Character Study on Esarhaddon

Character Study on Esarhaddon

2 Kings 19: And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword: and they escaped into the land of Armenia. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.
Ezra 4: Then they came to Zerubbabel, and to the chief of the fathers, and said unto them, Let us build with you: for we seek your God, as ye do; and we do sacrifice unto him since the days of Esarhaddon king of Assur, which brought us up hither.
Isaiah 37: And it came to pass, as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons smote him with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Armenia: and Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead.

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Esarhaddon

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Holman Bible Dictionary - Esarhaddon
(ee' ssahr had' dahn) Assyrian royal name meaning, “Ashur (the god) has given a brother.” King of Assyria (681-669 B.C.). He was the favorite son of Sennacherib, who he succeeded as king. Sennacherib was assassinated in 681 by two other sons (2 Kings 19:36-37 ) as part of a civil war. Esarhaddon was at the time conducting a military campaign elsewhere. He returned to Assyria and mustered enough support to defeat his brothers in battle and end the civil war. Esarhaddon was an eminent military general who defeated Taharqa, Pharaoh of Egypt, in the process of conquering the entire country. Esarhaddon ruled Egypt through Assyrian advisors and Egyptian district commanders. However, Egyptian rebellion to Assyrian domination came quickly. An ill Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt to squelch the rebellion when he died en route in 669 B.C.

There are many references to Esarhaddon in the Bible (2 Kings 19:36-37 ; Ezra 4:2 ; Isaiah 19:4 ; Isaiah 37:37-38 ). In Isaiah 19:4 he is probably the “cruel lord” and “fierce king” who conquered Egypt. In Ezra 4:2 he is recognized as the king who colonized Samaria. See Assyria.

M. Stephen Davis



Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Esarhaddon
Sennacherib's younger son, Sargon's grandson (2 Kings 19:37). (See ASSYRIA.) After the murder of his father by his two sons, Esarhaddon the oldest surviving son succeeded, 680 B.C. The Assyrian inscriptions state that for some months after his accession he warred with his half brothers (Rawlinson, Ant. Monarchies, 2:186). The Greek Abydenus states the same. The Scripture is thus confirmed; for naturally Esarhaddon would seek to avenge his father's murder, and they would seek the throne. The Armenian records state that the two assassins, having escaped from the scene of conflict, took refuge in Armenia, where the king gave them lands which long continued in possession of their posterity (Mos. Choren., Hist. Arm., 1:22). Esarhaddon is famed for his expedition into Arabia. an undertaking with few parallels in history; for few conquerors have ventured to pass the barrier of Arabian deserts.

Esarhaddon was perhaps the most potent of the Assyrian kings, warring in the far East, according to the monuments, with Median tribes "of which his father had never heard the name"; extending his power W. to Cilicia and Cyprus, ten kings of which submitted to him. Southward he claimed authority over Egypt and Ethiopia; having driven the Ethiopian Tirhakah out of Egypt. Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. He is the only Assyrian king who reigned at Babylon; the bricks of the palace he built there still bearing his name. A tablet also bears the date of his reign. Manasseh king of Judah is mentioned among his tributaries. Scripture by a striking minute coincidence with truth represents Manasseh as carried to Babylon, not to the Assyrian capital Nineveh; which would seem inexplicable but for the above fact, revealed by the monuments.

Esarhaddon's Babylonian reign lasted from 680 to 667 B.C., the very period when Manasseh was brought up by the Assyrian king's captains to Babylon on a charge of rebellion (2 Chronicles 33:11-19). By an unusual clemency on the part of an oriental king, Manasseh was restored to his throne, a marvelous proof of the power of prayer. The monuments tell us of a similar act of Esarhaddon whereby he gave a territory on the Persian gulf to Merodach Baladan's son, on his submission as a refugee at his court. Esarhaddon built three other palaces and 30 temples," shining with silver and gold," in different parts of his dominions. His S.W. palace at Nimrud, excavated by Layard, corresponds in plan to Solomon's temple but is larger, namely, the hall being 220 by 100 ft. and the antechamber 160 by 60. Unfortunately the sculptured stones and alabaster have been materially injured by fire.

