Character Study on Clement

Character Study on Clement

Philippians 4: And I intreat thee also, true yokefellow, help those women which laboured with me in the gospel, with Clement also, and with other my fellowlabourers, whose names are in the book of life.

Chain Links

Topics

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Clement
(a.) Mild in temper and disposition; merciful; compassionate.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ireland, Clement of, Saint
(c.750-818) Confessor, born Ireland; died Auxerre, France. So great was his fame that Charlemagne invited him to his court and made him regent of the school of Paris from 775 until his death. After Alcuin's retirement (796), Clement was named master of the royal school at Aix-la-Chapelle. He is probably the author of a biography of Charlemagne. Buried in the church of Saint Amator. Feast, March 20,.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Jacques Clement
(Jacques Clement) (died 1558) Composer of the Netherland school, born Flanders. He is said to have been chapel-master to the court of Charles V. The pseudonym, non Papa, was used to distinguish him from his contemporary, Pope Clement VII. A forerunner of Palestrina and Lassus, his works are chiefly sacred, including masses, motets, and psalms.

Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Clement
Paul's fellow helper at Philippi, whom Origen (Commentary, John 1:29) identifies with the Clement, the apostolical father afterward bishop of Rome, whose epistle to the Corinthian church (part of the Alexandrius manuscript of Greek Old and New Testament) is extant. Philippi being closely connected with Rome, as a Roman colony, might easily have furnished a, bishop to the Roman church.

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Clement
CLEMENT . The name of a fellow-worker with St. Paul ( Philippians 4:3 ). There are no sufficient grounds for identifying him with Clement, bishop of Rome, the writer of the Epistle to the Church of Corinth .

J. G. Tasker.

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Clement
Mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul's "fellow-labourer," whose name he mentions as "in the book of life" (Philippians 4:3 ). It was an opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. It is of some historical interest, and has given rise to much discussion among critics. It makes distinct reference to Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians.

Morrish Bible Dictionary - Clement
Fellow labourer with Paul at Philippi. Philippians 4:3 . He is accounted to be one of the Apostolic Fathers, a name given to those who lived in the times of the apostles and who have left writings bearing their names.

CLEMENT, EPISTLES OF. There are two epistles ascribed to Clement, and which in the Codex Alexandrinus follow the Revelation. The first is considered genuine, but the second is very doubtful. Eusebius says of the first that it was read in the churches in early times and also in his own day.He calls it 'an Epistle in the name of the church of Rome (over which churchClement is recorded as bishop) to the church at Corinth.' Apparently there was dissension in the church at Corinth: he thus addresses them: "It is disgraceful, beloved, yea, highly disgraceful and unworthy of your Christian profession, that such a thing should be heard of as that the most steadfast and ancient church of the Corinthians should, on account of one or two persons, engage in sedition against its presbyters." A great deal is said about repentance, love, and good works; but sacrifices to be offered at Jerusalem are strangely interwoven with the exhortations, though he was writing to Gentiles.

His fanciful use of the O.T. scriptures is remarkable. Thus in speaking of the appointment of bishops and deacons he says, "Nor was this any new thing, since indeed many ages before it was written concerning bishops and deacons. For thus saith the scripture, in a certain place, 'I will appoint their bishops in righteousness, and their deacons in faith.'" Chap. xlii. This is doubtless intended as a quotation from Isaiah 60:17 in the LXX, but altered to suit his purpose; for the LXX reads "I will make thy princes peaceable, and thine overseers righteous." As an emblem of the resurrection Clement relates the heathen fable of the phoenix living five hundred years, and then rising again as a fresh bird from its own ashes. He then adds that God "even by a bird shows us the mightiness of His power to fulfil His promise." Chaps. xxv., xxvi. Though there are many pious remarks scattered through the epistle, there is on the whole a great difference between it and holy scripture; a deep dark line separates it widely from everything that bears the stamp of divine inspiration.

Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Clement of Rome, Epistle of
1. Occasion.-The Epistle of Clement itself supplies complete information as to the circumstances under which it was written. Dissension had arisen within the Christian community at Corinth, and the Church was torn asunder. The original ground of contention is not mentioned, but the course of the strife is clearly indicated. A small but powerful party of malcontents (i. 1, xlvii. 6) had used their influence to secure the deposition of certain presbyters, men duly appointed according to apostolic regulations, who were, moreover, of blameless reputation and unfailing zeal in the performance of their duties (xliv. 3). A fierce controversy was raging, and the Corinthian Church, hitherto renowned for its virtues, especially such as are the outcome of brotherly love (i. 2-ii.), had become a stumbling-block instead of an example to the world (xlvii. 7). Once before, the Church of Corinth had shown the same spirit of faction (1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Corinthians 1:12). History was now repeating itself, but the latter case was much worse than the former. Then, the contending parties had at least claimed to be following the lead of apostolic men, but now the main body of the Church was following ‘one or two’ contumacious persons in rebellion against their lawful rulers (xlvii.).

The news of this state of things was brought to Rome. How it came it is impossible to say. Ill news travels apace, and Rome is within easy reach of Corinth. It seems clear that no direct appeal was made to Rome by either contesting party. Yet in the ordinary course of things the Roman Church would soon hear of the Corinthian trouble, for communication seems to have been fairly frequent between the principal Christian communities in the early days (note the stress laid on the duty of hospitality, i, x, xi, xii, xxxv.). At any rate the Christians at Rome heard of the Corinthian dissension while it was still at its height (xlvi. 9). When the tidings first came, they themselves were suffering under the stress of external persecution (i. 1, vii. 1), but as soon as the storm had abated, a letter was written in the name of the Church at Rome to the Church at Corinth, expressing the sorrow which the Corinthian feud had caused to the Christians at Rome, and admonishing the Corinthians to remember the primary duty of φιλαδελφία and bring their strife to an end. That Epistle has survived to the present day. It is known as ‘the First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians.’

2. Date and authorship

(1) Date.-The terminus a quo for the dating of the Epistle is fixed by its reference to the martyrdom of St. Peter and St. Paul (v. 4, 6), and its use of the Epistle to the Hebrews (xxxvi, xliii.). Even if we accept the earliest possible dates for the death of the apostles and for the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of Clement cannot have been written before a.d. 70. The terminus ad quem is also fixed by the fact that Clement’s Epistle was indubitably used by Polycarp in his Epistle to the Philippians (Lightfoot, Clem. Rom. [Apostol. Fathers, pt. i., 1890] vol. i. p. 149ff.). If Lightfoot be correct-as seems most probable-in dating Polycarp’s letter c. [Note: . circa, about.] a.d. 110 (St. Ign. and St. Polyc. 2 [Apostol. Fathers, pt. ii., 1889], vol. i. p. 428ff.), the date of Clement’s Epistle must fall between the years a.d. 70 and a.d. 110.

Fortunately it is possible to reduce these limits very considerably. The Epistle contains distinct allusions to two serious persecutions already suffered by the Church at Rome. During the former of these, we are told, ‘women suffered cruel and unholy insults as Danaids and Dircae,’ and ‘a vast multitude of the elect’ endured ‘many indignities and tortures’ before ‘they reached the goal in the race of faith and received a noble reward’ (vi. 1, 2). When the Epistle was written this persecution was a matter of past history, but its victims are still spoken of as ‘those champions who lived very near to our own time’ and ‘the noble examples which belong to our generation’ (τοὺς ἔγγιστα γενομένους ἀθλητάς … τῆς γενεᾶς ἡμῶν τὰ γενναῖα ὑποδείγματα, v. 1). The second persecution was still in progress when the news of the Corinthian schism was brought to Rome. The Epistle opens with an apology for the delay in writing which has been caused by ‘the sudden and repeated calamities and reverses which have befallen us’ (τὰς αἰφνιδίους καὶ ἐπαλλήλους γενομένας ἡμῖν συμφορὰς καὶ περιπτώσεις, i. 1). The writer’s words suggest that the method of attack adopted in the later persecution was different from that of the earlier one. That the two are not to be identified is made plain in vii. 1, where a clear distinction is drawn between the martyrs of an earlier date and ‘us’ who ‘are in the same lists,’ whom ‘the same contest awaits.’

Now it is a well-established fact that during the 1st cent. a.d. the Roman Church suffered two, and only two, serious persecutions. The first was that of Nero (circa, about a.d. 64), in the course of which, according to an ancient tradition, St. Paul lost his life. The second was that of Domitian. Nero’s persecution was a savage onslaught on all Christians indiscriminately; that of Domitian took the form of sharp intermittent attacks aimed at individuals. In fact, the difference between the two was precisely the difference between the two persecutions mentioned in the Epistle of Clement. It seems, therefore, a safe conclusion that the references of the Epistle are to the persecutions of Nero and Domitian, and that the Epistle was written either just before or just after the termination of the latter of the two, i.e. c. [Note: . circa, about.] a.d. 95-96. This date suits admirably the other indications of time contained in the Epistle, all of which point towards the close of the 1st cent. a.d. An earlier date is precluded by the following facts: (a) the Church of Corinth is already called ἀρχαία (xlvii. 6); (b) presbyters are mentioned who have succeeded successors of the apostles (xliv. 3); (c) the language used of the Roman envoys ‘who have walked among us from youth unto old age unblameably’ (lxiii. 3) seems to imply that a generation has almost passed since the Church of Rome was founded. On the other hand, the Epistle cannot have been written later than the end of the century, because (a) St. Peter and St. Paul are included amongst the ‘examples of our own generation’ (v. 1); (b) ἐπίσκοπος and πρεσβύτερος are still regarded as interchangeable terms (xliv. 4, 5), whereas very early in the 2nd cent. they were used to denote distinct offices (Ign. Epp., passim). Finally, external evidence of an early and reliable kind (a) connects the Epistle with the episcopate of Clement, third bishop of Rome, and (b) places his episcopate in the last decade of the 1st cent. a.d. (Hegesippus, ap. Eus. HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.).] iv. 22; Dion. Cor. ap. Eus. HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.).] iv. 23; Iren. adv. Haer. III. iii. 3). In view of this accumulation of evidence, it is impossible to doubt that the Epistle of Clement was written about a.d. 95-96.

(2) Authorship.-The Epistle itself claims to be the letter not of an individual but of a community. The author’s name is nowhere mentioned. Nor indeed do we find in the statements of Hegesippus, Dionysius of Corinth, and Irenaeus, the three earliest writers who connect the Epistle with the name of Clement, any definite assertion that Clement was the author. Eusebius, to whom we owe our knowledge of Hegesippus, does indeed declare that that writer ‘makes some remarks concerning the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians’ (HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.).] iv. 22), but the title here given to the letter is due to the historian and not to Hegesippus, whose own words have unfortunately not been preserved. Dionysius of Corinth, c. [Note: . circa, about.] a.d. 170 (ap. Eus. HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.).] iv. 23), speaks of τὴν πρότεραν ἡμῖν διὰ Κλήμεντος γραφεῖσαν (sc. ἐπιστολήν), but his statement is ambiguous. διὰ Κλήμεντος might mean that Clement was the author, the amanuensis, or even the bearer of the Epistle. Similarly the language of Irenaeus (circa, about a.d. 180) is indefinite as to the actual authorship of the letter: ἐπὶ τούτου οὖν τοῦ Κλήμεντος … ἐπέστειλεν ἡ ἐν Ῥώμῃ ἐκκλησία ἱκανωτάτην γραφὴν τοῖς Κορινθίοιν (adv. Haer. III. iii. 3). Yet it must be admitted that there is nothing in the language of any of these three writers to exclude the possibility of believing that they regarded Clement as the author of the Epistle. The absence of more explicit statement on the subject is probably due to the fact that they looked upon the letter as the utterance of the whole Roman Church rather than of one man. The Epistle is first definitely ascribed to Clement of Rome in the writings of his namesake of Alexandria (circa, about a.d. 200), who, though his usage is not quite uniform, on at least four occasions speaks of Clement as the author (Strom. i. 7, iv. 17-19, v. 12, vi. 8). All later writers are unanimous in accepting this opinion (Lightfoot, Clem. Rom. vol. i. p. 160ff.).

It is unreasonable to doubt that they are justified in doing so. That Clement was head of the Roman community at the time of the Corinthian schism is as well attested as any fact of early Church history, and as such he would be the natural mouthpiece of the Church of Rome in its communications with a sister community. At any rate, this function is attributed to him by the writer of ‘Hermas’ (πέμψει οὖν Κλήμης εἰς τὰς ἔξω πόλεις, ἐκείνῳ γὰρ ἐπιτέτραπται, Vis. II. iv. 3), and ‘Hermas’ may have been written as early as a.d. 110-125 (V. H. Stanton, The Gospels as Historical Documents, pt. i. pp. 34-41). Again, however worthless as historical documents the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies may be, they at least bear witness to the fact that, by the middle of the 2nd cent. a.d., Clement was regarded as an author. It is difficult to understand what could have given rise to that opinion except the belief that he was the author of the Epistle to the Corinthians. Certainly at that date no other writings of importance were attributed to him. But the real value of the Epistle depends not so much on its authorship as on its date, which is sufficiently indicated by purely internal evidence.

3. Contents

Introductory.-(a) Opening salutation from ‘the Church of God which sojourneth in Rome to the Church of God which sojourneth in Corinth.’ (b) Apology for apparent lack of interest in the Corinthian trouble. The Romans’ previous silence due to the ‘sudden and repeated calamities’ which have befallen them.

(1) The Corinthian trouble-its cause and the remedy.-Now at last we have an opportunity of speaking our mind about ‘the detestable and unholy sedition which a few headstrong and self-willed persons have kindled’ till the once honoured name of the Church of Corinth is now greatly reviled (i. 1). For indeed the Church of Corinth has hitherto been a model of Christian virtues, especially of sobriety in all things, of self-sacrifice and moderation (i. 2-ii.). But, like Israel of old, you have been spoiled by your good progress. Excellence has given way to jealousy and envy (iii.). Envy and ill-will always result in suffering. So much we may learn from the stories of Cain, of Jacob, of Moses, Aaron and Miriam, of Dathan and Abiram, and of David (iv.). Or think of those who suffered martyrdom ‘nearest our own time’-of Peter and Paul and the multitude of others (v, vi.). These examples ought to warn us who have to face the same expression of the world’s envy to be free from envy ourselves. If we have not kept ourselves free from it, then let us use the ‘grace of repentance’ which Christ’s death won for man (vii.), even as the men of old repented at the preaching of Noah and of Jonah (vii. 5ff.).

The Holy Spirit Himself, through the prophets, calls men to repentance (viii.). Let us be obedient to His call, following the example of Enoch and Noah (ix.). Obedience to God brought blessings upon Abraham (x.); faith and care for others saved Lot from the fate of Sodom (xi.), and Rahab from the fate of Jericho (xii.). ‘Arrogance and conceit and folly and anger’ must be laid aside. The promises of the Scriptures and of the Lord Jesus are for the humble-minded (xiii, xiv.), who are genuinely so (xv.). What an example of humility was set by Christ Himself (xvi.) and by the saints of old-Elijah, Elisha, Ezekiel, Abraham, Job, Moses (xvii.), and David (xviii.)! Self-seeking and discord are contrary to the will of the Creator (xix.); the harmony of the natural world proves His own long-suffering and love of settled order (xx.). Let us therefore act as befits the servants of such a Master, for He reads the secrets of all hearts. Let us reverence rulers, honour elders, and train our families to do the same (xxi.); for Christ, through the Holy Spirit, and the Father both commend the single-hearted and condemn such as are double-minded (xxii, xxiii.). The Lord will come quickly (xxiii.).

(2) The resurrection of the body. Faith and works the means by which the elect obtain this and the other blessings of God.-Let us have no doubt about the resurrection of the dead. Life out of death is the very law of Nature. Day grows out of night, the plant from the death of the seed (xxiv.), the phœnix from its parent’s ashes (xxv.). In the Scriptures God has promised a resurrection. His promise and His power are alike sufficient, for He is almighty and cannot lie. Therefore let our souls be bound to Him with this hope (xxvi-xxviii.).

We must approach Him in holiness of soul, for we are His ‘elect,’ His ‘special portion’ (xxix.); as such we must put away all lust, strife, contention, and pride. ‘Boldness and arrogance and daring are for them that are accursed of God; but forbearance and humility and gentleness are with them that are blessed of God’ (xxx.). This, then, is how the blessing of God is obtained. We see it in the case of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (xxxi.). They were blessed ‘not through themselves, in their own works or righteous doing,’ but because they accepted the will of God, i.e. through faith. So we are justified by faith (xxxii.).

Yet we must never be slack in works. Does not the Creator rejoice to work unceasingly? We must follow His example, for we are made in His image (xxxiii.). We must imitate the diligence of the angels, if we would win the promises of God (xxxiv.). How blessed and marvellous are the gifts which God prepares for them that patiently await Him! If we would enjoy them, we must first have done with all bitterness and strife, vainglory and inhospitality, which are hateful to Him (xxxv.). Jesus Christ, ‘the Guardian and Helper of our weakness,’ will aid us in our efforts, and He is mightier than any angel (xxxvi.).

(3) Discipline is indispensable in a corporate society: provision made for this in the Mosaic Law and in the Divinely appointed ministry of the Church.-We are Christ’s soldiers (στρατευσώμεθα, xxxvii. 1): soldiers must be under discipline, each in his own rank. Look at the soldiers in the Roman army; think of the limbs in a human body; ‘all the members conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be saved’ (xxxvii.). So the members of the Christian body must perform each his own function for the common weal (xxxviii.). Only ‘senseless and stupid and foolish and ignorant men ‘seek power and exaltation, forgetting the utter nothingness of man, and the condemnation of the Scriptures for such as themselves (xxxix.).

Regard for order and decency is Divinely taught in the Mosaic Law, which expressly prescribes how, when, and by whom each of its rites shall be performed, every man having his own appointed place, whether high priest, priest, Levite, or layman (xl.). So we, who are under the Christian Law, must be content to perform the function which is appointed for us (xli.).

The Christian ministry is a Divinely appointed order. Jesus Christ was sent forth from God, and Himself sent forth the apostles. They, in turn, when they had preached in town and country, appointed such of their converts as were approved by the Spirit, to be ‘bishops and deacons unto them that should believe’ (xlii.). In this they followed the example of Moses, who appointed a succession of priests, and to prevent all future dispute, confirmed the appointment of Aaron’s line by the miracle of the budding rod (xliii.). The apostles, too, were Divinely warned that strife would arise over the bishop’s office. They therefore provided for a regular succession of the ministry from generation to generation (xliv. 1, 2).

(4) The Corinthians have disobeyed not only a specific ordinance of God, but also the fundamental Christian law of love. May they speedily repent.-You have sinned grievously in thrusting from their office men who were duly appointed according to the apostles’ directions, and have faithfully discharged the duties of a bishop (xliv. 3-6). It is monstrous that God’s officers should be persecuted by those who profess to be God’s servants. Read your Bible, and you will learn that when righteous men have suffered persecution-e.g. Daniel and the three Holy Children-they have suffered at the hands of the ungodly (xlv.). Surely you ought to be found on the side of the righteous rather than of the persecutors. We worship one God. We are one body in Christ, we have one spirit of grace. How can you bear such strife if you remember that we are members one of another? Remember what Jesus our Lord said concerning those who cause offence as you have done (xlvi.). St. Paul rebuked you for the same fault, but things are worse now. Then at least you professed to follow apostles or apostolic men, but now ‘the steadfast and ancient Church of the Corinthians, for the sake of one or two persons, maketh sedition against its presbyters’ (xlvii.). Let us have done with such feuds, and in penitence pray God to restore our former harmony (xlviii.).

Love is all-powerful: love, His own attribute, is acceptable to God: seek love, and you shall be saved (xlix. 1). Love is the only ground on which we can hope for God’s forgiveness. Let us therefore-and especially those who have caused strife-confess our offences and not harden our hearts as Pharaoh did, lest like Pharaoh we perish (li.).

God asks nothing of man but contrition, prayer, and praise (lii.). Remember how Moses fasted and prayed forty days on the mountain, offering his life for the life of his people (liii.). Let those of you who are the occasion of strife, copy his self-effacement (liv.), and follow the examples of those noble heathens-rulers and citizens, even women-who over and over again in the course of history have been willing to give up all for the good of their nation (lv.).

Let us intercede for one another. Let us be ready to give and to receive admonition. In God’s hands, chastisement is an instrument of mercy (lvi.). You especially, who first stirred up the strife, be first to repent-‘submit yourselves unto the presbyters, and receive chastisement unto repentance.’ The Scriptures contain many threats against the stubborn and impenitent (lvii.). Let us by obedience escape them, for they who obey God’s will shall be saved (lviii.). ‘But if certain persons should be disobedient unto the words spoken by Him through us … they will entangle themselves in no slight transgression and danger; but we shall be guiltless of this sin’ (lix.).

(5) Prayer for all mankind: final admonition and benediction.-We pray that God will keep His elect intact. We pray for inward light, for all who need, for the Gentiles’ conversion, for pardon and cleansing, for peace and concord, for deliverance from those who hate us wrongfully, for the grace of obedience to temporal authority, for earthly rulers, that they may govern in accordance with God’s will in peace and gentleness. We offer our praises to the Almighty Father ‘through the High Priest and Guardian of our souls, Jesus Christ’ (lix-lxi.).

We have said enough about the Christian life; about faith, repentance, love, temperance, sobriety, patience, righteousness, truth, longsuffering. We have spoken gladly, knowing that we spoke to men who have studied the oracles of God (lxii.). Follow the example of the Fathers; submit yourselves to authority. You will give us great joy if you cease from strife. With the letter we have sent faithful and prudent men who shall be witnesses between us (lxiii.).

May God endue with all virtues those who call on His name through Jesus Christ our High Priest and Guardian (lxiv.). We commend Claudius Ephebus, and Valerius Bito, who, with Fortunatus also, are the bearers of this letter. Send them back speedily with good news.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you and all men.

4. Teaching.-The object of the Epistle was strictly practical. It is therefore unreasonable to expect to find in it precise definitions of Christian doctrine. Yet, in enforcing his practical lesson, the writer alludes to the main articles of the faith as he had learned it, and these incidental allusions are historically the more valuable, because they represent not the belief of one man but the tradition of a community.

The tradition, which lies behind the Epistle, is above all things catholic, in its recognition of the many-sidedness of Christian truth. It embraces almost every type of apostolic teaching which is expressed in the Epistles of the NT-the type of St. James no less than of St. Paul, of St. Peter as well as of the Epistle to the Hebrews. The one element which is lacking is the mysticism of St. John, probably because the Johannine writings were not yet in existence (Lightfoot, Clem. Rom. vol. i. p. 95ff.).

At the same time it must be admitted that the Epistle betrays a certain failure to grasp the full meaning of the more profound doctrines of the NT. This is especially evident in its treatment of the Pauline idea of justification by faith. To St. Paul faith is the mainspring of the Christian life, the source of all Christian virtues. To the writer of the Epistle, faith is nothing more than one amongst many virtues. He is conscious of no incongruity in placing ‘faith’ and ‘hospitality’ side by side as equal conditions of salvation (xii. 1; cf. Lightfoot, Clem. Rom. vol. i. p. 397).

(1) Doctrine of God.-The terms in which the Epistle speaks of God are unmistakably borrowed from the language of the OT and the Jewish synagogue. God is ‘the Almighty,’ ‘the all-seeing Master’ (Leviticus 6), ‘the Creator and Master of the universe’ (xxxiii. 2), ‘the Father of the ages, the All-holy One’ (xxxv. 3); ‘the Father and Maker of the whole world’ (xix. 2; cf. Ix. and lxii.); ‘the King of the ages’ (lxi. 2); ‘He that embraceth the whole universe’ (xxviii. 4). His unceasing activity in the natural world displays both His beneficence and His love of harmony (xx, xxxii.). Amongst men He is made known as ‘the Creator and Overseer … the Benefactor of all spirits and the God of all flesh’ (lix. 3). To the elect He is revealed as a ‘gentle and compassionate Father’ (xxix. 1), ‘the champion and protector of them that in a pure conscience serve His excellent Name’ (xlv. 7).

So much might have been said by a conscientious Jew; but in two passages at least, the language of the Epistle passes beyond the mere monotheism of Judaism: ‘Have we not one God and one Christ and one Spirit of grace that was shed upon us?’ (xlvi. 6); ‘as God liveth and the Lord Jesus Christ liveth, and the Holy Spirit, who are the faith and the hope of the elect …’ (lviii. 2). The simple and natural way in which the Son and the Holy Spirit are here linked with the Father as equal objects of Christian faith and hope is quite inexplicable unless the writer was convinced of their essential Divinity and essential equality with the Father.

(2) Christology.-A clear allusion to the pre-existence of Christ is contained in the statement that He speaks through the Holy Spirit in the OT Scriptures (xxii. 1). A similar reference is probably to be found in the words ‘Jesus Christ was sent forth from God’ (xlii. 1). He is never actually called God,* [Note: The one possible exception is the passage ii. 1 which ends καὶ τὰ παθήματα αὐτοῦ ἦν πρὸ ὀφθαλμῶν ὑμῶν. The question turns on a doubtful reading. As the antecedent of αὐτοῦ Cod. A reads τοῦ θεοῦ. If this be correct, the statement made above is not quite true. But the weight of MS authority (C and all three versions) is in favour of the reading τοῦ Χριστοῦ.] but His Divinity is implied when He is described as ‘the sceptre of the majesty of God’ (xvi. 2), who showed us ‘as in a mirror’ the very ‘face’ of God (xxxvi. 2).

But most frequently the Epistle speaks of Christ in His relation to mankind. He came to earth ‘to instruct, to sanctify, to honour us’ (lix. 3), to be our pattern of lowliness (xvi.). Yet He was no mere example to men. He shed His blood for our salvation (vii. 4, xii. 7, xxi. 6), and ‘gave His flesh for our flesh and His life for our lives’ (xlix. 6). By His death He ‘won for the whole world the grace of repentance’ (vii. 3). God raised Him from the dead, and we shall one day share His resurrection (xxiv. 1). Meanwhile He is ‘the High Priest of our offerings, the Guardian and Helper of our weakness’ (xxxvi. 1; cf. lxi. 3, lxiv.). ‘Through Him we taste the immortal knowledge’ (xxxvi. 2), ‘the full knowledge of the glory of God’s Name’ (lix. 2). Through Him we have our access to the Father (xx. 11, lxi. 3, lxiv.).

(3) The Holy Spirit.-In times past the Holy Spirit inspired the message of the prophets (viii. 1, xlv. 1). In the present He is a living power poured out upon the Church (xlvi. 6). His indwelling was the source of the manifold virtues which had formerly distinguished the Church of Corinth (ii. 3). The writer of the Epistle claims that his own words were written ‘through the Holy Spirit’ (τοῖς ὑφʼ ἠμῶν γεγραμμένοις διὰ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, lxiii. 2).

(4) Justification by faith and works.-Salvation was won for man by the blood of Christ (vii. 4, xii. 7, etc.). On man’s part the necessary condition of salvation is ‘faith’ (xxxii. 4). Faith must find expression in good works (xxxiii.), for ‘we are justified by works and not by words’ (xxx. 3). By ‘faith and hospitality’ Rahab was saved (xii. 1). Abraham was blessed ‘because he wrought righteousness and truth through faith’ (xxxi. 2). ‘So we, having been called through His (sc. the Father’s) will in Christ Jesus, are not justified through ourselves or through our own wisdom or understanding or piety or works … but through faith, whereby the Almighty God justified all men that have been from the beginning’ (xxxii. 4). Yet we must ‘hasten with instancy and zeal to accomplish every good work’ (xxxiii. 1), even as the Creator maintains without ceasing His beneficent activity. In this way the writer of the Epistle co-ordinates the divergent language of St. Paul and St. James on the question of faith and works. Yet he certainly fails to rise to the full meaning of faith as it was understood by St. Paul.

