Character Study on Dionysius

Character Study on Dionysius

Acts 17: Howbeit certain men clave unto him, and believed: among the which was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them.

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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius of Alexandria, Saint
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius the Great
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius Exiguus
(died c.544)Monk and writer. Much of his life was spent in Rome, where he was abbot of a monastery. He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of canon law in Western Christendom are due to him. In a work on the calculation of Easter he introduced the use of the Christian Era fixing the date of Our Lord's birth as 753 years after the foundation of Rome, a date now known to be too late by four to seven years. His surname, "the Little," is believed to have been adopted in self-depreciation.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius the Little
(died c.544)Monk and writer. Much of his life was spent in Rome, where he was abbot of a monastery. He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of canon law in Western Christendom are due to him. In a work on the calculation of Easter he introduced the use of the Christian Era fixing the date of Our Lord's birth as 753 years after the foundation of Rome, a date now known to be too late by four to seven years. His surname, "the Little," is believed to have been adopted in self-depreciation.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Little, Dionysius the
(died c.544)Monk and writer. Much of his life was spent in Rome, where he was abbot of a monastery. He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of canon law in Western Christendom are due to him. In a work on the calculation of Easter he introduced the use of the Christian Era fixing the date of Our Lord's birth as 753 years after the foundation of Rome, a date now known to be too late by four to seven years. His surname, "the Little," is believed to have been adopted in self-depreciation.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius of Athens, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius the Areopagite, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius, Saint
Martyrs, died Paris, France, 258. Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, often wrongly confused with Dionysius the Areopagite, was born in Italy according to Saint Gregory of Tours. About 240 he was sent by Pope Fabian with other missionary bishops into Gaul. With his intimate companions Rusticus, a priest, and Eleutherius, his deacon, he settled on an island of the Seine in the vicinity of Paris; there he built a church and was untiring in his efforts to propagate the Faith. He made Paris his principal see and established several others, among them Chartres, Senlis, Meaux, and Cologne. Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius suffered atrocious tortures, and were beheaded. According to the legend, Denis arose after his execution and carried his head for some distance; for this reason he is usually portrayed carrying his head in his hand. Other emblems: a furnace, and a city. Saint Denis is patron of France; invoked as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, against headache, and rabies; relics at the monastery of Saint Denis. Feast, Roman Calendar, October 9,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius, Pope, Saint
Reigned 259 to 268. Confessor; probably Greek; died at Rome, Italy. During the Decian persecution the Holy See was vacant for nearly a year. When the persecution ceased through the edict of Gallienus, Dionysius was elected pope and the Church was given a legal existence. He organized the administration of the Church, called a synod at Rome to settle doctrinal matters, and issued a letter condemning the Sabellian heresy. Feast, December 30,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite
The reputed author of the "Celestial Hierarchy" and other works, erroneously identified with the above.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Dionysius
The Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Dionysius
(di oh nihss' ih uhss) An Athenian aristocrat who was converted to Christianity through the preaching of Paul the apostle (Acts 17:34 ). He was a member of the Areopagus, an elite and influential group of officials. See Areopagus .



1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Great, Dionysius the
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Areopagite, Dionysius the, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Dionysius
Divinely touched
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Athens, Dionysius of, Saint
First century bishop and martyr, and an assessor of the Areopagus. He was converted by Saint Paul, c.50A.D. (Acts 17), and has been erroneously identified with Saint Denis of Paris, patron saint of France, the error persisting in various lists of the Saints, such as "Les Petits Bollandistes." Feast, October 9,.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Dionysius
See Areopagite.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Dionysius of
(born c.190)Bishop of Alexandria. He studied under Origen, and eventually became the head of the catechetical school. In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the persecution ceased, 251. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. During the persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death. He wrote a work on the Apocalypse, which ranks high as biblical criticism.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Exiguus, Dionysius
(died c.544)Monk and writer. Much of his life was spent in Rome, where he was abbot of a monastery. He translated standard works from Greek into Latin and the beginnings of canon law in Western Christendom are due to him. In a work on the calculation of Easter he introduced the use of the Christian Era fixing the date of Our Lord's birth as 753 years after the foundation of Rome, a date now known to be too late by four to seven years. His surname, "the Little," is believed to have been adopted in self-depreciation.

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita
Dionysius (1) Pseudo-Areopagita. Under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite there has passed current a body of remarkable writings. Before shewing that the author of these writings was not the Dionysius converted by St. Paul (Act_17:34) we must discriminate both of them from a third Dionysius the St. Denys of France. The identity of all three was popularly believed for many centuries and even yet is maintained by some.

Was, then, the convert of St. Paul at Athens the first apostle of France? The answer would not seem doubtful from the statement of Sulpicius Severus, that the earliest martyrs in Gaul were under the reign of Aurelius (Sacr. Hist. ii. 46), i.e. after a.d. 160; and from the circumstance that neither the old martyrologies nor the old French chroniclers contain any hint of the identity of the two. Gregory of Tours ( Hist. Franc. i. 30) fixes the coming of St. Denys into France as late as the reign of Decius, i.e. after a.d. 250; while Usuardus, who wrote his Martyrologium for Charlemagne, assigned Oct. 3 to the memory of the Areopagite, and Oct. 9 to that of the patron saint of France. The reasons for believing St. Denys of France to be the author of these writings are equally slight. Their style and subject-matter all betoken a philosophic leisure, not the active life of a missionary in a barbarous country; and a residence in the East is implied in the very titles of those to whom they are addressed. It is the opinion of Bardenhewer ( Patrol. p. 538) that the writings of Stiglmayr and Koch (see under Authorities, infra ) have proved "that the Areopagitica were nothing more than a composition written under an assumed name, and in reality dating from about the end of the fifth century."

We may deal with the writings under: (1) External History; (2) Nature and Contents.

(1) It is generally admitted that the first unequivocal mention of them is in the records of the conference at Constantinople in 532. The emperor Justinian invited Hypatius of Ephesus, and other bishops of the orthodox side, to meet in his palace the leaders of the Severians. During the debate, these alleged writings of the Areopagite were brought forward by the latter in support of their Monophysite views; and the objections of Hypatius have been preserved. If genuine, he asked, how could they have escaped the notice of Cyril and others? (Mansi, viii. col. 821); and this question has never been satisfactorily answered. Supposed traces of them have been pointed out in Origen; and other ingenious reasons, explaining their concealment for five centuries, have been confuted again and again. Still, whatever their parentage, they are henceforward never lost sight of. Writers of the school which had at first objected to them soon found how serviceable to their own cause they might be made. Thus a chain of testimony begins to be attached to them in unbroken continuity.

In the Western church we first find them mentioned by pope Gregory the Great (c. 590) ; but his manner of citing them makes it probable that he only knew them by report. In any case, they did not become generally known in the West till after a.d. 827, when Michael the Stammerer sent a copy to Louis le Débonnaire, son of Charlemagne. The abbey of St. Denys, near Paris, was thought the most fitting receptacle for such a treasure; and its abbat, the superstitious and unprincipled Hilduin, compiled a collection of Areopagitica in honour of the event. This work professes to be based on documents then extant, but is described in equally unfavourable terms by Sirmond and by Cave. In the next reign, that of Charles the Bald, a Latin trans. of all the Dionysian writings was made by the great scholar Joannes Erigena. It is first publicly mentioned by pope Nicholas I., in a letter to Charles in 861, and is warmly praised by Anastasius Bibliothecarius in 865.

(2) The Dionysian writings consist of four extant treatises: On the Heavenly Hierarchy; On the Ecclesiastical Hierarchy; On the Names of God; On Mystic Theology; after which come ten letters or fragments of letters.

This list from one point of view is complete as an exposition of the Dionysian system and is also in its proper order. For we may take as its epitome the words of St. Paul with which the first sentence in the volume concludes: "For of Him and to Him are all things" (Rom_11:36). God the centre towards which all tend and at the same time the all-embracing circumference within which all are included; the constant streaming forth from Him like rays from the visible sun of divine influences whereby men are purified illumined and drawn upwards to Himself; man's powerlessness to know the real nature and being of God while yet he may be drawn near to Him in the mystic communion of a loving faith: such is very briefly the burden of the Dionysian strain. And if we take the de Divinis Nominibus as the central portion of the writings and recognize the two Hierarchies as one consecutive whole we have enough to fill up the outline sketched above. In the Celestial and Ecclesiastical Hierarchies with their ninefold orders of heavenly and of earthly ministrations; we have the means the machinery (so to speak) whereby God communicates Himself to man. In the Divina Nomina we have disclosed to us so far as can be seen through veils and shadows the Fountain-head of all light and being the object of all thought and desire. In the Mystic Theology we have the converse of the path marked out in the Hierarchies the ascent of the human soul to mystic union with God. The three great sections of the Dionysian writings thus answer very strikingly to the three elements of which he makes his hierarchy to consist: τάξις ἐπιστήμη and ἐνέργεια πρὸς τὸ θεοειδὲς ἀφοιουμένη (Eccl. Hier. iii. § 1).

Yet the author refers to a series of treatises, still more numerous than the preceding, as if he thought them necessary for the completion of his design. These are: On Divine Hymns; Symbolic Theology; On the Objects of Intellect and Sense; Theological Outlines; On the Soul; On the Just Judgment of God . To these are added by Sixtus Senensis and others: On the Properties and Orders of Angels; The Legal Hierarchy .