He boasts of his S.W. palace of Nimrud that it was a building "such as the kings his fathers before him had never made." Ptolemy's canon shows he reigned 13 years in Babylon, and probably reigned in all 20 years, dying about 660 B.C. Assur-bani-pal, or Sardanapalus II, for whom Esarhaddon built a palace, succeeded, and caused the tablets to be collected which furnish us with such information; comparative vocabularies, lists of deities, records of astronomical observations, histories, scientific works. Saracus his son was attacked by the Scythians, then by the Medes and Cyaxares, and Nabopolassar his own general. Saracus burnt himself in his palace, and Nineveh was taken. (See ASSYRIA.)

Esarhaddon (as G. Smith reads an inscription) about 672 B.C., marching from Asshur (Kileh Sherghat) to Tyre, besieged Bahal its king who was in league with Tirhakah, thence he marched to Aphek at the foot of Lebanon, then to Raphia S.W. of Judah, thence from Lower Egypt which was in his hands to Miruha or Meroe. Though distressed on the way by want of water, he at last drove Tirhakah out of Egypt.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Esarhaddon
Son of Sennacherib and grandson of Sargon. He succeeded Sennacherib as king of Assyria. He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon. This will account for the captain of the Assyrians carrying Manasseh to Babylon. It was this king who sent foreigners to colonise Samaria. 2 Kings 19:37 ; Ezra 4:2 ; Isaiah 37:38 . From the records on the monuments he appears to have been one of the most powerful of the Assyrian kings. He calls himself "the great king, the powerful king, the king of legions, . . . . the just, the terrible . . . . who reigned from the rising of the sun to the setting of the sun." He says, "I counted among the vassals of my realm twelve kings of Syria, beyond the mountains: Balon, or Baal, king of Tyre; Manasseh, king of Judah ," etc. About B.C. 671 he conquered Egypt, took Memphis, and captured two of the king's sons. He divided Egypt into twenty provinces, placing some of them under native princes, and others under Assyrian governors with Assyrian troops. He reigned from B.C. 681 to 668.