(5) The resurrection of the dead.-The truth of the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead is dwelt upon at considerable length (xxiv-xxvi.). In proof of it, analogies are quoted from the natural world. The sequence of night and day, the growth of the plant from the death of the seed, and the story of the phœnix are all pressed into service. But the final argument is the promise of God in the Scripture, and the precedent of the Resurrection of Christ who is ‘the first-fruits’ of the harvest of the dead. The passage dealing with the Resurrection interrupts the argument of the Epistle, and it is not quite evident why the subject is introduced at all. It does not seem to have had any connexion with the Corinthian disagreement. Possibly it may have been suggested to the writer by a recent perusal of 1 Corinthians 15 (see xl
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Clement
Mention is made of Clement in Philippians 4:3 as one of St. Paul’s fellow-workers. If μετὰ καὶ Κλήμεντος is connected with συλλαμβάνου, Clement was urged to help in the work of reconciling Euodia and Syntyche. But it is better to connect the phrase with συνήθλησαν, so including Clement among those with whom these women and St. Paul ‘laboured in the gospel’; i.e. he had been conspicuous in Christian work in Philippi. But the reference does not suggest that he was in Philippi when St. Paul wrote; it is too oblique for that. Would he not have been asked to use his good offices to effect a reconciliation? Two things are possible: (a) he may be dead, though his memory is fragrant (the reference to other ‘fellow-workers whose names are in the book of life’ is not inconsistent with this suggestion); (b) he may be with St. Paul, one of the band who gathered about him in his imprisonment and through whom the Apostle carried on his work. In that case Clement was in Rome, and one of the arguments against identifying him with Clement, bishop of Rome, who wrote the Letter to the Church of Corinth, would disappear. The difficulty of date is, however, serious, though not insuperable. If Clement were a promising convert from Philippi, who after serving there with marked success became a pupil and companion of St. Paul, he could not very well have been less than 35 or 40 years of age when Phil was written from Rome about a.d. 60. If this Clement is to be identified with Clemens Romanus, he must have lived to extreme old age. The identification, first made by Origen, cannot be proved; it is even precarious; but Kennedy goes too far when he calls it ‘absurd’ (Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Philippians,’ ad loc.).

The name is a common one.

Literature.-J. B. Lightfoot, Philippians4, 1878 (esp. note on p. 168ff.); H. A. A. Kennedy, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Philippians,’ 1903; article on ‘Clement’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ; E. B. Redlich, St. Paul and his Companions, 1913, p. 223.

J. E. Roberts.

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint
(John Dvorák) (1751-1821) Confessor, apostle of Vienna, second founder of the Redemptorists, born Tasswitz, Moravia; died Vienna. He studied at Vienna, and visiting Rome as a pilgrim, he joined the Redemptorist Order and was ordained, 1785. With a companion, Thaddäus Hübl, he introduced the congregation into Warsaw, 1786, where it had phenomenal success until 1808, when its houses were suppressed and the fathers exiled from the grand-duchy. Clement then acted as chaplain to an Ursuline convent in Vienna. He was the chief supporter of religion in Austria, and contributed greatly to the extinction of Josephinism. Canonized, 1909. Feast, March 15,.

King James Dictionary - Clement
CLEMENT, a. Mild in temper and disposition gentle lenient merciful kind tender compassionate.

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Clement
Mild; good; merciful
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Clement of
Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. He was honored as a saint until the 17th century, when his name was dropped from the Clementine revision of the Martyrology, owing to the uncertainty surrounding his life, teaching, and cult. His writings, lacking technical precision and order, were easily misjudged, and he was censured by Pope Gelasius and Photius; however, his rule of faith was sound. In opposition to the rationalizing Gnostics, then a force in Alexandria, he made faith the basis of his speculations, but interpreted Scripture in too allegorical a manner.

A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria. i. Life. —His full name, Titus Flavius Clemens, is given by Eusebius (H. E. vi. 13) and Photius ( Cod. 111) in the title of the Stromateis ( Τίτου Φλανίου Κλήμεντος [Photius adds πρεσβυτέρου Ἀλεξανδρείας ] τῶν κατὰ τὴν ἀληθῆ φιλοσοφίαν γνωστικῶν ὑπομνημάτων στρωματεῖς ). The remarkable coincidence of the name with that of the nephew of Vespasian and consul in 95 cannot have been accidental, but we have no direct evidence of Clement's connexion with the imperial Flavian family. Perhaps he was descended from a freedman of the consul; his wide and varied learning indicates that he had received a liberal education, and so far suggests that his parents occupied a good social position. The place of his birth is not certainly known. Epiphanius, the earliest authority on the question, observes that two opinions were held in his time, "some saying that he was an Alexandrian, others that he was an Athenian" (ὅν φασί τινες Ἀλεξανδρέα ἕτεροι δὲ Ἀθηναῖον , Haer. xxxii. 6). Alexandria was the principal scene of his labours; but there was no apparent reason for connecting him with Athens by mere conjecture. The statement that he was an Athenian must therefore have rested upon some direct tradition. Moreover, in recounting his wanderings he makes Greece the starting-point and Alexandria the goal of his search ( Strom. 1, § 11, p. 322); and in the 2nd cent. Athens was still the centre of the literary and spiritual life of Greece. We may then with reasonable probability conclude that Clement was an Athenian by training if not by origin, and the fact that he was at the head of the catechetical school of Alexandria towards the close of the century fixes the date of his birth c. a.d. 150–160. Nothing is recorded of his parentage; but his own language seems to imply that he embraced Christianity by a personal act, as in some sense a convert ( Paed. i. § 1, p. 97, τὰς παλαιὰς ἀπομνύμενοι δόξας ; cf. Paed. ii. § 62, p. 206, δάκρυά ἐσμεν . . . οἱ εἰς αὐτὸν πεπιστευκότες ), and this is directly affirmed by Eusebius (Praep. Ev. ii. 2 f.), though perhaps simply by inference from Clement's words. Such a conversion would not be irreconcilable with the belief that Clement, like Augustine, was of Christian parentage at least on one side; but whether Clement's parents were Christians or heathens it is evident that heathenism attracted him for a time; and though he soon overcame its attractions, his inquisitive spirit did not at once find rest in Christianity. He enumerates six illustrious teachers under whom he studied the "true tradition of the blessed doctrine of the holy apostles." His first teacher in Greece was an Ionian (Athenagoras?); others he heard in Magna Graecia; others in the East; and at last he found in Egypt the true master for whom he had sought ( Strom. i, § 11, p. 322). There can be no doubt that this master was Pantaenus, to whom he is said to have expressed his obligations in his Hypotyposes (Eus. H. E. vi. 13, v. 11). Pantaenus was then chief of the catechetical school, and though the accounts of Eusebius and Jerome (Eus. H. E. v. 10; Hieron. de Vir. Ill. 36, 38) are irreconcilable in their details and chronology, it is certain that on the death or retirement of Pantaenus, Clement succeeded to his office, and it is not unlikely that he had acted as his colleague before. The period during which Clement presided over the catechetical school ( c. a.d. 190–203) seems to have been the season of his greatest literary activity. He was now a presbyter of the church ( Paed. i. § 37, p. 120) and had the glory of reckoning Origen among his scholars. On the outbreak of the persecution under Severus (a.d. 202, 203) in which Leonidas, the father of Origen, perished, Clement retired from Alexandria (Eus. H. E. vi. 3), never, as it seems, to return. Nothing is directly stated as to the place of his withdrawal. There are some indications of a visit to Syria (Eus. H. E. vi. 11, ὃν ἴστε ); and, later, we find him in the company of an old pupil, Alexander, afterwards bp. of Jerusalem, and at that time a bp. of Cappadocia, who was in prison for the faith. If therefore Clement had before withdrawn from danger, it was through wisdom and not through fear. Alexander regarded his presence as due to "a special providence" (cf. Eus. H. E. vi. 14), and charged him, in most honourable terms, with a letter of congratulation to the church of Antioch on the appointment of Asclepiades to the bishopric of that city, a.d. 311 (Eus. H. E. vi. 11). This is the last mention of Clement which has been preserved. The time and the place of his death are alike unknown. Popular opinion reckoned him among the saints of the church; and he was commemorated in the early Western martyrologies on Dec. 4. His name, however, was omitted in the martyrology issued by Clement VIII. after the corrections of Baronius; and Benedict XIV. elaborately defended the omission in a letter to John V. of Portugal, dated 1748. Benedict argued that the teaching of Clement was at least open to suspicion, and that private usage would not entitle him to a place in the calendar (Benedicti XIV. Opera , vi. pp. 119 ff. ed. 1842, where the evidence is given in detail; cf. Cognat, Clément d’Alexandrie , pp. 451 ff.).

ii. Works. —Eusebius, whom Jerome follows closely with some mistakes (de Vir. Ill. 38) has given a list of the works of Clement ( H. E. vi. 13): (1) Στρωματεῖς , libb. viii.; (2) Ὑποτυπώσεις , libb. viii.; (3) Πρὸς Ἕλληνας λόγος προτρεπτικός ( adversus Gentes , Jerome); (4) Παιδαγωγός , libb. iii.; (5) Τίς ὁ σωζόμενος πλούασιος ; (6) Περὶ τοῦ πάσχα ; (7) Διαλέξεις περὶ νηστείας ; (8) Περὶ καταλαλίας ; (9) Προτρεπτικὸς εἰς ὑπομονήν ἢ πρὸς τοὺς νεωστὶ βεβαπτισμένους (omitted by Jerome); (10) Κανὼν ἐκκλησιαστικὸς ἢ πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαΐ ζοντας ( de Canonibus Ecclesiasticis et adversum eos qui Judaeorum sequuntur errorem, Jerome). Photius ( Bibl. Codd. 109–111) mentions that he read the first five works on the list, and knew by report 6, 7, 8 ( περὶ κακολογίας ); 10 (περὶ κανόνων ἐκκλησιαστικῶν ); from the variations in the titles and the omission of 9, it is evident that he derived his knowledge of these simply from the secondary Greek version of Jerome's list. Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5 are still preserved almost entire. Of 2 considerable fragments remain; and of 6, 8, 10 a few fragments are preserved in express quotations.

Quotations are also found from a treatise περὶ προνοίας , and from another περὶ ψυχῆς , to which Clement himself refers (Strom. iii. 13, p. 516; v. 88, p. 699). Elsewhere Clement speaks of his intention to write On First Principles ( περὶ ἀρχῶν , Strom. iii. 13, p. 516 ; id. 21, p. 520; cf. iv. 2, p. 564); On Prophecy ( Strom. v. 88, p. 699; id. iv. 93, p. 605); Against Heresies ( Strom. iv. 92, p. 604); On the Resurrection ( Paed. i. 6, p. 125); On Marriage ( Paed. iii. 8, p. 278). But the references may be partly to sections of his greater works, and partly to designs never carried out (cf. Strom. iv. 1–3, pp. 563 f.). No doubt has been raised as to the genuineness of the Address, the Tutor, and the Miscellanies. Internal evidence shews them all the work of one writer (cf. Reinkens, de Clemente, cap. ii. § 4), and they have been quoted as Clement's by a continuous succession of Fathers even from the time of Origen ( Comm. in Joh. ii. 3, p. 52 B; Strom. ; anonymous). These three principal extant works form a connected series. The first is an exhortation to the heathen to embrace Christianity, based on an exposition of the comparative character of heathenism and Christianity; the second offers a system of training for the new convert, with a view to the regulation of his conduct as a Christian; the third is an introduction to Christian philosophy. The series was further continued in the lost Outlines ( ὑποτυπώσεις ), in which Clement laid the foundation of his philosophic structure in an investigation of the canonical writings. The mutual relations of these writings shew that Clement intended them as a complete system of Christian teaching, corresponding with the "whole economy of the gracious Word, Who first addresses, then trains, and then teaches" (Paed. i. 1), bringing to man in due succession conviction, discipline, wisdom. The first three books correspond in a remarkable degree, as has frequently been remarked (Potter, ad Protrept. i.), with the stages of the neo-Platonic course, the Purification ( ἀποκάθαρσις ), the Initiation ( μύησις ), and the Vision ( ἐποπτεία ). The fourth book was probably designed to give a solid basis to the truths which were fleeting and unreal in systems of philosophy. Though his style is generally deficient in terseness and elegance, his method desultory, his learning undigested; yet we can still thankfully admire his richness of information, his breadth of reading, his largeness of sympathy, his lofty aspirations, his noble conception of the office and capacities of the Faith.

I. The Address to the Greeks ( Λόγος προτρεπτικὸ;ς πρὸς Ἕλληνας : Cf. Strom. vii. § 22, p. 421, ἐν τῷ προτρεπτικῷ ἐπιγραφομένῳ ἡμῖν λόγῳ ).—The works of Clement were composed in the order in which they have been mentioned. The Tutor contains a reference to the Address in the first section ( ὁ λόγος ὁπηνίκα μὲν ἐπὶ σωτηρίαν παρεκάλει, προτρεπτικὸς ὄνομα οὐτῷ ἦν : cf. Strom. vii. § 22; Pott. p. 841); and, if we can trust the assertion of Eusebius ( H. E. v. 28), some of Clement's works were composed before the accession of Victor (a.d. 192). Putting these two facts together, we may reasonably suppose the Address written c . a.d. 190. It was addressed to Greeks and not to Gentiles generally, as Jerome understood the word ("adversus gentes," de Vir. Ill. 38). It deals almost exclusively with Greek mythology and Greek speculation.

Its general aim is to prove the superiority of Christianity to the religions and the philosophies of heathendom, while it satisfies the cravings of humanity to which they bore witness. The gospel is, as Clement shews with consummate eloquence, the New Song more powerful than that of Orpheus or Arion, new and yet older than the creation (c. 1), pure and spiritual as contrasted with the sensuality and idolatry of the pagan rites, clear and substantial as compared with the vague hopes of poets and philosophers (2–9). In such a case, he argues, custom cannot be pleaded against the duty of conversion. Man is born for God, and is bound to obey the call of God, Who through the Word is waiting to make him like unto Himself. The choice is between judgment and grace, between destruction and life: can the issue then be doubtful (10–12)?

It is not difficult to point out errors in taste, fact, and argument throughout Clement's appeal; but it would be perhaps impossible to shew in any earlier work passages equal to those in which he describes the mission of the Word, the Light of men (p. 88), and pictures the true destiny of man (pp. 92 ff.).

II. The Tutor (ὁ Παιδαγωγός; cf. Hos_5:2 quoted in Paed. i. 7 p. 129).—The Tutor was written before the Miscellanies in which the Tutor is described generally (Strom. vi. § 1 p. 736)—i.e. c. a.d. 190–195. The writer's design was "to prepare from early years that is from the beginning of elementary instruction (ἐκ κατηχήσεως) a rule of life growing with the increase of faith and fitting the souls of those just on the verge of manhood with virtue so as to enable them to receive the higher knowledge of philosophy" (εἰς ἐπιστήμης γνωστικῆς παραδοχήν Strom. l.c.).

The main scope of the Tutor is therefore practical: the aim is action and not knowledge; but still action as preparatory to knowledge, and resting upon conviction. It is divided into three books. The first gives a general description of the Tutor, Who is the Word Himself (1–3); of the "children" whom He trains, Christian men and women alike (4–6); and of His general method, using both chastisements and love (7–12). The second and third books deal with special precepts designed to meet the actual difficulties of contemporary life and not to offer a theory of morals. It would not be easy to find elsewhere, even in the Roman satirists, an equally vivid and detailed picture of heathen manners. The second book contains general directions as to eating and drinking (1 f.), furniture (3), entertainments (4–8), sleep (9), the relations of men and women (10), the use of jewellery (11 f.). The third book opens with an inquiry into the nature of true beauty (c. 1). This leads to a condemnation of extravagance in dress both in men and in women (2 ff.), of luxurious establishments (4 f.), of the misuse of wealth (6 f.). Frugality and exercise are recommended (8–10); and many minute directions are added—often curiously suggestive in the present times—as to dress and behaviour (11 f.). General instructions from Holy Scripture as to the various duties and offices of life lead up to the prayer to the Tutor—the Word—with which the work closes. Immediately after the Tutor are printed in the editions of Clement two short poems, which have been attributed to him. The first, written in an anapaestic measure, is A Hymn of the Saviour Christ ( ὕμνος τοῦ Σωτῆρος Χριστοῦ ), and the second, written in trimeter iambics, is addressed To the Tutor ( εἱς τὸν Παιδαγωγόν ). The first is said to be "Saint Clement's" (τοῦ ἁγίου Κλήμεντος ) in those MSS. which contain it; but it may be a work of primitive date, like the Morning Hymn which has been preserved in our Communion office as the Gloria in Excelsis. If it were Clement's, and designed to occupy its present place, it is scarcely possible that it would have been omitted in any MS.; while it makes an appropriate and natural addition if taken from some other source. There is no evidence to shew that the second is Clement's work; it is doubtless an effusion of some pious scholar of a later date.

III. The Miscellanies ( Στρωματεῖς ). —The title, patchwork (or rather bags for holding the bedclothes, like στρωματόδεσμοι ), suggests a true idea of the character of the work. It is designedly unmethodical, a kind of meadow, as Clement describes it, or rather a wooded mountain (vii. § 111), studded irregularly with various growths, and so fitted to exercise the ingenuity and labour of those likely to profit by it (vi. § 2, p. 736, Pott.). But yet the book is inspired by one thought. It is an endeavour to claim for the gospel the power of fulfilling all the desires of men and of raising to a supreme unity all the objects of knowledge, in the soul of the true gnostic—the perfect Christian philosopher. The first book, which is mutilated at the beginning, treats in the main of the office and the origin of Greek philosophy in relation to Christianity and Judaism. Clement shews that Greek philosophy was part of the Divine education of men, subordinate to the training of the law and the prophets, but yet really from God (§§ 1–58; 91–100). In his anxiety to establish this cardinal proposition he is not content with shewing that the books of O.T. are older than those of the philosophers (59–65; 101–164; 180–182); but endeavours to prove also that the philosophers borrowed from the Jews (66–90; 165 f.). After this he vindicates the character and explains the general scope of the law—"the philosophy of Moses" (167–179). The main object of the second book lies in the more detailed exposition of the originality and superiority of the moral teaching of revelation as compared with that of Greek philosophy which was in part derived from it (§§ 1 ff.; 20–24; 78–96). The argument includes an examination of the nature of faith (4–19; 25–31), resting on a godly fear and perfected by love (32–55); and of repentance (56–71). He discusses the sense in which human affections are ascribed to God (72–75); and shews that the conception of the ideal Christian is that of a man made like to God (97–126), in accordance with the noblest aspirations of philosophy (127–136). The book closes with a preliminary discussion of marriage. The third book investigates the true doctrine of marriage (§§ 57–60) as against those who indulged in every license on the ground that bodily actions are indifferent (1–11; 25–44); and, on the other hand, those who abstained from marriage from hatred of the Creator (12–24; 45–46). Various passages of Scripture wrongly interpreted by heretics are examined (61–101); and the two main errors are shewn to be inconsistent with Christianity (102–110). The fourth book opens with a very interesting outline of the whole plan of the comprehensive apology for Christianity on which he had entered (§§ 1–3). The work evidently grew under his hands, and he implies that he could hardly expect to accomplish the complete design. He then adds fresh traits to his portrait of the true "gnostic." Self-sacrifice, martyrdom, lie at the root of his nature (8–56; 72–77), virtues within the reach of all states and of both sexes (57–71), though even this required to be guarded against fanaticism and misunderstanding (78–96). Other virtues, as love and endurance, are touched upon (97–119); and then Clement gives a picture of a godly woman (120–131), and of the gnostic, who rises above fear and hope to that perfection which rests in the knowledge and love of God (132–174). In the fifth book Clement, following the outline laid down (iv. 1), discusses faith and hope (§§ 1–18), and then passes to the principle of enigmatic teaching. This, he argues, was followed by heathen and Jewish masters alike (19–26); by Pythagoras (27–31); by Moses, in the ordinances of the tabernacle (32–41); by the Aegyptians (42–44); and by many others (45–56). The principle itself is, he maintains, defensible on intelligible grounds (57–60), and supported by the authority of the apostles (61–67). For in fact the knowledge of God can be gained only through serious effort and by divine help (68–89). This review of the character and sources of the highest knowledge leads Clement back to his characteristic proposition that the Greeks borrowed from the Jews the noblest truths of their own philosophy. The sixth and seventh books are designed, as Clement states (vi. § 1) to shew the character of the Christian philosopher (the gnostic), and so to make it clear that he alone is the true worshipper of God. By way of prelude Clement repeats and enforces (§§ 4–38) what he had said on Greek plagiarisms, yet admitting that the Greeks had some true knowledge of God (39–43), and affirming that the gospel was preached in Hades to those of them who had lived according to their light (44–53), though that was feeble compared with the glory of the gospel (54–70). He then sketches the lineaments of the Christian philosopher, who attains to a perfectly passionless state (71–79) and masters for the service of the faith all forms of knowledge, including various mysteries open to him only (80–114). The reward of this true philosopher is proportioned to his attainments (115–148). These are practically unlimited in range, for Greek philosophy, though a gift of God for the training of the nations, is only a recreation for the Christian philosopher in comparison with the serious objects of his study (149–168). In the seventh book Clement regards the Christian philosopher as the one true worshipper of God (§§ 1–5), striving to become like the Son of God (5–21), even as the heathen conversely made their gods like themselves (22–27). The soul is his temple; prayers and thanksgivings, his sacrifice; truth, the law of his life (28–54). Other traits are added to the portraiture of "the gnostic" (55–88); and Clement then meets the general objection urged against Christianity from the conflict of rival sects (89–92). Heresy, he replies, can be detected by two tests. It is opposed to the testimony of Scripture (93–105); and it is of recent origin (106–108). At the close of the seventh book Clement remarks that he "shall proceed with his argument from a fresh beginning" (τῶν ἑξῆς ἀπ ἄλλης ἀρχῆς ποιησόμεθα τὸν λόγον ). The phrase may mean that he proposes to enter upon a new division of the Miscellanies , or that he will now pass to another portion of the great system of writings sketched out in Strom. iv. 1–3. In favour of the first opinion it may be urged that Eusebius ( H. E. vi. 13) and Photius ( Cod. 109) expressly mention eight books of the Miscellanies ; while on the other hand the words themselves, taken in connexion with vii. 1, point rather to the commencement of a new book. The fragment which bears the title of the eighth book in the one remaining MS. is in fact a piece of a treatise on logic. It may naturally have served as an introduction to the examination of the opinions of Greek philosophers, the interpretation of Scripture, and the refutation of heresies which were the general topics of the second principal member of Clement's plan (iv. 2); but it is not easy to see how it could have formed the close of the Miscellanies . It is "a fresh beginning" and nothing more. In the time of Photius (c. a.d. 850) the present fragment was reckoned as the eighth book in some copies, and in others the tract, On the Rich Man that is Saved ( Bibl. 111). Still further confusion is indicated by the fact that passages from the Extracts from the Prophetical Writings are quoted from "the eighth book of the Miscellanies " (Bunsen, Anal. Ante-Nic. i. 288 f.), and also from "the eighth book of the Outlines " (id. 285); while the discussion of prophecy was postponed from the Miscellanies to some later opportunity ( Strom. vii. 1, cf. iv. 2). Perhaps the simplest solution is to suppose that at a very early date the logical introduction to the Outlines was separated from the remainder of the work, and added to MSS. of the Miscellanies . In this way the opinion would arise that there were 8 books of the Miscellanies , and scribes supplied the place of bk. viii. according to their pleasure.

IV. The Outlines ( Ὑποτυπώσεις ) probably grew out of the Miscellanies . Several express quotations from the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th books of the Outlines have been preserved; but the fragments are too few and Clement's method too desultory to allow these to furnish a certain plan of the arrangement of the work. They agree, however, fairly with the summary description of Photius, and probably books i.–iii. contained the general introduction, with notes on the O.T. ("Genesis, Exodus, and the Psalms"); books iv.-vi., notes on the Epp. of St. Paul; books vii. vii i., on the Catholic Epp.

In addition to the detached quotations, there can be no reasonable doubt that the three series of extracts, (a) The summaries from the expositions of Theodotus and the so-called Western school , (b) The selections from the comments on the prophets , and (c) The outlines on the Catholic Epistles , were taken from the Outlines . But partly from the method of compilation, partly from the manner in which they have been preserved in a single MS., these fragments, though of the deepest interest, are at present only imperfectly intelligible.

(a ) The summaries from Theodotus ( ἐκ τῶν Θεοδότου καὶ τῆς ἀνατολικῆς καλουμένης διδασκαλίας κατὰ τοὺς Οὐαλεντίνου χρόνους ἐπιτομαί ) are at once the most corrupt and the most intrinsically difficult of the extracts. It appears as if the compiler set down hastily the passages which contained the interpretations of the school which he wished to collect, without regard to the context, and often in an imperfect form. Sometimes he adds the criticism of Clement (ἡμεῖς δέ , § 8; Ἐμοὶ δέ , § 17; ὁ ἡμέτερος [ λόγος ], § 33); but generally the Valentinian comment is given without remark (οἱ ἀπὸ Οὐαλεντίνου , §§ 2, 6, 16, 23, 25; οἱ Ουαλεντινιανοί , §§ 21, 24, 37; ὥς φησιν ὁ Θεόδοτος , §§ 22, 26, 30; φησί , §§ 41, 67; φασί , §§ 33, 35; λέγουσιν , § 43). It follows that in some cases it is uncertain whether Clement quotes a Valentinian author by way of exposition, or adopts the opinion which he quotes. The same ambiguity appears to have existed in the original work; and it is easy to see how Photius, rapidly perusing the treatise, may have attributed to Clement doctrines which he simply recited without approval and without examination. Thus, in the fragments which remain, occasion might be given to charge Clement with false opinions on the nature of the Son (§ 19), on the creation of Eve (§ 21), on the two Words (§§ 6, 7, 19), on Fate (§§ 75 ff.), on the Incarnation (§ 1). There is no perceptible order or connexion in the series of extracts. The beginning and end are equally corrupt. Some sections are quite detached (e.g. §§ 9, 18, 21, 28, 66, etc.); others give a more or less continuous exposition of some mystery: e.g. §§ 10–16 (the nature of spiritual existences); 39–65 (the relations of wisdom, Jesus, the Christ, the demiurge; the material, the animal, the spiritual); 67–86 (birth, fate, baptism).

(b ) The prophetic selections ( ἐκ τῶν προφητικῶν ἐκλογαί ) are for the most part scarcely less desultory and disconnected than the Summaries , but far simpler in style and substance. They commence with remarks on the symbolism of the elements, and mainly of water (§§ 1–8). Then follow fragmentary reflections on discipline (9–11), on knowledge, faith, creation, the new creation (12–24), fire (25 f.), on writing and preaching (27), on traits of the true gnostic (28–37). A long and miscellaneous series of observations, some of them physiological, succeeds (38–50), and the collection closes with a fairly continuous exposition of Psalms 18 (19 ).

Manuscript. —The summaries from Theodotus and the prophetic selections are at present found only in Cod. Flor. (L.). The text given in the edd. of Clement is most corrupt. The conjectural emendations and Latin trans. of J. Bernays, given by Bunsen in his ed. of the fragments of The Outlines ( Anal. Ante-Nic. i.), are by far our most valuable help for the understanding of the text. Dindorf, in his ed., has overlooked these.

(c) The third important fragment of the Outlines consists of a Latin version of notes on detached verses of I. Peter Jude and I. II. John with several insertions probably due in some cases to transpositions in the MS. (e.g. 1 hae namque primitivae virtutes—audita est Pott. p. 1009 stands properly in connexion with the line of speculation on Jud_1:9; and in others to a marginal illustration drawn from some other part of the work (e.g. Jud_1:24 cum dicit Daniel—confusus est). Cassiodorus says (Inst. Div. Litt. 8) that Clement wrote some remarks on I. Peter i. II. John and James which were generally subtle but at times rash; and that he himself translated them into Latin with such revision as rendered their teaching more safe. It has generally been supposed in spite of the difference of range (James for Jude) that these Latin notes are the version of Cassiodorus. It seems however more probable that the printed notes are mere glosses taken from a Catena and not a substantial work. The Adumbrationes were published by de la Bigne in his Bibliotheca Patrum Par. 1575 (and in later editions); but he gives no account of the MS. or MSS. from which the text was taken. Ph. Labbe however states (de Scriptt. Eccles. 1660 i. p. 230) that he saw an ancient parchment MS. "qui fuit olim Coenobii S. Mariae Montis Dei," which contained these Adumbrationes under that title together with Didymus's commentary on the Catholic Epistles. De la Bigne then probably found the notes of Clement in the "very ancient but somewhat illegible MS." from which he took his text of Didymus which follows the Adumbrationes (Bibl. vi. p. 676 n.).