The question of these missing treatises is most perplexing. Did they ever exist? If so, what has become of them? Are they mere inventions of the author, designed to parry attacks on his own weak points, and to suggest the filling up of deficiencies which in reality he left unsupplied? This last seems very probable. But, if true, while our respect for the intellectual completeness of the author's mind is increased, our opinion of his moral straightforwardness must be diminished. However, he is certainly entitled to the credit of his conception of such a theological system, whether all the parts be duly filled in or not.

Limits of space do not here allow a minute analysis of the extant works. The Heavenly Hierarchy opens with what sounds almost like the keynote of the whole the text πᾶσα δόσις ἀγαθή κ.τ.λ. of Jam_1:17. The language in which the simple words of these Apostles are expanded and paraphrased will convey no bad idea of the generally turgid style. To bring us to Himself God graciously makes use of signs and symbols and of intervening orders of ministers by whose means we may be gradually raised to nearer communion with Him. Such an organization he calls a Hierarchy—"a sacred order and science and activity assimilated as far as possible to the godlike and elevated to the imitation of God proportionately to the Divine illuminations conceded to it " (Cel. Hier. iii. § 1 tr. by Westcott). The members of the Heavenly Hierarchy are the nine orders of Angels—the term Angel being sometimes used alike of all the orders and sometimes in a more proper and restricted sense of the lowest of the nine. The names of the nine orders appear to be obtained by combining with the more obvious Seraphim Cherubim Archangels and Angels five deduced from two passages of St. Paul Eph_1:21 and Col_1:16. In each of these passages four names are mentioned of which three (ἄρχαι ἐξουσίαι κυριότητες) are common to both while one is peculiar to each δυνάμεις to the former θρόνοι to the latter. The nine are subdivided into triads ranged thus in descending order:

1. Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones.

2. Dominations, Virtues, Powers.

3. Principalities, Archangels, Angels.

The long and important treatise On the Names of God ( Περὶ θείων ὀνομάτων ) has been shewn by Stiglmayr and Koch to contain an extract from Proclus's treatise de Malorum Substitentia ; which has reached us in a Latin trans. It is an inquiry into the being and attributes of God as indicated by the Divine Names in Holy Scripture. These Names, like all outward channels of spiritual knowledge, can reveal His real nature but very imperfectly; and even so, not without prayer, which, like the golden chain of Homer, lifts us up to Heaven while we seem to be drawing it down to earth; or like the rope thrown out to mariners from a rock, which enables them to draw their ship nearer to the rock, while they pull as if they would draw the rock to them (Div. Nom. iii. § 1). The first thing thus revealed is God's goodness, the far-reaching effulgence of His being, which streams forth upon all, like the rays of the sun ( ib. iv. § 1). Evil is nothing real and positive, but a defect, a negation only: Στέρησις ἄρα ἐστὶ τὸ κακόν, καὶ ἔλλειψις, καὶ ἀσυένεια, καὶ ἀσυμμετρία, κ .τ.λ. ( ib. iv. § 32). As what we call cold is but a deficiency of heat; or darkness, of light; so what we call evil is a deficiency of goodness. When the sky grows dark, as evening sets in, that darkness is nothing positive, superadded to what existed before: we are conscious of gloom merely from the disappearance of the light, which was the true existence ( ib. iv. § 24). This subject is pursued in a very noble train of thought to some length, and is followed by a discussion of still other names and titles, adapted to the infirmity of human understanding, under which God's attributes are made intelligible to us. That the author is conscious of his theory of evil not being logically complete appears from his briefly referring to another supposed treatise, Περὶ δικαίου καὶ θείου δικαιωτηρίου ( ib. iv. § 35), for a settlement of the question how far evil, being such as is described, deserves punishment at the hands of God.

Of two legends, widely known in connexion with the name of Dionysius, from their insertion in the Breviary of the Latin church, one must be noticed here, as found in the present work. When Dionysius was present with Timothy, to whom he is writing, and James, ὁ ἀδελφόθεος , and Peter, ἡ κορυφαία καὶ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν θεολόγων ἀκρότης , and other disciples, "for the spectacle of the body which was the beginning of life and the recipient of God" (ἐπὶ τὴν θέαν τοῦ ζωαρχικοῦ καὶ θεοδόχου —al. φωτοδόχου —σώματος ( ib. iii. § 2)), no one but the apostles surpassed Hierotheus, his preceptor, in the inspired hymns and praises which he uttered. This is generally considered to refer to a gathering of the apostles round the deathbed of the Holy Virgin. The language is vague, and the passage comes in with singular abruptness, as a sequel to one on the power of prayer. In the paraphrase of Pachymeres, the names of the apostles are omitted. The explanation of Barradas (quoted by Hipler, ubi inf. p. 48 n.) is that the gathering round the θεοτόκος really represents the assembly of believers for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, bending (as the words of one liturgy express it) "ante splendida et theodocha signa cum timore inclinati."

The short treatise on Mystic Theology indicates the means of approaching more nearly to God, previously set forth under the Divine Names , by reversing the procedure adopted in the Hierarchies. He who would aspire to a truer and more intimate knowledge of God must rise above signs and symbols, above earthly conceptions and definitions of God, and thus advance by negation, rather than by affirmation, κατ᾿ ἀφαίρεσιν , not κατὰ θέσιν . Even in the Hierarchies (Cel. Hier. ii. § 3) Dionysius had spoken of ἀπόφασις as a surer way of penetrating the divine mystery than κατάφασις , and now enforces the same truth by an illustration which, if not taken directly from Plotinus, presents a striking parallel to one used by him—that of the sculptor, who, striving to fashion a beautiful statue, chips away the outer marble, and removes what was in fact an obstruction to his own ideal (Myst. Theol. c. ii.; cf. Plotinus, de Pulchritudine , ed. Creuzer, 1814, p. 62).

Of the Letters the first two are little more than detached notes on points of the Mystic Theology—on our ἀγνωσία of God and His transcendent nature. The third is a short fragment on the meaning of the word ἐξαίφνης in Mal_3:1 "The Lord . . . shall suddenly come to His temple," and its application to the Incarnation. The fourth addressed like the three previous ones to the monk Caius treats briefly of the Incarnation and the nature of that human body with which Christ could walk upon the waters (cf. Div. Nom. ii. 9). The fifth to Dorotheus is on the meaning of the divine darkness (ὁ θεῖος γνόφος) spoken of in the Mystic Theology. The sixth to Sosipater teaches that labour is better spent in establishing truth than in confuting error. The seventh is a much longer letter addressed to Polycarp in which he bids him answer the taunts of the Sophist Apollophanes by recalling the days when he and Dionysius were fellow-students at Hierapolis and his own remark when they beheld the darkness of the Crucifixion: ταῦτα ὦ καλὲ Διονύσιε θείων ἀμοιβαὶ πραγμάτων. The exclamation attributed to Dionysius himself as it appears in the Latin Breviary Aut Deus naturae patitur aut mundi machina dissolvitur or as it is given by Syngelus in his Life Ὁ ἄγνωστος ἐν σαρκὶ πάσχει Θεός κ.τ.λ. is not found in the Dionysian writings. The eighth letter to a monk Demophilus is on gentleness and forbearance and the topic is illustrated by a dream which St. Carpus had in Crete. The ninth also a long letter addressed to Titus bp. of Crete refers to matters treated in the Symbolic Theology. Many points are discussed in what to some would appear a strangely neologic spirit. The anthropomorphism of O.T. the bold metaphors of the Song of Songs (τὰς τῶν ᾀσμάτων προσύλους καὶ ἑταιρικὰς πολυπαθείας) and the like can only be understood he says by true lovers of holiness who come to the study of divine wisdom divested of every childish imagination (πᾶσαν τὴν παιδαριώδη φαντασίαν ἐπὶ τῶν ἱερῶν συμβόλων ἀποσκευαζομένοις). In this letter we seem to see before us a disciple of Philo. The tenth and last is a mere fragment addressed to St. John the Divine an exile in Patmos foretelling his approaching release from confinement.

Authorities .—Isaac Casaubon, de Rebus sacris Eccl. Exercitt. xxi. (1615); Jean Launoy, Varia de duobus Dionysiis (1660); J. Dallaeus, de Scriptis quae . . . circumferunter (1666); P. F. Chifflet, Opuscula quatuor (1679); Ussher, Dissertatio de Scriptis . . . appended to his Historia Dogmatica (1690); M. Lequien, Dissertatio Secunda , prefixed to tom. i. of Joannis Damasceni Op. (1712); Cave, Script. Eccl. Hist. Lit. (1740); Brucker, Hist. Crit. tom. iii. (1766); J. L. Mosheim, Commentatio de Turbata per Recentiores Platonicos Ecclesia (1767); J. A. Fabricius, Biblioth. Graeca , tom. vii. (1801); J. G. Engelhardt, de Dionysio Areop. Plotinizante (1820); Milman, Lat. Christ. vol. vi. (1855); Dr. Franz Hipler, Dionysius der Areopagite (Regensburg, 1861); B. F. Westcott, Essay on Dionysius the Areopagite in the Contemp. Rev. May 1867; Dean Colet, On the Hierarchies of Dionysius (1869); J. Fowler, Essay on the works of St. Dionysius the Areopagite, in relation to Christian art, in the Sacristy , Feb. 1872; H. Koch, in Theol. Quartalschrift, 1895 and 1898 Stiglmayr in Hist. Jahrbücher (1895).

[J.H.L.]

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church
Dionysius (19) , surnamed Exiguus because of his humbleness of heart, was a Scythian by birth, and a monk in the Western church under the emperors Justin and Justinian. To him we owe the custom of dating events from the birth of our Saviour, though he is now acknowledged to have placed the era four years too late. His collection of canons laid the foundation of canon law. He knew Latin and Greek fairly; though it is obvious that neither was his vernacular. His Latin translations form the bulk of his extant works. Cassiodorus speaks of his moral and intellectual qualities with well-deserved praise. His performances were not original discoveries, but improvements on those of others.

