Character Study on Persians

Character Study on Persians

Esther 1: If it please the king, let there go a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, That Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.
Daniel 5: PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.
Daniel 6: Now, O king, establish the decree, and sign the writing, that it be not changed, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
Daniel 6: Then they came near, and spake before the king concerning the king's decree; Hast thou not signed a decree, that every man that shall ask a petition of any God or man within thirty days, save of thee, O king, shall be cast into the den of lions? The king answered and said, The thing is true, according to the law of the Medes and Persians, which altereth not.
Daniel 6: Then these men assembled unto the king, and said unto the king, Know, O king, that the law of the Medes and Persians is, That no decree nor statute which the king establisheth may be changed.

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Morrish Bible Dictionary - Persia, Persians
The Persians were located between Media and the Persian Gulf, but very little is known of their history until the time of Cyrus, when the kingdoms of Israel and Judah had been brought to an end. 2 Chronicles 36:22,23 . Apparently they were a union of tribes, the ancestors of Cyrus being the chiefs of the leading clan. They conquered Elam ('ANSHAM' on the monuments). Media ruled them in early times, but under Cyrus the yoke was shaken off, and, together with the Medes, they formed the second Gentile empire, succeeding that of Babylon. In the great image of Daniel 2 Nebuchadnezzar was represented by the head of gold. The empire that followed was an 'inferior' one, represented by the breast and arms of silver. Daniel 2:31-39 . This refers to the Medo-Persian kingdom. It was inferior in that the nobles concurred in the king's laws, and the king could not alter them: the power was depreciated from gold. It is further described as a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in its mouth between the teeth, an emblem of its power and rapacity. To it was said, "Arise, devour much flesh. " Daniel 7:5 .

The history in Daniel 5 relates that it was Darius the Mede that 'took the kingdom.' He was the first head of the empire, and his taking the kingdom does not clash with Cyrus taking the city of Babylon, which is implied in Isaiah 45:1,2 . See BABYLON. On the death of Darius, Cyrus succeeded and reigned in Babylon, and from thence the Persian element prevailed in the empire. The Persians are mentioned before the Medes in Esther 1:19 . This agrees also with the above passage in Daniel 7 which represents the bear as raising itself on one side.

The Medo-Persian empire is further represented as a ram with two horns, one higher than the other, though it came up last. It pushed westward, northward, and southward, and no beast could stand before it, nor deliver out of its hand. This again exactly corresponds with the above description; the one horn higher than the other representing Persia. The same chapter (Daniel 8:6,7 ) speaks of a he-goat that rushed upon the ram and smote it and cast it to the ground and stamped upon it; and none could deliver it. This foretold the destruction of the Persian empire by that of Greece in the person of Alexander the Great.

For the dealings of the Persian kings with Israel, see AHASUERUS, and the names of the other kings mentioned in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. The following table gives the succession of the kings, with approximate dates:



Historical Names. Began to reign about B.C. Scripture Names.

1. Cyaxares, king of Media … … … 633 Ahasuerus: Daniel 9:1 .

2. Astyages, his son, last king of Media … … 593 Probably Darius the Mede.

3. Cyrus, king of Persia … … … … 558 Cyrus: 2 Chronicles 36:20-23 .

Babylon taken … … … … 538

Cyrus reigns at Babylon … … … 536 Cyrus: Ezra 1:1 .

4. Cambyses, his son … … … … 529 Ahasuerus: Ezra 4:6 .

5. Gomates, a Mede, who personified Smerdis 522 Artaxerxes: Ezra 4:7 .

6. Darius Hystaspes … … … … 521 Darius: Ezra 5:5 ; Haggai 1:1 etc.

7. Xerxes, his son … … … … … 485 Ahasuerus of Esther.

8. Artabanus (seven mouths) … … … 475

9. Artaxerxes, Longimanus … … … 474 Artaxerxes: Ezra 7:1 ; Nehemiah 2:1 .

10. Xerxes 2. (two months) … … … 425

11. Sogdianus … … … … … … 425

12. Darius 2, Ochus or Nothus … … … 424 Darius: Nehemiah 12:22 .

13. Artaxerxes 2, Mnemon … … … … 405

14. Ochus, or Artaxerxes 3 … … … … 359

15. Arses … … … … … … 338

16. Darius 3. (Codomanus) … … … … 336

Defeated by Alexander … … … 331 end of the Persian empire.

The above dates are those usually given to the kings of Persia, except Nos. 8 and 9, the common dates of which Usher and Hengstenberg have proved to be incorrect. See SEVENTY WEEKS. The kingdom of Babylon was smaller in extent than that of Persia. This latter included what is now known as Turkey in Asia, Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan, as far as the river Indus, with a good portion of Egypt. According to the language of scripture it had 'devoured much flesh.' Esther 1:1 speaks of a hundred and twenty-seven provinces. See DANIEL and ESTHER.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Persia, Persians
PERSIA, PERSIANS. The Persians, when they appeared first in history, were the southern branch of the Iranians who had migrated, in the 10th or 9th cent. b.c., from the tableland of Turkestan westward and southward. They were for long subject to the more numerous and powerful northern branch (see Medes), from whom, however, they were separated by the country of Elam, through their settlement in the district later called Persis, east of the Persian Gulf. Southern Elam they acquired before b.c. 600. Their prince, Cyrus , the second of that name among the ruling family of the Achæmenides, threw off the Median yoke and deposed his sovereign Astyages in b.c. 550. In 545 the kingdom of Lydia fell to him by the capture of Sardis under its king Crœsus. In 539 Babylon surrendered to his troops without fighting, after a two weeks’ campaign, and became thenceforth one of the Persian capitals. Thus the Babylonian empire was added to the Medo-Persian. Cf. Isaiah 13:14 , Isaiah 13:21 (where in v. 6 ‘Elam’ stands for Persia, into which it was incorporated; see above) 41, 44 47, Jeremiah 50:1-46 ; Jeremiah 51:1-64 .

Thus was founded the greatest W. Asian empire of antiquity, whose power, moreover, was upon the whole consistently employed for the protection of the subject peoples, including in the great satrapy ‘beyond the River’ the Hebrew community in Palestine which was reestablished by the generosity of Cyrus himself (see Ezra and Neh. passim ). Of the kings who succeeded Cyrus there are named in OT, Darius Hystaspis (b.c. 521 486), his son Xerxes (486 465, the ‘Ahasuerus’ of Esther), Artaxerxes i. (465 424). See these names in their alphabetic places. To them is possibly to be added Cambyses, son of Cyrus the Great, made king of Babylon in 538, and thus corresponding to the misnomer’ Darius the Mede’ of Daniel 6:1 ff; Daniel 9:1 ; Daniel 11:1 .