V. The remaining extant work of Clement Who is the Rich Man that is Saved? (τίς ὁ σωζόμενος πλούσιος;) is apparently a popular address based upon Mar_10:17-31. The teaching is simple eloquent and just; and the tract closes with the exquisite "story which is no story" of St. John and the young robber which Eusebius relates in his History (iii. 23).

iii. Clements' Position and Influence as a Christian Teacher.—In order to understand Clement rightly it is necessary to bear in mind that he laboured in a crisis of transition. This gives his writings their peculiar interest in all times of change. The transition was threefold affecting doctrine thought and life. Doctrine was passing from the stage of oral tradition to written definition (1). Thought was passing from the immediate circle of the Christian revelation to the whole domain of human experience (2). Life in its fulness was coming to be apprehended as the object of Christian discipline (3). A few suggestions will be offered upon the first two of these heads. (1) Clement repeatedly affirms that even when he sets forth the deepest mysteries he is simply reproducing an original unwritten tradition. This had been committed by the Lord to the apostles Peter James John and Paul and handed down from father to son till at length he set forth accurately in writing what had been delivered in word (Strom. i. § 11 p. 322; cf. vi. 68 p. 774; and fragm. ap. Eus. H. E. ii. 1). But this tradition was as he held it not an independent source of doctrine but a guide to the apprehension of doctrine. It was not co-ordinate with Scripture but interpretative of Scripture (Strom. vi. 124 f. pp 802 f.; de Div. Sal. § 5 p. 938). It was the help to the training of the Christian philosopher (ὁ γνωστικός) and not part of the heritage of the simple believer. Tradition in this aspect preserved the clue to the right understanding of the hidden sense the underlying harmonies the manifold unity of revelation. More particularly the philosopher was able to obtain through tradition the general principles of interpreting the records of revelation and significant illustrations of their application. In this way the true "gnostic" was saved from the errors of the false "gnostic" or heretic who interpreted Scripture without regard to "the ecclesiastical rule" (Strom. vi. 125 p. 803 κανὼν ἐκκλησιαστικός: ὁ ἐκκλ. κ. ib. vi. 165 p. 826; vii. 41 p. 855; cf. ὁ κανὼν τῆς ἀληθείας ib. vi. 124 p. 802; 131 p. 806; vii. 94 p. 890; ὁ κανὼν τῆς ἐκκλησίας ib. i. 96 p. 375; vii. 105 p. 897). The examples of spiritual interpretation which Clement gives in accordance with this traditional "rule" are frequently visionary and puerile (e.g. Strom. vi. 13
Holman Bible Dictionary - Clement
(clehm' uhnt) A fellow worker in the gospel with Paul (Philippians 4:3 ). He was apparently a member of the church at Philippi. Otherwise, no more information about him is available.



American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Clement
Mentioned in Philippians 4:3 . It is conjectured, though without evidence, that this is the same Clement who was afterwards a bishop at Rome, commonly called Clemens Romanus. The church at Corinth having been disturbed by divisions, Clement wrote a letter to the Corinthians, which was so much esteemed by the ancients, that they read it publicly in many churches.

Sentence search

Clementine - ) Of or pertaining to Clement, esp. Clement of Rome and the spurious homilies attributed to him, or to Pope Clement V
Clement - Clement . There are no sufficient grounds for identifying him with Clement, bishop of Rome, the writer of the Epistle to the Church of Corinth
Remissful - ) Inclined to remit punishment; lenient; Clement
Cletus or Anacletus, Bishop of Rome - Eusebius calls him Anencletus, and says that he was succeeded in the see of Rome by Clement in the twelfth year of Domitian, having himself sat there twelve years. of Rome: yet he places him between Linus, whom he calls the first bishop, and Clement, whom he calls third. Other ancient authorities make Clement the first bishop (see Clinton, F. Rohrbacher, on the strength of a list attributed to pope Liberius, places Clement after Linus, Cletus after Clement, and another pope named Anencletus after Cletus ( E. " [But for this question of the succession of the Roman bishops, see Lightfoot, Clement of Rome, part i
Jacques Clement - (Jacques Clement) (died 1558) Composer of the Netherland school, born Flanders. The pseudonym, non Papa, was used to distinguish him from his contemporary, Pope Clement VII
Clement - Mention is made of Clement in Philippians 4:3 as one of St. If μετὰ καὶ Κλήμεντος is connected with συλλαμβάνου, Clement was urged to help in the work of reconciling Euodia and Syntyche. But it is better to connect the phrase with συνήθλησαν, so including Clement among those with whom these women and St. In that case Clement was in Rome, and one of the arguments against identifying him with Clement, bishop of Rome, who wrote the Letter to the Church of Corinth, would disappear. If Clement were a promising convert from Philippi, who after serving there with marked success became a pupil and companion of St. If this Clement is to be identified with Clemens Romanus, he must have lived to extreme old age. Kennedy, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Philippians,’ 1903; article on ‘Clement’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ; E
Clement - It is conjectured, though without evidence, that this is the same Clement who was afterwards a bishop at Rome, commonly called Clemens Romanus. The church at Corinth having been disturbed by divisions, Clement wrote a letter to the Corinthians, which was so much esteemed by the ancients, that they read it publicly in many churches
Clement - Clement, a
Fortunatus - Apparently the same that is alluded to by Clement the apostolic father in his first Epistle
Fortunatus - Lightfoot ( Clement , i. 187) thinks that he may well have been alive forty years later, and that he may be the Fortunatus mentioned in Clement of Rome’s Epistle to the Corinthians (§ 65 )
Lenient - ) Mild; Clement; merciful; not rigorous or severe; as, a lenient disposition; a lenient judge or sentence
Canova, Antonio - He designed the colossal tomb of Clement XIII in Saint Peter's, and that of Clement XIV in the church of the Santi Apostoli
Antonio Canova - He designed the colossal tomb of Clement XIII in Saint Peter's, and that of Clement XIV in the church of the Santi Apostoli
Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus - It was established by Pope Clement XIII in 1765, and extended to the universal Church by Pope Pius I in 1856
Sacramento, California, Diocese of - It was established by Pope Clement XIII in 1765, and extended to the universal Church by Pope Pius I in 1856
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Feast of the - It was established by Pope Clement XIII in 1765, and extended to the universal Church by Pope Pius I in 1856
Clem'Ent - ) It was generally believed in the ancient Church that this Clement was identical with the bishop of Rome who afterwards became so celebrated
Mild - ) Gentle; pleasant; kind; soft; bland; Clement; hence, moderate in degree or quality; - the opposite of harsh, severe, irritating, violent, disagreeable, etc
Clemens Romanus of Rome - ... (1) Among the most authentic proofs of the connexion of Clement with the Roman church is the mention of his name in its liturgy. Now the Roman Canon of the Mass to this day, next after the names of the apostles, recites the names of Linus, Cletus, Clemens; and there is some evidence that the liturgy contained the same names in the same order as early as the 2nd cent; Probably, then, this commemoration dates from Clement's own time. ... (2) An independent proof that Clement held high position in the church of Rome is afforded by the Shepherd of Hermas, a work not later than the episcopate of Pius (a. 141–156), the writer of which claims to have been contemporary with Clement. He represents himself as commissioned to write for Clement the book of his Visions in order that Clement might send it to foreign cities, that being his function; while Hermas himself was to read the Vision at Rome with the elders who presided over the church. Thus Clement is recognized as the organ by which the church of Rome communicated with foreign churches; but the passage does not decide whether or not Clement was superior to other presbyters in the domestic government of the church. ... (3) Next in antiquity among the notices of Clement is the general ascription to him of the Epistle to the Church of Corinth, commonly known as Clement's first epistle. This is written in the name of the church of Rome, and neither in the address nor in the body of the letter contains Clement's name, yet he seems to have been from the first everywhere recognized as its author. Soter, states that their former letter written by Clement was still read from time to time in their Sunday assemblies. 16) speaks of this public reading of Clement's epistle as the ancient custom of very many churches down to his own time. 22) he reports that Hegesippus, whose historical work was written in the episcopate next after Soter's, and who had previously visited both Rome and Corinth, gives particulars concerning the epistle of Clement, and concerning the dissensions in the Corinthian church which had given rise to it. The epistle is cited as Clement's by Irenaeus ( adv. 3), several times by Clement of Alex. A letter which did not bear Clement's name, and which merely purported to come from the church of Rome, could scarcely have been generally known as Clement's, if Clement had not been known at the time as holding the chief position in the church of Rome. ... (4) Last among those notices of Clement which may be relied on as historical, we place the statement of Irenaeus (l. ) that Clement was third bp. of Rome after the apostles, his account being that the apostles Peter and Paul, having founded and built up that church, committed the charge of it to Linus; that Linus was succeeded by Anencletus, and he by Clement. The ancient catalogue known as the Liberian, because ending with the episcopate of Liberius, gives the order, and duration of the first Roman episcopates: Peter 25 years, 1 month, 9 days; Linus 12 years, 4 months, 12 days; Clemens 9 years, 11 months, 12 days; Cletus 6 years, 2 months, 10 days; Anacletus 12 years, 10 months, 3 days: thus Anacletus, who in the earlier list comes before Clement, is replaced by two bishops, Cletus and Anacletus, who come after him; and this account is repeated in other derived catalogues. 32) states that the church of Rome held Clement to have been ordained by Peter; and Jerome ( Cat. 15), while adopting the order of Irenaeus, mentions that most Latins then counted Clement to have been second after Peter, and himself seems to adopt this reckoning in his commentary on Isaiah (c. 46) represent Linus to have been first ordained by Paul, and afterwards, on the death of Linus, Clement by Peter. Epiphanius has an alternative solution, founded on a conjecture which he tries to support by a reference to a passage in Clement's epistle, viz. that Clement, after having been ordained by Peter, withdrew from his office and did not resume it until after the death of Linus and Cletus. A more modern attempt to reconcile these accounts is Cave's hypothesis that Linus and after him Cletus had been appointed by Paul to preside over a Roman church of Gentile Christians; Clement by Peter over a church of Jewish believers, and that ultimately Clement was bishop over the whole Roman church. Perhaps the parent of the rest is the letter of Clement to James [See Clementine Literature] giving an account of Clement's ordination by Peter; for it seems to have been plainly the acceptance of this ordination as historical which inspired the desire to correct a list of bishops which placed Clement at a distance of three from Peter. (1) the list of Irenaeus, and probably of Hegesippus, giving merely a succession of Roman bishops; (2) the list of Hippolytus giving a succession in somewhat different order and also the years of the duration of the episcopates; and (3) the letter to James relating the ordination of Clement by Peter. First, because it is distinctly the more ancient; secondly, because if the earlier tradition had not placed the undistinguished name Cletus before the well-known Clement, no later writer would have reversed its order; thirdly, because of the testimony of the liturgy. We conclude, then, that the commemoration in the order, Linus, Cletus, Clemens, had been introduced before the time of Hippolytus, and was by then so firmly established that even the contradictory result arrived at by Hippolytus (because he accepted as historically true the ordination of Clement by Peter as related in the Ep. The Recognitions are cited by Origen, the contemporary of Hippolytus; and the account which their preface gives of Clement's ordination seems to have been fully believed by the Roman church. The death of Clement and the consequent accession of Evaristus is dated by Eusebius in his Chronicle a. If, therefore, Clement was ordained by Peter, and if we retain the order of Irenaeus, Clement had an episcopate of about 30 years, a length far greater than any tradition suggests. Hippolytus, probably following the then received account of the length of Clement's episcopate, has placed it a. 67–76; and, seeing the above difficulty, has filled the space between Clement and Evaristus by transposing Cletus and, as the gap seemed too large to be filled by one episcopate, by counting as distinct the Cletus of the liturgy and the Anacletus of the earlier catalogue. But the whole ground of these speculations is removed if we reject the tale of Clement's ordination by Peter; if for no other reason, on account of the chronological confusion which it causes. The time that we are thus led to assign to the activity of Clement, viz. the end of Domitian's reign, coincides with that which Eusebius, apparently on the authority of Hegesippus, assigns to Clement's epistle, and with that which an examination of the letter itself suggests (see below). ... The result thus arrived at casts great doubt on the identification of the Roman Clement with the Clement named Php_4:3. Irenaeus also may have had this passage in mind when he speaks of Clement as a hearer of the apostles though probably he was principally influenced by the work which afterwards grew into the Recognitions. But though it is not actually impossible that the Clement who held a leading position in the church of Philippi during Paul's imprisonment might thirty years afterwards have presided over the church of Rome yet the difference of time and place deprives of all likelihood an identification merely based upon a very common name. Lightfoot has remarked that Tacitus for instance mentions five Clements (Ann. Far more plausibly it has been proposed to identify the author of the epistle with another Clement who was almost certainly at the time a distinguished member of the Roman church. Clement death or banishment was inflicted by Domitian on several persons addicted to Jewish customs and amongst them Flavius Clemens a relation of his own whose consulship had but just expired was put to death on a charge of atheism while his wife Domitilla also a member of the emperor's family was banished. If then the consul Clement was a Christian martyr his rank would give him during his life a foremost position in the Roman church. Clement as a martyr; nor does any ancient writer in any way connect him with the consul. In the Recognitions Clement is represented as a relation of the emperor; not however of Domitian but of Tiberius. A fabulous account of Clement's martyrdom probably of no earlier origin than the 9th cent. tells how Clement was first banished to the Crimea worked there such miracles as converted the whole district and was thereupon by Trajan's order cast into the sea with an anchor round his neck an event followed by new prodigies. ... The only genuine work of Clement is the Ep. But this unauthorized deposition naturally led to a schism, and representations made at Rome by some of the persons ill-treated may have led to the letter of Clement. The form of expression distinguishing Fortunatus from the Roman delegates favours the supposition that he was a Corinthian, and as Clement urges on those who had been the cause of dissension to withdraw for peace' sake, it is possible that Fortunatus might have so withdrawn and found a welcome at Rome. It may be mentioned here that Clement's epistle contains the earliest recognition of the Book of Judith. Indeed the passage, carefully considered, suggests the opposite inference; for Clement would Judaize to an extent of which there is no sign elsewhere in the epistle, if, in case the temple rites were being still celebrated, he were to speak of them as the appointed and acceptable way of serving God. No such disputes appear in the dissensions at Corinth; and at Rome the Gentile and Jewish sections of the church seem in Clement's time to be completely fused. Clement holds both SS. the two letters of Clement to the Corinthians are books enumerated among N. Hence the ecclesiastical use of Clement's letter had probably not ceased when this MS. containing an unmutilated text of the two epistles ascribed to Clement. of Clement, Chrysostom's synopsis of the O. It gives a very good text of the Clementine letters, independent of the Alexandrian MS. Polycarp, though not formally quoting Clement's epistle, gives in several passages clear proof of acquaintance with it. 5, may also be set down as derived from Clement, but other parallels collected by Hilgenfeld are extremely doubtful. ... For some of the spurious works ascribed to Clement see Clementine Literature. it is marked as Clement's second epistle, but not expressly described as to the Corinthians. Eusebius mentions it as a second letter ascribed to Clement, but not, like the former, used by the older writers, and he only speaks of one as the acknowledged epistle of Clement. Internal evidence, though adverse to Clementine authorship, assigns to the work a date not later than the 2nd cent. The writer is distinctly a Gentile, and contrasts himself and his readers with the Jewish nation in a manner quite unlike the genuine Clement; and his quotations are not, like Clement's, almost exclusively from O. Many of the quotations, however, differ from our canonical gospels, and since one of them agrees with a passage referred by Clement of Alexandria to the gospel of the Egyptians, this was probably the source of other quotations also. He nowhere claims to be Clement. But it is not strange that an anonymous, but undoubtedly early document of the Roman church should come to be ascribed to the universally acknowledged author of the earliest document of that church; nor that when both had come to be received as Clement's, the second should come to be regarded as, like the first, an epistle to the Corinthians. John, and Jude, from the Philoxenian version, and then, without any break, these letters, with the titles: "The first epistle of the blessed Clement, the disciple of Peter the apostle," and "The second epistle of the same Clement. In a passage, which until the discovery of the Syriac letters had been felt as perplexing, he describes Clement as "in the encyclical letters which he wrote, and which are read in the holy churches," having taught virginity, and praised Elias and David and Samson, and all the prophets. Jerome, though in his catalogue of ecclesiastical writers he follows Eusebius in mentioning only the two letters to the Corinthians as ascribed to Clement, yet must be understood as referring to the letters on virginity in his treatise against Jovinian where he speaks of Clement as composing almost his entire discourse concerning the purity of virginity. , in the same manner as those of the real Clement are by his acquaintance with the Old. —In the article Clementine Literature is given an account of the letter to James by Clement, which relates how Peter, in immediate anticipation of death, ordained Clement as his successor, and gave him charge concerning his ministry. In the forged decretals both were much enlarged, and 3 new letters purporting to be Clement's added. James is in the original Clementines the head of the church, but in the later epistle receives instruction and commands from Peter's successor Clement. There must have been yet other letters ascribed to Clement in the East if there be no error in the MS
Apostolical Constitutions - Clement, whose name they likewise bear. Clement had no hand in them
Majesty - Clement, Ep. 16), of the NT, and the Apostolic Fathers (Clement, Ep. 4, ‘ye spake hard words … against His Majesty’; Clement, Ep. Most frequently it is used in doxology (Judges 1:25, 1 Chronicles 29:11; Clement, Ep
Risus Paschalis - This gave rise to abuses, and was prohibited by Pope Clement X
Bamberg, Germany, Diocese of - Suffragen dioceses include ...
Eichstätt

Speyer

Würzburg
Noted bishops include ...
Luidger, who was later chosen Pope Clement II

Saint Otto I
See also: ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Fisherman, Ring of the - The earliest mention of it is in a letter of Pope Clement IV written in 1265 to his nephew Peter Grossi
Ring of the Fisherman - The earliest mention of it is in a letter of Pope Clement IV written in 1265 to his nephew Peter Grossi
Scots College, Rome - Founded by Bull of Pope Clement VIII in 1600 for the education of Scottish priests
Alma Mater - ... The Bull of Pope Clement V postponing the opening of the 15th AEcumenical Council, at Vienne, from October 1, 1310, to October 1, 1311, is entitled "Alma Mater
Antipope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert

Adalbert

Aleric

Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy

Anacletus II

Anastasius Bibliothecarius

Baldassare Cossa

Benedict X

Benedict XIII

Benedict XIV

Bernard Garnier

Boniface Franco

Boniface VII

Boccadipecora, Teobaldo

Bourdin, Maurice

Buccapecuc, Thebaldus

Cadalous, Pietro

Callistus III

Celestine II

Christopher

Clement III

Clement VII

Clement VIII

Clemente Domínguez y Gómez

Constantine II

Conti, Gregorio

Cossa, Baldassare

Crema, Guido of

Dioscorus

Eulalius

Franco, Boniface

Frangipani, Lando dei

Felix II

Felix V

Filagatto, John

Gil Sanchez Muñoz

Giovanni of Struma

Gregorio Conti

Gregory VI

Gregory VIII

Gregory XVII

Guibert of Ravenna

Guido of Crema

Hippolytus, Saint

Honorius II

Innocent III

Jean Carrier

John

John XVI

John XXIII

John, Abbot of Struma

John, Bishop of Sabina

John Filagatto

John Mincius

John of Sabina

John of Struma

John Philagathus

Lando dei Frangipani

Lanzo of Sezza

Laurentius

Leo

Luna, Pedro de

Maginulf

Manuel Alonso Corral

Maurice Bourdin

Maurice Burdanus

Mincius, John

Muñoz, Gil Sanchez

Nicholas V

Novatian

Octavius

Ottavio di Montecelio

Paschal

Paschal III

Peter II

Pietro Cadalous

Pedro de Luna

Philagathus, John

Philip

Pierleone, Pietro

Pietro Cadalus

Pietro Philarghi Alexander V

Pietro Pierleone

Pietro Rainalducci

Rainalducci, Pietro

Ravenna, Guibert of

Robert of Geneva

Sabina, John of

Struma, John of

Sylvester III

Sylvester IV

Teobaldo Boccadipecora

Thebaldus Buccapecuc

Theodore

Theodoric

Theofylact

Tiberius

Ursicinus

Ursinus



Victor IV (1159-1164)
Anti-Pope - The following is a list of the antipopes whose histories will be found in this document under their respective names: ...
Abert