I. The period called after him was borrowed from Victorius of Aquitaine, who flourished 100 years earlier, and is said to have invented it. It is a revolution of 532 years, produced by multiplying the solar cycle of 28 by the lunar of 19 years. It is called sometimes "recapitulatio Dionysii." A note to § 13 of the preliminary dissertation to l’Art de vérif. les dates shews how he improved on his predecessor. His cycle was published in the last year of the emperor Justin, a.d. 527. It began with March 25, now kept as the festival of the Annunciation; and from this epoch all the dates of bulls and briefs of the court of Rome are supposed to run (Butler's Lives of the Saints, Oct. 15: note to the Life of St. Teresa). His first year had for its characters the solar cycle 10, the lunar 2, and the Roman indiction 4, thereby proclaiming its identity with the year 4714 of the Julian period, which again coincided with the 4th year of the 194th Olympiad, and the 753rd of the building of Rome. It was adopted in Italy soon after its publication; in France perhaps a century later. In England it was ordained a.d. 816, at the synod of Chelsea, that all bishops should date their acts from the Incarnation.

II. In his letter to bp. Stephen, to whom he dedicates his collection of Canons, he admits the existence of an earlier, but defective, Latin translation, of which copies have been printed and named, after his naming of it, Prisca Versio by Justellus and others. His own was a corrected edition of that earlier version, so far as regards the canons of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople—165 in all—together with 27 of Chalcedon: all originally published in Greek, and all, except the Laodicean, already translated in the Prisca Versio. The Laodicean, unlike the rest, are given in an abbreviated form, and the chronological order is interrupted to place the Nicene canons first. He specifies as having been translated by himself the 50 so-called canons of the Apostles, which stand at the head of his collection, which he admits were not then universally received: and, as having been appended by himself, the Sardican and African canons, which he says were published in Latin, and with which his collection ends. His collection speedily displaced that of the Prisca. Cassiodorus, his friend and patron, writes of it within a few years of his decease, "Quos hodie usu ecclesia Romana complectitur"; and adds, "Alia quoque multa ex Graeco transtulit in Latinam, quae utilitati possunt ecclesiasticae convenire" ( de Inst. Div. Litt. c. 23). It seems certain, from what Cassiodorus says, that Dionysius either translated or revised an earlier translation of the official documents of the 3rd and 4th councils, as well as the canons of the 1James , 2 nd.

III. He published all the decretal epistles of the popes he could discover from Siricius, who succeeded Damasus, a.d. 384, to Anastasius II., who succeeded Gelasius, a.d. 496. Gelasius, he says himself, he had never seen in life; in other words, he had never been at Rome up to Gelasius's death. By this publication a death-blow was given to the false decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore, centuries before their appearance. His attestation of the true text and consequent rendering of the 6th Nicene canon, his translating the 9th of Chalcedon into plain Latin, after suppressing the 28th, which, as it was not passed in full council he could omit with perfect honesty, and, most of all, the publicity which he first gave to the canons against transmarine appeals in the African code and to the stand made by the African bishops against the encroachments of pope Zosimus and his successors in the matter of Apiarius, are historical stumbling-blocks which are fatal to the papal claims. Misquotations of the Sardican canons, by which those claims were supported, are, moreover, exposed by his preservation of them in the language in which he avers they were published. Aloisius Vincenzi, writing on papal infallibility (de Sacrâ Monarchiâ, etc. 1875), is quite willing to abandon the Sardican canons in order to get rid also of the African code, which is a thorn in his side.

[E.S.Ff.]

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France
Dionysius (2), St., apostle of France, and first bp. of Paris. Concerning his identity and era there are three principal opinions.

(1) That he was Dionysius the Areopagite, formerly bp. of Athens, who came to Rome and was sent by Clement, bp. of Rome, to preach in Gaul. This is the tradition of the Greek church, and of those of Gaul, Germany, Spain, and Italy. The corresponding legend shortly narrated in the Paris Martyrology, states that his companions were Rusticus, a presbyter and Eleutherus, a deacon, and that all three were put to death by the sword under Sisinnius Fescenninus, prefect of Gaul. This is the opinion of Flavius Lucius Dexter, d. 444 ( Chronicon. Patr. Lat. xxxi. 270).

(2) That, although not the Areopagite, he was sent by Clement or the successors of the apostles. This is held in a poem in honour of Dionysius, attributed with some probability to Venantius Fortunatus of Poitiers, who had written a poem on the same subject committing himself to no opinion (Patr. Lat. lxxxviii. 72, 98). It is also supported by Pagius in his notes on Baronius.

(3) That he was sent from Rome in the 3rd cent., and suffered martyrdom c. a.d. 250. This is held by Sulpicius Severus, d. a.d. 410, and Gregory of Tours, d. 595. Sulpicius says, "Under Aurelius, son of Antoninus, raged the fifth persecution. Then first were martyrdoms seen in Gaul, for the religion of God was late in coming over the Alps" (Severi, Chronicon, ii. 32, Patr. Lat. xx. 147). Gregory ( Hist. of the Franks, bk. i. c. 28), speaking of the Decian persecution, quotes the Hist. Passionis S. M. Saturnini : "Under the consulship of Decius and Gratus, as is held in faithful recollection, the state of Toulouse began to have a bishop, St. Saturninus, her first and chief. These were the men sent: to Tours, Gatianus the bishop; to Arles, Trophimus the bishop; to Toulouse, Saturninus the bishop; to Paris, Dionysius the bishop, etc. Of these the blessed Dionysius, bishop of the Parisians, afflicted with many pains for the name of Christ, ended this present life under the sword." Probably, therefore, he died under the emperor Aurelian in a.d. 272 (cf. Gall. Christ. vii. 4).

[W.M.S.]

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth
Dionysius (3) , bp. of Corinth, probably the successor of Primus, placed by Eusebius in his Chronicle under a.d. 171, (see also Eus. H. E. ii. 25, iii. 4, iv. 21, 23, 35; Hieron. Catal. 27). He was the writer of certain pastoral letters, which gained so much authority in his own lifetime that heretics (probably the followers of Marcion) found it worth while, as he complains, to circulate copies falsified by interpolations and omissions. Eusebius mentions having met with 8 of these letters—viz. seven which he calls "Catholic Epistles," addressed to Lacedemon, Athens, Nicomedia, Gortyna and other churches in Crete, Amastris and other churches in Pontus, Cnossus and Rome; and one to "his most faithful sister Chrysophora." Probably the letters were already collected into a volume and enumerated by Eusebius in the order they occurred there, or he would probably have mentioned the two Cretan letters consecutively. Nothing remains of them, except the short account of their contents given by Eusebius, and a few fragments of the letter to the Roman church which, though very scanty, throw considerable light on the state of the church at the time. Eusebius praises Dionysius for having given a share in his "inspired industry" to those in foreign lands. A bp. of Corinth might consider Lacedaemon and Athens as under his metropolitan superintendence, but that he should send letters of admonition to Crete, Bithynia, and Paphlagonia not only proves the reputation of the writer, but indicates the unity of the Christian community. A still more interesting proof of this is furnished by the letter to the Roman church, which would seem to be one of thanks for a gift of money, and in which he speaks of it as a custom of that church from the earliest times to send supplies to churches in every city to relieve poverty, and to support the brethren condemned to work in the mines, "a custom not only preserved, but increased by the blessed bp. Soter, who administered their bounty to the saints, and with blessed words exhorted the brethren that came up as an affectionate father his children." The epithet here applied to Soter is usually used of those deceased in Christ; but there are instances of its application to living persons, and Eusebius speaks of him as still bishop when the letter of Dionysius was written. This letter is remarkable also as containing the earliest testimony that St. Peter suffered martyrdom in Italy at the same time as St. Paul. The letters indicate the general prevalence of episcopal government when they were written. In most of them the bishop of the church addressed is mentioned with honour; Palmas in Pontus, Philip and Pinytus in Crete, Soter at Rome. That to the Athenians reminds them of a former bp. Publius, who had suffered martyrdom during persecutions which reduced that church very low, from which condition it was revived by the zeal of Quadratus, the successor of Publius. This form of government was then supposed to date from apostolic times, for in the same letter Dionysius the Areopagite is counted as the first bp. of Athens; but the importance of the bishop seems to be still subordinate to that of his church. The letters, including that to Rome, are each addressed to the church, not to the bishop; and Soter's own letter, like Clement's former one, was written not in his own name, but that of his church ( ὑμῶν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ). The letters, indeed, of Dionysius himself were written in his own name, and he uses the 1st pers. sing. in speaking of them, but adds that they were written at the request of brethren. Eusebius mentions two, Bacchylides and Elpistus, at whose instance that to the churches of Pontus was written.