J. F. M‘Curdy.

Sentence search

Persia - The Persians became very famous from the time of Cyrus, the founder of the Persian monarchy. Their ancient name was Elamites, and in the time of the Roman emperors they went by the name of Parthians; but now Persians. See CYRUS and for the religion of the ancient Persians, See MAGI
Mithras - ) The sun god of the Persians
Kerana - ) A kind of long trumpet, used among the Persians
Chedorlaomer - a king of the Elamites, who were either Persians, or people bordering upon the Persians
Parthians - Supposed to be the same as the ancient Persians
Loki - ) The evil deity, the author of all calamities and mischief, answering to the African of the Persians
Ahriman - ) The Evil Principle or Being of the ancient Persians; the Prince of Darkness as opposer to Ormuzd, the King of Light
Magi - ) A caste of priests, philosophers, and magicians, among the ancient Persians; hence, any holy men or sages of the East
Apharasachites - The Apharsites, also named in Ezra 4:9 , are regarded by Luther as Persians
Scimitar - , the Arabs and Persians
Khan - ) A king; a prince; a chief; a governor; - so called among the Tartars, Turks, and Persians, and in countries now or formerly governed by them
Scaphism - ) An ancient mode of punishing criminals among the Persians, by confining the victim in a trough, with his head and limbs smeared with honey or the like, and exposed to the sun and to insects until he died
Compel - The Greek angareuein is a Tartar word adopted by the Persians for impressing into the government service men and horses to carry the dispatches without interruption, by relays of men and horses stationed at intervals (Matthew 5:41; Mark 15:21)
Zoroastrianism - ) The religious system of Zoroaster, the legislator and prophet of the ancient Persians, which was the national faith of Persia; mazdeism
Apharsathchites - The latter seems to correspond to the Persians, in a local and restricted sense; else the Parrhasii
Persian - ) Of or pertaining to Persia, to the Persians, or to their language
Apharsites - (uh fahr' ssitess) KJV transliteration of Aramaic term in Ezra 4:9 variously translated and interpreted by modern translators and Bible students: men from Persia (NIV); Persians (RSV); secretaries (NAS)
Avesta - It is the main source of our knowledge about the religion of the ancient Persians
Zeal (2) - When the Spartans marched into battle they advanced with cheerful songs, willing to fight; but when the Persians entered the conflict, you could hear, as the regiments came on, the crack of whips by which the officers drove the cowards to the fray. You need not wonder that a few Spartans were more than a match for thousands of Persians, that in fact they were like lions in the midst of sheep
Sinim - The LXX has "the land of the Persians
Shem - The Jews are his descendants, and, besides, there are the Aramæans, Persians, Assyrians, and Arabians
Marius, Saint - Martyrs; died Rome, c270 Marius and Martha were noble Persians, who, with their sons, Audifax and Abachum, came to Rome to visit the tombs of the Apostles and give aid to the persecuted Christians
Martha, Saint 19 Jan - Martyrs; died Rome, c270 Marius and Martha were noble Persians, who, with their sons, Audifax and Abachum, came to Rome to visit the tombs of the Apostles and give aid to the persecuted Christians
Abachum, Saint - Martyrs; died Rome, c270 Marius and Martha were noble Persians, who, with their sons, Audifax and Abachum, came to Rome to visit the tombs of the Apostles and give aid to the persecuted Christians
Tirshatha - (always written with the article), the title of the governor of Judea under the Persians, perhaps derived from a Persian root signifying stern, severe, is added as a title after the name of Nehemiah, ( Nehemiah 8:9 ; 10:1 ) and occurs also in three other places
Gallows - It is frequently suggested that tree should be understood as “stake” and that those executed by the Persians were impaled rather than hung
Shiah - ) A member of that branch of the Mohammedans to which the Persians belong
Medes, Media - The kingdom was called at first that of the 'Medes and Persians,' as in Daniel 5:28 ; Daniel 6:8,12,15 ; but, at a later period, the Persians had the pre-eminence (cf. The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, language, religion, etc
Tiara - ) A form of headdress worn by the ancient Persians
Medes, Media - Under Cyrus the Great, Astyages, king of the Medes, yielded his throne to the Persians (b. ... Among the Semitic peoples, however, the name of the Medes continued long to be more familiar than that of the Persians, partly by reason of their greater antiquity, and partly because the Medes formed the principal portion of the Iranian population. Madai is mentioned in Genesis 10:2 among the sons of Japheth, with no allusion to the Persians. So the Medes and not the Persians are mentioned in prophecy as the prospective destroyers of Babylon ( Isaiah 13:17 ; Isaiah 21:2 , Jeremiah 25:25 ; Jeremiah 51:11 ; cf
Pharpar - , "the valley of the Persians", so called for some unknown reason
Samos - The Greeks conquered the Persians in the sea fight of Mycale, B
Medes - We meet with the account of the Medes and Persians in the prophecy of Isaiah, and in the prophecy of Daniel. The history of the Medes and Persians, forms a subject of importance in. It may be proper to add under this article, that Darius the Mede, who conquered the kingdom with Cyrus the Persian, governed the Chaldean empire, and at his death Cyrus, who was his nephew, united the kingdom of the Medes and Persians into one
Ormuzd - He was the supreme god of the Persians during the period of the great kings, and the Creator of all good creatures
Carmonians - They are said to have resembled the Medes and Persians in customs and language
Baltasar - While he was giving a banquet a mysterious hand wrote on the wall the words, Mane, Thecel, Phares, interpreted by Daniel as: ... God hath numbered thy kingdom and hath finished it; thou art weighed in the balance and art found wanting; thy kingdom is divided and is given to the Medes and Persians
Black - The kingdom of the Medes and Persians is described as a chariot with 'black' horses, Zechariah 6:2,6 ; and in the Revelation, in the third seal a rider on a 'black' horse betokens scarcity
Silk - The Seres communicated their silk to the Persians, from whom it passed to the Greeks, and from them to the Romans. But the Persians and orientals for a long time kept the secret of manufacturing it among themselves
Persia - The Persians, who became so famous after Cyrus, the founder of their more extended monarchy, were anciently called Elamites; and later, in the time of the Roman emperors, Parthians. ... The early history of the Persians, like that of most of the oriental nations, is involved in doubt and perplexity. From this period, both sacred and profane writers distinguish the kingdom of the Medes from that of the Persians. But his successor, Cyaxares the Second, united with the Persians against the Babylonians, and gave the command of the combined armies to Cyrus, who took the city of Babylon, killed Belshazzar, the terminated that kingdom 538 B. Previously to their union under Cyrus, Daniel speaks of the law of the Medes and Persians as being the same
Cyprus - It has always been a place of importance and has been owned by the Syrians, the Greeks, the Egyptians, the Persians, the Romans, and latterly is divided between Greece and Turkey
Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Feast of the Holy Cross - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Feast of the Triumph of the Cross - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Illuminator, Gregory the - He took an important part in freeing Armenia from the Persians, and converted Trdat, the native king, and many of the nobles
Holy Cross, Feast of the - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Gregory the Illuminator, Saint - He took an important part in freeing Armenia from the Persians, and converted Trdat, the native king, and many of the nobles
Post - The Persians and Romans impressed men and horses for the service of government despatches; letters of private persons were conveyed by private hands
Exaltation of the Holy Cross, Feast of the - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Ararat - A kingdom which was called upon by God, in conjunction with Medes, Persians, and others, under one captain, Cyrus, to punish Babylon in revenge of Israel
Thomas - It is added, that he preached to the Medes, Persians, Carmanians, Hircanians, Bactrians, &c
Triumph of the Cross, Feast of the - Its purpose is to commemorate the recovering of that portion of the Holy Cross which was preserved at Jerusalem, and which had fallen into the hands of the Persians
Media - In this way arose the Medro-Persian kingdom; and the "laws of the Medes and Persians" are always mentioned by the sacred writers together, Esther 1:19 , etc. So also the "Chronicles" of the Medes and Persians are mentioned together, Esther 10:2 . Indeed, from this time inward, the manners, customs, religion, and civilization of the Medes and Persians seem ever to have become more and more amalgamated. And in general it would seem, as we may gather from the ancient Zend writings, that the Medes, Persians, and Bactraians were originally the same people, having in common one language, the Zend, and one religion, the worship of Ormuzd, the highest being, under the symbol of fire
Lycia - It was conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia, and passed with his kingdom into the hands of the Persians
Chanaanites - The prophesy of Noe that Chanaan "a servant of servants shall he be, unto his brethren" (Genesis 9) was fulfilled when the Chanaanites were conquered first by the Israelites, descendants of Sem, and afterwards by the Persians, Greeks, and Romans, reputed descendants of Japheth
Province - Later, the Babylonians and Persians used such districts in Palestine (Esther 4:11 )
Mesopotamia - Mesopotamia became absorbed in the great nations, belonging successively to the Assyrians, Medes and Persians, Greeks, and Romans, and then the Turks, it is now Iraq
Rameses - Its position may be fixed about six or eight miles above the modern Cairo, a little to the south of the Babylon of the Persians, the ancient Letopolis; as Josephus says that the children of Israel, after quitting this place, in their first march to Succoth, passed by the latter city