Adalbert

Aleric

Amadeus VIII, Duke of Savoy

Anacletus II

Anastasius Bibliothecarius

Baldassare Cossa

Benedict X

Benedict XIII

Benedict XIV

Bernard Garnier

Boniface Franco

Boniface VII

Boccadipecora, Teobaldo

Bourdin, Maurice

Buccapecuc, Thebaldus

Cadalous, Pietro

Callistus III

Celestine II

Christopher

Clement III

Clement VII

Clement VIII

Clemente Domínguez y Gómez

Constantine II

Conti, Gregorio

Cossa, Baldassare

Crema, Guido of

Dioscorus

Eulalius

Franco, Boniface

Frangipani, Lando dei

Felix II

Felix V

Filagatto, John

Gil Sanchez Muñoz

Giovanni of Struma

Gregorio Conti

Gregory VI

Gregory VIII

Gregory XVII

Guibert of Ravenna

Guido of Crema

Hippolytus, Saint

Honorius II

Innocent III

Jean Carrier

John

John XVI

John XXIII

John, Abbot of Struma

John, Bishop of Sabina

John Filagatto

John Mincius

John of Sabina

John of Struma

John Philagathus

Lando dei Frangipani

Lanzo of Sezza

Laurentius

Leo

Luna, Pedro de

Maginulf

Manuel Alonso Corral

Maurice Bourdin

Maurice Burdanus

Mincius, John

Muñoz, Gil Sanchez

Nicholas V

Novatian

Octavius

Ottavio di Montecelio

Paschal

Paschal III

Peter II

Pietro Cadalous

Pedro de Luna

Philagathus, John

Philip

Pierleone, Pietro

Pietro Cadalus

Pietro Philarghi Alexander V

Pietro Pierleone

Pietro Rainalducci

Rainalducci, Pietro

Ravenna, Guibert of

Robert of Geneva

Sabina, John of

Struma, John of

Sylvester III

Sylvester IV

Teobaldo Boccadipecora

Thebaldus Buccapecuc

Theodore

Theodoric

Theofylact

Tiberius

Ursicinus

Ursinus



Victor IV (1159-1164)
Spain - According to Clement (about A
Reformati - A reform branch of the Friars Minor of the Stricter Observance, organized by Francis of Jesi and Bernardine of Asti, and sanctioned by Pope Clement VII in 1532
Ruthenians - The majority of them are now Uniats who, having become estranged from Rome during the Eastern Schism, were reunited in 1595 under Pope Clement VIII
Cassianus, Julius, a Heretical Teacher - 12) Clement engages in a chronological inquiry to shew the greatly superior antiquity of Moses to the founders of Grecian philosophy and he acknowledges himself indebted to the previous investigations made by Tatian in his work addressed to the Greeks and by Cassian (spelt Casianus in the MS. of Clement but not in those of Eusebius) in the first book of his Exegetica. 865) alters without comment the Cassianus of previous editors into Casianus in Jerome's Catalogue 33 a place where Jerome is not using Clement directly but is copying the notice in Eusebius (H. Clement is in this section refuting the doctrines of those Gnostics who in their view of the essential evil of matter condemned matrimony and the procreation of children; and after considering some arguments urged by Tatian says that similar ones had been used by Julius Cassianus whom he describes as the originator of Docetism (ὁ τῆς δοκήσεως ἐξάρχων) a statement which must be received with some modification. Cassian quoted Is 56:3 Mat_19:12 and probably several other passages which are discussed by Clement without express mention that they had been used by Cassian. Cassian also uses certain alleged sayings of our Lord cited likewise in the so-called second epistle of the Roman Clement to the Corinthians cap. Lightfoot notices (Clement l. ) that Cassian by the omission of a clause makes the Encratite aspect of the passage much stronger than it appears in the citation of the Pseudo-Clement. 8) enumerates among the followers of Valentinus one Cossian, by whom, no doubt, Julius Cassianus is intended; for many greater inaccuracies in the names are in the present text of Theodoret, and Theodoret would have found authority in Clement for classing Cassian with Valentinus
Feast of the Holy Rosary - Clement X granted it to all Spain, and Clement XI extended it to the universal Church after the victory of Prince Eugene over the Turks at Peterwardein, Hungary, in 1116
Holy Rosary, Feast of the - Clement X granted it to all Spain, and Clement XI extended it to the universal Church after the victory of Prince Eugene over the Turks at Peterwardein, Hungary, in 1116
Prodicus, a Gnostic Teacher - Our only other trustworthy information about Prodicus is in three notices by Clement of Alexandria. Apparently in Clement's time Prodicus was dead, but a sect founded by him still in existence. Clement does not state their grounds of objection. 6), who seems to have no knowledge of Prodicus except from Clement, whom he quotes, mixing up, however, some of the things which Clement says about other licentious Gnostic sects; e
Clement - Paul's fellow helper at Philippi, whom Origen (Commentary, John 1:29) identifies with the Clement, the apostolical father afterward bishop of Rome, whose epistle to the Corinthian church (part of the Alexandrius manuscript of Greek Old and New Testament) is extant
Ambrose of Siena, Blessed - He brought about a reconciliation between Conrad of Germany and Pope Clement IV, and as papal legate, restored peace between Venice and Genoa, and Florence and Pisa
Gondi, Jean Francois Paul - He played an active part in the quarrels between King Louis XIV and Rome, and the conclaves which elected Pope Clement IX and Pope Clement X
Ireland, Clement of, Saint - After Alcuin's retirement (796), Clement was named master of the royal school at Aix-la-Chapelle
Claudia - A Roman Christian, perhaps wife of Pudens and mother of Linus ( 2 Timothy 4:21 ); but Lightfoot ( Clement , i
Pantaenus, of Alexandria - ... There is a like conflict of authority concerning the relation of Pantaenus to Clement of Alexandria. 11) unhesitatingly assumes that Pantaenus is the unnamed master whom Clement in his Stromateis (i. ) states on the authority of that work (now lost) that Clement "was the hearer of Pantaenus and his successor in the school. ) styles Pantaenus "the master" (καθηγητὴν ) of Clement. by Dodwell, made "Clement the disciple of Athenagoras, and Pantaenus of Clement. This contradiction, however, and the difficulty as to the chronology of Pantaenus, may be solved, or at least accounted for, if we suppose that Pantaenus was head of the school both before and after his sojourn in India, and Clement in his absence. If Pantaenus was the senior, Clement was the more brilliant; and at the close of the 2nd cent. This hypothesis agrees with the probable date of Clement's headship; and likewise with the note in the Chronicon of Eusebius, under year of Pertinax, or 2nd of Severus ( c. 193), where we read that Clement was then in Alexandria, "a most excellent teacher ( διδάσκαλος ) and shining light (διέλαμπε ) of Christian philosophy," and Pantaenus "was distinguished as an expositor of the Word of God. 14), in a letter to Origen, couples the names of Pantaenus and Clement (placing, however, Pantaenus first), as "fathers," and speaks of both as recently deceased. " A man alive after 193 and not the senior of Clement by more than a generation could not possibly have been born so early as to have been a hearer even of St. Photius was probably misled by a too literal construction of Clement's statement (Strom. " The other, contained in the Eclogae e Propheticis appended to the works of Clement, is introduced by "Our Pantaenus used to say" ( ἔλεγε ), and lays down as a principle in interpreting prophecy that it "for the most part utters its sayings indefinitely [as to time], using the present sometimes for the future and sometimes for the past. , usually associated with his more famous followers, Clement and Origen
Friday - Mention of this practise is made in the "Teaching of the Apostles," and by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Pope Nicholas I (858-867), who declared abstinence on that day to be obligatory throughout the Church
Euodia - Paul commended these women as two who struggled by his side for the spread of the gospel in a way comparable to Clement and other church leaders
Union of Brest - The union of the Ruthenian Church with the Church of Rome was solemnly proclaimed, October 9, 1596, after receiving the approbation of Clement VIII and King Sigismund of Poland
Catechetical School of Alexandria - He was succeeded by his pupil Clement, followed by Origen
Jude - It is referred to by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen
Alexandria, Catechetical School of - He was succeeded by his pupil Clement, followed by Origen
Clementine Literature - Clementine Literature. Among the spurious writings attributed to Clement of Rome, the chief is one which purported to contain a record made by Clement of discourses of the apostle Peter, together with an account of the circumstances under which Clement came to be Peter's travelling companion, and of other details of Clement's family history. Afterwards, in its orthodox form, it was accepted as a genuine work of Clement and a trustworthy historical authority. , such a document must be most valuable in shewing the opinions of the school from which it emanated; and accordingly the Clementine writings play an important part in all modem discussions concerning the history of the early ages of the church. Clementis (corresponding probably to περίοδοι Κλημέντος or περίοδοι Πέτρου ). the Homilies ), and contains also a continuation of the story, use being made therein of the martyrdom of Clement by Simeon Metaphrastes, and of a tale by Ephraim, bp. of Chersonesus, of a miracle performed at the tomb of Clement. There must have been at least one other form not now extant, called by Uhlhorn the orthodox Clementines, which retained the discourses, but completely expurgated the heresy contained in them. This is inferred from the citations of the late Greek writers (Nicephorus Callisti, Cedrenus, and Michael Glycas); and the Clementines so amended were so entirely accepted by the later Greek church, that a Scholiast on Eusebius is quite unable to understand the charge of heresy which his author brings against them. The form is that of an autobiography addressed by Clement to James, bp. Clement, having stated that he was born at Rome and from early years a lover of chastity, gives a lively description of the perplexity caused him by his anxiety to solve the problems, what had been the origin and what would be the future of the world, and whether he himself might look forward to a future life. Clement, though desirous to accompany him for further instruction, is detained by the necessity of collecting money due to him; but sails shortly after for Palestine, and after a fifteen days' voyage arrives at Caesarea. Peter forthwith frees Clement from his perplexities, by instructing him in the doctrine of the "true prophet. Clement by Peter's orders committed his teaching to writing, and sent the book to James, to whom Peter had been commanded annually to transmit an account of his doings. We are next told that Simon postponed the appointed discussion with Peter, who uses the interval thus gained to give Clement a continuous exposition of the faith, in which God's dealings are declared from the commencement of the world to the then present time. The date of the events related is given as seven years after our Lord's passion, although the previous story implies that Clement's voyage had been made in the very year that ended our Lord's ministry. These facts prove that the story of Clement has been added on to an older document. This brings the third book of the Recognitions to a close; and here we are told that Clement sent to James an account in ten books of Peter's discourses, of which the author gives the contents in detail, from which we may conclude that they formed a work really in existence previous to his own composition. terminates with the baptism of Clement and the ordination of a bishop, after which Peter sets out for Antioch, having spent 3 months at Tripolis. the story of Clement's recognition of his family begins. We shall presently discuss how an occasion is skilfully presented for Clement's relating his family history to Peter. That history is as follows: Clement's father, Faustinianus, was a member of the emperor's family, and married by him to a lady of noble birth, named Mattidia. By her he had twin sons, Faustus and Faustinus, and afterwards Clement. When Clement was five years old, Mattidia told her husband that she had seen a vision warning her that unless she and her twin sons speedily left Rome and remained absent for ten years, all must perish miserably. But after her departure no tidings reached Rome, and Faustinianus, having in vain sent others to inquire for them, at length left Clement under guardianship at Rome, and departed himself in search of them. But he too disappeared, and Clement, now aged thirty-two, had never since heard of father, mother, or brothers. The story proceeds to tell how Peter and Clement on their way to Antioch go over to the island of Aradus to see the wonders of a celebrated temple there. While Clement and his party are admiring works of Phidias preserved in the temple, Peter converses with a beggar woman outside, and the story she tells of her life is in such agreement with that previously told him by Clement, that Peter is able to unite mother and son. Clement, instead of meeting Barnabas in Rome, has been induced by an anonymous Christian teacher to sail for Palestine; but being driven by storms to Alexandria, there encounters Barnabas. On the one hand, the account that Clement is delayed from following Barnabas by the necessity of collecting money due to him is perfectly in place if the scene is laid at Rome, but not so if Clement is a stranger driven by stress of weather to Alexandria. as far as the end of Peter's disputation with Simon at Caesarea; but both Peter's preliminary instructions to Clement and the disputation itself are different. Peter prepares Clement by teaching him his secret doctrine concerning difficulties likely to be raised by Simon, the true solution of which he could not produce before the multitude. , Simon, vanquished in the disputation, flies to Tyre, and Nicetas, Aquila, and Clement are sent forward by Peter to prepare the way for him. There they meet Apion, and a public disputation on heathen mythology is held between Clement and Apion, the debate going over many of the topics treated of in the tenth book of R. , discourses delivered to the heathen at Tripolis, and the story of the discovery of Clement's family is in the main told as in R. , the main disputation between Peter and Simon takes place after the recognitions, and is held at Laodicea, Clement's father (whose name according to H. , of the transformation of Clement's father. Neither the Latin nor Syriac version of the Recognitions translates any preface; but Rufinus mentions having found in his original a letter of Clement to James, which he does not prefix, because, as he says, it is of later date and he had translated it elsewhere. of the Homilies , and gives an account of Peter's ordination of Clement as his successor at Rome, and closes with instructions to Clement to send to James an abstract of Peter's discourses. The work that follows purports to contain an abridgment of discourses already more fully sent to James; and is given the title: "An epitome by Clement of Peter's discourses during his sojournings" (ἐπιδημιῶν κηρυγμάτων ). In this no mention is made of Clement, but Peter himself sends his discourses to James, strictly forbidding their indiscriminate publication, and charging him not to communicate them to any Gentile, nor even to any of the circumcised, except after a long probation, and the later ones only after such an one had been tried and found faithful with regard to the earlier. Examination shews that the letter of Clement cannot belong to the Homilies ; for its account of Clement's deprecation of the dignity of the episcopate, and of the charges given to him on his admission to it, are in great measure identical with what is related in the 5th homily, in the case of the ordination of Zacchaeus at Caesarea. The inference follows that the letter of Clement is the preface to the Recognitions . , when prefixing his account of Clement's ordination, transposed matter which the older document had contained in connexion with Zacchaeus, or H. , when substituting for the letter of Clement a letter in the name of Peter himself, found in Clement's letter matter which seemed too valuable to be wasted, and therefore worked it into the account of the first ordination related in the story, that of Zacchaeus. The letter of Peter thus remains as the preface either to the Homilies or to the earlier form of the work before the name of Clement had been introduced. On the question of relative priority it may be urged that it is more likely that a later writer would remove a preface written in the name of Clement, in order to give his work the higher authority of Peter, than that the converse change should be made; and also that the strong charges to secrecy and to the communication of the work in successive instalments would be accounted for, if we suppose that at the time of the publication of the Homilies another version of Peter's discourses had been in circulation, and that the writer was anxious to offer some account why what he produced as the genuine form of the discourses should not have been earlier made known. is the later and in all that relates to Clement's family history has borrowed from R. may have added to it the whole story of Clement's recovery of his parents, at the same time fitting the work for popular use by omitting or softening down the harshest parts of its Ebionitism; and finally, H. ... (1) The story of Clement's first recognition of his family is told in exactly the same way in R. Clement, anxious to be permitted to join himself permanently as travelling companion to Peter, reminds him of words used at Caesarea: how Peter had there invited those to travel with him who could do so with piety, that is, without deserting wife, parents, or other relations whom they could not properly leave. Clement states that he is himself one thus untrammelled, and he is thus led to tell the story of his life. On their departure Clement says, "I thank God that it was not I whom you sent away, as I should have died of grief. tells the story, Peter had already sent on Clement, while still unbaptized, together with Nicetas and Aquila, to Tyre, where they hold a disputation with Apion. 38) mentions a long work ascribed to Clement, and then but recently composed (as he infers from not having seen it quoted by any earlier writer), containing dialogues of Peter and Apion. ... (3) The story of Clement's recognition of his brothers contains plain marks that H. , Nicetas and Aquila, seeing a strange woman return with Peter and Clement, ask for an explanation. Peter then repeats fully the story of the adventures of Clement's mother. the recognition of Clement's father crowns a disputation on astrological fate
Immaculate Conception, Scapular of the - This devotion bore such rich fruits that on January 30, 1671Pope Clement X expressly granted the faculty to bless and invest with this scapular. Pope Clement XI granted certain indulgences for the wearing of the scapular, succeeding popes increased the number, and the summary was approved by the Congregation of Indulgences first in 1845 and finally on August 26, 1882
Scapular of the Immaculate Conception - This devotion bore such rich fruits that on January 30, 1671Pope Clement X expressly granted the faculty to bless and invest with this scapular. Pope Clement XI granted certain indulgences for the wearing of the scapular, succeeding popes increased the number, and the summary was approved by the Congregation of Indulgences first in 1845 and finally on August 26, 1882
Fourteenth Century Crusade - The first, 1344, in which Clement VI, the Hospitallers, the King of Cyprus, and the Venetians were prominent, involved numerous leaders and countries, and continued with very little success until 1400
Fifteenth Century Crusde - The first, 1344, in which Clement VI, the Hospitallers, the King of Cyprus, and the Venetians were prominent, involved numerous leaders and countries, and continued with very little success until 1400
Doria, Andrea - In 1503 he reorganized the Genoese fleet and commanded successively the galleys of France, of Pope Clement VII (1525), and of Austria (1532), directing the warfare against the Turks and Barbary pirates
Andrea Doria - In 1503 he reorganized the Genoese fleet and commanded successively the galleys of France, of Pope Clement VII (1525), and of Austria (1532), directing the warfare against the Turks and Barbary pirates
Abbey, Evesham - Surrendered to Henry VIII, 1539, its demolition began, and only a few isolated fragments remain, including the great bell tower built by Abbot Clement Lichfield, c1533 ...
Evesham Abbey - Surrendered to Henry VIII, 1539, its demolition began, and only a few isolated fragments remain, including the great bell tower built by Abbot Clement Lichfield, c1533 ...
Matteo of Bascio - Meeting with many difficulties and feeling bound to observe a stricter rule, he fled to Rome and submitted himself to Pope Clement VII, 1525. After three years, during which Matteo underwent many hardships, Clement canonically approved the new Reform and placed Matteo and his followers under the nominal jurisdiction of the Conventuals
Bascio, Matteo of - Meeting with many difficulties and feeling bound to observe a stricter rule, he fled to Rome and submitted himself to Pope Clement VII, 1525. After three years, during which Matteo underwent many hardships, Clement canonically approved the new Reform and placed Matteo and his followers under the nominal jurisdiction of the Conventuals
Ravignan, Gustave FrançOis Xavier Delacroix de - In 1854 he brought out Clement XIII et Clement XIV, a dispassionate treatise, of no great literary merit, on the defender and the suppressor of the Jesuits
Western Schism - The cause of the so-called Western Schism was the temporary residence of the popes at Avignon, France, which began in 1309 under Pope Clement V. General dissatisfaction, especially on the part of the French members of the Sacred College, and disagreement concerning the validity or the choice led to a second conclave at Fondi (September 20,) and the election of another pope, a Frenchman, as Clement VII, who immediately took up his residence in Avignon. ... The list of Roman, Avignon, and Pisan popes is as follows: ...
at Rome

Urban VI (1378 to 1389)

Boniface IX (1389 to 1404)

Innocent VII (1404 to 1406)

Gregory XII (1406 to 1415)

at Avignon

Clement V1I (1378 to 1394)

Benedict XIII (1394 to 1411)

so-called popes of Pisa

Alexander V (1409 to 1410)

John XXIII (1410 to 1415)
Schism, Western - The cause of the so-called Western Schism was the temporary residence of the popes at Avignon, France, which began in 1309 under Pope Clement V. General dissatisfaction, especially on the part of the French members of the Sacred College, and disagreement concerning the validity or the choice led to a second conclave at Fondi (September 20,) and the election of another pope, a Frenchman, as Clement VII, who immediately took up his residence in Avignon. ... The list of Roman, Avignon, and Pisan popes is as follows: ...
at Rome

Urban VI (1378 to 1389)

Boniface IX (1389 to 1404)

Innocent VII (1404 to 1406)

Gregory XII (1406 to 1415)

at Avignon

Clement V1I (1378 to 1394)

Benedict XIII (1394 to 1411)

so-called popes of Pisa

Alexander V (1409 to 1410)

John XXIII (1410 to 1415)
Durandus, William, the Younger - By command of Pope Clement V he wrote a treatise, in three books, on the canonical process of summoning and holding general councils, with many quotations and illustrations from the Fathers and from church history, together with attacks on various abuses common in the 14th century among ecclesiastical persons
Castle of Hadrian - It is connected with the Vatican quarter by the Bridge of San Angelo, also the work of Hadrian, and formerly contained the Archive of San Angelo founded by Pope Sixtus IV, Pope Leo X, and Pope Clement VIII to preserve the most important documents and titles of possession of the Roman Curia
Castle of Sant' Angelo - It is connected with the Vatican quarter by the Bridge of San Angelo, also the work of Hadrian, and formerly contained the Archive of San Angelo founded by Pope Sixtus IV, Pope Leo X, and Pope Clement VIII to preserve the most important documents and titles of possession of the Roman Curia
Clement - It was an opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum
Anchor - In modern religious art it is an emblem of Saint Rose of Lima, steadfast in hope and courage in spite of great sufferings, Saint Philomena, on whose tomb in the catacombs it was found inscribed, and Pope Saint Clement, miraculously freed when cast into the sea with an anchor bound to him
Hadrian, Castle of - It is connected with the Vatican quarter by the Bridge of San Angelo, also the work of Hadrian, and formerly contained the Archive of San Angelo founded by Pope Sixtus IV, Pope Leo X, and Pope Clement VIII to preserve the most important documents and titles of possession of the Roman Curia
Hofbauer, Clement Mary, Saint - Clement then acted as chaplain to an Ursuline convent in Vienna
Sant' Angelo, Castle of - It is connected with the Vatican quarter by the Bridge of San Angelo, also the work of Hadrian, and formerly contained the Archive of San Angelo founded by Pope Sixtus IV, Pope Leo X, and Pope Clement VIII to preserve the most important documents and titles of possession of the Roman Curia
William Durandus the Younger - By command of Pope Clement V he wrote a treatise, in three books, on the canonical process of summoning and holding general councils, with many quotations and illustrations from the Fathers and from church history, together with attacks on various abuses common in the 14th century among ecclesiastical persons
Clement of Alexandria - Clement of Alexandria. The remarkable coincidence of the name with that of the nephew of Vespasian and consul in 95 cannot have been accidental, but we have no direct evidence of Clement's connexion with the imperial Flavian family. We may then with reasonable probability conclude that Clement was an Athenian by training if not by origin, and the fact that he was at the head of the catechetical school of Alexandria towards the close of the century fixes the date of his birth c. ), though perhaps simply by inference from Clement's words. Such a conversion would not be irreconcilable with the belief that Clement, like Augustine, was of Christian parentage at least on one side; but whether Clement's parents were Christians or heathens it is evident that heathenism attracted him for a time; and though he soon overcame its attractions, his inquisitive spirit did not at once find rest in Christianity. 36, 38) are irreconcilable in their details and chronology, it is certain that on the death or retirement of Pantaenus, Clement succeeded to his office, and it is not unlikely that he had acted as his colleague before. The period during which Clement presided over the catechetical school ( c. 202, 203) in which Leonidas, the father of Origen, perished, Clement retired from Alexandria (Eus. If therefore Clement had before withdrawn from danger, it was through wisdom and not through fear. This is the last mention of Clement which has been preserved. His name, however, was omitted in the martyrology issued by Clement VIII. Benedict argued that the teaching of Clement was at least open to suspicion, and that private usage would not entitle him to a place in the calendar (Benedicti XIV. 38) has given a list of the works of Clement ( H. ... Quotations are also found from a treatise περὶ προνοίας , and from another περὶ ψυχῆς , to which Clement himself refers (Strom. Elsewhere Clement speaks of his intention to write On First Principles ( περὶ ἀρχῶν , Strom. Reinkens, de Clemente, cap. § 4), and they have been quoted as Clement's by a continuous succession of Fathers even from the time of Origen ( Comm. The series was further continued in the lost Outlines ( ὑποτυπώσεις ), in which Clement laid the foundation of his philosophic structure in an investigation of the canonical writings. The mutual relations of these writings shew that Clement intended them as a complete system of Christian teaching, corresponding with the "whole economy of the gracious Word, Who first addresses, then trains, and then teaches" (Paed. —The works of Clement were composed in the order in which they have been mentioned. 28), some of Clement's works were composed before the accession of Victor (a. The gospel is, as Clement shews with consummate eloquence, the New Song more powerful than that of Orpheus or Arion, new and yet older than the creation (c. The choice is between judgment and grace, between destruction and life: can the issue then be doubtful (10–12)?... It is not difficult to point out errors in taste, fact, and argument throughout Clement's appeal; but it would be perhaps impossible to shew in any earlier work passages equal to those in which he describes the mission of the Word, the Light of men (p. Immediately after the Tutor are printed in the editions of Clement two short poems, which have been attributed to him. The first is said to be "Saint Clement's" (τοῦ ἁγίου Κλήμεντος ) in those MSS. If it were Clement's, and designed to occupy its present place, it is scarcely possible that it would have been omitted in any MS. There is no evidence to shew that the second is Clement's work; it is doubtless an effusion of some pious scholar of a later date. It is designedly unmethodical, a kind of meadow, as Clement describes it, or rather a wooded mountain (vii. Clement shews that Greek philosophy was part of the Divine education of men, subordinate to the training of the law and the prophets, but yet really from God (§§ 1–58; 91–100). Other virtues, as love and endurance, are touched upon (97–119); and then Clement gives a picture of a godly woman (120–131), and of the gnostic, who rises above fear and hope to that perfection which rests in the knowledge and love of God (132–174). In the fifth book Clement, following the outline laid down (iv. This review of the character and sources of the highest knowledge leads Clement back to his characteristic proposition that the Greeks borrowed from the Jews the noblest truths of their own philosophy. The sixth and seventh books are designed, as Clement states (vi. By way of prelude Clement repeats and enforces (§§ 4–38) what he had said on Greek plagiarisms, yet admitting that the Greeks had some true knowledge of God (39–43), and affirming that the gospel was preached in Hades to those of them who had lived according to their light (44–53), though that was feeble compared with the glory of the gospel (54–70). In the seventh book Clement regards the Christian philosopher as the one true worshipper of God (§§ 1–5), striving to become like the Son of God (5–21), even as the heathen conversely made their gods like themselves (22–27). Other traits are added to the portraiture of "the gnostic" (55–88); and Clement then meets the general objection urged against Christianity from the conflict of rival sects (89–92). At the close of the seventh book Clement remarks that he "shall proceed with his argument from a fresh beginning" (τῶν ἑξῆς ἀπ ἄλλης ἀρχῆς ποιησόμεθα τὸν λόγον ). It may naturally have served as an introduction to the examination of the opinions of Greek philosophers, the interpretation of Scripture, and the refutation of heresies which were the general topics of the second principal member of Clement's plan (iv. Several express quotations from the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th books of the Outlines have been preserved; but the fragments are too few and Clement's method too desultory to allow these to furnish a certain plan of the arrangement of the work. Sometimes he adds the criticism of Clement (ἡμεῖς δέ , § 8; Ἐμοὶ δέ , § 17; ὁ ἡμέτερος [ λόγος ], § 33); but generally the Valentinian comment is given without remark (οἱ ἀπὸ Οὐαλεντίνου , §§ 2, 6, 16, 23, 25; οἱ Ουαλεντινιανοί , §§ 21, 24, 37; ὥς φησιν ὁ Θεόδοτος , §§ 22, 26, 30; φησί , §§ 41, 67; φασί , §§ 33, 35; λέγουσιν , § 43). It follows that in some cases it is uncertain whether Clement quotes a Valentinian author by way of exposition, or adopts the opinion which he quotes. The same ambiguity appears to have existed in the original work; and it is easy to see how Photius, rapidly perusing the treatise, may have attributed to Clement doctrines which he simply recited without approval and without examination. Thus, in the fragments which remain, occasion might be given to charge Clement with false opinions on the nature of the Son (§ 19), on the creation of Eve (§ 21), on the two Words (§§ 6, 7, 19), on Fate (§§ 75 ff. of Clement is most corrupt. 8) that Clement wrote some remarks on I. De la Bigne then probably found the notes of Clement in the "very ancient but somewhat illegible MS. The remaining extant work of Clement Who is the Rich Man that is Saved? (τίς ὁ σωζόμενος πλούσιος;) is apparently a popular address based upon Mar_10:17-31. Clements' Position and Influence as a Christian Teacher. —In order to understand Clement rightly it is necessary to bear in mind that he laboured in a crisis of transition. (1) Clement repeatedly affirms that even when he sets forth the deepest mysteries he is simply reproducing an original unwritten tradition. The examples of spiritual interpretation which Clement gives in accordance with this traditional "rule" are frequently visionary and puerile (e
Clement - ... Clement, EPISTLES OF. There are two epistles ascribed to Clement, and which in the Codex Alexandrinus follow the Revelation. He calls it 'an Epistle in the name of the church of Rome (over which churchClement is recorded as bishop) to the church at Corinth. " As an emblem of the resurrection Clement relates the heathen fable of the phoenix living five hundred years, and then rising again as a fresh bird from its own ashes
Library, Laurentian - Clement VII restored it to San Lorenzo in 1523 and had it placed in a room built after the design of Michelangelo
Laurentian Library - Clement VII restored it to San Lorenzo in 1523 and had it placed in a room built after the design of Michelangelo
Lorrain, Claude de - Among his patrons were Pope Urban VIII, Pope Innocent X, Pope Alexander VII, and Pope Clement IX
Jesuats - Abuses crept in, however, and the Jesuats were suppressed 1668, by Pope Clement IX
Quesnel, Pasquier - He joined the Congregation of the Oratory but the doctrines propounded in his writings were condemned by Pope Clement XI
Linus - 32) asserts that Clement (third bishop) also was consecrated by Peter
Fortunatus - Clement refers to a Fortunatus (in Ep
Bartolommeo Gavantus - Recognized early as an authority on liturgical subjects, he was a member of the committee for the revision of the Pian Breviary under Clement VII (1592-1605)
Gavantus, Bartolommeo - Recognized early as an authority on liturgical subjects, he was a member of the committee for the revision of the Pian Breviary under Clement VII (1592-1605)
Baker, David Augustine - In collaboration with Father Jones and Father Clement Reyner, he published Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia (Benedictine Apostolate in England)
Robert Parsons - He was rector of the English College at Douai, and endeavored to reorganize the Catholic affairs of England, but in appointing Blackwell as arch-priest, subject to Jesuit authority, he started a controversy which Pope Clement VIII settled to his disadvantage
Robert Persons - He was rector of the English College at Douai, and endeavored to reorganize the Catholic affairs of England, but in appointing Blackwell as arch-priest, subject to Jesuit authority, he started a controversy which Pope Clement VIII settled to his disadvantage
John of Montecorvino - Pope Clement V was so pleased with his success that he sent envoys who consecrated John Archbishop of Peking, in 1308
Montecorvino, John of - Pope Clement V was so pleased with his success that he sent envoys who consecrated John Archbishop of Peking, in 1308
Cesalpino, Andrea - He was educated at the University of Pisa where he later taught philoaophy, medicine, and botany; directed the botanical gardens at Pisa, 1554-1558; and was professor of medicine at Sapienza, and physician to Pope Clement VIII
Chamberlains of Honor of Sword And Cape - The restriction of the Privy Chamberlains of Sword and Cape to those of the nobility or of high distinction excludes many meritorious persons, so the chamberlains of honor were founded some time before Clement VII
Andrea Cesalpino - He was educated at the University of Pisa where he later taught philoaophy, medicine, and botany; directed the botanical gardens at Pisa, 1554-1558; and was professor of medicine at Sapienza, and physician to Pope Clement VIII
Antonio da Sangallo, the Younger - Working for 41 years under the patronage of Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, and Pope Paul III, he exhibited extraordinary ability as a builder of churches and palaces, and as a military engineer
Sangalo, Antonio da, the Younger - Working for 41 years under the patronage of Pope Leo X, Pope Clement VII, and Pope Paul III, he exhibited extraordinary ability as a builder of churches and palaces, and as a military engineer
Avignon - Pope Clement V established the papacy here in 1309 and was succeeded by Popes John XXII, Benedict XII, and Clement VI, but it was not until 1348 that the latter pope became the temporal ruler of Avignon and the surrounding district, called the Comtat (county) Venaissin, which he bought from the House of Naples for 80,000 gold florins
Case of Conscience - " This case was decided affirmatively by 40 noted doctors of the Sorbonne, but as this was a denial of the power of the pope to decide whether a certain book does or does not contain errors against faith, the solution was condemned by Clement XI in his Brief, "Cum nuper" (1703), and by the faculties of theology of Louvain, Douai, and Paris
Hermas - For the disputed date of the book, which professes to record visions seen in the episcopate of Clement ( c [Note: circa, about
Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter - Charles V made him Count Palatine, and Pope Clement VII, Abbot of Jamaica, an island which he never visited
Benedict ix, Pope - Regretting this action he attempted to regain the chair but Emperor Henry III intervened, and at the Congress of Sutri the three claimants were deposed and Clement II elected pope. Upon Clement's death Benedict seized the throne again but was forced out by Clement's successor, Pope Damasus II
Benedict xi, Blessed, Pope - Beatified on April 24, 1736 by Pope Clement XII
Charles v, Emperor - From 1521-1529 he waged war against Francis I, whom he defeated at Pavia (1525), and after the French coalition with Clement VII, marched against Rome, which was sacked by undisciplined troops (1521). He received the imperial crown from Clement VII, at Bologna, February 24, 1530
Emperor Charles v - From 1521-1529 he waged war against Francis I, whom he defeated at Pavia (1525), and after the French coalition with Clement VII, marched against Rome, which was sacked by undisciplined troops (1521). He received the imperial crown from Clement VII, at Bologna, February 24, 1530
Benno, Saint - Deposed by the Synod of Mainz, 1085, for championing Pope Gregory VII, he was reinstated in 1088, when he recognized the antipope Clement III; however, he was later loyal to Urban II, the legitimate pontiff
Hermas - Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Origen attribute to him "The Shepherd," supposed by some to have been written in the episcopacy of Clement I; others deny Hermas of Romans 16 to be the author
Ring - Clement of Alexandria, while forbidding to Christians such ornaments as are mere luxuries, makes an exception of the ring because of its use for the purpose of sealing
Aarons Rod - In either case the object was to secure a standing witness to the validity of the claims of the Aaronic priesthood (so Clement, 1 Cor
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. He was honored as a saint until the 17th century, when his name was dropped from the Clementine revision of the Martyrology, owing to the uncertainty surrounding his life, teaching, and cult
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander. He was honored as a saint until the 17th century, when his name was dropped from the Clementine revision of the Martyrology, owing to the uncertainty surrounding his life, teaching, and cult
Letter - John, both of which could at once be characterized rather as something like short private missives; and, finally, the First Epistle of Clement. On the other hand, the so-called First Epistle of Clement, which is written in the name of one entire community to another, is a peculiar composite of ‘letter’ and ‘epistle’; it was certainly meant to be a true letter, arising out of the actual circumstances of the writer’s own church at Rome, and having in view the actual circumstances of the church in Corinth, but it is quite clear that Clement was working upon a tradition of Christian letters and epistles, so that-especially in regard to the length of his message-he does not altogether succeed in maintaining the characteristics of a true letter
Nepotism - Some of the opponents of nepotism were: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint Bonaventure, Cardinal Bellarmine; Pope Clement IV, Pope Benedict XII, Pope Innocent VI, Pope Urban V, Pope Gregory XI, Pope Hadrian VI, Pope Paul IV, Pope Pius V, Pope Innocent XI, and Pope Innocent XII
Homily - The oldest homily extant is the so-called Second Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians
Gregory x, Pope - After the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268, the Holy See was vacant for nearly three years
Bartolomeo Eustachius - Appointed professor of anatomy at the Roman University, he availed himself of opportunities for original work and recorded his anatomical investigations in a series of plates with text attached, Clement XI defraying the expense of publishing those which had been deposited in the Vatican Library
Eustachius, Bartolomeo - Appointed professor of anatomy at the Roman University, he availed himself of opportunities for original work and recorded his anatomical investigations in a series of plates with text attached, Clement XI defraying the expense of publishing those which had been deposited in the Vatican Library
Teobaldo Visconti - After the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268, the Holy See was vacant for nearly three years
Visconti, Teobaldo - After the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268, the Holy See was vacant for nearly three years
Forty Hours' Adoration - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Forty Hours' Devotion - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Forty Hours' Prayer - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Quarantore - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Quarant' Ore - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Devotion, Forty Hours' - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Adoration, Forty Hours' - Consists in a solemn exposition of the Blessed Sacrament during 40 hours, continual according to the "Instructiones Clementinæ" (Clementine Instructions), in honor of the 40 hours during which the Body of Our Lord is considered to have rested in the tomb. The devotions were approved by Pope Paul III in 1539, though some say Clement VII in 1534. The Clementine Instructions, the right form for this devotion, were given out at Rome in 1705 by Pope Clement IX
Benvenuto Cellini - Among exquisite examples of his work are coins executed for Paul III and Clement VII, an elaborate jeweled morse, or brooch, for a cope of the latter, and the intricately wrought golden salt-cellar of Francis I, now in the Vienna museum
Cellini, Benvenuto - Among exquisite examples of his work are coins executed for Paul III and Clement VII, an elaborate jeweled morse, or brooch, for a cope of the latter, and the intricately wrought golden salt-cellar of Francis I, now in the Vienna museum
Host, Elevation of the - There is a like Elevation of the chalice, which is first mentioned in the Ordo Romanus XIV (1311), the papal ceremonial of Pope Clement V
Elevation of the Host - There is a like Elevation of the chalice, which is first mentioned in the Ordo Romanus XIV (1311), the papal ceremonial of Pope Clement V
Didache - It was rediscovered in 1883 by Bryenhios, Greek Orthodox Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the codex, from which, in 1875, he had published the full text of the Epistles of Saint Clement
Doctrine of the Twelve Apostles - It was rediscovered in 1883 by Bryenhios, Greek Orthodox Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the codex, from which, in 1875, he had published the full text of the Epistles of Saint Clement
Flavian Amphitheater - In 1675 it was saved from demolition by Clement X, and from that time became a sanctuary on account of its connection with the martyrs
Defender of the Faith - It was afterwards confirmed by Clement VII
Amphitheater, Flavian - In 1675 it was saved from demolition by Clement X, and from that time became a sanctuary on account of its connection with the martyrs
Scolopii - Clement IX in 1669 restored the Piarists to the condition of regulars, and Innocent XI in 1684 declared them immediately subject to the Holy See
University of Rome - It was closed during the pontificate of Pope Clement VII but reopened by Pope Paul III, who obtained such distinguished professors as Lainez, S
Rome, University of - It was closed during the pontificate of Pope Clement VII but reopened by Pope Paul III, who obtained such distinguished professors as Lainez, S
University of Pisa - A studium is mentioned, 1340, and in 1343, Clement VI erected a studium generale, confirmed by Charles IV, 1355
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - of Athens, who came to Rome and was sent by Clement, bp. ... (2) That, although not the Areopagite, he was sent by Clement or the successors of the apostles
Apostolic Fathers - Five Apostolic Fathers appear in the original seventeenth century list: Barnabas, Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, and Hermas. ... The Apostolic Fathers include two writings under the name of Clement, a Roman presbyter-bishop at the end of the first century, but only his letter to the Corinthians, the Epistle of 1Clement can be considered authentic. What is entitled The Second Letter of Clement to the Corinthians is actually an early sermon which dates from around A. ... Clement, whom early lists named as the third bishop of Rome (after Linus and Anacletus), composed his letter, reliably dated A. In part one (1-36) Clement appealed on behalf of the Church of Rome for unity, using numerous biblical examples. ... The so-called Second Letter of Clement urges hearers to repent for too great attachment to the “world
Institute of Mary - Pioneers of the unenclosed orders for women, the founder and her companions met with little encouragement before Pope Clement XI approved their Rule, that of Saint Ignatius, in 1703, when they numbered six foundations
Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Pioneers of the unenclosed orders for women, the founder and her companions met with little encouragement before Pope Clement XI approved their Rule, that of Saint Ignatius, in 1703, when they numbered six foundations
Carlovingian Schools - , Clement, Cruindmelus, Dungal, Dicuil, SeduIius, and John Scotus Eriugena
Loretto Nuns - Pioneers of the unenclosed orders for women, the founder and her companions met with little encouragement before Pope Clement XI approved their Rule, that of Saint Ignatius, in 1703, when they numbered six foundations
Honduras - The Diocese of Honduras was erected by Clement VII in 1527, with residence at Trujillo in 1540, Comayagua in 1561, and Tegucigalpa in 1907
Magdalen - Clement VIII
English Ladies, the - Pioneers of the unenclosed orders for women, the founder and her companions met with little encouragement before Pope Clement XI approved their Rule, that of Saint Ignatius, in 1703, when they numbered six foundations
Thessalonians - These epistles are ascribed to Paul by Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian
Oracle - Clement of Rome uses the word three times (ad Cor
Apostolic Fathers - Hoc enim modo ecclesiae apostolicae census suos deferunt sicut Smyrnaeorum ecclesia Polycarpum ab Joanne collocatum refert sicut Romanorum Clementem a Petro ordinatum itidem," with the whole context. Paul who bore that name then he would more properly be styled not an "apostolic man," as he is designated by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 489 ὁ ἀποστολικὸς Βαρνάβας) but an "apostle," as the same Clement elsewhere styles him (Strom. Three names remain Clement Ignatius and Polycarp about which there is no reasonable ground for hesitation. Such is the simple account of the letters of Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp respectively. The gentleness and serenity of Clement, whose whole spirit is absorbed in contemplating the harmonies of nature and of grace; the fiery zeal of Ignatius, in whom the one overmastering desire of martyrdom has crushed all human passion; the unbroken constancy of Polycarp, whose protracted life is spent in maintaining the faith once delivered to the saints,—these are lessons which can never become antiquated or lose their value. —Of the respective provinces of the Apostolic Fathers, we may say that Clement co-ordinates the different elements of Christian teaching as left by the Apostles; and Ignatius consolidates the structure of ecclesiastical polity, as sketched out by them; while for Polycarp, whose active career was just beginning as theirs ended, and who lived on for more than half a century after their deaths, was reserved the task of handing down unimpaired to a later generation the Apostolic doctrine and order thus co-ordinated and consolidated by his elder contemporaries—a task for which he was eminently fitted by his passive and receptive character. In Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp, both extremes are avoided. This is the case with Clement (§§ 5 7) and Ignatius (Romans 4) speaking of St. His work on the principal subject, in five 8vo volumes, includes Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp
Methodius, Saint - Relics in the church of Saint Clement, Rome, and in the church of Saint Bruno, Moravia
Campeggio, Lorenzo - Clement VII appointed him to the See of Bologna and sent him as cardinal legate to Germany, but he was unsuccessful in checking the spread of Lutheranism
Lorenzo Campeggio - Clement VII appointed him to the See of Bologna and sent him as cardinal legate to Germany, but he was unsuccessful in checking the spread of Lutheranism
Gabriello Condulmaro - When a youth he distributed his wealth to the poor and became an Augustinian hermit, then Bishop of Siena, and Cardinal-priest of Saint Clement
Gabriello Condulmerio - When a youth he distributed his wealth to the poor and became an Augustinian hermit, then Bishop of Siena, and Cardinal-priest of Saint Clement
Eugene iv, Pope - When a youth he distributed his wealth to the poor and became an Augustinian hermit, then Bishop of Siena, and Cardinal-priest of Saint Clement
Alexandria, Egypt, City of - Christianity was introduced by Saint Mark, and it became illustrious as a seat of learned doctors, Pantrenus, Clement, Origen, and as the see of Athanasius and Cyril
Ordinance - Clement uses δικαίωμα three times (ad Cor. The authority upon which it rests may be Divine, as when it is applied by Clement to the laws of nature, which earth, sea, sky, and all living creatures must obey; or it may be primarily human, albeit ultimately Divine, as in 1 Peter 2:13
Feuillants - Clement VIII, 1595, withdrew the reform from the jurisdiction of Cistercian abbots and permitted the Feuillants to compile new constitutions
Mass, Saints of the - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady

twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)

Pope Saint Linus

Pope Saint Cletus

Pope Saint Clement

Pope Saint Sixtus

Pope Saint Cornelius

Saint Cyprian of Carthage

Saint Lawrence

Saint Chrysogonus

Saint John the Martyr

Saint Paul the Martyr

Saint Cosmas

Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist

Saint Stephen the First Martyr

Saint Matthias the Apostle

Saint Barnabas the Apostles

Saint Ignatius of Antioch

Pope Saint Alexander I

Saint Marcellinus

Saint Peter the Exorcist

Saint Felicitas

Saint Perpetua

Saint Agatha

Saint Lucy

Saint Agnes

Saint Cecilia

Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Murder, Ritual - In a report to that body Pope Clement XIV declared that only two cases of so-called ritual murder had ever been proved, those of Andrew of Rinn in 1462 and Simon of Trent in 1475, and these had been motivated by hatred of Christianity, not by ritual requirements
Castaway - For an apposite parallel see 2 Clement, vii
Index, Expurgatory - Thus an index of heretical books being formed, it was confirmed by a bull of Clement VIII, in 1595, and printed with several introductory rules; by the fourth of which, the use of the Scriptures in the vulgar tongue is forbidden to all persons without a particular licence: and by the tenth rule it is ordained, that no book shall be printed at Rome without the approbation of the pope's vicar, or some person delegated by the pope: nor in any other places, unless allowed by the bishop of the diocese, or some person deputed by him, or by the inquisitor of heretical pravity
Geneva, Robert of - Anti-pope Clement VII in 1378
Ritual Murder - In a report to that body Pope Clement XIV declared that only two cases of so-called ritual murder had ever been proved, those of Andrew of Rinn in 1462 and Simon of Trent in 1475, and these had been motivated by hatred of Christianity, not by ritual requirements
Robert of Geneva - Anti-pope Clement VII in 1378
Saints of the Mass - Before the Consecration, in the prayer Communicantes, commemoration is made of ...
Our Lady

twelve Apostles (including Saint Paul, but excluding Judas Iscariot)

Pope Saint Linus

Pope Saint Cletus

Pope Saint Clement

Pope Saint Sixtus

Pope Saint Cornelius

Saint Cyprian of Carthage

Saint Lawrence

Saint Chrysogonus

Saint John the Martyr

Saint Paul the Martyr

Saint Cosmas

Saint Damian
After the Consecration, in the prayer Nobis quoque peccatoribus, we pray for fellowship with certain other apostles and martyrs ...
Saint John the Baptist

Saint Stephen the First Martyr

Saint Matthias the Apostle

Saint Barnabas the Apostles

Saint Ignatius of Antioch

Pope Saint Alexander I

Saint Marcellinus

Saint Peter the Exorcist

Saint Felicitas

Saint Perpetua

Saint Agatha

Saint Lucy

Saint Agnes

Saint Cecilia

Saint Anastasia
It is noteworthy that all the above are martyrs, and either Romans or saints popular at Rome, as our Mass is the local liturgy of the city of Rome
Nativity of Christ, Feast of the - First mention of the feast, then kept on May 20, was made by Clement of Alexandria, c200 The Latin Church began c
Christmas - First mention of the feast, then kept on May 20, was made by Clement of Alexandria, c200 The Latin Church began c
Ludwig Von Pastor - " His "Geschichte der Päpste" (1886-1928) treats the popes from 1305 to 1572, beginning with Pope Clement V and ending with Pope Pius V
Nicolo Machiavelli - For many years he was secretary of the Lower Chancery of the Signory and was frequently employed on diplomatic missions; later he served under Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII
Machiavelli, Nicolo - For many years he was secretary of the Lower Chancery of the Signory and was frequently employed on diplomatic missions; later he served under Pope Leo X and Pope Clement VII
Fraternity - Pope Clement VII
Hermias (5), a Christian Philosopher - Bohn) regards Hermias as "one of those bitter enemies of the Greek philosophy whom Clement of Alexandria thought it necessary to censure, and who, following the idle Jewish legend, pretended that the Greek philosophy had been derived from fallen angels
Spain - There are only two authorities for a Spanish journey-the Muratorian Fragment on the Canon, and Clement of Rome. The words of Clement (ad Cor. Sanday-Headlam (‘Romans’5 [International Critical Commentary , 1902], 414) ask: ‘Is it quite certain that a Jew, as Clement probably was, speaking of St
Hymenaeus - ’... The ground for this spiritualizing of death is given in a homily of Valentinus quoted by Clement Alex. ’... According to Clement, Basilides also held that a ‘saved race’ had come down from above in order to remove death, and that the origin of this death was to be sought in the Demiurge. And a little later in the same chapter Clement tells us that the followers of Valentinus called the Catholics ‘psychical,’ as did the ‘Phrygians,’ the implication being that the Catholics thought, when death was mentioned, of the death of the body, and the Gnostics of the death of the soul
Chinese Rites - This decision is contained in the Apostolic Constitution "Ex ilIa die" issued by Clement XI, March 19, 1715, and in the Bull "Ex quo singulari" issued by Benedict XIV, July 11, 1742
Rites, Chinese - This decision is contained in the Apostolic Constitution "Ex ilIa die" issued by Clement XI, March 19, 1715, and in the Bull "Ex quo singulari" issued by Benedict XIV, July 11, 1742
Saturninus, Bishop of Toulouse - Clement at the end of the 1st cent
Exegesis - At Alexandria, Pantrenus, Clement, and especially Origen, established a system of interpretation. Philological studies began extensively to influence exegesis after Clement V had established chairs of oriental languages in the principal universities
Exegete - At Alexandria, Pantrenus, Clement, and especially Origen, established a system of interpretation. Philological studies began extensively to influence exegesis after Clement V had established chairs of oriental languages in the principal universities
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - To prove that the heretical sects were "later than the Catholic church," Clement of Alexandria (l. It seems therefore impossible to place Basilides later than Hadrian's time; and, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, we may trust the Alexandrian Clement's statement that his peculiar teaching began at no earlier date. " These are no doubt the Exegetica from the twenty-third of which Clement gives an extract (Strom. The comments on the Gospel itself probably containing much ethical matter as we may gather from Clement would have little attraction for Hippolytus. 35-43), followed by Massuet and Stieren in their editions of Irenaeus; but he passes over much in Clement which assuredly has no other origin. They are Agrippa Castor as cited by Eusebius, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the anonymous supplement to Tertullian, de Praescriptione, the Refutation of Hippolytus, Epiphanius, Philaster, and Theodoret, and possibly the Acta Archelai, besides a few scattered notices which may be neglected here. Our ultimate authorities therefore are Irenaeus (or the unknown author from whom he took this section of his work), the Compendium of Hippolytus (represented by Epiphanius [part], Philaster, and pseudo-Tertullian), Clement and the Refutation of Hippolytus, together with a short statement by Agrippa Castor, and probably a passing reference and quotation in the Acts of Archelaus. ... It is now generally allowed that the notices of Clement afford the surest criterion by which to test other authorities. A majority have given the preference to Hippolytus; while Hilgenfeld (who three years before, in his earliest book, the treatise On the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions, pp. ... It should be observed at the outset that the testimony of Clement is not quite so homogeneous as is generally assumed. In the succeeding discussion Clement eventually uses plurals ( εἰ . φασί—λέγουσι—᾿ξηγοῦνται—φασί bis ) is applied to a quotation intended to shame by contrast the immoral Basilidians of Clement's own time; and a similar quotation from Basilides's son Isidore immediately follows; the authors of the two quotations being designated as "the forefathers of their (the late Basilidians') doctrines. On the whole, there can be no reasonable doubt that all the doctrinal statements in Clement concern Basilides himself, when not distinctly otherwise expressed, and depend on direct knowledge of the Exegetica. ... The range of possible contact between the quotations and reports of Clement and any of the other authorities is not large. Now it is precisely to this latter department that the bulk of Gnostic speculation would belong, and especially such theories as Hippolytus ascribes to Basilides; and moreover Clement distinctly promises that in the course of that loftier investigation he will "set forth in detail the doctrines of the heretics ( τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ), and endeavour to refute them to the best of his power" (iv. We have therefore no right to expect in the Stromates any cosmological or even theological matter respecting Basilides except such as may accidentally adhere to the ethical statements, the subjects treated of in the various books "against all heresies" being formally excluded by Clement. Within the narrow limits of Clement's information we meet with the phrases "primitive medley and confusion" ( σύγχυσις ), and on the other hand "separation" (differentiation) and restoration (σοφία φυλοκρινητική, ἀποκαταστατική ); with a division of the universe into stages (διαστήματα ), and prominence given to the sphere of "super-mundane" things; with an "Ogdoad" and an "Archon"; all of these terms being conspicuous and essential in the Hippolytean representation. The coincidences are thus proportionately great, and there are no contradictions to balance them: so that it would require strong evidence to rebut the conclusion that Clement and Hippolytus had the same materials before them. The coincidences between Clement and the Irenaean tradition are limited to the widely spread "Ogdoad" and a single disputable use of the word "Archon," and there is no similarity of doctrines to make up for the absence of verbal identity. The fragmentary notices and extracts in Clement, admitted on all hands to be authentic, are steeped in Greek philosophy; so that the Greek spirit of the Hippolytean representation is in fact an additional evidence for its faithfulness. Thus we are led independently to the conclusion suggested by the correspondence with the information of Clement, whom we know to have drawn from the fountain-head, the Exegetica. Nor is there anything in this inconsistent with the fact vouched for by Clement ( Strom. 20-27) represent faithfully though imperfectly the contents of part at least of the Exegetica of Basilides; and proceed to describe his doctrine on their authority, using likewise the testimony of Clement wherever it is available. On the other hand when it is described as a result of the descent of the light from the Hebdomad "upon Jesus the Son of Mary," that He "was enlightened being kindled in union with the light (συνεξαφθεὶς τῷ φωτί) that shone on Him," the allusion to the traditional light at the Baptism can hardly be questioned; more especially when we read in Clement's Excerpta (p
Apostolic Fathers - Clement; 3
Celibacy (2) - Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ’ Some have thought this saying to be a reminiscence of 1 Corinthians 7:8 to 1 Corinthians 11:27 ascribed to Christ because of the words ‘not I, but the Lord’ in 7:10; but Clement apparently has our Lords words in Matthew 19:12 in view, for a little later in the same chapter he says, ‘They who have made themselves eunuchs from all sin for the kingdom of heaven’s sake, these are blessed, they who fast from the world. ’... Clement of Alexandria also refers to a conversation between our Lord and Salome mentioned in the lost ‘Gospel according to the Egyptians’ (Strom. ’ Part of this last quotation is also in pseudo-Clement of Rome, 12: ‘The Lord Himself, being asked by one when His kingdom should come, said, When the two shall be one, and the outside as the inside, and the male with the female, neither male nor female. ’ In interpreting these savings, notice must be taken of Clement of Alexandria’s comment that our Lord spoke in condemnation not of marriage, but of sins of the flesh and the mind, and to show the natural connexion between death and birth; and of the further words of Salome, ‘Theo I did well in not bearing children,’ with our Lord’s reply, ‘Eat every herb, but that which hath bitterness do not eat
Johann Von Hontheim - Clement XIII, in 1764, condemned Febronius's work
Febronianism - Clement XIII, in 1764, condemned Febronius's work
Hontheim, Johann Nikolaus Von - Clement XIII, in 1764, condemned Febronius's work
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - -The Epistle of Clement itself supplies complete information as to the circumstances under which it was written. It is known as ‘the First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. Even if we accept the earliest possible dates for the death of the apostles and for the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistle of Clement cannot have been written before a. The terminus ad quem is also fixed by the fact that Clement’s Epistle was indubitably used by Polycarp in his Epistle to the Philippians (Lightfoot, Clem. ), the date of Clement’s Epistle must fall between the years a. In fact, the difference between the two was precisely the difference between the two persecutions mentioned in the Epistle of Clement. Finally, external evidence of an early and reliable kind (a) connects the Epistle with the episcopate of Clement, third bishop of Rome, and (b) places his episcopate in the last decade of the 1st cent. In view of this accumulation of evidence, it is impossible to doubt that the Epistle of Clement was written about a. Nor indeed do we find in the statements of Hegesippus, Dionysius of Corinth, and Irenaeus, the three earliest writers who connect the Epistle with the name of Clement, any definite assertion that Clement was the author. Eusebius, to whom we owe our knowledge of Hegesippus, does indeed declare that that writer ‘makes some remarks concerning the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians’ (HE [Note: E Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. διὰ Κλήμεντος might mean that Clement was the author, the amanuensis, or even the bearer of the Epistle. Yet it must be admitted that there is nothing in the language of any of these three writers to exclude the possibility of believing that they regarded Clement as the author of the Epistle. The Epistle is first definitely ascribed to Clement of Rome in the writings of his namesake of Alexandria (circa, about a. 200), who, though his usage is not quite uniform, on at least four occasions speaks of Clement as the author (Strom. That Clement was head of the Roman community at the time of the Corinthian schism is as well attested as any fact of early Church history, and as such he would be the natural mouthpiece of the Church of Rome in its communications with a sister community. Again, however worthless as historical documents the Clementine Recognitions and Homilies may be, they at least bear witness to the fact that, by the middle of the 2nd cent. , Clement was regarded as an author
Letter, Papal - The first example apart from the Epistles of Saint Peter is that of Pope Clement I
League, the - He entered Paris on March 22, in the midst of popular applause, and the league, having no more object, was dissolved after the absolution of all censures granted to the new king by Pope Clement VII
Apollonius of Ephesus - John, that he relates the raising to life of a dead man at Ephesus by the same John, and that he makes mention of the tradition quoted also by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom
Fathers, the - Clement, St
Benedict Xiii, Anti-Pope - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Luna, Pedro de - A cardinal-deacon, he assisted at the election of Urban VI, but later joined the French cardinals when they elected the antipope Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), falsely claiming that Urban's election had been secured under pressure from the Roman people
Aristo Pellaeus - " This testimony is the only one connecting the name of Aristo with the dialogue, and though doubt has been thrown on its trustworthiness by its strange assertion that Clement attributed the work to St. If Maximus's information be correct, Clement's belief that St
Henry iv, King - In 1599 his marriage was annulled by Clement VIII
Reformatories - One of the first examples of such institutions was a hall of the hospital of Saint Michael, founded in Rome in 1704 by Pope Clement XI
Acts of the Apostles - The external evidence is also very satisfactory; for besides allusions in earlier authors, and particularly in Clement of Rome, Polycarp, and Justin Martyr, the Acts of the Apostles are not only quoted by Irenaeus, as written by Luke the evangelist, but there are few things recorded in this book which are not mentioned by that ancient father. This strong testimony in favour of the genuineness of the Acts of the Apostles is supported by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Jerome, Eusebius, Theodoret, and most of the later fathers
Jesuit Relations - Opening with the letters of Biard, 1616, the custom of writing the letters was brought to an end by the order of Pope Clement X forbidding missionaries to publish matter concerning the missions without permission of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Michelangelo Buonarroti - Meanwhile from 1524-1534 he had worked on the tombs of the Medici, in the sacristy of San Lorenzo, Florence, designed by him at the request of Pope Clement VII
Matthias - From the latter Clement of Alexandria quotes two sayings: (1) ‘Wonder at the things before you’ (‘making this,’ he explains, ‘the first step to the knowledge beyond
Urbanus - ’ Elsewhere the term is used of Aristarchus (Colossians 4:11, Philemon 1:24), Clement and others (Philippians 4:3), Demas (Philemon 1:24), Epaphroditus (Philippians 2:25), Jesus Justus (Colossians 4:11), Luke (Philemon 1:24), Mark (Colossians 4:10, Philemon 1:24), Philemon (Philemon 1:2), Titus (2 Corinthians 8:23)
Alexandria - Although the Christians suffered persecution there, they produced a school with such notables as Clement and Origen in leadership
Henry iv, Emperor - Having been again excommunicated, Henry retorted by setting up the simoniac Guibert of Ravenna as antipope Clement III
Demetrius - After Clement had left Alexandria, he placed Origen at its head, c
Relations, Jesuit - Opening with the letters of Biard, 1616, the custom of writing the letters was brought to an end by the order of Pope Clement X forbidding missionaries to publish matter concerning the missions without permission of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Epiphanes, a Gnostic Writer - Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 32), it is plain that Epiphanius has been following Irenaeus until, on coming to the words ἑπιφανὴς διδάσκαλος , he goes off to Clement of Alexandria, and puts in what he there found about Epiphanes
Mark - Mark's Gospel is alluded to by Clement of Rome; but the earliest ecclesiastical writer upon record who expressly mentions it is Papias. It is mentioned, also, by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Epiphanius, Jerom, Augustine, Chrysostom, and many others. Clement gives this account in the sixth book of his Institutions; and Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, bears testimony to it
Bishop - The words are also synonymous in Clement of Rome, and (by implication) in the Teaching of the Apostles and in Polycarp. Conversely, popular election is very prominent (Clement, and Teaching ) in the next age; but neither does this exclude formal approval and institution. So, too, the ‘rulers’ in Clement must be bishops or elders, for these bishops plainly have no earthly superior, so that they must be themselves the rulers. This becomes quite plain in the Teaching and in Clement
Names in New Testament - They are: ...
Ananias, Jehovah protects

Elizabeth, worshipper of God

Gabriel, strong man of God

Gamaliel, God recompenses

Heli, Jehovah is high

Jesus, Jehovah saves

John, gift of God

Matthias, gift of Jehovah

Michael, who is like God?

Nathanael, gift of God

Timothy, honoring God

Zachary, Jehovah remembers

Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as ...
Andrew, manly

Asyncritus, incomparable

Bernice, victorious

Clement (Latin), kind

Eunice, victorious

Pudens, modest

Timon (Hebrew), honorable

Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names: ...
Andronicus, conqueror

Anna, grace

Caiphas, oppressor

Judas, praise

Malchus, ruler

Manahen, comforter

Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea

Philip, lover of horses

Prochorus, leader of a chorus

Salome, peace

Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances: ...
Cleophas, of an illustrious father

Joseph, whom the Lord adds

Mnason, he who remembers

Onesiphorus, bringer of profit

Philologus, lover of words

Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being ...
Damaris, heifer

Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle

Susanna, lily

Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are ...
Quartus, fourth

Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from pagan mythology are: ...
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo

Apollyon

Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter

Epaphroditus, beautiful

Hermes

Hermogenes

Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e
New Testament, Names in - They are: ...
Ananias, Jehovah protects

Elizabeth, worshipper of God

Gabriel, strong man of God

Gamaliel, God recompenses

Heli, Jehovah is high

Jesus, Jehovah saves

John, gift of God

Matthias, gift of Jehovah

Michael, who is like God?