The letters also illustrate the value attached by Christians to their sacred literature. Dionysius informs the church of Rome that the day on which he wrote, being the Lord's day, had been kept holy, and that they had then read the letter of the Roman church, and would continue from time to time to read it for their instruction, as they were in the habit of reading the letter formerly written from the same church by the hand of Clement; and speaking of the falsification of his own letters, he adds, "No marvel, then, that some have attempted to tamper with the Scriptures of the Lord, since they have attempted it on writings not comparable to them (οὐ τοιαύταις )." Thus we learn that it was then customary to read sacred books in the Christian assemblies; that this practice was not limited to our canonical books; that attempts were made by men regarded as heretics to corrupt these writings, and that such attempts were jealously guarded against. The value attached by Christians to writings was regulated rather by the character of their contents than by the dignity of the writer; for while there is no trace that the letter of Soter thus honoured at Corinth passed beyond that church, the letter of Dionysius himself became the property of the whole Christian community. But we learn the preeminent authority enjoyed by certain books, called the Scriptures of the Lord, which we cannot be wrong in identifying with some of the writings of our N.T. Dionysius, in the very brief fragments remaining, shews signs of acquaintance with the St. Matt., the Acts, I. Thess., and the Apocalypse. There is, therefore, no reason for limiting to the O.T. the "expositions of the divine Scriptures," which Eusebius tells us were contained in the letter of Dionysius to the churches of Pontus. In speaking of attempts to corrupt the Scriptures, Dionysius probably refers to the heresy of Marcion, against which, we are told, he wrote in his letter to the church of Nicomedia, "defending the rule of truth." We cannot lay much stress on a rhetorical passage where Jerome (Ep. ad Magnum, 83) includes Dionysius among those who had applied secular learning to the refutation of heresy, tracing each heresy to its source in the writings of the philosophers. Dionysius had probably also Marcionism in view, when he exhorted the church of Gortyna "to beware of the perversion of heretics," for we are told that its bp. Philip had found it necessary to compose a treatise against Marcion. We may see traces of the same heresy in the subjects treated of in the letter to the churches of Pontus (the home of Marcion), to which Dionysius gave instructions concerning marriage and chastity (marriage having been proscribed by Marcion), and which he also exhorted to receive back those who returned after any fall, whether into irregularity of living or into heretical error. But the rigorist tendencies here combated were exhibited also, not only among the then rising sects of the Encratites and Montanists, but by men of undoubted orthodoxy. Writing to the Cnossians Dionysius exhorts Pinytus the bp., a man highly commended by Eusebius for piety, orthodoxy, and learning, not to impose on the brethren too heavy a burden of chastity, but to regard the weakness of the many. Eusebius reports Pinytus as replying with expressions of high respect for Dionysius, which were understood by Rufinus to imply an adoption of his views. But he apparently persevered in his own opinion, for he exhorts Dionysius to impart to his people some more advanced instruction, lest if he fed them always with milk instead of with more solid food, they should continue in the state of children.

We are not told anything of the time or manner of the death of Dionysius. It must have been before the Paschal disputes in a.d. 198, when we find Palmas of Pontus still alive, but a new bishop (Bacchylus) at Corinth. The Greek church counts Dionysius among martyrs, and the Menaea name the sword as the instrument of his death; but there is no authority for his martyrdom earlier than Cedrenus, i.e. the end of the 11th cent. The Roman church only counts him among confessors. The abbey of St. Denis in France claimed to be in possession of the body of Dionysius of Corinth, alleged to have been brought from Greece to Rome, and given them in 1215 by Innocent III. The pope's bull is given by the Bollandists under April 8. See Routh, Rel. Sac. (2nd ed.), i. 178-201.

[G.S.]

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius of Alexandria
Dionysius (6) of Alexandria. This "great bishop of Alexandria" (Eus. H. E. vi. Praef. ) and "teacher of the catholic church" (Athan. de Sent. Dion. 6), was born, apparently, of a wealthy and honourable family (Eus. H. E. vii. 11, and Valesius ad loc. ). He was an old man in a.d. 265 (Eus. H. E. vii. 27), and a presbyter in a.d. 233 (Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 69). His parents were Gentiles, and he was led to examine the claims of Christianity by private study ( Ep. Dion. ap. Eus. H. E. vii. 7). His conversion cost him the sacrifice of "worldly glory" (Eus. H. E. vii. 11); but he found in Origen an able teacher ( ib. vi. 29); and Dionysius remained faithful to his master to the last. In the persecutions of Decius he addressed a letter to him On Persecution ( ib. vi. 46), doubtless as an expression of sympathy with his sufferings ( c. A.D. 259), and on the death of Origen (a.d. 253) wrote to Theotecnus bp. of Caesarea in his praise (Steph. Gob. ap. Phot. Cod. 232). Dionysius, then a presbyter, succeeded Heraclas as head of the Catechetical School, at the time, as the words of Eusebius imply, when Heraclas was made bp. of Alexandria, a.d. 232-233 (Eus. l.c. ). He held this office till he was raised to the bishopric, on the death of Heraclas, a.d. 247-248, and perhaps retained it till his death, a.d. 265. His episcopate was in troubled times. A popular outbreak at Alexandria (a.d. 248-249) anticipated by about a year (Eus. H. E. vi. 41) the persecution under Decius (a.d. 249-251). Dionysius fled from Alexandria, and, being afterwards taken by some soldiers, was rescued by a friend, escaping in an obscure retirement from further attacks. In the persecution of Valerian, a.d. 257, he was banished, but continued to direct and animate the Alexandrian church from the successive places of his exile. His conduct on these occasions exposed him to ungenerous criticism, and Eusebius has preserved several interesting passages of a letter ( c. a.d. 258-259), in which he defends himself with great spirit against the accusations of a bp. Germanus ( ib. vi. 40, vii. 11). On the accession of Gallienus, a.d. 260, Dionysius was allowed to return to Alexandria ( ib. vii. 13, 21), where he had to face war, famine, and pestilence ( ib. vii. 22). In a.d. 264-265 he was invited to the synod at Antioch which met to consider the opinions of Paul of Samosata. His age and infirmities did not allow him to go, and he died shortly afterwards (a.d. 265) ( ib. vii. 27, 28; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 69).

Dionysius was active in controversy, but always bore himself with prudence. In this spirit he was anxious to deal gently with the "lapsed" (Eus. H. E. vi. 42); he pressed upon Novatian the duty of self-restraint, for the sake of the peace of the church, a.d. 251 ( ib. vii. 45; Hieron. l.c. ); and with better results counselled moderation in dealing with the rebaptism of heretics, in a correspondence with popes Stephen and Sixtus (a.d. 256-257) (Eus. H. E. vii. 5, 7, 9). His last letter (or letters) regarding Paul of Samosata seem to have been written in a similar strain. He charged the assembled bishops to do their duty, but did not shrink from appealing to Paul also, as still fairly within the reach of honest argument (Theod. Haer. Fab. ii. 8). In one instance Dionysius met with immediate success. In a discussion with a party of Chiliasts he brought his opponents to abandon their error (Eus. H. E. vii. 24.). His own orthodoxy, however, did not always remain unimpeached. When controverting the false teaching of Sabellius, the charge of tritheism was brought against him by some Sabellian adversaries, and entertained at first by his namesake Dionysius of Rome. Discussion shewed that one ground of the misunderstanding was the ambiguity of the words used to describe "essence" and "person," which the two bishops took in different senses. Dionysius of Rome regarded ὑπόστασις as expressing the essence of the divine nature; Dionysius of Alexandria as expressing the essence of each divine person. The former therefore affirmed that to divide the ὑπόστασις was to make separate gods; the latter affirmed with equal justice that there could be no Trinity unless each ὑπόστασις was distinct. The Alexandrine bishop had, however, used other phrases, which were claimed by Arians at a later time as favouring their views. Basil, on hearsay, as it has been supposed (Lumper, Hist. Patrum, xiii. 86 f.), admitted that Dionysius sowed the seeds of the Anomoean heresy ( Ep. i. 9), but Athanasius with fuller knowledge vindicated his perfect orthodoxy. Dionysius has been represented as recognizing the supremacy of Rome in the defence which he made. But the fragments of his answer to his namesake (Athan. de Sent. Dionysii, ἐπέστειλε Διονυσίῳ δηλῶσαι . . . for the use of ἐπιστέλλω see Eus. H. E. vi. 46, etc.) shew the most complete and resolute independence; and there is nothing in the narrative of Athanasius which implies that the Alexandrine bishop recognized, or that the Roman bishop claimed, any dogmatic authority as belonging to the imperial see. To say that a synod was held upon the subject at Rome is an incorrect interpretation of the facts.

Dionysius was a prolific writer. Jerome (l.c. ) has preserved a long but not exhaustive catalogue of his books. Some important fragments remain of his treatises On Nature (Eus. Praep. Ev. xiv. 23 ff.), and On the Promises, in refutation of the Chiliastic views of Nepos (Eus. H. E. iii. 28, vii. 24, 25); of his Refutation and Defence, addressed to Dionysius of Rome, in reply to the accusation of false teaching on the Holy Trinity (Athan. de Sent. Dionysii ; de Synodis, c. 44; de Decr. Syn. Nic. c. 25); of his Commentaries on Ecclesiastes and on St. Luke, and of his books Against Sabellius (Eus. Praep. Ev. vii. 19).

The fragments of his letters are, however, the most interesting extant memorials of his work and character and of his time; and Eusebius, with a true historical instinct, has made them the basis of the sixth and seventh books of his history. The following will shew the wide ground covered:

a.d. 251.—To Domitius and Didymus. Personal experiences during persecution (Eus. H. E. vii. 11).

a.d. 251-252.—To Novatian, to the Roman Confessors, to Cornelius of Rome, Fabius of Antioch, Conon of Hermopolis; and to Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, Laodicaea, Armenia, on discipline and repentance, with pictures from contemporary history (ib. vi. 41, and vii. 45).

a.d. 253-257.—To Stephen of Rome, the Roman presbyters Dionysius and Philemon, Sixtus II. of Rome on Rebaptism (ib. vii. 4, 5, 7, 9).

a.d. 258-263.—To Germanus: incidents in persecution. Against Sabellians. A series of festal letters, with pictures of contemporary history (ib. vii. 11, 22 ff., 26).

a.d. 264.—To Paul of Samosata (vi. 40).