Letter - Thus the Arabs roll up their letters, and then flatten them to the breadth of an inch and paste up the end instead of sealing them; and the Persians make up their letters in the form of rolls, about six inches long, and paste a bit of paper around them with, gum and seal them with an impression of ink
Demonology - Belief in evil spirits and consequent magic is of remotest antiquity, among both savage and cultured races, varying from crude to the elaborate systems of the ancient Assyrians, Chal4eans, and Persians
Meshech - "During the ascendency of the Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi were subdued; but it seems probable that a large number of them crossed the Caucasus range and spread over the northern steppes, mingling with the Scythians
Magic - Of the religion of the Egyptians, Chaldæans, Persians, etc
Justinian i - During his reign of 38 years, the most brilliant period of the Byzantine Empire, he warred against the Persians, overcame the Goths and Vandals, conquered Spain, Italy, Sicily, Dalmatia, and Africa, and crushed the Nika revolt in Constantinople
Anastasis, Church of the - It was razed by the Persians, 614, and restored by Modestus, Abbot of Saint Theodosius, c626 Its destruction, 1010, by Hakin, Caliph of Egypt, was an incentive to the First Crusade
Ephraem, Saint - In 363, when Nisibis was retroceded to Persia, Ephraem fled with the Christian population to escape persecution, and settled at Edessa, where he was probably one of the chief founders of the "School of the Persians
Tiara - An ornament or article of dress with which the ancient Persians covered their heads a kind of turban
Per'Sia - The Persians were of the same race as the Medes, both being branches of the great Aryan stock. --The Persians were a people of lively and impressible minds, brave and impetuous in war, witty, passionate, for Orientals truthful, not without some spirit of generosity: and of more intellectual capacity than the generality of Asiatics. --The religion which the Persians brought with there into Persia proper seems to have been of a very simple character, differing from natural religion in little except that it was deeply tainted with Dualism. Like the other Aryans, the Persians worshipped one supreme God. This victory first brought the Persians into contact with the Jews
Athens - It was destroyed by the Persians early in the fifth century B
Phenice, Phenicia - They became subject successively to the Babylonians, the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans
Miletus - The Milesians were subdued by the Persians, and the country passed successively into the power of the Greeks and Romans
Gog And Magog - The Scythians, the Goths, the Persians, and several other nations, have been specified by interpreters as the Magog of the Scriptures; but most probably it is a name given generally to the northern nations of Europe and Asia, or the districts north of the Caucasus
Persia, Persians - PERSIA, Persians. The Persians, when they appeared first in history, were the southern branch of the Iranians who had migrated, in the 10th or 9th cent
Teraphim - All the eastern people are much addicted to this superstition, and the Persians still call them telefin, a name nearly approaching to teraphim
Magi or Wise Men - An appellation given among the Medes and Persians to a class of priests, wise men, philosophers, etc
cy'Prus, - It early belonged to the Phoenicians of the neighboring coast; was afterwards colonized by Greeks' passed successively under the power of the Pharaohs, Persians, Ptolemies and Romans, excepting a short period of independence in the fourth century B
Parthians - 226 the last Arsacid yielded the kingdom to the Persians revolting under Artaxerxes
Horse - Herodutus reported the use of horses by the Persians in their postal system 3,000 years ago. ... The horse was used for war by Syrians (1 Kings 20:20 ), the Philistines (2 Samuel 1:6 ), the Medes and Persians (Jeremiah 50:42 ), and the Romans (Acts 23:23 ,Acts 23:23,23:32 )
Medes, me'Dia - It was overthrown by the Persians under Cyrus, B. The treatment of the Medes by the victorious Persians was not that of an ordinary conquered nation. The two nations seem blended into one, and we often find reference to this kingdom as that of the "Medes and Persians. Finally, in Esther the high rank of Media under the Persian kings, yet at the same time its subordinate position, is marked by the frequent composition of the two names in phrases of honor, the precedence being in every ease assigned to the Persians
Persia - ) The Persians came originally from the E. "The law of the Persians and Medes which alters not" (Esther 1:19) also controlled him in some measure. Magianism, the worship of the elements, especially fire, the Scythic religion, infected the Persian religion when the Persians entered their new country. , before the separation of the two Aryan races, the Indians and Persians) and acquainted with the Jewish Scriptures, as appears from his account of creation (Hyde 9; 10; 22; 31, Shahristani Relig. In Lucian's (De Longaevis) day his religion was that of most Persians, Parthians, Bactrians, Aryans, Sacans, Medes, and Chowaresmians. Achaemenes led the emigrating Persians into their final settlement, 700 B. After 80 years' subjection to the Medes the Persians revolted and became supreme, 558 B. By destroying the Persian temples and abolishing the Oromasdian chants and ceremonies, and setting up fire altars, Pseudo Smerdis aliented the Persians, Darius, son of Hystaspes, of the blood royal, revolted, and slew him after his seven months' reign
Tahpanhes - The garrison was kept up by the Persians in the 5th cent
Axe - " The "battle-axe" (army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jeremiah 51:20 was probably, as noted in the margin of the Revised Version, a "maul" or heavy mace
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin - The kingdom would be divided and given to his enemies, the Medes and Persians
Hour - In our Lord's days the Jews must have had dials, and clepsydrae or water hourglasses, as these were long known to the Persians with whom they had been so closely connected
Belshazzar - He interpreted the message for the king, explaining that it meant the kingdom would be taken from Belshazzar and given to the Medes and Persians (Daniel 5:28 )
Lots - The word Pur, or Phur, is not Hebrew, but Persian, taken from the Persians, among whom at that time the children of Israel were, and under their government
Delos - 478 it was chosen as the meeting-place of the confederacy of Greek States united against their common enemy the Persians, and became a rival of Athens
cy'Rus - When he grew up to manhood his courage and genius placed him at the head of the Persians
Persia - The impact came through the Jews, the Bible, contacts with the Greeks, and through Alexander the Great's incorporation of ideas and architecture from the Persians. ” The satrapies were governed by Persians who were directly responsible to the emperor. Also, the Persians were committed to rule by law. Then, under Darius I, Zerubabbel and the high priest, Joshua, led the restored community with the support and encouragement of the Persians. Although Daniel was taken into Exile by the Babylonians (Daniel 1:1 ), his ministry continued through the fall of the Babylonians (Daniel 5:1 ) into the time of the Persians (Daniel 6:1 )
Occult Art - Magic is traceable back to the Chaldeans and Persians whose priests, because they were supposed to be learned in secret lore, were called magi (plural of magus)
Occultism - Magic is traceable back to the Chaldeans and Persians whose priests, because they were supposed to be learned in secret lore, were called magi (plural of magus)
Par'Thians - After being subject in succession to the Persians and the Seleucidae, they revolted in B
Lycia - Lycia was ruled by the Persians, and conquered by Alexander the Great
Imitation: of Good Men Its Limit - Plutarch says that among the Persians those persons were considered most beautiful who were hawk-nosed, for no other reason than that Cyrus had such a nose
Eagle - The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage in ( Isaiah 46:11 ) The same bird was similarly employed by the Assyrians and the Romans
Incest - In the time of Abraham and Isaac, these marriages were permitted, and among the Persians much later; it is even said to be esteemed neither criminal nor ignominious among the remains of the old Persians at this day
Alexander - 336, and within twelve years overran Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, founded Alexandria, conquered the Persians, and penetrated far into the Indies
Races - Persians ( Esther 1:19 etc
Side - One side of the bear is the Kingdom of the Medes, and the other side is the Kingdom of the Persians
Babylon - This city and its whole empire were taken by the Persians under Cyrus; the Persians were subdued by the Macedonians, and the Macedonians by the Romans; so that Rome succeeded to the power of old Babylon
Artaxerxes - Arya, being the old name of the Persians, and kshershe , "a king" = Xerxes = Ahasuerus. " The Persians, says Diodorus Siculus (11:71:2), admired his "equity and moderation in government
Persia - At times the Bible makes a distinction between Elamites and Persians (Ezra 4:9), but usually Elam is simply another name for Persia (Isaiah 11:11; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 25:25; Jeremiah 49:35-39). So closely were the Medes and the Persians associated that people sometimes used their names interchangeably
Inform - Letters from Europe inform us of the commencement of hostilities between the Persians and Turks
Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin - The kingdom was 'divided,' and given to the Medes and Persians (Peres)
Epoch - 556; the reign of Alexander the Great over the Persians, B
Pine Tree - The Persians also name this plant semen and simsyk
Net - The Greek historian Herodotus used the corresponding verb sageneuo of a device by which the Persians are said to have cleared a conquered island of its inhabitants
Lydia (1) - The Persians seized the kingdom from him about b
Elam - On the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Elam passed into the hands of the Persians" (A
Ararat - , "Noah's mountain", by the Persians
Calamus - The Arabians, Persians, Turks, Greeks, and Armenians, to this day, write with reeds or rushes
Mat'Thew - There is reason to believe that he remained for fifteen years at Jerusalem, after which he went as missionary to the Persians, Parthians and Medes