Nathanael, gift of God

Timothy, honoring God

Zachary, Jehovah remembers

Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as ...
Andrew, manly

Asyncritus, incomparable

Bernice, victorious

Clement (Latin), kind

Eunice, victorious

Pudens, modest

Timon (Hebrew), honorable

Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names: ...
Andronicus, conqueror

Anna, grace

Caiphas, oppressor

Judas, praise

Malchus, ruler

Manahen, comforter

Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea

Philip, lover of horses

Prochorus, leader of a chorus

Salome, peace

Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances: ...
Cleophas, of an illustrious father

Joseph, whom the Lord adds

Mnason, he who remembers

Onesiphorus, bringer of profit

Philologus, lover of words

Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being ...
Damaris, heifer

Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle

Susanna, lily

Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are ...
Quartus, fourth

Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from pagan mythology are: ...
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo

Apollyon

Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter

Epaphroditus, beautiful

Hermes

Hermogenes

Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e
Brethren of the Lord - So Origen, Clement of Alexandria, Epiphanius
Whippers - They held, among other things, that whipping was of equal virtue with baptism, and the other sacraments; that the forgiveness of all sins was to be obtained by it from God without the merits of Jesus Christ; that the old law of Christ was soon to be abolished, and that a new law, enjoining the baptism of blood to be administered by whipping, was to be substituted in its place: upon which Clement VII
Apion - But in the writings of the Petro-Clementine cycle he holds a prominent place as an antagonist of the Gospel. In the Clementine Homilies he appears in company with Anubion and Athenodorus among the satellites of Simon Magus, the arch-enemy of St. The Clementine Recognitions contain nothing corresponding to the disputes of Clement and Apion in the 4th, 5th, and 6th books of the Homilies; but at the close of this work (x
Adorning - both Clement Alex
Nicolaitanes, a Heretical Sect - 232) says that Hippolytus and Epiphanius make Nicolas the deacon of Act_6:5 answerable for the errors of the sect called after him; whereas Ignatius Clement of Alexandria Eusebius and Theodoret condemn the sect but impute none of the blame to Nicolas himself
Philippians Epistle to the - A certain person (Synzygus) is asked to help in their reconciliation: ‘I would request you (ἐρωτῶ), genuine Synzygus (or yoke-fellow), help those women, inasmuch as they laboured with me in the gospel and with Clement and other fellow-labourers of mine whose names are in the book of life’ (Philippians 4:2-4). Some take the writer to mean that Clement and his fellows should help in settling this difference (Lightfoot, Zahn); others-and this seems the only feasible view-that the women laboured with the apostles and with Clement. Indeed, from the tone of the passage one would naturally conclude that Clement was already dead. To identify this Clement with Clement of Rome on the ground that no other of that name is known to us from either history or legend (Baur, Paul, Eng. 63, 77), is foolish, as the name Clement seems to have been common (cf. Moreover, this Clement is a Philippian, not a Roman. It is certainly curious that neither Lydia nor the jailer is mentioned, but the omission of their names is no ground for identifying the one with Euodia or Syntyche or the other with Clement
Barnabas - ... Barnabas in Later Legend In the third century Clement of Alexandria identified Barnabas as one of the seventy of Luke 10:1 ; Tertullian referred to him as the author of Hebrews; and the Clementine Recognitions stated he was the Matthias of Acts 1:23 ,Acts 1:23,1:26
Hate, Hateful, Hater, Hatred - Lightfoot quotes from the Epistle of Clement of Rome, in confirmation of this, "those who practice these things are hateful to God
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - In support of the former view is urged the similarity of the language of these fragments with that of Clement of Alexandria and of Hippolytus, who advocated the Western practice; and also the fact that Apolinaris is not claimed as a Quartodeciman by Polycrates, bp. 7) names Apolinaris, together with Irenaeus, Clement, and Serapion, as holding the doctrine that our Lord when He became man had a human soul ( ἔμψυχον τὸν ἐνανθρωπήσαντα )
Fathers - ... The following is a list of the entire fathers: Contemporaries of the Apostles, Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, Ignatius, and Polycarp, Papias, A. 116; Justin Martyr, 140; Dionysius of Corinth, 170; Tatian, 172; Hegesippus, 173; Melito, 177; Irenaeus, 178; Athenagoras, 178; Miltiades, 180; Theophilus, 181; Clement of Alexandria, 194; Tertullian, 200; Minutius Felix, 210; Ammonius, 220; Origen, 230; Firmilian, 233; Dionysius of Alexandria, 247; Cyprian, 248; Novatus or Novatian, 251; Arnobius, 306; Lactantius, 306; Alexander of Alexandria, 313; Eusebius, 315; Athanasius, 326; Cyril of Jerusalem, 348; Hilary, 354; Epiphanius, 368; Basil, 370; Gregory of Nazianzum, 370; Gregory of Nyssa, 370; Optatus, 370; Ambrose, 374; Philaster, 380; Jerome, 392; Theodore of Mopsuestia, 394; Ruffin, 397; Augustine, 398; Chrysostom, 398; Sulpitius Severus, 401; Cyril of Alexandria, 412; Theodoret, 423; and Gennadius, 494
Mark, Gospel According to - ’... Clement of Alexandria (Hypotyp. 15, Eusebius says, on the authority of Clement and Papias, that Peter confirmed the writing; but the passage afterwards quoted by Eusebius from Papias does not bear out this detail. The quotation in Clement of Rome (Cor. 23) and pseudo-Clement (Ancient Homily, 11), which in the latter is introduced by λέγει γὰρ καὶ ὁ προφητικὸς λόγος, is more likely to be from some lost Christian writing than to be a fusion of Mark 4:26 ff. Pseudo-Clement (§ 2), after quoting Is 54:1 LXX Septuagint , continues: ‘Another Scripture saith, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners,’ exactly as Matthew 9:13, Mark 2:17, where ‘to repentance’ is not in the best manuscripts, but comes from || Luke 5:32. might have been before Polycarp and pseudo-Clement, though in the latter case the omission of the γάρ of Mt. And so with Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and others. by heretics is presumed from references to it in Heracleon, the Valentinians, pseudo-Peter, and the Clementine Homilies (the first two as reported by Clement of Alexandria and Irenaeus), for which reference may be made to Swete’s St. Further, (d) the Alexandrian Fathers Clement and Origen do not mention Mark’s preaching at Alexandria—a strange silence; and (e) there is no hint till Hippolytus that there was more than one Mark; apparently the other writers identified the cousin of Barnabas and the disciple of Peter
Hebrews, Epistle to - Others have attributed it to Clement of Rome, or Luke, or Barnabas, or some unknown Alexandrian Christian, or Apollos; but the conclusion which we think is best supported, both from internal and external evidence, is that Paul was its author
Order of Friars Minor Capuchins - Aiming at a more perfect return to the primitive observance of the Rule of Saint Francis, in resistance to the secularizing tendency which accepted certain relaxations, Father Matteo sought and obtained from Pope Clement VII permission for strict adherence to the traditional rule of poverty, wearing the original Franciscan habit, and preaching the Word of God
Capuchin Friars Minor - Aiming at a more perfect return to the primitive observance of the Rule of Saint Francis, in resistance to the secularizing tendency which accepted certain relaxations, Father Matteo sought and obtained from Pope Clement VII permission for strict adherence to the traditional rule of poverty, wearing the original Franciscan habit, and preaching the Word of God
Ebionites - Clement; but had altered them so, that there was scarce any thing of truth left in them
Jubilee - in 1300, which was only to return every hundred years; but the first celebration brought in such store of wealth, that Clement VI
Domitianus, the Emperor - Clement, in which a tablet was discovered in 1725 to the memory of Flavius Clemens, martyr, and described by Cardinal Albiani ( T. Flavii Clementis Viri Consularis et Martyris Tumulus Illustratus , 1727), seems therefore to have commemorated the consul and not the writer of that name. The name of Clement of Alexandria, Titus Flavius Clemens, may be regarded as an indication of the honour in which the martyr's memory was held
Leucius, Author of n.t. Apocryphal Additions - All Zahn's arguments do not seem to us conclusive, yet enough remains valid to lead us to regard the Leucian Acts as of the same age as the travels of Peter (which are the basis of the Clementines) and the Acts of Paul and Thecla. (3) An acquaintance with Leucius by Clement of Alexandria has been inferred from the agreement of both in giving on John's authority a Docetic account of our Lord. The "traditions of Matthias " may have been Clement's authority; but that John is appealed to no doubt gives probability to the conjecture that Clement's source is the Acts which treat of St. John, a probability increased on an examination of the story told by Clement (Hypotyp. The stories of Clement and the Muratorian writer are too like to be independent; yet it is not conceivable that one copied from the other; therefore they doubtless used a common authority, who was not Papias, else Eusebius, when he quotes the passage from Clement, would scarcely have failed to mention it. 198) tell the same story, agreeing, however, in additional particulars, which shew that they did not derive their knowledge from either the Muratorian writer or Clement. " Other verbal coincidences make it probable that this story was found in the Acts of Leucius, which Epiphanius tells us contained an account of John's resistance to the Ebionite heresy; and if so, Leucius is likely to have been Clement's authority also. , and known to Clement and Tertullian. Irenaeus, however, shews no sign of acquaintance with them, and Clement must have had some other source of Johannine traditions, his story of John and the robber being, as Zahn owns, not derived from Leucius; for no later writer who tells the story shews any sign of having had any source of information but Clement
Hebrews - It is generally allowed that there are references to it, although the author is not mentioned, in the remaining works of Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, and Justin Martyr; and that it contains, as was first noticed by Chrysostom and Theodoret, internal evidence of having been written before the destruction of Jerusalem, Hebrews 8:4 ; Hebrews 9:25 ; Hebrews 10:11 ; Hebrews 10:37 ; Hebrews 13:10 . Paul is Clement of Alexandria, toward the end of the second century; but, as he ascribes it to St. Clement is followed by Origen, by Dionysius and Alexander, both bishops of Alexandria, by Ambrose, Athanasius, Hilary of Poitiers, Jerom, Chrysostom, and Cyril, all of whom consider this epistle as written by St. Luke, and Clement as authors or translators of this epistle. Clement, of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerom, thought that this epistle was originally written in the Hebrew language; but all the other ancient fathers who have mentioned this subject speak of the Greek as the original work; and as no one pretends to have seen this epistle in Hebrew, as there are no internal marks of the Greek being a translation, and as we know that the Greek language was at this time very generally understood at Jerusalem, we may accede to the more common opinion, both among the ancients and moderns, and consider the present Greek as the original text. In early times, we have seen that the case was different, when Clement of Rome wrote his epistle, and when the old Latin version was brought into circulation. Clement of Alexandria says that St. Eusebius in the same manner says, that Paul wrote to the Hebrews in his vernacular language, and that, according to report, either Luke or Clement translated it. Of the same opinion, in respect to this, was Clement, of Alexandria; and Origen, as we have seen above, supposes that the thoughts contained in the epistle were St
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - - Clement of Rome (1st century A. As the writer of this epistle claims authority Clement virtually sanctions it, and this in the apostolic age. Westcott (Canon, 22) observes, it seems transfused into Clement's mind. Clement of Alexandria refers it to Paul, on the authority of Pantaenus of Alexandria (in the middle of the second century) saying that as Jesus is called the "apostle" to the Hebrew, Paul does not in it call himself so, being apostle to the Gentiles; also that Paul prudently omitted his name at the beginning, because the Hebrew were prejudiced against him; that it was originally written in Hebrew for the Hebrew, and that Luke translated it into Greek for the Greeks, whence the style resembles that of Acts. Rome originally received this epistle through Clement of Rome, then rejected it, until in the fourth century she saw her error: a refutation of her claim to unchangeableness and infallibility. After his death it occurs in the last New Testament book, Revelation, and subsequently in the epistle of Clement of Rome
Libraries - , 1614; the Casanatense, Rome, founded by Cardinal Girolamo Casanata, 1698; the Mazarin, Paris, founded by Cardinal Mazarin, 1643; the Mediceo-Laurenziana, Florence, founded by Clement VII, 1671, and the library of Louvain University, founded 1627, on a collection bequeathed to the university by Beyerlinck
Dispersion - So we find Aquila from Pontus, Barnabas of Cyprus, Apollos of Alexandria, Clement probably of Rome
Barnabas - Clement of Alexandria treated it as genuine, and Origen called it a 'catholic epistle;' but it is now commonly held that its author was not the companion of Paul
Confidence - It comes from union with Christ, and has God for its ultimate goal (2 Corinthians 3:4) Clement in 1 Corinthians (xxvi
Andronicus - Clement, Ep
Armenian Church - About this time, Clement IX, wrote to the king of Persia, in favour of some Catholic converts in Armenia, and... received a favourable answer; but the Armenian church could never be persuaded to acknowledge the authority of Rome
Jubilee - The jubilee was first established by Boniface VII, in 1300, which was only to return every hundred years; but the first celebration brought in such store of wealth, that Clement VI, in 1343, reduced it to the period of fifty years
Nicolaitans - Clement of Alexandria, however (Strom
Origen - He succeeded Clement as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, which under him became a nursery of confessors and martyrs
Homily - ... The Clementine homilies are nineteen homilies in Greek, published by Cotelerius, with two letters prefixed, one of them written in the name of Peter, the other in the name of Clement, to James, bishop of Jerusalem; in which last letter they are entitled Clement's Epitome of the Preaching and Travels of Peter. Lardner apprehends that the Clementine homilies were the original or first edition of the Recognitions; and that they are the same with the work censured by Eusebius under the title of Dialogues of Peter and Appion
Deacon - Clement of Rome (1 Corinthians 42) notices that the Septuagint (Isaiah 60:17) prophetically use the two together
Impostors - ... Of the great number of impostors of the 2nd and 3centuries and onward, may be mentioned: ...
Alexander of Abonoteichos, called the oracle-monger, the most notorious impostor of the 2century

the Greek mountebank, Marcus

possibly the women, Priscilla and Maximilla

a fanatic of the 6th century mentioned by Saint Gregory of Tours

Adelbert and Clement, who opposed Saint Boniface in Germany c. 744

Benedict Levita (Benedict the Deacon), author of a forged collection of documents (848-850)

Leotardus and Wilgardus, in the 11th century

the Anabaptist John of Leyden (John Bokelzoon), who flourished in 1533 and who was possibly insane

the Pseudo-Isidore (Isidore Mercator), author of a whole series of apocrypha, including the False Decretals

Paulua Tigrinus, pretended Patriarch of Constantinople, who deceived Pope Clement VII

the Franciscan friar, James of Jülich, who performed all the functions of a bishop without having received consecration

several individuals contemporary with and imitative of Saint Joan of Arc

Sir John Oldcastle, the Wycliffite, possibly deluded

those connected with the veneration of the ashes of Richard Wyche (burned 1440)

Johann Bohm, the Hussite, possibly a mere tool

Jack Cade, whose rebellion, however, was of no religious significance any more than that of Wat Tyler

Lambert Simnel (1487)

Perkin Warbeck (1497)
Numerous other secular pretenders to royal thrones include ...
Alexis Comnenus

the false Baldwin

the impersonator of Frederick II

after the death of Sebastian of Portugal, a whole series of pretenders to the throne
The "false Demetrius," however, was never proved to be an impostor; the six impersonators of Louis XVII were unquestionably such
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - 14, 18: ‘We now assembled, Peter and Andrew, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus who is surnamed Thaddaeus, and Simon the Canaanite, and Matthias who instead of Judas was numbered with us, and James the brother of our Lord and bishop of Jerusalem, and Paul … and have written to you this catholic doctrine [which] we have sent by our fellow-minister Clement. The author, however, found the apostolic claim made in the sources he used; his own contribution to the fiction is the assertion that Clement was the channel of communication. ... Modern criticism, it may be said summarily, has shown that the ‘Apostolic Constitutions’ is a compilation made by a single writer, often referred to as pseudo-Clement, who seems identifiable with the author of the spurious Ignatian epistles; that it is of Syrian origin, and that it must be dated in the 4th or early in the 5th century. This cannot be due to pseudo-Clement, for he names them In the preceding books; when they had disappeared in practice, the references must have been deleted from the familiar book viii. ’ The most remarkable is that which enumerates the canonical books of Scripture, omitting the Apocalypse from the NT canon, but inserting the two epistles of Clement and the ‘Apostolic Constitutions,’ and, after this audacity, with an artistic touch modestly placing ‘the Acts of us Apostles’ at the bottom of the list
Heracleon, a Gnostic - Heracleon (1), a Gnostic described by Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ... The first passage quoted by Clement bears on an accusation brought against some of the Gnostic sects, that they taught that it was no sin to avoid martyrdom by denying the faith. Neander and Cave have suggested Alexandria as the place where Heracleon taught; but Clement's language suggests some distance either of time or of place; for he would scarcely have thought it necessary to explain that Heracleon was the most in repute of the Valentinians if he were at the time the head of a rival school in the same city. This would not be inconsistent with his having been personally instructed by Valentinus, who continued to teach as late as 160, and would allow time for Heracleon to have gained celebrity before Clement wrote, one of whose references to Heracleon is in what was probably one of his earliest works
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - Another doctrine of Hermogenes preserved by Clement of Alexandria ( Eclog. 273) the doctrines attributed to him by Clement and by Tertullian. Probably Clement and Hippolytus drew from a common source, namely, the work "against the heresy of Hermogenes," which, Eusebius tells us ( H. ... The opinion of Hermogenes (not mentioned by Tertullian, but recorded by Clement, Hippolytus, and Theodoret) is that our Lord on His ascension left His body in the sun and Himself ascended to the Father, a doctrine which he derived or confirmed from Psalms 19 , "He hath placed his tabernacle in the sun
Epaenetus - ... For the designation ‘firstfruits’ we must compare the description of the ‘household of Stephanas’ (1 Corinthians 16:15)-‘the firstfruits of Achaia’ (ἀπαρχή τῆς Ἀχαίας)-and note the suggestion that ministry in the Church was connected at first with seniority of faith, a suggestion more than supported by Clement of Rome, Ep
Jude - Nevertheless, it is to be found in all the ancient catalogues of the sacred writings; and Clement, of Alexandria, Tertullian, and Origen quote it as written by Jude, and reckon it among the books of sacred Scripture
Descent Into Hades - ] restricted it to the righteous of Israel; while Clement of Alexandria†† [Note: † Strom. This, according to Clement of Alexandria, who does not countenance the legendary developments of the idea of liberation, was the sole purpose of Christ’s Descent into Hades, viz. ] ... Of Christ’s preaching in Hades there is no foreshadowing in the OT, although Clement of Alexandria|| [Note: | ib. ] quotes 1 Peter 4:6, but he offers no comment upon it; and Clement of Alexandria** [Note: * Strom. Clement of Alexandria* [Note: Strom ii. As Clement held that the apostles were followers of Christ in Hades, be Origen taught that Christ had forerunners there
Schoolmaster - One of the works of Clement of Alexandria is so designated
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - It is noteworthy that Clement of Rome ( Cor . 110) and many Greek and Latin commentators, and also perhaps by Clement of Rome (see below, § 10 ), as being St. 10, The Corinthian scepticism does not seem to have died out at the end of the century, for Clement of Rome, writing to Corinth, strongly emphasizes the doctrine ( Cor . Paul’s by Clement of Rome, c [Note: circa, about. 47), who speaks of the parties of Paul, Cephas, and Apollos, but omits the Christ-party (see above § 3 ); we cannot infer from his phrase ‘the Epistle of the blessed Paul’ that he knew only one Epistle to the Corinthians, as early usage shows (Lightfoot, Clement , ii. There are other clear allusions in Clement. , 1 Corinthians 4:13 and probably 1 Corinthians 2:6 ; Polycarp (§ 11) quotes 1 Corinthians 6:2 as Paul’s; references are found in the Martyrdom of Polycarp , in Justin Martyr, and in the Epistle to Diognetus ; while Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian at the end of the 2nd cent
Marriage (ii.) - Clement of Alexandria (Strom. ’ Similarly Clement (ib
Bishop, Elder, Presbyter - The two names are still synonymous in Clement of Rome (Cor. Clement’s Epistle shows that the trouble at Corinth was about persons-whether certain presbyters had been rightly deposed; not about principles-whether government by presbyters could be rightly maintained. Clement himself was not a bishop in the later sense: he was president of the college of presbyters in Rome. Clement is the first Christian writer to take the fateful first step of interpreting the nature of office in the Church by reference to Jewish institutions, for which, to a certain extent, the way is prepared in 1 Corinthians 9:9 and 1 Timothy 5:18 (Harnack, Constitution and Law of the Church, London, 1910, p
Bible And the Popes, the - But, through the tireless efforts of several popes of this time, namely, Popes Julius III (1555), Pius IV (1565), Gregory XIII (1585), Sixtus V (1590), and Clement VIII (1641), the celebrated revisions of the Vulgate and the Septuagint, which are still in common use, were begun and successfully completed
Censer - (1) Authorized Version and Revised Version , following the Vulgate-‘aureum habens thuribulum’-render θυμιατήριον by ‘censer’; but Revised Version margin and American Revised Version , like Clement Alex
Canon (1) - They were extensively diffused, and read in every Christian society; they were valued and preserved with care by the first Christians; they were cited by Christian writers of the second, third, and fourth centuries, as Irenxus, Clement the Alexandrian, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, &c
Thanksgiving - Clement of Rome (Ep
Spikenard - 443) uses the epithet liquida with nardus; and Clement of Alexandria (Paed
First-Fruit - ’ From Clement of Rome’s Ep
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - ); and Lightfoot, in his Apostolic Fathers (Clement of Rome, vol
Mark, Gospel of - In this Clement, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, all agree
Revela'Tion of st. John, - 195), Clement of Alexandria (about 200), Tertullian (207), Origen (233)
Miltiades, 2nd Cent. Christian Writer - 28) names Miltiades in company with Justin, Tatian, and Clement among the writers in defence of the truth or against contemporary heretics who, before Victor's episcopate, had distinctly asserted the divinity of Christ
Thanksgiving - Clement of Rome (Ep
Docetism - 109) against the hypotyposes of Clement of Alexandria. This book has not survived, but there is no doubt from his extant writings that Clement ascribed to our Lord a real body. 391) is that Clement's doctrine deviated from that subsequently recognised as orthodox, not in respect of our Lord's body, the reality of which he acknowledged, but in holding that His body was directly united to the Divine Logos without the intervention of a human soul capable of feeling pain or suffering. ... The traditions referred to by Clement have been identified with the contents of a work of Leucius Charinus, purporting to relate travels of the apostles, of which an account is given by Photius (Bibl
Gospels, Apocryphal - Clement of Alexandria and Origen, particularly the latter, apparently knew such a Gospel well. Origen quotes it at least three times, and Clement twice. by Clement of Alexandria, by whom it was regarded as apparently of some historical worth, but not of the same grade as our four Gospels. It was also apparently known to the writer of 2 Clement (ch. ... The most important sayings of Jesus which have come down from this Gospel are from the conversation of Jesus with Salome, given by Clement of Alexandria. As Clement of Alexandria and Justin Martyr both referred to incidents connected with the birth of Jesus which are related in the Protevangelium, it is not impossible that the writing circulated in the middle of the 2nd century. Mentioned by Origen as a heretical writing, and possibly quoted by Clement of Alexandria, who speaks of the ‘traditions of Matthias
John (the Apostle) - The main witnesses for the common tradition are Irenaeus, Polycrates (Bishop of Ephesus), and Clement of Alexandria. Clement of Alexandria declares that the Apostles Peter and Philip had children, and that Philip gave his daughters to husbands (Strom. ... (c) It is in connexion with the story of the young convert who subsequently became a robber that Clement of Alexandria speaks of John’s residence in Asia. The value of this testimony lies in the fact that Clement, in gathering memoranda to be ‘stored up against old age as a remedy against forgetfulness,’ had collected traditions handed down ‘from the holy Apostles Peter, James, John, and Paul, the sons receiving it from the father. The references to this fact are quite numerous in the Fathers, and begin with Clement of Alexandria (a. 12) assigns it to the reign of Claudius, while Clement of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerome place it in the reign of Domitian. Of course, if John the Apostle died in this way, there is nothing left but to take some other John as the John of Ephesus; and all the testimony of Irenaeus, Polycrates, and Clement of Alexandria has a confusion of names underlying it; also the John of the Apostolic council (Galatians 2:9) was not the son of Zebedee
Only- Begotten - writers speak of the pre-existent Christ as Spirit (pseudo-Clement, 2 Corinthians 9 : ‘Christ … being first Spirit, then became flesh’; cf. 1, and Lightfoot’s note in Apostolic Fathers: ‘Clement,’ ii
Worship - ’* ‘Clement of Rome has the idea of Christ as “the high-priest of our offerings,” but the ideas of the heavenly Priesthood of our Lord, and the “Lamb standing as slain” of the Apocalypse, found only very isolated expression in liturgical prayers before the 4th century. εὐχαριστήσας of the Institution and the εὐχαριστία of Ignatius, Clement, and the Didache), together with the thought of the One Body of St. And this “hieratic” Clement in Christian liturgy is much more marked in Greek-speaking lands than in the West. Putting together the scattered hints in the Epistles along with the references in Clement of Rome and Justin Martyr, we may suppose that it followed a service such as that described above and that it always included the following elements: a prayer of thanksgiving (Luke 22:19, 1 Corinthians 11:24; 1 Corinthians 14:16, 1 Timothy 2:1); the blessing of the bread and wine, with the recital of the words of Institution (1 Corinthians 10:16, Matthew 26:26-28, Mark 14:22-24, Luke 22:19-20, 1 Corinthians 11:23);* prayers, remembering Christ’s death (Luke 22:19, 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26); the people eat and drink the consecrated bread and wine (Matthew 26:26-27, Mark 14:22-23, 1 Corinthians 11:28-29). ... The Epistle of Clement of Rome has references to the order observed for the worship of God, e
Levites - Clement of Alexandria wrote that Jesus, ‘on His interlocutor inquiring, “Who is my neighbour?” did not, in the same way with the Jews, specify the blood-relation, or the fellow-citizen, or the proselyte, or him that had been similarly circumcised, or the man who uses one and the same law
Petronilla, Saint And Virgin - Clement , 259–262) from the combination of two elements: (i) the Manichean apocryphal story mentioned by St
Timothy, Epistles to - When, therefore, we add the further facts, that the Muratorian Fragment states that the Apostle fulfilled his expressed wish of visiting Spain ( Romans 15:24 ; Romans 15:28 ), a journey which certainly necessitates his release from his Roman imprisonment and that Clement of Rome tells of his reaching ‘the bounds of the West,’ a phrase which, used by one resident, as Clement, in Rome, can only mean Spain we may hold without misgiving that St. Irenæus, Clement, Tertullian, the Epistle of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons, Theophilus of Antioch, were all clearly acquainted with them
Martyr - The horrors inflicted by the Roman torturers may be gathered from the two passages of Tacitus and Clement mentioned above. 9, quoting Clement of Alexandria. Clement (loc
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - have been traced in Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp, none of them, however, certain. Paul, and specifies it as the ‘First’ to the Thessalonians: it is quoted by Clement of Alexandria, and frequently by Tertullian
Hegesippus, Father of Church History - Hegesippus had an inquiring mind, and had travelled much; he endeavoured to learn all he could of the past and present state of the churches that he visited: at Corinth the first epistle of Clement excited his curiosity; at Rome the history of its early bishops. Further Hegesippus must have known that Clement whose epistle he approved quotes in c
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - The mutilated commencement of the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria opens in the middle of a quotation from The Shepherd and about ten times elsewhere he cites the book always with a complete acceptance of the reality and divine character of the revelations made to Hermas but without suggesting who Hermas was or when he lived. " If the authorities of the church regarded it merely as a novel, would they have appointed it for public reading? At the end of the century Clement and others shew no doubt of the reality of the visions Were the men of a couple of generations earlier likely to have been more severe in their judgments, and would an angelic appearance seem to them so incredible that one who related it would be regarded as the narrator of a fiction that he did not intend to be believed? The book itself contains directions to the rulers of the Roman church to send the volume to foreign churches. ; or (c) contemporary with Clement who was bishop at the very beginning of that century or the end of the preceding. If the first readers of the work of Elchesai or of the Clementine homilies asked Why did we never hear of these things before? these books had provided an answer in the fiction that the alleged authors had only communicated them under a pledge of strict secrecy; in this book on the contrary Hermas is directed (Vis. , we incline to follow Zahn in relying more on his connexion with Clement than with Pius. 97; but if we assign that date to the epistle of Clement we ought to allow a few years for that letter to have obtained the celebrity and success which the notice in Hermas implies. That notice need not necessarily have been published in the lifetime of Clement, for Hermas is not instructed to deliver his message immediately, but only after the completion of his revelations, and this may have been after Clement's death. Clement, indeed, is recognized as the organ by which the church of Rome communicated with foreign churches; but we are not told that implied a pre-eminence in domestic rule
Enoch - Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and others allude to the Book of Enoch Bruce the Abyssinian traveler brought home three Ethiopic copies from Alexandria, which Lawrence translated in 1821
Franciscans - ... Neither the moderation of Clement V
Schism - The great schism of the West is that which happened in the times of Clement VII
Mark (John) - But the early Alexandrian Fathers, Clement and Origen, are silent as to Mark’s residence in Egypt
Apocalypse - These two fathers are followed by Clement of Alexandria, Theophilus of Antioch, Tertullian, Origen, Cyprian, Lactantius, Jerome, Athanasius, and many other ecclesiastical writers, all of whom concur in considering the Apostle John as the author of the Revelation
Text of the Gospels - It may be, for instance, that Origen has a reading which agrees with Manuscripts most approved by critical writers, but that the passage in which it occurs is not quoted by Clement of Alexandria. Here we are placed in a difficulty, because Clement and Origen did not by any means always agree, and, if a quotation had been preserved in which Clement used a different reading, it would be probable that Origen’s reading did not belong to the text traditionally current at Alexandria, but that he had obtained it from some other source; his evidence, therefore, would be simply of a personal character. When Clement’s and Origen’s quotations are thus dealt with, it is found that Origen in part agrees with the text most favoured by critical editors, but that his predecessor Clement used a substantially different text of a ‘Western’ type; Origen too, in part, followed ‘Western’ texts: the conclusions to which these phenomena lead will be discussed later on. Besides Clement and Origen, Hort names Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Novatian, belonging to the period named; Methodius towards the close of the 3rd cent. A fair number of Manuscripts exist of the Paedagogue of Clement of Alexandria
Canon of the New Testament - Clement of Rome assumed that the church at Corinth was acquainted with 1 Corinthians, although he was writing nearly 40 years after St. ... Turning to the East, we find Clement of Alexandria (a. In the true Alexandrian spirit, Clement has a wide and comprehensive idea of inspiration, and therefore no very definite conception of Scriptural exclusiveness or fixed boundaries to the Canon. Thus he quotes Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the Sibylline Writings as in some way authoritative. ’ Then follow the NT books the 4 Gospels, 14 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews therefore included in this category), 2 Epistles of Peter, 3 of John, James, Judges 1:2 Epistles of Clement, the 8 books of the Constitutions , Acts. Thus, while Clement and even the Apostolical Constitutions are included, the Revelation is left out, after a common custom in the East
Mark, Gospel According to - Clement of Alexandria ( c [Note: circa, about. 111) and pseudo-Clement of Rome (‘2 Clem, ad Cor . ; it was used by Heracleon, the Valentinians, and the authors of the Gospel of ( pseudo- ) Peter and the Clementine Homilies , and is found in all the old versions. Some make him go from Rome to Alexandria and take his Gospel there; but it is remarkable that the Alexandrian Fathers Clement and Origen do not mention this. Clement of Alexandria states that he wrote in Rome; Chrysostom (two centuries later) that he wrote in Egypt. For Papias by implication and Irenæus explicitly say that Mark wrote after Peter’s death, while Clement of Alexandria and Origen say that he wrote in Peter’s lifetime (see § 1)
Praise - ... The reference to ‘marvellous light’ suggests a reminiscence of the Transfiguration, and the idea is paraphrased in Clement of Rome (36): ‘Through Him [Jesus Christ] let us gaze into the heights of the heavens; through Him we behold as in a mirror His spotless and supernal countenance; through Him the eyes of our heart were opened; through Him our dull and darkened mind burgeons anew into the light’ (quoted by Hort, ib. There was a certain prejudice against the music of flutes, but they seem to have been used at Alexandria to accompany the hymns at the Agape until Clement of Alexandria substituted harps about a. ’... The ancient homily known as 2 Clement exhorts to give God ‘eternal praise not from our lips only but from our heart’ (ii
John, the Epistles of - Clement Alex. Clement Alex. So John writes to the elect church in Babylon where his old associate Peter ministered, as Peter thence had sent salutations of the elect church in the then Parthian (see Clement Alex
Church Government - ), and Apollos by the evidence of Clement of Rome, who most likely knew the truth of the matter. ... The difference of name between elders and bishops may point to some difference of origin or duties; but in NT (and in Clement of Rome) the terms are practically equivalent
Timothy, the First Epistle to - Clement of Alex. Clement of Rome (First Epistle to Cor
Africanus, Julius - ... Africanus ranks with Clement and Origen as among the most learned of the ante-Nicene fathers (Socr. 21), Clement of Alexandria ( Stromata, i
Jesuits - ... In 1773Pope Clement XIV issued the Brief of suppression by which the entire Jesuit order was suppressed throughout Christendom
Jesus, Company of - ... In 1773Pope Clement XIV issued the Brief of suppression by which the entire Jesuit order was suppressed throughout Christendom
Jesus, Society of - ... In 1773Pope Clement XIV issued the Brief of suppression by which the entire Jesuit order was suppressed throughout Christendom
Scripture - Clement of Rome, Barnahas (with the one exception referred to), Hermas, and even Justin Martyr use the title for the OT only
Irish Martyrs - ... Archbishops ...
Dermot O'Hurley, Cashel