To these, of some of which only the titles remain, must be added an important canonical letter to Basilides, of uncertain date, discussing various questions of discipline, and especially points connected with the Lenten fast (cf. Dittrich, pp. 46 ff.). All the fragments repay careful study. They are uniformly inspired by sympathy and large-heartedness. His criticism on the style of the Apocalypse is perhaps unique among early writings for clearness and scholarly precision (Eus. H. E. vii. 25).

The most accessible and complete collection of his remains is in Migne's Patr. Gk. x. pp. 1233 ff., 1575 ff., to which must be added Pitra, Spicil. Solesm. i. 15 ff. A full monograph on Dionysius by Dittrich (Freiburg, 1867) supplements the arts. in Tillemont, Maréchal, Lumper, Moehler. An Eng. trans. of his works is in the Ante-Nicene Lib., and his Letters, etc., have been ed. by Dr. Feltoe for the Camb. Patristic Texts (1904).

[B.F.W.]

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius (7), Bishop of Rome
Dionysius (7) , bp. of Rome; a Greek by birth, consecrated July 22, a.d. 259, on the death of Xystus, in the persecution of Valerian. His efforts against heresy are recorded. When Dionysius of Alexandria (q.v. ) was accused of holding doctrines akin to those of Sabellius, the Roman Dionysius wrote to him, and extracted so satisfactory a defence that he declared him purged of suspicion (Athan. Ep. de Sent. Dionys. Opp. i. 252; see an Eng. trans. of the Fragm. against Sabellius in Ante-Nicene Lib. ). In 264 the Alexandrian and Roman Dionysii acted together with the council of Antioch in condemning and degrading Paul of Samosata. Dionysius of Rome died Dec. 26, 269.

[G.H.M.]

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Dionysius
Dionysius (dî'o-nîsh'ĭ-ŭs), belonging to Dionysus, or Bacchus. An eminent Athenian, converted by means of Paul's preaching. Acts 17:34. Tradition reports him to have been bishop of Athens, and to have suffered martyrdom there.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Dionysius
Member of the supreme court at Athens, converted under the preaching of Paul. Acts 17:34 .

Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Dionysius
the Areopagite, a convert of St. Paul, Acts 17:34 . Chrysostom declares Dionysius to have been a citizen of Athens, which is credible, because the judges of the Areopagus generally were so. After his conversion, Dionysius was made the first bishop of Athens; having laboured, and suffered much in the Gospel, he is said to have been burnt at Athens, A.D. 95. The works attributed to Dionysius are generally reputed spurious.

American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Dionysius
A member of the court of the Areopagus at Athens, converted under the preaching of Paul, Acts 17:34 . Tradition says that he was eminent for learning, that he was ordained by Paul at Athens, and after many labors and trials, suffered martyrdom by fire. The works ascribed to him are spurious, being the product of some unknown writer in the fourth or fifth century.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Dionysius the Areopagite
DIONYSIUS THE AREOPAGITE . A member of the University Court of the Areopagus at Athens ( Acts 17:34 ), converted by St. Paul. The writings ascribed to Dionysius are of a much later date. He is by some identified with St. Denys of France.

