Character Study on Thaddaeus

Character Study on Thaddaeus

Matthew 10: Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus;
Mark 3: And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite,

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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Thaddaeus
THADDÆUS . This is the name of one of the Twelve Apostles as given in Matthew 10:3 , Mark 3:18 . He is doubtless to be identified with the ‘ Judas [son] of James,’ who appears in the Lukan lists ( Luke 6:18 , Acts 1:13 ; so RV [Note: Revised Version.] , but AV [Note: Authorized Version.] renders ‘ brother of James’), and with the ‘Judas, not Iscariot,’ of John 14:22 , though some Syrian writers have made this last Judas to be the same as the Apostle Thomas (syr sin reads here ‘Thomas,’ syr cur reads ‘Judas Thomas’), Thomas being confessedly only a surname, ‘the Twin.’

In all four lists Thaddæus (or Judas) comes next to Simon the Cananæan or Zealot, and may not improbably have been his brother or intimate friend (cf. the variant ‘Judas Zelotes’ in Matthew 10:3 , noted below). It is the opinion of almost all modern scholars that neither is to be identified with any of the Brethren of our Lord, though Dom Chapman has lately published an elaborate argument to the contrary ( JThSt [Note: ThSt Journal of Theological Studies.] vii. 412).

Instead of, or in addition to, ‘Thaddæus,’ we find the variant Lebbæus . In Mark 3:13 , Codex Bezae (D [Note: Deuteronomist.] ) and some Old Latin MSS have ‘Lebbæus’; but all the best authorities, including syr sin (Syr cur is wanting here), have ‘Thaddæus,’ and this is doubtless right. In Matthew 10:3 the oldest Greek MSS ( א B), the Vulgate, the Coptic, and some Old Latin MSS have ‘Thaddæus,’ while D [Note: Deuteronomist.] , supported by the valuable Old Latin k and some other MSS, has ‘Lebbæus.’ Some other Old Latin MSS have ‘Judas Zelotes,’ and syr sin has ‘Judas son ( sic ) of James’ (syr cur is wanting here). Some inferior MSS and several Versions combine ‘Lebbæus’ and ‘Thaddæus,’ as AV [Note: Authorized Version.] (‘L. whose surname was Th.’); but this is clearly a later explanation, and must be rejected. We see, then, that in Mt. ‘Thaddæus’ has the best attestation, and this alone is read in RV [Note: Revised Version.] , from which ‘Lebbæus’ has completely disappeared. But how could ‘Lebbæus’ have been invented? It has been suggested ( a ) that some early scribe, taking ‘Thaddæus’ and ‘Lebbæus’ to be names of kindred meaning, the former from an Aramaic word denoting ‘breast,’ the latter from another denoting ‘heart,’ confused the two; or ( b ), with greater probability, that ‘Lebbæus’ is a form of ‘Levi,’ introduced by some scribe who did not know that Levi and Matthew were the same person. It does not affect these explanations if, with Dalman, we hold that these derivations are in fact wrong, for the scribes were not necessarily qualified to be good philologers.

After NT times Thaddeus (Syr. Taddai ) was of ten confused with Addai, who was said to be one of the Seventy disciples, and who, being seat to Edessa, healed Abgarus (see Smith-Wace, Dict. Chr. Biog. iv. 875). In a list of Apostles given in Lagarde’s Appendix to the Apostolic Constitutions (p. 283), Thaddæus, ‘who is Lebbæus and Judas,’ is distinguished from ‘Judas of James,’ and is said to have preached at Edessa, to have been buried in Egypt, and to have been crucified.

A. J. Maclean.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Thaddaeus
Breast, the name of one of the apostles (Mark 3:18 ), called "Lebbaeus" in Matthew 10:3 , and in Luke 6:16 , "Judas the brother of James;" while (John 14:22 ), probably referring to the same person, speaks of "Judas, not Iscariot." These different names all designate the same person, viz., Jude or Judas, the author of the epistle.

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Thaddaeus
Little is known of Thaddaeus, apart from his appointment as one of Jesus’ twelve apostles. From the comparison of the lists of names in the four Gospels, it seems that ‘Thaddaeus’ was another name for Judas the son of James (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13). (In some versions he is called the brother of James and given an alternative name, Lebbaeus.)

Holman Bible Dictionary - Thaddaeus
Personal name perhaps meaning, “gift of God” in Greek but derived from Hebrew or Aramaic meaning, “breast.” See Disciples , Judas 6; Lebbaeus.



Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Thaddaeus
Mark 3:18. Same as Lebbaeus or Judas not Iscariot (John 14:22). (See JUDE.) The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts read in Matthew 10:3 only "Thaddaeus, "omitting "and Lebbaeus whose surname was."