Edmond MacGauran, Armagh

Malachy O'Quealy, Tuam

Richard Creagh, Armagh
Bishops ...
Boetius Egan, Ross

Cornelius O'Devany, Down and Connor

Edmund Dungan, Down and Connor

Eugene MacEgan (bishop-designate), Ross

Heber MacMahon, Clogher

Maurice O'Brien, Emly

Oliver Plunket, Saint

Patrick O'Healy, Mayo

Redmond Gallagher, Derry

Terrance Albert O'Brian, Emly

William Walsh, Meath
Secular Priests ...
AEneas Penny

Andrew Stritch

Bernard Fitzpatrick

Bernard Moriarty

Bernard O'Carolan

Brian Murchertagh

Daniel Delaney

Daniel O'Brien

Daniel O'Moloney

Donatus MacCried

Donough O'Cronin

Donough O'Falvey

Edward Stapleton

Eugene Cronin

George Power

Henry White

Hugh Carrigi

James Murchu

James O'Hegarty

John Lune

John O'Grady

John O'Kelley

John Stephens

John Walsh

Laurence O'Moore

Louis O'Laverty

Maurice O'Kenraghty

Nicholas Young

Patrick O'Derry

Patrick O'Loughran

Philip Cleary

Richard French

Roger Ormilius

Theobald Stapleton

Thomas Bath

Thomas Morrissey

Walter Ternan
Order of Premonstratensians ...
John Kieran (or Mulcheran)
Order of Cistercians ...
Bernard O'Trevir

Edmund Mulligan

Eugene O'Gallagher

Gelasius O'Cullenan

James Eustace

Luke Bergin

Malachy O'Connor

Malachy Shiel

Nicholas Fitzgerald

Patrick O'Connor

the Abbot and Monks of the Monastery of Magia

the Prior and the members of the Abbey of Saint Saviour
Order of Preachers ...
32 religious of the Monastery of Londonderry

Ambrose AEneas O'Cahill

Bernard O'Ferral

Bernard O'Kelly

Clement O'Callaghan

Cormac MacEgan

Daniel MacDonnel

David Fox

David Roche

Dominic MacEgan

Dominick Dillon

Donald O'Meaghten

Donatus Niger

Edmund O'Beirne

Felix MacDonnel

Felix O'Connor

Gerald Fitzgerald

Hugh MacGoill

James Moran

James O'Reilly

James Woulf

John Keating

John O'Cullen

John O'Flaverty

John O'Luin

Lawrence O'Ferral

Myler McGrath

P
Catholic Epistles - The letter of the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:23-29) is referred to as ‘catholic’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Martyrs, Irish - ... Archbishops ...
Dermot O'Hurley, Cashel

Edmond MacGauran, Armagh

Malachy O'Quealy, Tuam

Richard Creagh, Armagh
Bishops ...
Boetius Egan, Ross

Cornelius O'Devany, Down and Connor

Edmund Dungan, Down and Connor

Eugene MacEgan (bishop-designate), Ross

Heber MacMahon, Clogher

Maurice O'Brien, Emly

Oliver Plunket, Saint

Patrick O'Healy, Mayo

Redmond Gallagher, Derry

Terrance Albert O'Brian, Emly

William Walsh, Meath
Secular Priests ...
AEneas Penny

Andrew Stritch

Bernard Fitzpatrick

Bernard Moriarty

Bernard O'Carolan

Brian Murchertagh

Daniel Delaney

Daniel O'Brien

Daniel O'Moloney

Donatus MacCried

Donough O'Cronin

Donough O'Falvey

Edward Stapleton

Eugene Cronin

George Power

Henry White

Hugh Carrigi

James Murchu

James O'Hegarty

John Lune

John O'Grady

John O'Kelley

John Stephens

John Walsh

Laurence O'Moore

Louis O'Laverty

Maurice O'Kenraghty

Nicholas Young

Patrick O'Derry

Patrick O'Loughran

Philip Cleary

Richard French

Roger Ormilius

Theobald Stapleton

Thomas Bath

Thomas Morrissey

Walter Ternan
Order of Premonstratensians ...
John Kieran (or Mulcheran)
Order of Cistercians ...
Bernard O'Trevir

Edmund Mulligan

Eugene O'Gallagher

Gelasius O'Cullenan

James Eustace

Luke Bergin

Malachy O'Connor

Malachy Shiel

Nicholas Fitzgerald

Patrick O'Connor

the Abbot and Monks of the Monastery of Magia

the Prior and the members of the Abbey of Saint Saviour
Order of Preachers ...
32 religious of the Monastery of Londonderry