A. J. Maclean.

Sentence search

Dionysius - Chrysostom declares Dionysius to have been a citizen of Athens, which is credible, because the judges of the Areopagus generally were so. After his conversion, Dionysius was made the first bishop of Athens; having laboured, and suffered much in the Gospel, he is said to have been burnt at Athens, A. The works attributed to Dionysius are generally reputed spurious
Dionysius (7), Bishop of Rome - Dionysius (7) , bp. When Dionysius of Alexandria (q. ) was accused of holding doctrines akin to those of Sabellius, the Roman Dionysius wrote to him, and extracted so satisfactory a defence that he declared him purged of suspicion (Athan. Dionysius of Rome died Dec
Dionysius the Areopagite - Dionysius THE AREOPAGITE . The writings ascribed to Dionysius are of a much later date
Dionysian - ) Relating to Dionysius, a monk of the 6th century; as, the Dionysian, or Christian, era
Areopagite - One connected with the court of Areopagus at Athens, where Dionysius heard Paul and "clave to him and believed
Areopagite - See Areopagus ; Athens ; Dionysius
Dionysius of Alexandria, Saint - In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Dionysius the Great - In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Great, Dionysius the - In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Alexandria, Dionysius of - In 250 there was a severe persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. At this juncture the Novatian schism occurred in which Dionysius supported Cornelius, the rightful pope, and it was largely through his influence that the whole East was unified. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Damaris - When most "mocked" or deferred, she and Dionysius the Areopagite "clave unto Paul and believed
Areopagitica - Famous series of four ecclesiastical treatises and ten letters by an unknown author, probably a 5th-century Syrian, professing to be the composition of Dionysius the Areopagite
Damaris - Some have supposed that she may have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite
Dam'Aris - ) Chrysostom and others held her to have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - Dionysius (3) , bp. Eusebius praises Dionysius for having given a share in his "inspired industry" to those in foreign lands. " The epithet here applied to Soter is usually used of those deceased in Christ; but there are instances of its application to living persons, and Eusebius speaks of him as still bishop when the letter of Dionysius was written. This form of government was then supposed to date from apostolic times, for in the same letter Dionysius the Areopagite is counted as the first bp. The letters, indeed, of Dionysius himself were written in his own name, and he uses the 1st pers. Dionysius informs the church of Rome that the day on which he wrote, being the Lord's day, had been kept holy, and that they had then read the letter of the Roman church, and would continue from time to time to read it for their instruction, as they were in the habit of reading the letter formerly written from the same church by the hand of Clement; and speaking of the falsification of his own letters, he adds, "No marvel, then, that some have attempted to tamper with the Scriptures of the Lord, since they have attempted it on writings not comparable to them (οὐ τοιαύταις ). The value attached by Christians to writings was regulated rather by the character of their contents than by the dignity of the writer; for while there is no trace that the letter of Soter thus honoured at Corinth passed beyond that church, the letter of Dionysius himself became the property of the whole Christian community. Dionysius, in the very brief fragments remaining, shews signs of acquaintance with the St. the "expositions of the divine Scriptures," which Eusebius tells us were contained in the letter of Dionysius to the churches of Pontus. In speaking of attempts to corrupt the Scriptures, Dionysius probably refers to the heresy of Marcion, against which, we are told, he wrote in his letter to the church of Nicomedia, "defending the rule of truth. ad Magnum, 83) includes Dionysius among those who had applied secular learning to the refutation of heresy, tracing each heresy to its source in the writings of the philosophers. Dionysius had probably also Marcionism in view, when he exhorted the church of Gortyna "to beware of the perversion of heretics," for we are told that its bp. We may see traces of the same heresy in the subjects treated of in the letter to the churches of Pontus (the home of Marcion), to which Dionysius gave instructions concerning marriage and chastity (marriage having been proscribed by Marcion), and which he also exhorted to receive back those who returned after any fall, whether into irregularity of living or into heretical error. Writing to the Cnossians Dionysius exhorts Pinytus the bp. Eusebius reports Pinytus as replying with expressions of high respect for Dionysius, which were understood by Rufinus to imply an adoption of his views. But he apparently persevered in his own opinion, for he exhorts Dionysius to impart to his people some more advanced instruction, lest if he fed them always with milk instead of with more solid food, they should continue in the state of children. ... We are not told anything of the time or manner of the death of Dionysius. The Greek church counts Dionysius among martyrs, and the Menaea name the sword as the instrument of his death; but there is no authority for his martyrdom earlier than Cedrenus, i. Denis in France claimed to be in possession of the body of Dionysius of Corinth, alleged to have been brought from Greece to Rome, and given them in 1215 by Innocent III
Dionysius - Dionysius (dî'o-nîsh'ĭ-ŭs), belonging to Dionysus, or Bacchus
Eriugena, John Scotus - 847), and acquired prominence in the world of letters through his translation of the works of Pseudo-Dionysius. In addition he wrote commentaries on the Gospel of Saint John and on the works of Pseudo-Dionysius, a work on predestination and probably one on the Eucharist, a philosophical work on the division of nature, a treatise on the soul, and Isome poems
Maximus, Bishop of Alexandria - Dionysius. During the Decian persecution, after Dionysius had been carried away by some Christians of Mareotis into Libya, Maximus with three other presbyters "kept themselves concealed in Alexandria, secretly carrying on the oversight of the brethren" (Dionys. He was banished with Dionysius to Cephro in the Libyan frontier, sharing in the rough reception the heathen inhabitants gave to the bishop and assisting him in the preaching which ere long won over "not a few" of them to "the word then sown among them for the first time. When Dionysius, "worn out with years," died early in 265 (in Mar
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - Dionysius (2), St. ... (1) That he was Dionysius the Areopagite, formerly bp. This is held in a poem in honour of Dionysius, attributed with some probability to Venantius Fortunatus of Poitiers, who had written a poem on the same subject committing himself to no opinion (Patr. These were the men sent: to Tours, Gatianus the bishop; to Arles, Trophimus the bishop; to Toulouse, Saturninus the bishop; to Paris, Dionysius the bishop, etc. Of these the blessed Dionysius, bishop of the Parisians, afflicted with many pains for the name of Christ, ended this present life under the sword
Joannes Scythopolita, Scholasticus in Palestine - John of Scythopolis was also the author of παραθέσεις or commentaries on the Pseudo-Dionysius, which had a wide circulation for some centuries. of Dionysius, with an introduction and notes by Phocas bar-Sergius of Edessa, a writer of the 8th cent
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - Dionysius had been banished from Alexandria, Eusebius remained, ministering to those in prison and burying the martyrs, a faithful service gratefully commemorated in a letter of Dionysius (apud Eus: H. 264, summoned to deal with Paul of Samosata, Dionysius bp
Dionysius of Alexandria - Dionysius (6) of Alexandria. 29); and Dionysius remained faithful to his master to the last. Dionysius, then a presbyter, succeeded Heraclas as head of the Catechetical School, at the time, as the words of Eusebius imply, when Heraclas was made bp. Dionysius fled from Alexandria, and, being afterwards taken by some soldiers, was rescued by a friend, escaping in an obscure retirement from further attacks. 260, Dionysius was allowed to return to Alexandria ( ib. ... Dionysius was active in controversy, but always bore himself with prudence. In one instance Dionysius met with immediate success. When controverting the false teaching of Sabellius, the charge of tritheism was brought against him by some Sabellian adversaries, and entertained at first by his namesake Dionysius of Rome. Dionysius of Rome regarded ὑπόστασις as expressing the essence of the divine nature; Dionysius of Alexandria as expressing the essence of each divine person. ), admitted that Dionysius sowed the seeds of the Anomoean heresy ( Ep. Dionysius has been represented as recognizing the supremacy of Rome in the defence which he made. ... Dionysius was a prolific writer. 24, 25); of his Refutation and Defence, addressed to Dionysius of Rome, in reply to the accusation of false teaching on the Holy Trinity (Athan. —To Stephen of Rome, the Roman presbyters Dionysius and Philemon, Sixtus II. A full monograph on Dionysius by Dittrich (Freiburg, 1867) supplements the arts
Soter, Pope Saint - Little is known of his reign beyond the fact that he wrote a hortatory letter to the Corinthians, in which he evinced his paternal care, and which was acknowledged by Saint Dionysius
Hierotheus, a Writer - Hierotheus, a writer whose works are quoted by the Pseudo-Dionysius, who styles him his teacher. Two long extracts are preserved in the de Divinis Nominibus of the Pseudo-Dionysius (c. The mystical views in the works of Hierotheus and Dionysius easily lend themselves to the support of that theory
Dionysius, Pope, Saint - When the persecution ceased through the edict of Gallienus, Dionysius was elected pope and the Church was given a legal existence
Christian Era - The era as now established was first used by Dionysius Exiguus (died about 540), who placed the birth of Christ on the 25th of December in the year of Rome 754, which year he counted as 1 a
Mai, Angelo - They include Cicero's De republica, an important Greek manuscript of the Bible, and works by Marcus Aurelius, Plautus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and several of the Apostolic Fathers and of the Italian humanists
Angelo Mai - They include Cicero's De republica, an important Greek manuscript of the Bible, and works by Marcus Aurelius, Plautus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and several of the Apostolic Fathers and of the Italian humanists
Areopagus - Dionysius, one of the judges, was converted; and the Apostle was dismissed without any farther trouble
Apostle - Thus Dionysius of Corinth is called the Apostle of France, Xavier the Apostle of the Indies, &c
Rhe'Gium - It was originally a Greek colony; it was miserably destroyed by Dionysius of Syracuse
Felix (1) i, Bishop of Rome - 290) having deposed this heretical bishop and appointed Domnus in his place, announced these facts in letters addressed to Maximus and Dionysius, bps. Felix, who had in the meantime succeeded Dionysius, addressed a letter on the subject to Maximus and to the clergy of Antioch, fragments of which are preserved in the Apologeticus of Cyril of Alexandria, and in the Acts of the council of Ephesus, and which is also alluded to by Marius Mercator, and by Vincent of Lerins in his Commonitorium ; cf
Pancratius, Martyr - He suffered when only 14 years of age with his uncle Dionysius
Damaris - 7) makes Damaris the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite, as does the Latin of Codex E (‘cum uxore suo’), though the Greek has only ‘a woman
Benedictines - ... Their Alcuinus formed the university of Paris; their Dionysius Exiguus perfected the ecclesiastical computation; their Guido invented the scale of music; and their Sylvester the organ
Serapion, Penitent of Alexandria - Dionysius of Alexandria uses his case as an argument against the Novatianist schism, to which his correspondent, Fabius of Antioch, was inclined
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - Dionysius (1) Pseudo-Areopagita. Under the name of Dionysius the Areopagite there has passed current a body of remarkable writings. Before shewing that the author of these writings was not the Dionysius converted by St. Paul (Act_17:34) we must discriminate both of them from a third Dionysius the St. ... Of two legends, widely known in connexion with the name of Dionysius, from their insertion in the Breviary of the Latin church, one must be noticed here, as found in the present work. When Dionysius was present with Timothy, to whom he is writing, and James, ὁ ἀδελφόθεος , and Peter, ἡ κορυφαία καὶ πρεσβυτάτη τῶν θεολόγων ἀκρότης , and other disciples, "for the spectacle of the body which was the beginning of life and the recipient of God" (ἐπὶ τὴν θέαν τοῦ ζωαρχικοῦ καὶ θεοδόχου —al. § 3) Dionysius had spoken of ἀπόφασις as a surer way of penetrating the divine mystery than κατάφασις , and now enforces the same truth by an illustration which, if not taken directly from Plotinus, presents a striking parallel to one used by him—that of the sculptor, who, striving to fashion a beautiful statue, chips away the outer marble, and removes what was in fact an obstruction to his own ideal (Myst. The seventh is a much longer letter addressed to Polycarp in which he bids him answer the taunts of the Sophist Apollophanes by recalling the days when he and Dionysius were fellow-students at Hierapolis and his own remark when they beheld the darkness of the Crucifixion: ταῦτα ὦ καλὲ Διονύσιε θείων ἀμοιβαὶ πραγμάτων. The exclamation attributed to Dionysius himself as it appears in the Latin Breviary Aut Deus naturae patitur aut mundi machina dissolvitur or as it is given by Syngelus in his Life Ὁ ἄγνωστος ἐν σαρκὶ πάσχει Θεός κ. Franz Hipler, Dionysius der Areopagite (Regensburg, 1861); B. Westcott, Essay on Dionysius the Areopagite in the Contemp. May 1867; Dean Colet, On the Hierarchies of Dionysius (1869); J. Dionysius the Areopagite, in relation to Christian art, in the Sacristy , Feb