Sentence search

Asnapper - He is either Esarhaddon, as Ezra 4:2 implies, or some able general under him who effected the plantation = Asardanaper = Esarhaddon
Sarchedonus - ) = Esarhaddon (wh
Esarhaddon - Esarhaddon was at the time conducting a military campaign elsewhere. Esarhaddon was an eminent military general who defeated Taharqa, Pharaoh of Egypt, in the process of conquering the entire country. Esarhaddon ruled Egypt through Assyrian advisors and Egyptian district commanders. An ill Esarhaddon was returning to Egypt to squelch the rebellion when he died en route in 669 B. ... There are many references to Esarhaddon in the Bible (2 Kings 19:36-37 ; Ezra 4:2 ; Isaiah 19:4 ; Isaiah 37:37-38 )
Achiacharus - ACHIACHARUS , the nephew of Tobit, was governor under Sarchedonus = Esarhaddon ( Tob 1:21 etc
Asnap'Per - He was probably a general of Esarhaddon
Hazo - It is no doubt identical with Hazû , which along with Bazû is mentioned in an inscription of Esarhaddon
Esarhaddon - ) After the murder of his father by his two sons, Esarhaddon the oldest surviving son succeeded, 680 B. The Scripture is thus confirmed; for naturally Esarhaddon would seek to avenge his father's murder, and they would seek the throne. Esarhaddon is famed for his expedition into Arabia. ... Esarhaddon was perhaps the most potent of the Assyrian kings, warring in the far East, according to the monuments, with Median tribes "of which his father had never heard the name"; extending his power W. Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. ... Esarhaddon's Babylonian reign lasted from 680 to 667 B. The monuments tell us of a similar act of Esarhaddon whereby he gave a territory on the Persian gulf to Merodach Baladan's son, on his submission as a refugee at his court. Esarhaddon built three other palaces and 30 temples," shining with silver and gold," in different parts of his dominions. Assur-bani-pal, or Sardanapalus II, for whom Esarhaddon built a palace, succeeded, and caused the tablets to be collected which furnish us with such information; comparative vocabularies, lists of deities, records of astronomical observations, histories, scientific works. )... Esarhaddon (as G
Asbasareth - A king of Assyria, probably a corrupt form of the name Esarhaddon , which is found in the parallel passage Ezra 4:2
Ashurbanipal - Son and successor of Esarhaddon on the throne of Assyria, b
Dehavites - Persian colonists planted in Samaria by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon, after carrying away Israel
Ashima - The idol of Hamath, introduced by the Hamathites, the colonists planted in Samaria by Esarhaddon king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:24; 2 Kings 17:30; Ezra 4:2; Ezra 4:10); represented as a goat with short hair, answering to the Egyptian form of the Greek god Pan, to whom the goat was sacred
Tartak - Idol of the Avvite colonists planted by Esarhaddon in Samaria (2 Kings 17:31)
Tirhakah - The Assyrian armies under Esarhaddon, and again under Assur-bani-pal, invaded Egypt and defeated Tirhakah, who afterwards retired into Ethiopia, where he died, after reigning twenty-six years
Rehoboth-ir - ] rçbît Ninâ (‘broad places of Nineveh’), mentioned by king Esarhaddon (b
Kuyunjik - It was abandoned by Sargon; beautified by Sennacherib, who built a magnificent temple which vas completed by Esarhaddon and Asurbanipal
Ninive - It was abandoned by Sargon; beautified by Sennacherib, who built a magnificent temple which vas completed by Esarhaddon and Asurbanipal
Ashkenaz - The view now generally accepted by scholars is that Ashkenaz in the Hebrew text is a slight misreading for Ashkûz , an important tribe akin to the Cimmerians who had to do with Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal, the last great kings of Assyria, the name appearing in the inscriptions as Ashgûz
Ashurbanipal - ... The son of the King Esarhaddon was the heir apparent from about 673 B. His father Esarhaddon had captured it in 671, but rebellion occurred during Ashurbanipal's reign
Telassar - The other, written Til-ashurri , is referred to by Esarhaddon as having been conquered by him (the people of Mihrânu, he seems to say, called it Pitânu )
Tirhakah - Tirhakah was quite unable to resist the attacks of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal; even Thebes was sacked, but the Assyrians were equally unable to hold the country they bad won
Calah - Esarhaddon built there a grand palace
Kir - Esarhaddon had subdued Armenia (according to Assyrian inscriptions: Rawlinson, Herodotos i. Keil thinks Kir to be Kurena along the river Mardus in Media, or else Karine a town in Media, on the ground that the remote parts of Armenia were beyond the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:37); but Esarhaddon subdued it
Osnappar - 668 626), the son of Esarhaddon, and grandson of Sennacherib
Uz - From an inscription of Esarhaddon it appears there were in central Arabia, beyond the jebel Shomer, about the modern countries of upper and lower Kaseem, two regions, Bazu and Khazu, answering to Buz and Huz
Samaritans - The name given to the new and mixed inhabitants whom Esarhaddon (B