Ambrose AEneas O'Cahill

Bernard O'Ferral

Bernard O'Kelly

Clement O'Callaghan

Cormac MacEgan

Daniel MacDonnel

David Fox

David Roche

Dominic MacEgan

Dominick Dillon

Donald O'Meaghten

Donatus Niger

Edmund O'Beirne

Felix MacDonnel

Felix O'Connor

Gerald Fitzgerald

Hugh MacGoill

James Moran

James O'Reilly

James Woulf

John Keating

John O'Cullen

John O'Flaverty

John O'Luin

Lawrence O'Ferral

Myler McGrath

P
Nag Hammadi - Christian writers such as Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and Tertullian not only gave descriptions of the teachings of gnosticism, but they also quoted from gnostic writings
Godliness - ... In conclusion, it may be observed, and it has a bearing on the question of the authorship of the Pastorals, that the idea of ‘godliness’ serves to hind these letters together with the certainly late and unauthentic 2 Peter , 2 Clement
Society of Jesus - ... In 1773Pope Clement XIV issued the Brief of suppression by which the entire Jesuit order was suppressed throughout Christendom
Hermas Shepherd of - (3) He may have been an otherwise unknown person who was a contemporary of Pope Clement (circa, about a. ‘Thou shalt therefore write two little books, and shalt send one to Clement. … So Clement shall send to the foreign cities, for this is his duty. He is directed by her to write two copies of the book, after the revelation is finished, and send one to Clement that he may send it to the foreign cities, and one to Grapte that she may instruct the widows and the orphans. Clement, whose duty is to communicate with foreign cities, may, as we have seen, have been the bishop of Rome, while Grapte, who instructs the widows and the orphans, may have been a deaconess (Vis
James Epistle of - ... The writer is apparently little interested in questions of organization (contrast the Didache, Clement, Ignatius). Clement of Alexandria is said to have included a commentary on ‘Jude and the rest of the Catholic Epistles’ in his Hypotyposeis ( Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. ) Some critics are inclined to see in Clement of Rome evidences of the use of James. ) Clement quotes Genesis 15:6 in its proper context, following St
John the Apostle - He bases this assertion upon the evidence of Irenæus and Clement of Alexandria. Clement recites at length the well-known touching incident concerning St. Clement of Rome, writing about 93 95 concerning the Apostles and their successors, makes no reference to John as an eminent survivor, but speaks of the Apostolic age as if completely past. The explicit testimony of three writers like Polycrates, Irenæus, and Clement of Alexandria carries with it the implicit testimony of a whole generation of Christians extending over a very wide geographic area
Christ in the Early Church - (a) The earliest Christian writing extant outside the limits of the NT, and one which was for long on the verge of admission into the Canon, is the Epistle to the Corinthians, usually assigned to Clement, bishop of Rome. ... (b) The so-called Second Epistle of Clement dates probably within the first half of the 2nd cent. ... (b) In the East, Gnosticism was met by the great writers of the School of Alexandria, Clement and Origen, who further developed the conception of Christ as the Logos who is immanent in the Universe. (a) To Clement of Rome, Christ is ‘the high priest of our offerings, the guardian and helper of our weakness’ (36). ... (b) The unknown author of the Second Epistle of Clement opens his sermon with a burst of enthusiastic gratitude: ‘What recompense then shall we give to Him (Jesus Christ)? or what fruit worthy of His own gift to us? And how many mercies do we owe Him! For He bestowed the light on us; He spake to us, as a father to his sons; He saved us when we were perishing—He called us when we were not, and from not being He willed us to be. ’... (b) A remarkable hymn attributed to Clement of Alexandria, intended apparently to be sung by Christian children, in which Christ is addressed throughout and praised as Ruler, Shepherd, and King, is found in his Paedagogus (iii
Hebrews, Epistle to - ... Erasmus, the first to express the latent feelings of uncertainty, conjectured in a characteristically modest fashion that Clement of Rome was possibly the author. Luke and Clement, following, no doubt, some of the statements of Origen as to traditions current in his day (see Eusebius, HE vi. Moreover, Clement of Rome again and again refers to ‘our fathers,’ though he too is writing to a Church largely Gentile (see cc
Confession - There is an interesting parallel in Clement, ad Cor. ... Both Clement and Hermas witness to the custom of public confession. Clement writes to the Corinthians (57): ‘Ye therefore that laid the foundation of the sedition, submit yourselves unto the presbyters and receive chastisement unto repentance, bending the knees of your heart
Apostle - " In this inferior sense the appellation is applied, by Clement of Alexandria, to Barnabas; who was not an Apostle in the highest sense of the word, so as the twelve and Paul were Apostles. Tertullian calls all the seventy disciples Apostles; and Clement calls Barnabas Apostolical merely in another place, and says that he was one of the seventy, and fellow labourer of Paul. Clement of Rome is called Apostle
Eucherius, Saint, Bishop of Lyons - Clement of Rome, Gregory Thaumaturgus, Gregory Nazianzen, Basil, Paulinus of Nola, Ambrose, etc
Nation - Paul, before his death, ‘had planted more churches than Plato had gained disciples’ (Bossuet, Panégyrique de Saint Paul, 1659)-ἐπὶ τὸ τέρμα τῆς δύσεως ἐλθών, as Clement says (ad Cor
Offence - ... Clement of Rome uses the word παραπτῶσις in combination with danger, in the sense of a fault incurred through disobedience to the counsels of the Fathers (Cor
Peter, First Epistle of - Polycarp is the earliest writer who indubitably quotes the Epistle, though it was probably familiar to Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Papias, and perhaps Ignatius. It is first quoted as Peter’s by Irenæus and Tertullian, and is frequently used by Clement of Alexandria. Peter died in Rome is supported by a very strong chain of evidence, being deducible from Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Papias; and it is held by Dionysius of Corinth, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria
Intercession - he exhorts that ‘supplications, prayers, intercessions, thanksgivings, be made for all men, for kings and all that are in high place,’ a direction which, as we shall see presently in the letter of Clement, was fervently followed in the Church in Rome, from which city he wrote this last Epistle. ... (a) Clement goes to the root of the troubles at Corinth when he asks that intercession should be made ‘for them that are in any transgression, that forbearance and humility may be given them’ (Ep
Intercession - he exhorts that ‘supplications, prayers, intercessions, thanksgivings, be made for all men, for kings and all that are in high place,’ a direction which, as we shall see presently in the letter of Clement, was fervently followed in the Church in Rome, from which city he wrote this last Epistle. ... (a) Clement goes to the root of the troubles at Corinth when he asks that intercession should be made ‘for them that are in any transgression, that forbearance and humility may be given them’ (Ep
Romans, the Epistle to the - " The epistles of Clement (Cor. Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria often quote it
Sayings (Unwritten) - ... Clement of Alexandria (Strom. of Clement of Rome (c
Black People And Biblical Perspectives - Recent research has determined that nine of the eighteen church fathers were African (Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Dionysius, Athanasius, Didymus, Augustine, and Cyril)
James, the Lord's Brother - 1) that Peter and James and John chose him to be bishop of Jerusalem; while in the letter of Clement prefixed to the Clem
Seventy Weeks of Daniel - Clement and Origen place the destruction of Jerusalem as forty-two years after the crucifixion
Marcus, a Gnostic - But Clement of Alexandria clearly knew and used them
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - ascribed to Clement, and pub. This rule of fasting may be illustrated by the account given in the Clementines (Hom. 36) of the baptism of Clement's mother. In the Clementines which in several points manifest affinity with the Didaché it is not merely the Eucharist from which the unbaptized are excluded. 36); and all through the Clementines the language in which the benediction of every meal is described is such as to make it uncertain whether a celebration of the Eucharist is meant. " This expression the "vine of David" was known to Clement of Alexandria who says of Christ (Quis Dives Salv. of Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp, and the Shepherd, are all orthodox. ... Clement of Alexandria was certainly acquainted with the Didaché in some form. Even the later form of the Didaché may well be considerably older than Clement; and he might easily have met with a copy during his travels in the East
Peter Epistles of - Titus 3:1-3; Clement of Rome, ad Cor. Clement of Rome (ad Cor. 5-7), about the year 95, speaks less explicitly, but in the light of the statements of Tacitus and Suetonius it seems altogether probable that Clement has in mind the Neronian persecution. Clement says that ‘envy’ was the cause of the trouble, and his language doubtless reflects the same popular animosity of which Tacitus speaks
Luke, Gospel According to - 177), who refers to the genealogy of Jesus from Adam; the Clementine Homities (2nd cent. The first writers who name Luke in connexion with it are Irenæus and the author of the Muratorian Fragment (perhaps Hippolytus), Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria all at the end of the 2nd century. If we go back earlier than any of the writers named above, we note that Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, and the Didache writer perhaps knew Lk. Yet Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp probably quote Acts, and the title of the Didache seems to come from Acts 2:42 , and this presupposes the circulation of Luke
Canon of the New Testament - In the latter part of the 2nd century Clement of Alexandria refers to "the gospel" collection and that of all the epistles of "the apostles. If it be asked why we do not receive the epistles of Barnabas and of Clement, the Acts of Paul and Thecla (one of the earliest apocryphal writings), etc
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - 5:6, section 1) quotes 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Clement of Alexandria (Paed. Clement of Alexandria quotes 2 Thessalonians 3:2 as Paul's words (Strom
Jude Epistle of - Our earliest suggestion on this point comes from Clement of Alexandria (Strom. 3), Clement of Alexandria (Paed
James - 9) relates, on the authority of Clement of Alexandria, that, when he was tried for his life, his accuser was so greatly affected by his constancy that he declared himself a Christian, and died with him after obtaining his forgiveness and blessing. 1 (quotation from Clement of Alexandria), ii. (quotation from the Gospel according to the Hebrews); Clementine Homilies (ad init
Peter - Peter has always been considered as canonical; and in proof of its genuineness we may observe that it is referred to by Clement of Rome, Hermes, and Polycarp; that we are assured by Eusebius, that it was quoted by Papias; and that it is expressly mentioned by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and most of the later fathers
Barnabas - The Clementine Homilies make him a disciple of our Lord, and to have preached in Rome and Alexandria, and converted Clement of Rome
Colosse - , 2:10), Irenaeus (3:14, section 1), Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, 1:325), Tertullian (Praescr
Jansenists - At last Clement XI
Friends Friendship - And when he speaks of others, like Urban, Epaphroditus, Clement, and Philemon, as his fellow-workers, or, like Andronicus, Junias, and Aristarchus, as his fellow-prisoners, or, like Archippus, as his fellow-soldiers, it would be very puerile criticism to say that because he does not term them technically his friends there was no friendship between him and them
Antichrist - Pope Clement VIII was stung with this decision; and even king Henry IV, of France, was not a little mortified, to be thus declared, as he said, an imp of antichrist
Scotland - In 1188 Pope Clement III announced by Bull that the Scottish Church with its nine dioceses was immediately subject to the Holy See
Chronology of the New Testament - The difficulty of the phrase was early felt, for the Old Syriac and the Peshitta Syriac omit the participle altogether, and Clement of Alexandria ( Strom . ( a ) Clement of Alexandria ( loc. Fathers, the Clementine Homilies (xvii
Corinth - ... Clement's epistles to the Corinthians are still extant. Its authenticity is attested by Clement of Rome (Ep. ), Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Version - " It subsequently underwent various revisions, but that which was executed (1592) under the sanction of Pope Clement VIII
Foreknowledge - Clement speaks of the first apostles being endowed with ‘perfect foreknowledge’ to enable them to hand on to approved successors the ministry and service they had fulfilled (1 Clem
Didymus, Head of the Catechetical School - Athanasius made the blind scholar head of the Catechetical School, as a fitting successor to Pantaenus and Clement
Encratites - Not to speak of the Indian ascetics (to whom Clement of Alexandria refers as predecessors of the Encratites), the abstinence of the Essenes, both in respect of food and of marriage, is notorious. We find from the Clementines that the Ebionite sects which arose out of Essenism permitted marriage but disallowed flesh meat and wine; and that their doctrine respecting God's work of creation was quite orthodox. A full discussion of their arguments occurs in the third book of Clement's Stromateis (though the name Encratites does not occur here) the principal writers whom he combats being Marcion Tatian already mentioned by Irenaeus as a leader of that sect and Julius Cassianus
Luke - We may however observe, that his testimony is supported by Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerom, Chrysostom, and many others
Psalmody - ... Clement Marot, groom of the bed chamber to Francis I, king of France, was the first who engaged in translating the Psalms into metre
James - Clement of Rome and Hermas allude to this epistle; and it is quoted by Origen, Eusebius, Athanasius, Jerom, Chrysostom, Augustine, and many other fathers
Barnabas, Epistle of - Clement of Alexandria bears witness to it as the work of "Barnabas the apostle"—"Barnabas who was one of the seventy disciples and the fellow-labourer of Paul"—"Barnabas who also preached the Gospel along with the apostle according to the dispensation of the Gentiles" ( Strom. by Clement and Origen; that some would have assigned it a place in the canon; and that, even by those who denied it that place, it was regarded as a most useful and edifying work. Two limits are allowed by all, the destruction of Jerusalem on the one hand, and the time of Clement of Alexandria on the other—that is, from a
Gnosticism - Baur, for instance, reckons among Gnostics the sectaries from whom the Clementine writings emanated, although on some of the most fundamental points their doctrines are diametrically opposed to those commonly reckoned as Gnostic. If we made our definition turn on the claim to the possession of such a Gnosis and to the title of Gnostic, we should have to count Clement of Alexandria among Gnostics and I. A very important though not a complete division is that made by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. Those Jewish sects whose Essenism passed into the Ebionitism of the Clementines regarded Christianity as essentially identical with Judaism either religion being sufficient for salvation. Clement of Alexandria distinguished between faith and knowledge. The Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria, though provokingly desultory and unsystematic, furnish much valuable information about Gnosticism, which was still a living foe of the church
John, Gospel of (Critical) - ... (2) Clement of Alexandria is the author of a statement preserved by Eusebius (Historia Ecclesiastica vi. ’ From about 189, Clement was head of the celebrated catechetical school at Alexandria. Jerome speaks of his ‘eager and vehement disposition,’ and his habit of mind is in striking contrast to the philosophic temper of Clement. The second statement seems, like the γνώριμοι of Clement, to be founded on John 1:14; John 21:24, and possesses no independent value, except as an interpretation of internal evidence. The difficulty is increased by the discovery that in the Clementine Homilies (xi
Marriage - Hebrews 13:4); the quotation from Genesis is repeated (Ephesians 5:31), and marriage is said to symbolize the union between Christ and His Church (Ephesians 5:23-28)-a metaphor drawn out in the ancient homily known as 2 Clement (§ 14: ‘the male is Christ, and the female is the Church’). Similarly Clement of Rome (ad Cor. ’ We note that both Ignatius and Clement use ἁγνός or ἁγνεία of celibacy, though they do not say that celibacy is the higher state
Rufinus of Aquileia - Besides these there are several prefaces to the translations from Greek authors, on which his chief labour was expended, and which include The Monastic Rule of Basil , and his 8 Homilies ; the Apology for Origen , written by Pamphilus and Eusebius; Origen's Περὶ Ἀρχῶν and many of his commentaries; 10 works of Gregory Nazianzen; the Sentences of Sixtus or Xystus; the Sentences of Evagrius, and his book addressed to Virgins; the Recognitions of Clement; the 10 books of Eusebius's History; the Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria. Next, probably, he translated the Recognitions of Clement. [ClementINE LITERATURE. He had no doubt of the Recognitions being the work of Clement, and he translated the sayings of Xystus the Stoic philosopher, stating, without futher remark, that they were said to be those of Sixtus, the Roman bishop, thus laying himself open to Jerome's attack upon his credulity
James - Clement of Alexandria (Hypotyposeis, 7; Eusebius, H. ... Besides Clement of Alexandria who speaks of his episcopate (Hypot
Virgin Virginity - It is curious to note that Clement of Alexandria in Eus. ’ The probability is that Clement-as evidently Eusebius-identifies the two names
the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia - Just what a name is, what its root is, and when and where this and that name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost were first heard; these inquiries, as Clement says, breed great light in the souls both of preachers and hearers. And then to see how the Father's name gives place to the Son's name in the New Testament,-all that breeds great light in the soul, as Clement says
New Testament - ... Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. of the entire Greek Bible, with the Epistles of Clement added
Bishop - So in the epistles of Clement of Rome the two terms are interchangeable
Grave Gravity - This aspect of gravity is referred to by Clement more than once in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (ch
Doxology - 2; Clement of Rome, 58)
Dionysius (3), Bishop of Corinth - The letters, including that to Rome, are each addressed to the church, not to the bishop; and Soter's own letter, like Clement's former one, was written not in his own name, but that of his church ( ὑμῶν τὴν ἐπιστολὴν ). Dionysius informs the church of Rome that the day on which he wrote, being the Lord's day, had been kept holy, and that they had then read the letter of the Roman church, and would continue from time to time to read it for their instruction, as they were in the habit of reading the letter formerly written from the same church by the hand of Clement; and speaking of the falsification of his own letters, he adds, "No marvel, then, that some have attempted to tamper with the Scriptures of the Lord, since they have attempted it on writings not comparable to them (οὐ τοιαύταις )
Doxology - 2; Clement of Rome, 58)
Philip - ... The most interesting of these is the account preserved by Clement of Alexandria (Strom, iii
Heaven - The Apostolic Fathers... (a) Clement of Rome. -In 1 Clement we have the following passages: v. ’ In 2 Clement we have-v
Woman - Clement of Rome, at the end of the century, refers to the sufferings endured by women under the Neronian persecution (Ep. in regard to womanly conduct are well summarized in the exhortation of Clement of Rome: ‘Let us guide our women toward that which is good: let them show forth their lovely disposition of purity; let them prove their sincere affection of gentleness; let them make manifest the moderation of their tongue through their silence; let them show their love, not in factious preferences but without partiality towards all them that fear God, in holiness’ (ad Cor
Peter, Second Epistle of - 250); probably it was used by Clement of Alexandria; and Origen knew it, but doubted its genuineness. ’ But in any case, by the time of 1 Clement there was a collection of St
Colossians, Epistle to the - It appears to have been accepted without question as genuine both by Churchmen and by heretics, and is referred to by the Muratorian Fragment, by Irenæus, and by Clement of Alexandria
Barnabas - From an early date also the writing of an Epistle has been ascribed to him: (1) the Epistle to the Hebrews, the authorship of which was claimed for him by Tertullian; and (2) the Epistle to which his name has been attached since the time of Clement of Alexandria (see following article)
Alexandria - Clement of Alexandria succeeded Pantaenus in this school about the year 190; and he was succeeded by Origen
Matthew - ... In the few writings which remain of the apostolical fathers, Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, Ignatius, and Polycarp, there are manifest allusions to several passages in St
Rome, - Linus, who is mentioned (2 Timothy 4:21 ) and Clement, Philippians 4:3 Are supposed to have succeeded St
Only Begotten - Thus the present writer believes that it was persons like Clement of Alexandria who were first reminded of the Orphic titles of the aeons by the predicate μονογενής applied to Christ as Son of God
Dates (2) - ... The early Fathers, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Africanus, and Hippolytus, were the first to attempt to arrange the events of the Gospel in chronological sequence. ... (c) Patristic testimony, as represented by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, and Hippolytus, and perhaps based upon Luke 2:2, favours a date between b. Clement stated, ‘Our Lord was born in the 28th year (b
Papias - 24, possibly from Clement of Alexandria, whose account of the Gospels as contained in ‘a tradition of the elders of earlier times’ (τῶν ἀνέκαθεν πρεσβυτέρων) he elsewhere cites (vi. 15 Clement is cited by Euseb. for an expanded form of the Papian tradition as to Mark’s Gospel, with the additional remark that Clement’s account is confirmed by Papias of Hierapolis. Not only does Irenaeus regard it as the work of ‘a primitive worthy’ (ἀρχαῖος ἀνήρ), but Eusebius himself classes Papias with Polycarp, Ignatius, Clement (in this order), and others of the next generation after the Apostles (iii
Bible - Clement of Alexandria speaks of the New Testament making up with the Old Testament "one knowledge. A very remarkable proof of the Divinity of the New Testament is the marked difference between it and the writings of even the apostolic fathers that immediately succeeded: Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp
Nativity of Christ - The Egyptians placed it in January; Wagenseil, in February; Bochart, in March, some, mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, in April; others, in May; Epiphanius speaks of some who placed it in June, and of others who supposed it to have been in July; Wagenseil, who was not sure of February fixed it probably in August; Lightfoot, on the fifteenth of September; Scaliger, Casaubon, and Calvisius, in October; others, in November; and the Latin church in December
Jude, Epistle of - 200), commented upon by Clement of Alexandria, and accepted by Origen and by Tertullian
Drunkenness - Clement, Cyprian, Chrysostom, Jerome, and Augustine all preached moderation to every one and abstinence to some
Proverbs, the Book of - " The Christian fathers (Clement, Ep
Council - ) that of Vienne, under Clement V, in 1311; (16
Nero, Claudius Caesar - Clement (Ep
Union With God - , outside the canon of Scripture, including the epistles of Clement and Barnabas and perhaps the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, fragments of Papias, and the Shepherd of Hermas, so popular in the Church during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, contains nothing new or distinctive bearing on the subject of union with God as compared with the apostolic writings. ... Clement has some fine passages about creation (Ep
Galatians, Epistle to the - As for the testimony, Clement of Rome explicitly mentions and quotes 1 Corinthians, and his date cannot be brought down later than a. heretics, alluded to by adversaries like Celsus and the writer of the Clementine Homilies , and quoted by name and distinctly (as their fashion was) by Irenæus, Clement of Alexandria, and Tertullian, at the end of the 2nd century. An anti-Jewish Gnostic would not have used expressions of deference to the Apostles of the Circumcision; an Ebionite would not have used the arguments of the Epistle against the Mosaic Law (thus the Clementine Homilies , an Ebionite work, clearly hits at the Epistle in several passages); an orthodox forger would avoid all appearance of conflict between Peter and Paul
Election - ’ The thought appears early in the sub-Apostolic Church, For in Clement’s Epistle to the Corinthians he urges them to ‘pray with earnest supplication and intercession that the Creator of all would preserve unharmed the constituted number of His elect in all the world through His beloved Son, Jesus Christ, through whom He called us from darkness to light, from ignorance to knowledge of the glory of His name’ (lix. No countenance is given in the Early Church to the idea that ‘the elect’ may live as they list and at last be saved, ‘Let us cleave to the innocent and the righteous,’ says Clement of Rome, ‘for such are the elect of God’ (op. ’ ‘In love all the elect of God were made perfect,’ says Clement again (xlix
Christian Life - 100 as marking the extreme limit of the Apostolic Age, our authorities for determining the characteristics of Christian practice and of the Christian life in its inner and outer aspects are but meagre, consisting of the NT writings, the Didache, 1 Clement, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Epistles of Ignatius, some fragments of Papias and Hegesippus preserved by Eusebius, and a few contemporary references in pagan writers like Tacitus and Suetonius. On the other hand, elsewhere in the NT and in Clement’s First Ep. We have also the Ignatian Epistles, 1 Clement, and the recently discovered Odes of Solomon (q
Ebionism And Ebionites - This is further evident from the book of Elchasai and the Clementine literature. Even in the church of Rome, whatever tendency existed in Apostolic times towards Ebionism, the separation—also in Apostolic times—of the Judaizers was the beginning of the end which no after-amalgamation under Clement could retard. 3)—however different from the tone of Clement and St. Paul, is not Ebionite, as a comparison with another so-called Roman and certainly later Ebionite work—the Clementine writings—shews. ) Schliemann, Die Clementinen (1844); Ritschl, Die Entstehung d
Jesuits - Pope Clement III, prohibited their landing in his dominions; and, after enduring extreme miseries in crowded transports, the survivors, to the number of two thousand three hundred, were put ashore on Corsica. Frederick the Great, of Prussia, was the only monarch who showed a disposition to afford them protection; but in 1773 the order was entirely suppressed by Pope Clement XIV, who is supposed to have fallen a victim to their vengeance
John, the Gospel of - Perhaps because it is so different from the Synoptic Gospels, Clement of Alexandria called it the “spiritual Gospel
Sweat - ’s Gospel, while the silence of such writers as Clement of Alexandria and Origen cannot be without significance
John, the Letters of - It was regarded as the work of the apostle John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and the Muratorian Canon
James, the General Epistle of - Clement of Rome quotes from it a century earlier (1 Ep
Love-Feast - Mayor, Appendix C in Hort and Mayor’s Clement of Alexandria, Seventh Book of the Stromateis, London, 1902; also books and articles mentioned in article Eucharist
Feasting - Clement of Alexandria speaks of the whole Christian life of the true Gnostic as a holy panegyric (joyful assembly) (Strom
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - in the time of Clement VIII
Vulgate - If the Vulgate had enjoyed from the first the protection of an official sanction, which Sixtus and Clement ultimately gave to the printed text, it would have come down to us in a much purer form than is actually the case. The Sixtine edition, however, had hardly been issued when it was recalled in 1592 by Clement VIII . , at the instance, it is believed, of the Jesuits, with whom Sixtus had quarrelled; and in the same year a new edition was issued under the authority of Clement, with a preface by the famous Jesuit Bellarmin, in which (to avoid the appearance of a conflict between Popes) the suppression of the Sixtine edition is falsely stated to be due to the abundance in it of printers’ errors, and to have been contemplated by Sixtus himself. The Clementine revisers in many instances restored the readings of Sixtus’ board, which Sixtus himself had altered; and the general result of their labours was to produce a text resembling that of Hentenius, while the Sixtine edition was nearer to that of Stephanus. The bull in which the Clementine edition was promulgated forbade any future alteration of the text and any printing of various readings in the margin, and thereby stereotyped the official text of the Vulgate from that day until this. Clement’s bull practically closed the textual criticism of the Vulgate in the Roman Church, though Vallarsi was able to print a new text in his edition of the works of St. The best edition of the Clementine Vulgate is that of Vercellone (1861)
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - 14), quoted from the lost ‘Outlines’ of Clement of Alexandria, gives us the earliest view which was taken of the Fourth Gospel. , as we see from the caution imposed upon Clement of Alexandria by conservative prejudice, and on the other side by the diatribes of the obscurantist Tertullian against philosophy? At that period Gnosticism had gained a footing within the Church, and orthodoxy had become alive to the dangers which threatened the Christian religion from this side. We find this conviction in Philo, and very strongly in Clement of Alexandria, who, as a Christian, is important evidence
Teaching - ... The teaching was oral, as a rule, but it might be conveyed by means of didactic epistles, such as those contained in the NT or those of Clement of Rome and Ignatius, or works like the Didache and the Shepherd of Hermas. The amplification and modification of this primitive norm of belief and practice can be traced in the Didache, the Epistles of Clement and Ignatius, and the Shepherd of Hermas in the immediately succeeding years
Sacraments - The sacramental references in the Didache, Hermas, Barnabas, Ignatius, Clement of Rome, all assume that their readers are familiar with the doctrine of Baptism and the Eucharist. Evidence as to the high place assigned to Baptism and the Eucharist in the Didache, to Baptism in Hernias and Barnabas, to the Eucharist in Ignatius, and to the eucharistic service in Clement of Rome, is decisive and leaves no room for doubt
Gospels - Clement of Alexandria in the latter part of the second century refers to the collection of Gospels as one whole, "the gospel" (Quis Dives Salvus?). Barnabas (Paul's companion), Clement of Rome (Philippians 4:3), and Polycarp quote the Gospels, though not with verbal exactness
Head - ] ... The Pauline analogy of ‘body’ and ‘Church’ is employed by Clement of Rome, though without explicit reference to the Headship of Christ, the head being named here simply as a higher member: ‘The head without the feet is nothing; so likewise the feet without the head are nothing: even the smallest limbs of our body are necessary and useful for the whole body: but all the members conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be saved’ (1 Clem
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - George's Day, till revised by pope Clement VIII
Alexandria - The Alexandrian school of theology was made lustrous by the names of Pantænus, Clement, and especially Origen, who, while continuing the allegorical tradition, strove to show that Christian doctrine enshrined and realized the dreams and yearnings of Greek philosophy
Perfect Perfection - ... The high tone of the apostolic teaching is sustained by Clement of Rome, who says (Ep
Head - ] ... The Pauline analogy of ‘body’ and ‘Church’ is employed by Clement of Rome, though without explicit reference to the Headship of Christ, the head being named here simply as a higher member: ‘The head without the feet is nothing; so likewise the feet without the head are nothing: even the smallest limbs of our body are necessary and useful for the whole body: but all the members conspire and unite in subjection, that the whole body may be saved’ (1 Clem
Wisdom - The process is seen in Clement of Alexandria (Strom ii. But the corrupting leaven soon spread in a community that Clement of Rome (Letter to the Church of Corinth, iii
Acts of the Apostles - There are probable references to Acts in Clement of Rome (c [Note: circa, about. in Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Irenæus, all of whom ascribe the book to Luke
Carpocrates, Philospher - He is described as teaching with prominence the doctrine of a single first principle: the name μοναδικὴ γνῶσις , given by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Diognetus, Epistle to - ... Lost in the crowd of predecessors whom Irenaeus and Clement hardly ever name and merged in Justin's shadow, convinced that God alone can reveal Himself, and content to be hidden in his Saviour's righteousness, the old writer has gradually emerged by virtue of an inborn lustre, at once the obscurest and most brilliant of his contemporaries, and has cast a glory on the early church while remaining himself unknown
Mystery - The agraphon quoted by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
John the Apostle - Clement of Alexandria (Quis Dives Salvus? ) reports of John as a careful pastor, that he commended a noble looking youth in a city near Ephesus to the bishop
Romans Epistle to the - 140), Clement of Alexandria and Origen are the only Ante-Nicene Fathers who do so. It begins with 1 Peter, and perhaps with Hebrews and James (see 9), and clear traces, though without definite quotation, are found in Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Polycarp, and Justin Martyr (see full quotations and references in Sanday-Headlam, p
Colossians, Epistle to the - was known to Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria. Earlier references are all rather uncertain, especially in Barnabas and Clement of Rome. The Judaistic references were explained on this theory to be due to some sort of Gnostic Ebionism, on the lines of the pseudo-Clementines
Calendar, the Christian - Clement of Alexandria, Strom. Another explanation is given by Clement of Alexandria (Strom, vii
John, Epistles of - Clement of Alexandria at the close of the 2nd cent. Clement of Alexandria by a mention of John’s ‘larger Epistle’ shows that he was acquainted with at least one other shorter letter
John, Gospel of - 170; Clement, head of the catechetical school in Alexandria, about 190; and Tertullian, the eloquent African Father, who wrote at the end of the century, and who quotes freely from all the Gospels by name. Clement of Alexandria, in handing down ‘the tradition of the elders from the first,’ says that ‘John, last of all, having observed that the bodily things had been exhibited in the Gospels, exhorted by his friends and inspired by the Spirit, produced a spiritual gospel’ (Eus. ’ Slighter and more doubtful references are found in the Clementine Homilies and other heretical writings, and these go at least some way to show that the peculiar phraseology of the Fourth Gospel was known and appealed to as authoritative in the middle of the 2nd century. before Christ might use the name of Solomon, or the author of the Clementine Homilies in the 2nd cent
Paul the Apostle - pseudo-Clementine literature, he gathered that there were originally two bitterly opposed factions in the Church, Jewish and Gentile, headed respectively by St. (for the Epistles of Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp must also, according to this school, go by the board) is absolutely incredible. ) use 2 Thessalonians; Clement of Rome ( c [Note: circa, about
Hebrews - Luke, Clement of Rome, Priscilla, Barnabas, Apollos, or a Hellenist like Stephen have all been suggested
Seventy (2) - Clement of Alexandria, writing in the latter part of the 2nd cent
Bible, Canon of the - Even in the third century, authors such as Clement of Alexandria and Origen used the expression "new covenant" to refer to the covenant rather than to the documents containing it. 450) contained 1,2Clement
Reward - The Pauline ἀντιμισθία appears now and then in 2 Clement (i
Salutations - Clement of Alexandria also recognizes abuses which crept in, and refers to the resounding kisses in church which made suspicions and evil reports among the heathen, and claims that the kiss must be ‘mystic’ (Paed
Majesty (2) - ‘Base of aspect’ (αἰσχρὸς τὴν ὄψιν) is the verdict of Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Baptism - The Clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:20, and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12
Prayer - Clement of Rome associated prostration with penitence (Ep
Mss - Clement, the third in the list after St. Here it is only necessary to mention that the received text of it, which is found in all ordinary Latin Bibles, is that which was officially sanctioned by Pope Clement viii
New Testament - 1590, with anathemas against any who should alter it 'in minima particula,' and afterwards altered by Clement VIII (1592) in 2,000 places in spite of Sixtus' anathema) and as many out of the Protestant pope Stephens' edition, I can set out an edition of each (Latin, Vulgate, and Greek text) in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tallies can agree better. ... He found the oldest manuscripts of Jerome's Vulgate differ widely from the Clementine, and agree both in the words and in their order (which Jerome preserved in his translated "because even the order of the words is a mystery": Ep. The texts of Sixtus V (1590) and Clement VIII (1592), authorized with anathemas, differ widely from Jerome's true text as restored by the Amiatinus manuscript or Laurentianus, which was transcribed by Servandus, abbot of Monast
Gospels - Clement of Alexandria accounts for the fact of the differences by a solution which he says he derived from ‘the ancient elders,’ namely, that John, seeing that the external (lit. By this phrase Clement clearly means a Gospel which emphasizes the Godhead of our Lord. All these phenomena may be accounted for on Clement’s hypothesis
Christ in Art - Clement below, under ‘Other Symbols. Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Church - , we have the Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians and the Epistle of Barnabas, one representing Gentile and the other Jewish Christianity. From outside the Christian Church we have good material, especially respecting the great crisis of the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, from the Jewish writer, Josephus; and also some important statements from the heathen writers, Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny, who were contemporary with Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp
Revelation, Book of - It is also used, among others, by Melito, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen, and attributed to the Apostle John by the first-named as well as by Irenæus
Esdras, the Second Book of - Some early writers cite it as prophetical-Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Divination - and in 1 Clement, xxx, xxxv
Reformation - The pope thought the emperor to be too Clement, and alleged that it was his duty to execute vengeance upon the heretical faction. The pontiff (Clement VII
Simon Magus - (a) The Clementine Homilies and Recognitions. They relate the story of Clement’s search for truth until his reunion with the long-lost members of his family. According to the Homilies, in the course of his wanderings Clement met Peter at Caesarea in Palestine. Simon managed to escape by changing the face of Faustus, Clement’s father, and making it like his own. It does not settle the question whether the Clementines and the Petrine Acts depend upon independent documents, as G. According to Baur and his followers, the Ebionite Clementine literature contains a caricature of the apostle Paul. This theory, ingeniously applied to Patristic and Clementine literature, and worked out with much skill, won many adherents for a time, despite the fact that it proved the presence of biased and fabricated history within primitive Christianity. ’ It is not denied that the Clementine literature is marked by hostility to St. ‘The Clementine writings were produced in Rome, early in the third century, by members of the Elkesaite sect. Paul in the Clementines. Paul with Simon Magus further than we are forced to by the facts of the case is to lose sight of the real character of the Clementines as the counterblast of Jewish to Samaritan Gnosticism and to obscure the greatness of Simon of Gitta, who was really the father of all heresy. The existence of the sect is testified by Hegesippus and Clement of Alexandria’ (op
Art - It is from Clement of Alexandria in the chapter headed ‘Human arts as well as Divine knowledge proceed from God’ (Strom. 4), and is quite final as to Clement’s opinion. Clement describes a number of subjects commonly engraved upon seals to which Christians could give a Christian meaning (see Christ in Art), whilst he forbids the use of seals which bear idols, swords, bows, and drinking cups—condemning thus, not art, but idolatry, war, and drunkenness (Paed
Worship - Clement: "We ought also, looking into the depths of the divine knowledge, to do all things in order, whatsoever the Lord hath commanded to be done. Clement, no doubt, means the authority of the inspired directions of the Apostles
Odes of Solomon - For instance, as parallels to the following sentence of the same Ode, ‘for he that is joined to Him that is immortal, will also himself become immortal,’ a quotation from Clement and another from Ephrem are cited which run thus: ‘Being baptized, we are illuminated; illuminated, we become sons; being made sons, we are made perfect; being made perfect, we are made immortal’ (Paed. Clement speaks of Christianity as a mystery, and uses freely the language of the mysteries in the invitation to the heathen which is the peroration of his Protrepticus’ (H
Law - The Decalogue (a term first found in Clement of Alexandria's Pedag
Croisade, or Crusade - in 1292, and Clement V
Christian (the Name) - Writers like Justin, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria catch at this idea
Simon Magus - ... The Simon of the Clementines . —The Clementines, like Justin, identify Simon of Gitta with the Simon of Acts ; but there is every reason to believe that they were merely following Justin. Justin has evidently direct knowledge of the Simonians, and regards them as formidable heretics; but in the Clementines the doctrines which Justin gives as Simonian have no prominence; and the introduction of Simon is merely a literary contrivance to bring in the theological discussions in which the author is interested. —The Clementine writings were produced in Rome early in 3rd cent. Baur first drew attention to this characteristic in the Clementines and pointed out that in the disputations between Simon and Peter some of the claims Simon is represented as making (e. The passages are found only in the Clementine Homilies which may be regarded as one of the latest forms which these forgeries assumed. In the Clementine Recognitions there is abundance of anti-Paulism; but the idea does not appear to have occurred to the writer to dress up Paul under the mask of Simon. The Clementines represent Simon as going voluntarily to Rome; but the original must surely have represented him as taken there as a prisoner by the Roman authorities, and so on. 62), who states that some of them were called Heleniani; and Clement of Alexandria ( Strom. Writings in his name were in circulation, teste the Clementine Recognitions, and Epiphanius as confirming Hippolytus. Gnostic teacher; but this identification is followed in the Clementines
Ephesians, Theology of - 3 ), Clement of Alexandria (Stromateis 4
Soul - ’* [Note: the striking words of Clement of Alexandria: ‘The Apostles, following the Lord, preached the gospel to those in Hades
Gifts - The use of δωρεά as the ‘free gift’ of God, springing from His χάρις, or ‘grace,’ is found in Acts 2:38; Acts 8:26; Acts 10:45; Acts 11:17, Romans 5:15; Romans 5:17, 2 Corinthians 9:15, Ephesians 3:7; Ephesians 4:7, Hebrews 6:4, and is also used by apostolic writers like Clement (cf
Baptism - The Clement is mentioned or alluded to in Acts 8:36, 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13 (‘drink of one Spirit’), Ephesians 5:26, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 10:22, 1 Peter 3:20, and is necessitated by the metaphor of burial in baptism in Romans 6:4, Colossians 2:12
Jesuits - in 1604; Venice in 1606; Portugal in 1759; France in 1764; Spain and Sicilly in 1767; and totally suppressed and abolished by Pope Clement XIV
Soul - ’* [Note: the striking words of Clement of Alexandria: ‘The Apostles, following the Lord, preached the gospel to those in Hades
Acts of the Apostles - -The earliest quotations long enough to have any value for determining the text are in Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria, who may be regarded as representing the text of the end of the 2nd cent
Persecution - The most noted martyr in this persecution was Clement, bishop of Rome
Ephesians Epistle to the - have been found in Clement of Rome and in the Didache, but they cannot be called certain
Saviour (2) - 220) has called attention to a passage in Clement (Paed
Unity (2) - Clement has no criticism for the absence of a bishop at Corinth, but only for insubordination to its presbyters
Ebionism (2) - We have references to it, for the most part respectful and sympathetic, in the writings of Clement, Origen, Eusebius, and, above all, Jerome; while several valuable fragments of it have been preserved for us in the pages of Epiphanius
Lord's Supper. (i.) - ... (a)Clement of Rome
Old Testament - Clement of Alexandria laid down the fourfold view of the Old Testament: literal, symbolical, moral, and prophetic (Strom
Christ, Christology - It is found elsewhere only in Clement, the Didache, and the Martyrdom of Polycarp
John the Baptist - John, therefore, undertook, perhaps at the request of the true believers in Asia, to write what Clement of Alexandria called a spiritual Gospel; and, accordingly, we find in it more of doctrine, and less of historical narrative, than in any of the others
Prayer (2) - In the helpful illustration of the anchored ship, pointed out by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Wisdom of Solomon - 16); as ‘Solomon’ by Clement of Alexandria (Strom
Metaphor - ... (2) 1 Clement
Brethren of the Lord (2) - 160) and Clement of Alexandria (a
Peter - Yet lie conversed fluently with Cornelius seemingly without an interpreter, and in Greek His Greek style in his epistles is correct; but Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, and Tertullian allege he employed an interpreter for them
Assumption of Moses - A Greek version of both, of the same century, is presupposed by the quotations and parallels in Acts 7:36, Judges 1:9; Judges 1:16; Judges 1:18; Judges 1:2 Baruch, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen. Clementin
Canon - Paul's history and writings, never mention any such epistle: neither Clement, Hermas, nor the Syriac interpreter, knew any thing of such an epistle of St
Propitiation - 8; Clement of Rome, ad Cor
James And John, the Sons of Zebedee - ... It is impossible to repeat in detail the well-known evidence of Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria, for the accepted tradition of their time
Lust - ... Clement of Rome (Ep
Acts of the Apostles (2) - ‘Peter and Paul’ is the watchword, the shibboleth of the Roman Church, as we find again in the First Epistle of Clement
Animals - ’... The parallel Matthew 10:16 reads ‘sheep,’ but the Lukan form is supported by Clement of Rome, Ep
Abstinence - James, or Clement of Alexandria (Paed
Novatianus And Novatianism - he discusses the true doctrine of the Incarnation explaining like Clement and others the theophanies of O
Aristion (Aristo) - Corder), undoubtedly refers to the same ‘Aristo of Pella’ (Ἀρίστωνι τῷ Πελλαίῳ) as author of the Christian Dialogue of Jason and Papiscus, basing his statement on ‘the sixth book of the Hypotyposcis of Clement of Alexandria,’ who seems to have referred to this ‘Jason’ as ‘mentioned by (l
Bible - designated The Second Epistle of Clement (xiv
God - 18, 28), Clement of Alexandria ( Exh
Slave, Slavery - Clement of Alexandria gives a scathing account of these evils in PCEdagogus, iii
Gnosticism - 4), Hippolytus (Philosophoumena), Clement of Alexandria (Stromateis, Excerpta ex Theodoto), Tertullian (adv
Gospels - He thinks that the late evidence of Clement of Alexandria,‡ [Note: Eus
Barnabas, Epistle of - Clement of Alexandria quotes it as the work of ‘the Apostolic Barnabas, who was one of the seventy and a fellow-worker of Paul’ (Strom
Paulinus, Bishop of Nola - Clement (Ep
Romans, Epistle to the - 120 is regarded as the probable date of Romans, in face of the external evidence of 1 Clement ( ib
Ignatius - ” ’ Harnack thinks that Clement of Alexandria is so closely dependent on Ignatius that he must have read him (cf
Education - ‘Ye know the Holy Scriptures,’ writes Clement of Rome to the Corinthian Christians (1 Clem
Gospels (Apocryphal) - A close sympathy with the true ethical spirit of Christianity is, however, noticeable in the Gospel according to the Hebrews, in which stress is laid on acts of mercy and brotherly kindness; and in the ‘Traditions of Matthias’ mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, and possibly identical with the Gnostic Gospel of Matthias, the doctrine of Christian responsibility for others’ welfare, in its most stringent form, is very forcibly put: ‘If the neighbour of an elect person sins, the elect has sinned; for if he had lived according to the counsels of the Word, his neighbour would have so esteemed his manner of life that he would have kept free from sin
Socialism - The fact that Clement of Alexandria took a different view in his Quis Dives salvetur considerably increases the significance of the rest of the Patristic literature: he explains the command to the Rich Young Man in Mark 10:21 in a purely allegorical sense, and protests that there is no advantage in poverty except when it is incurred for a special object, and that riches are serviceable if rightly used, and are not to be thrown away. Clifford, Fabian Society, Clement’s Inn, W
Fall - It is now generally recognized by scholars that the story of the Fall in Genesis is to be regarded neither as literal history, as Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Augustine taught, nor as allegory, as Clement and Origen, following Philo, held; but as a myth, common to the Semitic group of religions, in which an attempt is made to explain the origin of the evils from which mankind suffers
Trinity - Athenagoras, in replying to the same charge of atheism urged against Christians, because they refused to worship the false gods of the Heathen, says "Who would not wonder, when he knows that we, who call upon God the Father, and God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit, showing their power in the unity, and their distinction in order, should be called atheists?" Clement of Alexandria not only mentions three divine persons, but invokes them as one only God
Montanus - ... The same argument was probably pursued by Clement of Alexandria, who promised to write on prophecy against the Montanists (Strom
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - The coincidences with Clement's epistle are beyond what can fairly be considered accidental, and probably the celebrity gained by Clement's epistle set the example to bishops elsewhere of writing to foreign churches. " The chief difference between Clement's and Polycarp's letters is in the use of the O. This difference, however, is explained when we bear in mind that Clement had probably been brought up in Judaism, while Polycarp was born of Christian parents and familiar with the apostolic writings from his youth
Text of the New Testament - It contains the whole Greek Bible, with the exception of 40 lost leaves (containing Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 25:6 , John 6:50 to John 8:52 , 2 Corinthians 4:13 to 2 Corinthians 12:6 ); it also originally contained the two Epistles of Clement and the Psalms of Solomon, but the Psalms and the conclusion of the Second Epistle have disappeared, together with one leaf from the First Epistle
Christ in Reformation Theology - ... The early Christians had said of Jesus that He must be conceived of as belonging to the sphere of God (2 Clement, i
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - Here Didymus filled the chair of Pantaenus, Clement, and Origen, and Athanasius the episcopal throne, though probably an exile at the time
Eusebius of Caesarea - Josephus, Tatian, Clement of Alexandria, and especially Africanus
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - 25), Justin, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, Rhodo, and Tertullian
Originality - Clement of Alexandria is the first who mentions Buddha by name