Dionysius, Saint - Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, often wrongly confused with Dionysius the Areopagite, was born in Italy according to Saint Gregory of Tours
Denis, Saint - Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, often wrongly confused with Dionysius the Areopagite, was born in Italy according to Saint Gregory of Tours
Apostle - Thus Dionysius of Corinth is called the apostle of France and the Jesuit Missionaries are called apostles
Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria - 7), on the authority of his successor Dionysius, gives his rule respecting the treatment of heretics
Eleutherius, Saint - Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, often wrongly confused with Dionysius the Areopagite, was born in Italy according to Saint Gregory of Tours
Rusticus, Saint - Saint Denis, Bishop of Paris, often wrongly confused with Dionysius the Areopagite, was born in Italy according to Saint Gregory of Tours
Areopagus - Paul’s claim was rejected, and only one member of the Council, Dionysius ‘the Areopagite ’ ( Acts 17:34 ), was convinced by his teaching
Firmilianus (1), Bishop of Caesarea - He urged Dionysius of Alexandria to attend the council of Antioch, held to repudiate Novatianism (ib. To his contemporaries his 40 years of influential episcopate, his friendship with Origen and Dionysius, the appeal to him of Cyprian, and his censure of Stephanus might well make him seem the most conspicuous figure of his time
Victorius of Aquitaine - In 527, however, Dionysius published a new period of the Cyrillian 95-year cycle, which would terminate in 531; and VICTOR of Capua, c. 275–285), who points out that what Dionysius did was to continue the 95-year cycle, and that there is no evidence that he did anything to the Victorian cycle
Sabellianism, or Patripassianism - Dionysius of Alexandria wrote against their teaching, whereupon he was accused of heresy to Dionysius of Rome. 370–400; for a discussion of the controversy see Dionysius (8). Basil first called Sabellius an African, solely, it would seem, because of the prevalence of Sabellianism in the Pentapolis, under Dionysius of Alexandria, when probably SABELLIUS himself was long dead
Christian Calendar - One of the most important is the so-called Philocalian Calendar, compiled by Furius Dionysius Philocalus (354)
Calendar, Christian - One of the most important is the so-called Philocalian Calendar, compiled by Furius Dionysius Philocalus (354)
Athens - ) Dionysius the Areopagite convert of Paul was, according to tradition, the first bishop of an Athenian church
Paulianists - Being condemned by Dionysius Alexandrinus in a council, he abjured his errors to avoid deposition; but soon after he resumed them, and was actually deposed by another council in 269
Tiberius - The Christian era fixed by Dionysius Exiguus in the sixth century places Christ's birth in the year 754
Milan, Italy - 200was governed by several saints among whom are Saint Dionysius, Saint Ambrose, and Saint Petrus, the first archbishop
Greece - The country was evangelized by Saint Paul during his second and third missions, when he visited Neapolis, Philippi, where the first Christian Church on European soil was established, Thessalonica, Berooa, Corinth, and Athens, where he converted Dionysius the Areopagite, first Bishop of Athens
Aristo Pellaeus - , ascribed to Dionysius the Areopagite (c
Darkness - Dionysius the Areopagite, in his epistle to Polycarp, makes mention of it with decided convictions on his mind, that the event was supernatural. And another writer, Suidas, relates, that the same Dionysius said concerning it, that God either suffered, or took part with one that did
Joannes Presbyter - Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. Dionysius takes for granted that the author of the gospel was John the apostle, and has no difficulty in conceding that the name of the author of the Apocalypse was also John, since the writer himself says so; but urges that he never claims to be the apostle. Except in the statement last made, Dionysius does not pretend to have found any actual trace of any John of the apostolic age besides John the apostle and John Mark. Some 75 years later Eusebius found historic evidence for regarding as a fact what Dionysius had suggested as a possibility. Although Eusebius does not here name Dionysius of Alexandria, he plainly had in mind that passage of his writings which he gives at length elsewhere. The silence of Dionysius of Alexandria is positive proof that no tradition of a second John had reached him. ... If, then, both John the apostle and the elder taught in Asia, can we transfer to the second anything traditionally told of the first? Dionysius and Eusebius transfer to him the authorship of the Apocalypse, but those who now divide the Johannine books between these two Johns unanimously give the Apocalypse to the first
Athens - His preaching made no great impression: the philosophers despised it Some, however, clave to him; and a Christian community was formed of whom were Dionysius the Areopagite, Acts 17:32-34, Damaris and others
Soter, Bishop of Rome - 23) quotes a letter from Dionysius, bp
Angel - ... Pseudo-Dionysius, a writer before A. 500 who claimed to be Dionysius the Areopagite of Acts 17:34 , produced a ranking of angels. According to Dionysius, the angels are arranged in three ranks, each rank having three groups. ... Dionysius' highly speculative schema (or any like it) is flawed in several ways
Trophimus, 1st Bishop of Arles - 220 (Paris, 1723), he is preceded by Dionysius, as though he were the second bishop
Sabellians - Its growth, however, was soon checked by the opposition made to it by Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, and the sentence of condemnation pronounced upon its author by Pope Dionysius, in a council held at Rome, A
Valerianus, Emperor - Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. Dionysius regards his persecution as lasting the 42 months mentioned in the Apocalypse
Catholic Epistles - With this usage we may compare his application of the term ‘catholic’ to the Epistles of Dionysius of Corinth in HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. ] 260, by Dionysius of Alexandria (ap
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - Dionysius (19) , surnamed Exiguus because of his humbleness of heart, was a Scythian by birth, and a monk in the Western church under the emperors Justin and Justinian. It seems certain, from what Cassiodorus says, that Dionysius either translated or revised an earlier translation of the official documents of the 3rd and 4th councils, as well as the canons of the 1James , 2 nd
Fathers - 116; Justin Martyr, 140; Dionysius of Corinth, 170; Tatian, 172; Hegesippus, 173; Melito, 177; Irenaeus, 178; Athenagoras, 178; Miltiades, 180; Theophilus, 181; Clement of Alexandria, 194; Tertullian, 200; Minutius Felix, 210; Ammonius, 220; Origen, 230; Firmilian, 233; Dionysius of Alexandria, 247; Cyprian, 248; Novatus or Novatian, 251; Arnobius, 306; Lactantius, 306; Alexander of Alexandria, 313; Eusebius, 315; Athanasius, 326; Cyril of Jerusalem, 348; Hilary, 354; Epiphanius, 368; Basil, 370; Gregory of Nazianzum, 370; Gregory of Nyssa, 370; Optatus, 370; Ambrose, 374; Philaster, 380; Jerome, 392; Theodore of Mopsuestia, 394; Ruffin, 397; Augustine, 398; Chrysostom, 398; Sulpitius Severus, 401; Cyril of Alexandria, 412; Theodoret, 423; and Gennadius, 494
Jacobus Sarugensis, Bishop of Batnae - , indeed, allege that he communicated with Severus, and Dionysius in his Chronicon asserts that St. But Dionysius is contradictory in his dates
General Chronology - 527by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk resident at Rome
Pachomius, Saint - Rosweyd gives a narrative of his life in Latin, being a translation by Dionysius Exiguus, in the 6th cent
Ath'Ens - Paul at Athens, according to ecclesiastical tradition, Dionysius the Areopagite was the first bishop. [Dionysius ] Present condition
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - ] The "dux" Dionysius being absent in Upper Egypt, Timotheus found it the easier to gather a disorderly following and obtain irregular consecration. Dionysius, returning, expelled Timotheus; and the latter's partisans in revenge rushed to the house of Proterius, and after besetting him for some time in the adjacent church of Quirinus, ran him through with a sword in its baptistery, and he died under many wounds with six of his clerics
Areopagite, Areopagus - In Acts 17:34 the title ‘the Areopagite’ is given to one Dionysius, a convert to the Christian faith at Athens, implying that he was a member of the council of the Areopagus. One member of the council, at least, was converted, to wit, Dionysius
Chronology - ... According to Ussher, 5,898; Hales, 7,305; Zunz (Hebrew reckoning), 5,882; Septuagint (Perowne), 7,305; Rabbinical, 5,654; Panodorus, 7,387; Anianus, 7,395; Constantinopolitan, 7,403; Eusebius, 7,093; Scaliger, 5,844; Dionysius (from whom we take our Christian era), 7,388; Maximus, 7,395; Syncellus and Theophanes, 7,395; Julius Africanus, 7,395; Jackson, 7,320
Rhegium - For a time it held its own among the leading cities of Magna Graecia, but in revenge for a slighted Offer of friendship it was totally destroyed by Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse (387 b
Darkness (2) - The pseudo-Dionysius speaks of the ‘luminous gloom of the silence’ which reveals the inner secrets of being, aod in which the soul is raised to the absolute ecstasy
Fabianus, Bishop of Rome - , and in the main by the Bollandists) of his having been the founder of the seven Gallic churches of Toulouse, Arles, Tours, Paris, Narbonne, Clermont, Limoges; to which he is said to have sent respectively Saturninus, Trophimus, Gratianus, Dionysius, Paulus, Astremonius, and Martialis as missionary bishops
Philippus, the Arabian - 54) calls Philip the first of all Christian emperors, in which he is followed by Orosius; and Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Christ in the Middle Ages - ; that of the Neo-Platonie pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, working directly through the continued use of his writings, and indirectly through the propagation of his modes of thought by Maximus the Confessor, Scotus Erigena, the German Mystics, etc. ) whose Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, Heavenly Hierarchy, Divine Names, and Mystical Theology were credited to Dionysius the Areopagite, converted by St. ... This view of Christ and the world would seem to preclude belief in a specific Incarnation; but the devotion of pseudo-Dionysius to the creed of the Church and his sense of the reality of historical Christianity held him back in some measure from sheer Docetism. True to his pantheistic conception that God can be named with the names of all His creatures, pseudo-Dionysius asserts that He who is the author of man was truly man as to His entire nature. The pseudo-Dionysius found it practically impossible to find any place in the Universe for the God-man Jesus Christ, thus vaguely and Docetically conceived (Dorner). 662), though a staunch advocate of Dyothelitism, taught a form of mysticism derived largely from the pseudo-Dionysius. He regarded the pseudo-Dionysius as the holy revealer of Divine mysteries, as the ‘all-holy,’ the ‘great saint,’ the ‘God-revealer,’ and he had no doubt as to his identity with St. The views of the pseudo-Dionysius and Maximus reappeared among the monks of Mount Athos about the middle of the 14th cent. The Christology of Hugo and Richard was clearly that of the pseudo-Dionysius and of Erigena; but with them the Incarnation was conceived of more distinctly as a historical fact, and the ecstatic union of the believer with Christ did not so clearly involve loss of individual consciousness and virtual absorption
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - The strongest reason for thinking that the book intended is the canonical book of the Revelation is that Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Decius, Emperor - ) and partly from the history of the persecution as traced by Cyprian in his epistles and the treatise de Lapsis and by Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. The wiser and more prudent bishops such as Dionysius of Alexandria and Cyprian of Carthage followed the counsel of their Lord (Mat_10:23) and the example of Polycarp fled from the storm themselves and exhorted their followers to do the same