Gallus, Caesar - In the West Constantius was distracted by the usurpation of Magnentius in Gaul, while in the East the Persians were a perpetual source of alarm. His defence of the frontier against the Persians was indeed successful (Zos
Barbarian - The Persians, Egyptians, Hebrews, Arabians, Gauls, Germans, and even the Romans, were, in their phraseology, barbarians, however learned or polite they might be in themselves
Punishments of the Hebrews - Some think it was originally from the Persians or Chaldeans
Parthians - The Parthians were not a literary people, and fell below the Persians, and very much below the Greeks, both in civilization and in art
Empire, Byzantine - His general, Belisarius, defeated the Persians and made conquests in Africa and Italy, and in 538 Saint Sophia was erected. In 610 Heraclius overthrew the usurper Phocas and in 622 crushed the Persians, and during the 7th century Greek became the language of the empire
Magi - or MAGIANS, a title which the ancient Persians gave to their wise men, or philosophers. Magi, among the Persians, answers to σοφοι , or σιλοσοφοι , among the Greeks; sapientes, among the Latins; druids, among the Gauls; gymnosophists, among the Indians; and priests, among the Egyptians. These people were held in such veneration among the Persians, that Darius, the son of Hystaspes, among other things, had it engraven on his monument, that he was the master of the magi. This celebrated philosopher, called by the Persians Zerdusht, or Zaratush, began about the thirty-sixth year of the reign of Darius to restore and reform the magian system of religion. ... The old religion of the Persians was corrupted by Sabianism, or the worship of the host of heaven, with its accompanying superstition. " There is little doubt but that he and the principal Persians throughout the empire, would have the prophecy of Isaiah respecting Cyrus, delivered more than a hundred years before he was born, and in which his name stood recorded, along with the predicted circumstances of the capture of Babylon, pointed out to them. ... The Persians, who had so vastly extended their empire by the conquest of the countries formerly held by the monarchs of Babylon, were thus prepared for such a reformation of their religion as Zoroaster effected. From the other sacred books of the Jews, who mixed with the Persians in every part of the empire, he evidently learned more. " That this dispensation of mercy was afterward neglected among the Persians, is certain. If the magi, who came from the east to seek Christ, were Persians, some true worshippers of God would appear to have remained in Persia to that day; and if, as is probable, the prophecies of Isaiah and Daniel were retained among them, they might be among those who "waited for redemption," not at Jerusalem, but in a distant part of the world
Medes - " Both Medes and Persians were famous in using "bows" and as horsemen. The phrases "the Medes and Persians" and "Media and Persia," even after the Persians got the supremacy (Esther 10:2), show the original supremacy of Media, which still in legal and religious formalities was retained. The Persians copied their dress, the flowing robe seen on the Persepolitan sculptures
Esdraelon - Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Crusaders, Frenchmen, Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, warriors out of every nation which is under heaven, have pitched their tents in the plain, and have beheld the various banners of their nations wet with the dews of Tabor and Hermon" (Dr
ir-ha-Heres - Alexander the Great, the temporal "saviour" of Egypt from the Persians, was a type of the true Saviour
Seven - The influence of the number seven was not restricted to the Hebrews; it prevailed among the Persians, ancient Indians, Greeks and Romans
Flash - The Persians and Macedonians had it for a flash
Alexander the Great - , Alexander led his troops into Asia Minor where they won a series of victories over the Persians
Post - It is thought that the use of posts is derived from the Persians
Joel - The plague of locusts, one of the most dreadful scourges of the East, (see LOCUSTS,) is highly suggestive of an invasion of hostile legions such as have often ravaged Judea; and many have understood, by the locusts of Joel, the Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, or Romans
Day - wind ) of the day," before sunset, ( Genesis 3:8 ) --so called by the Persians to this day
Belshazzar - UΡΗΑRSΙΝ , or ΡΕRΕS , alluding to the similar word "Persians," thy kingdom is divided among the Medes and Persians
Alexander the Great - It is first spoken of as a part of the great image seen in a dream by Nebuchadnezzar; it is foreshadowed by the belly and thighs, which are of brass, a depreciation in the character of the kingdom in comparison with the empires of Babylon and of the Medes and Persians, though it was larger in extent: it "shall bear rule over all the earth. 356; became king of Macedon on the assassination of his father in 336: subdued the Greeks in 335; defeated the Persians, 334; took Tyre; conquered Syria and Egypt, and founded Alexandria 332; defeated Darius in 331; conquered Parthia, Media, Bactria, and invaded India, 330-324, sought fresh conquests, but died at Babylon in 323
Persia - 538 over Babylon, where the Persians came into contact with the captive Jews
Cuneiform - The people at Ugarit and the Persians used wedges to form their alphabetic scripts
Iran - The whole Church in Persia became Nestorian, and it continued to flourish as such for a few centuries after the Arab conquest and the adoption of Islam by the majority of Persians
No - Cambyses, king of the Persians (B
Shushan - Alexander the Great conquered the Persians, after which Shushan declined
Hanging - Hanging was not regarded as a means of capital punishment according to biblical law, although it was practiced by the Egyptians (Genesis 40:19 ,Genesis 40:19,40:22 ) and the Persians (Esther 7:9 )
Diadem - ... Just before the New Testament era, diadem was applied by Greeks to the symbol of royalty worn by the Persians
Tibe'Rias, - The city has been possessed successively by Romans, Persians Arabs and Turks
Treasure Treasurer Treasury - The Persians used it for both ‘treasury’ and ‘treasure,’ as the Greeks did θησαυρός (see above); cf
Medes - There are references in Scripture to this kingdom under the title of the "Medes and Persians
Hegesippus, Author - 179), and of Antioch, once the metropolis of the Persians, being in his time the defence of the Byzantines against that people
Salt - ... To 'eat the salt' of their masters, is used by the Persians and Hindus to imply that they are fed by their employers
Chariots of War - This superstitious custom was borrowed from the Heathens, and principally from the Persians
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - It discusses the idolatry of the Persians, Egyptians, Assyrians, the Greek mysteries, the ceremonies and formulae used in the Mithraic worship
Procopius of Caesarea - 527, when he was sent by Justinian to accompany Belisarius, as secretary and privy councillor, in his expeditions against the Persians. ... The works of Procopius may be consulted with advantage for information on such points as the condition of the nations and tribes of the Abasgi, Bruchi, Alani, Franks, Goths, Huns, Persians, Vandals; the wars of Belisarius, his character and life; geographical notices of towns, rivers, seas, mountains, and countries over a widespread area; the names of the bishops, and the ecclesiastical occurrences of his time, etc
Media - It rose with Cyaxares, its first king, and it passed away with him; for during the reign of his son and successor Astyages, the Persians waged war against the Medes and conquered them, the two nations being united under one monarch, Cyrus the Persian (B
Lycia - They had many overlords-Persians, Seleucids, Ptolemys, Romans-but for the most part their autonomy was undisturbed, and they had one of the finest constitutions in ancient times
Isdigerdes ii, King of Persia - In 455 or 456 the Persians triumphed in a great battle, wherein the patriarch Joseph and many nobles were taken prisoners and martyred
Esdraelon - Jews, Gentiles, Saracens, Christians, crusaders, and antichristian Frenchmen, Egyptians, Persians, Druses, Turks, and Arabs, warriors out of every nation which is under heaven, have pitched their tents in the Plain of Esdraelon; and have beheld the various banners of their nations wet with the dews of Tabor and of Hermon
Seven - It was noted also among the Persians, ancient Indians, Greeks and Romans
Gaza or Azzah - At subsequent periods it was occupied by Chaldeans, Persians, and Egyptians, Jeremiah 47:1
Messiah or Messias - Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians, and who set the Jews at liberty, is called, Isaiah 45:1 , "the anointed of the Lord;" and in Ezekiel 28:14 , the epithet "anointed" is given to the king of Tyre
Magic, Magicians - " It formed an essential element in many ancient religions, especially among the Persians, Chaldeans and Egyptians
Damas'Cus, - Isai 7:8 and Amos 1:5 Afterwards it passed successively under the dominion of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Saracens, and was at last captured by the Turks in 1516 A
Petrus, First Bishop of Parembolae - He was originally a Greek in the service of the Persians under Izdegird
Tiberius ii., Emperor of Constantinople - He had hired an army of Goths (Arians) to fight against the Persians
Persia, Persians - The Persians were located between Media and the Persian Gulf, but very little is known of their history until the time of Cyrus, when the kingdoms of Israel and Judah had been brought to an end. The Persians are mentioned before the Medes in Esther 1:19
Valerianus, Emperor - The Persians took Nisibis, and, penetrating into Syria, captured Antioch (? a. ... This edict was followed in 258 by a rescript of tremendous severity from Valerian, who, in the interval, had probably set out to the East to take command against the Persians
Zabii - "That the Persians," says Hyde, "were formerly Sabians or Zabii, is rendered probable by Ibn Phacreddin Angjou, a Persian, who, in his book ‘Pharhangh Gjihanghiri,' treating of the Persians descended from Shem, says in the preface, ‘Their religion, at that time, was Zabianism; but at length they became magi, and built fire temples. ' And the author of the book ‘Mu'gjizat Pharsi,' adopts the same opinion: ‘In ancient times, the Persians were of the Zabian religion, worshipping the stars, until the time of Gushtasp, son of Lohrasp