The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Thaddaeus
One of the Apostles of Christ, this was his surname, for Lebbeus was his former name. (See Matthew 10:3) If his name was derived from Jaduh or Thaduh, it signifies praise.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Thaddaeus
See JUDAS No 2.

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Thaddaeus
Thaddaeus. Eusebius ( Hist. Eccl. i. 13) gives a story, which he says he found in the archives of Edessa, that after the ascension of our Lord, the apostle Judas Thomas sent Thaddaeus, one of the seventy disciples, to Edessa, to king Abgarus the Black, and that he cured the king of a serious illness, converted him with all his people to Christianity, and died at Edessa after many years of successful labours. The name of this apostle of the Edessenes is given by the Syrians as Addaeus ( Doctrina Addai, ed. Phillips, p. 5, Eng. trans. 1876), and it is possible that Eusebius misread the name as Thaddaeus. Thaddaeus was at a later date confused with the apostle Judas Thaddaeus. The documents given by Eusebius contain a correspondence between Abgar and our Lord, which of course is spurious. Cf. R. A. Lipsius, Die Edessenische Abgarsage kritisch untersucht (Braunschweig, 1880), and in D. C. B. vol. iv.; also, by the same, Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichten, vol. ii. 2, 178–201, and Suppl. p. 105; also Texeront, Les Origines de l’Eglise d’Edesse et la légende d’Abgar (Paris, 1888).

[H.W.]

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1910 New Catholic Dictionary
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American Tract Society Bible Dictionary
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Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection
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Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (1)
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Sentence search