Seventy Years - Isaiah 23:15 and the Babylonian Black Stone of Esarhaddon may indicate that seventy years was an expected time of punishment and desolation for a defeated city
Manasseh - For his shocking idolatries, tyranny, and cruelties, God suffered him to be carried as a prisoner to Babylon in the twenty-second year of his reign, probably by Esarhaddon king of Assyria
Nineveh - The southern mound, Nebi Yunus, covers palaces of Sennacherib and Esarhaddon
Assyria - ), who invaded Juda and crushed the rebellion of Ezechias (4Kings 18); Esarhaddon (681-668 B
Tirhakah - (See HEZEKIAH; SO; Esarhaddon
Gourd - There the captive Israelites were transported by Shalmaneser and Esarhaddon
Babylon, Kingdom of - It was rebuilt by Esarhaddon, who made it his residence during part of the year, and it was to Babylon that Manasseh was brought a prisoner (2 Chronicles 33:11 ). After the death of Esarhaddon, Saul-sumyukin, the viceroy of Babylonia, revolted against his brother the Assyrian king, and the revolt was suppressed with difficulty
Merodach Baladan - ... His sons, supported by the king of Elam, continued the struggle against Assyria under Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, and his grandsons against Asshur-bani-pal, Esarhaddon's son
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - He was followed by Esarhaddon, and he by a noted warrior and builder, Sardanapalus. In Scripture it is remarkable that we hear nothing of Assyria after the reign of Esarhaddon, and profane history is equally silent until the attacks began which brought about her downfall
Samaria - After Shalmaneser's capture of Samaria and carrying away of Israel to Halah and Habor, and in the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17:5-6; 2 Kings 17:23-24), Esarhaddon or Asnapper planted "instead" men of Babylon (where Esarhaddon resided in part: 2 Chronicles 33:11), Cuthah, Ava, and Sepharvaim (Ezra 4:2-3; Ezra 4:10). (See Esarhaddon; ASNAPPER. by Esarhaddon's occupying their land with foreigners
Manasseh - " Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's successor on the Assyrian throne, who had his residence in Babylon for thirteen years (the only Assyrian monarch who ever reigned in Babylon), took Manasseh prisoner (B. This is referred to in 2 Chronicles 33:11 , where the Authorized Version reads that Esarhaddon "took Manasseh among the thorns;" while the Revised Version renders the words, "took Manasseh in chains;" or literally, as in the margin, "with hooks
Zidon - A revolt under Tubaal’s successor led to the utter destruction of the city, with circumstances of great severity, by Esarhaddon, who built a new city called by his own name. ‘Zidon’ persists, ‘Ir Esarhaddon’ is heard of no more
Assyria - Esarhaddon, his son and successor, ravaged Judah in the days of Manasseh, and carried the conquered sovereign in chains to Babylon
Sennacherib - He was murdered by two of his own sons (Adrammelech and Sharezer), and was succeeded by another son, Esarhaddon (B
Sama'Ria - Some years afterward the district of which Samaria was the centre was repeopled by Esarhaddon
Babylon - Esarhaddon, Ashurbanipal, and Nabopolassar undertook a rebuilding, but Nebuchadrezzar II (605-562 B. Located about five-eights of a mile south of the royal palaces, its paved floor had inscriptions stating that it had been laid by the Assyrian Kings Ashurbanipal and Esarhaddon. Over 6,000 figures were uncovered, and ten street altars were found from the period from Esarhaddon to Nabonidus (681-539 B
Sennacherib - , his two sons Adrammelech and Sharezer assassinated him after a reign of 22 years, and Esarhaddon ascended the throne 680 B. Esarhaddon's inscription, stating that he was at war with his half brothers, after his accession, agrees with the Bible account of Sennacherib's assassination
Ephraim - 721, so that the prophecy doubtless referred to Esarhaddon planting a colony of foreigners in Samaria in B
Ptolemais - , the Assyrian Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, and several of the Ptolemys engaged in its conquest or defence
Edom, Edomites - , Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Ashurbanipal, kings of Assyria (cf
Ephraim - 721, so that the prophecy doubtless referred to Esarhaddon planting a colony of foreigners in Samaria in B
Tiglath Pileser - They bear traces of intentional defacement, and Esarhaddon used them as building materials in his palace at Calah
Ethiopia - Esarhaddon, according to the monuments, conquered Egypt and Ethiopia Meroe was the emporium where the produce of the distant S
Assyria - ... Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper
Babylon - Esarhaddon began to rebuild it, and it stood another long siege under his son, Ashurbanipal
Games - Drawn on stone slabs, some have an inscription bearing the name of the Assyrian king, Esarhaddon (680–669 B
Simeon - If the name appears, as is supposed by some scholars, in the inscriptions of Esarhaddon, it may be of importance in connexion with the history of the tribe, but no light is derived from the form as to its meaning
Tiglath-Pileser - This building was partly destroyed by Esarhaddon