Mithraism - Its origin dates from the time the Hindus and Persians formed one people
Joshua the Son of Jehozadak - Instead they crowned the priest Joshua, to avoid any action that may have appeared to the Persians as treason
Syria, Syrian - After that it passed to the Persians, and then submitted to Alexander the Great
Samos - and 14 miles at its greatest breadth, separated from the mainland by the strait of Mycale (the Little Boghaz), seven stadia in width, in which the Greek fleet gained a great victory over the Persians in 479 b
Sumer - This conquest by Hammurabi marked the end of ancient Sumer, but the cultural and intellectual impact of the Sumerians continued until after the Persians became the dominant force in this part of the ancient world
Zidon, Sidon - They revolted from the Persians, but Tennes their king turned traitor and betrayed them
Thomas Apameensis, Bishop of Apamea - In 540 Chosroes, at the head of his Persians, after burning Antioch, was reported to be marching on Apamea
Magi - These are (1) astrology , (2) oneiromancy , or divination by dreams, aod (3) magic , which was traditionally associated with their name, but was expressly forbidden by the religion of the Persians. It is therefore at least a remarkable coincidence that the Jews did not arrive at these doctrines till the period immediately following their contact with the Persians, who under Cyrus had been their deliverers from Babylonian tyranny. The Persians apparently developed it partly from the analogy of Nature, and partly from the instinctive craving for a theodicy
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - >From the wilderness of Jordan and the New Laura, says Photius, John went to Antioch and its neighbourhood, the Elogium adding that this occurred when the Persians attacked the Romans because of the murder (Nov. This was his principal visit to Egypt, the only one noticed by Photius and the most prominent one in the Elogium , which states his reason for leaving Syria to have been the invasion of the empire by the Persians, i. This again assists the chronology; for as the Persians obtained possession of Jerusalem in 615 and in 616 advanced from Palestine and took Alexandria (Rawl
Japheth - Moses thus, under the Spirit, anticipates the discoveries of ethnology, which comprises one great family of mankind under five heads:... 1, Indo-Persians or Aryans;... 2, Celts;... 3, Teutons;... 4, Graeco-Italians;... 5, Slaves
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin - The term for ‘mina’ is connected with a root meaning ‘to number’; hence it signifies ‘God hath numbered thy kingdom and brought it to an end’: ‘shekel’ is connected with a root meaning ‘to weigh,’ and hence ‘thou hast been weighed in the balance and found wanting’: ‘half-mina’ ( perâs ) suggests a double play; ‘thy kingdom is divided (peris ) and given to the Persians (Aram
Mithra - Beyond this, we know almost nothing except that bas-reliefs depict celebrants carrying counterfeit heads of animals, Persians, etc
Euphrates - We have here an allusion to the Nero-legend which told that Nero had fled to the East, to the Medes and Persians, beyond the river Euphrates, and would again cross the river accompanied by myriads of soldiers and make war on Rome (Sib
Isaacus i, Catholicos of the Church of Greater Armenia, Saint - of Cappadocian Caesarea disallowed the ordination of bishops, which had been conceded to Isaac; but by the influence of the Persians all connexion between Armenia and Caesarea was from this time forth broken off—a fact which tended towards the isolation of the Armenian church
Cross - Crucifixion was inflicted among the ancient Persians, Assyrians, Egyptians, Carthaginians, Indians, Scythians, Greeks, and Macedonians
Apries - This was afterward accomplished, first, in the time of Apries; and secondly, in the conquest of Egypt by the Persians
King - Moulton and Milligan illustrate the use of the title among the Persians, from documents discovered in Media
Babylon (2) - Under the less able rulers who followed, the power of the empire declined, and it fell a comparatively easy prey to the Medo-Persians under Cyrus, b
a'Arat - Noah's Mountain , by the Persians
Philippus, of Side - Another considerable fragment is reported to exist in the Imperial Library at Vienna, entitled de Christi Nativitate, et de Magis , giving the acts of a disputation held in Persia concerning Christianity between certain Persians and Christians, at which Philip was himself present
Media - Medes shared as equals with Persians in the military and civil administration of the Persian Empire, and sometimes the names Medes and Persians were used interchangeably (Ezra 6:1-3; Esther 1:3; Esther 1:14; Esther 1:19; Isaiah 13:17; Isaiah 21:2; Jeremiah 51:11; Jeremiah 51:28; Daniel 5:30-31; Daniel 6:8; Daniel 6:28; Daniel 8:20; Daniel 9:1; Daniel 11:1)
Manichees - ... The doctrine of Manes was a motley mixture of the tenets of Christianity with the ancient philosophy of the Persians, in which he had been instructed during his youth. He combined these two systems, and applied and accommodated to Jesus Christ the characters and actions which the Persians attributed to the god Mithras. Christ, or the glorious intelligence, called by the Persians Mithras, subsisting in and by himself, and residing in the sun, appeared in the time among the Jews, clothed with the shadowy form of a human body, to disengage the rational soul from the corrupt body, and to conquer the violence of malignant matter. About the close of the sixth century, this sect gained a very considerable influence, particularly among the Persians
Artaxerxes - He was the son of Asfendiar, sixth king of the second dynasty of the Persians
Sheshbazzar - It was quite in accordance with the policy of the Persians to appoint a Jew to act as governor in Jerusalem, while the name Sheshbazzar , being of Bab
Epistles - The Persians make up their letters in a roll about six inches long, and a bit of paper is fastened round it with gum, and sealed with an impression of ink, which resembles our printers' ink, but is not so thick
Ararat - "Noah's mountain," by the Persians
Heifer, Red - The meaning of the rite is divinely declared in Hebrews 9:13, "if the ashes of an heifer sprinkling the unclean sanctifieth to the purifying of the flesh, how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works to serve the living God?" The Egyptian priests, the Persians according to the Zendavesta, the Romans, and Greeks, and the modern New Zealanders, have had strict rules as to defilement by contact with the dead
Sardis - wall that Croesus the last king omitted to guard it; and one of Cyrus' Persian soldiers, seeing a Lydian descend by cut steps to regain his helmet, thereby led a body of Persians into the acropolis
Ararat - ) bank of the river, the lofty snowclad summit of Massis (called by the Persians the ‘mountain of Noah’) rises to a height of nearly 17,000 ft
zi'Don, - Its king, Tennes had proved a traitor and betrayed the city to Ochus, king of the Persians; the Persian troops were admitted within the gates, and occupied the city walls
Divination - The Persians used this mode of divination
Crown - Queens, too, wore diadems among the Persians
Bottle - The Arabs and Persians never go a journey without a small leathern bottle of water hanging by their side like a scrip
Wine - It was made at Damascus; the Persians had planted vineyards there on purpose, says Posidosius, quoted, by Athenaeus
Daniel - ... After the capture of Babylon by the Medes and Persians, under Cyaxares and Cyrus, Daniel was continued in all his high employments, and enjoyed the favor of these princes until his death, except at one short interval, when the envy of the other officers prevailed on the king of the other officers prevailed on the king to cast him into the lion's den, an act which recoiled on his foes to their own destruction
Joppa - Sennacherib occupied the city; then, in turn, the Babylonians and the Persians
Elam - Elam had little subsequent independent history, but it continued to be part of the Medes' and the Persians' empires
Eagle - The Persians under Cyrus had a golden eagle on a spear as their standard (Isaiah 46:11)
Gaza - Afterward, it fell into the hands of the Persians
Fire - The ancient Chaldeans adored the fire, as well as the old Persians, and some other people of the east
Damascus - It was subdued by Tiglath-pileser, 2 Kings 16:9 ; and was afterwards subject to the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Seleucidea, and Romans
ma'gi - (Jeremiah 29:3,13 ) "Originally they were a class of priests among the Persians and Medes who formed the king's privy council, and cultivated as trology, medicine and occult natural science
Crucifixion - was in used among the Egyptians, (Genesis 40:19 ) the Carthaginians, the Persians, (Esther 7:10 ) the Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and from the earliest times among the Greeks and Romans
Esther - ... The massacre of 75,000 by Jews (Esther 9:16) would be unlikely, if they were Persians; but they were not, they were the Jews' enemies in the provinces, idolaters, naturally hating the spiritual monotheism of the Jews, whereas the Persians sympathized with it. The Persians in the provinces would be only the officials, whose orders from court were not to take part against the Jews
Alexander - He was chosen, by the Greeks, general of their troops against the Persians, and entered Asia at the head of thirty-four thousand men, A. "For," added he, "whilst I was yet in Macedonia, I saw the God of the Jews, who appeared to me in the same form and dress as the high priest at present, and who encouraged me and commanded me to march boldly into Asia, promising that he would be my guide, and give me the empire of the Persians
Chronology of the Biblical Period - after the capture of Babylon by the Persians under Cyrus in 539 B. ... The Intertestamental Period During the Intertestamental Period, Palestine was first under the control of the Persians
Banquets - The Persians reclined on couches (Esther 7:8)
Uncleanness - (Leviticus 22:2-8 ) [LEPROSY ] The religion of the Persians shows a singularly close correspondence with the Levitical code
Lebanon - They include, in order of rule, the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians
Ezekiel - The boldness with which he censured the idolatry and wickedness of his countrymen is said to have cost him his life; but his memory was greatly revered, not only by the Jews, but also by the Medes and Persians