Abgar - [See Thaddaeus
Thaddaeus - Thaddaeus. 13) gives a story, which he says he found in the archives of Edessa, that after the ascension of our Lord, the apostle Judas Thomas sent Thaddaeus, one of the seventy disciples, to Edessa, to king Abgarus the Black, and that he cured the king of a serious illness, converted him with all his people to Christianity, and died at Edessa after many years of successful labours. 1876), and it is possible that Eusebius misread the name as Thaddaeus. Thaddaeus was at a later date confused with the apostle Judas Thaddaeus
Thaddaeus - Little is known of Thaddaeus, apart from his appointment as one of Jesus’ twelve apostles. From the comparison of the lists of names in the four Gospels, it seems that ‘Thaddaeus’ was another name for Judas the son of James (Matthew 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:16; John 14:22; Acts 1:13)
Lebbaeus - One of the twelve apostles, who was surnamed Thaddaeus, Matthew 10:3 ; apparently the apostle Jude
Lebbaeus - Thaddaeus or Judas, the brother of James (Mark 3:18)
Lebbaeus - Courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matthew 10:3 ), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord
Thaddaeus - ) The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts read in Matthew 10:3 only "Thaddaeus, "omitting "and Lebbaeus whose surname was
Lebbaeus - The modern critical editions are unanimous in the omission of ‘whose surname was,’ but are divided about the name itself, reading either ‘Thaddaeus,’ as Lachmann, Tregelles, WH [Note: H Westcott and Hort’s text. ] (§ 304) adduce the reading ‘Thaddaeus’ found only in אB as proof of the unique excellence of these Manuscripts , and are inclined to attribute the name ‘Lebbaeus’ to an attempt to bring Levi (Mark 2:14) within the number of the Twelve. ) with the name Thaddaeus (Mk. ] 5032) sees in ‘Lebbaeus’ the ‘Western’ gloss of a copyist, who connected the name Thaddaeus with thĕdâ = mamma, and wished to substitute a not dissimilar name, which should be more appropriate to an Apostle and less undignified. The Syriac lexicographer Bar Bahlul explained that Judas Thomas was called Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus on account of his wisdom. The Manuscripts AB give וליביום הדין דאתקרי תאדי סימון ק׳ C has וליזדם הרין רחקדי סימן ק׳ Here וליודם seems to be a combination of ‘Lebbaeus’ and ‘Judas,’ and תקדי a confusion of ‘Thaddaeus’ with ‘was surnamed. Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus,’ the brother of Jesus after the flesh, is celebrated on the 19th June, and, together with the other Apostles, on 30th June, as the last of them. From him is distinguished (2) the Apostle Thaddaeus, who is also Lebbaeus, one of the Seventy, celebrated on the 21st August; and (3) Judas Zelotes on the 22nd May. ... That there was another Judas besides the traitor among the Twelve is attested by John 14:22, and it is possible that later his name was less used to avoid remembrance of the traitor and confusion with him, and that his original name ‘Judas’ was replaced by ‘Thaddaeus’ in Mk. In Acts 1:13 we have three names—Joseph, Barsabbas, Justus; in a similar way we should get here three or even four—Judas, son of James, Lebbaeus, Thaddaeus. Thaddaeus
Jude - Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1 ; Matthew 13:55 ; John 14:22 ; Acts 1:13 ), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 ); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Matthew 10:4 ; Mark 3:19 )
Judas - Called JUDE in Jude 1 ; and apparently the same as 'Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus
Apostle - The twelve apostles of Jesus were Simon Peter, Andrew, James the son of Zebedee, John, Philip, Bartholomew, Thomas, Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, Thaddaeus, Simon the Zealot, and Judas Iscariot
James (st.) the Less - The son of Cleophas, or Alphaeus and Mary,and brother of Thaddaeus or St
Abgar - Judas, also called Thomas, is said to have sent Thaddaeus, one of the Seventy, to Edessa, soon after the ascension of Jesus. On the appearance of Thaddaeus ‘a great vision appeared to Abgar in the countenance of Thaddaeus,’ which led the former to prostrate himself before the latter, to the astonishment of the courtiers, who did not see the vision. Having become assured that his guest is the promised disciple of Jesus, and that he has come fully empowered to heal and to save on condition of his exercise of faith, Abgar assures Thaddaeus that his faith is so strong that, had it not been for the presence of the Romans, he would have sent an army to destroy the Jews that crucified Jesus. Thaddaeus assures him that in fulfilment of the Divine plan of redemption Jesus has been taken up to His Father, and, on a further profession of faith in Father and Son, Thaddaeus lays his hands upon the king and heals him. At Thaddaeus’ suggestion the king summons the citizens as a body to hear the preaching of the word, and afterwards offers him a rich reward, which is magnanimously refused. According to the Syriac document from which Eusebius quotes, the visit of Thaddaeus occurred in the year 340 of the era of the Seleucidae (corresponding, according to K
Simon the Apostle, Saint - In the West he is venerated with Saint Jude (Thaddaeus) on October 28,; in the East separately on May 10,
Jude, Saint - Also called Thaddaeus or Labbaeus, "the brother ofJames," and whose name sometimes appears as Judas, and in oneinstance it is added in parenthesis, "not Iscariot
Judas - To avoid confusion, this apostle apparently took another name, Thaddaeus (or Lebbaeus) (Matthew 10:3; Luke 6:16; John 14:22; see Thaddaeus)
Jude, Epistle of - The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1 ), called also Lebbaeus (Matthew 10:3 ) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18 )
Judas - He appears to have been known also by the name Lebbaeus Thaddaeus (Matthew 10:3 ; Mark 3:18 )
Apostle - It will be seen by the lists that follow that Lebbaeus, Thaddaeus and Judas are the same person; and that Simon the Canaanite (Cananaean) and Simon Zelotes are the same; Peter is also called Simon; and Matthew is calledLevi. 10 Thaddaeus
Apostle - In Matt, hew and Mark Thaddaeus (or Lebbaeus) precedes Simon Zelotes (Hebrew "Canaanite," i. But in Luke and Acts Simon Zelotes precedes Jude (Thaddaeus) the brother of James
James - James the father (Authorized Version ‘brother’) of Judas, Luke 6:16 (‘not Iscariot,’ John 14:22, the Thaddaeus of Mt. Luke), Judas of James (= Thaddaeus, with whom he is coupled by Mt
Apostles - The remaining five names—Thomas, James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas or Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus, and Judas Iscariot are new. In Matthew 10:3 and Mark 3:18 this Judas is called Thaddaeus, or, according to the Western text, Lebbaeus; and he was probably known indifferently as Judas or as Thaddaeus. The third is formed of James the son of Alphaeus, Simon the Zealot, Judas or Thaddaeus, and Judas Iscariot
Evangelist (2) - Thus he relates that the Apostle Thomas sent Thaddaeus to Edessa as a preacher and evangelist of the teaching of Christ (Historia Ecclesiastica i
Apocrypha, New Testament - ... Other later apocryphal acts include: the Apostolic History of Abdias , the Fragmentary Story of Andrew , the Ascents of James , the Martyrdom of Matthew ; the Preaching of Peter, Slavonic Acts of Peter , the Passion of Paul , Passion of Peter, Passion of Peter and Paul ; the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, Andrew and Paul , Paul and Thecla, Barnabas, James the Great, Peter and Andrew, Peter and Paul , Philip , and Thaddaeus
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - 14, 18: ‘We now assembled, Peter and Andrew, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus who is surnamed Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite, and Matthias who instead of Judas was numbered with us, and James the brother of our Lord and bishop of Jerusalem, and Paul … and have written to you this catholic doctrine [which] we have sent by our fellow-minister Clement
Brethren of the Lord (2) - ’ James is called ‘of Alphaeus,’ perhaps also ‘the Little’; Simon is called the Cananaean,’ and ‘the Zealot’; Jude receives no less than four distinguishing titles, ‘not Iscariot,’ ‘of James,’ ‘Thaddaeus,’ and ‘Lebbaeus’ (Matthew 10:3, Western Text)