
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - ; Wellhausen, Reste Arab. [Note: Arabic. ; Doughty, Arabia Deserta, ii
Dress (2) - The rich man of the pArable was clothed in ‘purple and fine linen’ (βύσσος), Luke 16:19. Lebâs or drawers, though utterly despised by the true Arab, are in common use in towns
Priest - Aaron's priesthood has passed away: Christ's priesthood, which is after the order of Melchizedek, does "not pass from one to another" (Hebrews 7:24, apArabaton teen hierosuneen ), for "He ever liveth," not needing (as the Aaronic priests, through inability to continue through death) to transmit the priesthood to successors (Hebrews 7:23; Hebrews 7:25). ... Κohen is from an Arabic root, "draw hear," or else kaahan "to present" (Exodus 19:22; Exodus 30:20-21). Melchizedek, combining kingship and priesthood in one, as the Arab sheikh does, had no human successor or predecessor as priest of "the Most High God, the Possessor of heaven and earth
Egypt - ' Abdallatif, an Arab writer, says that Nebuchadnezzar ravaged Egypt and ruined all the country for giving an asylum to the Jews who fled from him, and that it remained in desolation forty years
Weights And Measures - and Arab [Note: Arabic
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - Among the Arabs the priest was originally also the soothsayer ; the Heb. kôhçn , ‘priest,’ is cognate with the Arab. [Note: Arabic. This practice is found among the Arabs, and was also used in Babylonia. It was considered by the Arabs that some animals, under the influence of a higher power, could see what was invisible to men, and consequently their action became an omen. Driver, however, leaves the kind of divination undecided, and suggests a derivation from an Arabic root meaning ‘to murmur’ or ‘whisper,’ the reference being to the mutterings of the soothsayer ( Deut
Passover - ... In such haste did Israel go that they packed up in their outer mantle (as the Arab haik or "burnous") their kneading troughs containing the dough prepared for the morrow's provision yet unleavened (Exodus 12:34)
Papyri And Ostraca - the main stream, as it were, begins, consisting of Greek papyri, and extending from the time of the Ptolemys till the first centuries of the Arab occupation, i. Associated with them there are Latin, Coptic, Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, and other papyri so that, taken all together, they confer an immense benefit, and at the same time impose an immense obligation, upon the science of antiquity
House - In the words of an Arab sheik: ‘Every house must have its death man, woman, child, or animal’ (Curitiss, Primitive Semitic Religion To-day )
Abram - The Arabian and Jewish legends speak of his early idolatry, his conversion from it, and of his zeal in breaking the images in his father's house; but these are little to be depended upon. Thus the migrations of the three primitive families proceeded from the central regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria; and in succession they established numerous communities,—the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Lybians southward;—the Persians, Indians, and Chinese eastward;—the Scythians, Celts, and Tartars northward;—and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins westward, even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South America, and the Indians of North America. Abraham, with true Arabian hospitality, received and entertained them. Abraham afterward married Keturah; by whom he had six sons, Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah; who became heads of different people, which dwelt in Arabia, and around it. But to this day the Arab women do not wear veils at home in their tents; and Sarah's countenance might have been seen in the tent by some of the officers of Pharaoh and Abimelech, who reported her beauty to their masters
Joseph - The Arab chief to this day wears an aba or garment of different colored stripes as emblem of office. Africa, Ethiopia, Arabia, Syria, which shared in the drought (for the tropical rains on the Abyssinian mountains, on which the Nile's rise depends, have the same origin as the Palestine rains), and which partially depended on Egypt the granary of many countries (Acts 27:6; Acts 27:38), came to buy grain. " Egypt was exposed to incursions of Canaanite Hittites and Arabs, and the invasion of the shepherds or Hyksos was already impending
Egypt - The name is related to an Arabic word, "red mud. " The cognate Arabic word means "black mud. An Arab or Semitic element of race and language is added to the Nigritian in forming the Egyptian people and their tongue. , and it is remarkable that his widow imported many trees from Arabia Felix. Horses are omitted, which accords with the earlier date, for they were unknown (judging from the monuments) to the 12th or any earlier dynasty, and were probably introduced from Arabia by the Hyksos
Jerusalem - Aside, in a corner, the Arab butcher is slaughtering some animal, suspended by the legs from a wall in ruins: from his haggard and ferocious look, and his bloody hands, you would suppose that he had been cutting the throat of a fellow creature, rather than killing a lamb
Nestorius And Nestorianism - In 435 it was thought that Nestorius was nearer the patriarch of Antioch than was convenient, so his exile to Petra in Arabia was decreed, though he was actually taken to Egypt instead. " The spread of Mohammedanism ultimately destroyed the once flourishing Nestorian churches outside the limits of the Roman empire, though the Arab caliphs, as distinguished from the Turks, shewed them some favour
Palestine - South of that, through the pasture-lands about Bethlehem and the wilderness of Judaea to the east of them, the land slopes down the rolling ‘South Country’ to the Arabian desert. An inner ring of wild Arabian tribes wandered over the eastern desert, and now and then raided the land. Kinglake has described the Jordan as the boundary-line between roofs and tents; and besides the tents of nomad tribes there were also those cities of Edom and the Hauran, where, in a rude kind of civilization, Arab kings ruled their kingdoms. Most of Jesus’ pArables of kings and their wars (Matthew 18:23 etc. ), tell of just such a condition of unsettled government and expectation of surprise as existed on the borderline between Arabian and Israelite territory