Japheth - ... Japheth signifies enlargement; and how wonderfully did Providence enlarge the boundaries of Japheth! His posterity diverged eastward and westward; from the original settlement in Armenia, through the whole extent of Asia, north of the great range of Taurus, distinguished by the general names of Tartary and Siberia, as far as the Eastern Ocean: and in process of time, by an easy passage across Behring's straits, the entire continent of America; and they spread in the opposite direction, throughout the whole of Europe, to the Atlantic Ocean; thus literally encompassing the earth, within the precincts of the northern temperate zone, while the enterprising and warlike genius of this hardy hunter race frequently led them to encroach on the settlements, and to dwell in "the tents of Shem," whose pastoral occupations rendered them more inactive, peaceable, and unwarlike; as when the Scythians invaded Media, and overran western Asia southwards, as far as Egypt, in the days of Cyaxares; and when the Greeks, and afterward the Romans, subdued the Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, in the east, and the Scythians and Jews in the south, as foretold by the Assyrian Prophet Balaam:... "And ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, And shall afflict the Assyrians, and afflict the Hebrews; ... But he [the invader] shall perish himself at last
Philistines - They afterwards fell under the dominion of the Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who destroyed Gaza, the only city of the Philistines that dared to oppose him
Elam - Shortly thereafter, when Assyria itself declined and fell, Elam was occupied by the rising Aryan tribes, the Medes from the north and the Persians from the south
Ostrich - The largest of birds, and a sort of connecting link between fowls and quadrupeds, termed by the Persians, Arabs, and by Greeks, the "camel-bird
Simeon Stylites - The people of Antioch piteously reminded Leo, "Forasmuch as our city is without walls, for we have been visited in wrath by their fall, we brought hither the sacred body to be our wall and bulwark," and were permitted to retain it; but this did not avail to protect the city against capture by the Persians
Babylon - And while the unconscious and reckless citizens were engaged in dancing and merriment, the river was suddenly turned into the lake, the trench, and the canals; and the Persians, both foot and horse, so soon as the subsiding of the water permitted, entered by its channel, and were followed by the allies in array, along the dry part of the river. On passing, without obstruction or hinderance, into the city, the Persians, slaying some, putting others to flight, and joining with the revellers, as if slaughter had been merriment, hastened by the shortest way to the palace, and reached it ere yet a messenger had told the king that his city was taken. The guards stationed before them, were drinking beside a blazing light, when the Persians rushed impetuously upon them. The eager Persians sprang in. "The king of Babylon heard the report of them; anguish took hold of him;" he and all who were about him perished; God had "numbered" his kingdom and finished it; it was "divided," and given to the Medes and Persians; the lives of the Babylonian princes, and lords, and rulers, and captains, closed with that night's festival; the drunken slept "a perpetual sleep, and did not wake. And thus the foreign inhabitants, first Persians and afterward Greeks, imitating their sovereigns by deserting Babylon, acted as if they verily had said, "Forsake her, and let us go every man unto his own country; for her judgment is reached unto heaven, and is lifted up even to the skies. The Persians, the Macedonians, the Parthians, the Romans, the Saracens, and the Turks, are the chief of the many nations who have unscrupulously and unsparingly "served themselves" of the land of the Chaldeans: and Cyrus and Darius, kings of Persia; Alexander the Great; and Seleucus, king of Assyria; Demetrius and Antiochus the Great; Trajan, Severus, Julian, and Heraclius, emperors of Rome; the victorious Omar, the successor of Mohammed; Holagou, and Tamerlane, are "great kings" who successively subdued or desolated Chaldea, or exacted from it tribute to such an extent, as scarcely any other country ever paid to a single conqueror
Nehemiah, the Book of - "... Diodorus Siculus (Nehemiah 11:71, section 2) says the Persians celebrated the equity and moderation of his government
Month - ... It is probable, however, that the Jews learnt in Babylon, the custom of the Chaldeans, to mark their months as they did by names, and from thence (or the Persians, under whom for a time they dwelt when the monarchy of Babylon was destroyed), they formed the following to all the months in the year
Mesrobes - 6, 7, 8, among the Persians and Monophysites, and in cent
Dress - ... The dress of the Persians is described in Daniel 3:21
Meals - ... Derived from the Syrians, Babylonians, and Persians (Esther 1:6; Esther 7:8)
Pharisees - This sect seems to have had some confused notions, probably derived from the Chaldeans and Persians, respecting the pre-existence of souls; and hence it was that Christ's disciples asked him concerning the blind man, John 9:2
Mediator - The Persians call their god Mithras, a Mediator; and the daemons, with the heathens, seem to be, according to them, mediators between the superior gods and men
Antiochus - Three years after, Antiochus marched against the Persians, or Parthians, and demanded the liberty of his brother Demetrius Nicanor, who had been made prisoner long before by Arsaces, and was detained for the purpose of being employed in exciting a war against Antiochus. With an army of eighty thousand, or, as Orosius says, of one hundred thousand men, he marched toward Persia, and no sooner appeared on the frontiers of that country, than several eastern princes, detesting the pride and avarice of the Persians, came and surrendered. The cities in which they were, privately surrendered to the Persians; and all resolved to attack, in one day, the garrisons they contained, that the troops being separated might not assist each other. He was attacked in the way by Phraates, king of Persia, whom he fought with great bravery; but being at length deserted by his own forces, according to the generality of historians, he was overpowered and killed by the Persians or Parthians
Daniel - ... It is an accordance with Medo-Persian ideas which flows from the truth of Scripture, that the mode of capital punishment under the Babylonian rule is represented as burning (Daniel 3), but under the Medes and Persians' exposure to wild beasts, for they would have regarded fire as polluted by contact with a corpse, while they approved the devouring of bodies by animals. (On Daniel's representation of the relation of the Medes to the Persians and Darius the Mede (possibly equating to Astyages, or his son, the former of whom Cyrus deposed and treated kindly) to Cyrus
Day - This portion of time was, at a recent period, divided into two parts, in imitation of the Persians; the first of which began when the eastern, the second, when the western, division of the horizon was illuminated
Babylon - Under the Persians, and under Alexander's successors, Babylon continued to decline, especially after Seleucus Nicator had founded Selencia, and made it his residence
Eating, Mode of - The Hebrews anciently sat at their meals, Genesis 43:33 1 Samuel 9:22 20:25 Psalm 128:3 ; but afterwards adopted the practice of reclining on table-beds or divans, like the Persians, Chaldeans, Romans, etc
Money - Among the Persians it is said Darius, son of Hystaspes, first coined golden money. But under the dominion of the Persians, the Hebrews were hardly at liberty to coin money of their own, being in subjection to those princes, and very low in their own country
Arms - ... This military cap was also worn by the Persians, Ethiopians, and Libyans, Ezekiel 38:5 , and by the troops which Antiochus sent against Judas Maccabaeus, 1Ma_6:35 . Similar corslets were worn by the Persians and other nations
Nineveh - " And the village of Nunia, opposite Mosul, in its name, and the tradition of the natives, ascertains the site of the ancient city, which was near the castle of Arbela, according to Tacitus, so celebrated for the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians there; the site of which is ascertained by the village of Arbil, about ten German miles to the east of Nunia, according to Niebuhr's map. It is, perhaps, probable that they are the remains of the city which succeeded Nineveh, or of a Persian city of the same name, which was built on the banks of the Tigris by the Persians subsequently to A
Arabia - It is called Jezirat-el-Arab by the Arabs; and by the Persians and Turks, Arebistan. The kingdom of Yemen has been successively subdued by the Abyssinians, the Persians, the Sultans of Egypt, and the Turks; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina have repeatedly bowed under a Scythian tyrant; and the Roman province of Arabia embraced the peculiar wilderness in which Ishmael and his sons must have pitched their tents in the face of their brethren. Petra, the capital of the Stony Arabia, and the principal settlement of the Nabathaei, it is true, was long in the hands of the Persians and Romans; but this never made them masters of the country. The Persians on the east, and the Greeks on the west, were simultaneously roused from their long thraldom, and, assisted by the Turks, who, issuing from the plains of Tartary, now for the first time made their appearance in the east, extinguished the power of the caliphate, and virtually put an end to the Arabian monarchy in the year 936. A succession of nominal caliphs continued to the year 1258: but the provinces were lost; their power was confined to the walls of their capital; and they were in real subjection to the Turks and the Persians until the above year, when Mostacem, the last of the Abbassides, was dethroned and murdered by Holagou, or Hulaku, the Tartar, the grandson of Zingis
Cross - The pagan Egyptians, Copts, Indians, and Persians, all have the same sacred emblem
Sardis - … Having seen a Lydian come down this precipice the day before, for a helmet that had rolled down, and carry it up again, he noticed it carefully, and reflected on it in his mind; he thereupon ascended the same way, followed by divers Persians; and when great numbers had gone up, Sardis was thus taken and the town plundered’ (Herod