Moab And the Moabite Stone - Thus Moab and Moabite kings are mentioned in the records of Tiglath-Pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon
Philistines - Esarhaddon ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek
Philis'Tines - The Assyrian supremacy was restored by Esarhaddon, and it seems probable that the Assyrians retained their hold on Ashdod until its capture, after a long siege, by Psammetichus
Assyria, History And Religion of - ... Esarhaddon (681-669 B. Esarhaddon died in 669 B. ... After conducting a brief expedition against eastern tribes, Esarhaddon's son, Ashurbanipal (668-627 B
Nineveh - Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Memphis, and Thebes of the hundred gates
Medes - Sennacherib and his successor Esarhaddon both profess to conquer Media, which shows it was still unconquered when they came to the throne
Galilee - Tiglath Pileser carried away captive its Israelite population to Assyria; then Esarhaddon colonized it with pagan (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2; Ezra 4:10)
Ammonites - Ammonite kings paid tribute to Tiglath-pileser III, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon
Assur - (Tiglath Pileser's successor), and father of Sennacherib, and grandfather of Esarhaddon. The magnificent palace of Sennacherib (the assailant of (See HEZEKIA) at Nineveh, as also the buildings erected by Sargon and Esarhaddon (the carrier away of Manasseh to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11) show the power and wealth of Assyria at this period. ... By the end of Esarhaddon's reign Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria had been absorbed, Judaea made tributary, Philistia and Idumea subjected, Babylon recovered, and cities planted in Media. Saracus, probably Esarhaddon's grandson, after a brave resistance set fire with his own hand to his palace with its treasures, and himself and his wives perished amidst the flames
Moab, Moabites - 91), and the country remained vassal to Assyria during the following reigns of Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal (cf
Samaritan Pentateuch - 11:8, section 2,4) at the founding of the temple on Mount Gerizim, for which theory are urged the idolatry of the Samaritans before they received an Israelite priest through Esarhaddon (2 Kings 17:24-33) and the great number of readings common to Septuagint and Samaritan against the Masoretic Hebrew text; or... (3) that Esarhaddon's priest took the Pentateuch to Samaria with him
Tyre - Under Esarhaddon, Tyre rebelled
Egypt - Tahrak (Tirhakah) was particularly active in this endeavour, but as soon as Esarhaddon was free to invade Egypt the Assyrian king had no difficulty in taking Memphis, capturing most of the royal family, and driving Tahrak southward ( c [Note: circa, about. The native princes were no doubt hostile at heart to the Ethiopian domination: on his departure, Esarhaddon left these, to the number of 20, with Assyrian garrisons, in charge of different parts of the country; an Assyrian governor, however, was appointed to Pelusium, which was the key of Egypt. Esarhaddon thereupon prepared a second expedition, but died on the way
Phoenicia, phNicians - Esarhaddon had to reduce Sidon by a siege, and changed its name to ‘Esarhaddonsburg’ ( Kar-Assurakhiddina ), but he failed to reduce Tyre ( KIB [Note: IB Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek
Babylon, History And Religion of - ... Esarhaddon, Sennacherib's son, immediately began the rebuilding of Babylon to win the allegiance of the populace
Babel - ... During the first year of Sennacherib his sons and grandsons were at war with Esarhaddon and his successor. Two followed, then a second interreign of eight years, and Asaridanus or Esarhaddon followed, son and successor
Nineveh - , Saracus the last king, Esarhaddon's grandson, set fire to the palace and perished in the flames, as Ctesias states, and as the marks of fire on the walls still confirm. Esarhaddon succeeded, as he styles himself "king of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Meroe, and Ethiopia;" or Asnapper; he imprisoned Manasseh
War - In the later times of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, we observe their kings bearing the shock of the greatest powers of Asia, of the kings of Assyria and Chaldea, Shalmaneser, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon, and Nebuchadnezzar, who made the whole east tremble
Isaiah - A series of vigorous successors succeeded him: Shalmaneser V (726-722), Sargon II (721-705), Sennacherib (704-681), and Esarhaddon (680-669)
Kings, the Books of - The names of Omri, Mesha, Jehu, Menahem, Hoshea, Hezekiah, are deciphered in inscriptions of campaigns of Tiglath Pileser, Sargon, Sennacherib, and Esarhaddon
Egypt - Taharka, or Tehrak, conquered by Esarhaddon
Jews - Judah was invaded by Sennacherib; but Hezekiah's piety, and Isaiah's prayer, were the means of their preservation: but under Manasseh, the Jews abandoned themselves to horrid impiety: for which they were punished by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who invaded and reduced the kingdom, and carried Manasseh prisoner to Babylon