Achaia - While 1 Corinthians 16:15 refers to the house of Stephanas as ‘the firstfruits of Achaia,’ Acts 17:34 rather indicates that the Apostle’s brief visit to Athens had already borne some fruit, ‘Dionysius, Damaris, and others with them’ being Achaean believers
Mesrobes - These young scholars endeavoured to adapt the Armenian tongue to the rules of Greek grammar, translating into Armenian the grammar of Dionysius the Thracian, an ed
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - ... However great the scandals attaching to Paul's administration of his episcopal office, it was his unsoundness in the faith which, chiefly by the untiring exertions of the venerable Dionysius of Alexandria, led to the assembling of the synods at Antioch, through which his name and character have chiefly become known to us. Paul's heresy being plainly proved, he was unanimously condemned, and the synod pronounced his deposition and excommunication, which they notified to Dionysius bp, of Rome, Maximus of Alexandria, and the other bishops of the church, in an encyclical letter, probably the work of Malchion, large portions of which are preserved by Eusebius ( H
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - 952), and also states that Apollinaris answered Dionysius of Alexandria ( Prooem
Damasus, Pope - Almost all the catacombs bear traces of his labours, and modern discovery is continually bringing to light fragments of the inscriptions which he composed in honour of the martyrs, and caused to be engraved on marble slabs, in a peculiarly beautiful character, by a very able artist, Furius Dionysius Filocalus
Arius the Heresiarch - In the discussion which then arose on the question, Dionysius, bp. of Alexandria, had used much the same language as Arius afterwards held, and a correspondence is extant in which Dionysius of Rome blames his brother of Alexandria for using such language. Dionysius of Alexandria withdrew, or perhaps rather explained (see Athan. Whether this accusation be just or not, it is quite clear that the position in which a question of such supreme importance was left by the action of Dionysius could only postpone the controversy, and that its resumption was therefore only a question of time. He too, like his predecessor Dionysius, has been charged with vacillation in his treatment of Arius
Novatianus And Novatianism - After his consecration Novatian dispatched the usual epistles announcing it to the bishops of the chief sees to Cyprian Dionysius of Alexandria Fabius of Antioch. Dionysius wrote exhorting him to retire from his schismatical position (Eus. Fabius however so inclined to his side that Dionysius addressed him a letter on the subject; and two bishops Firmilianus of Cappadocia and Theoctistus of Palestine wrote to Dionysius requesting his presence at the council of Antioch to restrain tendencies in that direction (ib
Black People And Biblical Perspectives - Recent research has determined that nine of the eighteen church fathers were African (Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Dionysius, Athanasius, Didymus, Augustine, and Cyril)
France - According to tradition, Christianity was introduced in Apostolic times into the Roman province of Gaul which is supposed to have been visited by Saint Lazarus, Saint Mary Magdalen, Saint Martha, Saint Dionysius the Areopagite, and Saint Crescens
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - Dionysius, where George was then residing, and the soldiers rescued him from their hands with difficulty and after hard fighting
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - He instantly proceeded to perform episcopal acts; but after thus playing the anti-patriarch for a few days, he was expelled by the "dux" Dionysius; and it was apparently in revenge that his adherents ( ib
John, the Epistles of - Dionysius of Alexandria, Origen's scholar, cites this epistle's words as the evangelist John's. " Dionysius of Alexandria (Eusebius ,H
Chapters - Dionysius of Alexandria speaks of them in reference to the Apocalypse, and the controversies respecting it
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - of his great work, preserved in the Chronicon of Dionysius; and from the extant pt. Dionysius ( ap
Pantaenus, of Alexandria - ), who, in illustration of the teaching of Dionysius the Areopagite concerning the divine will, tells us that Pantaenus when asked by certain philosophers, "in what manner Christians suppose God to know things that are?" replied, "Neither by sense things sensible, nor by intellect things intelligible
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - Peter felt it his duty to follow the precedents he had cited in his 8th canon and the example of his great predecessor Dionysius by "seeking for safety in flight" (Burton, H
Abgar - 46 [Dionysius of Telnahar]), that we are here concerned, owing to the legendary accounts of his correspondence with Jesus, accepted as historical fact by Eusebius, and by him given wide currency
je'Sus Christ - The calculations were made by a learned monk, Dionysius Exiguus, in the sixth century, who made an error of four years; so that to get the exact date from the birth of Christ we must add four years to our usual dates; i
New Testament - Dionysius of Corinth (c
Dates (2) - In the Christian era, also called the Dionysian after Dionysius Exiguus of the 6th cent. While no one of these can be verified with anything like precision, it is certain that the accepted chronology, based on the calculations of Dionysius Exiguus in the 6th cent. ... Dionysius started, seemingly, from Luke 3:1, the 15th year of Tiherius, placed the public ministry of our Lord one year later, and counted back 30 years, on the strength of Luke 3:23
Criticism - in Origen with his discussion of the authorship of Hebrews, in Dionysius of Alexandria’s critical objections to the ascription of the Revelation to the author of the Fourth Gospel, etc
Jesus Christ - , the Christian era having been fixed by Dionysius Exiguus of the sixth century, four years too late
Revelation of John, the - Dionysius of Alexandria says many before his time rejected it because of its obscurity, or because it supported Cerinthus' view of an earthly kingdom. Dionysius, Origen' s scholar, bishop of Alexandria (A
Athens - That the address before the Council of the Areopagus was not entirely fruitless is proved by the conversion of a man holding so important an official position as Dionysius the Areopagite (q
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - ... The Chiliastic eschatology of Cerinthus is very clearly stated by Theodoret, Caius, Dionysius (Eus
Peter - Clemens Romanus (1 Corinthians 4) implies the same, Dionysius of Corinth asserts it, A. Dionysius of Corinth (in Eusebius, H
Marks Stigmata - Ptolemy Philopator commanded the Jews of Alexandria to be branded with an ivy-leaf, the symbol of Dionysius
Asia Minor, Cities of - , the city was set amidst vast vineyards and led in the worship of Dionysius
Sabbath - The Epistle of Barnabas, Dionysius of Corinth writing to Rome A
Calendar, the Christian - Dionysius of Corinth (a. Dionysius Petavius, lib
John, Epistles of - ’ Dionysius of Alexandria appeals to them, adding that John’s name was not affixed to them, but that they were signed ‘the presbyter. ’ They appear to have been recognized together at least from the time of Dionysius of Alexandria, and they are mentioned together by Eusebius ( HE iii
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - In this reference to custom he probably has in view the case of Dionysius of Alexandria, the charges against whom had been laid before Dionysius of Rome
Martyr - He cites Dionysius of Corinth as asserting that both apostles suffered about the same time in Rome, and adds, from the Roman Gaius, a minute description of their tombs
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - The most important sufferers were Eusebius of Vercelli, Lucifer of Cagliari, and Dionysius of Milan
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - Nor indeed do we find in the statements of Hegesippus, Dionysius of Corinth, and Irenaeus, the three earliest writers who connect the Epistle with the name of Clement, any definite assertion that Clement was the author. Dionysius of Corinth, c
Millenarians - Origen, the most learned of the fathers, and Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, usually, for his immense erudition, surnamed the Great, both opposed the doctrine that prevailed on the subject in their day; and Dr. The doctor supposes Dionysius of Alexandria, who wrote against Nepos, an Egyptian bishop, before the middle of the third century, to have been the first that attacked this doctrine; but Origen had previously assailed it in many of his fictitious additions
Revelation, Book of - ... In the East, as might be expected, it was rejected by Marcion, and, because of disbelief in its Apostolic authorship, by Dionysius of Alexandria (middle of the 3rd cent
Euchites - Maximus, in his scholia on the Pseudo-Dionysius (II
Principality Principalities - The pseudo-Dionysius gives (1) thrones, cherubim, seraphim; (2) authorities, dominions, powers; (3) angels, archangels, principalities
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - ... In 692 the Trullan Council of Constantinople repudiated the ‘Constitutions’ as having been tampered with by heretics, but accepted the 85 Canons; while, although in the Gelasian Decree they are called apocryphal, Dionysius Exiguus (circa, about a
Angels - ... The Christian Fathers and the heretical teachers greatly elaborated the angelic hierarchy; of these perhaps the writer who had most influence was pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (de Cœl
Amen (2) - 25), Dionysius of Alexandria (ap
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - In the Catena Aurea of Thomas Aquinas it is largely employed; and Fabricius quotes Dionysius the Carthusian as saying that he would rather have this imperfect work perfect than be lord of all Paris
Ministry - 4, as is made out from statements of Josephus (see Dates), and thus it appears that by an early error (of Dionysius Exiguus, an abbot of the 6th cent
Wisdom of Solomon - 120); and as ‘Scripture’ by Dionysius of Alexandria (c
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - Of the commentary upon the Gospels few traces remain, but Dionysius Barsalibi, bp. As copies of Dionysius's own commentary exist in the British Museum, the Bodleian Library, and elsewhere, some portions of Ephrem's work, as well as some idea of Tatian's arrangement, might be obtained from it
Peter, First Epistle of - Peter died in Rome is supported by a very strong chain of evidence, being deducible from Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Papias; and it is held by Dionysius of Corinth, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - In spite of the bold remonstrances of Eusebius of Vercelli, Lucifer, Dionysius of Milan, and others, the condemnation of Athanasius was decreed, and required to be signed by all under pain of banishment
Hebrews - Clement is followed by Origen, by Dionysius and Alexander, both bishops of Alexandria, by Ambrose, Athanasius, Hilary of Poitiers, Jerom, Chrysostom, and Cyril, all of whom consider this epistle as written by St
Josephus - The work was probably composed on the plan of the Roman Archaeology of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, published almost exactly a century before (8 b
John (the Apostle) - The only support we have for this last supposition is Dionysius of Alexandria, who in the interests of the authorship of the Apocalypse by some other John than the Apostle cites the tradition that ‘there are two monuments in Ephesus, each bearing the name of John
Jesus Christ - 23), the traditional date fixed by Dionysius Exiguus would be approximately correct
Christianity - Among the proselytes to Christianity we find Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathea, members of the senate of Israel; Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue; Zaccheus, the chief of the publicans at Jericho; Apollos, distinguished for eloquence; Paul, learned in the Jewish law; Sergius Paulus, governor of the island of Cyprus; Cornelius, a Roman captain; Dionysius, a judge and senator of the Athenian areopagus; Erastus, treasurer of Corinth; Tyrannus, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric at Corinth; Publius, governor of Malta; Philemon, a person of considerable rank at Colosse; Simon, a noted sophist in Samaria; Zenas, a lawyer; and even the domestics of the emperor himself
Montanus - Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus
Victorinus Afer - He preceded the Pseudo-Dionysius
Christ in the Early Church - 258?), and Dionysius, bishop of Rome (d
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - The few who stood firm were banished, bound with chains, to distant provinces: Dionysius, exarch of Milan, to Cappadocia, or Armenia; Lucifer to Syria; Eusebius of Vercelli into Palestine (cf
Clemens Romanus of Rome - 170 it is expressly mentioned by Dionysius, bp
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - Dionysius of Alexandria, and with him Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Maximus of Nola, Babylas of Antioch, Alexander of Jerusalem, Fabian of Rome, were all attacked, the last three martyred
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - is proved by its antagonists in numerous countries: Dionysius in Corinth writing to Nicomedia, Philip in Crete, Theophilus in Antioch, besides Modestus (Eus