Magi - The royal family among the Persians, as long as this sect subsisted, was always of the sacerdotal tribe
Pontus - ... ‘The Macedonians obtained possession of Cappadocia after it had been divided by the Persians into two satrapies, and permitted, partly with and partly without the consent of the people, the satrapies to be altered to two kingdoms, one of which they called Cappadocia proper, … the other they called Pontus, but according to other writers Cappadocia on Pontus’ (ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία) (Strabo, XII
Asia Minor, Cities of - , but was soon conquered by the Persians. The city was able to withstand attempted incursions by the Persians until 494 B
Greece - Athens beat off a threat from the Persians
Chronology - The Medes and Persians
Mesopotamia - It subsequently formed a part of the Medo-Persian, second Syrian or Macedonian, and Parthian empires, as it does at the present day of the modern Persians
Belshazzar - "This is the interpretation of the thing, Mene, ‘God hath numbered thy kingdom and finished it;' Tekel, ‘thou art weighed in the balances and art found wanting:' Peres, ‘thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians
Darius - But one day when he was at this prince's army, one of their enemies challenged the bravest of the Persians
Devil - To the notion, that the Jews derived their opinions on this subject from the oriental philosophy, and that like the Persians they set up a rival god; it may be replied, that the Jewish notion of the devil had no resemblance to what the Persians first, and the Manicheans afterward, called the evil principle; which they made in some sort coordinate with God, and the first source of all evil, as the other is of good
Damascus - Thus Damascus became a captive state of first the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Ptolemies, and Seleuccids
Zidon - A friendly arrangement with Cambyses perpetuated this state of things, and in the Greek wars most valuable assistance was given by the Phœnicians to the Persians
Vision(s) - The vision of chapter 8 presents more details of the experiences of God's people under the rule of the Medo-Persians and Greeks, and is interpreted by Gabriel
Edom - ... Conflict between Judah and Edom and efforts on the part of Judean kings to exploit the commercial possibilities of the Gulf of Aqaba continued (2 Kings 14:22 ; 2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Chronicles 26:1-2 ; 2 Chronicles 28:17 ) until eventually the Edomites, like the other peoples and petty kingdoms of Syria-Palestine, fell under the shadow of the major eastern empires—the Assyrians, then the Babylonians, finally the Persians and the Greeks
Scythian - 28), in extolling Christianity, refers to its having room for Scythians and Persians, the ferocity of the former and the licentiousness of the latter being notorious, while the pseudo-Lucian (Philopatris, 17) satirizes Christianity for suggesting that Scythians should have any place in heaven
Chaldean Philosophy - To all which, we may add that, about the commencement of the Christian aera, a race of philosophers sprung up, who, with a view of gaining credit to their own wild and extravagant doctrines, passed them upon the world as the ancient wisdom of the Chaldeans and Persians, in spurious books, which they ascribed to Zoroaster, or some other eastern philosopher
Husbandry - Even after the captivity, when many of the Jews had become merchants and mechanics, the esteem and honour attached to this occupation still continued, especially under the dynasty of the Persians, who were agriculturists from motives of religion
Idolatry, - The erection of synagogues had been assigned as a reason for the comparative purity of the Jewish worship after the captivity, while another cause has been discovered in the hatred for images acquired by the Jews in their intercourse with the Persians
Mansion - 131: Pausanias the victor of Plataea, intriguing with the Persians in Asia Minor, was ‘prolonging his stay to no good purpose’ (οὐκ ἐπ ̓ ἀγαθῷ τὴν μονὴν ποιούμενος), μονήν, as the Scholiast remarks, being practically equivalent to ἀργίαν, ‘idleness
Habakkuk - Others again would alter the word ‘Chaldæans,’ and treat it as an error for either ‘Persians’ or ‘Chittim
Messiah - 1138, the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the messiah
Ezra, the Book of - "... Daniel would necessarily, as just made "third ruler in the kingdom," and having foretold its transfer to "the Medes and Persians" (Daniel 5:28-29), come under Cyrus' notice immediately on the capture of Babylon; moreover, it is stated "he prospered in the reign of Cyrus the Persian" (Daniel 6:28), he would therefore be sure to mention to Cyrus Isaiah's prophecy. His returning the golden vessels (Ezra 1:7-11; Ezra 6:5), his allowing the whole expense of rebuilding from the royal revenue (Ezra 6:4), his directing all Persians to help with silver, etc
Crucifixion - It was practised by the Persians (Herod. It was practised also by the Greeks, probably in imitation of the Persians (Plut
Decius, Emperor - of Jerusalem, Acacius of the Phrygian Antioch, Epimachus and Nemesius of Alexandria, Peter and his companions of Lampsacus, Irenaeus of Neo-Caesarea, Martial of Limoges, Abdon and Sennen (Persians then at Rome), Cassian of Imola, Lucian a Thracian, Trypho and Respicius of Bithynia, the Ten Martyrs of Crete, have all found a place in the martyrologies of this period, and, after allowing uncertainty to some of the names, the list is enough to shew that there was hardly a province of the empire where the persecution was not felt
Ecclesiastes, Book of - They judge that it must have been written long after, as when the Jews were under the rule of the Persians, and that Solomon was only personated by the writer
Existence of God - "The existence of God farther appears from the fearful punishments which have been inflicted upon persons, and especially upon nations, when their immoralities became excessive, and that by very unexpected means and instruments; as in the drowning of the old world; destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah; plagues of Pharaoh and his servants; overthrow of Sennacherib and his army; miseries and ruin of the Canaanites, Jews, Syrians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Saracens, Tartars, and others
Esther, Book of - Xerxes, king of the Medes and Persians, gives a great feast to the nobles and princes of the 127 provinces over which he rules; the description of the decorations in the palace garden on this occasion recalls the language of the Arabian Nights
Gods - Thus the Persians adored the wind: thunder and lightning were honoured under the name of Geryon; and several nations of India and America have made themselves gods of the same
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - After these three empires," which, are the Chaldeans, Persians, and Greeks, "will arise a fourth, denoted by the legs of iron," the Romans
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - At the end of 231 or the beginning of 232 the emperor, accompanied by his mother, left Rome to fight the Persians, but returned without any decisive results to Europe, being summoned by news of the movements of the Germans on the Rhine and Danube
Angels (2) - The same influences which led the Persians to frame such an elaborate system of Angelology, led the Jews, during and after the Exile, to frame a similar system, or in some respects to borrow from the Persian system; to believe in gradations among the angelic hosts; to give names to those who were of high rank, and to assign to each of these some definite kind of work to do among men, or some province on the earth to administer as satrap under ‘the King of Heaven’ (see art. ’ Again, in many courts, and particularly in that of the Persians, there were secretaries or scribes, whose business it was to keep a ‘book of records’ (Esther 6:1), in which the names and deeds of those who had deserved well of the king were honourably recorded
Eagle - Xenophon and other ancient historians inform us that the golden eagle with extended wings was the ensign of the Persian monarchs long before it was adopted by the Romans: and it is very probable that the Persians borrowed the symbol from the ancient Assyrians, in whose banners it waved, till imperial Babylon bowed her head to the yoke of Cyrus
Idol - ... (10) timahuh "similitude," "form "(Deuteronomy 4:12-19, where Moses forbids successively the several forms of Gentile idolatry: ancestor worship, as that of Terah (Joshua 24:2), Laban (Genesis 31:19; Genesis 31:30; Genesis 31:32), and Jacob's household (Genesis 35:2-4), to guard against which Moses' sepulchre was hidden; hero worship and relic worship (Judges 8:27; Judges 17:4; 2 Kings 18:4); nature worship, whether of the lower animals as in Egypt, or of the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and stars, as among the Persians). The heroic resistance of the Maccabees, besides their contact with the Persians who rejected images, and especially the erection of synagogues and the reading the law every sabbath in them, gave them the abhorrence of idols which now characterizes them
Serpent - One of the most remarkable accounts of the primeval tempter under the shape of a serpent occurs in the Zend-Avesta of the ancient Persians. To the dracontian Ahriman of the Persians, the malignant serpent caliya of Hindoo theology appears to be very closely allied
Egypt - In later times Egypt was conquered by the Persians (B
Dead - The same custom prevailed among the ancient Persians, and the neighbouring states
Jerusalem - 614 the Persians, after defeating the Roman forces of the emperor Heraclius, took Jerusalem by storm, and retained it till A
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - Meanwhile he wrote upon the devastation committed by the Persians the Maccabean martyrs the Life of Constantine and so on until the accession of Julian rudely disturbed his studies. On his expedition against the Persians Julian had advanced as far as Haran a town so famous for obstinate adherence to heathenism that Haranite in Syriac is equivalent to pagan and there determined to hold a great sacrifice to which he commanded the Edessenes to send chosen citizens to do him homage and to grace by their presence his restoration of the old cult
Daniel, Book of - Vision of ram, he goat, and four horns points to passing of Persians, Medes, and of proud Greeks, one of whom will interrupt daily sacrifices of Temple for a while (Daniel 8:1-27 )
Philistim - Afterward they fell under the dominion of the Persians; then under that of Alexander the Great, who destroyed the city of Gaza, the only city of the Phenicians that dared to oppose him
Eye - The Persians called those officers of the crown who had the care of the king's interests and the management of his finances, the king's eyes
Mahometanism - It is professed by the Turks and Persians, by several nations among the Africans, and many among the East Indians. And soon after a messenger came to Mahomet from Badhan, king of Yaman, who was a dependent on the Persians, to acquaint him that he had received orders to sent him to Khosru. Whereupon Bashan, and the Persians with him, turned Mahometans
Egypt - Egypt became entirely subject to the Persians about three hundred and fifty years previous to the Christian aera. Deprived, twenty-three centuries ago, of her natural proprietors, she has seen her fertile fields successively a prey to the Persians, the Macedonians, the Romans, the Greeks, the Arabs, the Georgians, and, at length, the race of Tartars distinguished by the name of Ottoman Turks
Weights And Measures - (d) After the captivity the relations of the Jews to the Persians, Greeks and Romans caused the use, probably, of the parasang , and certainly of the stadium and the mile
Samaria - After the over-throw of the monarchy, the name was still attached to the old territory, whether under the government of Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Hasmonaeans, or Romans
Government - Under the Persians Judah was a subdistrict of the great province west of the Euphrates and subject to its governor ( Ezra 5:3 )
Book - As flexible matters came to be written on, they found it more convenient to make their books in form of rolls, called by the Greeks κοντακια , by the Latins volumina, which appear to have been in use among the ancient Jews as well as the Grecians, Romans, Persians, and even Indians; and of such did the libraries chiefly consist, till some centuries after Christ. It is possible he might allude, also to a custom of the Persians, among whom it was a constant practice every day to write down the services rendered to the king, and the rewards given to those who had performed them
David - At a time when subject to the Persians the Chronicler still cherished hopes of a restoration of Davidic rule, and he describes the glorious rule of David and Solomon in the past in terms of his hopes for the future
Jerusalem - ... While Jewish writers pointed to future hope, Persians continued to rule Jerusalem until Alexander the Great took over in 333 B
Babylon, History And Religion of - Nabonidus returned to a divided capital amid a threat from the united Medes and Persians
Jerusalem - 614Jerusalem was taken and pillaged by the Persians
God - ... While the Persians were certainly not worshipers of the “God” of Israel, they accorded Him the dignity that befitted a “God of heaven” (Ezra 6:10)
Houses - In like manner, the Persians take refuge during the day in subterraneous chambers, and pass the night on the flat roofs of their houses
Banquet - ... The Persians send a deputation to meet their guests: this deputation are called openers of the way; and the more distinguished the persons sent, and the greater the distance to which they go, so much greater is the honour
Divination - This was practised by the Egyptians and Persians and is thus described: small pieces of metal and stones, marked with signs were thrown into the cup, and answers gathered from the marks as they fell
Cross, Crucifixion - Beginning with the Assyrians and Persians, it began to be used to display the heads of captured foes or of particularly heinous criminals on the palisades above the gateway into a city
Egypt - ... Alexander the Great took Egypt from the Persians in 332 B
Lots - 152b), while the Persians resorted to it as a means of finding out lucky days (Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24-32)
Divination - ] Persians,‡ [Note: ERE iv
Constantinus i - In 297 he took part in the successful war of Galerius against the Persians; and about this time married Minervina
Assyria - 635, the Scythians invaded the Medes and Persians; and in 625, Nabopolassar, the commander of the forces of Chyniladon in Chaldea, revolted from him, and became king of Babylon
Creation - The cosmogony of the ancient Persians is very clumsy
Jerusalem - The Persians, however, did not hold it long, as they were soon after entirely defeated by the Emperor Heraclius, who rescued Jerusalem, and restored it, not to the unhappy Jews, who were forbidden to come within three miles of it, but to the Christians. The Persians the Greeks, the Romans, are swept from the earth; and a petty tribe, whose origin preceded that of those great nations, still exists unmixed among the ruins of its native land
Justinianus i, Emperor - In 539 war broke out again, and also a revolt against Justinian in Armenia, a part of whose people appealed to the Persians for help. The manufacture of silk was thus no longer at the mercy of the Persians, who had stopped the supply in time of war, and the culture of the silk-worm became an important branch of industry in the Roman East
Assur - They served as God's scourge of Israel (Isaiah 10:5-6), and they prepared the way for a more centralized and better organized government, and a more spiritual religion, such as the Medo-Persians possessed
Judgments of God - Julian the apostate greatly oppressed the Christians: and he perished soon after, in his rash expedition against the Persians
Disease - These kindred and allied ideas have been common among ancient peoples, and were strongly developed among the Babylonians, Persians, and Greeks
Zechariah, Prophecy of - ... Zechariah 6:1-8 introduce the administrative spirits of God's providential government connected with the four Gentile empires as horses: the red (Babylon), the black (Medes and Persians), the white (Greek), and the grisled and bay (Roman), the latter probably having two horses because of the double character of its government, relics of which exist in various forms until revived again before the Lord comes to reign
Greece, Religion And Society of - He swiftly fought his way across Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and encountered the Persians in the most important battle for the campaign at Issus (near modern Iskenderun)
Isaiah - The Persians were about to take over the Babylonian power; they would be trustworthy and friendly to the exiles
Zechariah, Theology of - Haggai's prophecy was fulfilled because God did shake the nations by raising up the Persians to free his people
Lots - 152b), while the Persians resorted to it as a means of finding out lucky days (Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24-32)
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - and was maintained by the Persians, the Ptolemies, and the Romans
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - ] this is the exact antithesis of the kingdom of God† [Note: the dualistic system of the Persians, which has influenced Judaism here
Letters - The Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Phenicians, the Persians, the Indians, have all laid claim to the honour of it; and each has named its inventor among the remote, and probably fabulous, personages that figure in the earlier ages of their history
Manicheans - 287 wherein Manichean leaders are condemned to the stake and their adherents punished with decapitation and confiscation of all their goods as following "a new and unheard-of monster which has come to us from the Persians a hostile people and has perpetrated many misdeeds
Israel, History of - Unfortunately, Zerubbabel mysteriously disappeared, probably because the Persians recognized the inherent dangers associated with some of the Jews thinking Zerubbabel to be the anticipated messiah (Haggai 2:20-23 )
Jeru'Salem - It was taken by the Persians under Chosroes II in A
Marriage - Among the Indians, Persians, and Afghans it is connected with ancestor worship, the object being to ensure that there shall be some one to perform the sacrificial rites; the supposed indications of this among the Hebrews are very doubtful
Government - ... The Persians were lenient rulers and consequently the Judeans enjoyed a significant measure of autonomy, due to the official policy of encouraging local culture and religion
Jerusalem - It was taken by the Persians under Chosroes II
Oracle - Poor wizard, thou art ignorant whose the children are that Salamis shall see perish; whether Greeks or Persians
Adam - The Persians, however, denominate him Adamah, which signifies, according to Sale, red earth
Apocalyptic Literature - Nevertheless, the Persians, the Babylonians, the Egyptians, and the Greeks had their apocalyptics
Mahometanism - They are said, however, to comply with the prohibition of gaming, (from which chess seems to be excepted,) much better than they do with that of wine, under which all strong and inebriating liquors are included; for both the Persians and Turks are in the habit of drinking freely
Abram - Thus the migrations of the three primitive families proceeded from the central regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria; and in succession they established numerous communities,—the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Lybians southward;—the Persians, Indians, and Chinese eastward;—the Scythians, Celts, and Tartars northward;—and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins westward, even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South America, and the Indians of North America
Babel - Babylon's capture by surprise during a festival was foretold in Jeremiah 51:31; Jeremiah 51:39, and that the capture should be by the Medes and Persians, 170 years earlier in Isaiah 21:1-9
Messiah - In the year 1138 the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the Messiah
Tatianus - Orpheus had taught them poetry, song, and initiation into the mysteries, the Tuscans sculpture, the Egyptians history, rustic Phrygians the harmony of the shepherd's pipe, Tyrrhenians the trumpet, the Cyclopes the smith's art, and Atossa, queen of the Persians, the method of joining letter-tablets (see Otto's note)
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - 360 Constantius ordered the flower of the Gallic auxiliaries to be sent to aid him in his expedition against the Persians (Amm
Nestorius And Nestorianism - Assist me in destroying heretics, and I will assist you in vanquishing the Persians